Quantum carpets in a one-dimensional tilted optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parra Murillo, Carlos Alberto; Muã+/-Oz Arias, Manuel Humberto; Madroã+/-Ero, Javier
A unit filling Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian embedded in a strong Stark field is studied in the off-resonant regime inhibiting single- and many-particle first-order tunneling resonances. We investigate the occurrence of coherent dipole wavelike propagation along an optical lattice by means of an effective Hamiltonian accounting for second-order tunneling processes. It is shown that dipole wave function evolution in the short-time limit is ballistic and that finite-size effects induce dynamical self-interference patterns known as quantum carpets. We also present the effects of the border right after the first reflection, showing that the wave function diffuses normally with the variance changing linearly in time. This work extends the rich physical phenomenology of tilted one-dimensional lattice systems in a scenario of many interacting quantum particles, the so-called many-body Wannier-Stark system. The authors acknownledge the finantial support of the Universidad del Valle (project CI 7996). C. A. Parra-Murillo greatfully acknowledges the financial support of COLCIENCIAS (Grant 656).
Thermally activated phase slips of one-dimensional Bose gases in shallow optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunimi, Masaya; Danshita, Ippei
2017-03-01
We study the decay of superflow via thermally activated phase slips in one-dimensional Bose gases in a shallow optical lattice. By using the Kramers formula, we numerically calculate the nucleation rate of a thermally activated phase slip for various values of the filling factor and flow velocity in the absence of a harmonic trapping potential. Within the local density approximation, we derive a formula connecting the phase-slip nucleation rate with the damping rate of a dipole oscillation of the Bose gas in the presence of a harmonic trap. We use the derived formula to directly compare our theory with the recent experiment done by the LENS group [L. Tanzi et al., Sci. Rep. 6, 25965 (2016), 10.1038/srep25965]. From the comparison, the observed damping of dipole oscillations in a weakly correlated and small velocity regime is attributed dominantly to thermally activated phase slips rather than quantum phase slips.
Exploration properties of biased evanescent random walkers on a one-dimensional lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esguerra, Jose Perico; Reyes, Jelian
2017-08-01
We investigate the combined effects of bias and evanescence on the characteristics of random walks on a one-dimensional lattice. We calculate the time-dependent return probability, eventual return probability, conditional mean return time, and the time-dependent mean number of visited sites of biased immortal and evanescent discrete-time random walkers on a one-dimensional lattice. We then extend the calculations to the case of a continuous-time step-coupled biased evanescent random walk on a one-dimensional lattice with an exponential waiting time distribution.
The kink-soliton and antikink-soliton in quasi-one-dimensional nonlinear monoatomic lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Quan; Tian, Qiang
2005-04-01
The quasi-one-dimensional nonlinear monoatomic lattice is analyzed. The kink-soliton and antikink-soliton are presented. When the interaction of the lattice is strong in the x-direction and weak in the y-direction, the two-dimensional (2D) lattice changes to a quasi-one-dimensional lattice. Taking nearest-neighbor interaction into account, the vibration equation can be transformed into the KPI, KPII and MKP equation. Considering the cubic nonlinear potential of the vibration in the lattice, the kink-soliton solution is presented. Considering the quartic nonlinear potential and the cubic interaction potential, the kink-soliton and antikink-soliton solutions are presented.
Quantum phases of dipolar rotors on two-dimensional lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abolins, B. P.; Zillich, R. E.; Whaley, K. B.
2018-03-01
The quantum phase transitions of dipoles confined to the vertices of two-dimensional lattices of square and triangular geometry is studied using path integral ground state quantum Monte Carlo. We analyze the phase diagram as a function of the strength of both the dipolar interaction and a transverse electric field. The study reveals the existence of a class of orientational phases of quantum dipolar rotors whose properties are determined by the ratios between the strength of the anisotropic dipole-dipole interaction, the strength of the applied transverse field, and the rotational constant. For the triangular lattice, the generic orientationally disordered phase found at zero and weak values of both dipolar interaction strength and applied field is found to show a transition to a phase characterized by net polarization in the lattice plane as the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction is increased, independent of the strength of the applied transverse field, in addition to the expected transition to a transverse polarized phase as the electric field strength increases. The square lattice is also found to exhibit a transition from a disordered phase to an ordered phase as the dipole-dipole interaction strength is increased, as well as the expected transition to a transverse polarized phase as the electric field strength increases. In contrast to the situation with a triangular lattice, on square lattices, the ordered phase at high dipole-dipole interaction strength possesses a striped ordering. The properties of these quantum dipolar rotor phases are dominated by the anisotropy of the interaction and provide useful models for developing quantum phases beyond the well-known paradigms of spin Hamiltonian models, implementing in particular a novel physical realization of a quantum rotor-like Hamiltonian that possesses an anisotropic long range interaction.
Position and Momentum Entanglement of Dipole-Dipole Interacting Atoms in Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Opatrný, T.; Kolář, M.; Kurizki, G.
We consider a possible realization of the position- and momentum-correlated atomic pairs that are confined to adjacent sites of two mutually shifted optical lattices and are entangled via laser-induced dipole-dipole interactions. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) "paradox" [Einstein 1935] with translational variables is then modified by lattice-diffraction effects. We study a possible mechanism of creating such diatom entangled states by varying the effective mass of the atoms.
Experimental Observation of One-Dimensional Superradiance Lattices in Ultracold Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Liangchao; Wang, Pengjun; Meng, Zengming; Huang, Lianghui; Cai, Han; Wang, Da-Wei; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zhang, Jing
2018-05-01
We measure the superradiant emission in a one-dimensional (1D) superradiance lattice (SL) in ultracold atoms. Resonantly excited to a superradiant state, the atoms are further coupled to other collectively excited states, which form a 1D SL. The directional emission of one of the superradiant excited states in the 1D SL is measured. The emission spectra depend on the band structure, which can be controlled by the frequency and intensity of the coupling laser fields. This work provides a platform for investigating the collective Lamb shift of resonantly excited superradiant states in Bose-Einstein condensates and paves the way for realizing higher dimensional superradiance lattices.
Proposal for Translational Entanglement of Dipole-Dipole Interacting Atoms in Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Opatrný, Tomáš; Deb, Bimalendu; Kurizki, Gershon
2003-06-01
We propose and investigate a realization of the position- and momentum-correlated Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) states [
Boosted one dimensional fermionic superfluids on a lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ray, Sayonee; Mukerjee, Subroto; Shenoy, Vijay B.
2017-09-01
We study the effect of a boost (Fermi sea displaced by a finite momentum) on one dimensional systems of lattice fermions with short-ranged interactions. In the absence of a boost such systems with attractive interactions possess algebraic superconducting order. Motivated by physics in higher dimensions, one might naively expect a boost to weaken and ultimately destroy superconductivity. However, we show that for one dimensional systems the effect of the boost can be to strengthen the algebraic superconducting order by making correlation functions fall off more slowly with distance. This phenomenon can manifest in interesting ways, for example, a boost can produce a Luther-Emery phase in a system with both charge and spin gaps by engendering the destruction of the former.
Intrinsic Two-Dimensional Ferroelectricity with Dipole Locking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Jun; Zhu, Hanyu; Wang, Ying; Feng, Wei; Hu, Yunxia; Dasgupta, Arvind; Han, Yimo; Wang, Yuan; Muller, David A.; Martin, Lane W.; Hu, PingAn; Zhang, Xiang
2018-06-01
Out-of-plane ferroelectricity with a high transition temperature in ultrathin films is important for the exploration of new domain physics and scaling down of memory devices. However, depolarizing electrostatic fields and interfacial chemical bonds can destroy this long-range polar order at two-dimensional (2D) limit. Here we report the experimental discovery of the locking between out-of-plane dipoles and in-plane lattice asymmetry in atomically thin In2Se3 crystals, a new stabilization mechanism leading to our observation of intrinsic 2D out-of-plane ferroelectricity. Through second harmonic generation spectroscopy and piezoresponse force microscopy, we found switching of out-of-plane electric polarization requires a flip of nonlinear optical polarization that corresponds to the inversion of in-plane lattice orientation. The polar order shows a very high transition temperature (˜700 K ) without the assistance of extrinsic screening. This finding of intrinsic 2D ferroelectricity resulting from dipole locking opens up possibilities to explore 2D multiferroic physics and develop ultrahigh density memory devices.
Neutron Electric Dipole Moment on the Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, Boram; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Gupta, Rajan
2018-03-01
For the neutron to have an electric dipole moment (EDM), the theory of nature must have T, or equivalently CP, violation. Neutron EDM is a very good probe of novel CP violation in beyond the standard model physics. To leverage the connection between measured neutron EDM and novel mechanism of CP violation, one requires the calculation of matrix elements for CP violating operators, for which lattice QCD provides a first principle method. In this paper, we review the status of recent lattice QCD calculations of the contributions of the QCD Θ-term, the quark EDM term, and the quark chromo-EDM term to the neutron EDM.
Resonant scattering from a two-dimensional honeycomb PT dipole structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markoš, P.; Kuzmiak, V.
2018-05-01
We studied numerically the electromagnetic response of the finite periodic structure consisting of the PT dipoles represented by two infinitely long, parallel cylinders with the opposite sign of the imaginary part of a refractive index, which are centered at the positions of a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. We observed that the total scattered energy reveals a series of sharp resonances at which the energy increases by two orders of magnitude and an incident wave is scattered only in a few directions given by spatial symmetry of the periodic structure. We explain this behavior by analysis of the complex frequency spectra associated with an infinite honeycomb array of the PT dipoles and identify the lowest resonance with the broken PT -symmetry mode formed by a doubly degenerate pair with complex conjugate eigenfrequencies corresponding to the K point of the reciprocal lattice.
Hu, Qing; Jin, Dafei; Xiao, Jun; ...
2017-09-05
Two-dimensional molecular aggregate (2DMA), a thin sheet of strongly interacting dipole molecules self-assembled at close distance on an ordered lattice, is a fascinating fluorescent material. It is distinctively different from the conventional (single or colloidal) dye molecules and quantum dots. Here, in this paper, we verify that when a 2DMA is placed at a nanometric distance from a metallic substrate, the strong and coherent interaction between the dipoles inside the 2DMA dominates its fluorescent decay at a picosecond timescale. Our streak-camera lifetime measurement and interacting lattice–dipole calculation reveal that the metal-mediated dipole–dipole interaction shortens the fluorescent lifetime to about one-halfmore » and increases the energy dissipation rate by 10 times that expected from the noninteracting single-dipole picture. In conclusion, our finding can enrich our understanding of nanoscale energy transfer in molecular excitonic systems and may designate a unique direction for developing fast and efficient optoelectronic devices.« less
Quantum bright solitons in a quasi-one-dimensional optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbiero, Luca; Salasnich, Luca
2014-06-01
We study a quasi-one-dimensional attractive Bose gas confined in an optical lattice with a superimposed harmonic potential by analyzing the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian of the system. Starting from the three-dimensional many-body quantum Hamiltonian, we derive strong inequalities involving the transverse degrees of freedom under which the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian can be safely used. To have a reliable description of the one-dimensional ground state, which we call a quantum bright soliton, we use the density-matrix-renormalization-group (DMRG) technique. By comparing DMRG results with mean-field (MF) ones, we find that beyond-mean-field effects become relevant by increasing the attraction between bosons or by decreasing the frequency of the harmonic confinement. In particular, we find that, contrary to the MF predictions based on the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation, average density profiles of quantum bright solitons are not shape-invariant. We also use the time-evolving-block-decimation method to investigate the dynamical properties of bright solitons when the frequency of the harmonic potential is suddenly increased. This quantum quench induces a breathing mode whose period crucially depends on the final strength of the superimposed harmonic confinement.
Ultraviolet laser spectroscopy of neutral mercury in a one-dimensional optical lattice
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Mejri, S.; McFerran, J. J.; Yi, L.
2011-09-15
We present details on the ultraviolet lattice spectroscopy of the (6s{sup 2}) {sup 1}S{sub 0}{r_reversible} (6s6p) {sup 3}P{sub 0} transition in neutral mercury, specifically {sup 199}Hg. Mercury atoms are loaded into a one-dimensional vertically aligned optical lattice from a magneto-optical trap with an rms temperature of {approx}60 {mu}K. We describe aspects of the magneto-optical trapping, the lattice cavity design, and the techniques employed to trap and detect mercury in an optical lattice. The clock-line frequency dependence on lattice depth is measured at a range of lattice wavelengths. We confirm the magic wavelength to be 362.51(0.16) nm. Further observations to thosemore » reported by Yi et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 073005 (2011)] are presented regarding the laser excitation of a Wannier-Stark ladder of states.« less
Heat conduction in one-dimensional lattices with on-site potential.
Savin, A V; Gendelman, O V
2003-04-01
The process of heat conduction in one-dimensional lattices with on-site potential is studied by means of numerical simulation. Using the discrete Frenkel-Kontorova, phi(4), and sinh-Gordon models we demonstrate that contrary to previously expressed opinions the sole anharmonicity of the on-site potential is insufficient to ensure the normal heat conductivity in these systems. The character of the heat conduction is determined by the spectrum of nonlinear excitations peculiar for every given model and therefore depends on the concrete potential shape and the temperature of the lattice. The reason is that the peculiarities of the nonlinear excitations and their interactions prescribe the energy scattering mechanism in each model. For sine-Gordon and phi(4) models, phonons are scattered at a dynamical lattice of topological solitons; for sinh-Gordon and for phi(4) in a different parameter regime the phonons are scattered at localized high-frequency breathers (in the case of phi(4) the scattering mechanism switches with the growth of the temperature).
Single-Particle Mobility Edge in a One-Dimensional Quasiperiodic Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lüschen, Henrik P.; Scherg, Sebastian; Kohlert, Thomas; Schreiber, Michael; Bordia, Pranjal; Li, Xiao; Das Sarma, S.; Bloch, Immanuel
2018-04-01
A single-particle mobility edge (SPME) marks a critical energy separating extended from localized states in a quantum system. In one-dimensional systems with uncorrelated disorder, a SPME cannot exist, since all single-particle states localize for arbitrarily weak disorder strengths. However, in a quasiperiodic system, the localization transition can occur at a finite detuning strength and SPMEs become possible. In this Letter, we find experimental evidence for the existence of such a SPME in a one-dimensional quasiperiodic optical lattice. Specifically, we find a regime where extended and localized single-particle states coexist, in good agreement with theoretical simulations, which predict a SPME in this regime.
One dimensionalization in the spin-1 Heisenberg model on the anisotropic triangular lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez, M. G.; Ghioldi, E. A.; Gazza, C. J.; Manuel, L. O.; Trumper, A. E.
2017-11-01
We investigate the effect of dimensional crossover in the ground state of the antiferromagnetic spin-1 Heisenberg model on the anisotropic triangular lattice that interpolates between the regime of weakly coupled Haldane chains (J'≪J ) and the isotropic triangular lattice (J'=J ). We use the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) and Schwinger boson theory performed at the Gaussian correction level above the saddle-point solution. Our DMRG results show an abrupt transition between decoupled spin chains and the spirally ordered regime at (J'/J) c˜0.42 , signaled by the sudden closing of the spin gap. Coming from the magnetically ordered side, the computation of the spin stiffness within Schwinger boson theory predicts the instability of the spiral magnetic order toward a magnetically disordered phase with one-dimensional features at (J'/J) c˜0.43 . The agreement of these complementary methods, along with the strong difference found between the intra- and the interchain DMRG short spin-spin correlations for sufficiently large values of the interchain coupling, suggests that the interplay between the quantum fluctuations and the dimensional crossover effects gives rise to the one-dimensionalization phenomenon in this frustrated spin-1 Hamiltonian.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Rong-Xuan; Huang, Nan; Li, Huang-Wu; He, He-Xiang; Lü, Jian-Tao; Huang, Chun-Qing; Chen, Zhao-Pin
2018-04-01
We numerically and analytically investigate the formations and features of two-dimensional discrete Bose-Einstein condensate solitons, which are constructed by quadrupole-quadrupole interactional particles trapped in the tunable anisotropic discrete optical lattices. The square optical lattices in the model can be formed by two pairs of interfering plane waves with different intensities. Two hopping rates of the particles in the orthogonal directions are different, which gives rise to a linear anisotropic system. We find that if all of the pairs of dipole and anti-dipole are perpendicular to the lattice panel and the line connecting the dipole and anti-dipole which compose the quadrupole is parallel to horizontal direction, both the linear anisotropy and the nonlocal nonlinear one can strongly influence the formations of the solitons. There exist three patterns of stable solitons, namely horizontal elongation quasi-one-dimensional discrete solitons, disk-shape isotropic pattern solitons and vertical elongation quasi-continuous solitons. We systematically demonstrate the relationships of chemical potential, size and shape of the soliton with its total norm and vertical hopping rate and analytically reveal the linear dispersion relation for quasi-one-dimensional discrete solitons.
Anisotropic mean-square displacements in two-dimensional colloidal crystals of tilted dipoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Froltsov, V. A.; Likos, C. N.; Löwen, H.; Eisenmann, C.; Gasser, U.; Keim, P.; Maret, G.
2005-03-01
Superparamagnetic colloidal particles confined to a flat horizontal air-water interface in an external magnetic field, which is tilted relative to the interface, form anisotropic two-dimensional crystals resulting from their mutual dipole-dipole interactions. Using real-space experiments and harmonic lattice theory we explore the mean-square displacements of the particles in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the in-plane component of the external magnetic field as a function of the tilt angle. We find that the anisotropy of the mean-square displacement behaves nonmonotonically as a function of the tilt angle and does not correlate with the structural anisotropy of the crystal.
Nonlinear energy transport in one-dimensional lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vuppuluri, P.; Hamilton, M.; de Alcantara Bonfim, O. F.
2007-03-01
We present a simple lattice model consisting of a one-dimensional chain, where the masses are interconnected by linear springs and allowed to move in the horizontal direction only, as in a monorail. In the transverse direction each mass is also attached to two other springs, one on each side of the mass. The ends of these springs are kept at fixed positions. The nonlinearity in the model arises from the geometric constraints imposed on the motion of the masses, as well as from the configuration of the springs. In the transverse directions the springs are either in the extended or compressed state depending on the position of the mass. Under these conditions we show that solitary waves are present in the system. In the long wavelength limit an analytical solution for these nonlinear waves is found. Numeric integrations of the equations of motion in the full system are also performed to analyze the conditions for the existence and stability of the nonlinear waves. Nonlinear supratransmission is examined and shown to exist in the model and an explanation of its mechanism is presented.
One-dimensional Kondo lattice model at quarter filling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xavier, J. C.; Miranda, E.
2008-10-01
We revisit the problem of the quarter-filled one-dimensional Kondo lattice model, for which the existence of a dimerized phase and a nonzero charge gap had been reported by Xavier [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 247204 (2003)]. Recently, some objections were raised claiming that the system is neither dimerized nor has a charge gap. In the interest of clarifying this important issue, we show that these objections are based on results obtained under conditions in which the dimer order is artificially suppressed. We use the incontrovertible dimerized phase of the Majumdar-Ghosh point of the J1-J2 Heisenberg model as a paradigm with which to illustrate this artificial suppression. Finally, by means of extremely accurate density-matrix renormalization-group calculations, we show that the charge gap is indeed nonzero in the dimerized phase.
Heavy fermion behavior in the quasi-one-dimensional Kondo lattice CeCo 2Ga 8
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Wang, Le; Fu, Zhaoming; Sun, Jianping
Dimensionality plays an essential role in determining the anomalous non-Fermi liquid properties in heavy fermion systems. So far most heavy fermion compounds are quasi-two-dimensional or three-dimensional. Here we report the synthesis and systematic investigations of the single crystals of the quasi-one-dimensional Kondo lattice CeCo 2Ga 8. Resistivity measurements at ambient pressure reveal the onset of coherence at T * ≈ 20 K and non-Fermi liquid behavior with linear temperature dependence over a decade in temperature from 2 to 0.1 K. The specific heat increases logarithmically with lowering temperature between 10 and 2 K and reaches 800 mJ/mol K 2 atmore » 1 K, suggesting that CeCo 2Ga 8 is a heavy fermion compound in the close vicinity of a quantum critical point. Resistivity measurements under pressure further confirm the non-Fermi liquid behavior in a large temperature–pressure range. The magnetic susceptibility is found to follow the typical behavior for a one-dimensional spin chain from 300 K down to T *, and first-principles calculations predict flat Fermi surfaces for the itinerant f-electron bands. These suggest that CeCo 2Ga 8 is a rare example of the quasi-one-dimensional Kondo lattice, but its non-Fermi liquid behaviors resemble those of the quasi-two-dimensional YbRh 2Si 2 family. The study of the quasi-one-dimensional CeCo 2Ga 8 family may therefore help us to understand the role of dimensionality on heavy fermion physics and quantum criticality.« less
Heavy fermion behavior in the quasi-one-dimensional Kondo lattice CeCo2Ga8
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Le; Fu, Zhaoming; Sun, Jianping; Liu, Min; Yi, Wei; Yi, Changjiang; Luo, Yongkang; Dai, Yaomin; Liu, Guangtong; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Kazunari; Lu, Li; Cheng, Jin-Guang; Yang, Yi-feng; Shi, Youguo; Luo, Jianlin
2017-07-01
Dimensionality plays an essential role in determining the anomalous non-Fermi liquid properties in heavy fermion systems. So far most heavy fermion compounds are quasi-two-dimensional or three-dimensional. Here we report the synthesis and systematic investigations of the single crystals of the quasi-one-dimensional Kondo lattice CeCo2Ga8. Resistivity measurements at ambient pressure reveal the onset of coherence at T * ≈ 20 K and non-Fermi liquid behavior with linear temperature dependence over a decade in temperature from 2 to 0.1 K. The specific heat increases logarithmically with lowering temperature between 10 and 2 K and reaches 800 mJ/mol K2 at 1 K, suggesting that CeCo2Ga8 is a heavy fermion compound in the close vicinity of a quantum critical point. Resistivity measurements under pressure further confirm the non-Fermi liquid behavior in a large temperature-pressure range. The magnetic susceptibility is found to follow the typical behavior for a one-dimensional spin chain from 300 K down to T *, and first-principles calculations predict flat Fermi surfaces for the itinerant f-electron bands. These suggest that CeCo2Ga8 is a rare example of the quasi-one-dimensional Kondo lattice, but its non-Fermi liquid behaviors resemble those of the quasi-two-dimensional YbRh2Si2 family. The study of the quasi-one-dimensional CeCo2Ga8 family may therefore help us to understand the role of dimensionality on heavy fermion physics and quantum criticality.
Heavy fermion behavior in the quasi-one-dimensional Kondo lattice CeCo 2Ga 8
Wang, Le; Fu, Zhaoming; Sun, Jianping; ...
2017-07-04
Dimensionality plays an essential role in determining the anomalous non-Fermi liquid properties in heavy fermion systems. So far most heavy fermion compounds are quasi-two-dimensional or three-dimensional. Here we report the synthesis and systematic investigations of the single crystals of the quasi-one-dimensional Kondo lattice CeCo 2Ga 8. Resistivity measurements at ambient pressure reveal the onset of coherence at T * ≈ 20 K and non-Fermi liquid behavior with linear temperature dependence over a decade in temperature from 2 to 0.1 K. The specific heat increases logarithmically with lowering temperature between 10 and 2 K and reaches 800 mJ/mol K 2 atmore » 1 K, suggesting that CeCo 2Ga 8 is a heavy fermion compound in the close vicinity of a quantum critical point. Resistivity measurements under pressure further confirm the non-Fermi liquid behavior in a large temperature–pressure range. The magnetic susceptibility is found to follow the typical behavior for a one-dimensional spin chain from 300 K down to T *, and first-principles calculations predict flat Fermi surfaces for the itinerant f-electron bands. These suggest that CeCo 2Ga 8 is a rare example of the quasi-one-dimensional Kondo lattice, but its non-Fermi liquid behaviors resemble those of the quasi-two-dimensional YbRh 2Si 2 family. The study of the quasi-one-dimensional CeCo 2Ga 8 family may therefore help us to understand the role of dimensionality on heavy fermion physics and quantum criticality.« less
Geometrically induced nonlinear dynamics in one-dimensional lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamilton, Merle D.; de Alcantara Bonfim, O. F.
2006-03-01
We present a lattice model consisting of a single one-dimensional chain, where the masses are interconnected by linear springs and allowed to move in a horizontal direction only, as in a monorail. In the transverse direction each mass is also attached to two other linear springs, one on each side of the mass. The ends of these springs are kept at fixed positions. The nonlinearity in the model arises from the geometric constraints imposed on the motion of the masses, as well as from the configuration of the springs, where in the transverse direction the springs are either in the extended or compressed state depending on the position of the masses. Under these conditions we show that solitary waves are present in the system. In the long wavelength limit an analytic solution for these nonlinear waves is found. Numerical integrations of the equations of motion in the full system are also performed to analyze the conditions for the existence and stability of the nonlinear waves.
Quantum electric-dipole liquid on a triangular lattice.
Shen, Shi-Peng; Wu, Jia-Chuan; Song, Jun-Da; Sun, Xue-Feng; Yang, Yi-Feng; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Shang, Da-Shan; Wang, Shou-Guo; Scott, James F; Sun, Young
2016-02-04
Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations may prohibit the formation of long-range ordering even at the lowest temperature, and therefore liquid-like ground states could be expected. A good example is the quantum spin liquid in frustrated magnets. Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations can happen beyond magnetic systems. Here we propose that quantum electric-dipole liquids, analogues of quantum spin liquids, could emerge in frustrated dielectrics where antiferroelectrically coupled electric dipoles reside on a triangular lattice. The quantum paraelectric hexaferrite BaFe12O19 with geometric frustration represents a promising candidate for the proposed electric-dipole liquid. We present a series of experimental lines of evidence, including dielectric permittivity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity measured down to 66 mK, to reveal the existence of an unusual liquid-like quantum phase in BaFe12O19, characterized by itinerant low-energy excitations with a small gap. The possible quantum liquids of electric dipoles in frustrated dielectrics open up a fresh playground for fundamental physics.
Lasing in topological edge states of a one-dimensional lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
St-Jean, P.; Goblot, V.; Galopin, E.; LemaÃ®tre, A.; Ozawa, T.; Le Gratiet, L.; Sagnes, I.; Bloch, J.; Amo, A.
2017-10-01
Topology describes properties that remain unaffected by smooth distortions. Its main hallmark is the emergence of edge states localized at the boundary between regions characterized by distinct topological invariants. Because their properties are inherited from the topology of the bulk, these edge states present a strong immunity to distortions of the underlying architecture. This feature offers new opportunities for robust trapping of light in nano- and micrometre-scale systems subject to fabrication imperfections and environmentally induced deformations. Here, we report lasing in such topological edge states of a one-dimensional lattice of polariton micropillars that implements an orbital version of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger Hamiltonian. We further demonstrate that lasing in these states persists under local deformations of the lattice. These results open the way to the implementation of chiral lasers in systems with broken time-reversal symmetry and, when combined with polariton interactions, to the study of nonlinear phenomena in topological photonics.
Quantum transport in d-dimensional lattices
Manzano, Daniel; Chuang, Chern; Cao, Jianshu
2016-04-28
We show that both fermionic and bosonic uniform d-dimensional lattices can be reduced to a set of independent one-dimensional chains. This reduction leads to the expression for ballistic energy fluxes in uniform fermionic and bosonic lattices. By the use of the Jordan–Wigner transformation we can extend our analysis to spin lattices, proving the coexistence of both ballistic and non-ballistic subspaces in any dimension and for any system size. Lastly, we then relate the nature of transport to the number of excitations in the homogeneous spin lattice, indicating that a single excitation always propagates ballistically and that the non-ballistic behaviour ofmore » uniform spin lattices is a consequence of the interaction between different excitations.« less
Quantum anomalous Hall phase in a one-dimensional optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Sheng; Shao, L. B.; Hou, Qi-Zhe; Xue, Zheng-Yuan
2018-03-01
We propose to simulate and detect quantum anomalous Hall phase with ultracold atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice, with the other synthetic dimension being realized by modulating spin-orbit coupling. We show that the system manifests a topologically nontrivial phase with two chiral edge states which can be readily detected in this synthetic two-dimensional system. Moreover, it is interesting that at the phase transition point there is a flat energy band and this system can also be in a topologically nontrivial phase with two Fermi zero modes existing at the boundaries by considering the synthetic dimension as a modulated parameter. We also show how to measure these topological phases experimentally in ultracold atoms. Another model with a random Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling strength is also found to exhibit topological nontrivial phase, and the impact of the disorder to the system is revealed.
Multiple transparency windows and Fano interferences induced by dipole-dipole couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diniz, E. C.; Borges, H. S.; Villas-Boas, C. J.
2018-04-01
We investigate the optical properties of a two-level system (TLS) coupled to a one-dimensional array of N other TLSs with dipole-dipole coupling between the first neighbors. The first TLS is probed by a weak field, and we assume that it has a decay rate much greater than the decay rates of the other TLSs. For N =1 and in the limit of a Rabi frequency of a probe field much smaller than the dipole-dipole coupling, the optical response of the first TLS, i.e., its absorption and dispersion, is equivalent to that of a three-level atomic system in the configuration which allows one to observe the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) phenomenon. Thus, here we investigate an induced transparency phenomenon where the dipole-dipole coupling plays the same role as the control field in EIT in three-level atoms. We describe this physical phenomenon, named a dipole-induced transparency (DIT), and investigate how it scales with the number of coupled TLSs. In particular, we have shown that the number of TLSs coupled to the main TLS is exactly equal to the number of transparency windows. The ideas presented here are very general and can be implemented in different physical systems, such as an array of superconducting qubits, or an array of quantum dots, spin chains, optical lattices, etc.
One-dimensional transient radiative transfer by lattice Boltzmann method.
Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hongliang; Tan, Heping
2013-10-21
The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is extended to solve transient radiative transfer in one-dimensional slab containing scattering media subjected to a collimated short laser irradiation. By using a fully implicit backward differencing scheme to discretize the transient term in the radiative transfer equation, a new type of lattice structure is devised. The accuracy and computational efficiency of this algorithm are examined firstly. Afterwards, effects of the medium properties such as the extinction coefficient, the scattering albedo and the anisotropy factor, and the shapes of laser pulse on time-resolved signals of transmittance and reflectance are investigated. Results of the present method are found to compare very well with the data from the literature. For an oblique incidence, the LBM results in this paper are compared with those by Monte Carlo method generated by ourselves. In addition, transient radiative transfer in a two-Layer inhomogeneous media subjected to a short square pulse irradiation is investigated. At last, the LBM is further extended to study the transient radiative transfer in homogeneous medium with a refractive index discontinuity irradiated by the short pulse laser. Several trends on the time-resolved signals different from those for refractive index of 1 (i.e. refractive-index-matched boundary) are observed and analysed.
Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Jheng, Shih-Da
2016-08-22
This paper reports a novel type of vortex lattice, referred to as a bubble crystal, which was discovered in rapidly rotating Bose gases with long-range interactions. Bubble crystals differ from vortex lattices which possess a single quantum flux per unit cell, while atoms in bubble crystals are clustered periodically and surrounded by vortices. No existing model is able to describe the vortex structure of bubble crystals; however, we identified a mathematical lattice, which is a subset of coherent states and exists periodically in the physical space. This lattice is called a von Neumann lattice, and when it possesses a single vortex per unit cell, it presents the same geometrical structure as an Abrikosov lattice. In this report, we extend the von Neumann lattice to one with an integral number of flux quanta per unit cell and demonstrate that von Neumann lattices well reproduce the translational properties of bubble crystals. Numerical simulations confirm that, as a generalized vortex, a von Neumann lattice can be physically realized using vortex lattices in rapidly rotating Bose gases with dipole interatomic interactions.
Chen, Yuntian; Zhang, Yan; Femius Koenderink, A
2017-09-04
We study semi-analytically the light emission and absorption properties of arbitrary stratified photonic structures with embedded two-dimensional magnetoelectric point scattering lattices, as used in recent plasmon-enhanced LEDs and solar cells. By employing dyadic Green's function for the layered structure in combination with the Ewald lattice summation to deal with the particle lattice, we develop an efficient method to study the coupling between planar 2D scattering lattices of plasmonic, or metamaterial point particles, coupled to layered structures. Using the 'array scanning method' we deal with localized sources. Firstly, we apply our method to light emission enhancement of dipole emitters in slab waveguides, mediated by plasmonic lattices. We benchmark the array scanning method against a reciprocity-based approach to find that the calculated radiative rate enhancement in k-space below the light cone shows excellent agreement. Secondly, we apply our method to study absorption-enhancement in thin-film solar cells mediated by periodic Ag nanoparticle arrays. Lastly, we study the emission distribution in k-space of a coupled waveguide-lattice system. In particular, we explore the dark mode excitation on the plasmonic lattice using the so-called array scanning method. Our method could be useful for simulating a broad range of complex nanophotonic structures, i.e., metasurfaces, plasmon-enhanced light emitting systems and photovoltaics.
Lattice calculation of electric dipole moments and form factors of the nucleon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abramczyk, M.; Aoki, S.; Blum, T.; Izubuchi, T.; Ohki, H.; Syritsyn, S.
2017-07-01
We analyze commonly used expressions for computing the nucleon electric dipole form factors (EDFF) F3 and moments (EDM) on a lattice and find that they lead to spurious contributions from the Pauli form factor F2 due to inadequate definition of these form factors when parity mixing of lattice nucleon fields is involved. Using chirally symmetric domain wall fermions, we calculate the proton and the neutron EDFF induced by the C P -violating quark chromo-EDM interaction using the corrected expression. In addition, we calculate the electric dipole moment of the neutron using a background electric field that respects time translation invariance and boundary conditions, and we find that it decidedly agrees with the new formula but not the old formula for F3. Finally, we analyze some selected lattice results for the nucleon EDM and observe that after the correction is applied, they either agree with zero or are substantially reduced in magnitude, thus reconciling their difference from phenomenological estimates of the nucleon EDM.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Draine, B. T.; Goodman, Jeremy
1993-01-01
We derive the dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves propagating on a lattice of polarizable points. From this dispersion relation we obtain a prescription for choosing dipole polarizabilities so that an infinite lattice with finite lattice spacing will mimic a continuum with dielectric constant. The discrete dipole approximation is used to calculate scattering and absorption by a finite target by replacing the target with an array of point dipoles. We compare different prescriptions for determining the dipole polarizabilities. We show that the most accurate results are obtained when the lattice dispersion relation is used to set the polarizabilities.
Belopolski, Ilya; Xu, Su -Yang; Koirala, Nikesh; ...
2017-03-24
Engineered lattices in condensed matter physics, such as cold-atom optical lattices or photonic crystals, can have properties that are fundamentally different from those of naturally occurring electronic crystals. We report a novel type of artificial quantum matter lattice. Our lattice is a multilayer heterostructure built from alternating thin films of topological and trivial insulators. Each interface within the heterostructure hosts a set of topologically protected interface states, and by making the layers sufficiently thin, we demonstrate for the first time a hybridization of interface states across layers. In this way, our heterostructure forms an emergent atomic chain, where the interfacesmore » act as lattice sites and the interface states act as atomic orbitals, as seen from our measurements by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. By changing the composition of the heterostructure, we can directly control hopping between lattice sites. We realize a topological and a trivial phase in our superlattice band structure. We argue that the superlattice may be characterized in a significant way by a one-dimensional topological invariant, closely related to the invariant of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. Our topological insulator heterostructure demonstrates a novel experimental platform where we can engineer band structures by directly controlling how electrons hop between lattice sites.« less
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Belopolski, Ilya; Xu, Su -Yang; Koirala, Nikesh
Engineered lattices in condensed matter physics, such as cold-atom optical lattices or photonic crystals, can have properties that are fundamentally different from those of naturally occurring electronic crystals. We report a novel type of artificial quantum matter lattice. Our lattice is a multilayer heterostructure built from alternating thin films of topological and trivial insulators. Each interface within the heterostructure hosts a set of topologically protected interface states, and by making the layers sufficiently thin, we demonstrate for the first time a hybridization of interface states across layers. In this way, our heterostructure forms an emergent atomic chain, where the interfacesmore » act as lattice sites and the interface states act as atomic orbitals, as seen from our measurements by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. By changing the composition of the heterostructure, we can directly control hopping between lattice sites. We realize a topological and a trivial phase in our superlattice band structure. We argue that the superlattice may be characterized in a significant way by a one-dimensional topological invariant, closely related to the invariant of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. Our topological insulator heterostructure demonstrates a novel experimental platform where we can engineer band structures by directly controlling how electrons hop between lattice sites.« less
One-loop calculations in Supersymmetric Lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, M.; Panagopoulos, H.
2017-03-01
We study the self energies of all particles which appear in a lattice regularization of supersymmetric QCD (N = 1). We compute, perturbatively to one-loop, the relevant two-point Green's functions using both the dimensional and the lattice regularizations. Our lattice formulation employs the Wilson fermion acrion for the gluino and quark fields. The gauge group that we consider is SU(Nc) while the number of colors, Nc and the number of flavors, Nf , are kept as generic parameters. We have also searched for relations among the propagators which are computed from our one-loop results. We have obtained analytic expressions for the renormalization functions of the quark field (Zψ), gluon field (Zu), gluino field (Zλ) and squark field (ZA±). We present here results from dimensional regularization, relegating to a forthcoming publication [1] our results along with a more complete list of references. Part of the lattice study regards also the renormalization of quark bilinear operators which, unlike the nonsupersymmetric case, exhibit a rich pattern of operator mixing at the quantum level.
Lattice calculation of electric dipole moments and form factors of the nucleon
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Abramczyk, M.; Aoki, S.; Blum, T.
In this paper, we analyze commonly used expressions for computing the nucleon electric dipole form factors (EDFF)more » $$F_3$$ and moments (EDM) on a lattice and find that they lead to spurious contributions from the Pauli form factor $$F_2$$ due to inadequate definition of these form factors when parity mixing of lattice nucleon fields is involved. Using chirally symmetric domain wall fermions, we calculate the proton and the neutron EDFF induced by the CP-violating quark chromo-EDM interaction using the corrected expression. In addition, we calculate the electric dipole moment of the neutron using a background electric field that respects time translation invariance and boundary conditions, and we find that it decidedly agrees with the new formula but not the old formula for $$F_3$$. In conclusion, we analyze some selected lattice results for the nucleon EDM and observe that after the correction is applied, they either agree with zero or are substantially reduced in magnitude, thus reconciling their difference from phenomenological estimates of the nucleon EDM.« less
Lattice calculation of electric dipole moments and form factors of the nucleon
Abramczyk, M.; Aoki, S.; Blum, T.; ...
2017-07-10
In this paper, we analyze commonly used expressions for computing the nucleon electric dipole form factors (EDFF)more » $$F_3$$ and moments (EDM) on a lattice and find that they lead to spurious contributions from the Pauli form factor $$F_2$$ due to inadequate definition of these form factors when parity mixing of lattice nucleon fields is involved. Using chirally symmetric domain wall fermions, we calculate the proton and the neutron EDFF induced by the CP-violating quark chromo-EDM interaction using the corrected expression. In addition, we calculate the electric dipole moment of the neutron using a background electric field that respects time translation invariance and boundary conditions, and we find that it decidedly agrees with the new formula but not the old formula for $$F_3$$. In conclusion, we analyze some selected lattice results for the nucleon EDM and observe that after the correction is applied, they either agree with zero or are substantially reduced in magnitude, thus reconciling their difference from phenomenological estimates of the nucleon EDM.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ji-Guo; Yang, Shi-Jie
2017-05-01
We study a model to realize the long-distance correlated tunneling of ultracold bosons in a one-dimensional optical lattice chain. The model reveals the behavior of a quantum Newton's cradle, which is the perfect transfer between two macroscopic quantum states. Due to the Bose enhancement effect, we find that the resonantly tunneling through a Mott domain is greatly enhanced.
Concurrence and fidelity of a Bose-Fermi mixture in a one-dimensional optical lattice.
Ning, Wen-Qiang; Gu, Shi-Jian; Chen, Yu-Guang; Wu, Chang-Qin; Lin, Hai-Qing
2008-06-11
We study the ground-state fidelity and entanglement of a Bose-Fermi mixture loaded in a one-dimensional optical lattice. It is found that the fidelity is able to signal quantum phase transitions between the Luttinger liquid phase, the density-wave phase, and the phase separation state of the system, and the concurrence, as a measure of the entanglement, can be used to signal the transition between the density-wave phase and the Ising phase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Linlin; Li, Nianbei; Li, Baowen
2014-12-01
The temperature-dependent thermal conductivities of one-dimensional nonlinear Klein-Gordon lattices with soft on-site potential (soft-KG) are investigated systematically. Similarly to the previously studied hard-KG lattices, the existence of renormalized phonons is also confirmed in soft-KG lattices. In particular, the temperature dependence of the renormalized phonon frequency predicted by a classical field theory is verified by detailed numerical simulations. However, the thermal conductivities of soft-KG lattices exhibit the opposite trend in temperature dependence in comparison with those of hard-KG lattices. The interesting thing is that the temperature-dependent thermal conductivities of both soft- and hard-KG lattices can be interpreted in the same framework of effective phonon theory. According to the effective phonon theory, the exponents of the power-law dependence of the thermal conductivities as a function of temperature are only determined by the exponents of the soft or hard on-site potentials. These theoretical predictions are consistently verified very well by extensive numerical simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamiya, Ryo; Kanki, Masataka; Mase, Takafumi; Tokihiro, Tetsuji
2017-01-01
We introduce a so-called coprimeness-preserving non-integrable extension to the two-dimensional Toda lattice equation. We believe that this equation is the first example of such discrete equations defined over a three-dimensional lattice. We prove that all the iterates of the equation are irreducible Laurent polynomials of the initial data and that every pair of two iterates is co-prime, which indicate confined singularities of the equation. By reducing the equation to two- or one-dimensional lattices, we obtain coprimeness-preserving non-integrable extensions to the one-dimensional Toda lattice equation and the Somos-4 recurrence.
Ground-state properties of anyons in a one-dimensional lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Guixin; Eggert, Sebastian; Pelster, Axel
2015-12-01
Using the Anyon-Hubbard Hamiltonian, we analyze the ground-state properties of anyons in a one-dimensional lattice. To this end we map the hopping dynamics of correlated anyons to an occupation-dependent hopping Bose-Hubbard model using the fractional Jordan-Wigner transformation. In particular, we calculate the quasi-momentum distribution of anyons, which interpolates between Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics. Analytically, we apply a modified Gutzwiller mean-field approach, which goes beyond a classical one by including the influence of the fractional phase of anyons within the many-body wavefunction. Numerically, we use the density-matrix renormalization group by relying on the ansatz of matrix product states. As a result it turns out that the anyonic quasi-momentum distribution reveals both a peak-shift and an asymmetry which mainly originates from the nonlocal string property. In addition, we determine the corresponding quasi-momentum distribution of the Jordan-Wigner transformed bosons, where, in contrast to the hard-core case, we also observe an asymmetry for the soft-core case, which strongly depends on the particle number density.
DNA denaturation through a model of the partition points on a one-dimensional lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mejdani, R.; Huseini, H.
1994-08-01
We have shown that by using a model of the partition points gas on a one-dimensional lattice, we can study, besides the saturation curves obtained before for the enzyme kinetics, also the denaturation process, i.e. the breaking of the hydrogen bonds connecting the two strands, under treatment by heat of DNA. We think that this model, as a very simple model and mathematically transparent, can be advantageous for pedagogic goals or other theoretical investigations in chemistry or modern biology.
Bound states of dipolar bosons in one-dimensional systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volosniev, A. G.; Armstrong, J. R.; Fedorov, D. V.; Jensen, A. S.; Valiente, M.; Zinner, N. T.
2013-04-01
We consider one-dimensional tubes containing bosonic polar molecules. The long-range dipole-dipole interactions act both within a single tube and between different tubes. We consider arbitrary values of the externally aligned dipole moments with respect to the symmetry axis of the tubes. The few-body structures in this geometry are determined as a function of polarization angles and dipole strength by using both essentially exact stochastic variational methods and the harmonic approximation. The main focus is on the three-, four- and five-body problems in two or more tubes. Our results indicate that in the weakly coupled limit the intertube interaction is similar to a zero-range term with a suitable rescaled strength. This allows us to address the corresponding many-body physics of the system by constructing a model where bound chains with one molecule in each tube are the effective degrees of freedom. This model can be mapped onto one-dimensional Hamiltonians for which exact solutions are known.
The modified semi-discrete two-dimensional Toda lattice with self-consistent sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gegenhasi
2017-07-01
In this paper, we derive the Grammian determinant solutions to the modified semi-discrete two-dimensional Toda lattice equation, and then construct the semi-discrete two-dimensional Toda lattice equation with self-consistent sources via source generation procedure. The algebraic structure of the resulting coupled modified differential-difference equation is clarified by presenting its Grammian determinant solutions and Casorati determinant solutions. As an application of the Grammian determinant and Casorati determinant solution, the explicit one-soliton and two-soliton solution of the modified semi-discrete two-dimensional Toda lattice equation with self-consistent sources are given. We also construct another form of the modified semi-discrete two-dimensional Toda lattice equation with self-consistent sources which is the Bäcklund transformation for the semi-discrete two-dimensional Toda lattice equation with self-consistent sources.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sapkota, A.; Ueland, B. G.; Anand, V. K.; Sangeetha, N. S.; Abernathy, D. L.; Stone, M. B.; Niedziela, J. L.; Johnston, D. C.; Kreyssig, A.; Goldman, A. I.; McQueeney, R. J.
2017-10-01
Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on the itinerant antiferromagnet CaCo2 -yAs2 at a temperature of 8 K reveal two orthogonal planes of scattering perpendicular to the Co square lattice in reciprocal space, demonstrating the presence of effective one-dimensional spin interactions. These results are shown to arise from near-perfect bond frustration within the J1-J2 Heisenberg model on a square lattice with ferromagnetic J1 and hence indicate that the extensive previous experimental and theoretical study of the J1-J2 Heisenberg model on local-moment square spin lattices should be expanded to include itinerant spin systems.
Sapkota, A; Ueland, B G; Anand, V K; Sangeetha, N S; Abernathy, D L; Stone, M B; Niedziela, J L; Johnston, D C; Kreyssig, A; Goldman, A I; McQueeney, R J
2017-10-06
Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on the itinerant antiferromagnet CaCo_{2-y}As_{2} at a temperature of 8 K reveal two orthogonal planes of scattering perpendicular to the Co square lattice in reciprocal space, demonstrating the presence of effective one-dimensional spin interactions. These results are shown to arise from near-perfect bond frustration within the J_{1}-J_{2} Heisenberg model on a square lattice with ferromagnetic J_{1} and hence indicate that the extensive previous experimental and theoretical study of the J_{1}-J_{2} Heisenberg model on local-moment square spin lattices should be expanded to include itinerant spin systems.
Sapkota, A.; Ueland, B. G.; Anand, V. K.; ...
2017-10-02
Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on the itinerant antiferromagnet CaCo 2–yAs 2 at a temperature of 8 K reveal two orthogonal planes of scattering perpendicular to the Co square lattice in reciprocal space, demonstrating the presence of effective one-dimensional spin interactions. Here, these results are shown to arise from near-perfect bond frustration within the J 1–J 2 Heisenberg model on a square lattice with ferromagnetic J 1 and hence indicate that the extensive previous experimental and theoretical study of the J 1–J 2 Heisenberg model on local-moment square spin lattices should be expanded to include itinerant spin systems.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Sapkota, A.; Ueland, B. G.; Anand, V. K.
Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on the itinerant antiferromagnet CaCo 2–yAs 2 at a temperature of 8 K reveal two orthogonal planes of scattering perpendicular to the Co square lattice in reciprocal space, demonstrating the presence of effective one-dimensional spin interactions. Here, these results are shown to arise from near-perfect bond frustration within the J 1–J 2 Heisenberg model on a square lattice with ferromagnetic J 1 and hence indicate that the extensive previous experimental and theoretical study of the J 1–J 2 Heisenberg model on local-moment square spin lattices should be expanded to include itinerant spin systems.
Evidence for a quantum dipole liquid state in an organic quasi–two-dimensional material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassan, Nora; Cunningham, Streit; Mourigal, Martin; Zhilyaeva, Elena I.; Torunova, Svetlana A.; Lyubovskaya, Rimma N.; Schlueter, John A.; Drichko, Natalia
2018-06-01
Mott insulators are commonly pictured with electrons localized on lattice sites, with their low-energy degrees of freedom involving spins only. Here, we observe emergent charge degrees of freedom in a molecule-based Mott insulator κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Hg(SCN)2Br, resulting in a quantum dipole liquid state. Electrons localized on molecular dimer lattice sites form electric dipoles that do not order at low temperatures and fluctuate with frequency detected experimentally in our Raman spectroscopy experiments. The heat capacity and Raman scattering response are consistent with a scenario in which the composite spin and electric dipole degrees of freedom remain fluctuating down to the lowest measured temperatures.
Properties of one-dimensional anharmonic lattice solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szeftel, Jacob; Laurent-Gengoux, Pascal; Ilisca, Ernest; Hebbache, Mohamed
2000-12-01
The existence of bell- and kink-shaped solitons moving at constant velocity while keeping a permanent profile is studied in infinite periodic monoatomic chains of arbitrary anharmonicity by taking advantage of the equation of motion being integrable with respect to solitons. A second-order, non-linear differential equation involving advanced and retarded terms must be solved, which is done by implementing a scheme based on the finite element and Newton's methods. If the potential has a harmonic limit, the asymptotic time-decay behaves exponentially and there is a dispersion relation between propagation velocity and decay time. Inversely if the potential has no harmonic limit, the asymptotic regime shows up either as a power-law or faster than exponential. Excellent agreement is achieved with Toda's model. Illustrative examples are also given for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam and sine-Gordon potentials. Owing to integrability an effective one-body potential is worked out in each case. Lattice and continuum solitons differ markedly from one another as regards the amplitude versus propagation velocity relationship and the asymptotic time behavior. The relevance of the linear stability analysis when applied to solitons propagating in an infinite crystal is questioned. The reasons preventing solitons from arising in a diatomic lattice are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Liberto, M.; Malpetti, D.; Japaridze, G. I.; Morais Smith, C.
2014-08-01
We theoretically investigate the behavior of a system of fermionic atoms loaded in a bipartite one-dimensional optical lattice that is under the action of an external time-periodic driving force. By using Floquet theory, an effective model is derived. The bare hopping coefficients are renormalized by zeroth-order Bessel functions of the first kind with different arguments for the nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor hopping. The insulating behavior characterizing the system at half filling in the absence of driving is dynamically suppressed, and for particular values of the driving parameter the system becomes either a standard metal or an unconventional metal with four Fermi points. The existence of the four-Fermi-point metal relies on the fact that, as a consequence of the shaking procedure, the next-nearest-neighbor hopping coefficients become significant compared to the nearest-neighbor ones. We use the bosonization technique to investigate the effect of on-site Hubbard interactions on the four-Fermi-point metal-insulator phase transition. Attractive interactions are expected to enlarge the regime of parameters where the unconventional metallic phase arises, whereas repulsive interactions reduce it. This metallic phase is known to be a Luther-Emery liquid (spin-gapped metal) for both repulsive and attractive interactions, contrary to the usual Hubbard model, which exhibits a Mott-insulator phase for repulsive interactions. Ultracold fermions in driven one-dimensional bipartite optical lattices provide an interesting platform for the realization of this long-studied four-Fermi-point unconventional metal.
Gluon structure function of a color dipole in the light-cone limit of lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grünewald, D.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Pirner, H. J.
2009-10-01
We calculate the gluon structure function of a color dipole in near-light-cone SU(2) lattice QCD as a function of xB. The quark and antiquark are external nondynamical degrees of freedom which act as sources of the gluon string configuration defining the dipole. We compute the color dipole matrix element of transversal chromo-electric and chromo-magnetic field operators separated along a direction close to the light cone, the Fourier transform of which is the gluon structure function. As vacuum state in the pure glue sector, we use a variational ground state of the near-light-cone Hamiltonian. We derive a recursion relation for the gluon structure function on the lattice similar to the perturbative Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi equation. It depends on the number of transversal links assembling the Schwinger string of the dipole. Fixing the mean momentum fraction of the gluons to the “experimental value” in a proton, we compare our gluon structure function for a dipole state with four links with the next-to-leading-order MRST 2002 and the CTEQ AB-0 parametrizations at Q2=1.5GeV2. Within the systematic uncertainty we find rather good agreement. We also discuss the low xB behavior of the gluon structure function in our model calculation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morzfeld, M.; Fournier, A.; Hulot, G.
2014-12-01
We investigate the geophysical relevance of low-dimensional models of the geomagnetic dipole fieldby comparing these models to the signed relative paleomagnetic intensity over the past 2 Myr.The comparison is done via Bayesian statistics, implemented numerically by Monte Carlo (MC) sampling.We consider several MC schemes, as well as two data sets to show the robustness of our approach with respect to its numerical implementation and to the details of how the data are collected.The data we consider are the Sint-2000 [1] and PADM2M [2] data sets.We consider three stochastic differential equation (SDE) models and one deterministic model. Experiments with synthetic data show that it is feasible that a low dimensional modelcan learn the geophysical state from data of only the dipole field,and reveal the limitations of the low-dimensional models.For example, the G12 model [3] (a deterministic model that generates dipole reversals by crisis induced intermittency)can only match either one of the two important time scales we find in the data. The MC sampling approach also allows usto use the models to make predictions of the dipole field.We assess how reliably dipole reversals can be predictedwith our approach by hind-casting five reversals documented over the past 2 Myr. We find that, besides its limitations, G12 can be used to predict reversals reliably,however only with short lead times and over short horizons. The scalar SDE models on the other hand are not useful for prediction of dipole reversals.References Valet, J.P., Maynadier,L and Guyodo, Y., 2005, Geomagnetic field strength and reversal rate over the past 2 Million years, Nature, 435, 802-805. Ziegler, L.B., Constable, C.G., Johnson, C.L. and Tauxe, L., 2011, PADM2M: a penalized maximum likelihood model of the 0-2 Ma paleomagnetic axial dipole moment, Geophysical Journal International, 184, 1069-1089. Gissinger, C., 2012, A new deterministic model for chaotic reversals, European Physical Journal B, 85:137.
Magic tilt angle for stabilizing two-dimensional solitons by dipole-dipole interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xing-You; Chuang, You-Lin; Lin, Chun-Yan; Wu, Chien-Ming; Li, Yongyao; Malomed, Boris A.; Lee, Ray-Kuang
2017-10-01
In the framework of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we study the formation and stability of effectively two-dimensional solitons in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), with dipole moments polarized at an arbitrary angle θ relative to the direction normal to the system's plane. Using numerical methods and the variational approximation, we demonstrate that unstable Townes solitons, created by the contact attractive interaction, may be completely stabilized (with an anisotropic shape) by the dipole-dipole interaction (DDI), in the interval θcr<θ ≤π /2 . The stability boundary θcr weakly depends on the relative strength of the DDI, remaining close to the magic angle θm=arccos(1 /√{3 }) . The results suggest that DDIs provide a generic mechanism for the creation of stable BEC solitons in higher dimensions.
One-loop corrections to light cone wave functions: The dipole picture DIS cross section
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hänninen, H.; Lappi, T.; Paatelainen, R.
2018-06-01
We develop methods to perform loop calculations in light cone perturbation theory using a helicity basis, refining the method introduced in our earlier work. In particular this includes implementing a consistent way to contract the four-dimensional tensor structures from the helicity vectors with d-dimensional tensors arising from loop integrals, in a way that can be fully automatized. We demonstrate this explicitly by calculating the one-loop correction to the virtual photon to quark-antiquark dipole light cone wave function. This allows us to calculate the deep inelastic scattering cross section in the dipole formalism to next-to-leading order accuracy. Our results, obtained using the four dimensional helicity scheme, agree with the recent calculation by Beuf using conventional dimensional regularization, confirming the regularization scheme independence of this cross section.
Optimizing random searches on three-dimensional lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Benhao; Yang, Shunkun; Zhang, Jiaquan; Li, Daqing
2018-07-01
Search is a universal behavior related to many types of intelligent individuals. While most studies have focused on search in two or infinite-dimensional space, it is still missing how search can be optimized in three-dimensional space. Here we study random searches on three-dimensional (3d) square lattices with periodic boundary conditions, and explore the optimal search strategy with a power-law step length distribution, p(l) ∼l-μ, known as Lévy flights. We find that compared to random searches on two-dimensional (2d) lattices, the optimal exponent μopt on 3d lattices is relatively smaller in non-destructive case and remains similar in destructive case. We also find μopt decreases as the lattice length in z direction increases under high target density. Our findings may help us to understand the role of spatial dimension in search behaviors.
Evidence for a quantum dipole liquid state in an organic quasi-two-dimensional material.
Hassan, Nora; Cunningham, Streit; Mourigal, Martin; Zhilyaeva, Elena I; Torunova, Svetlana A; Lyubovskaya, Rimma N; Schlueter, John A; Drichko, Natalia
2018-06-08
Mott insulators are commonly pictured with electrons localized on lattice sites, with their low-energy degrees of freedom involving spins only. Here, we observe emergent charge degrees of freedom in a molecule-based Mott insulator κ-(BEDT-TTF) 2 Hg(SCN) 2 Br, resulting in a quantum dipole liquid state. Electrons localized on molecular dimer lattice sites form electric dipoles that do not order at low temperatures and fluctuate with frequency detected experimentally in our Raman spectroscopy experiments. The heat capacity and Raman scattering response are consistent with a scenario in which the composite spin and electric dipole degrees of freedom remain fluctuating down to the lowest measured temperatures. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Extra-dimensional models on the lattice
Knechtli, Francesco; Rinaldi, Enrico
2016-08-05
In this paper we summarize the ongoing effort to study extra-dimensional gauge theories with lattice simulations. In these models the Higgs field is identified with extra-dimensional components of the gauge field. The Higgs potential is generated by quantum corrections and is protected from divergences by the higher dimensional gauge symmetry. Dimensional reduction to four dimensions can occur through compactification or localization. Gauge-Higgs unification models are often studied using perturbation theory. Numerical lattice simulations are used to go beyond these perturbative expectations and to include nonperturbative effects. We describe the known perturbative predictions and their fate in the strongly-coupled regime formore » various extra-dimensional models.« less
A two-dimensional lattice equation as an extension of the Heideman-Hogan recurrence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamiya, Ryo; Kanki, Masataka; Mase, Takafumi; Tokihiro, Tetsuji
2018-03-01
We consider a two dimensional extension of the so-called linearizable mappings. In particular, we start from the Heideman-Hogan recurrence, which is known as one of the linearizable Somos-like recurrences, and introduce one of its two dimensional extensions. The two dimensional lattice equation we present is linearizable in both directions, and has the Laurent and the coprimeness properties. Moreover, its reduction produces a generalized family of the Heideman-Hogan recurrence. Higher order examples of two dimensional linearizable lattice equations related to the Dana Scott recurrence are also discussed.
Two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for magnetohydrodynamics.
Schaffenberger, Werner; Hanslmeier, Arnold
2002-10-01
We present a lattice Boltzmann model for the simulation of two-dimensional magnetohydro dynamic (MHD) flows. The model is an extension of a hydrodynamic lattice Boltzman model with 9 velocities on a square lattice resulting in a model with 17 velocities. Earlier lattice Boltzmann models for two-dimensional MHD used a bidirectional streaming rule. However, the use of such a bidirectional streaming rule is not necessary. In our model, the standard streaming rule is used, allowing smaller viscosities. To control the viscosity and the resistivity independently, a matrix collision operator is used. The model is then applied to the Hartmann flow, giving reasonable results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Jian; Song, Xing-Chang
2001-07-01
One of the key ingredients of Connes's noncommutative geometry is a generalized Dirac operator which induces a metric (Connes's distance) on the pure state space. We generalize such a Dirac operator devised by Dimakis et al, whose Connes distance recovers the linear distance on an one-dimensional lattice, to the two-dimensional case. This Dirac operator has the local eigenvalue property and induces a Euclidean distance on this two-dimensional lattice, which is referred to as `natural'. This kind of Dirac operator can be easily generalized into any higher-dimensional lattices.
Slow quench dynamics of a one-dimensional Bose gas confined to an optical lattice.
Bernier, Jean-Sébastien; Roux, Guillaume; Kollath, Corinna
2011-05-20
We analyze the effect of a linear time variation of the interaction strength on a trapped one-dimensional Bose gas confined to an optical lattice. The evolution of different observables such as the experimentally accessible on site particle distribution are studied as a function of the ramp time by using time-dependent numerical techniques. We find that the dynamics of a trapped system typically displays two regimes: For long ramp times, the dynamics is governed by density redistribution, while at short ramp times, local dynamics dominates as the evolution is identical to that of an homogeneous system. In the homogeneous limit, we also discuss the nontrivial scaling of the energy absorbed with the ramp time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Chao; Wang, Yucheng; Wang, Pei; Gao, Xianlong; Chen, Shu
2017-05-01
We investigate the quench dynamics of a one-dimensional incommensurate lattice described by the Aubry-André model by a sudden change of the strength of incommensurate potential Δ and unveil that the dynamical signature of localization-delocalization transition can be characterized by the occurrence of zero points in the Loschmidt echo. For the quench process with quenching taking place between two limits of Δ =0 and Δ =∞ , we give analytical expressions of the Loschmidt echo, which indicate the existence of a series of zero points in the Loschmidt echo. For a general quench process, we calculate the Loschmidt echo numerically and analyze its statistical behavior. Our results show that if both the initial and post-quench Hamiltonian are in extended phase or localized phase, Loschmidt echo will always be greater than a positive number; however if they locate in different phases, Loschmidt echo can reach nearby zero at some time intervals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarasenko, Alexander
2018-01-01
Diffusion of particles adsorbed on a homogeneous one-dimensional lattice is investigated using a theoretical approach and MC simulations. The analytical dependencies calculated in the framework of approach are tested using the numerical data. The perfect coincidence of the data obtained by these different methods demonstrates that the correctness of the approach based on the theory of the non-equilibrium statistical operator.
One-dimensional magnetic fluctuations in the spin-2 triangular lattice alpha-NaMnO2.
Stock, C; Chapon, L C; Adamopoulos, O; Lappas, A; Giot, M; Taylor, J W; Green, M A; Brown, C M; Radaelli, P G
2009-08-14
The S=2 anisotropic triangular lattice alpha-NaMnO2 is studied by neutron inelastic scattering. Antiferromagnetic order occurs at T< or =45 K with opening of a spin gap. The spectral weight of the magnetic dynamics above the gap (Delta approximately equal to 7.5 meV) has been analyzed by the single-mode approximation. Excellent agreement with the experiment is achieved when a dominant exchange interaction (|J|/k(B) approximately 73 K), along the monoclinic b axis and a sizable easy-axis magnetic anisotropy (|D|/k(B) approximately 3 K) are considered. Despite earlier suggestions for two-dimensional spin interactions, the dynamics illustrate strongly coupled antiferromagnetic S=2 chains and cancellation of the interchain exchange due to the lattice topology. alpha-NaMnO2 therefore represents a model system where the geometric frustration is resolved through the lowering of the dimensionality of the spin interactions.
Towards a physical interpretation of the entropic lattice Boltzmann method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malaspinas, Orestis; Deville, Michel; Chopard, Bastien
2008-12-01
The entropic lattice Boltzmann method (ELBM) is one among several different versions of the lattice Boltzmann method for the simulation of hydrodynamics. The collision term of the ELBM is characterized by a nonincreasing H function, guaranteed by a variable relaxation time. We propose here an analysis of the ELBM using the Chapman-Enskog expansion. We show that it can be interpreted as some kind of subgrid model, where viscosity correction scales like the strain rate tensor. We confirm our analytical results by the numerical computations of the relaxation time modifications on the two-dimensional dipole-wall interaction benchmark.
Nonlinear layered lattice model and generalized solitary waves in imperfectly bonded structures.
Khusnutdinova, Karima R; Samsonov, Alexander M; Zakharov, Alexey S
2009-05-01
We study nonlinear waves in a two-layered imperfectly bonded structure using a nonlinear lattice model. The key element of the model is an anharmonic chain of oscillating dipoles, which can be viewed as a basic lattice analog of a one-dimensional macroscopic waveguide. Long nonlinear longitudinal waves in a layered lattice with a soft middle (or bonding) layer are governed by a system of coupled Boussinesq-type equations. For this system we find conservation laws and show that pure solitary waves, which exist in a single equation and can exist in the coupled system in the symmetric case, are structurally unstable and are replaced with generalized solitary waves.
Coupled-resonator waveguide perfect transport single-photon by interatomic dipole-dipole interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Guo-an; Lu, Hua; Qiao, Hao-xue; Chen, Ai-xi; Wu, Wan-qing
2018-06-01
We theoretically investigate single-photon coherent transport in a one-dimensional coupled-resonator waveguide coupled to two quantum emitters with dipole-dipole interactions. The numerical simulations demonstrate that the transmission spectrum of the photon depends on the two atoms dipole-dipole interactions and the photon-atom couplings. The dipole-dipole interactions may change the dip positions in the spectra and the coupling strength may broaden the frequency band width in the transmission spectrum. We further demonstrate that the typical transmission spectra split into two dips due to the dipole-dipole interactions. This phenomenon may be used to manufacture new quantum waveguide devices.
Quantum logic using correlated one-dimensional quantum walks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lahini, Yoav; Steinbrecher, Gregory R.; Bookatz, Adam D.; Englund, Dirk
2018-01-01
Quantum Walks are unitary processes describing the evolution of an initially localized wavefunction on a lattice potential. The complexity of the dynamics increases significantly when several indistinguishable quantum walkers propagate on the same lattice simultaneously, as these develop non-trivial spatial correlations that depend on the particle's quantum statistics, mutual interactions, initial positions, and the lattice potential. We show that even in the simplest case of a quantum walk on a one dimensional graph, these correlations can be shaped to yield a complete set of compact quantum logic operations. We provide detailed recipes for implementing quantum logic on one-dimensional quantum walks in two general cases. For non-interacting bosons—such as photons in waveguide lattices—we find high-fidelity probabilistic quantum gates that could be integrated into linear optics quantum computation schemes. For interacting quantum-walkers on a one-dimensional lattice—a situation that has recently been demonstrated using ultra-cold atoms—we find deterministic logic operations that are universal for quantum information processing. The suggested implementation requires minimal resources and a level of control that is within reach using recently demonstrated techniques. Further work is required to address error-correction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Weiqi; Li, Xiantao
2018-01-01
We present some estimates for the memory kernel function in the generalized Langevin equation, derived using the Mori-Zwanzig formalism from a one-dimensional lattice model, in which the particles interactions are through nearest and second nearest neighbors. The kernel function can be explicitly expressed in a matrix form. The analysis focuses on the decay properties, both spatially and temporally, revealing a power-law behavior in both cases. The dependence on the level of coarse-graining is also studied.
Non-classical photon correlation in a two-dimensional photonic lattice.
Gao, Jun; Qiao, Lu-Feng; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Jiao, Zhi-Qiang; Feng, Zhen; Zhou, Zheng; Gao, Zhen-Wei; Xu, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Yuan; Tang, Hao; Jin, Xian-Min
2016-06-13
Quantum interference and quantum correlation, as two main features of quantum optics, play an essential role in quantum information applications, such as multi-particle quantum walk and boson sampling. While many experimental demonstrations have been done in one-dimensional waveguide arrays, it remains unexplored in higher dimensions due to tight requirement of manipulating and detecting photons in large-scale. Here, we experimentally observe non-classical correlation of two identical photons in a fully coupled two-dimensional structure, i.e. photonic lattice manufactured by three-dimensional femtosecond laser writing. Photon interference consists of 36 Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and 9 bunching. The overlap between measured and simulated distribution is up to 0.890 ± 0.001. Clear photon correlation is observed in the two-dimensional photonic lattice. Combining with controllably engineered disorder, our results open new perspectives towards large-scale implementation of quantum simulation on integrated photonic chips.
Cluster properties of the one-dimensional lattice gas: the microscopic meaning of grand potential.
Fronczak, Agata
2013-02-01
Using a concrete example, we demonstrate how the combinatorial approach to a general system of particles, which was introduced in detail in an earlier paper [Fronczak, Phys. Rev. E 86, 041139 (2012)], works and where this approach provides a genuine extension of results obtained through more traditional methods of statistical mechanics. We study the cluster properties of a one-dimensional lattice gas with nearest-neighbor interactions. Three cases (the infinite temperature limit, the range of finite temperatures, and the zero temperature limit) are discussed separately, yielding interesting results and providing alternative proof of known results. In particular, the closed-form expression for the grand partition function in the zero temperature limit is obtained, which results in the nonanalytic behavior of the grand potential, in accordance with the Yang-Lee theory.
Electron trapping and transport by supersonic solitons in one-dimensional systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zmuidzinas, J. S.
1978-01-01
A one-dimensional chain of ions or molecules and electrons described by a Froehlich-type Hamiltonian with quartic phonon anharmonicities is investigated. It is shown that the anharmonic lattice supports supersonic solitons which under favorable circumstances may trap electrons and transport them along the lattice. For a lattice constant/soliton spatial extent quotient of the order of 0.1, rough estimates give electron trapping energies in the meV range. They imply a useful temperature range, up to tens of degrees K, for observing the new effect. The activation energy of a lattice soliton is proportional to the molecular mass and is therefore quite high (about 1 eV) for typical quasi-one-dimensional organic systems.
Neutron Electric Dipole Moment and Tensor Charges from Lattice QCD.
Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; Lin, Huey-Wen; Yoon, Boram
2015-11-20
We present lattice QCD results on the neutron tensor charges including, for the first time, a simultaneous extrapolation in the lattice spacing, volume, and light quark masses to the physical point in the continuum limit. We find that the "disconnected" contribution is smaller than the statistical error in the "connected" contribution. Our estimates in the modified minimal subtraction scheme at 2 GeV, including all systematics, are g_{T}^{d-u}=1.020(76), g_{T}^{d}=0.774(66), g_{T}^{u}=-0.233(28), and g_{T}^{s}=0.008(9). The flavor diagonal charges determine the size of the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) induced by quark EDMs that are generated in many new scenarios of CP violation beyond the standard model. We use our results to derive model-independent bounds on the EDMs of light quarks and update the EDM phenomenology in split supersymmetry with gaugino mass unification, finding a stringent upper bound of d_{n}<4×10^{-28} e cm for the neutron EDM in this scenario.
Hofstadter butterfly evolution in the space of two-dimensional Bravais lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yılmaz, F.; Oktel, M. Ö.
2017-06-01
The self-similar energy spectrum of a particle in a periodic potential under a magnetic field, known as the Hofstadter butterfly, is determined by the lattice geometry as well as the external field. Recent realizations of artificial gauge fields and adjustable optical lattices in cold-atom experiments necessitate the consideration of these self-similar spectra for the most general two-dimensional lattice. In a previous work [F. Yılmaz et al., Phys. Rev. A 91, 063628 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.063628], we investigated the evolution of the spectrum for an experimentally realized lattice which was tuned by changing the unit-cell structure but keeping the square Bravais lattice fixed. We now consider all possible Bravais lattices in two dimensions and investigate the structure of the Hofstadter butterfly as the lattice is deformed between lattices with different point-symmetry groups. We model the optical lattice with a sinusoidal real-space potential and obtain the tight-binding model for any lattice geometry by calculating the Wannier functions. We introduce the magnetic field via Peierls substitution and numerically calculate the energy spectrum. The transition between the two most symmetric lattices, i.e., the triangular and the square lattices, displays the importance of bipartite symmetry featuring deformation as well as closing of some of the major energy gaps. The transitions from the square to rectangular lattice and from the triangular to centered rectangular lattices are analyzed in terms of coupling of one-dimensional chains. We calculate the Chern numbers of the major gaps and Chern number transfer between bands during the transitions. We use gap Chern numbers to identify distinct topological regions in the space of Bravais lattices.
Laser Fabrication of Two-Dimensional Rotating-Lattice Single Crystal
Savytskii, Dmytro; Au-Yeung, Courtney; Dierolf, Volkmar; ...
2017-03-09
A rotating lattice single (RLS) crystal is a unique form of solid, which was fabricated recently as one-dimensional architecture in glass via solid state transformation induced by laser irradiation. In these objects, the lattice rotates gradually and predictably about an axis that lies in the plane of the crystal and is normal to the laser scanning direction. This paper reports on the fabrication of Sb 2S 3 two-dimensional (2D) RLS crystals on the surface of 16SbI 3-84Sb 2S 3 glass, as a model example: individual RLS crystal lines are joined together using "stitching" or "rastering" as two successful protocols. Themore » electron back scattered diffraction mapping and scanning Laue X-ray microdiffraction of the 2D RLS crystals show gradual rotation of lattice comprising of two components, one along the length of each line and another normal to this direction. The former component is determined by the rotation of the first line of the 2D pattern, but the relative contribution of the last component depends on the extent of overlap between two successive lines. By the appropriate choice of initial seed orientation and the direction of scanning, it is possible to control the lattice rotation, and even to reduce it down to 5 for a 50 × 50 μm 2 2D pattern of Sb 2S 3 crystal.« less
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Tsuchiya, Shunji; Department of Physics, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Tokyo 169-8555; Griffin, Allan
2005-11-15
We study the Landau damping of Bogoliubov excitations in two- and three-dimensional optical lattices at finite temperatures, extending our recent work on one-dimensional (1D) optical lattices. We use a Bose-Hubbard tight-binding model and the Popov approximation to calculate the temperature dependence of the number of condensate atoms n{sup c0}(T) in each lattice well. As with 1D optical lattices, damping only occurs if the Bogoliubov excitations exhibit anomalous dispersion (i.e., the excitation energy bends upward at low momentum), analogous to the case of phonons in superfluid {sup 4}He. This leads to the disappearance of all damping processes in a D-dimensional simplemore » cubic optical lattice when Un{sup c0}{>=}6DJ, where U is the on-site interaction, and J is the hopping matrix element.« less
Dipolar bright solitons and solitary vortices in a radial lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Chunqing; Lyu, Lin; Huang, Hao; Chen, Zhaopin; Fu, Shenhe; Tan, Haishu; Malomed, Boris A.; Li, Yongyao
2017-11-01
Stabilizing vortex solitons with high values of the topological charge S is a challenging issue in optics, studies of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), and other fields. To develop an approach to the solution of this problem, we consider a two-dimensional dipolar BEC under the action of an axisymmetric radially periodic lattice potential, V (r )˜cos(2 r +δ ) , with dipole moments polarized perpendicular to the system's plane, which gives rise to isotropic repulsive dipole-dipole interactions. Two radial lattices are considered, with δ =0 and π , i.e., a potential maximum or minimum at r =0 , respectively. Families of vortex gap soliton (GSs) with S =1 and S ≥2 , the latter ones often being unstable in other settings, are completely stable in the present system (at least up to S =11 ), being trapped in different annular troughs of the radial potential. The vortex solitons with different S may stably coexist in sufficiently far separated troughs. Fundamental GSs, with S =0 , are found too. In the case of δ =0 , the fundamental solitons are ring-shaped modes, with a local minimum at r =0 . At δ =π , they place a density peak at the center.
Menon, Shakti N; Hall, Cameron L; McCue, Scott W; McElwain, D L Sean
2017-10-01
The mechanical behaviour of solid biological tissues has long been described using models based on classical continuum mechanics. However, the classical continuum theories of elasticity and viscoelasticity cannot easily capture the continual remodelling and associated structural changes in biological tissues. Furthermore, models drawn from plasticity theory are difficult to apply and interpret in this context, where there is no equivalent of a yield stress or flow rule. In this work, we describe a novel one-dimensional mathematical model of tissue remodelling based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. We express the mechanical effects of remodelling as an evolution equation for the effective strain, a measure of the difference between the current state and a hypothetical mechanically relaxed state of the tissue. This morphoelastic model combines the simplicity and interpretability of classical viscoelastic models with the versatility of plasticity theory. A novel feature of our model is that while most models describe growth as a continuous quantity, here we begin with discrete cells and develop a continuum representation of lattice remodelling based on an appropriate limit of the behaviour of discrete cells. To demonstrate the utility of our approach, we use this framework to capture qualitative aspects of the continual remodelling observed in fibroblast-populated collagen lattices, in particular its contraction and its subsequent sudden re-expansion when remodelling is interrupted.
Micropolar continuum modelling of bi-dimensional tetrachiral lattices
Chen, Y.; Liu, X. N.; Hu, G. K.; Sun, Q. P.; Zheng, Q. S.
2014-01-01
The in-plane behaviour of tetrachiral lattices should be characterized by bi-dimensional orthotropic material owing to the existence of two orthogonal axes of rotational symmetry. Moreover, the constitutive model must also represent the chirality inherent in the lattices. To this end, a bi-dimensional orthotropic chiral micropolar model is developed based on the theory of irreducible orthogonal tensor decomposition. The obtained constitutive tensors display a hierarchy structure depending on the symmetry of the underlying microstructure. Eight additional material constants, in addition to five for the hemitropic case, are introduced to characterize the anisotropy under Z2 invariance. The developed continuum model is then applied to a tetrachiral lattice, and the material constants of the continuum model are analytically derived by a homogenization process. By comparing with numerical simulations for the discrete lattice, it is found that the proposed continuum model can correctly characterize the static and wave properties of the tetrachiral lattice. PMID:24808754
Two-dimensional lattice-fluid model with waterlike anomalies.
Buzano, C; De Stefanis, E; Pelizzola, A; Pretti, M
2004-06-01
We investigate a lattice-fluid model defined on a two-dimensional triangular lattice, with the aim of reproducing qualitatively some anomalous properties of water. Model molecules are of the "Mercedes Benz" type, i.e., they possess a D3 (equilateral triangle) symmetry, with three bonding arms. Bond formation depends both on orientation and local density. We work out phase diagrams, response functions, and stability limits for the liquid phase, making use of a generalized first order approximation on a triangle cluster, whose accuracy is verified, in some cases, by Monte Carlo simulations. The phase diagram displays one ordered (solid) phase which is less dense than the liquid one. At fixed pressure the liquid phase response functions show the typical anomalous behavior observed in liquid water, while, in the supercooled region, a reentrant spinodal is observed.
Neutron Electric Dipole Moment and Tensor Charges from Lattice QCD
Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; ...
2015-11-17
In this paper, we present lattice QCD results on the neutron tensor charges including, for the first time, a simultaneous extrapolation in the lattice spacing, volume, and light quark masses to the physical point in the continuum limit. We find that the “disconnected” contribution is smaller than the statistical error in the “connected” contribution. Our estimates in the modified minimal subtraction scheme at 2 GeV, including all systematics, are g d-u T=1.020(76), g d T=0.774(66), g u T=-0.233(28), and g s T=0.008(9). The flavor diagonal charges determine the size of the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) induced by quark EDMsmore » that are generated in many new scenarios of CP violation beyond the standard model. Finally, we use our results to derive model-independent bounds on the EDMs of light quarks and update the EDM phenomenology in split supersymmetry with gaugino mass unification, finding a stringent upper bound of d n<4×10 -28 e cm for the neutron EDM in this scenario.« less
Some Applications of the Model of the Partion Points on a One Dimensional Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mejdani, R.; Huseini, H.
1996-02-01
We have shown that by using a model of gas of partition points on a one-dimensional lattice, we can find some results about the saturation curves for enzyme kinetics or the average domain-size, which we have obtained before by using a correlated walks' theory or a probabilistic (combinatoric) way. We have studied, using the same model and the same technique, the denaturation process, i.e., the breaking of the hydrogen bonds connecting the two strands, under treatment by heat. Also, we have discussed, without entering in details, the problem related to the spread of an infections disease and the stochastic model of partition points. We think that this model, being simple and mathematically transparent, can be advantageous for the other theoratical investigations in chemistry or modern biology. PACS NOS.: 05.50. + q; 05.70.Ce; 64.10.+h; 87.10. +e; 87.15.Rn
Discrete-to-continuum modelling of weakly interacting incommensurate two-dimensional lattices.
Español, Malena I; Golovaty, Dmitry; Wilber, J Patrick
2018-01-01
In this paper, we derive a continuum variational model for a two-dimensional deformable lattice of atoms interacting with a two-dimensional rigid lattice. The starting point is a discrete atomistic model for the two lattices which are assumed to have slightly different lattice parameters and, possibly, a small relative rotation. This is a prototypical example of a three-dimensional system consisting of a graphene sheet suspended over a substrate. We use a discrete-to-continuum procedure to obtain the continuum model which recovers both qualitatively and quantitatively the behaviour observed in the corresponding discrete model. The continuum model predicts that the deformable lattice develops a network of domain walls characterized by large shearing, stretching and bending deformation that accommodates the misalignment and/or mismatch between the deformable and rigid lattices. Two integer-valued parameters, which can be identified with the components of a Burgers vector, describe the mismatch between the lattices and determine the geometry and the details of the deformation associated with the domain walls.
Two-dimensional lattice-fluid model with waterlike anomalies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buzano, C.; de Stefanis, E.; Pelizzola, A.; Pretti, M.
2004-06-01
We investigate a lattice-fluid model defined on a two-dimensional triangular lattice, with the aim of reproducing qualitatively some anomalous properties of water. Model molecules are of the “Mercedes Benz” type, i.e., they possess a D3 (equilateral triangle) symmetry, with three bonding arms. Bond formation depends both on orientation and local density. We work out phase diagrams, response functions, and stability limits for the liquid phase, making use of a generalized first order approximation on a triangle cluster, whose accuracy is verified, in some cases, by Monte Carlo simulations. The phase diagram displays one ordered (solid) phase which is less dense than the liquid one. At fixed pressure the liquid phase response functions show the typical anomalous behavior observed in liquid water, while, in the supercooled region, a reentrant spinodal is observed.
Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in two dimensional lattice super QCD
Catterall, Simon; Veernala, Aarti
2015-10-02
We report on a non-perturbative study of two dimensional N=(2,2) super QCD. Our lattice formulation retains a single exact supersymmetry at non-zero lattice spacing, and contains N f fermions in the fundamental representation of a U(N c) gauge group. The lattice action we employ contains an additional Fayet-Iliopoulos term which is also invariant under the exact lattice supersymmetry. This work constitutes the first numerical study of this theory which serves as a toy model for understanding some of the issues that are expected to arise in four dimensional super QCD. As a result, we present evidence that the exact supersymmetrymore » breaks spontaneously when N f < N c in agreement with theoretical expectations.« less
Mode instability in one-dimensional anharmonic lattices: Variational equation approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshimura, K.
1999-03-01
The stability of normal mode oscillations has been studied in detail under the single-mode excitation condition for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-β lattice. Numerical experiments indicate that the mode stability depends strongly on k/N, where k is the wave number of the initially excited mode and N is the number of degrees of freedom in the system. It has been found that this feature does not change when N increases. We propose an average variational equation - approximate version of the variational equation - as a theoretical tool to facilitate a linear stability analysis. It is shown that this strong k/N dependence of the mode stability can be explained from the view point of the linear stability of the relevant orbits. We introduce a low-dimensional approximation of the average variational equation, which approximately describes the time evolution of variations in four normal mode amplitudes. The linear stability analysis based on this four-mode approximation demonstrates that the parametric instability mechanism plays a crucial role in the strong k/N dependence of the mode stability.
Manipulating Topological Edge Spins in One-Dimensional Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiong-Jun; Liu, Zheng-Xin; Cheng, Meng
2013-03-01
We propose to observe and manipulate topological edge spins in 1D optical lattice based on currently available experimental platforms. Coupling the atomic spin states to a laser-induced periodic Zeeman field, the lattice system can be driven into a symmetry protected topological (SPT) phase, which belongs to the chiral unitary (AIII) class protected by particle number conservation and chiral symmetries. In free-fermion case the SPT phase is classified by a Z invariant which reduces to Z4 with interactions. The zero edge modes of the SPT phase are spin-polarized, with left and right edge spins polarized to opposite directions and forming a topological spin-qubit (TSQ). We demonstrate a novel scheme to manipulate the zero modes and realize single spin control in optical lattice. The manipulation of TSQs has potential applications to quantum computation. We acknowledge the support from JQI-NSF-PFC, Microsoft-Q, and DARPA- QuEST.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Borland, M.; Lindberg, R.
2017-06-01
The proposed upgrade of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to a multibend-achromat lattice requires shorter and much stronger quadrupole magnets than are present in the existing ring. This results in longitudinal gradient profiles that differ significantly from a hard-edge model. Additionally, the lattice assumes the use of five-segment longitudinal gradient dipoles. Under these circumstances, the effects of fringe fields and detailed field distributions are of interest. We evaluated the effect of soft-edge fringe fields on the linear optics and chromaticity, finding that compensation for these effects is readily accomplished. In addition, we evaluated the reliability of standard methods of simulatingmore » hardedge nonlinear fringe effects in quadrupoles.« less
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Biddle, J.; Priour, D. J. Jr.; Wang, B.
We study the quantum localization phenomena of noninteracting particles in one-dimensional lattices based on tight-binding models with various forms of hopping terms beyond the nearest neighbor, which are generalizations of the famous Aubry-Andre and noninteracting Anderson models. For the case with deterministic disordered potential induced by a secondary incommensurate lattice (i.e., the Aubry-Andre model), we identify a class of self-dual models, for which the boundary between localized and extended eigenstates are determined analytically by employing a generalized Aubry-Andre transformation. We also numerically investigate the localization properties of nondual models with next-nearest-neighbor hopping, Gaussian, and power-law decay hopping terms. We findmore » that even for these nondual models, the numerically obtained mobility edges can be well approximated by the analytically obtained condition for localization transition in the self-dual models, as long as the decay of the hopping rate with respect to distance is sufficiently fast. For the disordered potential with genuinely random character, we examine scenarios with next-nearest-neighbor hopping, exponential, Gaussian, and power-law decay hopping terms numerically. We find that the higher-order hopping terms can remove the symmetry in the localization length about the energy band center compared to the Anderson model. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that for the power-law decay case, there exists a critical exponent below which mobility edges can be found. Our theoretical results could, in principle, be directly tested in shallow atomic optical lattice systems enabling non-nearest-neighbor hopping.« less
Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron from 2+1 Flavor Lattice QCD.
Guo, F-K; Horsley, R; Meissner, U-G; Nakamura, Y; Perlt, H; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G; Schiller, A; Zanotti, J M
2015-08-07
We compute the electric dipole moment d(n) of the neutron from a fully dynamical simulation of lattice QCD with 2+1 flavors of clover fermions and nonvanishing θ term. The latter is rotated into a pseudoscalar density in the fermionic action using the axial anomaly. To make the action real, the vacuum angle θ is taken to be purely imaginary. The physical value of dd(n) is obtained by analytic continuation. We find d(n)=-3.9(2)(9)×10(-16) θ e cm, which, when combined with the experimental limit on d(n), leads to the upper bound |θ|≲7.4×10(-11).
Integrated optical dipole trap for cold neutral atoms with an optical waveguide coupler
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, J.; Park, D. H.; Mittal, S.; Dagenais, M.; Rolston, S. L.
2013-04-01
An integrated optical dipole trap uses two-color (red and blue-detuned) traveling evanescent wave fields for trapping cold neutral atoms. To achieve longitudinal confinement, we propose using an integrated optical waveguide coupler, which provides a potential gradient along the beam propagation direction sufficient to confine atoms. This integrated optical dipole trap can support an atomic ensemble with a large optical depth due to its small mode area. Its quasi-TE0 waveguide mode has an advantage over the HE11 mode of a nanofiber, with little inhomogeneous Zeeman broadening at the trapping region. The longitudinal confinement eliminates the need for a one dimensional optical lattice, reducing collisional blockaded atomic loading, potentially producing larger ensembles. The waveguide trap allows for scalability and integrability with nano-fabrication technology. We analyze the potential performance of such integrated atom traps.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Lebedev, M. E., E-mail: gloriouslair@gmail.com, E-mail: galfimov@yahoo.com; Alfimov, G. L., E-mail: gloriouslair@gmail.com, E-mail: galfimov@yahoo.com; Malomed, Boris A., E-mail: malomed@post.tau.ac.il
We develop a general classification of the infinite number of families of solitons and soliton complexes in the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii/nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a nonlinear lattice pseudopotential, i.e., periodically modulated coefficient in front of the cubic term, which takes both positive and negative local values. This model finds direct implementations in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear optics. The most essential finding is the existence of two branches of dipole solitons (DSs), which feature an antisymmetric shape, being essentially squeezed into a single cell of the nonlinear lattice. This soliton species was not previously considered in nonlinear lattices. We demonstrate thatmore » one branch of the DS family (namely, which obeys the Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion) is stable, while unstable DSs spontaneously transform into stable fundamental solitons (FSs). The results are obtained in numerical and approximate analytical forms, the latter based on the variational approximation. Some stable bound states of FSs are found too.« less
Neutron and proton electric dipole moments from N f=2+1 domain-wall fermion lattice QCD
Shintani, Eigo; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; ...
2016-05-05
We present a lattice calculation of the neutron and proton electric dipole moments (EDM’s) with N f = 2 + 1 flavors of domain-wall fermions. The neutron and proton EDM form factors are extracted from three-point functions at the next-to-leading order in the θ vacuum of QCD. In this computation, we use pion masses 330 and 420 MeV and 2.7 fm 3 lattices with Iwasaki gauge action and a 170 MeV pion and 4.6 fm 3 lattice with I-DSDR gauge action, all generated by the RBC and UKQCD collaborations. The all-mode-averaging technique enables an efficient, high statistics calculation; however themore » statistical errors on our results are still relatively large, so we investigate a new direction to reduce them, reweighting with the local topological charge density which appears promising. Furthermore, we discuss the chiral behavior and finite size effects of the EDM’s in the context of baryon chiral perturbation theory.« less
Frustrated Magnetism in Low-Dimensional Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tovar, Mayra
2011-12-01
In this dissertation we present the results of a theoretical investigation of spin models on two-dimensional and quasi one-dimensional lattices, all unified under the concept of quantum frustrated antiferromagnetism, and all discussing various aspects of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice. In the Introduction (Chapter 1), we discuss at some length such concepts as frustration and superexchange, among others, which are of common relevance in the rest of the chapters. In Chapter 2, we study the effect of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions on the zero-temperature magnetic susceptibility of systems whose low energy can be described by short-range valence bond states. Our work shows that this treatment is consistent with the experimentally observed non-vanishing susceptibility---in the specified temperature limit---of the spin-1/2 kagome antiferromagnetic compound ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2, also known as herbertsmithite. Although the objective of this work is explaining the aforementioned characteristic of the experimental system, our methods are more general and we apply them to the checkerboard and Shastry-Sutherland lattices as well. In Chapter 3, we discuss our findings in the study of ghost-mediated domain wall interactions in the diamondback ladder. These domain walls are the the spin excitations---the kinks and the antikinks---separating the ground states along one chain of the ladder. While as individual entities an antikink is energy costly and a kink energy free, our study finds that both interact via the ghosts that they produce in the opposite side of the ladder from where they are located. Through the study of these ghosts, we find that domain walls proliferate in the system above a critical value of the system's coupling constants. It is this proliferation that makes their treatment as free, non-interacting particles impossible, so we study here their interactions both quantitatively and qualitatively, in a region where the latter are
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhatt, Pramod; Mukadam, M. D.; Meena, S. S.; Mishra, S. K.; Mittal, R.; Sastry, P. U.; Mandal, B. P.; Yusuf, S. M.
2017-03-01
The ferroelectric materials are mainly focused on pure inorganic oxides; however, the organic molecule based materials have recently attracted great attention because of their multifunctional properties. The mixing of oxalate and phenanthroline ligands with metal ions (Fe or Mn) at room temperature followed by hydrothermal treatment results in the formation of one-dimensional single chain molecular magnets which exhibit room temperature dielectric and ferroelectric behavior. The compounds are chiral in nature, and exhibit a ferroelectric behavior, attributed to the polar point group C2, in which they crystallized. The compounds are also associated with a dielectric loss and thus a relaxation process. The observed electric dipole moment, essential for a ferroelectricity, has been understood quantitatively in terms of lattice distortions at two different lattice sites within the crystal structure. The studied single chain molecular magnetic materials with room temperature ferroelectric and dielectric properties could be of great technological importance in non-volatile memory elements, and high-performance insulators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yong; Yan, Zhenya; Li, Xin
2018-02-01
The influence of spatially-periodic momentum modulation on beam dynamics in parity-time (PT) symmetric optical lattice is systematically investigated in the one- and two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equations. In the linear regime, we demonstrate that the momentum modulation can alter the first and second PT thresholds of the classical lattice, periodically or regularly change the shapes of the band structure, rotate and split the diffraction patterns of beams leading to multiple refraction and emissions. In the Kerr-nonlinear regime for one-dimension (1D) case, a large family of fundamental solitons within the semi-infinite gap can be found to be stable, even beyond the second PT threshold; it is shown that the momentum modulation can shrink the existing range of fundamental solitons and not change their stability. For two-dimension (2D) case, most solitons with higher intensities are relatively unstable in their existing regions which are narrower than those in 1D case, but we also find stable fundamental solitons corroborated by linear stability analysis and direct beam propagation. More importantly, the momentum modulation can also utterly change the direction of the transverse power flow and control the energy exchange among gain or loss regions.
Energy harvesting from the interaction of a Lamb dipole with a flexible cantilever
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Hui; Wang, Chenglei
2017-11-01
Energy harvesting from interactions of coherent flow structures with flexible solid structures can be used for powering miniature electronic devices. Although effective, the fundamental mechanism of such an energy extraction process has not been fully understood. Therefore, this study aims to provide more physical insights into this problem. The coherent flow structure is represented by a Lamb dipole, and the solid structure is assumed as a two-dimensional flexible cantilever. The cantilever is placed along the propagation direction of the dipole, with its fixed end initially towards or away from the dipole and its lateral distance from the dipole center varied. As the dipole passes through the cantilever, the latter can extract energy from the former through effective interactions. Such a two-dimensional fluid-structure interaction problem is numerically studied at a low Reynolds number of 200 using a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) based numerical framework. The simulation results reveal that the flexible cantilever with a moderate stiffness is more beneficial to the energy harvesting, and it can scavenge more energy from the ambient vortices when its fixed end is initially away from the dipole with a relatively small lateral distance. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support for this study from the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong under General Research Fund (Project No. PolyU 152493/16E).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Cenke
Several examples of quantum spin systems and pseudo spin systems have been studied, and unconventional states of matters and phase transitions have been realized in all these systems under consideration. In the p +/- ip superconductor Josephson lattice and the p--band cold atomic system trapped in optical lattices, novel phases which behave similarly to 1+1 dimensional systems are realized, despite the fact that the real physical systems are in two or three dimensional spaces. For instance, by employing a spin-wave analysis together with a new duality transformation, we establish the existence and stability of a novel gapless "critical phase", which we refer to as a "bond algebraic liquid". This novel critical phase is analogous to the 1+1 dimensional algebraic boson liquid phase. The reason for the novel physics is that there is a quasilocal gauge symmetry in the effective low energy Hamiltonian. In a spin-1 system on the kagome lattice, and a hard-core boson system on the honeycomb lattice, the low energy physics is controlled by two components of compact U(1) gauge symmetries that emerge at low energy. Making use of the confinement nature of the 2+1 dimensional compact gauge theories and the powerful duality between gauge theories and height field theories, the crystalline phase diagrams are studied for both systems, and the transitions to other phases are also considered. These phase diagrams might be accessible in strongly correlated materials, or atomic systems in optical lattices. A novel quantum ground state of matter is realized in a bosonic model on three dimensional fcc lattice with emergent low energy excitations. The novel phase obtained is a stable gapless boson liquid phase, with algebraic boson density correlations. The stability of this phase is protected against the instanton effect and superfluidity by self-duality and large gauge symmetries on both sides of the duality. The gapless collective excitations of this phase closely resemble the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chien, Chih-Chun; Gruss, Daniel; Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Zwolak, Michael
2013-06-01
The study of time-dependent, many-body transport phenomena is increasingly within reach of ultra-cold atom experiments. We show that the introduction of spatially inhomogeneous interactions, e.g., generated by optically controlled collisions, induce negative differential conductance in the transport of atoms in one-dimensional optical lattices. Specifically, we simulate the dynamics of interacting fermionic atoms via a micro-canonical transport formalism within both a mean-field and a higher-order approximation, as well as with a time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG). For weakly repulsive interactions, a quasi-steady-state atomic current develops that is similar to the situation occurring for electronic systems subject to an external voltage bias. At the mean-field level, we find that this atomic current is robust against the details of how the interaction is switched on. Further, a conducting-non-conducting transition exists when the interaction imbalance exceeds some threshold from both our approximate and time-dependent DMRG simulations. This transition is preceded by the atomic equivalent of negative differential conductivity observed in transport across solid-state structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez, J. P.; de Almeida, A. J. F.; Tabosa, J. W. R.
2018-03-01
We report on the observation of subharmonic resonances in high-order wave mixing associated with the quantized vibrational levels of atoms trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice created by two intense nearly counterpropagating coupling beams. These subharmonic resonances, occurring at ±1 /2 and ±1 /3 of the frequency separation between adjacent vibrational levels, are observed through phase-match angularly resolved six- and eight-wave mixing processes. We investigate how these resonances evolve with the intensity of the incident probe beam, which couples with one of the coupling beams to create anharmonic coherence gratings between adjacent vibrational levels. Our experimental results also show evidence of high-order processes associated with coherence involving nonadjacent vibrational levels. Moreover, we also demonstrate that these induced high-order coherences can be stored in the medium and the associated optical information retrieved after a controlled storage time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barinov, I. O.; Alodzhants, A. P.; Arakelyan, Sergei M.
2009-07-01
We describe a new type of spatially periodic structure (lattice models): a polaritonic crystal formed by a two-dimensional lattice of trapped two-level atoms interacting with the electromagnetic field in a cavity (or in a one-dimensional array of tunnelling-coupled microcavities), which allows polaritons to be fully localised. Using a one-dimensional polaritonic crystal as an example, we analyse conditions for quantum degeneracy of a lower-polariton gas and those for quantum optical information recording and storage.
Implementation of Magnetic Dipole Interaction in the Planewave-Basis Approach for Slab Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oda, Tatsuki; Obata, Masao
2018-06-01
We implemented the magnetic dipole interaction (MDI) in a first-principles planewave-basis electronic structure calculation based on spin density functional theory. This implementation, employing the two-dimensional Ewald summation, enables us to obtain the total magnetic anisotropy energy of slab materials with contributions originating from both spin-orbit and magnetic dipole-dipole couplings on the same footing. The implementation was demonstrated using an iron square lattice. The result indicates that the magnetic anisotropy of the MDI is much less than that obtained from the atomic magnetic moment model due to the prolate quadrupole component of the spin magnetic moment density. We discuss the reduction in the anisotropy of the MDI in the case of modulation of the quadrupole component and the effect of magnetic field arising from the MDI on atomic scale.
Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows.
Sun, Chenghai; Hsu, Andrew T
2003-07-01
A three-dimensional compressible lattice Boltzmann model is formulated on a cubic lattice. A very large particle-velocity set is incorporated in order to enable a greater variation in the mean velocity. Meanwhile, the support set of the equilibrium distribution has only six directions. Therefore, this model can efficiently handle flows over a wide range of Mach numbers and capture shock waves. Due to the simple form of the equilibrium distribution, the fourth-order velocity tensors are not involved in the formulation. Unlike the standard lattice Boltzmann model, no special treatment is required for the homogeneity of fourth-order velocity tensors on square lattices. The Navier-Stokes equations were recovered, using the Chapman-Enskog method from the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) lattice Boltzmann equation. The second-order discretization error of the fluctuation velocity in the macroscopic conservation equation was eliminated by means of a modified collision invariant. The model is suitable for both viscous and inviscid compressible flows with or without shocks. Since the present scheme deals only with the equilibrium distribution that depends only on fluid density, velocity, and internal energy, boundary conditions on curved wall are easily implemented by an extrapolation of macroscopic variables. To verify the scheme for inviscid flows, we have successfully simulated a three-dimensional shock-wave propagation in a box and a normal shock of Mach number 10 over a wedge. As an application to viscous flows, we have simulated a flat plate boundary layer flow, flow over a cylinder, and a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil cascade.
Amplification of light in one-dimensional vibrating metal photonic crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ueta, Tsuyoshi
2012-04-01
Photon-phonon interaction on the analogy of electron-phonon interaction is considered in one-dimensional metal photonic crystal. When lattice vibration is artificially introduced to the photonic crystal, a governing equation of electromagnetic field is derived. A simple model is numerically analyzed, and the following novel phenomena are found out. The lattice vibration generates the light of frequency which added the integral multiple of the vibration frequency to that of the incident wave and also amplifies the incident wave resonantly. On a resonance, the amplification factor increases very rapidly with the number of layers. Resonance frequencies change with the phases of lattice vibration. The amplification phenomenon is analytically discussed for low frequency of the lattice vibration and is confirmed by numerical works.
Probing the exchange statistics of one-dimensional anyon models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greschner, Sebastian; Cardarelli, Lorenzo; Santos, Luis
2018-05-01
We propose feasible scenarios for revealing the modified exchange statistics in one-dimensional anyon models in optical lattices based on an extension of the multicolor lattice-depth modulation scheme introduced in [Phys. Rev. A 94, 023615 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.023615]. We show that the fast modulation of a two-component fermionic lattice gas in the presence a magnetic field gradient, in combination with additional resonant microwave fields, allows for the quantum simulation of hardcore anyon models with periodic boundary conditions. Such a semisynthetic ring setup allows for realizing an interferometric arrangement sensitive to the anyonic statistics. Moreover, we show as well that simple expansion experiments may reveal the formation of anomalously bound pairs resulting from the anyonic exchange.
A two-dimensional DNA lattice implanted polymer solar cell.
Lee, Keun Woo; Kim, Kyung Min; Lee, Junwye; Amin, Rashid; Kim, Byeonghoon; Park, Sung Kye; Lee, Seok Kiu; Park, Sung Ha; Kim, Hyun Jae
2011-09-16
A double crossover tile based artificial two-dimensional (2D) DNA lattice was fabricated and the dry-wet method was introduced to recover an original DNA lattice structure in order to deposit DNA lattices safely on the organic layer without damaging the layer. The DNA lattice was then employed as an electron blocking layer in a polymer solar cell causing an increase of about 10% up to 160% in the power conversion efficiency. Consequently, the resulting solar cell which had an artificial 2D DNA blocking layer showed a significant enhancement in power conversion efficiency compared to conventional polymer solar cells. It should be clear that the artificial DNA nanostructure holds unique physical properties that are extremely attractive for various energy-related and photonic applications.
The one-dimensional minesweeper game: What are your chances of winning?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez-Achach, M.; Coronel-Brizio, H. F.; Hernández-Montoya, A. R.; Huerta-Quintanilla, R.; Canto-Lugo, E.
2016-04-01
Minesweeper is a famous computer game consisting usually in a two-dimensional lattice, where cells can be empty or mined and gamers are required to locate the mines without dying. Even if minesweeper seems to be a very simple system, it has some complex and interesting properties as NP-completeness. In this paper and for the one-dimensional case, given a lattice of n cells and m mines, we calculate the winning probability. By numerical simulations this probability is also estimated. We also find out by mean of these simulations that there exists a critical density of mines that minimize the probability of winning the game. Analytical results and simulations are compared showing a very good agreement.
Anomalous heat conduction in a one-dimensional ideal gas.
Casati, Giulio; Prosen, Tomaz
2003-01-01
We provide firm convincing evidence that the energy transport in a one-dimensional gas of elastically colliding free particles of unequal masses is anomalous, i.e., the Fourier law does not hold. Our conclusions are confirmed by a theoretical and numerical analysis based on a Green-Kubo-type approach specialized to momentum-conserving lattices.
Logarithmic Superdiffusion in Two Dimensional Driven Lattice Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krug, J.; Neiss, R. A.; Schadschneider, A.; Schmidt, J.
2018-03-01
The spreading of density fluctuations in two-dimensional driven diffusive systems is marginally anomalous. Mode coupling theory predicts that the diffusivity in the direction of the drive diverges with time as (ln t)^{2/3} with a prefactor depending on the macroscopic current-density relation and the diffusion tensor of the fluctuating hydrodynamic field equation. Here we present the first numerical verification of this behavior for a particular version of the two-dimensional asymmetric exclusion process. Particles jump strictly asymmetrically along one of the lattice directions and symmetrically along the other, and an anisotropy parameter p governs the ratio between the two rates. Using a novel massively parallel coupling algorithm that strongly reduces the fluctuations in the numerical estimate of the two-point correlation function, we are able to accurately determine the exponent of the logarithmic correction. In addition, the variation of the prefactor with p provides a stringent test of mode coupling theory.
Thermal conductivity engineering of bulk and one-dimensional Si-Ge nanoarchitectures
Kandemir, Ali; Ozden, Ayberk; Cagin, Tahir; Sevik, Cem
2017-01-01
Various theoretical and experimental methods are utilized to investigate the thermal conductivity of nanostructured materials; this is a critical parameter to increase performance of thermoelectric devices. Among these methods, equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) is an accurate technique to predict lattice thermal conductivity. In this study, by means of systematic EMD simulations, thermal conductivity of bulk Si-Ge structures (pristine, alloy and superlattice) and their nanostructured one dimensional forms with square and circular cross-section geometries (asymmetric and symmetric) are calculated for different crystallographic directions. A comprehensive temperature analysis is evaluated for selected structures as well. The results show that one-dimensional structures are superior candidates in terms of their low lattice thermal conductivity and thermal conductivity tunability by nanostructuring, such as by diameter modulation, interface roughness, periodicity and number of interfaces. We find that thermal conductivity decreases with smaller diameters or cross section areas. Furthermore, interface roughness decreases thermal conductivity with a profound impact. Moreover, we predicted that there is a specific periodicity that gives minimum thermal conductivity in symmetric superlattice structures. The decreasing thermal conductivity is due to the reducing phonon movement in the system due to the effect of the number of interfaces that determine regimes of ballistic and wave transport phenomena. In some nanostructures, such as nanowire superlattices, thermal conductivity of the Si/Ge system can be reduced to nearly twice that of an amorphous silicon thermal conductivity. Additionally, it is found that one crystal orientation, <100>, is better than the <111> crystal orientation in one-dimensional and bulk SiGe systems. Our results clearly point out the importance of lattice thermal conductivity engineering in bulk and nanostructures to produce high
Electric Dipole Moment Results from lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dragos, Jack; Luu, Thomas; Shindler, Andrea; de Vries, Jordy
2018-03-01
We utilize the gradient flow to define and calculate electric dipole moments induced by the strong QCD θ-term and the dimension-6 Weinberg operator. The gradient flow is a promising tool to simplify the renormalization pattern of local operators. The results of the nucleon electric dipole moments are calculated on PACS-CS gauge fields (available from the ILDG) using Nf = 2+1, of discrete size 323×64 and spacing a ≃ 0.09 fm. These gauge fields use a renormalization-group improved gauge action and a nonperturbatively O(a) improved clover quark action at β = 1.90, with cSW = 1.715. The calculation is performed at pion masses of mπ ≃ 411, 701 MeV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yicheng; Vidmar, Lev; Rigol, Marcos
2018-02-01
We use quantum information measures to study the local quantum phase transition that occurs for trapped spinless fermions in one-dimensional lattices. We focus on the case of a harmonic confinement. The transition occurs upon increasing the characteristic density and results in the formation of a band-insulating domain in the center of the trap. We show that the ground-state bipartite entanglement entropy can be used as an order parameter to characterize this local quantum phase transition. We also study excited eigenstates by calculating the average von Neumann and second Renyi eigenstate entanglement entropies, and compare the results with the thermodynamic entropy and the mutual information of thermal states at the same energy density. While at low temperatures we observe a linear increase of the thermodynamic entropy with temperature at all characteristic densities, the average eigenstate entanglement entropies exhibit a strikingly different behavior as functions of temperature below and above the transition. They are linear in temperature below the transition but exhibit activated behavior above it. Hence, at nonvanishing energy densities above the ground state, the average eigenstate entanglement entropies carry fingerprints of the local quantum phase transition.
Martin, James E.; Swol, Frank Van
2015-07-10
We show that multiaxial fields can induce time-averaged, noncentrosymmetric interactions between particles having polarization anisotropy, yet the multiaxial field itself does not exert either a force or a torque on an isolated particle. These induced interactions lead to particle assemblies whose energy is strongly dependent on both the translational and orientational degrees of freedom of the system. The situation is similar to a collection of permanent dipoles, but the symmetry of the time-averaged interaction is quite distinct, and the scale of the system energy can be dynamically controlled by the magnitude of the applied multiaxial field. In our paper, themore » case of polarizable rods is considered in detail, and it is suggested that collections of rods embedded in spheres can be used to create a material with a dynamically tunable magnetic permeability or dielectric permittivity. We report on Monte Carlo simulations performed to investigate the behavior of assemblies of both multiaxial-field induced dipoles and permanent dipoles arranged onto two-dimensional lattices. Lastly, the ground state of the induced dipoles is an orientational soft mode of aligned dipoles, whereas that of the permanent dipoles is a vortex state.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorelik, V. S.; Yashin, M. M.; Pudovkin, A. V.; Vodchits, A. I.
2017-11-01
The article considers optical properties (transmission and reflection) of one-dimensional photonic crystals based on mesoporous anodic aluminum oxide, with periods of crystal lattices 188 and 194 nm. A comparison of the experimentally measured reflection spectrum in the spectral region of the first stop-zone with the theoretical dependence obtained from the dispersion relation for one-dimensional photonic crystal is carried out. The angular dependence of the first stop-zone spectral positions of one-dimensional photonic crystal is established. The authors analyze the possibility of applications of mesoporous one-dimensional photonic crystals based on aluminum oxide as the selective narrowband filters and mirrors.
Thermal conductivity engineering of bulk and one-dimensional Si-Ge nanoarchitectures.
Kandemir, Ali; Ozden, Ayberk; Cagin, Tahir; Sevik, Cem
2017-01-01
Various theoretical and experimental methods are utilized to investigate the thermal conductivity of nanostructured materials; this is a critical parameter to increase performance of thermoelectric devices. Among these methods, equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) is an accurate technique to predict lattice thermal conductivity. In this study, by means of systematic EMD simulations, thermal conductivity of bulk Si-Ge structures (pristine, alloy and superlattice) and their nanostructured one dimensional forms with square and circular cross-section geometries (asymmetric and symmetric) are calculated for different crystallographic directions. A comprehensive temperature analysis is evaluated for selected structures as well. The results show that one-dimensional structures are superior candidates in terms of their low lattice thermal conductivity and thermal conductivity tunability by nanostructuring, such as by diameter modulation, interface roughness, periodicity and number of interfaces. We find that thermal conductivity decreases with smaller diameters or cross section areas. Furthermore, interface roughness decreases thermal conductivity with a profound impact. Moreover, we predicted that there is a specific periodicity that gives minimum thermal conductivity in symmetric superlattice structures. The decreasing thermal conductivity is due to the reducing phonon movement in the system due to the effect of the number of interfaces that determine regimes of ballistic and wave transport phenomena. In some nanostructures, such as nanowire superlattices, thermal conductivity of the Si/Ge system can be reduced to nearly twice that of an amorphous silicon thermal conductivity. Additionally, it is found that one crystal orientation, [Formula: see text]100[Formula: see text], is better than the [Formula: see text]111[Formula: see text] crystal orientation in one-dimensional and bulk SiGe systems. Our results clearly point out the importance of lattice thermal conductivity
Three-Dimensional Non-Fermi-Liquid Behavior from One-Dimensional Quantum Critical Local Moments
Classen, Laura; Zaliznyak, Igor; Tsvelik, Alexei M.
2018-04-10
We study the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity in a system composed of critical spin chains interacting with three dimensional conduction electrons and driven to criticality via an external magnetic field. The relevant experimental system is Yb 2Pt 2Pb, a metal where itinerant electrons coexist with localized moments of Yb-ions which can be described in terms of effective S = 1/2 spins with dominantly one-dimensional exchange interaction. The spin subsystem becomes critical in a relatively weak magnetic field, where it behaves like a Luttinger liquid. We theoretically examine a Kondo lattice with different effective space dimensionalities of the twomore » interacting subsystems. Lastly, we characterize the corresponding non-Fermi liquid behavior due to the spin criticality by calculating the electronic relaxation rate and the dc resistivity and establish its quasi linear temperature dependence.« less
Three-Dimensional Non-Fermi-Liquid Behavior from One-Dimensional Quantum Critical Local Moments
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Classen, Laura; Zaliznyak, Igor; Tsvelik, Alexei M.
We study the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity in a system composed of critical spin chains interacting with three dimensional conduction electrons and driven to criticality via an external magnetic field. The relevant experimental system is Yb 2Pt 2Pb, a metal where itinerant electrons coexist with localized moments of Yb-ions which can be described in terms of effective S = 1/2 spins with dominantly one-dimensional exchange interaction. The spin subsystem becomes critical in a relatively weak magnetic field, where it behaves like a Luttinger liquid. We theoretically examine a Kondo lattice with different effective space dimensionalities of the twomore » interacting subsystems. Lastly, we characterize the corresponding non-Fermi liquid behavior due to the spin criticality by calculating the electronic relaxation rate and the dc resistivity and establish its quasi linear temperature dependence.« less
Three-Dimensional Non-Fermi-Liquid Behavior from One-Dimensional Quantum Critical Local Moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Classen, Laura; Zaliznyak, Igor; Tsvelik, Alexei M.
2018-04-01
We study the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity in a system composed of critical spin chains interacting with three-dimensional conduction electrons and driven to criticality via an external magnetic field. The relevant experimental system is Yb2 Pt2 Pb , a metal where itinerant electrons coexist with localized moments of Yb ions which can be described in terms of effective S =1 /2 spins with a dominantly one-dimensional exchange interaction. The spin subsystem becomes critical in a relatively weak magnetic field, where it behaves like a Luttinger liquid. We theoretically examine a Kondo lattice with different effective space dimensionalities of the two interacting subsystems. We characterize the corresponding non-Fermi liquid behavior due to the spin criticality by calculating the electronic relaxation rate and the dc resistivity and establish its quasilinear temperature dependence.
Interaction quenched ultracold few-boson ensembles in periodically driven lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mistakidis, Simeon; Schmelcher, Peter; Theory Group of Fundamental Processes in Quantum Physics Team
2017-04-01
The out-of-equilibrium dynamics of interaction quenched finite ultracold bosonic ensembles in periodically driven one-dimensional optical lattices is investigated. It is shown that periodic driving enforces the bosons in the outer wells of the finite lattice to exhibit out-of-phase dipole-like modes, while in the central well the atomic cloud experiences a local breathing mode. The dynamical behavior is investigated with varying driving frequency, revealing a resonant-like behavior of the intra-well dynamics. An interaction quench in the periodically driven lattice gives rise to admixtures of different excitations in the outer wells, an enhanced breathing in the center and an amplification of the tunneling dynamics. We observe then multiple resonances between the inter- and intra-well dynamics at different quench amplitudes, with the position of the resonances being tunable via the driving frequency. Our results pave the way for future investigations on the use of combined driving protocols in order to excite different inter- and intra-well modes and to subsequently control them. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.
Topologically protected bound states in one-dimensional Floquet acoustic waveguide systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Yu-Gui; Geng, Zhi-Guo; Zhu, Xue-Feng
2018-03-01
Topological manipulation of sound has recently been a hot spot in acoustics due to the fascinating property of defect immune transport. To the best of our knowledge, the studies on one-dimensional (1D) topological acoustic systems hitherto mainly focus on the case of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. Here, we show that topologically protected bound states may also exist in 1D periodically modulated acoustic waveguide systems, viz., 1D Floquet topological insulators. The results show that tuning the coupling strength in a waveguide lattice could trigger topological phase transition, which gives rise to topologically protected interface states as we put together two waveguide lattices featured with different topological phases or winding numbers. However, for the combined lattice, input at the waveguides other than the interfacial ones will excite bulk states. We have further verified the robustness of interface bound states against the variation of coupling strengths between the two distinct waveguide lattices. This work extends the scope of topological acoustics and may promote potential applications for acoustic devices with topological functionalities.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Dietz, Barbara; Iachello, Francesco; Macek, Michal
The localization properties of the wave functions of vibrations in two-dimensional (2D) crystals are studied numerically for square and hexagonal lattices within the framework of an algebraic model. The wave functions of 2D lattices have remarkable localization properties, especially at the van Hove singularities (vHs). Finite-size sheets with a hexagonal lattice (graphene-like materials), in addition, exhibit at zero energy a localization of the wave functions at zigzag edges, so-called edge states. The striped structure of the wave functions at a vHs is particularly noteworthy. We have investigated its stability and that of the edge states with respect to perturbations inmore » the lattice structure, and the effect of the boundary shape on the localization properties. We find that the stripes disappear instantaneously at the vHs in a square lattice when turning on the perturbation, whereas they broaden but persist at the vHss in a hexagonal lattice. For one of them, they eventually merge into edge states with increasing coupling, which, in contrast to the zero-energy edge states, are localized at armchair edges. The results are corroborated based on participation ratios, obtained under various conditions.« less
Dietz, Barbara; Iachello, Francesco; Macek, Michal
2017-08-07
The localization properties of the wave functions of vibrations in two-dimensional (2D) crystals are studied numerically for square and hexagonal lattices within the framework of an algebraic model. The wave functions of 2D lattices have remarkable localization properties, especially at the van Hove singularities (vHs). Finite-size sheets with a hexagonal lattice (graphene-like materials), in addition, exhibit at zero energy a localization of the wave functions at zigzag edges, so-called edge states. The striped structure of the wave functions at a vHs is particularly noteworthy. We have investigated its stability and that of the edge states with respect to perturbations inmore » the lattice structure, and the effect of the boundary shape on the localization properties. We find that the stripes disappear instantaneously at the vHs in a square lattice when turning on the perturbation, whereas they broaden but persist at the vHss in a hexagonal lattice. For one of them, they eventually merge into edge states with increasing coupling, which, in contrast to the zero-energy edge states, are localized at armchair edges. The results are corroborated based on participation ratios, obtained under various conditions.« less
Homo-endotaxial one-dimensional Si nanostructures
Song, Jiaming; Hudak, Bethany M.; Sims, Hunter; ...
2017-11-29
One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures are highly sought after, both for their novel electronic properties as well as for their improved functionality. However, due to their nanoscale dimensions, these properties are significantly affected by the environment in which they are embedded. Here in this paper, we report on the creation of 1D homo-endotaxial Si nanostructures, i.e. 1D Si nanostructures with a lattice structure that is uniquely different from the Si diamond lattice in which they are embedded. We use scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, density functional theory, and conductive atomic force microscopy to elucidate their formation and properties.more » Depending on kinetic constraints during growth, they can be prepared as endotaxial 1D Si nanostructures completely embedded in crystalline Si, or underneath a stripe of amorphous Si containing a large concentration of Bi atoms. Lastly, these homo-endotaxial 1D Si nanostructures have the potential to be useful components in nanoelectronic devices based on the technologically mature Si platform.« less
Bandgaps and directional properties of two-dimensional square beam-like zigzag lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng
2014-12-01
In this paper we propose four kinds of two-dimensional square beam-like zigzag lattice structures and study their bandgaps and directional propagation of elastic waves. The band structures are calculated by using the finite element method. Both the in-plane and out-of-plane waves are investigated simultaneously via the three-dimensional Euler beam elements. The mechanism of the bandgap generation is analyzed by studying the vibration modes at the bandgap edges. The effects of the geometry parameters of the xy- and z-zigzag lattices on the bandgaps are investigated and discussed. Multiple complete bandgaps are found owing to the separation of the degeneracy by introducing bending arms. The bandgaps are sensitive to the geometry parameters of the periodic systems. The deformed displacement fields of the harmonic responses of a finite lattice structure subjected to harmonic loads at different positions are illustrated to show the directional wave propagation. An extension of the proposed concept to the hexagonal lattices is also presented. The research work in this paper is relevant to the practical design of cellular structures with enhanced vibro-acoustics performance.
Hidden magnetism in periodically modulated one dimensional dipolar fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fazzini, S.; Montorsi, A.; Roncaglia, M.; Barbiero, L.
2017-12-01
The experimental realization of time-dependent ultracold lattice systems has paved the way towards the implementation of new Hubbard-like Hamiltonians. We show that in a one-dimensional two-components lattice dipolar Fermi gas the competition between long range repulsion and correlated hopping induced by periodically modulated on-site interaction allows for the formation of hidden magnetic phases, with degenerate protected edge modes. The magnetism, characterized solely by string-like nonlocal order parameters, manifests in the charge and/or in the spin degrees of freedom. Such behavior is enlighten by employing Luttinger liquid theory and numerical methods. The range of parameters for which hidden magnetism is present can be reached by means of the currently available experimental setups and probes.
Quasi-one-dimensional Hall physics in the Harper–Hofstadter–Mott model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozarski, Filip; Hügel, Dario; Pollet, Lode
2018-04-01
We study the ground-state phase diagram of the strongly interacting Harper–Hofstadter–Mott model at quarter flux on a quasi-one-dimensional lattice consisting of a single magnetic flux quantum in y-direction. In addition to superfluid phases with various density patterns, the ground-state phase diagram features quasi-one-dimensional analogs of fractional quantum Hall phases at fillings ν = 1/2 and 3/2, where the latter is only found thanks to the hopping anisotropy and the quasi-one-dimensional geometry. At integer fillings—where in the full two-dimensional system the ground-state is expected to be gapless—we observe gapped non-degenerate ground-states: at ν = 1 it shows an odd ‘fermionic’ Hall conductance, while the Hall response at ν = 2 consists of the transverse transport of a single particle–hole pair, resulting in a net zero Hall conductance. The results are obtained by exact diagonalization and in the reciprocal mean-field approximation.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Zobov, V. E., E-mail: rsa@iph.krasn.ru; Kucherov, M. M.
2017-01-15
The singularities of the time autocorrelation functions (ACFs) of magnetically diluted spin systems with dipole–dipole interaction (DDI), which determine the high-frequency asymptotics of autocorrelation functions and the wings of a magnetic resonance line, are studied. Using the self-consistent fluctuating local field approximation, nonlinear equations are derived for autocorrelation functions averaged over the independent random arrangement of spins (magnetic atoms) in a diamagnetic lattice with different spin concentrations. The equations take into account the specificity of the dipole–dipole interaction. First, due to its axial symmetry in a strong static magnetic field, the autocorrelation functions of longitudinal and transverse spin components aremore » described by different equations. Second, the long-range type of the dipole–dipole interaction is taken into account by separating contributions into the local field from distant and near spins. The recurrent equations are obtained for the expansion coefficients of autocorrelation functions in power series in time. From them, the numerical value of the coordinate of the nearest singularity of the autocorrelation function is found on the imaginary time axis, which is equal to the radius of convergence of these expansions. It is shown that in the strong dilution case, the logarithmic concentration dependence of the coordinate of the singularity is observed, which is caused by the presence of a cluster of near spins whose fraction is small but contribution to the modulation frequency is large. As an example a silicon crystal with different {sup 29}Si concentrations in magnetic fields directed along three crystallographic axes is considered.« less
Three-dimensional lattice matching of epitaxially embedded nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
May, Brelon J.; Anderson, Peter M.; Myers, Roberto C.
2017-02-01
For a given degree of in-plane lattice mismatch between a two-dimensional (2D) epitaxial layer and a substrate (ɛIP*), there is a critical thickness above which interfacial defects form to relax the elastic strain energy. Here, we extend the 2D lattice-matching conditions to three-dimensions in order to predict the critical size beyond which epitaxially encased nanoparticles, characterized by both ɛIP* and out-of-plane lattice mismatch (ɛOP*), relax by dislocation formation. The critical particle length (Lc) at which defect formation proceeds is determined by balancing the reduction in elastic energy associated with dislocation introduction with the corresponding increase in defect energy. Our results, which use a modified Eshelby inclusion technique for an embedded, arbitrarily-faceted nanoparticle, provide new insight to the nanoepitaxy of low dimensional structures, especially quantum dots and nanoprecipitates. By engineering ɛIP* and ɛOP* , the predicted Lc for nanoparticles can be increased to well beyond the case of encapsulation in a homogenous matrix. For the case of truncated pyramidal shaped InAs, Lc 10.8 nm when fully embedded in GaAs (ɛIP* = ɛOP* = - 0.072); 16.4 nm when the particle is grown on GaAs, but capped with InSb (ɛIP* = - 0.072 and ɛOP* =+0.065); and a maximum of 18.4 nm if capped with an alloy corresponding to ɛOP* =+0.037. The effect, which we term "3D Poisson-stabilization" provides a means to increase the epitaxial strain tolerance in epitaxial heterostructures by tailoring ɛOP*.
Two-dimensional Ising model on random lattices with constant coordination number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schrauth, Manuel; Richter, Julian A. J.; Portela, Jefferson S. E.
2018-02-01
We study the two-dimensional Ising model on networks with quenched topological (connectivity) disorder. In particular, we construct random lattices of constant coordination number and perform large-scale Monte Carlo simulations in order to obtain critical exponents using finite-size scaling relations. We find disorder-dependent effective critical exponents, similar to diluted models, showing thus no clear universal behavior. Considering the very recent results for the two-dimensional Ising model on proximity graphs and the coordination number correlation analysis suggested by Barghathi and Vojta [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120602 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.120602], our results indicate that the planarity and connectedness of the lattice play an important role on deciding whether the phase transition is stable against quenched topological disorder.
Proton spin-lattice relaxation in low-dimensional ferromagnetic copper halides (abstract)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marzke, R. F.; Haines, D. N.; Raffaelle, D. P.; Chamberlin, R. V.; Ramakrishna, B. L.
1991-04-01
1H spin-lattice relaxation times have been measured as functions of temperature and frequency in powder samples of the two-dimensional ferromagnetic compound (CH3NH3)2CuCl4 and in single crystals of the one-dimensional ferromagnets (C6H11NH3)CuB3 (CHAB), (C6H11NH3)CuCl3 (CHAC), and (C4H12N)CuCl3 (TMCuC). Sample temperatures were varied between 4.2 and 298 K, and NMR frequencies ranging from 12.6 to 54.0 MHz were used. Widths and shapes of the lines, typically several hundred Gauss broad at low temperatures, were recorded. The dependence of T1 upon magnetic field orientation was measured for the one-dimensional (1D) single crystal samples. Each compound showed basically two temperature regimes of different spin-lattice relaxation behavior, separated by a narrow transition temperature region. From 4.2 K, T1 in the compounds decreased strongly as the temperature was raised, a behavior expected for second-order Raman processes [K. M. Kopinga, A. M. C. Tinus, W. J. M. de Jonge, and G. C. de Vries, Phys. Rev. B 36, 5398 (1987)]. At the transition temperature region the decrease of T1 ceased, and T1 began to increase weakly and quasilinearly to 300 K. In the three 1D compounds, the transition regions occurred well below temperatures corresponding to 1D exchange interaction strengths in CHAC (˜70 K), CHAB (˜55 K), and TMCuC (˜30 K), and also above the compounds' 3D ordering temperatures (˜1.5 K and below). We noted a correlation between the T1 transition temperatures and temperatures at which spin dimensionality ``crossovers'' are observed in magnetic susceptibilities, going from Heisenberg to non-Heisenberg behavior as the temperature is decreased. The latter occur at approximately 10 K in CHAC. TMCuC, which has the most isotropic J tensor of these compounds and also the lowest weak-strong T1 transition, does not show a spin dimensionality crossover in susceptibility down to 2 K, but based on our NMR results one would be expected at or below this temperature. Further
Spatial search on a two-dimensional lattice with long-range interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osada, Tomo; Sanaka, Kaoru; Munro, William J.; Nemoto, Kae
2018-06-01
Quantum-walk-based algorithms that search a marked location among N locations on a d -dimensional lattice succeeds in time O (√{N }) for d >2 , while this is not found to be possible when d =2 . In this paper, we consider a spatial search algorithm using continuous-time quantum walk on a two-dimensional square lattice with the existence of additional long-range edges. We examined such a search on a probabilistic graph model where an edge connecting non-nearest-neighbor lattice points i and j apart by a distance |i -j | is added by probability pi j=|i-j | -α(α ≥0 ) . Through numerical analysis, we found that the search succeeds in time O (√{N }) when α ≤αc=2.4 ±0.1 . For α >2 , the expectation value of the additional long-range edges on each node scales as a constant when N →∞ , which means that search time of O (√{N }) is achieved on a graph with average degree scaling as a constant.
Cheon, Gowoon; Duerloo, Karel-Alexander N; Sendek, Austin D; Porter, Chase; Chen, Yuan; Reed, Evan J
2017-03-08
Layered materials held together by weak interactions including van der Waals forces, such as graphite, have attracted interest for both technological applications and fundamental physics in their layered form and as an isolated single-layer. Only a few dozen single-layer van der Waals solids have been subject to considerable research focus, although there are likely to be many more that could have superior properties. To identify a broad spectrum of layered materials, we present a novel data mining algorithm that determines the dimensionality of weakly bonded subcomponents based on the atomic positions of bulk, three-dimensional crystal structures. By applying this algorithm to the Materials Project database of over 50,000 inorganic crystals, we identify 1173 two-dimensional layered materials and 487 materials that consist of weakly bonded one-dimensional molecular chains. This is an order of magnitude increase in the number of identified materials with most materials not known as two- or one-dimensional materials. Moreover, we discover 98 weakly bonded heterostructures of two-dimensional and one-dimensional subcomponents that are found within bulk materials, opening new possibilities for much-studied assembly of van der Waals heterostructures. Chemical families of materials, band gaps, and point groups for the materials identified in this work are presented. Point group and piezoelectricity in layered materials are also evaluated in single-layer forms. Three hundred and twenty-five of these materials are expected to have piezoelectric monolayers with a variety of forms of the piezoelectric tensor. This work significantly extends the scope of potential low-dimensional weakly bonded solids to be investigated.
An interacting spin-flip model for one-dimensional proton conduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chou, Tom
2002-05-01
A discrete asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP) is developed to model proton conduction along one-dimensional water wires. Each lattice site represents a water molecule that can be in only one of three states; protonated, left-pointing and right-pointing. Only a right- (left-) pointing water can accept a proton from its left (). Results of asymptotic mean field analysis and Monte Carlo simulations for the three-species, open boundary exclusion model are presented and compared. The mean field results for the steady-state proton current suggest a number of regimes analogous to the low and maximal current phases found in the single-species ASEP (Derrida B 1998 Phys. Rep. 301 65-83). We find that the mean field results are accurate (compared with lattice Monte Carlo simulations) only in certain regimes. Refinements and extensions including more elaborate forces and pore defects are also discussed.
Diagnostics of the Fermilab Tevatron using an AC dipole
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Miyamoto, Ryoichi
2008-08-01
The Fermilab Tevatron is currently the world's highest energy colliding beam facility. Its counter-rotating proton and antiproton beams collide at 2 TeV center-of-mass. Delivery of such intense beam fluxes to experiments has required improved knowledge of the Tevatron's beam optical lattice. An oscillating dipole magnet, referred to as an AC dipole, is one of such a tool to non-destructively assess the optical properties of the synchrotron. We discusses development of an AC dipole system for the Tevatron, a fast-oscillating (f ~ 20 kHz) dipole magnet which can be adiabatically turned on and off to establish sustained coherent oscillations of themore » beam particles without affecting the transverse emittance. By utilizing an existing magnet and a higher power audio amplifier, the cost of the Tevatron AC dipole system became relatively inexpensive. We discuss corrections which must be applied to the driven oscillation measurements to obtain the proper interpretation of beam optical parameters from AC dipole studies. After successful operations of the Tevatron AC dipole system, AC dipole systems, similar to that in the Tevatron, will be build for the CERN LHC. We present several measurements of linear optical parameters (beta function and phase advance) for the Tevatron, as well as studies of non-linear perturbations from sextupole and octupole elements.« less
Dipole-dipole interaction in cavity QED: The weak-coupling, nondegenerate regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donaire, M.; Muñoz-Castañeda, J. M.; Nieto, L. M.
2017-10-01
We compute the energies of the interaction between two atoms placed in the middle of a perfectly reflecting planar cavity, in the weak-coupling nondegenerate regime. Both inhibition and enhancement of the interactions can be obtained by varying the size of the cavity. We derive exact expressions for the dyadic Green's function of the cavity field which mediates the interactions and apply time-dependent quantum perturbation theory in the adiabatic approximation. We provide explicit expressions for the van der Waals potentials of two polarizable atomic dipoles and the electrostatic potential of two induced dipoles. We compute the van der Waals potentials in three different scenarios: two atoms in their ground states, two atoms excited, and two dissimilar atoms with one of them excited. In addition, we calculate the phase-shift rate of the two-atom wave function in each case. The effect of the two-dimensional confinement of the electromagnetic field on the dipole-dipole interactions is analyzed. This effect depends on the atomic polarization. For dipole moments oriented parallel to the cavity plates, both the electrostatic and the van der Waals interactions are exponentially suppressed for values of the cavity width much less than the interatomic distance, whereas for values of the width close to the interatomic distance, the strength of both interactions is higher than their values in the absence of cavity. For dipole moments perpendicular to the plates, the strength of the van der Waals interaction decreases for values of the cavity width close to the interatomic distance, while it increases for values of the width much less than the interatomic distance with respect to its strength in the absence of cavity. We illustrate these effects by computing the dipole-dipole interactions between two alkali atoms in circular Rydberg states.
Superfluidity of identical fermions in an optical lattice: Atoms and polar molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedorov, A. K.; Yudson, V. I.; Shlyapnikov, G. V.
2018-02-01
In this work we discuss the emergence of p-wave superfluids of identical fermions in 2D lattices. The optical lattice potential manifests itself in an interplay between an increase in the density of states on the Fermi surface and the modification of the fermion-fermion interaction (scattering) amplitude. The density of states is enhanced due to an increase of the effective mass of atoms. In deep lattices, for short-range interacting atoms the scattering amplitude is strongly reduced compared to free space due to a small overlap of wavefunctions of fermions sitting in the neighboring lattice sites, which suppresses the p-wave superfluidity. However, we show that for a moderate lattice depth there is still a possibility to create atomic p-wave superfluids with sizable transition temperatures. The situation is drastically different for fermionic polar molecules. Being dressed with a microwave field, they acquire a dipole-dipole attractive tail in the interaction potential. Then, due to a long-range character of the dipole-dipole interaction, the effect of the suppression of the scattering amplitude in 2D lattices is absent. This leads to the emergence of a stable topological px + ipy superfluid of identical microwave-dressed polar molecules.
The physicist's companion to current fluctuations: one-dimensional bulk-driven lattice gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazarescu, Alexandre
2015-12-01
One of the main features of statistical systems out of equilibrium is the currents they exhibit in their stationary state: microscopic currents of probability between configurations, which translate into macroscopic currents of mass, charge, etc. Understanding the general behaviour of these currents is an important step towards building a universal framework for non-equilibrium steady states akin to the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution for equilibrium systems. In this review, we consider one-dimensional bulk-driven particle gases, and in particular the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) with open boundaries, which is one of the most popular models of one-dimensional transport. We focus, in particular, on the current of particles flowing through the system in its steady state, and on its fluctuations. We show how one can obtain the complete statistics of that current, through its large deviation function, by combining results from various methods: exact calculation of the cumulants of the current, using the integrability of the model; direct diagonalization of a biased process in the limits of very high or low current; hydrodynamic description of the model in the continuous limit using the macroscopic fluctuation theory. We give a pedagogical account of these techniques, starting with a quick introduction to the necessary mathematical tools, as well as a short overview of the existing works relating to the ASEP. We conclude by drawing the complete dynamical phase diagram of the current. We also remark on a few possible generalizations of these results.
Weyl solitons in three-dimensional optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, Ce; Zheng, Yuanlin; Malomed, Boris A.
2018-04-01
Weyl fermions are massless chiral quasiparticles existing in materials known as Weyl semimetals. Topological surface states, associated with the unusual electronic structure in the Weyl semimetals, have been recently demonstrated in linear systems. Ultracold atomic gases, featuring laser-assisted tunneling in three-dimensional optical lattices, can be used for the emulation of Weyl semimetals, including nonlinear effects induced by the collisional nonlinearity of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. We demonstrate that this setting gives rise to topological states in the form of Weyl solitons at the surface of the underlying optical lattice. These nonlinear modes, being exceptionally robust, bifurcate from linear states for a given quasimomentum. The Weyl solitons may be used to design an efficient control scheme for topologically protected unidirectional propagation of excitations in light-matter-interaction physics. After the recently introduced Majorana and Dirac solitons, the Weyl solitons proposed in this work constitute the third (and the last) member in this family of topological solitons.
Rural-Urban Migration in D-Dimensional Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Espíndola, Aquino L.; Penna, T. J. P.; Silveira, Jaylson J.
The rural-urban migration phenomenon is analyzed by using an agent-based computational model. Agents are placed on lattices which dimensions varying from d =2 up to d =7. The localization of the agents in the lattice defines that their social neighborhood (rural or urban) is not related to their spatial distribution. The effect of the dimension of lattice is studied by analyzing the variation of the main parameters that characterizes the migratory process. The dynamics displays strong effects even for around one million of sites, in higher dimensions (d =6, 7).
Generation of dark solitons and their instability dynamics in two-dimensional condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, Gunjan; Rapol, Umakant D.; Nath, Rejish
2017-04-01
We analyze numerically the formation and the subsequent dynamics of two-dimensional matter wave dark solitons in a Thomas-Fermi rubidium condensate using various techniques. An initially imprinted sharp phase gradient leads to the dynamical formation of a stationary soliton as well as very shallow gray solitons, whereas a smooth gradient only creates gray solitons. The depth and hence, the velocity of the soliton is provided by the spatial width of the phase gradient, and it also strongly influences the snake-instability dynamics of the two-dimensional solitons. The vortex dipoles stemming from the unstable soliton exhibit rich dynamics. Notably, the annihilation of a vortex dipole via a transient dark lump or a vortexonium state, the exchange of vortices between either a pair of vortex dipoles or a vortex dipole and a single vortex, and so on. For sufficiently large width of the initial phase gradient, the solitons may decay directly into vortexoniums instead of vortex pairs, and also the decay rate is augmented. Later, we discuss alternative techniques to generate dark solitons, which involve a Gaussian potential barrier and time-dependent interactions, both linear and periodic. The properties of the solitons can be controlled by tuning the amplitude or the width of the potential barrier. In the linear case, the number of solitons and their depths are determined by the quench time of the interactions. For the periodic modulation, a transient soliton lattice emerges with its periodicity depending on the modulation frequency, through a wave number selection governed by the local Bogoliubov spectrum. Interestingly, for sufficiently low barrier potential, both Faraday pattern and soliton lattice coexist. The snake instability dynamics of the soliton lattice is characteristically modified if the Faraday pattern is present.
Lattice corrections to the quark quasidistribution at one loop
Carlson, Carl E.; Freid, Michael
2017-05-12
Here, we calculate radiative corrections to the quark quasidistribution in lattice perturbation theory at one loop to leading orders in the lattice spacing. We also consider one-loop corrections in continuum Euclidean space. We find that the infrared behavior of the corrections in Euclidean and Minkowski space are different. Furthermore, we explore features of momentum loop integrals and demonstrate why loop corrections from the lattice perturbation theory and Euclidean continuum do not correspond with their Minkowski brethren, and comment on a recent suggestion for transcending the differences in the results. Finally, we examine the role of the lattice spacing a andmore » of the r parameter in the Wilson action in these radiative corrections.« less
Lattice corrections to the quark quasidistribution at one loop
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Carlson, Carl E.; Freid, Michael
Here, we calculate radiative corrections to the quark quasidistribution in lattice perturbation theory at one loop to leading orders in the lattice spacing. We also consider one-loop corrections in continuum Euclidean space. We find that the infrared behavior of the corrections in Euclidean and Minkowski space are different. Furthermore, we explore features of momentum loop integrals and demonstrate why loop corrections from the lattice perturbation theory and Euclidean continuum do not correspond with their Minkowski brethren, and comment on a recent suggestion for transcending the differences in the results. Finally, we examine the role of the lattice spacing a andmore » of the r parameter in the Wilson action in these radiative corrections.« less
Resonant Zener tunneling in two-dimensional periodic photonic lattices.
Desyatnikov, Anton S; Kivshar, Yuri S; Shchesnovich, Valery S; Cavalcanti, Solange B; Hickmann, Jandir M
2007-02-15
We study Zener tunneling in two-dimensional photonic lattices and derive, for the case of hexagonal symmetry, the generalized Landau-Zener-Majorana model describing resonant interaction between high-symmetry points of the photonic spectral bands. We demonstrate that this effect can be employed for the generation of Floquet-Bloch modes and verify the model by direct numerical simulations of the tunneling effect.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Cestari, J. C. C.; Foerster, A.; Gusmao, M. A.
2011-11-15
We investigate the nature of the superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition driven by disorder for noninteracting ultracold atoms on one-dimensional lattices. We consider two different cases: Anderson-type disorder, with local energies randomly distributed, and pseudodisorder due to a potential incommensurate with the lattice, which is usually called the Aubry-Andre model. A scaling analysis of numerical data for the superfluid fraction for different lattice sizes allows us to determine quantum critical exponents characterizing the disorder-driven superfluid-insulator transition. We also briefly discuss the effect of interactions close to the noninteracting quantum critical point of the Aubry-Andre model.
Symmetry based assembly of a 2 dimensional protein lattice
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Poulos, Sandra; Agah, Sayeh; Jallah, Nikardi
2017-04-18
The design of proteins that self-assemble into higher order architectures is of great interest due to their potential application in nanotechnology. Specifically, the self-assembly of proteins into ordered lattices is of special interest to the field of structural biology. Here we designed a 2 dimensional (2D) protein lattice using a fusion of a tandem repeat of three TelSAM domains (TTT) to the Ferric uptake regulator (FUR) domain. We determined the structure of the designed (TTT-FUR) fusion protein to 2.3 Å by X-ray crystallographic methods. In agreement with the design, a 2D lattice composed of TelSAM fibers interdigitated by the FURmore » domain was observed. As expected, the fusion of a tandem repeat of three TelSAM domains formed 21 screw axis, and the self-assembly of the ordered oligomer was under pH control. We demonstrated that the fusion of TTT to a domain having a 2-fold symmetry, such as the FUR domain, can produce an ordered 2D lattice. The TTT-FUR system combines features from the rotational symmetry matching approach with the oligomer driven crystallization method. This TTT-FUR fusion was amenable to X-ray crystallographic methods, and is a promising crystallization chaperone.« less
Design and fabrication of one-dimensional and two- dimensional photonic bandgap devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Kuo-Yi
1999-10-01
One-dimensional and two-dimensional photonic bandgap devices have been designed and fabricated using III-V compound semiconductors. The one-dimensional photonic bandgap devices consist of monorail and air-bridge waveguide microcavities, while the two-dimensional photonic bandgap devices consist of light-emitting devices with enhanced extraction efficiency. Fabrication techniques such as gas source molecular beam epitaxy, direct-write electron-beam lithography, reactive ion etching and thermal oxidation of AlxGa1- xAs have been employed. The III-V thermal oxide, in particular, is used as an index confinement material, as a sacrificial material for micromechanical fabrication of the air-bridge microcavity, and in the realization of a wide-bandwidth distributed Bragg reflector. The one-dimensional photonic bandgap waveguide microcavities have been designed to operate in the wavelength regimes of 4.5 m m and 1.55 m m. The devices designed to operate in the 1.55 m m wavelength regime have been optically characterized. The transmission spectra exhibit resonances at around 1.55 m m and cavity quality factors (Q's) ranging from 136 to 334. The resonant modal volume is calculated to be about 0.056 m m3. Tunability in the resonance wavelengths has also been demonstrated by changing the size of the defect in the one-dimensional photonic crystal. The two-dimensional photonic bandgap light-emitting device consists of a In0.51Ga0.49P/In0.2Ga0.8As/In 0.51Ga0.49P quantum well emitting at 980nm with a triangular photonic lattice of holes in the top cladding layer of the quantum well. The photonic crystal prohibits the propagation of guided modes in the semiconductor, thus enhancing the extraction of light vertical to the light-emitting device. A wide-bandwidth GaAs/AlxOy distributed Bragg reflector mirror under the quantum well structure further enhances the extraction of light from the devices. The extraction efficiency of the two-dimensional photonic bandgap light-emitting device
Nonlinear dispersive waves in repulsive lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehrem, A.; Jiménez, N.; Salmerón-Contreras, L. J.; García-Andrés, X.; García-Raffi, L. M.; Picó, R.; Sánchez-Morcillo, V. J.
2017-07-01
The propagation of nonlinear waves in a lattice of repelling particles is studied theoretically and experimentally. A simple experimental setup is proposed, consisting of an array of coupled magnetic dipoles. By driving harmonically the lattice at one boundary, we excite propagating waves and demonstrate different regimes of mode conversion into higher harmonics, strongly influenced by dispersion and discreteness. The phenomenon of acoustic dilatation of the chain is also predicted and discussed. The results are compared with the theoretical predictions of the α -Fermi-Pasta-Ulam equation, describing a chain of masses connected by nonlinear quadratic springs and numerical simulations. The results can be extrapolated to other systems described by this equation.
Making the Cut: Lattice Kirigami Rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castle, Toen; Cho, Yigil; Gong, Xingting; Jung, Euiyeon; Sussman, Daniel M.; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall D.
2014-12-01
In this Letter we explore and develop a simple set of rules that apply to cutting, pasting, and folding honeycomb lattices. We consider origami-like structures that are extrinsically flat away from zero-dimensional sources of Gaussian curvature and one-dimensional sources of mean curvature, and our cutting and pasting rules maintain the intrinsic bond lengths on both the lattice and its dual lattice. We find that a small set of rules is allowed providing a framework for exploring and building kirigami—folding, cutting, and pasting the edges of paper.
Quantum quench in an atomic one-dimensional Ising chain.
Meinert, F; Mark, M J; Kirilov, E; Lauber, K; Weinmann, P; Daley, A J; Nägerl, H-C
2013-08-02
We study nonequilibrium dynamics for an ensemble of tilted one-dimensional atomic Bose-Hubbard chains after a sudden quench to the vicinity of the transition point of the Ising paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic quantum phase transition. The quench results in coherent oscillations for the orientation of effective Ising spins, detected via oscillations in the number of doubly occupied lattice sites. We characterize the quench by varying the system parameters. We report significant modification of the tunneling rate induced by interactions and show clear evidence for collective effects in the oscillatory response.
Ultracold atoms in an optical lattice one millimeter from air
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jervis, Dylan; Edge, Graham; Trotzky, Stefan; McKay, David; Thywissen, Joseph
2013-05-01
Over the past decade, ultracold atoms in optical lattices have shown to be versatile systems able to realize canonical Hamiltonians of condensed matter. High-resolution in-situ imaging of ultracold clouds has furthermore enabled thermometry, equation of state measurements, direct measurement of fluctuations, and unprecedented control. We report on microscopy of ultracold bosons and fermions in a novel configuration where the atoms are harmonically trapped 800 microns away from a 200 micron-thick vacuum window. This window also serves as a retro-reflecting mirror for an optical lattice, into which the atoms can be loaded. Two additional transverse standing waves complete the three-dimensional lattice setup. In free space, we have shown that laser cooling with 405 nm light, on the open 4S1/2-5P3/2 transition, allows for temperatures below the Doppler temperature of the 4S1/2-4P3/2 cycling transition at 767 nm. Microscopy with 405 nm light furthermore reduces the diffraction limit of in-situ imaging.
Chimera states in Gaussian coupled map lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiao-Wen; Bi, Ran; Sun, Yue-Xiang; Zhang, Shuo; Song, Qian-Qian
2018-04-01
We study chimera states in one-dimensional and two-dimensional Gaussian coupled map lattices through simulations and experiments. Similar to the case of global coupling oscillators, individual lattices can be regarded as being controlled by a common mean field. A space-dependent order parameter is derived from a self-consistency condition in order to represent the collective state.
Acoustic dipole radiation model for magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yi-Ling; Ma, Qing-Yu; Zhang, Dong; Xia, Rong-Min
2011-08-01
An acoustic dipole radiation model for magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is proposed, based on the analyses of one-dimensional tissue vibration, three-dimensional acoustic dipole radiation and acoustic waveform detection with a planar piston transducer. The collected waveforms provide information about the conductivity boundaries in various vibration intensities and phases due to the acoustic dipole radiation pattern. Combined with the simplified back projection algorithm, the conductivity configuration of the measured layer in terms of shape and size can be reconstructed with obvious border stripes. The numerical simulation is performed for a two-layer cylindrical phantom model and it is also verified by the experimental results of MAT-MI for a tissue-like sample phantom. The proposed model suggests a potential application of conductivity differentiation and provides a universal basis for the further study of conductivity reconstruction for MAT-MI.
Polarization-dependent photon switch in a one-dimensional coupled-resonator waveguide.
Zhang, Zhe-Yong; Dong, Yu-Li; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Zhu, Shi-Qun
2013-09-09
Polarization-dependent photon switch is one of the most important ingredients in building future large-scale all-optical quantum network. We present a scheme for a single-photon switch in a one-dimensional coupled-resonator waveguide, where N(a) Λ-type three-level atoms are individually embedded in each of the resonator. By tuning the interaction between atom and field, we show that an initial incident photon with a certain polarization can be transformed into its orthogonal polarization state. Finally, we use the fidelity as a figure of merit and numerically evaluate the performance of our photon switch scheme in varieties of system parameters, such as number of atoms, energy detuning and dipole couplings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Karin; Ogura, Daisuke; Kuroki, Kazuhiko
2018-01-01
We study superconductivity in the Hubbard model on various quasi-one-dimensional lattices with coexisting wide and narrow bands originating from multiple sites within a unit cell, where each site corresponds to a single orbital. The systems studied are the two-leg and three-leg ladders, the diamond chain, and the crisscross ladder. These one-dimensional lattices are weakly coupled to form two-dimensional (quasi-one-dimensional) ones, and the fluctuation exchange approximation is adopted to study spin-fluctuation-mediated superconductivity. When one of the bands is perfectly flat and the Fermi level intersecting the wide band is placed in the vicinity of, but not within, the flat band, superconductivity arising from the interband scattering processes is found to be strongly enhanced owing to the combination of the light electron mass of the wide band and the strong pairing interaction due to the large density of states of the flat band. Even when the narrow band has finite bandwidth, the pairing mechanism still works since the edge of the narrow band, due to its large density of states, plays the role of the flat band. The results indicate the wide applicability of the high-Tc pairing mechanism due to coexisting wide and "incipient" narrow bands in quasi-one-dimensional systems.
Exploring photonic topological insulator states in a circuit-QED lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jing-Ling; Shan, Chuan-Jia; Zhao, Feng
2018-04-01
We propose a simple protocol to explore the topological properties of photonic integer quantum Hall states in a one-dimensional circiut-QED lattice. By periodically modulating the on-site photonic energies in such a lattice, we demonstrate that this one-dimensional lattice model can be mapped into a two-dimensional integer quantum Hall insulator model. Based on the lattice-based cavity input-output theory, we show that both the photonic topological protected edge states and topological invariants can be clearly measured from the final steady state of the resonator lattice after taking into account cavity dissipation. Interestingly, we also find that the measurement signals associated with the above topological features are quite unambitious even in five coupled dissipative resonators. Our work opens up a new prospect of exploring topological states with a small-size dissipative quantum artificial lattice, which is quite attractive to the current quantum optics community.
Cai, Xiaoming; Lang, Li-Jun; Chen, Shu; Wang, Yupeng
2013-04-26
We study the competition of disorder and superconductivity for a one-dimensional p-wave superconductor in incommensurate potentials. With the increase in the strength of the incommensurate potential, the system undergoes a transition from a topological superconducting phase to a topologically trivial localized phase. The phase boundary is determined both numerically and analytically from various aspects and the topological superconducting phase is characterized by the presence of Majorana edge fermions in the system with open boundary conditions. We also calculate the topological Z2 invariant of the bulk system and find it can be used to distinguish the different topological phases even for a disordered system.
Higher first Chern numbers in one-dimensional Bose-Fermi mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knakkergaard Nielsen, Kristian; Wu, Zhigang; Bruun, G. M.
2018-02-01
We propose to use a one-dimensional system consisting of identical fermions in a periodically driven lattice immersed in a Bose gas, to realise topological superfluid phases with Chern numbers larger than 1. The bosons mediate an attractive induced interaction between the fermions, and we derive a simple formula to analyse the topological properties of the resulting pairing. When the coherence length of the bosons is large compared to the lattice spacing and there is a significant next-nearest neighbour hopping for the fermions, the system can realise a superfluid with Chern number ±2. We show that this phase is stable in a large region of the phase diagram as a function of the filling fraction of the fermions and the coherence length of the bosons. Cold atomic gases offer the possibility to realise the proposed system using well-known experimental techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Celis, A.; Nair, M. N.; Sicot, M.; Nicolas, F.; Kubsky, S.; Malterre, D.; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A.; Tejeda, A.
2018-05-01
We have studied the influence of one-dimensional periodic nanostructured substrates on graphene band structure. One-monolayer-thick graphene is extremely sensitive to periodic terrace arrays, as demonstrated on two different nanostructured substrates, namely Ir(332) and multivicinal curved Pt(111). Photoemission shows the presence of minigaps related to the spatial periodicity. The potential barrier strength of the one-dimensional periodic nanostructuration can be tailored with the step-edge type and the nature of the substrate. The minigap opening further demonstrates the presence of backward scattered electronic waves on the surface and the absence of Klein tunneling on the substrate, probably due to the fast variation of the potential, of a spatial extent of the order of the lattice parameter of graphene.
Dynamics of a Two-Dimensional System of Quantum Dipoles
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Mazzanti, F.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Boronat, J.
2009-03-20
A detailed microscopic analysis of the dynamic structure function S(k,{omega}) of a two-dimensional Bose system of dipoles polarized along the direction perpendicular to the plane is presented and discussed. Starting from ground-state quantities obtained using a quantum diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm, the density-density response is evaluated in the context of the correlated basis functions (CBF) theory. CBF predicts a sharp peak and a multiexcitation component at higher energies produced by the decay of excitations. We discuss the structure of the phonon-roton peak and show that the Feynman and Bogoliubov predictions depart from the CBF result already at low densities. Wemore » finally discuss the emergence of a roton in the spectrum, but find the roton energy not low enough to make the system unstable under density fluctuations up to the highest density considered that is close to the freezing point.« less
Exciton Polaritons in a Two-Dimensional Lieb Lattice with Spin-Orbit Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whittaker, C. E.; Cancellieri, E.; Walker, P. M.; Gulevich, D. R.; Schomerus, H.; Vaitiekus, D.; Royall, B.; Whittaker, D. M.; Clarke, E.; Iorsh, I. V.; Shelykh, I. A.; Skolnick, M. S.; Krizhanovskii, D. N.
2018-03-01
We study exciton polaritons in a two-dimensional Lieb lattice of micropillars. The energy spectrum of the system features two flat bands formed from S and Px ,y photonic orbitals, into which we trigger bosonic condensation under high power excitation. The symmetry of the orbital wave functions combined with photonic spin-orbit coupling gives rise to emission patterns with pseudospin texture in the flat band condensates. Our Letter shows the potential of polariton lattices for emulating flat band Hamiltonians with spin-orbit coupling, orbital degrees of freedom, and interactions.
Exciton Polaritons in a Two-Dimensional Lieb Lattice with Spin-Orbit Coupling.
Whittaker, C E; Cancellieri, E; Walker, P M; Gulevich, D R; Schomerus, H; Vaitiekus, D; Royall, B; Whittaker, D M; Clarke, E; Iorsh, I V; Shelykh, I A; Skolnick, M S; Krizhanovskii, D N
2018-03-02
We study exciton polaritons in a two-dimensional Lieb lattice of micropillars. The energy spectrum of the system features two flat bands formed from S and P_{x,y} photonic orbitals, into which we trigger bosonic condensation under high power excitation. The symmetry of the orbital wave functions combined with photonic spin-orbit coupling gives rise to emission patterns with pseudospin texture in the flat band condensates. Our Letter shows the potential of polariton lattices for emulating flat band Hamiltonians with spin-orbit coupling, orbital degrees of freedom, and interactions.
Phase diagrams for an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game on two-dimensional lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szabó, György; Vukov, Jeromos; Szolnoki, Attila
2005-10-01
The effects of payoffs and noise on the maintenance of cooperative behavior are studied in an evolutionary prisoner’s dilemma game with players located on the sites of different two-dimensional lattices. This system exhibits a phase transition from a mixed state of cooperators and defectors to a homogeneous one where only the defectors remain alive. Using Monte Carlo simulations and the generalized mean-field approximations we have determined the phase boundaries (critical points) separating the two phases on the plane of the temperature (noise) and temptation to choose defection. In the zero temperature limit the cooperation can be sustained only for those connectivity structures where three-site clique percolation occurs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamaguchi, Hironori; Tamekuni, Yusuke; Iwasaki, Yoshiki; Otsuka, Rei; Hosokoshi, Yuko; Kida, Takanori; Hagiwara, Masayuki
2017-06-01
We successfully synthesize single crystals of the verdazyl radical α -2 ,3 ,5 -Cl3 -V. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations indicate that the two dominant antiferromagnetic interactions, J1 and J2 (α =J2/J1≃0.56 ), form an S =1 /2 distorted square lattice. We explain the magnetic properties based on the S =1 /2 square lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet using the quantum Monte Carlo method, and examine the effects of the lattice distortion and the interplane interaction contribution. In the low-temperature regions below 6.4 K, we observe anisotropic magnetic behavior accompanied by a phase transition to a magnetically ordered state. The electron spin resonance signals exhibit anisotropic behavior in the temperature dependence of the resonance field and the linewidth. We explain the frequency dependence of the resonance fields in the ordered phase using a mean-field approximation with out-of-plane easy-axis anisotropy, which causes a spin-flop phase transition at approximately 0.4 T for the field perpendicular to the plane. Furthermore, the anisotropic dipole field provides supporting information regarding the presence of the easy-axis anisotropy. These results demonstrate that the lattice distortion, anisotropy, and interplane interaction of this model are sufficiently small that they do not affect the intrinsic behavior of the S =1 /2 square lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet.
Finite-momentum Bose-Einstein condensates in shaken two-dimensional square optical lattices
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Di Liberto, M.; Scuola Superiore di Catania, Universita di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 9, I-95123 Catania; Tieleman, O.
2011-07-15
We consider ultracold bosons in a two-dimensional square optical lattice described by the Bose-Hubbard model. In addition, an external time-dependent sinusoidal force is applied to the system, which shakes the lattice along one of the diagonals. The effect of the shaking is to renormalize the nearest-neighbor-hopping coefficients, which can be arbitrarily reduced, can vanish, or can even change sign, depending on the shaking parameter. Therefore, it is necessary to account for higher-order-hopping terms, which are renormalized differently by the shaking, and to introduce anisotropy into the problem. We show that the competition between these different hopping terms leads to finite-momentummore » condensates with a momentum that may be tuned via the strength of the shaking. We calculate the boundaries between the Mott insulator and the different superfluid phases and present the time-of-flight images expected to be observed experimentally. Our results open up possibilities for the realization of bosonic analogs of the Fulde, Ferrel, Larkin, and Ovchinnikov phase describing inhomogeneous superconductivity.« less
Mode-coupling of interaction quenched ultracold bosons in periodically driven lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mistakidis, Simeon; Schmelcher, Peter
2016-05-01
The out-of-equilibrium dynamics of interaction quenched finite ultracold bosonic ensembles in periodically driven one-dimensional optical lattices is investigated. As a first attempt a brief analysis of the dynamics caused exclusively by the periodically driven lattice is presented and the induced low-lying modes are introduced. It is shown that the periodic driving enforces the bosons in the outer wells to exhibit out-of-phase dipole-like modes, while in the central well the cloud experiences a local-breathing mode. The dynamical behavior of the system is investigated with respect to the driving frequency, revealing a resonant-like behavior of the intra-well dynamics. Subsequently, we drive the system to a highly non-equilibrium state by performing an interaction quench upon the periodically driven lattice. This protocol gives rise to admixtures of excitations in the outer wells, an enhanced breathing in the center and an amplification of the tunneling dynamics. As a result (of the quench) the system experiences multiple resonances between the inter- and intra-well dynamics at different quench amplitudes. Finally, our study reveals that the position of the resonances can be adjusted e.g. via the driving frequency or the atom number manifesting their many-body nature. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scerrato, Daria; Giorgio, Ivan; Rizzi, Nicola Luigi
2016-06-01
In this paper, we determine numerically a large class of equilibrium configurations of an elastic two-dimensional continuous pantographic sheet in three-dimensional deformation consisting of two families of fibers which are parabolic prior to deformation. The fibers are assumed (1) to be continuously distributed over the sample, (2) to be endowed of bending and torsional stiffnesses, and (3) tied together at their points of intersection to avoid relative slipping by means of internal (elastic) pivots. This last condition characterizes the system as a pantographic lattice (Alibert and Della Corte in Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik 66(5):2855-2870, 2015; Alibert et al. in Math Mech Solids 8(1):51-73, 2003; dell'Isola et al. in Int J Non-Linear Mech 80:200-208, 2016; Int J Solids Struct 81:1-12, 2016). The model that we employ here, developed by Steigmann and dell'Isola (Acta Mech Sin 31(3):373-382, 2015) and first investigated in Giorgio et al. (Comptes rendus Mecanique 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.crme.2016.02.009), is applicable to fiber lattices in which three-dimensional bending, twisting, and stretching are significant as well as a resistance to shear distortion, i.e., to the angle change between the fibers. Some relevant numerical examples are exhibited in order to highlight the main features of the model adopted: In particular, buckling and post-buckling behaviors of pantographic parabolic lattices are investigated. The fabric of the metamaterial presented in this paper has been conceived to resist more effectively in the extensional bias tests by storing more elastic bending energy and less energy in the deformation of elastic pivots: A comparison with a fabric constituted by beams which are straight in the reference configuration shows that the proposed concept is promising.
Matter-wave two-dimensional solitons in crossed linear and nonlinear optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Luz, H. L. F.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Gammal, A.; Salerno, M.; Tomio, Lauro
2010-10-01
The existence of multidimensional matter-wave solitons in a crossed optical lattice (OL) with a linear optical lattice (LOL) in the x direction and a nonlinear optical lattice (NOL) in the y direction, where the NOL can be generated by a periodic spatial modulation of the scattering length using an optically induced Feshbach resonance is demonstrated. In particular, we show that such crossed LOLs and NOLs allow for stabilizing two-dimensional solitons against decay or collapse for both attractive and repulsive interactions. The solutions for the soliton stability are investigated analytically, by using a multi-Gaussian variational approach, with the Vakhitov-Kolokolov necessary criterion for stability; and numerically, by using the relaxation method and direct numerical time integrations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Very good agreement of the results corresponding to both treatments is observed.
Felker, Peter M; Bačić, Zlatko
2017-02-28
We report on variational solutions to the twelve-dimensional (12D) Schrödinger equation appertaining to the translation-rotation (TR) eigenstates of H 2 O@C 60 dimer, associated with the quantized "rattling" motions of the two encapsulated H 2 O molecules. Both H 2 O and C 60 moieties are treated as rigid and the cage-cage geometry is taken to be fixed. We consider the TR eigenstates of H 2 O@C 60 monomers in the dimer to be coupled by the electric dipole-dipole interaction between water moieties and develop expressions for computing the matrix elements of that interaction in a dimer basis composed of products of monomer 6D TR eigenstates reported by us recently [P. M. Felker and Z. Bačić, J. Chem. Phys. 144, 201101 (2016)]. We use these expressions to compute TR Hamiltonian matrices of H 2 O@C 60 dimer for two values of the water dipole moment and for various dimer geometries. 12D TR eigenstates of the dimer are then obtained by filter diagonalization. The results reveal two classes of eigenstates, distinguished by the leading order (first or second) at which dipole-dipole coupling contributes to them. The two types of eigenstates differ in the general magnitude of their dipole-induced energy shifts and in the dependence of those shifts on the value of the water dipole moment and on the distance between the H 2 O@C 60 monomers. The dimer results are also found to be markedly insensitive to any change in the orientations of the C 60 cages. Finally, the results lend some support for the interpretation that electric dipole-dipole coupling is at least partially responsible for the apparent reduced-symmetry environment experienced by H 2 O in the powder samples of H 2 O@C 60 [K. S. K. Goh et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 21330 (2014)], but only if the water dipole is taken to have a magnitude close to that of free water. The methodology developed in the paper is transferable directly to the calculation of TR eigenstates of larger H 2 O@C 60 assemblies, that will
Realization of discrete quantum billiards in a two-dimensional optical lattice
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Krimer, Dmitry O.; Max-Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden; Khomeriki, Ramaz
2011-10-15
We propose a method for optical visualization of the Bose-Hubbard model with two interacting bosons in the form of two-dimensional (2D) optical lattices consisting of optical waveguides, where the waveguides at the diagonal are characterized by different refractive indices than others elsewhere, modeling the boson-boson interaction. We study the light intensity distribution function averaged over the direction of propagation for both ordered and disordered cases, exploring the sensitivity of the averaged picture with respect to the beam injection position. For our finite systems, the resulting patterns are reminiscent the ones set in billiards, and therefore we introduce a definition ofmore » discrete quantum billiards and discuss the possible relevance to its well-established continuous counterpart.« less
Two-dimensional chiral topological superconductivity in Shiba lattices
Li, Jian; Neupert, Titus; Wang, Zhijun; MacDonald, A. H.; Yazdani, A.; Bernevig, B. Andrei
2016-01-01
The chiral p-wave superconductor is the archetypal example of a state of matter that supports non-Abelian anyons, a highly desired type of exotic quasiparticle. With this, it is foundational for the distant goal of building a topological quantum computer. While some candidate materials for bulk chiral superconductors exist, they are subject of an ongoing debate about their actual paring state. Here we propose an alternative route to chiral superconductivity, consisting of the surface of an ordinary superconductor decorated with a two-dimensional lattice of magnetic impurities. We furthermore identify a promising experimental platform to realize this proposal. PMID:27465127
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Hossain, S. Minhaz
2008-12-01
We analyze the lattice equation of motion involving terms up to third order in lattice displacement. The phenomenological arguments suggest that the force constant D1 of the quadratic term must always be positive and the force constant B1 of the cubic term may take either positive or negative value. The criterion for stability of the lattice provides constraint on the relative magnitudes of the three force constants. We solve the equation of motion using root mean-square spatial fluctuation approximation and obtain the seminonperturbative dispersion relation both for positive and negative B1 . The nature of phonon density of states curves for positive B1 show some close resemblance with the experimental observations. At very low temperature, the specific heat of this system to leading order in large positive B1 varies as square root of temperature and it obeys Debye’s T law in one dimension for small negative B1 . At very high temperature, the specific heat may fall below or above its classical value depending on the relative magnitudes of B1 and D1 for B1>0 and it always falls above its classical value for B1<0 . The lattice model with positive B1 emerges as a good candidate for description of a monoatomic crystal.
Discrete breathers in a two-dimensional hexagonal Fermi Pasta Ulam lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butt, Imran A.; Wattis, Jonathan A. D.
2007-02-01
We consider a two-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) lattice with hexagonal symmetry. Using asymptotic methods based on small amplitude ansatz, at third order we obtain a reduction to a cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) for the breather envelope. However, this does not support stable soliton solutions, so we pursue a higher order analysis yielding a generalized NLS, which includes known stabilizing terms. We present numerical results which suggest that long-lived stationary and moving breathers are supported by the lattice. We find breather solutions which move in an arbitrary direction, an ellipticity criterion for the wavenumbers of the carrier wave, asymptotic estimates for the breather energy, and a minimum threshold energy below which breathers cannot be found. This energy threshold is maximized for stationary breathers and becomes vanishingly small near the boundary of the elliptic domain where breathers attain a maximum speed. Several of the results obtained are similar to those obtained for the square FPU lattice (Butt and Wattis 2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 4955), though we find that the square and hexagonal lattices exhibit different properties in regard to the generation of harmonics, and the isotropy of the generalized NLS equation.
Micrometer-scale fabrication of complex three dimensional lattice + basis structures in silicon
Burckel, D. Bruce; Resnick, Paul J.; Finnegan, Patrick S.; ...
2015-01-01
A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible version of membrane projection lithography (MPL) for fabrication of micrometer-scale three-dimensional structures is presented. The approach uses all inorganic materials and standard CMOS processing equipment. In a single layer, MPL is capable of creating all 5 2D-Bravais lattices. Furthermore, standard semiconductor processing steps can be used in a layer-by-layer approach to create fully three dimensional structures with any of the 14 3D-Bravais lattices. The unit cell basis is determined by the projection of the membrane pattern, with many degrees of freedom for defining functional inclusions. Here we demonstrate several unique structural motifs, andmore » characterize 2D arrays of unit cells with split ring resonators in a silicon matrix. The structures exhibit strong polarization dependent resonances and, for properly oriented split ring resonators (SRRs), coupling to the magnetic field of a normally incident transverse electromagnetic wave, a response unique to 3D inclusions.« less
Cooper pair induced frustration and nematicity of two-dimensional magnetic adatom lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schecter, Michael; Syljuâsen, Olav F.; Paaske, Jens
2018-05-01
We propose utilizing the Cooper pair to induce magnetic frustration in systems of two-dimensional (2D) magnetic adatom lattices on s -wave superconducting surfaces. The competition between singlet electron correlations and the RKKY coupling is shown to lead to a variety of hidden-order states that break the point-group symmetry of the 2D adatom lattice at finite temperature. The phase diagram is constructed using a newly developed effective bond theory [M. Schecter et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 157202 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.157202], and exhibits broad regions of long-range vestigial nematic order.
Ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces of the F(-)(H2O) complex.
Kamarchik, Eugene; Toffoli, Daniele; Christiansen, Ove; Bowman, Joel M
2014-02-05
We present full-dimensional, ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for the F(-)(H2O) complex. The potential surface is a permutationally invariant fit to 16,114 coupled-cluster single double (triple)/aVTZ energies, while the dipole surface is a covariant fit to 11,395 CCSD(T)/aVTZ dipole moments. Vibrational self-consistent field/vibrational configuration interaction (VSCF/VCI) calculations of energies and the IR-spectrum are presented both for F(-)(H2O) and for the deuterated analog, F(-)(D2O). A one-dimensional calculation of the splitting of the ground state, due to equivalent double-well global minima, is also reported. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tamm-plasmon polaritons in one-dimensional photonic quasi-crystals.
Shukla, Mukesh Kumar; Das, Ritwick
2018-02-01
We present an investigation to ascertain the existence of Tamm-plasmon-polariton-like modes in one-dimensional (1D) quasi-periodic photonic systems. Photonic bandgap formation in quasi-crystals is essentially a consequence of long-range periodicity exhibited by multilayers and, thus, it can be explained using the dispersion relation in the Brillouin zone. Defining a "Zak"-like topological phase in 1D quasi-crystals, we propose a recipe to ascertain the existence of Tamm-like photonic surface modes in a metal-terminated quasi-crystal lattice. Additionally, we also explore the conditions of efficient excitation of such surface modes along with their dispersion characteristics.
One-Dimensionality and Whiteness
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Calderon, Dolores
2006-01-01
This article is a theoretical discussion that links Marcuse's concept of one-dimensional society and the Great Refusal with critical race theory in order to achieve a more robust interrogation of whiteness. The author argues that in the context of the United States, the one-dimensionality that Marcuse condemns in "One-Dimensional Man" is best…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sánchez, A.; Guerra, K. Y.; Porta, A. V.; Orozco, S.
2018-02-01
The opto-fluidics systems can be used for label free refractometric and biosensensing applications. In this work transmission properties of one-dimensional polycarbonate-liquid photonic arrays are studied, where methanol and ethanol were proposed as liquid components. The band structure and the transmission spectrum were calculated using the transference matrix method, in which we consider the dispersion relation for the refractive index n(w) of each material in the visible range. Using lattice parameters of 1 µm, 10 µm, and 4 µm, we obtained forbidden bandgaps in the visible region. When lattice parameters of 1000 µm were considered, we obtained several narrow bandgaps in the visible range.
Magnetic dipole interactions in crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnston, David C.
2016-01-01
The influence of magnetic dipole interactions (MDIs) on the magnetic properties of local-moment Heisenberg spin systems is investigated. A general formulation is presented for calculating the eigenvalues λ and eigenvectors μ ̂ of the MDI tensor of the magnetic dipoles in a line (one dimension, 1D), within a circle (2D) or a sphere (3D) of radius r surrounding a given moment μ⃗i for given magnetic propagation vectors k for collinear and coplanar noncollinear magnetic structures on both Bravais and non-Bravais spin lattices. Results are calculated for collinear ordering on 1D chains, 2D square and simple-hexagonal (triangular) Bravais lattices, 2D honeycomb and kagomé non-Bravais lattices, and 3D cubic Bravais lattices. The λ and μ ̂ values are compared with previously reported results. Calculations for collinear ordering on 3D simple tetragonal, body-centered tetragonal, and stacked triangular and honeycomb lattices are presented for c /a ratios from 0.5 to 3 in both graphical and tabular form to facilitate comparison of experimentally determined easy axes of ordering on these Bravais lattices with the predictions for MDIs. Comparisons with the easy axes measured for several illustrative collinear antiferromagnets (AFMs) are given. The calculations are extended to the cycloidal noncollinear 120∘ AFM ordering on the triangular lattice where λ is found to be the same as for collinear AFM ordering with the same k. The angular orientation of the ordered moments in the noncollinear coplanar AFM structure of GdB4 with a distorted stacked 3D Shastry-Sutherland spin-lattice geometry is calculated and found to be in disagreement with experimental observations, indicating the presence of another source of anisotropy. Similar calculations for the undistorted 2D and stacked 3D Shastry-Sutherland lattices are reported. The thermodynamics of dipolar magnets are calculated using the Weiss molecular field theory for quantum spins, including the magnetic transition
Magnetic dipole interactions in crystals
Johnston, David
2016-01-13
The influence of magnetic dipole interactions (MDIs) on the magnetic properties of local-moment Heisenberg spin systems is investigated. A general formulation is presented for calculating the eigenvalues λ and eigenvectors μ ˆ of the MDI tensor of the magnetic dipoles in a line (one dimension, 1D), within a circle (2D) or a sphere (3D) of radius r surrounding a given moment μ → i for given magnetic propagation vectors k for collinear and coplanar noncollinear magnetic structures on both Bravais and non-Bravais spin lattices. Results are calculated for collinear ordering on 1D chains, 2D square and simple-hexagonal (triangular) Bravaismore » lattices, 2D honeycomb and kagomé non-Bravais lattices, and 3D cubic Bravais lattices. The λ and μ ˆ values are compared with previously reported results. Calculations for collinear ordering on 3D simple tetragonal, body-centered tetragonal, and stacked triangular and honeycomb lattices are presented for c/a ratios from 0.5 to 3 in both graphical and tabular form to facilitate comparison of experimentally determined easy axes of ordering on these Bravais lattices with the predictions for MDIs. Comparisons with the easy axes measured for several illustrative collinear antiferromagnets (AFMs) are given. The calculations are extended to the cycloidal noncollinear 120 ° AFM ordering on the triangular lattice where λ is found to be the same as for collinear AFM ordering with the same k. The angular orientation of the ordered moments in the noncollinear coplanar AFM structure of GdB 4 with a distorted stacked 3D Shastry-Sutherland spin-lattice geometry is calculated and found to be in disagreement with experimental observations, indicating the presence of another source of anisotropy. Similar calculations for the undistorted 2D and stacked 3D Shastry-Sutherland lattices are reported. The thermodynamics of dipolar magnets are calculated using the Weiss molecular field theory for quantum spins, including the magnetic
Multilayer DNA origami packed on hexagonal and hybrid lattices.
Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels V; Gothelf, Kurt V; Shih, William M
2012-01-25
"Scaffolded DNA origami" has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry. Here we report successful folding of multilayer DNA origami with helices arranged on a close-packed hexagonal lattice. This arrangement yields a higher density of helical packing and therefore higher resolution of spatial addressing than has been shown previously. We also demonstrate hybrid multilayer DNA origami with honeycomb-lattice, square-lattice, and hexagonal-lattice packing of helices all in one design. The availability of hexagonal close-packing of helices extends our ability to build complex structures using DNA nanotechnology. © 2011 American Chemical Society
Coupling effect of topological states and Chern insulators in two-dimensional triangular lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jiayong; Zhao, Bao; Xue, Yang; Zhou, Tong; Yang, Zhongqin
2018-03-01
We investigate topological states of two-dimensional (2D) triangular lattices with multiorbitals. Tight-binding model calculations of a 2D triangular lattice based on px and py orbitals exhibit very interesting doubly degenerate energy points at different positions (Γ and K /K' ) in momentum space, with quadratic non-Dirac and linear Dirac band dispersions, respectively. Counterintuitively, the system shows a global topologically trivial rather than nontrivial state with consideration of spin-orbit coupling due to the "destructive interference effect" between the topological states at the Γ and K /K' points. The topologically nontrivial state can emerge by introducing another set of triangular lattices to the system (bitriangular lattices) due to the breakdown of the interference effect. With first-principles calculations, we predict an intrinsic Chern insulating behavior (quantum anomalous Hall effect) in a family of the 2D triangular lattice metal-organic framework of Co(C21N3H15) (TPyB-Co) from this scheme. Our results provide a different path and theoretical guidance for the search for and design of new 2D topological quantum materials.
Universal thermodynamics of the one-dimensional attractive Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Song; Yu, Yi-Cong; Batchelor, M. T.; Guan, Xi-Wen
2018-03-01
The one-dimensional (1D) Hubbard model, describing electrons on a lattice with an on-site repulsive interaction, provides a paradigm for the physics of quantum many-body phenomena. Here, by solving the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equations, we study the universal thermodynamics, quantum criticality, and magnetism of the 1D attractive Hubbard model. We show that the compressibility and the susceptibility of the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO)-like state obey simple additivity rules at low temperatures, indicating an existence of two free quantum fluids. The magnetic properties, such as magnetization and susceptibility, reveal three physical regions: quantum fluids at low temperatures, a non-Fermi liquid at high temperatures, and the quantum fluid to non-Fermi liquid crossover in between. The lattice interaction is seen to significantly influence the nature of the FFLO-like state in 1D. Furthermore, we show that the dimensionless Wilson ratio provides an ideal parameter to map out the various phase boundaries and to characterize the two free fluids of the FLLO-like state. The quantum scaling functions for the thermal and magnetic properties yield the same dynamic critical exponent z =2 and correlation critical exponent ν =1 /2 in the quantum critical region whenever a phase transition occurs. Our results provide a rigorous understanding of quantum criticality and free fluids of many-body systems on a 1D lattice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Zeyang; Nha, Hyunchul; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2016-11-01
We develop a general dynamical theory for studying a single-photon transport in a one-dimensional (1D) waveguide coupled to multiple emitters which can be either identical or nonidentical. In this theory, both the effects of the waveguide and non-waveguide vacuum modes are included. This theory enables us to investigate the propagation of an emitter excitation or an arbitrary single-photon pulse along an array of emitters coupled to a 1D waveguide. The dipole-dipole interaction induced by the non-waveguide modes, which is usually neglected in the literature, can significantly modify the dynamics of the emitter system as well as the characteristics of the output field if the emitter separation is much smaller than the resonance wavelength. Nonidentical emitters can also strongly couple to each other if their energy difference is less than or of the order of the dipole-dipole energy shift. Interestingly, if their energy difference is close but nonzero, a very narrow transparency window around the resonance frequency can appear which does not occur for identical emitters. This phenomenon may find important applications in quantum waveguide devices such as optical switches and ultranarrow single-photon frequency comb generator.
Qu, Chen; Bowman, Joel M
2018-05-17
We report quantum VSCF/VCI and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) calculations of the IR spectra of (HCOOH) 2 and (DCOOH) 2 , using full-dimensional, ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces (PES and DMS). These surfaces are fits, using permutationally invariant polynomials, to 13 475 ab initio CCSD(T)-F12a electronic energies and MP2 dipole moments. Here "AIMD" means using these ab initio potential and dipole moment surfaces in the MD calculations. The VSCF/VCI calculations use all (24) normal modes for coupling, with a four-mode representation of the potential. The quantum spectra align well with jet-cooled and room-temperature experimental spectra over the spectral range 600-3600 cm -1 . Analyses of the complex O-H and C-H stretch bands are made based on the mixing of the VSCF/VCI basis functions. The comparisons of the AIMD IR spectra with both experimental and VSCF/VCI ones provide tests of the accuracy of the AIMD approach. These indicate good accuracy for simple bands but not for the complex O-H stretch band, which is upshifted from experimental and VSCF/VCI bands by roughly 300 cm -1 . In addition to testing the AIMD approach, the PES, DMS, and VSCF/VCI calculations for formic acid dimer provide opportunities for testing other methods to represent high-dimensional data and other methods that perform postharmonic vibrational calculations.
Fu, Wei; Nijhoff, Frank W
2017-07-01
A unified framework is presented for the solution structure of three-dimensional discrete integrable systems, including the lattice AKP, BKP and CKP equations. This is done through the so-called direct linearizing transform, which establishes a general class of integral transforms between solutions. As a particular application, novel soliton-type solutions for the lattice CKP equation are obtained.
Quantum search algorithms on a regular lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hein, Birgit; Tanner, Gregor
2010-07-01
Quantum algorithms for searching for one or more marked items on a d-dimensional lattice provide an extension of Grover’s search algorithm including a spatial component. We demonstrate that these lattice search algorithms can be viewed in terms of the level dynamics near an avoided crossing of a one-parameter family of quantum random walks. We give approximations for both the level splitting at the avoided crossing and the effectively two-dimensional subspace of the full Hilbert space spanning the level crossing. This makes it possible to give the leading order behavior for the search time and the localization probability in the limit of large lattice size including the leading order coefficients. For d=2 and d=3, these coefficients are calculated explicitly. Closed form expressions are given for higher dimensions.
Finite-size scaling of clique percolation on two-dimensional Moore lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Jia-Qi; Shen, Zhou; Zhang, Yongwen; Huang, Zi-Gang; Huang, Liang; Chen, Xiaosong
2018-05-01
Clique percolation has attracted much attention due to its significance in understanding topological overlap among communities and dynamical instability of structured systems. Rich critical behavior has been observed in clique percolation on Erdős-Rényi (ER) random graphs, but few works have discussed clique percolation on finite dimensional systems. In this paper, we have defined a series of characteristic events, i.e., the historically largest size jumps of the clusters, in the percolating process of adding bonds and developed a new finite-size scaling scheme based on the interval of the characteristic events. Through the finite-size scaling analysis, we have found, interestingly, that, in contrast to the clique percolation on an ER graph where the critical exponents are parameter dependent, the two-dimensional (2D) clique percolation simply shares the same critical exponents with traditional site or bond percolation, independent of the clique percolation parameters. This has been corroborated by bridging two special types of clique percolation to site percolation on 2D lattices. Mechanisms for the difference of the critical behaviors between clique percolation on ER graphs and on 2D lattices are also discussed.
Photonic band structures in one-dimensional photonic crystals containing Dirac materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lin; Wang, Li-Gang
2015-09-01
We have investigated the band structures of one-dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs) composed of Dirac materials and ordinary dielectric media. It is found that there exist an omnidirectional passing band and a kind of special band, which result from the interaction of the evanescent and propagating waves. Due to the interface effect and strong dispersion, the electromagnetic fields inside the special bands are strongly enhanced. It is also shown that the properties of these bands are invariant upon the lattice constant but sensitive to the resonant conditions.
Self-dual phase space for (3 +1 )-dimensional lattice Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riello, Aldo
2018-01-01
I propose a self-dual deformation of the classical phase space of lattice Yang-Mills theory, in which both the electric and magnetic fluxes take value in the compact gauge Lie group. A local construction of the deformed phase space requires the machinery of "quasi-Hamiltonian spaces" by Alekseev et al., which is reviewed here. The results is a full-fledged finite-dimensional and gauge-invariant phase space, the self-duality properties of which are largely enhanced in (3 +1 ) spacetime dimensions. This enhancement is due to a correspondence with the moduli space of an auxiliary noncommutative flat connection living on a Riemann surface defined from the lattice itself, which in turn equips the duality between electric and magnetic fluxes with a neat geometrical interpretation in terms of a Heegaard splitting of the space manifold. Finally, I discuss the consequences of the proposed deformation on the quantization of the phase space, its quantum gravitational interpretation, as well as its relevance for the construction of (3 +1 )-dimensional topological field theories with defects.
Ising antiferromagnet on the Archimedean lattices.
Yu, Unjong
2015-06-01
Geometric frustration effects were studied systematically with the Ising antiferromagnet on the 11 Archimedean lattices using the Monte Carlo methods. The Wang-Landau algorithm for static properties (specific heat and residual entropy) and the Metropolis algorithm for a freezing order parameter were adopted. The exact residual entropy was also found. Based on the degree of frustration and dynamic properties, ground states of them were determined. The Shastry-Sutherland lattice and the trellis lattice are weakly frustrated and have two- and one-dimensional long-range-ordered ground states, respectively. The bounce, maple-leaf, and star lattices have the spin ice phase. The spin liquid phase appears in the triangular and kagome lattices.
Ising antiferromagnet on the Archimedean lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Unjong
2015-06-01
Geometric frustration effects were studied systematically with the Ising antiferromagnet on the 11 Archimedean lattices using the Monte Carlo methods. The Wang-Landau algorithm for static properties (specific heat and residual entropy) and the Metropolis algorithm for a freezing order parameter were adopted. The exact residual entropy was also found. Based on the degree of frustration and dynamic properties, ground states of them were determined. The Shastry-Sutherland lattice and the trellis lattice are weakly frustrated and have two- and one-dimensional long-range-ordered ground states, respectively. The bounce, maple-leaf, and star lattices have the spin ice phase. The spin liquid phase appears in the triangular and kagome lattices.
Hydration of an apolar solute in a two-dimensional waterlike lattice fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buzano, C.; de Stefanis, E.; Pretti, M.
2005-05-01
In a previous work, we investigated a two-dimensional lattice-fluid model, displaying some waterlike thermodynamic anomalies. The model, defined on a triangular lattice, is now extended to aqueous solutions with apolar species. Water molecules are of the “Mercedes Benz” type, i.e., they possess a D3 (equilateral triangle) symmetry, with three equivalent bonding arms. Bond formation depends both on orientation and local density. The insertion of inert molecules displays typical signatures of hydrophobic hydration: large positive transfer free energy, large negative transfer entropy (at low temperature), strong temperature dependence of the transfer enthalpy and entropy, i.e., large (positive) transfer heat capacity. Model properties are derived by a generalized first order approximation on a triangle cluster.
Hydration of an apolar solute in a two-dimensional waterlike lattice fluid.
Buzano, C; De Stefanis, E; Pretti, M
2005-05-01
In a previous work, we investigated a two-dimensional lattice-fluid model, displaying some waterlike thermodynamic anomalies. The model, defined on a triangular lattice, is now extended to aqueous solutions with apolar species. Water molecules are of the "Mercedes Benz" type, i.e., they possess a D3 (equilateral triangle) symmetry, with three equivalent bonding arms. Bond formation depends both on orientation and local density. The insertion of inert molecules displays typical signatures of hydrophobic hydration: large positive transfer free energy, large negative transfer entropy (at low temperature), strong temperature dependence of the transfer enthalpy and entropy, i.e., large (positive) transfer heat capacity. Model properties are derived by a generalized first order approximation on a triangle cluster.
Tunable spin-orbit coupling for ultracold atoms in two-dimensional optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grusdt, Fabian; Li, Tracy; Bloch, Immanuel; Demler, Eugene
2017-06-01
Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is at the heart of many exotic band structures and can give rise to many-body states with topological order. Here we present a general scheme based on a combination of microwave driving and lattice shaking for the realization of two-dimensional SOC with ultracold atoms in systems with inversion symmetry. We show that the strengths of Rashba and Dresselhaus SOC can be independently tuned in a spin-dependent square lattice. More generally, our method can be used to open gaps between different spin states without breaking time-reversal symmetry. We demonstrate that this allows for the realization of topological insulators with nontrivial spin textures closely related to the Kane-Mele model.
Quasi-One-Dimensional Ultracold Fermi Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Revelle, Melissa C.
Ultracold atoms have become an essential tool in studying condensed matter phenomena. The advantage of atomic physics experiments is that they provide an easily tunable system. This experiment uses the lowest two ground state hyperfine levels of fermionic lithium. Having two different states creates a pseudo-spin- 1/2 system and allows us to emulate electronic systems, such as superconductors and crystal lattices. In our experiment, we can control the ratio between these two states resulting in either a spin-balanced or a spin-imbalanced gas. Imposing an imbalance is analogous to applying a magnetic field to a superconductor which causes the electrons in the material to align to the field (thus breaking the electron pairs which cause superconductivity). This motivates us to understand the phases created when a spin-imbalance is created and the effect of changing the atomic interactions. In a 3D system, we find where superfluidity is suppressed throughout the BEC to BCS crossover. Using phase separation as a guide, we probe the dimensional crossover between 1D and 3D. The phase separation in 1D is inverted from that in 3D, which provides a unique characteristic to distinguish between the dimensions. By varying the tunneling between tubes and the atomic interactions in a 2D optical lattice, we control whether the system is 1D, 3D, or in between. Using the properties of a 3D gas as a guide, we directly observe when the gas has crossed over from being dominated by 1D-like behavior to 3D. In this way, we have found a universal value for the dimensional crossover. The 1D-3D crossover paves the way to search for the exotic FFLO (Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov) superconductor. While most superconductors do not coexist with magnetism, the FFLO phase requires large magnetic fields to support its pairing mechanism. Additionally, this phase is more likely to be found in lower dimensional systems. However, at low dimensions, the effect of temperature fluctuations on the phase
On Dipole Moment of Impurity Carbon Nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konobeeva, N. N.; Ten, A. V.; Belonenko, M. B.
2017-04-01
Propagation of a two-dimensional electromagnetic pulse in an array of semiconductor carbon nanotubes with impurities is investigated. The parameters of dipole moments of impurities are determined. The Maxwell equation and the equation of motion for dipole polarization are jointly solved. The dynamics of the electromagnetic pulse is examined as a function of the dipole moment. It is shown that taking polarization into account does not have a substantial effect on the propagation process, but alters the optical pulse shape.
Ideal Magnetic Dipole Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Tianhua; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Wei; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.
2017-04-01
We introduce the concept of tunable ideal magnetic dipole scattering, where a nonmagnetic nanoparticle scatters light as a pure magnetic dipole. High refractive index subwavelength nanoparticles usually support both electric and magnetic dipole responses. Thus, to achieve ideal magnetic dipole scattering one has to suppress the electric dipole response. Such a possibility was recently demonstrated for the so-called anapole mode, which is associated with zero electric dipole scattering. By spectrally overlapping the magnetic dipole resonance with the anapole mode, we achieve ideal magnetic dipole scattering in the far field with tunable strong scattering resonances in the near infrared spectrum. We demonstrate that such a condition can be realized at least for two subwavelength geometries. One of them is a core-shell nanosphere consisting of a Au core and silicon shell. It can be also achieved in other geometries, including nanodisks, which are compatible with current nanofabrication technology.
Critical behavior of dissipative two-dimensional spin lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rota, R.; Storme, F.; Bartolo, N.; Fazio, R.; Ciuti, C.
2017-04-01
We explore critical properties of two-dimensional lattices of spins interacting via an anisotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian that are subject to incoherent spin flips. We determine the steady-state solution of the master equation for the density matrix via the corner-space renormalization method. We investigate the finite-size scaling and critical exponent of the magnetic linear susceptibility associated with a dissipative ferromagnetic transition. We show that the von Neumann entropy increases across the critical point, revealing a strongly mixed character of the ferromagnetic phase. Entanglement is witnessed by the quantum Fisher information, which exhibits a critical behavior at the transition point, showing that quantum correlations play a crucial role in the transition.
Tahir-Kheli, J; Goddard, W A
1993-01-01
The one-dimensional three-band Hubbard Hamiltonian is shown to be equivalent to an effective Hamiltonian that has independent spinon and holon quasiparticle excitations plus a weak coupling of the two. The spinon description includes both copper sites and oxygen hole sites leading to a one-dimensional antiferromagnet incommensurate with the copper lattice. The holons are spinless noninteracting fermions in a simple cosine band. Because the oxygen sites are in the Hamiltonian, the quasiparticles are much simpler than in the exact solution of the t-J model for 2t = +/- J. If a similar description is correct for two dimensions, then the holons will attract in a p-wave potential. PMID:11607436
Mu, Zhongcheng; Shao, Qi; Ye, Jun; Zeng, Zebing; Zhao, Yang; Hng, Huey Hoon; Boey, Freddy Yin Chiang; Wu, Jishan; Chen, Xiaodong
2011-02-15
Two-dimensional (2D) supramolecular assemblies of a series of novel C(3)-symmetric hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) derivatives bearing different substituents adsorbed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite were studied by using scanning tunneling microscopy at a solid-liquid interface. It was found that the intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions play a critical role in controlling the interfacial supramolecular assembly of these C(3)-symmetric HBC derivatives at the solid-liquid interface. The HBC molecule bearing three -CF(3) groups could form 2D honeycomb structures because of antiparallel dipole-dipole interactions, whereas HBC molecules bearing three -CN or -NO(2) groups could form hexagonal superstructures because of a special trimeric arrangement induced by dipole-dipole interactions and weak hydrogen bonding interactions ([C-H···NC-] or [C-H···O(2)N-]). Molecular mechanics and dynamics simulations were performed to reveal the physics behind the 2D structures as well as detailed functional group interactions. This work provides an example of how intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions could enable fine control over the self-assembly of disklike π-conjugated molecules.
Pulsed field gradients in simulations of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra.
Meresi, G H; Cuperlovic, M; Palke, W E; Gerig, J T
1999-03-01
A method for the inclusion of the effects of z-axis pulsed field gradients in computer simulations of an arbitrary pulsed NMR experiment with spin (1/2) nuclei is described. Recognizing that the phase acquired by a coherence following the application of a z-axis pulsed field gradient bears a fixed relation to its order and the spatial position of the spins in the sample tube, the sample is regarded as a collection of volume elements, each phase-encoded by a characteristic, spatially dependent precession frequency. The evolution of the sample's density matrix is thus obtained by computing the evolution of the density matrix for each volume element. Following the last gradient pulse, these density matrices are combined to form a composite density matrix which evolves through the rest of the experiment to yield the observable signal. This approach is implemented in a program which includes capabilities for rigorous inclusion of spin relaxation by dipole-dipole, chemical shift anisotropy, and random field mechanisms, plus the effects of arbitrary RF fields. Mathematical procedures for accelerating these calculations are described. The approach is illustrated by simulations of representative one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yan; Guan, Yefeng; Li, Hai; Luo, Zhihuan; Mai, Zhijie
2017-08-01
We study families of stationary nonlinear localized modes and composite gray and anti-gray solitons in a one-dimensional linear waveguide array with dual phase-flip nonlinear point defects. Unstaggered fundamental and dipole bright modes are studied when the defect nonlinearity is self-focusing. For the fundamental modes, symmetric and asymmetric nonlinear modes are found. Their stable areas are studied using different defect coefficients and their total power. For the nonlinear dipole modes, the stability conditions of this type of mode are also identified by different defect coefficients and the total power. When the defect nonlinearity is replaced by the self-defocusing one, staggered fundamental and dipole bright modes are created. Finally, if we replace the linear waveguide with a full nonlinear waveguide, a new type of gray and anti-gray solitons, which are constructed by a kink and anti-kink pair, can be supported by such dual phase-flip defects. In contrast to the usual gray and anti-gray solitons formed by a single kink, their backgrounds on either side of the gray hole or bright hump have the same phase.
Dias, W S; Bertrand, D; Lyra, M L
2017-06-01
Recent experimental progress on the realization of quantum systems with highly controllable long-range interactions has impelled the study of quantum phase transitions in low-dimensional systems with power-law couplings. Long-range couplings mimic higher-dimensional effects in several physical contexts. Here, we provide the exact relation between the spectral dimension d at the band bottom and the exponent α that tunes the range of power-law hoppings of a one-dimensional ideal lattice Bose gas. We also develop a finite-size scaling analysis to obtain some relevant critical exponents and the critical temperature of the BEC transition. In particular, an irrelevant dangerous scaling field has to be taken into account when the hopping range is sufficiently large to make the effective dimensionality d>4.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, W. S.; Bertrand, D.; Lyra, M. L.
2017-06-01
Recent experimental progress on the realization of quantum systems with highly controllable long-range interactions has impelled the study of quantum phase transitions in low-dimensional systems with power-law couplings. Long-range couplings mimic higher-dimensional effects in several physical contexts. Here, we provide the exact relation between the spectral dimension d at the band bottom and the exponent α that tunes the range of power-law hoppings of a one-dimensional ideal lattice Bose gas. We also develop a finite-size scaling analysis to obtain some relevant critical exponents and the critical temperature of the BEC transition. In particular, an irrelevant dangerous scaling field has to be taken into account when the hopping range is sufficiently large to make the effective dimensionality d >4 .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felker, Peter M.; Bačić, Zlatko
2017-09-01
We present methodology for variational calculation of the 6 n -dimensional translation-rotation (TR) eigenstates of assemblies of n H2O@C60 moieties coupled by dipole-dipole interactions. We show that the TR Hamiltonian matrix for any n can be constructed from dipole-dipole matrix elements computed for n = 2 . We present results for linear H2O@C60 assemblies. Two classes of eigenstates are revealed. One class comprises excitations of the 111 rotational level of H2O. The lowest-energy 111 -derived eigenstate for each assembly exhibits significant dipole ordering and shifts down in energy with the assembly size.
Charge transport through one-dimensional Moiré crystals
Bonnet, Roméo; Lherbier, Aurélien; Barraud, Clément; Rocca, Maria Luisa Della; Lafarge, Philippe; Charlier, Jean-Christophe
2016-01-01
Moiré superlattices were generated in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures and have revealed intriguing electronic structures. The appearance of mini-Dirac cones within the conduction and valence bands of graphene is one of the most striking among the new quantum features. A Moiré superstructure emerges when at least two periodic sub-structures superimpose. 2D Moiré patterns have been particularly investigated in stacked hexagonal 2D atomic lattices like twisted graphene layers and graphene deposited on hexagonal boron-nitride. In this letter, we report both experimentally and theoretically evidence of superlattices physics in transport properties of one-dimensional (1D) Moiré crystals. Rolling-up few layers of graphene to form a multiwall carbon nanotube adds boundaries conditions that can be translated into interference fringes-like Moiré patterns along the circumference of the cylinder. Such a 1D Moiré crystal exhibits a complex 1D multiple bands structure with clear and robust interband quantum transitions due to the presence of mini-Dirac points and pseudo-gaps. Our devices consist in a very large diameter (>80 nm) multiwall carbon nanotubes of high quality, electrically connected by metallic electrodes acting as charge reservoirs. Conductance measurements reveal the presence of van Hove singularities assigned to 1D Moiré superlattice effect and illustrated by electronic structure calculations. PMID:26786067
Ion-dipole interactions in concentrated organic electrolytes.
Chagnes, Alexandre; Nicolis, Stamatios; Carré, Bernard; Willmann, Patrick; Lemordant, Daniel
2003-06-16
An algorithm is proposed for calculating the energy of ion-dipole interactions in concentrated organic electrolytes. The ion-dipole interactions increase with increasing salt concentration and must be taken into account when the activation energy for the conductivity is calculated. In this case, the contribution of ion-dipole interactions to the activation energy for this transport process is of the same order of magnitude as the contribution of ion-ion interactions. The ion-dipole interaction energy was calculated for a cell of eight ions, alternatingly anions and cations, placed on the vertices of an expanded cubic lattice whose parameter is related to the mean interionic distance (pseudolattice theory). The solvent dipoles were introduced randomly into the cell by assuming a randomness compacity of 0.58. The energy of the dipole assembly in the cell was minimized by using a Newton-Raphson numerical method. The dielectric field gradient around ions was taken into account by a distance parameter and a dielectric constant of epsilon = 3 at the surfaces of the ions. A fair agreement between experimental and calculated activation energy has been found for systems composed of gamma-butyrolactone (BL) as solvent and lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4), lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), lithium hexafluoroarsenate (LiAsF6), and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) as salts.
Lattice surgery on the Raussendorf lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herr, Daniel; Paler, Alexandru; Devitt, Simon J.; Nori, Franco
2018-07-01
Lattice surgery is a method to perform quantum computation fault-tolerantly by using operations on boundary qubits between different patches of the planar code. This technique allows for universal planar code computation without eliminating the intrinsic two-dimensional nearest-neighbor properties of the surface code that eases physical hardware implementations. Lattice surgery approaches to algorithmic compilation and optimization have been demonstrated to be more resource efficient for resource-intensive components of a fault-tolerant algorithm, and consequently may be preferable over braid-based logic. Lattice surgery can be extended to the Raussendorf lattice, providing a measurement-based approach to the surface code. In this paper we describe how lattice surgery can be performed on the Raussendorf lattice and therefore give a viable alternative to computation using braiding in measurement-based implementations of topological codes.
Damping of Bogoliubov excitations in optical lattices
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Tsuchiya, Shunji; Department of Physics, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Tokyo 169-8555; Griffin, Allan
2004-08-01
Extending recent work to finite temperatures, we calculate the Landau damping of a Bogoliubov excitation in an optical lattice, due to the coupling to a thermal cloud of such excitations. For simplicity, we consider a one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model and restrict ourselves to the first energy band. For energy conservation to be satisfied, the excitations in the collision processes must exhibit ''anomalous dispersion,'' analogous to phonons in superfluid {sup 4}He. This leads to the disappearance of all damping processes when Un{sup c0}{>=}6J, where U is the on-site interaction, J is the hopping matrix element, and n{sup c0}(T) is the number ofmore » condensate atoms at a lattice site. This phenomenon also occurs in two-dimensional and three-dimensional optical lattices. The disappearance of Beliaev damping above a threshold wave vector is noted.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yun-Mei; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yan-Yang; Zhang, Dong; Chang, Kai
2017-07-01
We investigate theoretically the electronic properties of two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) with regular and distorted triangular antidot lattices. We show that the triangular antidot lattices embedded in 2DEGs behave like artificial graphene and host Dirac fermions. By introducing the Wannier representation, we obtain a tight-binding Hamiltonian including the second-nearest-neighboring hopping, which agrees well with the numerically exact solutions. Based on the tight-binding model, we find that spatially nonuniform distortions of the antidot lattices strongly modify the electronic structures, generate pseudomagnetic fields and the well-defined Landau levels. In contrast to graphene, we can design the nonuniform distortions to generate various configurations of pseudomagnetic fields. We show that the snake orbital states arise by designing the ±B pseudomagnetic field configuration. We find that the disorders of antidot lattices during fabrication would not affect the basic feature of the Dirac electrons, but they lead to a reduction in conductance in strong disorder cases.
Phase transitions in coupled map lattices and in associated probabilistic cellular automata.
Just, Wolfram
2006-10-01
Analytical tools are applied to investigate piecewise linear coupled map lattices in terms of probabilistic cellular automata. The so-called disorder condition of probabilistic cellular automata is closely related with attracting sets in coupled map lattices. The importance of this condition for the suppression of phase transitions is illustrated by spatially one-dimensional systems. Invariant densities and temporal correlations are calculated explicitly. Ising type phase transitions are found for one-dimensional coupled map lattices acting on repelling sets and for a spatially two-dimensional Miller-Huse-like system with stable long time dynamics. Critical exponents are calculated within a finite size scaling approach. The relevance of detailed balance of the resulting probabilistic cellular automaton for the critical behavior is pointed out.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Goswami, Srijit; Aamir, Mohammed Ali; Shamim, Saquib
2013-12-04
We use a dual gated device structure to introduce a gate-tuneable periodic potential in a GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Using only a suitable choice of gate voltages we can controllably alter the potential landscape of the bare 2DEG, inducing either a periodic array of antidots or quantum dots. Antidots are artificial scattering centers, and therefore allow for a study of electron dynamics. In particular, we show that the thermovoltage of an antidot lattice is particularly sensitive to the relative positions of the Fermi level and the antidot potential. A quantum dot lattice, on the other hand, provides themore » opportunity to study correlated electron physics. We find that its current-voltage characteristics display a voltage threshold, as well as a power law scaling, indicative of collective Coulomb blockade in a disordered background.« less
Anomalous critical behavior in the polymer collapse transition of three-dimensional lattice trails.
Bedini, Andrea; Owczarek, Aleksander L; Prellberg, Thomas
2012-07-01
Trails (bond-avoiding walks) provide an alternative lattice model of polymers to self-avoiding walks, and adding self-interaction at multiply visited sites gives a model of polymer collapse. Recently a two-dimensional model (triangular lattice) where doubly and triply visited sites are given different weights was shown to display a rich phase diagram with first- and second-order collapse separated by a multicritical point. A kinetic growth process of trails (KGTs) was conjectured to map precisely to this multicritical point. Two types of low-temperature phases, a globule phase and a maximally dense phase, were encountered. Here we investigate the collapse properties of a similar extended model of interacting lattice trails on the simple cubic lattice with separate weights for doubly and triply visited sites. Again we find first- and second-order collapse transitions dependent on the relative sizes of the doubly and triply visited energies. However, we find no evidence of a low-temperature maximally dense phase with only the globular phase in existence. Intriguingly, when the ratio of the energies is precisely that which separates the first-order from the second-order regions anomalous finite-size scaling appears. At the finite-size location of the rounded transition clear evidence exists for a first-order transition that persists in the thermodynamic limit. This location moves as the length increases, with its limit apparently at the point that maps to a KGT. However, if one fixes the temperature to sit at exactly this KGT point, then only a critical point can be deduced from the data. The resolution of this apparent contradiction lies in the breaking of crossover scaling and the difference in the shift and transition width (crossover) exponents.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Jian-Song; Zhang, Wei; Yi, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-10-01
In a recent experiment (Z. Wu, L. Zhang, W. Sun, X.-T. Xu, B.-Z. Wang, S.-C. Ji, Y. Deng, S. Chen, X.-J. Liu, and J.-W. Pan, arXiv:1511.08170 [cond-mat.quant-gas]), a Raman-assisted two-dimensional spin-orbit coupling has been realized for a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice potential. In light of this exciting progress, we study in detail key properties of the system. As the Raman lasers inevitably couple atoms to high-lying bands, the behaviors of the system in both the single- and many-particle sectors are significantly affected. In particular, the high-band effects enhance the plane-wave phase and lead to the emergence of "roton" gaps at low Zeeman fields. Furthermore, we identify high-band-induced topological phase boundaries in both the single-particle and the quasiparticle spectra. We then derive an effective two-band model, which captures the high-band physics in the experimentally relevant regime. Our results not only offer valuable insights into the two-dimensional lattice spin-orbit coupling, but also provide a systematic formalism to model high-band effects in lattice systems with Raman-assisted spin-orbit couplings.
Mass gap in the weak coupling limit of (2 +1 )-dimensional SU(2) lattice gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anishetty, Ramesh; Sreeraj, T. P.
2018-04-01
We develop the dual description of (2 +1 )-dimensional SU(2) lattice gauge theory as interacting "Abelian-like" electric loops by using Schwinger bosons. "Point splitting" of the lattice enables us to construct explicit Hilbert space for the gauge invariant theory which in turn makes dynamics more transparent. Using path integral representation in phase space, the interacting closed loop dynamics is analyzed in the weak coupling limit to get the mass gap.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, Chen; Bowman, Joel M.
2018-06-01
We present high-level, coupled-mode calculations of the infrared spectrum of the cyclic formic acid dimer. The calculations make use of full-dimensional, ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces. The potential is a linear least-squares fit to 13 475 CCSD(T)-F12a/haTZ (haTZ means aug-cc-pVTZ basis set for O and C, and cc-pVTZ for H) energies, and the dipole moment surface is a fit to the dipole components, calculated at the MP2/haTZ level of theory. The variables of both fits are all (45) internuclear distances (actually Morse variables). The potential, which is fully permutationally invariant, is the one published recently and the dipole moment surface is newly reported here. Details of the fits, especially the dipole moment, and the database of configurations are given. The infrared spectrum of the dimer is calculated by solving the nuclear Schrödinger equation using a vibrational self-consistent field and virtual-state configuration interaction method, with subsets of the 24 normal modes, up to 15 modes. The calculations indicate strong mode-coupling in the C—H and O—H stretching region of the spectrum. Comparisons are made with experiments and the complexity of the experimental spectrum in the C—H and O—H stretching region is successfully reproduced.
Gap solitons in PT-symmetric optical lattices with higher-order diffraction.
Ge, Lijuan; Shen, Ming; Ma, Chunlan; Zang, Taocheng; Dai, Lu
2014-12-01
The existence and stability of gap solitons are investigated in the semi-infinite gap of a parity-time (PT)-symmetric periodic potential (optical lattice) with a higher-order diffraction. The Bloch bands and band gaps of this PT-symmetric optical lattice depend crucially on the coupling constant of the fourth-order diffraction, whereas the phase transition point of this PT optical lattice remains unchangeable. The fourth-order diffraction plays a significant role in destabilizing the propagation of dipole solitons. Specifically, when the fourth-order diffraction coupling constant increases, the stable region of the dipole solitons shrinks as new regions of instability appear. However, fundamental solitons are found to be always linearly stable with arbitrary positive value of the coupling constant. We also investigate nonlinear evolution of the PT solitons under perturbation.
Statistics of Lyapunov exponents of quasi-one-dimensional disordered systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yan-Yang; Xiong, Shi-Jie
2005-10-01
Statistical properties of Lyapunov exponents (LE) are numerically calculated in a quasi-one-dimensional (1D) Anderson model, which is in a 2D or 3D lattice with a finite cross section. The single-parameter scaling (SPS) variable τ relating the Lyapunov exponents γ and their variances σ by τ≡σ2L/⟨γ⟩ is calculated for different lateral coupling t and disorder strength W . In a wide range of t , τ is approximately independent of W , but it has different values for LEs in different channels. For small t , the distribution of the smallest LE is non-Gaussian and τ strongly depends on W , remarkably different from the 1D SPS hypothesis.
Superconductivity in the Penson-Kolb Model on a Triangular Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ptok, A.; Mierzejewski, M.
2008-07-01
We investigate properties of the two-dimensional Penson-Kolb model with repulsive pair hopping interaction. In the case of a bipartite square lattice this interaction may lead to the η-type pairing, when the phase of superconducting order parameter changes from one lattice site to the neighboring one. We show that this interaction may be responsible for the onset of superconductivity also for a triangular lattice. We discuss the spatial dependence of the superconducting order parameter and demonstrate that the total momentum of the paired electrons is determined by the lattice geometry.
Solórzano, S; Mendoza, M; Succi, S; Herrmann, H J
2018-01-01
We present a numerical scheme to solve the Wigner equation, based on a lattice discretization of momentum space. The moments of the Wigner function are recovered exactly, up to the desired order given by the number of discrete momenta retained in the discretization, which also determines the accuracy of the method. The Wigner equation is equipped with an additional collision operator, designed in such a way as to ensure numerical stability without affecting the evolution of the relevant moments of the Wigner function. The lattice Wigner scheme is validated for the case of quantum harmonic and anharmonic potentials, showing good agreement with theoretical results. It is further applied to the study of the transport properties of one- and two-dimensional open quantum systems with potential barriers. Finally, the computational viability of the scheme for the case of three-dimensional open systems is also illustrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solórzano, S.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Herrmann, H. J.
2018-01-01
We present a numerical scheme to solve the Wigner equation, based on a lattice discretization of momentum space. The moments of the Wigner function are recovered exactly, up to the desired order given by the number of discrete momenta retained in the discretization, which also determines the accuracy of the method. The Wigner equation is equipped with an additional collision operator, designed in such a way as to ensure numerical stability without affecting the evolution of the relevant moments of the Wigner function. The lattice Wigner scheme is validated for the case of quantum harmonic and anharmonic potentials, showing good agreement with theoretical results. It is further applied to the study of the transport properties of one- and two-dimensional open quantum systems with potential barriers. Finally, the computational viability of the scheme for the case of three-dimensional open systems is also illustrated.
Jenkins, Stephen J
2018-04-03
The long-range periodic order of a crystalline surface is generally represented by means of a two-dimensional Bravais lattice, of which only five symmetrically distinct types are possible. Here, we explore the circumstances under which each type may or may not be found at the surfaces of face-centered cubic materials and provide means by which the type of lattice may be determined with reference only to the Miller indices of the surface; the approach achieves formal rigor by focusing on the number theory of integer variables rather than directly upon real geometry. We prove that the {100} and {111} surfaces are, respectively, the only exemplars of square and triangular lattices. For surfaces exhibiting a single mirror plane, we not only show that rectangular and rhombic lattices are the only two possibilities, but also capture their alternation in terms of the parity of the indices. In the case of chiral surfaces, oblique lattices predominate, but rectangular and rhombic cases are also possible and arise according to well-defined rules, here partially recounted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suemoto, Tohru; Tomimoto, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Taira
Recent developments in femtosecond dynamics of the photoexcited state in quasi-one-dimensional platinum complexes [Pt(en)2][Pt(en)2X2] (ClO4)4 with X = Cl, Br and I are reviewed. The experimental results of time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy based on up-conversion technique are presented and analyzed in terms of a theory of wave-packet motion. An attempt to make a movie of wave-packet motion is mentioned. In Sec. 1, a brief introduction to the dynamics of the excited states in quasi-one-dimensional platinum complexes is given. It is stressed that this system can be a good model system for investigating the photo-induced structural phase transition. In order to describe a one-dimensional chain consisting of metal ions and halogen ions, the extended Peierls-Hubbard model is introduced in Sec. 2. The theoretical model of the relaxation dynamics in the excited states with a strong electron-lattice coupling is given in Sec. 3. The model is based on the interaction mode, which is appropriate for understanding the vibrational relaxation of localized centers in solids. Experimental backgrounds with some historical survey are given in Sec. 4. The recent experimental results of time-resolved luminescence for Pt-Cl, Pt-Br and Pt-I systems are presented in Secs. 5 to 8. The main result contains the direct observation of the wave-packet oscillation in the self-trapped excitons. The relaxation process observed in experiments has been successfully interpreted in terms of the model based on the interaction mode and the dynamical aspects are compared with the transient absorption measurements. The lifetime of the STE is shorter in Pt-X with heavier halogen ions. This behavior is discussed in relation with the non-radiative process leading to lattice rearrangements. In Secs. 9 and 10, visualization of the wave-packet form is presented. The basic behavior of the wave-packet is well understood in terms of a harmonic oscillator model. A non-exponential decay profiles are revealed
Spin-one bilinear-biquadratic model on a star lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hyun-Yong; Kawashima, Naoki
2018-05-01
We study the ground-state phase diagram of the S =1 bilinear-biquadratic model (BLBQ) on the star lattice with the state-of-art tensor network algorithms. The system has four phases: the ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, ferroquadrupolar, and spin-liquid phases. The phases and their phase boundaries are determined by examining various local observables, correlation functions, and transfer matrices exhaustively. The spin-liquid phase, which is the first quantum disordered phase found in the two-dimensional BLBQ model, is gapped and devoid of any conventional long-range order. It is also characterized by fixed-parity virtual bonds in the tensor network formalism, analogous to the Haldane phase, while the parity varies depending on the location of the bond.
Monte Carlo Study of Four-Dimensional Self-avoiding Walks of up to One Billion Steps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clisby, Nathan
2018-04-01
We study self-avoiding walks on the four-dimensional hypercubic lattice via Monte Carlo simulations of walks with up to one billion steps. We study the expected logarithmic corrections to scaling, and find convincing evidence in support the scaling form predicted by the renormalization group, with an estimate for the power of the logarithmic factor of 0.2516(14), which is consistent with the predicted value of 1/4. We also characterize the behaviour of the pivot algorithm for sampling four dimensional self-avoiding walks, and conjecture that the probability of a pivot move being successful for an N-step walk is O([ log N ]^{-1/4}).
Lattice topology dictates photon statistics.
Kondakci, H Esat; Abouraddy, Ayman F; Saleh, Bahaa E A
2017-08-21
Propagation of coherent light through a disordered network is accompanied by randomization and possible conversion into thermal light. Here, we show that network topology plays a decisive role in determining the statistics of the emerging field if the underlying lattice is endowed with chiral symmetry. In such lattices, eigenmode pairs come in skew-symmetric pairs with oppositely signed eigenvalues. By examining one-dimensional arrays of randomly coupled waveguides arranged on linear and ring topologies, we are led to a remarkable prediction: the field circularity and the photon statistics in ring lattices are dictated by its parity while the same quantities are insensitive to the parity of a linear lattice. For a ring lattice, adding or subtracting a single lattice site can switch the photon statistics from super-thermal to sub-thermal, or vice versa. This behavior is understood by examining the real and imaginary fields on a lattice exhibiting chiral symmetry, which form two strands that interleave along the lattice sites. These strands can be fully braided around an even-sited ring lattice thereby producing super-thermal photon statistics, while an odd-sited lattice is incommensurate with such an arrangement and the statistics become sub-thermal.
Control of Rydberg atom blockade by dc electric field orientation in a quasi-one-dimensional sample
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goncalves, Luís Felipe; Marcassa, Luis Gustavo
2017-04-01
Rydberg atoms posse a strong atom-atom interaction, which limits its density in an atomic sample. Such effect is known as Rydberg atom blockade. Here, we present a novel way to control such effect by direct orienting the induced atomic dipole moment using a dc external electrical field. To demonstrate it, we excite the 50S1 / 2 Rb atomic state in a quasi-one-dimensional sample held in a quasi-electrostatic trap. A pure nS state holds only van der Waals interaction at long range, but in the presence of an external electric field the state mixing leads to strong dipole-dipole interactions. We have measured the Rydberg atom population as a function of ground state atoms density for several angles between the electric field and the main axis of the unidimensional sample. The results indicate that the limit on the final Rydberg density can be controlled by electric field orientation. Besides, we have characterized the sample by using direct spatial ion imaging, demonstrating that it does behave as an unidimensional sample. This work was supported by Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) Grants No. 2011/22309-8 and No. 2013/02816- 8, the U.S. Army Research Office Grant No. W911NF-15-1-0638 and CNPq.
Band and Correlated Insulators of Cold Fermions in a Mesoscopic Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebrat, Martin; Grišins, Pjotrs; Husmann, Dominik; Häusler, Samuel; Corman, Laura; Giamarchi, Thierry; Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Esslinger, Tilman
2018-01-01
We investigate the transport properties of neutral, fermionic atoms passing through a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. The lattice is realized by projecting individually controlled, thin optical barriers on top of a ballistic conductor. Building an increasingly longer lattice, one site after another, we observe and characterize the emergence of a band insulating phase, demonstrating control over quantum-coherent transport. We explore the influence of atom-atom interactions and show that the insulating state persists as contact interactions are tuned from moderately to strongly attractive. Using bosonization and classical Monte Carlo simulations, we analyze such a model of interacting fermions and find good qualitative agreement with the data. The robustness of the insulating state supports the existence of a Luther-Emery liquid in the one-dimensional wire. Our work realizes a tunable, site-controlled lattice Fermi gas strongly coupled to reservoirs, which is an ideal test bed for nonequilibrium many-body physics.
Montessori, A; Falcucci, G; Prestininzi, P; La Rocca, M; Succi, S
2014-05-01
We investigate the accuracy and performance of the regularized version of the single-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation for the case of two- and three-dimensional lid-driven cavities. The regularized version is shown to provide a significant gain in stability over the standard single-relaxation time, at a moderate computational overhead.
The 11 T dipole for HL-LHC: Status and plan
Savary, F.; Barzi, E.; Bordini, B.; ...
2016-06-01
The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collimation system includes additional collimators in the LHC lattice. The longitudinal space for these collimators will be created by replacing some of the LHC main dipoles with shorter but stronger dipoles compatible with the LHC lattice and main systems. The project plan comprises the construction of two cryoassemblies containing each of the two 11-T dipoles of 5.5-m length for possible installation on either side of interaction point 2 of LHC in the years 2018-2019 for ion operation, and the installation of two cryoassemblies on either side of interaction point 7 of LHCmore » in the years 2023-2024 for proton operation. The development program conducted in conjunction between the Fermilab and CERN magnet groups is progressing well. The development activities carried out on the side of Fermilab were concluded in the middle of 2015 with the fabrication and test of a 1-m-long two-in-one model and those on the CERN side are ramping up with the construction of 2-m-long models and the preparation of the tooling for the fabrication of the first full-length prototype. The engineering design of the cryomagnet is well advanced, including the definition of the various interfaces, e.g., with the collimator, powering, protection, and vacuum systems. Several practice coils of 5.5-m length have been already fabricated. This paper describes the overall progress of the project, the final design of the cryomagnet, and the performance of the most recent models. Furthermore, the overall plan toward the fabrication of the series magnets for the two phases of the upgrade of the LHC collimation system is also presented.« less
A metallo-DNA nanowire with uninterrupted one-dimensional silver array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Jiro; Tada, Yoshinari; Dairaku, Takenori; Hattori, Yoshikazu; Saneyoshi, Hisao; Ono, Akira; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki
2017-10-01
The double-helix structure of DNA, in which complementary strands reversibly hybridize to each other, not only explains how genetic information is stored and replicated, but also has proved very attractive for the development of nanomaterials. The discovery of metal-mediated base pairs has prompted the generation of short metal-DNA hybrid duplexes by a bottom-up approach. Here we describe a metallo-DNA nanowire—whose structure was solved by high-resolution X-ray crystallography—that consists of dodecamer duplexes held together by four different metal-mediated base pairs (the previously observed C-Ag-C, as well as G-Ag-G, G-Ag-C and T-Ag-T) and linked to each other through G overhangs involved in interduplex G-Ag-G. The resulting hybrid nanowires are 2 nm wide with a length of the order of micrometres to millimetres, and hold the silver ions in uninterrupted one-dimensional arrays along the DNA helical axis. The hybrid nanowires are further assembled into three-dimensional lattices by interactions between adenine residues, fully bulged out of the double helix.
Phonons, Diffusons, and the Boson Peak in Two-Dimensional Lattices with Random Bonds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konyukh, D. A.; Bel'tyukov, Ya. M.; Parshin, D. A.
2018-02-01
Within the model of stable random matrices possessing translational invariance, a two-dimensional (on a square lattice) disordered oscillatory system with random strongly fluctuating bonds is considered. By a numerical analysis of the dynamic structure factor S( q, ω), it is shown that vibrations with frequencies below the Ioffe-Regel frequency ωIR are ordinary phonons with a linear dispersion law ω( q) ∝ q and a reciprocal lifetime б q 3. Vibrations with frequencies above ωIR, although being delocalized, cannot be described by plane waves with a definite dispersion law ω( q). They are characterized by a diffusion structure factor with a reciprocal lifetime б q 2, which is typical of a diffusion process. In the literature, they are often referred to as diffusons. It is shown that, as in the three-dimensional model, the boson peak at the frequency ωb in the reduced density of vibrational states g(ω)/ω is on the order of the frequency ωIR. It is located in the transition region between phonons and diffusons and is proportional to the Young's modulus of the lattice, ω b ≃ E.
Mitra, Aditi
2012-12-28
A renormalization group approach is used to show that a one-dimensional system of bosons subject to a lattice quench exhibits a finite-time dynamical phase transition where an order parameter within a light cone increases as a nonanalytic function of time after a critical time. Such a transition is also found for a simultaneous lattice and interaction quench where the effective scaling dimension of the lattice becomes time dependent, crucially affecting the time evolution of the system. Explicit results are presented for the time evolution of the boson interaction parameter and the order parameter for the dynamical transition as well as for more general quenches.
Asymptotics of the monomer-dimer model on two-dimensional semi-infinite lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Yong
2007-05-01
By using the asymptotic theory of Pemantle and Wilson [R. Pemantle and M. C. Wilson, J. Comb. Theory, Ser. AJCBTA70097-316510.1006/jcta.2001.3201 97, 129 (2002)], asymptotic expansions of the free energy of the monomer-dimer model on two-dimensional semi-infinite ∞×n lattices in terms of dimer density are obtained for small values of n , at both high- and low-dimer-density limits. In the high-dimer-density limit, the theoretical results confirm the dependence of the free energy on the parity of n , a result obtained previously by computational methods by Y. Kong [Y. Kong, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.74.061102 74, 061102 (2006); Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.73.016106 73, 016106 (2006);Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.74.011102 74, 011102 (2006)]. In the low-dimer-density limit, the free energy on a cylinder ∞×n lattice strip has exactly the same first n terms in the series expansion as that of an infinite ∞×∞ lattice.
Anomalous diffusion in a dynamical optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Wei; Cooper, Nigel R.
2018-02-01
Motivated by experimental progress in strongly coupled atom-photon systems in optical cavities, we study theoretically the quantum dynamics of atoms coupled to a one-dimensional dynamical optical lattice. The dynamical lattice is chosen to have a period that is incommensurate with that of an underlying static lattice, leading to a dynamical version of the Aubry-André model which can cause localization of single-particle wave functions. We show that atomic wave packets in this dynamical lattice generically spread via anomalous diffusion, which can be tuned between superdiffusive and subdiffusive regimes. This anomalous diffusion arises from an interplay between Anderson localization and quantum fluctuations of the cavity field.
Nonsymmorphic symmetry-protected topological modes in plasmonic nanoribbon lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yong-Liang; Wu, Raymond P. H.; Kumar, Anshuman; Si, Tieyan; Fung, Kin Hung
2018-04-01
Using a dynamic eigenresponse theory, we study the topological edge plasmon modes in dispersive plasmonic lattices constructed by unit cells of multiple nanoribbons. In dipole approximation, the bulk-edge correspondence in the lattices made of dimerized unit cell and one of its square-root daughter with nonsymmorphic symmetry are demonstrated. Calculations with consideration of dynamic long-range effects and retardation are compared to those given by nearest-neighbor approximations. It is shown that nonsymmorphic symmetry opens up two symmetric gaps where versatile topological edge plasmon modes are found. Unprecedented spectral shifts of the edge states with respect to the zero modes due to long-range coupling are found. The proposed ribbon structure is favorable to electrical gating and thus could serve as an on-chip platform for electrically controllable subwavelength edge states at optical wavelengths. Our eigenresponse approach provides a powerful tool for the radiative topological mode analysis in strongly coupled plasmonic lattices.
Weyl Points in Three-Dimensional Optical Lattices: Synthetic Magnetic Monopoles in Momentum Space.
Dubček, Tena; Kennedy, Colin J; Lu, Ling; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Soljačić, Marin; Buljan, Hrvoje
2015-06-05
We show that a Hamiltonian with Weyl points can be realized for ultracold atoms using laser-assisted tunneling in three-dimensional optical lattices. Weyl points are synthetic magnetic monopoles that exhibit a robust, three-dimensional linear dispersion, identical to the energy-momentum relation for relativistic Weyl fermions, which are not yet discovered in particle physics. Weyl semimetals are a promising new avenue in condensed matter physics due to their unusual properties such as the topologically protected "Fermi arc" surface states. However, experiments on Weyl points are highly elusive. We show that this elusive goal is well within experimental reach with an extension of techniques recently used in ultracold gases.
Classical simulation of infinite-size quantum lattice systems in two spatial dimensions.
Jordan, J; Orús, R; Vidal, G; Verstraete, F; Cirac, J I
2008-12-19
We present an algorithm to simulate two-dimensional quantum lattice systems in the thermodynamic limit. Our approach builds on the projected entangled-pair state algorithm for finite lattice systems [F. Verstraete and J. I. Cirac, arxiv:cond-mat/0407066] and the infinite time-evolving block decimation algorithm for infinite one-dimensional lattice systems [G. Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 070201 (2007)10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.070201]. The present algorithm allows for the computation of the ground state and the simulation of time evolution in infinite two-dimensional systems that are invariant under translations. We demonstrate its performance by obtaining the ground state of the quantum Ising model and analyzing its second order quantum phase transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, A.; Yarlagadda, S.
2017-09-01
Understanding the microscopic mechanism of coexisting long-range orders (such as lattice supersolidity) in strongly correlated systems is a subject of immense interest. We study the possible manifestations of long-range orders, including lattice-supersolid phases with differently broken symmetry, in a two-dimensional square lattice system of hard-core bosons (HCBs) coupled to archetypal cooperative/coherent normal-mode distortions such as those in perovskites. At strong HCB-phonon coupling, using a duality transformation to map the strong-coupling problem to a weak-coupling one, we obtain an effective Hamiltonian involving nearest-neighbor, next-nearest-neighbor, and next-to-next-nearest-neighbor hoppings and repulsions. Using stochastic series expansion quantum Monte Carlo, we construct the phase diagram of the system. As coupling strength is increased, we find that the system undergoes a first-order quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a checkerboard solid at half-filling and from a superfluid to a diagonal striped solid [with crystalline ordering wave vector Q ⃗=(2 π /3 ,2 π /3 ) or (2 π /3 ,4 π /3 )] at one-third filling without showing any evidence of supersolidity. On tuning the system away from these commensurate fillings, checkerboard supersolid is generated near half-filling whereas a rare diagonal striped supersolid is realized near one-third filling. Interestingly, there is an asymmetry in the extent of supersolidity about one-third filling. Within our framework, we also provide an explanation for the observed checkerboard and stripe formations in La2 -xSrxNiO4 at x =1 /2 and x =1 /3 .
Dipolar ordering and glassy freezing in methanol-{beta}-hydroquinone-clathrate
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Woll, H.; Rheinstadter, M. C.; Kruchten, F.
2001-06-01
The dielectric, structural, and thermodynamic properties of single crystals of methanol-{beta}-hydroquinone-clathrates have been studied as function of temperature and of the concentration x of the polar guest molecules. At higher temperatures the dielectric response along the threefold crystal axis is of the quasi-one-dimensional Ising type. At lower temperatures the higher concentrated samples order antiferroelectrically whereas the lower concentrated ones freeze into dipole glasses. The behavior is interpreted in terms of the methanol dipole moments coupled by the electric dipole-dipole interaction which is highly frustrated because of the rhombohedral symmetry of the lattice. The dielectric relaxations have been analyzed.
Three-dimensional Cascaded Lattice Boltzmann Model for Thermal Convective Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hajabdollahi, Farzaneh; Premnath, Kannan
2017-11-01
Fluid motion driven by thermal effects, such as due to buoyancy in differentially heated enclosures arise in several natural and industrial settings, whose understanding can be achieved via numerical simulations. Lattice Boltzmann (LB) methods are efficient kinetic computational approaches for coupled flow physics problems. In this study, we develop three-dimensional (3D) LB models based on central moments and multiple relaxation times for D3Q7 and D3Q15 lattices to solve the energy transport equations in a double distribution function approach. Their collision operators lead to a cascaded structure involving higher order terms resulting in improved stability. This is coupled to a central moment based LB flow solver with source terms. The new 3D cascaded LB models for the convective flows are first validated for natural convection of air driven thermally on two vertically opposite faces in a cubic cavity at different Rayleigh numbers against prior numerical and experimental data, which show good quantitative agreement. Then, the detailed structure of the 3D flow and thermal fields and the heat transfer rates at different Rayleigh numbers are analyzed and interpreted.
Ground state of dipolar hard spheres confined in channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deißenbeck, Florian; Löwen, Hartmut; Oǧuz, Erdal C.
2018-05-01
We investigate the ground state of a classical two-dimensional system of hard-sphere dipoles confined between two hard walls. Using lattice sum minimization techniques we reveal that at fixed wall separations, a first-order transition from a vacuum to a straight one-dimensional chain of dipoles occurs upon increasing the density. Further increase in the density yields the stability of an undulated chain as well as nontrivial buckling structures. We explore the close-packed configurations of dipoles in detail, and we find that, in general, the densest packings of dipoles possess complex magnetizations along the principal axis of the slit. Our predictions serve as a guideline for experiments with granular dipolar and magnetic colloidal suspensions confined in slitlike channel geometry.
Quantum droplet of one-dimensional bosons with a three-body attraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sekino, Yuta; Nishida, Yusuke
2018-01-01
Ultracold atoms offer valuable opportunities where interparticle interactions can be controlled at will. In particular, by extinguishing the two-body interaction, one can realize unique systems governed by the three-body interaction, which is otherwise hidden behind the two-body interaction. Here we study one-dimensional bosons with a weak three-body attraction and show that they form few-body bound states as well as a many-body droplet stabilized by the quantum mechanical effect. Their binding energies relative to that of three bosons are all universal and the ground-state energy of the dilute droplet is found to grow exponentially as EN/E3→exp(8 N2/√{3 }π ) with increasing particle number N ≫1 . The realization of our system with coupled two-component bosons in an optical lattice is also discussed.
Toward lattice fractional vector calculus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2014-09-01
An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.
Toda-Lattice Solitons in α-Helical Proteins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yomosa, Shigeo
1984-10-01
We propose a theory of Toda-lattice soliton in α-helical proteins which enables us to elucidate the molecular dynamics of muscle contraction. One-dimensional chain of peptide groups jointed together by H-bonds, which stabilizes α-helical structure of proteins, can be regarded as a Toda-lattice where the potential of H-bonding interaction between peptide groups has a remarkable nonlinearity. By using the results of theoretical studies for Toda-lattice soliton and for the initial value problem, we can describe the molecular mechanism of the transformation of the chemical energy to the mechanical work in the process of the muscle contraction.
A Mechanical Lattice Aid for Crystallography Teaching.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Amezcua-Lopez, J.; Cordero-Borboa, A. E.
1988-01-01
Introduces a 3-dimensional mechanical lattice with adjustable telescoping mechanisms. Discusses the crystalline state, the 14 Bravais lattices, operational principles of the mechanical lattice, construction methods, and demonstrations in classroom. Provides lattice diagrams, schemes of the lattice, and various pictures of the lattice. (YP)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lang, O.; Klein, A.; Pettenkofer, C.; Jaegermann, W.; Chevy, A.
1996-10-01
Epitaxial growth of the strongly lattice mismatched (6.5%) layered chalcogenides InSe and GaSe on each other is obtained with the concept of van der Waals epitaxy as proven by low-energy electron diffraction and scanning tunnel microscope. InSe/GaSe/InSe and GaSe/InSe/GaSe quantum well structures were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy and their interface properties were characterized by soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Valence and conduction band offsets are determined to be 0.1 and 0.9 eV, respectively, and do not depend on deposition sequence (commutativity). As determined from the measured work functions the interface dipole is 0.05 eV; the band lineup between the two materials is correctly predicted by the Anderson model (electron affinity rule).
Lattice Truss Structural Response Using Energy Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kenner, Winfred Scottson
1996-01-01
A deterministic methodology is presented for developing closed-form deflection equations for two-dimensional and three-dimensional lattice structures. Four types of lattice structures are studied: beams, plates, shells and soft lattices. Castigliano's second theorem, which entails the total strain energy of a structure, is utilized to generate highly accurate results. Derived deflection equations provide new insight into the bending and shear behavior of the four types of lattices, in contrast to classic solutions of similar structures. Lattice derivations utilizing kinetic energy are also presented, and used to examine the free vibration response of simple lattice structures. Derivations utilizing finite element theory for unique lattice behavior are also presented and validated using the finite element analysis code EAL.
Exotic and excited-state radiative transitions in charmonium from lattice QCD
Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.; Thomas, Christopher E.
2009-05-01
We compute, for the first time using lattice QCD methods, radiative transition rates involving excited charmonium states, states of high spin and exotics. Utilizing a large basis of interpolating fields we are able to project out various excited state contributions to three-point correlators computed on quenched anisotropic lattices. In the first lattice QCD calculation of the exoticmore » $$1^{-+}$$ $$\\eta_{c1}$$ radiative decay, we find a large partial width $$\\Gamma(\\eta_{c1} \\to J/\\psi \\gamma) \\sim 100 \\,\\mathrm{keV}$$. We find clear signals for electric dipole and magnetic quadrupole transition form factors in $$\\chi_{c2} \\to J/\\psi \\gamma$$, calculated for the first time in this framework, and study transitions involving excited $$\\psi$$ and $$\\chi_{c1,2}$$ states. We calculate hindered magnetic dipole transition widths without the sensitivity to assumptions made in model studies and find statistically significant signals, including a non-exotic vector hybrid candidate $Y_{\\mathrm{hyb?}} \\to \\et« less
Continuous-variable gate decomposition for the Bose-Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalajdzievski, Timjan; Weedbrook, Christian; Rebentrost, Patrick
2018-06-01
In this work, we decompose the time evolution of the Bose-Hubbard model into a sequence of logic gates that can be implemented on a continuous-variable photonic quantum computer. We examine the structure of the circuit that represents this time evolution for one-dimensional and two-dimensional lattices. The elementary gates needed for the implementation are counted as a function of lattice size. We also include the contribution of the leading dipole interaction term which may be added to the Hamiltonian and its corresponding circuit.
Control of the diocotron instability of a hollow electron beam with periodic dipole magnets
Jo, Y. H.; Kim, J. S.; Stancari, G.; ...
2017-12-28
A method to control the diocotron instability of a hollow electron beam with peri-odic dipole magnetic fields has been investigated by a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. At first, relations between the diocotron instability and several physical parameters such as the electron number density, current and shape of the electron beam, and the solenoidal field strength are theoretically analyzed without periodic dipole magnetic fields. Then, we study the effects of the periodic dipole magnetic fields on the diocotron instability using the two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. In the simulation, we considered the periodic dipole magnetic field applied along the propagation direction of the beam,more » as a temporally varying magnetic field in the beam frame. Lastly, a stabilizing effect is observed when the oscillating frequency of the dipole magnetic field is optimally chosen, which increases with the increasing amplitude of the dipole magnetic field.« less
Coercivity of domain wall motion in thin films of amorphous rare earth-transition metal alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mansuripur, M.; Giles, R. C.; Patterson, G.
1991-01-01
Computer simulations of a two dimensional lattice of magnetic dipoles are performed on the Connection Machine. The lattice is a discrete model for thin films of amorphous rare-earth transition metal alloys, which have application as the storage media in erasable optical data storage systems. In these simulations, the dipoles follow the dynamic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation under the influence of an effective field arising from local anisotropy, near-neighbor exchange, classical dipole-dipole interactions, and an externally applied field. Various sources of coercivity, such as defects and/or inhomogeneities in the lattice, are introduced and the subsequent motion of domain walls in response to external fields is investigated.
Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Gang; Peng, Yue-Mei
2015-03-01
For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 31/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design.
Three-dimensional artificial spin ice in nanostructured Co on an inverse opal-like lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mistonov, A. A.; Grigoryeva, N. A.; Chumakova, A. V.; Eckerlebe, H.; Sapoletova, N. A.; Napolskii, K. S.; Eliseev, A. A.; Menzel, D.; Grigoriev, S. V.
2013-06-01
The evolution of the magnetic structure for an inverse opal-like structure under an applied magnetic field is studied by small-angle neutron scattering. The samples were produced by filling the voids of an artificial opal film with Co. It is shown that the local configuration of magnetization is inhomogeneous over the basic element of the inverse opal-like lattice structure (IOLS) but follows its periodicity. Applying the “ice-rule” concept to the structure, we describe the local magnetization of this ferromagnetic three-dimensional lattice. We have developed a model of the remagnetization process predicting the occurrence of an unusual perpendicular component of the magnetization in the IOLS which is defined only by the direction and strength of the applied magnetic field.
Conical wave propagation and diffraction in two-dimensional hexagonally packed granular lattices
Chong, C.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Ablowitz, M. J.; ...
2016-01-25
We explore linear and nonlinear mechanisms for conical wave propagation in two-dimensional lattices in the realm of phononic crystals. As a prototypical example, a statically compressed granular lattice of spherical particles arranged in a hexagonal packing configuration is analyzed. Upon identifying the dispersion relation of the underlying linear problem, the resulting diffraction properties are considered. Analysis both via a heuristic argument for the linear propagation of a wave packet and via asymptotic analysis leading to the derivation of a Dirac system suggests the occurrence of conical diffraction. This analysis is valid for strong precompression, i.e., near the linear regime. Formore » weak precompression, conical wave propagation is still possible, but the resulting expanding circular wave front is of a nonoscillatory nature, resulting from the complex interplay among the discreteness, nonlinearity, and geometry of the packing. Lastly, the transition between these two types of propagation is explored.« less
Geometric stability spectra of dipolar Bose gases in tunable optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corson, John P.; Wilson, Ryan M.; Bohn, John L.
2013-07-01
We examine the stability of quasi-two-dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of weak optical lattices of various geometries. We find that when the condensate possesses a roton-maxon quasiparticle dispersion, the conditions for stability exhibit a strong dependence both on the lattice geometry and the polarization tilt. This results in rich structures in the system's stability diagram akin to spectroscopic signatures. We show how these structures originate from the mode matching of rotons to the perturbing lattice. In the case of a one-dimensional lattice, some of the features emerge only when the polarization axis is tilted into the plane of the condensate. Our results suggest that the stability diagram may be used as a novel means to spectroscopically measure rotons in dipolar condensates.
Defect propagation in one-, two-, and three-dimensional compounds doped by magnetic atoms
Furrer, A.; Podlesnyak, A.; Krämer, K. W.; ...
2014-10-29
Inelastic neutron scattering experiments were performed to study manganese(II) dimer excitations in the diluted one-, two-, and three-dimensional compounds CsMn xMg 1-xBr 3, K 2Mn xZn 1-xF 4, and KMn xZn 1-xF 3 (x≤0.10), respectively. The transitions from the ground-state singlet to the excited triplet, split into a doublet and a singlet due to the single-ion anisotropy, exhibit remarkable fine structures. These unusual features are attributed to local structural inhomogeneities induced by the dopant Mn atoms which act like lattice defects. Statistical models support the theoretically predicted decay of atomic displacements according to 1/r 2, 1/r, and constant (for three-,more » two-, and one-dimensional compounds, respectively) where r denotes the distance of the displaced atoms from the defect. In conclusion, the observed fine structures allow a direct determination of the local exchange interactions J, and the local intradimer distances R can be derived through the linear law dJ/dR.« less
Linear optics measurements and corrections using an AC dipole in RHIC
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Wang, G.; Bai, M.; Yang, L.
2010-05-23
We report recent experimental results on linear optics measurements and corrections using ac dipole. In RHIC 2009 run, the concept of the SVD correction algorithm is tested at injection energy for both identifying the artificial gradient errors and correcting it using the trim quadrupoles. The measured phase beatings were reduced by 30% and 40% respectively for two dedicated experiments. In RHIC 2010 run, ac dipole is used to measure {beta}* and chromatic {beta} function. For the 0.65m {beta}* lattice, we observed a factor of 3 discrepancy between model and measured chromatic {beta} function in the yellow ring.
One-dimensional gravity in infinite point distributions.
Gabrielli, A; Joyce, M; Sicard, F
2009-10-01
The dynamics of infinite asymptotically uniform distributions of purely self-gravitating particles in one spatial dimension provides a simple and interesting toy model for the analogous three dimensional problem treated in cosmology. In this paper we focus on a limitation of such models as they have been treated so far in the literature: the force, as it has been specified, is well defined in infinite point distributions only if there is a centre of symmetry (i.e., the definition requires explicitly the breaking of statistical translational invariance). The problem arises because naive background subtraction (due to expansion, or by "Jeans swindle" for the static case), applied as in three dimensions, leaves an unregulated contribution to the force due to surface mass fluctuations. Following a discussion by Kiessling of the Jeans swindle in three dimensions, we show that the problem may be resolved by defining the force in infinite point distributions as the limit of an exponentially screened pair interaction. We show explicitly that this prescription gives a well defined (finite) force acting on particles in a class of perturbed infinite lattices, which are the point processes relevant to cosmological N -body simulations. For identical particles the dynamics of the simplest toy model (without expansion) is equivalent to that of an infinite set of points with inverted harmonic oscillator potentials which bounce elastically when they collide. We discuss and compare with previous results in the literature and present new results for the specific case of this simplest (static) model starting from "shuffled lattice" initial conditions. These show qualitative properties of the evolution (notably its "self-similarity") like those in the analogous simulations in three dimensions, which in turn resemble those in the expanding universe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitran, T. L.; Melchert, O.; Hartmann, A. K.
2013-12-01
The main characteristics of biased greedy random walks (BGRWs) on two-dimensional lattices with real-valued quenched disorder on the lattice edges are studied. Here the disorder allows for negative edge weights. In previous studies, considering the negative-weight percolation (NWP) problem, this was shown to change the universality class of the existing, static percolation transition. In the presented study, four different types of BGRWs and an algorithm based on the ant colony optimization heuristic were considered. Regarding the BGRWs, the precise configurations of the lattice walks constructed during the numerical simulations were influenced by two parameters: a disorder parameter ρ that controls the amount of negative edge weights on the lattice and a bias strength B that governs the drift of the walkers along a certain lattice direction. The random walks are “greedy” in the sense that the local optimal choice of the walker is to preferentially traverse edges with a negative weight (associated with a net gain of “energy” for the walker). Here, the pivotal observable is the probability that, after termination, a lattice walk exhibits a total negative weight, which is here considered as percolating. The behavior of this observable as function of ρ for different bias strengths B is put under scrutiny. Upon tuning ρ, the probability to find such a feasible lattice walk increases from zero to 1. This is the key feature of the percolation transition in the NWP model. Here, we address the question how well the transition point ρc, resulting from numerically exact and “static” simulations in terms of the NWP model, can be resolved using simple dynamic algorithms that have only local information available, one of the basic questions in the physics of glassy systems.
Detection of quantum well induced single degenerate-transition-dipoles in ZnO nanorods.
Ghosh, Siddharth; Ghosh, Moumita; Seibt, Michael; Rao, G Mohan
2016-02-07
Quantifying and characterising atomic defects in nanocrystals is difficult and low-throughput using the existing methods such as high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). In this article, using a defocused wide-field optical imaging technique, we demonstrate that a single ultrahigh-piezoelectric ZnO nanorod contains a single defect site. We model the observed dipole-emission patterns from optical imaging with a multi-dimensional dipole and find that the experimentally observed dipole pattern and model-calculated patterns are in excellent agreement. This agreement suggests the presence of vertically oriented degenerate-transition-dipoles in vertically aligned ZnO nanorods. The HRTEM of the ZnO nanorod shows the presence of a stacking fault, which generates a localised quantum well induced degenerate-transition-dipole. Finally, we elucidate that defocused wide-field imaging can be widely used to characterise defects in nanomaterials to answer many difficult questions concerning the performance of low-dimensional devices, such as in energy harvesting, advanced metal-oxide-semiconductor storage, and nanoelectromechanical and nanophotonic devices.
Entropic Lattice Boltzmann Methods
2001-12-10
model of fluid dynamics in one dimension, first considered by Renda et al. in 1997 [14]. Here the geometric picture involves a four dimensional polytope...convention of including constant terms in an extra column of the matrix, using the device of appending 1 to the column vector of unknowns. In general, there...we apply the entropic lattice Boltzmann method to a simple five-velocity model of fluid dynamics in one dimension, first considered by Renda et al
Emergence of Chiral Phases in Active Torque Dipole Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fialho, Ana; Tjhung, Elsen; Cates, Michael; Marenduzzo, Davide
The common description of active particles as active force dipoles fails to take into account that active processes in biological systems often exhibit chiral asymmetries, generating active chiral processes and torque dipoles. Examples of such systems include cytoskeleton filaments which interact with motor proteins and beating cilia and flagella. In particular, the generation of active torques by the actomyosin cytoskeleton has been linked to the break of chiral symmetry at a cellular level. This phenomenon could constitute the primary determinant for the break of left-right symmetry in many living organisms, e.g. the position of the human heart within the human body. In order to account for the effects of chirality, we consider active torque dipoles which generate a chiral active stress. We characterize quasi-1D and 2D systems of torque dipoles, using a combination of linear stability analysis and numerical simulations (Lattice Boltzmann). Our results show that activity drives a spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry, leading to the self-assembly of a chiral phase, in the absence of any thermodynamic interactions favoring cholesteric ordering. At high values of activity, we also observe labyrinthine patterns where the activity-induced chiral ordering is highly frustrated.
Bruno, Oscar P.; Turc, Catalin; Venakides, Stephanos
2016-01-01
This work, part I in a two-part series, presents: (i) a simple and highly efficient algorithm for evaluation of quasi-periodic Green functions, as well as (ii) an associated boundary-integral equation method for the numerical solution of problems of scattering of waves by doubly periodic arrays of scatterers in three-dimensional space. Except for certain ‘Wood frequencies’ at which the quasi-periodic Green function ceases to exist, the proposed approach, which is based on smooth windowing functions, gives rise to tapered lattice sums which converge superalgebraically fast to the Green function—that is, faster than any power of the number of terms used. This is in sharp contrast to the extremely slow convergence exhibited by the lattice sums in the absence of smooth windowing. (The Wood-frequency problem is treated in part II.) This paper establishes rigorously the superalgebraic convergence of the windowed lattice sums. A variety of numerical results demonstrate the practical efficiency of the proposed approach. PMID:27493573
Thermodynamics of one-dimensional SU(4) and SU(6) fermions with attractive interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffman, M. D.; Loheac, A. C.; Porter, W. J.; Drut, J. E.
2017-03-01
Motivated by advances in the manipulation and detection of ultracold atoms with multiple internal degrees of freedom, we present a finite-temperature lattice Monte Carlo calculation of the density and pressure equations of state, as well as Tan's contact, of attractively interacting SU(4)- and SU(6)-symmetric fermion systems in one spatial dimension. We also furnish a nonperturbative proof of a universal relation whereby quantities computable in the SU(2) case completely determine the virial coefficients of the SU(Nf) case. These one-dimensional systems are appealing because they can be experimentally realized in highly constrained traps and because of the dominant role played by correlations. The latter are typically nonperturbative and are crucial for understanding ground states and quantum phase transitions. While quantum fluctuations are typically overpowered by thermal ones in one and two dimensions at any finite temperature, we find that quantum effects do leave their imprint in thermodynamic quantities. Our calculations show that the additional degrees of freedom, relative to the SU(2) case, provide a dramatic enhancement of the density and pressure (in units of their noninteracting counterparts) in a wide region around vanishing β μ , where β is the inverse temperature and μ the chemical potential. As shown recently in experiments, the thermodynamics we explore here can be measured in a controlled and precise fashion in highly constrained traps and optical lattices. Our results are a prediction for such experiments in one dimension with atoms of high nuclear spin.
The lattice of trumping majorization for 4D probability vectors and 2D catalysts.
Bosyk, Gustavo M; Freytes, Hector; Bellomo, Guido; Sergioli, Giuseppe
2018-02-27
The transformation of an initial bipartite pure state into a target one by means of local operations and classical communication and entangled-assisted by a catalyst defines a partial order between probability vectors. This partial order, so-called trumping majorization, is based on tensor products and the majorization relation. Here, we aim to study order properties of trumping majorization. We show that the trumping majorization partial order is indeed a lattice for four dimensional probability vectors and two dimensional catalysts. In addition, we show that the subadditivity and supermodularity of the Shannon entropy on the majorization lattice are inherited by the trumping majorization lattice. Finally, we provide a suitable definition of distance for four dimensional probability vectors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabouat, Baptiste; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn
2018-03-01
Parton showers have become a standard component in the description of high-energy collisions. Nowadays most final-state ones are of the dipole character, wherein a pair of partons branches into three, with energy and momentum preserved inside this subsystem. For initial-state showers a dipole picture is also possible and commonly used, but the older global-recoil strategy remains a valid alternative, wherein larger groups of partons share the energy-momentum preservation task. In this article we introduce and implement a dipole picture also for initial-state radiation in Pythia, and compare with the existing global-recoil one, and with data. For the case of Deeply Inelastic Scattering we can directly compare with matrix element expressions and show that the dipole picture gives a very good description over the whole phase space, at least for the first branching.
Measuring the Forces between Magnetic Dipoles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gayetsky, Lisa E.; Caylor, Craig L.
2007-01-01
We describe a simple undergraduate lab in which students determine how the force between two magnetic dipoles depends on their separation. We consider the case where both dipoles are permanent and the case where one of the dipoles is induced by the field of the other (permanent) dipole. Agreement with theoretically expected results is quite good.
Arrays of strongly coupled atoms in a one-dimensional waveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruostekoski, Janne; Javanainen, Juha
2017-09-01
We study the cooperative optical coupling between regularly spaced atoms in a one-dimensional waveguide using decompositions to subradiant and super-radiant collective excitation eigenmodes, direct numerical solutions, and analytical transfer-matrix methods. We illustrate how the spectrum of transmitted light through the waveguide, including the emergence of narrow Fano resonances, can be understood by the resonance features of the eigenmodes. We describe a method based on super-radiant and subradiant modes to engineer the optical response of the waveguide and to store light. The stopping of light is obtained by transferring an atomic excitation to a subradiant collective mode with the zero radiative resonance linewidth by controlling the level shift of an atom in the waveguide. Moreover, we obtain an exact analytic solution for the transmitted light through the waveguide for the case of a regular lattice of atoms and provide a simple description of how the light transmission may present large resonance shifts when the lattice spacing is close, but not exactly equal, to half of the wavelength of the light. Experimental imperfections such as fluctuations of the positions of the atoms and loss of light from the waveguide are easily quantified in the numerical simulations, which produce the natural result that the optical response of the atomic array tends toward the response of a gas with random atomic positions.
Laser Cooled YbF Molecules for Measuring the Electron's Electric Dipole Moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, J.; Almond, J. R.; Trigatzis, M. A.; Devlin, J. A.; Fitch, N. J.; Sauer, B. E.; Tarbutt, M. R.; Hinds, E. A.
2018-03-01
We demonstrate one-dimensional sub-Doppler laser cooling of a beam of YbF molecules to 100 μ K . This is a key step towards a measurement of the electron's electric dipole moment using ultracold molecules. We compare the effectiveness of magnetically assisted and polarization-gradient sub-Doppler cooling mechanisms. We model the experiment and find good agreement with our data.
Laser Cooled YbF Molecules for Measuring the Electron's Electric Dipole Moment.
Lim, J; Almond, J R; Trigatzis, M A; Devlin, J A; Fitch, N J; Sauer, B E; Tarbutt, M R; Hinds, E A
2018-03-23
We demonstrate one-dimensional sub-Doppler laser cooling of a beam of YbF molecules to 100 μK. This is a key step towards a measurement of the electron's electric dipole moment using ultracold molecules. We compare the effectiveness of magnetically assisted and polarization-gradient sub-Doppler cooling mechanisms. We model the experiment and find good agreement with our data.
Stable biexcitons in two-dimensional metal-halide perovskites with strong dynamic lattice disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thouin, Félix; Neutzner, Stefanie; Cortecchia, Daniele; Dragomir, Vlad Alexandru; Soci, Cesare; Salim, Teddy; Lam, Yeng Ming; Leonelli, Richard; Petrozza, Annamaria; Kandada, Ajay Ram Srimath; Silva, Carlos
2018-03-01
With strongly bound and stable excitons at room temperature, single-layer, two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are viable semiconductors for light-emitting quantum optoelectronics applications. In such a technological context, it is imperative to comprehensively explore all the factors—chemical, electronic, and structural—that govern strong multiexciton correlations. Here, by means of two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy, we examine excitonic many-body effects in pure, single-layer (PEA) 2PbI4 (PEA = phenylethylammonium). We determine the binding energy of biexcitons—correlated two-electron, two-hole quasiparticles—to be 44 ±5 meV at room temperature. The extraordinarily high values are similar to those reported in other strongly excitonic two-dimensional materials such as transition-metal dichalcogenides. Importantly, we show that this binding energy increases by ˜25 % upon cooling to 5 K. Our work highlights the importance of multiexciton correlations in this class of technologically promising, solution-processable materials, in spite of the strong effects of lattice fluctuations and dynamic disorder.
Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, Boris A.; Saxena, Avadh; ...
2015-04-07
We consider a two-dimensional (2D) generalization of a recently proposed model [Phys. Rev. E 88, 032905 (2013)], which gives rise to bright discrete solitons supported by the defocusing nonlinearity whose local strength grows from the center to the periphery. We explore the 2D model starting from the anticontinuum (AC) limit of vanishing coupling. In this limit, we can construct a wide variety of solutions including not only single-site excitations, but also dipole and quadrupole ones. Additionally, two separate families of solutions are explored: the usual “extended” unstaggered bright solitons, in which all sites are excited in the AC limit, withmore » the same sign across the lattice (they represent the most robust states supported by the lattice, their 1D counterparts being those considered as 1D bright solitons in the above-mentioned work), and the vortex cross, which is specific to the 2D setting. For all the existing states, we explore their stability (also analytically, when possible). As a result, typical scenarios of instability development are exhibited through direct simulations.« less
Polarization response of RHIC electron lens lattices
Ranjbar, V. H.; Méot, F.; Bai, M.; ...
2016-10-10
Depolarization response for a system of two orthogonal snakes at irrational tunes is studied in depth using lattice independent spin integration. Particularly, we consider the effect of overlapping spin resonances in this system, to understand the impact of phase, tune, relative location and threshold strengths of the spin resonances. Furthermore, these results are benchmarked and compared to two dimensional direct tracking results for the RHIC e-lens lattice and the standard lattice. We then consider the effect of longitudinal motion via chromatic scans using direct six dimensional lattice tracking.
Neutron Electric Dipole Moment from Gauge-String Duality.
Bartolini, Lorenzo; Bigazzi, Francesco; Bolognesi, Stefano; Cotrone, Aldo L; Manenti, Andrea
2017-03-03
We compute the electric dipole moment of nucleons in the large N_{c} QCD model by Witten, Sakai, and Sugimoto with N_{f}=2 degenerate massive flavors. Baryons in the model are instantonic solitons of an effective five-dimensional action describing the whole tower of mesonic fields. We find that the dipole electromagnetic form factor of the nucleons, induced by a finite topological θ angle, exhibits complete vector meson dominance. We are able to evaluate the contribution of each vector meson to the final result-a small number of modes are relevant to obtain an accurate estimate. Extrapolating the model parameters to real QCD data, the neutron electric dipole moment is evaluated to be d_{n}=1.8×10^{-16}θ e cm. The electric dipole moment of the proton is exactly the opposite.
Overview of Lattice Design and Evaluation for the APS Upgrade
Borland, M.; Emery, L.; Lindberg, R.; ...
2017-08-01
The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV synchrotron light source that has been in operation since 1996. Since that time, the effective emittance has been decreased from 8 nm to 3.1 nm, which is very competitive for a 3rd-generation light source. However, newer facilities such as PETRA-III, NSLS-II, and MAX-IV are pushing the emittance to significantly smaller values. MAX-IV in particular has set the current benchmark with an emittance of about 300 pm at 3 GeV. This was accomplished by use of a multi-bend achromat lattice, which takes advantage of the 1/M3 scaling of the emittance with respect tomore » the number of dipoles M. In order to ensure that our facility remains competitive, APS is pursuing a major upgrade, which involves replacement of the existing double-bend lattice with a seven-bend achromat lattice, promising a 40-fold reduction in emittance. This paper describes the process of developing and evaluating candidate lattice designs. Two candidate 6-GeV lattices are described: one providing a natural emittance of 67 pm and the other providing 41 pm. Our analysis includes single-particle dynamics as well as single- and multi-bunch collective effects.« less
Bjorken flow in one-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamics with magnetization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pu, Shi; Roy, Victor; Rezzolla, Luciano; Rischke, Dirk H.
2016-04-01
We study the one-dimensional, longitudinally boost-invariant motion of an ideal fluid with infinite conductivity in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, i.e., in the ideal transverse magnetohydrodynamical limit. In an extension of our previous work Roy et al., [Phys. Lett. B 750, 45 (2015)], we consider the fluid to have a nonzero magnetization. First, we assume a constant magnetic susceptibility χm and consider an ultrarelativistic ideal gas equation of state. For a paramagnetic fluid (i.e., with χm>0 ), the decay of the energy density slows down since the fluid gains energy from the magnetic field. For a diamagnetic fluid (i.e., with χm<0 ), the energy density decays faster because it feeds energy into the magnetic field. Furthermore, when the magnetic field is taken to be external and to decay in proper time τ with a power law ˜τ-a, two distinct solutions can be found depending on the values of a and χm. Finally, we also solve the ideal magnetohydrodynamical equations for one-dimensional Bjorken flow with a temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility and a realistic equation of state given by lattice-QCD data. We find that the temperature and energy density decay more slowly because of the nonvanishing magnetization. For values of the magnetic field typical for heavy-ion collisions, this effect is, however, rather small. It is only for magnetic fields about an order of magnitude larger than expected for heavy-ion collisions that the system is substantially reheated and the lifetime of the quark phase might be extended.
Exact solution of a one-dimensional model of strained epitaxy on a periodically modulated substrate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tokar, V. I.; Dreyssé, H.
2005-03-01
We consider a one-dimensional lattice gas model of strained epitaxy with the elastic strain accounted for through a finite number of cluster interactions comprising contiguous atomic chains. Interactions of this type arise in the models of strained epitaxy based on the Frenkel-Kontorova model. Furthermore, the deposited atoms interact with the substrate via an arbitrary periodic potential of period L . This model is solved exactly with the use of an appropriately adopted technique developed recently in the theory of protein folding. The advantage of the proposed approach over the standard transfer-matrix method is that it reduces the problem to finding the largest eigenvalue of a matrix of size L instead of 2L-1 , which is vital in the case of nanostructures where L may measure in hundreds of interatomic distances. Our major conclusion is that the substrate modulation always facilitates the size calibration of self-assembled nanoparticles in one- and two-dimensional systems.
Lattice QCD spectroscopy for hadronic CP violation
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
de Vries, Jordy; Mereghetti, Emanuele; Seng, Chien -Yeah
Here, the interpretation of nuclear electric dipole moment (EDM) experiments is clouded by large theoretical uncertainties associated with nonperturbative matrix elements. In various beyond-the-Standard Model scenarios nuclear and diamagnetic atomic EDMs are expected to be dominated by CP-violating pion–nucleon interactions that arise from quark chromo-electric dipole moments. The corresponding CP-violating pion–nucleon coupling strengths are, however, poorly known. In this work we propose a strategy to calculate these couplings by using spectroscopic lattice QCD techniques. Instead of directly calculating the pion–nucleon coupling constants, a challenging task, we use chiral symmetry relations that link the pion–nucleon couplings to nucleon sigma terms andmore » mass splittings that are significantly easier to calculate. In this work, we show that these relations are reliable up to next-to-next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion in both SU(2) and SU(3) chiral perturbation theory. We conclude with a brief discussion about practical details regarding the required lattice QCD calculations and the phenomenological impact of an improved understanding of CP-violating matrix elements.« less
Lattice QCD spectroscopy for hadronic CP violation
de Vries, Jordy; Mereghetti, Emanuele; Seng, Chien -Yeah; ...
2017-01-16
Here, the interpretation of nuclear electric dipole moment (EDM) experiments is clouded by large theoretical uncertainties associated with nonperturbative matrix elements. In various beyond-the-Standard Model scenarios nuclear and diamagnetic atomic EDMs are expected to be dominated by CP-violating pion–nucleon interactions that arise from quark chromo-electric dipole moments. The corresponding CP-violating pion–nucleon coupling strengths are, however, poorly known. In this work we propose a strategy to calculate these couplings by using spectroscopic lattice QCD techniques. Instead of directly calculating the pion–nucleon coupling constants, a challenging task, we use chiral symmetry relations that link the pion–nucleon couplings to nucleon sigma terms andmore » mass splittings that are significantly easier to calculate. In this work, we show that these relations are reliable up to next-to-next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion in both SU(2) and SU(3) chiral perturbation theory. We conclude with a brief discussion about practical details regarding the required lattice QCD calculations and the phenomenological impact of an improved understanding of CP-violating matrix elements.« less
Debnath, Ananya; Thakkar, Foram M; Maiti, Prabal K; Kumaran, V; Ayappa, K G
2014-10-14
Molecular dynamics simulations of bilayers in a surfactant/co-surfactant/water system with explicit solvent molecules show formation of topologically distinct gel phases depending upon the bilayer composition. At low temperatures, the bilayers transform from the tilted gel phase, Lβ', to the one dimensional (1D) rippled, Pβ' phase as the surfactant concentration is increased. More interestingly, we observe a two dimensional (2D) square phase at higher surfactant concentration which, upon heating, transforms to the gel Lβ' phase. The thickness modulations in the 1D rippled and square phases are asymmetric in two surfactant leaflets and the bilayer thickness varies by a factor of ∼2 between maximum and minimum. The 1D ripple consists of a thinner interdigitated region of smaller extent alternating with a thicker non-interdigitated region. The 2D ripple phase is made up of two superimposed square lattices of maximum and minimum thicknesses with molecules of high tilt forming a square lattice translated from the lattice formed with the thickness minima. Using Voronoi diagrams we analyze the intricate interplay between the area-per-head-group, height modulations and chain tilt for the different ripple symmetries. Our simulations indicate that composition plays an important role in controlling the formation of low temperature gel phase symmetries and rippling accommodates the increased area-per-head-group of the surfactant molecules.
The One-Hole, One-Dimensional Hubbard Model at U = ∞
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hodge, William; Holzwarth, Natalie; Kerr, William
2008-03-01
The Hubbard Hamiltonian is the simplest model that describes interacting electrons on a lattice. In this work, we use the properties of stochastic matrices to examine the ground state with an even number of lattice sites and one electron less than half-filling. We show that there exists a highly symmetric state with energy -2 (in units where t = 1) at all U. At U = ∞ this state becomes the lowest energy state, consistent with the established lower energy bound. ootnotetextS. A. Trugman, Phys. Rev. B 42, 6612 (1990) Using this result, several properties of the strongly coupled ground state are derived, including the chemical potential and momentum distribution. This method may be applicable to other models as well. Disagreements between our results and previous work are examined.
Dipole response of 76Se above 4 MeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goddard, P. M.; Cooper, N.; Werner, V.; Rusev, G.; Stevenson, P. D.; Rios, A.; Bernards, C.; Chakraborty, A.; Crider, B. P.; Glorius, J.; Ilieva, R. S.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Peters, E. E.; Pietralla, N.; Raut, R.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Smith, M. K.; Sonnabend, K.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Yates, S. W.
2013-12-01
The dipole response of 3476Se in the energy range from 4 to 9 MeV has been analyzed using a (γ⃗,γ') polarized photon scattering technique, performed at the High Intensity γ-Ray Source facility at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, to complement previous work performed using unpolarized photons. The results of this work offer both an enhanced sensitivity scan of the dipole response and an unambiguous determination of the parities of the observed J=1 states. The dipole response is found to be dominated by E1 excitations, and can reasonably be attributed to a pygmy dipole resonance. Evidence is presented to suggest that a significant amount of directly unobserved excitation strength is present in the region, due to unobserved branching transitions in the decays of resonantly excited states. The dipole response of the region is underestimated when considering only ground state decay branches. We investigate the electric dipole response theoretically, performing calculations in a three-dimensional (3D) Cartesian-basis time-dependent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock framework.
Observation of a dissipative phase transition in a one-dimensional circuit QED lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitzpatrick, Mattias; Sundaresan, Neereja; Li, Andy C. Y.; Koch, Jens; Houck, Andrew
The building blocks of circuit QED provide a useful toolbox for the study of nonequilibrium and highly nonlinear behavior. Here, we present results from a one-dimensional chain of 72 microwave cavities, each coupled to a superconducting qubit, where we coherently drive the system into a nonequilibrium steady state. We find experimental evidence for a dissipative phase transition in the system in which the steady state changes dramatically as the mean photon number is increased. Near the boundary between the two observed phases, the system demonstrates bistability, with characteristic switching times as long as 60 ms - far longer than any of the intrinsic rates known for the system. This experiment demonstrates the power of circuit QED systems for the studying nonequilibrium condensed matter physics and paves the way for future experiments exploring nonequilibrium physics with many-body quantum optics. This work was supported by the Army research Offic through Grant W911NF-15-1-0397 and the National Science Foundation through Grants No. DMR-0953475 and No. PHY-1055993. NS was supported by an NDSEG fellowship.
Toward a nanoscience emulator with two dimensional atomic gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ping; Ma, Q.; Dutta, S.; Chen, Yong P.
2009-05-01
We report our experimental progress in constructing a cold atom apparatus for emulating phenomena in nanoscience using low dimensional atom gases. Our first experiments will be performed with a 2D ^87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate created in an optical lattice. Our compact vacuum system consists of two AR-coated glass cells --- a low vacuum magneto-optical trap (MOT) chamber and a high vacuum ``science chamber'', connected by a 15cm-long tube for differential pumping. We have used elliptically shaped cooling laser beams and magnet field coils to realize an elongated MOT in the first chamber, and transferred the atoms to a second MOT in the science chamber by a push laser beam. In the science chamber, a 50W, 1550nm single frequency erbium fiber laser is used to produce an optical dipole trap and optical lattice.In addition, controllable disorder can be introduced with laser speckle and inter-atomic interactions can be tuned by atomic density or Feshbach resonance. We plan to explore important phenomena in nanoscience, such as 2D disorder-induced conductor-insulator transition, quantum Hall effect and graphene-like physics in such a tunable 2D atomic gas in optical lattices.
Magnetic order in a frustrated two-dimensional atom lattice at a semiconductor surface.
Li, Gang; Höpfner, Philipp; Schäfer, Jörg; Blumenstein, Christian; Meyer, Sebastian; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Claessen, Ralph; Hanke, Werner
2013-01-01
Two-dimensional electron systems, as exploited for device applications, can lose their conducting properties because of local Coulomb repulsion, leading to a Mott-insulating state. In triangular geometries, any concomitant antiferromagnetic spin ordering can be prevented by geometric frustration, spurring speculations about 'melted' phases, known as spin liquid. Here we show that for a realization of a triangular electron system by epitaxial atom adsorption on a semiconductor, such spin disorder, however, does not appear. Our study compares the electron excitation spectra obtained from theoretical simulations of the correlated electron lattice with data from high-resolution photoemission. We find that an unusual row-wise antiferromagnetic spin alignment occurs that is reflected in the photoemission spectra as characteristic 'shadow bands' induced by the spin pattern. The magnetic order in a frustrated lattice of otherwise non-magnetic components emerges from longer-range electron hopping between the atoms. This finding can offer new ways of controlling magnetism on surfaces.
Complex-time singularity and locality estimates for quantum lattice systems
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Bouch, Gabriel
2015-12-15
We present and prove a well-known locality bound for the complex-time dynamics of a general class of one-dimensional quantum spin systems. Then we discuss how one might hope to extend this same procedure to higher dimensions using ideas related to the Eden growth process and lattice trees. Finally, we demonstrate with a specific family of lattice trees in the plane why this approach breaks down in dimensions greater than one and prove that there exist interactions for which the complex-time dynamics blows-up in finite imaginary time. .
Dimension-5 C P -odd operators: QCD mixing and renormalization
Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; ...
2015-12-23
Here, we study the off-shell mixing and renormalization of flavor-diagonal dimension-five T- and P-odd operators involving quarks, gluons, and photons, including quark electric dipole and chromoelectric dipole operators. Furthermore, we present the renormalization matrix to one loop in themore » $$\\bar{MS}$$ scheme. We also provide a definition of the quark chromoelectric dipole operator in a regularization-independent momentum-subtraction scheme suitable for nonperturbative lattice calculations and present the matching coefficients with the $$\\bar{MS}$$ scheme to one loop in perturbation theory, using both the naïve dimensional regularization and ’t Hooft–Veltman prescriptions for γ 5.« less
One-dimensional Gromov minimal filling problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, Alexandr O.; Tuzhilin, Alexey A.
2012-05-01
The paper is devoted to a new branch in the theory of one-dimensional variational problems with branching extremals, the investigation of one-dimensional minimal fillings introduced by the authors. On the one hand, this problem is a one-dimensional version of a generalization of Gromov's minimal fillings problem to the case of stratified manifolds. On the other hand, this problem is interesting in itself and also can be considered as a generalization of another classical problem, the Steiner problem on the construction of a shortest network connecting a given set of terminals. Besides the statement of the problem, we discuss several properties of the minimal fillings and state several conjectures. Bibliography: 38 titles.
The Extraction of One-Dimensional Flow Properties from Multi-Dimensional Data Sets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baurle, Robert A.; Gaffney, Richard L., Jr.
2007-01-01
The engineering design and analysis of air-breathing propulsion systems relies heavily on zero- or one-dimensional properties (e.g. thrust, total pressure recovery, mixing and combustion efficiency, etc.) for figures of merit. The extraction of these parameters from experimental data sets and/or multi-dimensional computational data sets is therefore an important aspect of the design process. A variety of methods exist for extracting performance measures from multi-dimensional data sets. Some of the information contained in the multi-dimensional flow is inevitably lost when any one-dimensionalization technique is applied. Hence, the unique assumptions associated with a given approach may result in one-dimensional properties that are significantly different than those extracted using alternative approaches. The purpose of this effort is to examine some of the more popular methods used for the extraction of performance measures from multi-dimensional data sets, reveal the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, and highlight various numerical issues that result when mapping data from a multi-dimensional space to a space of one dimension.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Song; Yu, Yi-Cong; Batchelor, M. T.; Guan, Xi-Wen
2018-03-01
In this Rapid Communication, we show that low-energy macroscopic properties of the one-dimensional (1D) attractive Hubbard model exhibit two fluids of bound pairs and of unpaired fermions. Using the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equations of the model, we first determine the low-temperature phase diagram and analytically calculate the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) pairing correlation function for the partially polarized phase. We then show that for such an FFLO-like state in the low-density regime the effective chemical potentials of bound pairs and unpaired fermions behave like two free fluids. Consequently, the susceptibility, compressibility, and specific heat obey simple additivity rules, indicating the "free" particle nature of interacting fermions on a 1D lattice. In contrast to the continuum Fermi gases, the correlation critical exponents and thermodynamics of the attractive Hubbard model essentially depend on two lattice interacting parameters. Finally, we study scaling functions, the Wilson ratio and susceptibility, which provide universal macroscopic properties and dimensionless constants of interacting fermions at low energy.
Disordered topological wires in a momentum-space lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meier, Eric; An, Fangzhao; Gadway, Bryce
2017-04-01
One of the most interesting aspects of topological systems is the presence of boundary modes which remain robust in the presence of weak disorder. We explore this feature in the context of one-dimensional (1D) topological wires where staggered tunneling strengths lead to the creation of a mid-gap state in the lattice band structure. Using Bose-condensed 87Rb atoms in a 1D momentum-space lattice, we probe the robust topological character of this model when subjected to both site energy and tunneling disorder. We observe a transition to a topologically trivial phase when tailored disorder is applied, which we detect through both charge-pumping and Hamiltonian-quenching protocols. In addition, we report on efforts to probe the influence of interactions in topological momentum-space lattices.
Optical Lattice Simulations of Correlated Fermions
2013-10-04
Zhang, Xiaopeng Li, W. Vincent Liu. Stripe , checkerboard, and liquid-crystal ordering from anisotropic p-orbital Fermi surfaces in optical lattices...Meeting "The Role of Interactions in Disorder Induced Damping of Dipole Oscillations of a Bose-Einstein Condensate", S. Pollack, APS March Meeting...Rev. A 85, 043603 (2012)], and also worked out the diffusive transport behavior of the polarized Fermi gas, including heat transport, spin Seebeck
Role of dimensionality in Axelrod's model for the dissemination of culture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klemm, Konstantin; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Toral, Raúl; Miguel, Maxi San
2003-09-01
We analyze a model of social interaction in one- and two-dimensional lattices for a moderate number of features. We introduce an order parameter as a function of the overlap between neighboring sites. In a one-dimensional chain, we observe that the dynamics is consistent with a second-order transition, where the order parameter changes continuously and the average domain diverges at the transition point. However, in a two-dimensional lattice the order parameter is discontinuous at the transition point characteristic of a first-order transition between an ordered and a disordered state.
Thermal effects in light scattering from ultracold bosons in an optical lattice
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Lakomy, Kazimierz; Idziaszek, Zbigniew; Trippenbach, Marek
2009-10-15
We study the scattering of a weak and far-detuned light from a system of ultracold bosons in one-dimensional and three-dimensional optical lattices. We show the connection between angular distributions of the scattered light and statistical properties of a Bose gas in a periodic potential. The angular patterns are determined by the Fourier transform of the second-order correlation function, and thus they can be used to retrieve information on particle number fluctuations and correlations. We consider superfluid and Mott-insulator phases of the Bose gas in a lattice and we analyze in detail how the scattering depends on the system dimensionality, temperature,more » and atom-atom interactions.« less
One-Dimensional Quantum Walks with One Defect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cantero, M. J.; Grünbaum, F. A.; Moral, L.; Velázquez, L.
The CGMV method allows for the general discussion of localization properties for the states of a one-dimensional quantum walk, both in the case of the integers and in the case of the nonnegative integers. Using this method we classify, according to such localization properties, all the quantum walks with one defect at the origin, providing explicit expressions for the asymptotic return probabilities to the origin.
Renormalization group analysis of dipolar Heisenberg model on square lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keleş, Ahmet; Zhao, Erhai
2018-06-01
We present a detailed functional renormalization group analysis of spin-1/2 dipolar Heisenberg model on square lattice. This model is similar to the well-known J1-J2 model and describes the pseudospin degrees of freedom of polar molecules confined in deep optical lattice with long-range anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions. Previous study of this model based on tensor network ansatz indicates a paramagnetic ground state for certain dipole tilting angles which can be tuned in experiments to control the exchange couplings. The tensor ansatz formulated on a small cluster unit cell is inadequate to describe the spiral order, and therefore the phase diagram at high azimuthal tilting angles remains undetermined. Here, we obtain the full phase diagram of the model from numerical pseudofermion functional renormalization group calculations. We show that an extended quantum paramagnetic phase is realized between the Néel and stripe/spiral phases. In this region, the spin susceptibility flows smoothly down to the lowest numerical renormalization group scales with no sign of divergence or breakdown of the flow, in sharp contrast to the flow towards the long-range-ordered phases. Our results provide further evidence that the dipolar Heisenberg model is a fertile ground for quantum spin liquids.
Bulk diffusion in a kinetically constrained lattice gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arita, Chikashi; Krapivsky, P. L.; Mallick, Kirone
2018-03-01
In the hydrodynamic regime, the evolution of a stochastic lattice gas with symmetric hopping rules is described by a diffusion equation with density-dependent diffusion coefficient encapsulating all microscopic details of the dynamics. This diffusion coefficient is, in principle, determined by a Green-Kubo formula. In practice, even when the equilibrium properties of a lattice gas are analytically known, the diffusion coefficient cannot be computed except when a lattice gas additionally satisfies the gradient condition. We develop a procedure to systematically obtain analytical approximations for the diffusion coefficient for non-gradient lattice gases with known equilibrium. The method relies on a variational formula found by Varadhan and Spohn which is a version of the Green-Kubo formula particularly suitable for diffusive lattice gases. Restricting the variational formula to finite-dimensional sub-spaces allows one to perform the minimization and gives upper bounds for the diffusion coefficient. We apply this approach to a kinetically constrained non-gradient lattice gas in two dimensions, viz. to the Kob-Andersen model on the square lattice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakhel, Asaad R.
2016-09-01
The sensitivity of the pinning transition (PT) as described by the sine-Gordon model of strongly interacting bosons confined in a shallow, one-dimensional, periodic optical lattice (OL), is examined against perturbations of the OL. The PT has been recently realized experimentally by Haller et al. [Nature (London) 466, 597 (2010), 10.1038/nature09259] and is the exact opposite of the superfluid-to-Mott-insulator transition in a deep OL with weakly interacting bosons. The continuous-space worm-algorithm (WA) Monte Carlo method [Boninsegni et al., Phys. Rev. E 74, 036701 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevE.74.036701] is applied for the present examination. It is found that the WA is able to reproduce the PT, which is another manifestation of the power of continuous-space WA methods in capturing the physics of phase transitions. In order to examine the sensitivity of the PT, it is tweaked by the addition of the secondary OL. The resulting bichromatic optical lattice (BCOL) is considered with a rational ratio of the constituting wavelengths λ1 and λ2 in contrast to the commonly used irrational ratio. For a weak BCOL, it is chiefly demonstrated that this PT is robust against the introduction of a weaker, secondary OL. The system is explored numerically by scanning its properties in a range of the Lieb-Liniger interaction parameter γ in the regime of the PT. It is argued that there should not be much difference in the results between those due to an irrational ratio λ1/λ2 and those due to a rational approximation of the latter, bringing this in line with a recent statement by Boers et al. [Phys. Rev. A 75, 063404 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevA.75.063404]. The correlation function, Matsubara Green's function (MGF), and the single-particle density matrix do not respond to changes in the depth of the secondary OL V1. For a stronger BCOL, however, a response is observed because of changes in V1. In the regime where the bosons are fermionized, the MGF reveals that hole excitations are
Physical condition for elimination of ambiguity in conditionally convergent lattice sums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, K.
1987-02-01
The conditional convergence of the lattice sum defining the Madelung constant gives rise to an ambiguity in its value. It is shown that this ambiguity is related, through a simple and universal integral, to the average charge density on the crystal surface. The physically correct value is obtained by setting the charge density to zero. A simple and universally applicable formula for the Madelung constant is derived as a consequence. It consists of adding up dipole-dipole energies together with a nontrivial correction term.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forsling, Robin; Sanders, Lloyd P.; Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Lizana, Ludvig
2014-09-01
The standard setup for single-file diffusion is diffusing particles in one dimension which cannot overtake each other, where the dynamics of a tracer (tagged) particle is of main interest. In this article, we generalize this system and investigate first-passage properties of a tracer particle when flanked by identical crowder particles which may, besides diffuse, unbind (rebind) from (to) the one-dimensional lattice with rates koff (kon). The tracer particle is restricted to diffuse with rate kD on the lattice and the density of crowders is constant (on average). The unbinding rate koff is our key parameter and it allows us to systematically study the non-trivial transition between the completely Markovian case (koff ≫ kD) to the non-Markovian case (koff ≪ kD) governed by strong memory effects. This has relevance for several quasi one-dimensional systems. One example is gene regulation where regulatory proteins are searching for specific binding sites on a crowded DNA. We quantify the first-passage time distribution, f (t) (t is time), numerically using the Gillespie algorithm, and estimate f (t) analytically. In terms of koff (keeping kD fixed), we study the transition between the two known regimes: (i) when koff ≫ kD the particles may effectively pass each other and we recover the single particle result f (t) ˜ t-3/2, with a reduced diffusion constant; (ii) when koff ≪ kD unbinding is rare and we obtain the single-file result f (t) ˜ t-7/4. The intermediate region displays rich dynamics where both the characteristic f (t) - peak and the long-time power-law slope are sensitive to koff.
Multilayer DNA Origami Packed on a Square Lattice
Ke, Yonggang; Douglas, Shawn M.; Liu, Minghui; Sharma, Jaswinder; Cheng, Anchi; Leung, Albert; Liu, Yan; Shih, William M.; Yan, Hao
2009-01-01
Molecular self-assembly using DNA as a structural building block has proven to be an efficient route to the construction of nanoscale objects and arrays of increasing complexity. Using the remarkable “scaffolded DNA origami” strategy, Rothemund demonstrated that a long single-stranded DNA from a viral genome (M13) can be folded into a variety of custom two-dimensional (2D) shapes using hundreds of short synthetic DNA molecules as staple strands. More recently, we generalized a strategy to build custom-shaped, three-dimensional (3D) objects formed as pleated layers of helices constrained to a honeycomb lattice, with precisely controlled dimensions ranging from 10 to 100 nm. Here we describe a more compact design for 3D origami, with layers of helices packed on a square lattice, that can be folded successfully into structures of designed dimensions in a one-step annealing process, despite the increased density of DNA helices. A square lattice provides a more natural framework for designing rectangular structures, the option for a more densely packed architecture, and the ability to create surfaces that are more flat than is possible with the honeycomb lattice. Thus enabling the design and construction of custom 3D shapes from helices packed on a square lattice provides a general foundational advance for increasing the versatility and scope of DNA nanotechnology. PMID:19807088
Optimal preconditioning of lattice Boltzmann methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izquierdo, Salvador; Fueyo, Norberto
2009-09-01
A preconditioning technique to accelerate the simulation of steady-state problems using the single-relaxation-time (SRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) method was first proposed by Guo et al. [Z. Guo, T. Zhao, Y. Shi, Preconditioned lattice-Boltzmann method for steady flows, Phys. Rev. E 70 (2004) 066706-1]. The key idea in this preconditioner is to modify the equilibrium distribution function in such a way that, by means of a Chapman-Enskog expansion, a time-derivative preconditioner of the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations is obtained. In the present contribution, the optimal values for the free parameter γ of this preconditioner are searched both numerically and theoretically; the later with the aid of linear-stability analysis and with the condition number of the system of NS equations. The influence of the collision operator, single- versus multiple-relaxation-times (MRT), is also studied. Three steady-state laminar test cases are used for validation, namely: the two-dimensional lid-driven cavity, a two-dimensional microchannel and the three-dimensional backward-facing step. Finally, guidelines are suggested for an a priori definition of optimal preconditioning parameters as a function of the Reynolds and Mach numbers. The new optimally preconditioned MRT method derived is shown to improve, simultaneously, the rate of convergence, the stability and the accuracy of the lattice Boltzmann simulations, when compared to the non-preconditioned methods and to the optimally preconditioned SRT one. Additionally, direct time-derivative preconditioning of the LB equation is also studied.
The Art of Extracting One-Dimensional Flow Properties from Multi-Dimensional Data Sets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baurle, R. A.; Gaffney, R. L.
2007-01-01
The engineering design and analysis of air-breathing propulsion systems relies heavily on zero- or one-dimensional properties (e:g: thrust, total pressure recovery, mixing and combustion efficiency, etc.) for figures of merit. The extraction of these parameters from experimental data sets and/or multi-dimensional computational data sets is therefore an important aspect of the design process. A variety of methods exist for extracting performance measures from multi-dimensional data sets. Some of the information contained in the multi-dimensional flow is inevitably lost when any one-dimensionalization technique is applied. Hence, the unique assumptions associated with a given approach may result in one-dimensional properties that are significantly different than those extracted using alternative approaches. The purpose of this effort is to examine some of the more popular methods used for the extraction of performance measures from multi-dimensional data sets, reveal the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, and highlight various numerical issues that result when mapping data from a multi-dimensional space to a space of one dimension.
Critical slowing down in driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vicentini, Filippo; Minganti, Fabrizio; Rota, Riccardo; Orso, Giuliano; Ciuti, Cristiano
2018-01-01
We explore theoretically the dynamical properties of a first-order dissipative phase transition in coherently driven Bose-Hubbard systems, describing, e.g., lattices of coupled nonlinear optical cavities. Via stochastic trajectory calculations based on the truncated Wigner approximation, we investigate the dynamical behavior as a function of system size for one-dimensional (1D) and 2D square lattices in the regime where mean-field theory predicts nonlinear bistability. We show that a critical slowing down emerges for increasing number of sites in 2D square lattices, while it is absent in 1D arrays. We characterize the peculiar properties of the collective phases in the critical region.
Effects of hydrostatic pressure on spin-lattice coupling in two-dimensional ferromagnetic Cr2Ge2Te6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Y.; Xiao, R. C.; Lin, G. T.; Zhang, R. R.; Ling, L. S.; Ma, Z. W.; Luo, X.; Lu, W. J.; Sun, Y. P.; Sheng, Z. G.
2018-02-01
Spin-lattice coupling plays an important role in both formation and understanding of the magnetism in two-dimensional magnetic semiconductors (2DMS). In this paper, the steady pressure effects on the lattice structure, Raman resonances, and magnetization of a 2DMS Cr2Ge2Te6 have been studied by both experiments and first principles calculations. It is found that the bond length of Cr-Cr decreases, the angle of Cr-Te-Cr diverges from 90°, and the Raman modes Eg3 and Ag1 show an increase with the application of external pressure. Consequently, the magnetic phase transition temperature TC decreases from 66.6 K to 60.6 K (˜9%) as the pressure increases from 0 to 1 GPa. These pressure effects not only confirm the existence of strong spin-lattice coupling but also reveal the detailed information about the lattice deformation effect on the magnetic properties in such 2DMS, which would be a benefit for the further understanding and manipulation of the magnetism in 2D materials.
Robust calibration of an optical-lattice depth based on a phase shift
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabrera-Gutiérrez, C.; Michon, E.; Brunaud, V.; Kawalec, T.; Fortun, A.; Arnal, M.; Billy, J.; Guéry-Odelin, D.
2018-04-01
We report on a method to calibrate the depth of an optical lattice. It consists of triggering the intrasite dipole mode of the cloud by a sudden phase shift. The corresponding oscillatory motion is directly related to the interband frequencies on a large range of lattice depths. Remarkably, for a moderate displacement, a single frequency dominates the oscillation of the zeroth and first orders of the interference pattern observed after a sufficiently long time of flight. The method is robust against atom-atom interactions and the exact value of the extra weak external confinement superimposed to the optical lattice.
Lattice gas simulations of dynamical geometry in one dimension.
Love, Peter J; Boghosian, Bruce M; Meyer, David A
2004-08-15
We present numerical results obtained using a lattice gas model with dynamical geometry. The (irreversible) macroscopic behaviour of the geometry (size) of the lattice is discussed in terms of a simple scaling theory and obtained numerically. The emergence of irreversible behaviour from the reversible microscopic lattice gas rules is discussed in terms of the constraint that the macroscopic evolution be reproducible. The average size of the lattice exhibits power-law growth with exponent at late times. The deviation of the macroscopic behaviour from reproducibility for particular initial conditions ('rogue states') is investigated as a function of system size. The number of such 'rogue states' is observed to decrease with increasing system size. Two mean-field analyses of the macroscopic behaviour are also presented. Copyright 2004 The Royal Society
Quantum Electric Dipole Lattice - Water Molecules Confined to Nanocavities in Beryl
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dressel, Martin; Zhukova, Elena S.; Thomas, Victor G.; Gorshunov, Boris P.
2018-02-01
Water is subject to intense investigations due to its importance in biological matter but keeps many of its secrets. Here, we unveil an even other aspect by confining H2O molecules to nanosize cages. Our THz and infrared spectra of water in the gemstone beryl evidence quantum tunneling of H2O molecules in the crystal lattice. The water molecules are spread out when confined in a nanocage. In combination with low-frequency dielectric measurements, we were also able to show that dipolar coupling among the H2O molecules leads towards a ferroelectric state at low temperatures. Upon cooling, a ferroelectric soft mode shifts through the THz range. Only quantum fluctuations prevent perfect macroscopic order to be fully achieved. Beside the significance to life science and possible application, nanoconfined water may become the prime example of a quantum electric dipolar lattice.
Dark State Optical Lattice with a Subwavelength Spatial Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y.; Subhankar, S.; Bienias, P.; ŁÄ cki, M.; Tsui, T.-C.; Baranov, M. A.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Zoller, P.; Porto, J. V.; Rolston, S. L.
2018-02-01
We report on the experimental realization of a conservative optical lattice for cold atoms with a subwavelength spatial structure. The potential is based on the nonlinear optical response of three-level atoms in laser-dressed dark states, which is not constrained by the diffraction limit of the light generating the potential. The lattice consists of a one-dimensional array of ultranarrow barriers with widths less than 10 nm, well below the wavelength of the lattice light, physically realizing a Kronig-Penney potential. We study the band structure and dissipation of this lattice and find good agreement with theoretical predictions. Even on resonance, the observed lifetimes of atoms trapped in the lattice are as long as 44 ms, nearly 1 05 times the excited state lifetime, and could be further improved with more laser intensity. The potential is readily generalizable to higher dimensions and different geometries, allowing, for example, nearly perfect box traps, narrow tunnel junctions for atomtronics applications, and dynamically generated lattices with subwavelength spacings.
Plasmon polaritons in cubic lattices of spherical metallic nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamowski, Simon; Mann, Charlie-Ray; Hellbach, Felicitas; Mariani, Eros; Weick, Guillaume; Pauly, Fabian
2018-03-01
We theoretically investigate plasmon polaritons in cubic lattices of spherical metallic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles, each supporting triply-degenerate localized surface plasmons, couple through the Coulomb dipole-dipole interaction, giving rise to collective plasmons that extend over the whole metamaterial. The latter hybridize with photons forming plasmon polaritons, which are the hybrid light-matter eigenmodes of the system. We derive general analytical expressions to evaluate both plasmon and plasmon-polariton dispersions and the corresponding eigenstates. These are obtained within a Hamiltonian formalism, which takes into account retardation effects in the dipolar interaction between the nanoparticles and considers the dielectric properties of the nanoparticles as well as their surrounding. Within this model we predict polaritonic splittings in the near-infrared to the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum that depend on polarization, lattice symmetry, and wave-vector direction. Finally, we show that the predictions of our model are in excellent quantitative agreement with conventional finite-difference frequency-domain simulations, but with the advantages of analytical insight and significantly reduced computational cost.
Dipole-allowed direct band gap silicon superlattices
Oh, Young Jun; Lee, In-Ho; Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Jooyoung; Chang, Kee Joo
2015-01-01
Silicon is the most popular material used in electronic devices. However, its poor optical properties owing to its indirect band gap nature limit its usage in optoelectronic devices. Here we present the discovery of super-stable pure-silicon superlattice structures that can serve as promising materials for solar cell applications and can lead to the realization of pure Si-based optoelectronic devices. The structures are almost identical to that of bulk Si except that defective layers are intercalated in the diamond lattice. The superlattices exhibit dipole-allowed direct band gaps as well as indirect band gaps, providing ideal conditions for the investigation of a direct-to-indirect band gap transition. The fact that almost all structural portions of the superlattices originate from bulk Si warrants their stability and good lattice matching with bulk Si. Through first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, we confirmed their thermal stability and propose a possible method to synthesize the defective layer through wafer bonding. PMID:26656482
A comparison of VRML and animation of rotation for teaching 3-dimensional crystal lattice structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sauls, Barbara Lynn
Chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing abstract concepts of molecules and atoms, which may lead to misconceptions. The three-dimensionality of these structures presents a challenge to educators. Typical methods of teaching include text with two-dimensional graphics and structural models. Improved methods to allow visualization of 3D structures may improve learning of these concepts. This research compared the use of Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) and animation of rotation for teaching three-dimensional structures. VRML allows full control of objects by altering angle, size, rotation, and provides the ability to zoom into and through objects. Animations may only be stopped, restarted and replayed. A web-based lesson teaching basic concepts of crystals, which requires comprehension of their three-dimensional structure was given to 100 freshmen chemistry students. Students were stratified by gender then randomly to one of two lessons, which were identical except for the multimedia method used to show the lattices and unit cells. One method required exploration of the structures using VRML, the other provided animations of the same structures rotating. The students worked through an examination as the lesson progressed. A Welch t' test was used to compare differences between groups. No significant difference in mean achievement was found between the two methods, between genders, or within gender. There was no significant difference in mean total SAT in the animation and VRML group. Total time on task had no significant difference nor did enjoyment of the lesson. Students, however, spent 14% less time maneuvering VRML structures than viewing the animations of rotation. Neither method proved superior for presenting three-dimensional information. The students spent less time maneuvering the VRML structures with no difference in mean score so the use of VRML may be more efficient. The investigator noted some manipulation difficulties using VRML to
Huang, Aiqun; Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Bhattacharya, Aniket; Binder, Kurt
2015-12-28
The conformations of semiflexible polymers in two dimensions confined in a strip of width D are studied by computer simulations, investigating two different models for the mechanism by which chain stiffness is realized. One model (studied by molecular dynamics) is a bead-spring model in the continuum, where stiffness is controlled by a bond angle potential allowing for arbitrary bond angles. The other model (studied by Monte Carlo) is a self-avoiding walk chain on the square lattice, where only discrete bond angles (0° and ±90°) are possible, and the bond angle potential then controls the density of kinks along the chain contour. The first model is a crude description of DNA-like biopolymers, while the second model (roughly) describes synthetic polymers like alkane chains. It is first demonstrated that in the bulk the crossover from rods to self-avoiding walks for both models is very similar, when one studies average chain linear dimensions, transverse fluctuations, etc., despite their differences in local conformations. However, in quasi-one-dimensional confinement two significant differences between both models occur: (i) The persistence length (extracted from the average cosine of the bond angle) gets renormalized for the lattice model when D gets less than the bulk persistence length, while in the continuum model it stays unchanged. (ii) The monomer density near the repulsive walls for semiflexible polymers is compatible with a power law predicted for the Kratky-Porod model in the case of the bead-spring model, while for the lattice case it tends to a nonzero constant across the strip. However, for the density of chain ends, such a constant behavior seems to occur for both models, unlike the power law observed for flexible polymers. In the regime where the bulk persistence length ℓp is comparable to D, hairpin conformations are detected, and the chain linear dimensions are discussed in terms of a crossover from the Daoud/De Gennes "string of blobs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lomsadze, Bachana; Cundiff, Steven T.
2018-06-01
Frequency-comb based multidimensional coherent spectroscopy is a novel optical method that enables high-resolution measurement in a short acquisition time. The method's resolution makes multidimensional coherent spectroscopy relevant for atomic systems that have narrow resonances. We use double-quantum multidimensional coherent spectroscopy to reveal collective hyperfine resonances in rubidium vapor at 100 °C induced by dipole-dipole interactions. We observe tilted and elongated line shapes in the double-quantum 2D spectra, which have never been reported for Doppler-broadened systems. The elongated line shapes suggest that the signal is predominately from the interacting atoms that have a near zero relative velocity.
A quest for 2D lattice materials for actuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pronk, T. N.; Ayas, C.; Tekõglu, C.
2017-08-01
In the last two decades, most of the studies in shape morphing technology have focused on the Kagome lattice materials, which have superior properties such as in-plane isotropy, high specific stiffness and strength, and low energy requirement for actuation of its members. The Kagome lattice is a member of the family of semi-regular tessellations of the plane. Two fundamental questions naturally arise: i-) What makes a lattice material suitable for actuation? ii-) Are there other tessellations more effective than the Kagome lattice for actuation? The present paper tackles both questions, and provides a clear answer to the first one by comparing an alternative lattice material, the hexagonal cupola, with the Kagome lattice in terms of mechanical/actuation properties. The second question remains open, but, hopefully easier to challenge owing to a newly-discovered criterion: for an n-dimensional (n = 2 , 3) in-plane isotropic lattice material to be suitable for actuation, its pin-jointed equivalent must obey the generalised Maxwell's rule, and must possess M = 3(n - 1) non strain-producing finite kinematic mechanisms.
Current quantization and fractal hierarchy in a driven repulsive lattice gas.
Rotondo, Pietro; Sellerio, Alessandro Luigi; Glorioso, Pietro; Caracciolo, Sergio; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco; Gherardi, Marco
2017-11-01
Driven lattice gases are widely regarded as the paradigm of collective phenomena out of equilibrium. While such models are usually studied with nearest-neighbor interactions, many empirical driven systems are dominated by slowly decaying interactions such as dipole-dipole and Van der Waals forces. Motivated by this gap, we study the nonequilibrium stationary state of a driven lattice gas with slow-decayed repulsive interactions at zero temperature. By numerical and analytical calculations of the particle current as a function of the density and of the driving field, we identify (i) an abrupt breakdown transition between insulating and conducting states, (ii) current quantization into discrete phases where a finite current flows with infinite differential resistivity, and (iii) a fractal hierarchy of excitations, related to the Farey sequences of number theory. We argue that the origin of these effects is the competition between scales, which also causes the counterintuitive phenomenon that crystalline states can melt by increasing the density.
Current quantization and fractal hierarchy in a driven repulsive lattice gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rotondo, Pietro; Sellerio, Alessandro Luigi; Glorioso, Pietro; Caracciolo, Sergio; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco; Gherardi, Marco
2017-11-01
Driven lattice gases are widely regarded as the paradigm of collective phenomena out of equilibrium. While such models are usually studied with nearest-neighbor interactions, many empirical driven systems are dominated by slowly decaying interactions such as dipole-dipole and Van der Waals forces. Motivated by this gap, we study the nonequilibrium stationary state of a driven lattice gas with slow-decayed repulsive interactions at zero temperature. By numerical and analytical calculations of the particle current as a function of the density and of the driving field, we identify (i) an abrupt breakdown transition between insulating and conducting states, (ii) current quantization into discrete phases where a finite current flows with infinite differential resistivity, and (iii) a fractal hierarchy of excitations, related to the Farey sequences of number theory. We argue that the origin of these effects is the competition between scales, which also causes the counterintuitive phenomenon that crystalline states can melt by increasing the density.
Dynamics in a one-dimensional ferrogel model: relaxation, pairing, shock-wave propagation.
Goh, Segun; Menzel, Andreas M; Löwen, Hartmut
2018-05-23
Ferrogels are smart soft materials, consisting of a polymeric network and embedded magnetic particles. Novel phenomena, such as the variation of the overall mechanical properties by external magnetic fields, emerge consequently. However, the dynamic behavior of ferrogels remains largely unveiled. In this paper, we consider a one-dimensional chain consisting of magnetic dipoles and elastic springs between them as a simple model for ferrogels. The model is evaluated by corresponding simulations. To probe the dynamics theoretically, we investigate a continuum limit of the energy governing the system and the corresponding equation of motion. We provide general classification scenarios for the dynamics, elucidating the touching/detachment dynamics of the magnetic particles along the chain. In particular, it is verified in certain cases that the long-time relaxation corresponds to solutions of shock-wave propagation, while formations of particle pairs underlie the initial stage of the dynamics. We expect that these results will provide insight into the understanding of the dynamics of more realistic models with randomness in parameters and time-dependent magnetic fields.
Two-dimensional beam profiles and one-dimensional projections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Findlay, D. J. S.; Jones, B.; Adams, D. J.
2018-05-01
One-dimensional projections of improved two-dimensional representations of transverse profiles of particle beams are proposed for fitting to data from harp-type monitors measuring beam profiles on particle accelerators. Composite distributions, with tails smoothly matched on to a central (inverted) parabola, are shown to give noticeably better fits than single gaussian and single parabolic distributions to data from harp-type beam profile monitors all along the proton beam transport lines to the two target stations on the ISIS Spallation Neutron Source. Some implications for inferring beam current densities on the beam axis are noted.
Wang, Huan; Yue, Bailing; Xie, Zengqi; Gao, Bingrong; Xu, Yuanxiang; Liu, Linlin; Sun, Hongbo; Ma, Yuguang
2013-03-14
The orientation factor κ(2) ranging from 0 to 4, which depends on the relative orientation of the transition dipoles of the energy donor (D) and the energy acceptor (A) in space, is one of the pivotal factors deciding the efficiency and directionality of resonance energy transfer (RET) in a D-A molecular system. In this work, tetracene (Tc) and pentacene (Pc) are successfully doped in a trans-1,4-distyrylbenzene (DSB) crystalline lattice to form definite D-A mutually perpendicular transition dipole orientations. The cross D-A dipole arrangement results in an extremely small orientation factor, which is about two orders smaller than that in the disordered films. The energy transfer properties from the host (DSB) to the guest (Tc/Pc) were investigated in detail by steady-state as well as time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Our experimental research results show that the small value of κ(2) allows less or partial energy transfer from the host (DSB) to the guest (Tc) in a wide range of guest concentration, with the Förster distance of around 1.5 nm. By controlling the doping concentrations in the Tc and Pc doubly doped DSB crystals, we demonstrate, as an example, for the first time the application of the restricted energy transfer by D-A cross transition dipole arrangement for preparation of a large-size, white-emissive organic crystal with the CIE coordinates of (0.36, 0.37) approaching an ideal white light. In contrast, Tc is also doped in an anthracene crystalline lattice to form head-to-tail D-A transition dipole alignment, which is proved to be highly effective to promote the intermolecular energy transfer. In this doped system, the orientation factor is relatively large and the Förster distance is around 7 nm.
Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.
2016-01-01
Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822
Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D
2016-09-01
Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.
Coherent and incoherent dipole-dipole interactions between atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robicheaux, Francis
2016-05-01
Results will be presented on the collective interaction between atoms due to the electric dipole-dipole coupling between states of different parity on two different atoms. A canonical example of this effect is when the electronic state of one atom has S-character and the state of another atom has P-character. The energy difference between the two states plays an important role in the interaction since the change in energy determines the wave number of a photon that would cause a transition between the states. If the atoms are much closer than the wave length of this photon, then the dipole-dipole interaction is in the near field and has a 1 /r3 dependence on atomic separation. If the atoms are farther apart than the wave length, then the interaction is in the far field and has a 1 / r dependence. When many atoms interact, collective effects can dominate the system with the character of the collective effect depending on whether the atomic separation leads to near field or far field coupling. As an example of the case where the atoms are in the far field, the line broadening of transitions and strong deviations from the Beer-Lambert law in a diffuse gas will be presented. As an example of near field collective behavior, the radiative properties of a Rydberg gas will be presented. Based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1404419-PHY in collaboration with R.T. Sutherland.
Gabriel, C; Perikli, M; Raptopoulou, C P; Terzis, A; Psycharis, V; Mateescu, C; Jakusch, T; Kiss, T; Bertmer, M; Salifoglou, A
2012-09-03
Hydrothermal pH-specific reactivity in the binary/ternary systems of Pb(II) with the carboxylic acids N-hydroxyethyl-iminodiacetic acid (Heida), 1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (Dpot), and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) afforded the new well-defined crystalline compounds [Pb(Heida)](n)·nH(2)O(1), [Pb(Phen)(Heida)]·4H(2)O(2), and [Pb(3)(NO(3))(Dpot)](n)(3). All compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, solution or/and solid-state NMR, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures in 1-2 reveal the presence of a Pb(II) center coordinated to one Heida ligand, with 1 exhibiting a two-dimensional (2D) lattice extending to a three-dimensional (3D) one through H-bonding interactions. The concurrent aqueous speciation study of the binary Pb(II)-Heida system projects species complementing the synthetic efforts, thereby lending credence to a global structural speciation strategy in investigating binary/ternary Pb(II)-Heida/Phen systems. The involvement of Phen in 2 projects the significance of nature and reactivity potential of N-aromatic chelators, disrupting the binary lattice in 1 and influencing the nature of the ultimately arising ternary 3D lattice. 3 is a ternary coordination polymer, where Pb(II)-Dpot coordination leads to a 2D metal-organic-framework material with unique architecture. The collective physicochemical properties of 1-3 formulate the salient features of variable dimensionality metal-organic-framework lattices in binary/ternary Pb(II)-(hydroxy-carboxylate) structures, based on which new Pb(II) materials with distinct architecture and spectroscopic signature can be rationally designed and pursued synthetically.
Lattice gas simulations of dynamical geometry in two dimensions.
Klales, Anna; Cianci, Donato; Needell, Zachary; Meyer, David A; Love, Peter J
2010-10-01
We present a hydrodynamic lattice gas model for two-dimensional flows on curved surfaces with dynamical geometry. This model is an extension to two dimensions of the dynamical geometry lattice gas model previously studied in one dimension. We expand upon a variation of the two-dimensional flat space Frisch-Hasslacher-Pomeau (FHP) model created by Frisch [Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1505 (1986)] and independently by Wolfram, and modified by Boghosian [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 360, 333 (2002)]. We define a hydrodynamic lattice gas model on an arbitrary triangulation whose flat space limit is the FHP model. Rules that change the geometry are constructed using the Pachner moves, which alter the triangulation but not the topology. We present results on the growth of the number of triangles as a function of time. Simulations show that the number of triangles grows with time as t(1/3), in agreement with a mean-field prediction. We also present preliminary results on the distribution of curvature for a typical triangulation in these simulations.
Bipolaron assisted Bloch-like oscillations in organic lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio; Ferreira da Cunha, Wiliam; Magela e Silva, Geraldo
2017-06-01
The transport of a dissociated bipolaron in organic one-dimensional lattices is theoretically investigated in the scope of a tight-binding model that includes electron-lattice interactions and an external electric field. Remarkably, the results point to a physical picture in which the dissociated bipolaron propagates as a combined state of two free-like electrons that coherently perform spatial Bloch oscillations (BO) above a critical field strength. It was also obtained that the BO's trajectory presents a net forward motion in the direction of the applied electric field. The impact of dynamical disorder in the formation of electronic BOs is determined.
LINEAR LATTICE AND TRAJECTORY RECONSTRUCTION AND CORRECTION AT FAST LINEAR ACCELERATOR
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Romanov, A.; Edstrom, D.; Halavanau, A.
2017-07-16
The low energy part of the FAST linear accelerator based on 1.3 GHz superconducting RF cavities was successfully commissioned [1]. During commissioning, beam based model dependent methods were used to correct linear lattice and trajectory. Lattice correction algorithm is based on analysis of beam shape from profile monitors and trajectory responses to dipole correctors. Trajectory responses to field gradient variations in quadrupoles and phase variations in superconducting RF cavities were used to correct bunch offsets in quadrupoles and accelerating cavities relative to their magnetic axes. Details of used methods and experimental results are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Daxing
2017-04-01
We numerically investigate the heat transport problem in a one-dimensional momentum-conserving lattice with a soft-type (ST) anharmonic interparticle interaction. It is found that with the increase of the system's temperature, while the introduction of ST anharmonicity softens phonons and decreases their velocities, this type of nonlinearity like its hard type (HT) counterpart, can still not be able to fully damp the longest wavelength phonons. Therefore, a usual anomalous temperature dependence of heat transport with certain scaling properties similarly to those shown in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-β -like systems with HT interactions can be seen. Our detailed examination from simulations verifies this temperature-dependent behavior well.
Testing holography using lattice super-Yang-Mills theory on a 2-torus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catterall, Simon; Jha, Raghav G.; Schaich, David; Wiseman, Toby
2018-04-01
We consider maximally supersymmetric SU (N ) Yang-Mills theory in Euclidean signature compactified on a flat two-dimensional torus with antiperiodic ("thermal") fermion boundary conditions imposed on one cycle. At large N , holography predicts that this theory describes certain black hole solutions in type IIA and IIB supergravity, and we use lattice gauge theory to test this. Unlike the one-dimensional quantum mechanics case where there is only the dimensionless temperature to vary, here we emphasize there are two more parameters which determine the shape of the flat torus. While a rectangular Euclidean torus yields a thermal interpretation, allowing for skewed tori modifies the holographic dual black hole predictions and results in another direction to test holography. Our lattice calculations are based on a supersymmetric formulation naturally adapted to a particular skewing. Using this we perform simulations up to N =16 with several lattice spacings for both skewed and rectangular tori. We observe the two expected black hole phases with their predicted behavior, with a transition between them that is consistent with the gravity prediction based on the Gregory-Laflamme transition.
Maximal analytic extension and hidden symmetries of the dipole black ring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armas, Jay
2011-12-01
We construct analytic extensions across the Killing horizons of non-extremal and extremal dipole black rings in Einstein-Maxwell’s theory using different methods. We show that these extensions are non-globally hyperbolic, have multiple asymptotically flat regions and, in the non-extremal case, are also maximal and timelike complete. Moreover, we find that in both cases, the causal structure of the maximally extended spacetime resembles that of the four-dimensional Reissner-Nordström black hole. Furthermore, motivated by the physical interpretation of one of these extensions, we find a separable solution to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation corresponding to zero energy null geodesics and relate it to the existence of a conformal Killing tensor and a conformal Killing-Yano tensor in a specific dimensionally reduced spacetime.
Magnetic Field of a Dipole and the Dipole-Dipole Interaction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kraftmakher, Yaakov
2007-01-01
With a data-acquisition system and sensors commercially available, it is easy to determine magnetic fields produced by permanent magnets and to study the dipole-dipole interaction for different separations and angular positions of the magnets. For sufficiently large distances, the results confirm the 1/R[superscript 3] law for the magnetic field…
Density profiles of a self-gravitating lattice gas in one, two, and three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakhti, Benaoumeur; Boukari, Divana; Karbach, Michael; Maass, Philipp; Müller, Gerhard
2018-04-01
We consider a lattice gas in spaces of dimensionality D =1 ,2 ,3 . The particles are subject to a hardcore exclusion interaction and an attractive pair interaction that satisfies Gauss' law as do Newtonian gravity in D =3 , a logarithmic potential in D =2 , and a distance-independent force in D =1 . Under mild additional assumptions regarding symmetry and fluctuations we investigate equilibrium states of self-gravitating material clusters, in particular radial density profiles for closed and open systems. We present exact analytic results in several instances and high-precision numerical data in others. The density profile of a cluster with finite mass is found to exhibit exponential decay in D =1 and power-law decay in D =2 with temperature-dependent exponents in both cases. In D =2 the gas evaporates in a continuous transition at a nonzero critical temperature. We describe clusters of infinite mass in D =3 with a density profile consisting of three layers (core, shell, halo) and an algebraic large-distance asymptotic decay. In D =3 a cluster of finite mass can be stabilized at T >0 via confinement to a sphere of finite radius. In some parameter regime, the gas thus enclosed undergoes a discontinuous transition between distinct density profiles. For the free energy needed to identify the equilibrium state we introduce a construction of gravitational self-energy that works in all D for the lattice gas. The decay rate of the density profile of an open cluster is shown to transform via a stretched exponential for 1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yufeng; Zhang, Xiangzhi; Wang, Yan; Liu, Jiangen
2017-01-01
With the help of R-matrix approach, we present the Toda lattice systems that have extensive applications in statistical physics and quantum physics. By constructing a new discrete integrable formula by R-matrix, the discrete expanding integrable models of the Toda lattice systems and their Lax pairs are generated, respectively. By following the constructing formula again, we obtain the corresponding (2+1)-dimensional Toda lattice systems and their Lax pairs, as well as their (2+1)-dimensional discrete expanding integrable models. Finally, some conservation laws of a (1+1)-dimensional generalised Toda lattice system and a new (2+1)-dimensional lattice system are generated, respectively.
Design of a One-Dimensional Sextupole Using Semi-Analytic Methods
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Gupta, L.; Nagaitsev, S.; Baturin, S. S.
Sextupole magnets provide position-dependent momentum kicks and are tuned to provide the correct kicks to parti- cles within a small acceptance region in phase space. Sextupoles are useful and even necessary in circular accelerators for chromaticity corrections. They are routinely used in most rings, i.e. CESR. Although sextupole magnets are necessary for particle energy corrections, they also have undesirable effects on dynamic aperture, especially because of their non- linear coupling term in the momentum kick. Studies of integrable systems suggest that there is an analytic way to create transport lattices with specific transfer matrices that limit the momentum kick tomore » one dimension. A one-dimension sex- tupole is needed for chromaticity corrections: a horizontal sextupole for horizontal bending magnets. We know how to make a “composite” horizontal sextupole using regular 2D sextupoles and linear transfer matrices in an ideal thin-lens approximation. Thus, one could create an accelerator lattice using linear elements, in series with sextupole magnets to create a “1D sextupole”. This paper describes progress to- wards realizing a realistic focusing lattice resulting in a 1D sextupole.« less
A simulator for discrete quantum walks on lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrigues, J.; Paunković, N.; Mateus, P.
In this paper, we present a simulator for two-particle quantum walks on the line and one-particle on a two-dimensional squared lattice. It can be used to investigate the equivalence between the two cases (one- and two-particle walks) for various boundary conditions (open, circular, reflecting, absorbing and their combinations). For the case of a single walker on a two-dimensional lattice, the simulator can also implement the Möbius strip. Furthermore, other topologies for the walker are also simulated by the proposed tool, like certain types of planar graphs with degree up to 4, by considering missing links over the lattice. The main purpose of the simulator is to study the genuinely quantum effects on the global properties of the two-particle joint probability distribution on the entanglement between the walkers/axis. For that purpose, the simulator is designed to compute various quantities such as: the entanglement and classical correlations, (classical and quantum) mutual information, the average distance between the two walkers, different hitting times and quantum discord. These quantities are of vital importance in designing possible algorithmic applications of quantum walks, namely in search, 3-SAT problems, etc. The simulator can also implement the static partial measurements of particle(s) positions and dynamic breaking of the links between certain nodes, both of which can be used to investigate the effects of decoherence on the walker(s). Finally, the simulator can be used to investigate the dynamic Anderson-like particle localization by varying the coin operators of certain nodes on the line/lattice. We also present some illustrative and relevant examples of one- and two-particle quantum walks in various scenarios. The tool was implemented in C and is available on-line at http://qwsim.weebly.com/.
Near integrability of kink lattice with higher order interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Yun-Guo; Liu, Jia-Zhen; He, Song
2017-11-01
We make use of Manton’s analytical method to investigate the force between kinks and anti-kinks at large distances in 1+1 dimensional field theory. The related potential has infinite order corrections of exponential pattern, and the coefficients for each order are determined. These coefficients can also be obtained by solving the equation of the fluctuations around the vacuum. At the lowest order, the kink lattice represents the Toda lattice. With higher order correction terms, the kink lattice can represent one kind of generic Toda lattice. With only two sites, the kink lattice is classically integrable. If the number of sites of the lattice is larger than two, the kink lattice is not integrable but is a near integrable system. We make use of Flaschka’s variables to study the Lax pair of the kink lattice. These Flaschka’s variables have interesting algebraic relations and non-integrability can be manifested. We also discuss the higher Hamiltonians for the deformed open Toda lattice, which has a similar result to the ordinary deformed Toda. Supported by Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation (ZR2014AQ007), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11403015, U1531105), S. He is supported by Max-Planck fellowship in Germany and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11305235)
Two-dimensional, phase modulated lattice sums with application to the Helmholtz Green’s function
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Linton, C. M., E-mail: C.M.Linton@lboro.ac.uk
2015-01-15
A class of two-dimensional phase modulated lattice sums in which the denominator is an indefinite quadratic polynomial Q is expressed in terms of a single, exponentially convergent series of elementary functions. This expression provides an extremely efficient method for the computation of the quasi-periodic Green’s function for the Helmholtz equation that arises in a number of physical contexts when studying wave propagation through a doubly periodic medium. For a class of sums in which Q is positive definite, our new result can be used to generate representations in terms of θ-functions which are significant generalisations of known results.
Wave Propagation Measurements on Two-Dimensional Lattice.
1985-09-15
of boundaries, lattice member connectivities, and structural defects on these parameters. Perhaps, statistical energy analysis or pattern recognition techniques would also be of benefit in such efforts.
Geometrical Simplification of the Dipole-Dipole Interaction Formula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kocbach, Ladislav; Lubbad, Suhail
2010-01-01
Many students meet dipole-dipole potential energy quite early on when they are taught electrostatics or magnetostatics and it is also a very popular formula, featured in encyclopedias. We show that by a simple rewriting of the formula it becomes apparent that, for example, by reorienting the two dipoles, their attraction can become exactly twice…
Emergent reduced dimensionality by vertex frustration in artificial spin ice
Gilbert, Ian; Lao, Yuyang; Carrasquillo, Isaac; ...
2015-10-26
Reducing the dimensionality of a physical system can have a profound effect on its properties, as in the ordering of low-dimensional magnetic materials, phonon dispersion in mercury chain salts, sliding phases, and the electronic states of graphene. Here we explore the emergence of quasi-one-dimensional behaviour in two-dimensional artificial spin ice, a class of lithographically fabricated nanomagnet arrays used to study geometrical frustration. We extend the implementation of artificial spin ice by fabricating a new array geometry, the so-called tetris lattice. We demonstrate that the ground state of the tetris lattice consists of alternating ordered and disordered bands of nanomagnetic moments.more » The disordered bands can be mapped onto an emergent thermal one-dimensional Ising model. Furthermore, we show that the level of degeneracy associated with these bands dictates the susceptibility of island moments to thermally induced reversals, thus establishing that vertex frustration can reduce the relevant dimensionality of physical behaviour in a magnetic system.« less
Emergent reduced dimensionality by vertex frustration in artificial spin ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilbert, Ian; Lao, Yuyang; Carrasquillo, Isaac; O'Brien, Liam; Watts, Justin D.; Manno, Michael; Leighton, Chris; Scholl, Andreas; Nisoli, Cristiano; Schiffer, Peter
2016-02-01
Reducing the dimensionality of a physical system can have a profound effect on its properties, as in the ordering of low-dimensional magnetic materials, phonon dispersion in mercury chain salts, sliding phases, and the electronic states of graphene. Here we explore the emergence of quasi-one-dimensional behaviour in two-dimensional artificial spin ice, a class of lithographically fabricated nanomagnet arrays used to study geometrical frustration. We extend the implementation of artificial spin ice by fabricating a new array geometry, the so-called tetris lattice. We demonstrate that the ground state of the tetris lattice consists of alternating ordered and disordered bands of nanomagnetic moments. The disordered bands can be mapped onto an emergent thermal one-dimensional Ising model. Furthermore, we show that the level of degeneracy associated with these bands dictates the susceptibility of island moments to thermally induced reversals, thus establishing that vertex frustration can reduce the relevant dimensionality of physical behaviour in a magnetic system.
Topological Quantum Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Lattice Bilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Xuechao; Jin, Guojun
2013-09-01
Since the successful fabrication of graphene, two-dimensional hexagonal lattice structures have become a research hotspot in condensed matter physics. In this short review, we theoretically focus on discussing the possible realization of a topological insulator (TI) phase in systems of graphene bilayer (GBL) and boron nitride bilayer (BNBL), whose band structures can be experimentally modulated by an interlayer bias voltage. Under the bias, a band gap can be opened in AB-stacked GBL but is still closed in AA-stacked GBL and significantly reduced in AA- or AB-stacked BNBL. In the presence of spin-orbit couplings (SOCs), further demonstrations indicate whether the topological quantum phase transition can be realized strongly depends on the stacking orders and symmetries of structures. It is observed that a bulk band gap can be first closed and then reopened when the Rashba SOC increases for gated AB-stacked GBL or when the intrinsic SOC increases for gated AA-stacked BNBL. This gives a distinct signal for a topological quantum phase transition, which is further characterized by a jump of the ℤ2 topological invariant. At fixed SOCs, the TI phase can be well switched by the interlayer bias and the phase boundaries are precisely determined. For AA-stacked GBL and AB-stacked BNBL, no strong TI phase exists, regardless of the strength of the intrinsic or Rashba SOCs. At last, a brief overview is given on other two-dimensional hexagonal materials including silicene and molybdenum disulfide bilayers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunyan, Jonathan; Moore, Keegan J.; Mojahed, Alireza; Fronk, Matthew D.; Leamy, Michael; Tawfick, Sameh; Vakakis, Alexander F.
2018-05-01
In linear time-invariant systems acoustic reciprocity holds by the Onsager-Casimir principle of microscopic reversibility, and it can be broken only by odd external biases, nonlinearities, or time-dependent properties. Recently it was shown that one-dimensional lattices composed of a finite number of identical nonlinear cells with internal scale hierarchy and asymmetry exhibit nonreciprocity both locally and globally. Considering a single cell composed of a large scale nonlinearly coupled to a small scale, local dynamic nonreciprocity corresponds to vibration energy transfer from the large to the small scale, but absence of energy transfer (and localization) from the small to the large scale. This has been recently proven both theoretically and experimentally. Then, considering the entire lattice, global acoustic nonreciprocity has been recently proven theoretically, corresponding to preferential energy transfer within the lattice under transient excitation applied at one of its boundaries, and absence of similar energy transfer (and localization) when the excitation is applied at its other boundary. This work provides experimental validation of the global acoustic nonreciprocity with a one-dimensional asymmetric lattice composed of three cells, with each cell incorporating nonlinearly coupled large and small scales. Due to the intentional asymmetry of the lattice, low impulsive excitations applied to one of its boundaries result in wave transmission through the lattice, whereas when the same excitations are applied to the other end, they lead in energy localization at the boundary and absence of wave transmission. This global nonreciprocity depends critically on energy (i.e., the intensity of the applied impulses), and reduced-order models recover the nonreciprocal acoustics and clarify the nonlinear mechanism generating nonreciprocity in this system.
Multigrid for Staggered Lattice Fermions
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Brower, Richard C.; Clark, M. A.; Strelchenko, Alexei
Critical slowing down in Krylov methods for the Dirac operator presents a major obstacle to further advances in lattice field theory as it approaches the continuum solution. Here we formulate a multi-grid algorithm for the Kogut-Susskind (or staggered) fermion discretization which has proven difficult relative to Wilson multigrid due to its first-order anti-Hermitian structure. The solution is to introduce a novel spectral transformation by the K\\"ahler-Dirac spin structure prior to the Galerkin projection. We present numerical results for the two-dimensional, two-flavor Schwinger model, however, the general formalism is agnostic to dimension and is directly applicable to four-dimensional lattice QCD.
Electron capture and transport mediated by lattice solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hennig, D.; Chetverikov, A.; Velarde, M. G.; Ebeling, W.
2007-10-01
We study electron transport in a one-dimensional molecular lattice chain. The molecules are linked by Morse interaction potentials. The electronic degree of freedom, expressed in terms of a tight binding system, is coupled to the longitudinal displacements of the molecules from their equilibrium positions along the axis of the lattice. More specifically, the distance between two sites influences in an exponential fashion the corresponding electronic transfer matrix element. We demonstrate that when an electron is injected in the undistorted lattice it causes a local deformation such that a compression results leading to a lowering of the electron’s energy below the lower edge of the band of linear states. This corresponds to self-localization of the electron due to a polaronlike effect. Then, if a traveling soliton lattice deformation is launched a distance apart from the electron’s position, upon encountering the polaronlike state it captures the latter dragging it afterwards along its path. Strikingly, even when the electron is initially uniformly distributed over the lattice sites a traveling soliton lattice deformation gathers the electronic amplitudes during its traversing of the lattice. Eventually, the electron state is strongly localized and moves coherently in unison with the soliton lattice deformation. This shows that for the achievement of coherent electron transport we need not start with the polaronic effect.
Enhanced and tunable electric dipole-dipole interactions near a planar metal film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Lei-Ming; Yao, Pei-Jun; Zhao, Nan; Sun, Fang-Wen
2017-08-01
We investigate the enhanced electric dipole-dipole interaction of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) supported by a planar metal film waveguide. By taking two nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center electric dipoles in diamond as an example, both the coupling strength and collective relaxation of two dipoles are studied with the numerical Green Function method. Compared to two-dipole coupling on a planar surface, metal film provides stronger and tunable coupling coefficients. Enhancement of the interaction between coupled NV center dipoles could have applications in both quantum information and energy transfer investigation. Our investigation provides systematic results for experimental applications based on a dipole-dipole interaction mediated with SPPs on a planar metal film.
Frustrated quantum magnetism in the Kondo lattice on the zigzag ladder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peschke, Matthias; Rausch, Roman; Potthoff, Michael
2018-03-01
The interplay between the Kondo effect, indirect magnetic interaction, and geometrical frustration is studied in the Kondo lattice on the one-dimensional zigzag ladder. Using the density-matrix renormalization group, the ground-state and various short- and long-range spin- and density-correlation functions are calculated for the model at half filling as a function of the antiferromagnetic Kondo interaction down to J =0.3 t , where t is the nearest-neighbor hopping on the zigzag ladder. Geometrical frustration is shown to lead to at least two critical points: Starting from the strong-J limit, where almost local Kondo screening dominates and where the system is a nonmagnetic Kondo insulator, antiferromagnetic correlations between nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor local spins become stronger and stronger, until at Jcdim≈0.89 t frustration is alleviated by a spontaneous breaking of translational symmetry and a corresponding transition to a dimerized state. This is characterized by antiferromagnetic correlations along the legs and by alternating antiferro- and ferromagnetic correlations on the rungs of the ladder. A mechanism of partial Kondo screening that has been suggested for the Kondo lattice on the two-dimensional triangular lattice is not realized in the one-dimensional case. Furthermore, within the symmetry-broken dimerized state, there is a magnetic transition to a 90∘ quantum spin spiral with quasi-long-range order at Jcmag≈0.84 t . The quantum-critical point is characterized by a closure of the spin gap (with decreasing J ) and a divergence of the spin-correlation length and of the spin-structure factor S (q ) at wave vector q =π /2 . This is opposed to the model on the one-dimensional bipartite chain, which is known to have a finite spin gap for all J >0 at half filling.
One-Dimensional Czedli-Type Islands
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Horvath, Eszter K.; Mader, Attila; Tepavcevic, Andreja
2011-01-01
The notion of an island has surfaced in recent algebra and coding theory research. Discrete versions provide interesting combinatorial problems. This paper presents the one-dimensional case with finitely many heights, a topic convenient for student research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Wan; Wu, Jianxu; Yao, Yan'an
2015-07-01
Lattice modular robots possess diversity actuation methods, such as electric telescopic rod, gear rack, magnet, robot arm, etc. The researches on lattice modular robots mainly focus on their hardware descriptions and reconfiguration algorithms. Meanwhile, their design architectures and actuation methods perform slow telescopic and moving speeds, relative low actuation force verse weight ratio, and without internal space to carry objects. To improve the mechanical performance and reveal the locomotion and reconfiguration binary essences of the lattice modular robots, a novel cube-shaped, frame-like, pneumatic-based reconfigurable robot module called pneumatic expandable cube(PE-Cube) is proposed. The three-dimensional(3D) expanding construction and omni-directional rolling analysis of the constructed robots are the main focuses. The PE-Cube with three degrees of freedom(DoFs) is assembled by replacing the twelve edges of a cube with pneumatic cylinders. The proposed symmetric construction condition makes the constructed robots possess the same properties in each supporting state, and a binary control strategy cooperated with binary actuator(pneumatic cylinder) is directly adopted to control the PE-Cube. Taking an eight PE-Cube modules' construction as example, its dynamic rolling simulation, static rolling condition, and turning gait are illustrated and discussed. To testify telescopic synchronization, respond speed, locomotion feasibility, and repeatability and reliability of hardware system, an experimental pneumatic-based robotic system is built and the rolling and turning experiments of the eight PE-Cube modules' construction are carried out. As an extension, the locomotion feasibility of a thirty-two PE-Cube modules' construction is analyzed and proved, including dynamic rolling simulation, static rolling condition, and dynamic analysis in free tipping process. The proposed PE-Cube module, construction method, and locomotion analysis enrich the family of the
Dark optical lattice of ring traps for cold atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Courtade, Emmanuel; Houde, Olivier; Clément, Jean-François; Verkerk, Philippe; Hennequin, Daniel
2006-09-01
We propose an optical lattice for cold atoms made of a one-dimensional stack of dark ring traps. It is obtained through the interference pattern of a standard Gaussian beam with a counterpropagating hollow beam obtained using a setup with two conical lenses. The traps of the resulting lattice are characterized by a high confinement and a filling rate much larger than unity, even if loaded with cold atoms from a magneto-optical trap. We have implemented this system experimentally, and demonstrated its feasibility. Applications in statistical physics, quantum computing, and Bose-Einstein condensate dynamics are conceivable.
Gap maps and intrinsic diffraction losses in one-dimensional photonic crystal slabs.
Gerace, Dario; Andreani, Lucio Claudio
2004-05-01
A theoretical study of photonic bands for one-dimensional (1D) lattices embedded in planar waveguides with strong refractive index contrast is presented. The approach relies on expanding the electromagnetic field on the basis of guided modes of an effective waveguide, and on treating the coupling to radiative modes by perturbation theory. Photonic mode dispersion, gap maps, and intrinsic diffraction losses of quasi guided modes are calculated for the case of self-standing membranes as well as for silicon-on-insulator structures. Photonic band gaps in a waveguide are found to depend strongly on the core thickness and on polarization, so that the gaps for transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes most often do not overlap. Radiative losses of quasiguided modes above the light line depend in a nontrivial way on structure parameters, mode index, and wave vector. The results of this study may be useful for the design of integrated 1D photonic structures with low radiative losses.
Phase competition in a one-dimensional three-orbital Hubbard-Holstein model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shaozhi; Tang, Yanfei; Maier, Thomas A.; Johnston, Steven
2018-05-01
We study the interplay between the electron-phonon (e -ph) and on-site electron-electron (e-e) interactions in a three-orbital Hubbard-Holstein model on an extended one-dimensional lattice using determinant quantum Monte Carlo. For weak e-e and e -ph interactions, we observe a competition between an orbital-selective Mott phase (OSMP) and a (multicomponent) charge-density-wave (CDW) insulating phase, with an intermediate metallic phase located between them. For large e-e and e -ph couplings, the OSMP and CDW phases persist, while the metallic phase develops short-range orbital correlations and becomes insulating when both the e-e and e -ph interactions are large but comparable. Many of our conclusions are in line with those drawn from a prior dynamical mean-field theory study of the two-orbital Hubbard-Holstein model [Phys. Rev. B 95, 121112(R) (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevB.95.121112] in infinite dimension, suggesting that the competition between the e -ph and e-e interactions in multiorbital Hubbard-Holstein models leads to rich physics, regardless of the dimension of the system.
Universality and Quantum Criticality of the One-Dimensional Spinor Bose Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
PâÅ£u, Ovidiu I.; Klümper, Andreas; Foerster, Angela
2018-06-01
We investigate the universal thermodynamics of the two-component one-dimensional Bose gas with contact interactions in the vicinity of the quantum critical point separating the vacuum and the ferromagnetic liquid regime. We find that the quantum critical region belongs to the universality class of the spin-degenerate impenetrable particle gas which, surprisingly, is very different from the single-component case and identify its boundaries with the peaks of the specific heat. In addition, we show that the compressibility Wilson ratio, which quantifies the relative strength of thermal and quantum fluctuations, serves as a good discriminator of the quantum regimes near the quantum critical point. Remarkably, in the Tonks-Girardeau regime, the universal contact develops a pronounced minimum, reflected in a counterintuitive narrowing of the momentum distribution as we increase the temperature. This momentum reconstruction, also present at low and intermediate momenta, signals the transition from the ferromagnetic to the spin-incoherent Luttinger liquid phase and can be detected in current experiments with ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seleznev, R. K.
2017-02-01
In the paper two-dimensional and quasi-one dimensional models for scramjet combustion chamber are described. Comparison of the results of calculations for the two-dimensional and quasi-one dimensional code by the example of VAG experiment are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fauzi, Ahmad; Ratna Kawuri, Kunthi; Pratiwi, Retno
2017-01-01
Researchers of students’ conceptual change usually collects data from written tests and interviews. Moreover, reports of conceptual change often simply refer to changes in concepts, such as on a test, without any identification of the learning processes that have taken place. Research has shown that students have difficulties with vectors in university introductory physics courses and high school physics courses. In this study, we intended to explore students’ understanding of one-dimensional and two-dimensional vector in multi perspective views. In this research, we explore students’ understanding through test perspective and interviews perspective. Our research study adopted the mixed-methodology design. The participants of this research were sixty students of third semester of physics education department. The data of this research were collected by testand interviews. In this study, we divided the students’ understanding of one-dimensional vector and two-dimensional vector in two categories, namely vector skills of the addition of one-dimensionaland two-dimensional vector and the relation between vector skills and conceptual understanding. From the investigation, only 44% of students provided correct answer for vector skills of the addition of one-dimensional and two-dimensional vector and only 27% students provided correct answer for the relation between vector skills and conceptual understanding.
Lie Symmetry Analysis of the Inhomogeneous Toda Lattice Equation via Semi-Discrete Exterior Calculus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jiang; Wang, Deng-Shan; Yin, Yan-Bin
2017-06-01
In this work, the Lie point symmetries of the inhomogeneous Toda lattice equation are obtained by semi-discrete exterior calculus, which is a semi-discrete version of Harrison and Estabrook’s geometric approach. A four-dimensional Lie algebra and its one-, two- and three-dimensional subalgebras are given. Two similarity reductions of the inhomogeneous Toda lattice equation are obtained by using the symmetry vectors. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11375030, 11472315, and Department of Science and Technology of Henan Province under Grant No. 162300410223 and Beijing Finance Funds of Natural Science Program for Excellent Talents under Grant No. 2014000026833ZK19
Robust light transport in non-Hermitian photonic lattices
Longhi, Stefano; Gatti, Davide; Valle, Giuseppe Della
2015-01-01
Combating the effects of disorder on light transport in micro- and nano-integrated photonic devices is of major importance from both fundamental and applied viewpoints. In ordinary waveguides, imperfections and disorder cause unwanted back-reflections, which hinder large-scale optical integration. Topological photonic structures, a new class of optical systems inspired by quantum Hall effect and topological insulators, can realize robust transport via topologically-protected unidirectional edge modes. Such waveguides are realized by the introduction of synthetic gauge fields for photons in a two-dimensional structure, which break time reversal symmetry and enable one-way guiding at the edge of the medium. Here we suggest a different route toward robust transport of light in lower-dimensional (1D) photonic lattices, in which time reversal symmetry is broken because of the non-Hermitian nature of transport. While a forward propagating mode in the lattice is amplified, the corresponding backward propagating mode is damped, thus resulting in an asymmetric transport insensitive to disorder or imperfections in the structure. Non-Hermitian asymmetric transport can occur in tight-binding lattices with an imaginary gauge field via a non-Hermitian delocalization transition, and in periodically-driven superlattices. The possibility to observe non-Hermitian delocalization is suggested using an engineered coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW) structure. PMID:26314932
Robust light transport in non-Hermitian photonic lattices.
Longhi, Stefano; Gatti, Davide; Della Valle, Giuseppe
2015-08-28
Combating the effects of disorder on light transport in micro- and nano-integrated photonic devices is of major importance from both fundamental and applied viewpoints. In ordinary waveguides, imperfections and disorder cause unwanted back-reflections, which hinder large-scale optical integration. Topological photonic structures, a new class of optical systems inspired by quantum Hall effect and topological insulators, can realize robust transport via topologically-protected unidirectional edge modes. Such waveguides are realized by the introduction of synthetic gauge fields for photons in a two-dimensional structure, which break time reversal symmetry and enable one-way guiding at the edge of the medium. Here we suggest a different route toward robust transport of light in lower-dimensional (1D) photonic lattices, in which time reversal symmetry is broken because of the non-Hermitian nature of transport. While a forward propagating mode in the lattice is amplified, the corresponding backward propagating mode is damped, thus resulting in an asymmetric transport insensitive to disorder or imperfections in the structure. Non-Hermitian asymmetric transport can occur in tight-binding lattices with an imaginary gauge field via a non-Hermitian delocalization transition, and in periodically-driven superlattices. The possibility to observe non-Hermitian delocalization is suggested using an engineered coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW) structure.
Mixtures of bosonic and fermionic atoms in optical lattices
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Albus, Alexander; Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2003-08-01
We discuss the theory of mixtures of bosonic and fermionic atoms in periodic potentials at zero temperature. We derive a general Bose-Fermi Hubbard Hamiltonian in a one-dimensional optical lattice with a superimposed harmonic trapping potential. We study the conditions for linear stability of the mixture and derive a mean-field criterion for the onset of a bosonic superfluid transition. We investigate the ground-state properties of the mixture in the Gutzwiller formulation of mean-field theory, and present numerical studies of finite systems. The bosonic and fermionic density distributions and the onset of quantum phase transitions to demixing and to a bosonic Mott-insulatormore » are studied as a function of the lattice potential strength. The existence is predicted of a disordered phase for mixtures loaded in very deep lattices. Such a disordered phase possessing many degenerate or quasidegenerate ground states is related to a breaking of the mirror symmetry in the lattice.« less
Apparently noninvariant terms of nonlinear sigma models in lattice perturbation theory
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Harada, Koji; Hattori, Nozomu; Kubo, Hirofumi
2009-03-15
Apparently noninvariant terms (ANTs) that appear in loop diagrams for nonlinear sigma models are revisited in lattice perturbation theory. The calculations have been done mostly with dimensional regularization so far. In order to establish that the existence of ANTs is independent of the regularization scheme, and of the potential ambiguities in the definition of the Jacobian of the change of integration variables from group elements to 'pion' fields, we employ lattice regularization, in which everything (including the Jacobian) is well defined. We show explicitly that lattice perturbation theory produces ANTs in the four-point functions of the pion fields at one-loopmore » and the Jacobian does not play an important role in generating ANTs.« less
On the Cubic Lattice Green Functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joyce, G. S.
1994-05-01
Wheatstone Physics Laboratory, King's College, University of London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS, U.K. It is proved that K (k+) = [(4-eta )1/2 - (1 - eta )1/2]K(k-), where eta is a complex variable which lies in a certain region R2 of the eta plane, and K (k±) are complete elliptic integrals of the first kind with moduli k± which are given by k±2equiv k±2(eta ) = 1/2 ± 1/4eta (4 - eta )1/2 - 1/4(2-eta )(1-eta )1/2. This basic result is then used to express the face-centred cubic and simple cubic lattice Green functions at the origin in terms of the square of a complete elliptic integral of the first kind. Several new identities involving the Heun function F(a, b; α , β , γ , δ ; eta ) are also derived. Next it is shown that the three cubic lattice Green functions all have parametric representations which involve the Green function for the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. Finally, the results are applied to a variety of problems in lattice statistics. In particular, a new simplified formula for the generating function of staircase polygons on a four-dimensional hypercubic lattice is derived.
Particle statistics and lossy dynamics of ultracold atoms in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yago Malo, J.; van Nieuwenburg, E. P. L.; Fischer, M. H.; Daley, A. J.
2018-05-01
Experimental control over ultracold quantum gases has made it possible to investigate low-dimensional systems of both bosonic and fermionic atoms. In closed one-dimensional systems there are many similarities in the dynamics of local quantities for spinless fermions and strongly interacting "hard-core" bosons, which on a lattice can be formalized via a Jordan-Wigner transformation. In this study, we analyze the similarities and differences for spinless fermions and hard-core bosons on a lattice in the presence of particle loss. The removal of a single fermion causes differences in local quantities compared with the bosonic case because of the different particle exchange symmetry in the two cases. We identify deterministic and probabilistic signatures of these dynamics in terms of local particle density, which could be measured in ongoing experiments with quantum gas microscopes.
Measuring finite-range phase coherence in an optical lattice using Talbot interferometry
Santra, Bodhaditya; Baals, Christian; Labouvie, Ralf; Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.; Pelster, Axel; Ott, Herwig
2017-01-01
One of the important goals of present research is to control and manipulate coherence in a broad variety of systems, such as semiconductor spintronics, biological photosynthetic systems, superconducting qubits and complex atomic networks. Over the past decades, interferometry of atoms and molecules has proven to be a powerful tool to explore coherence. Here we demonstrate a near-field interferometer based on the Talbot effect, which allows us to measure finite-range phase coherence of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. We apply this interferometer to study the build-up of phase coherence after a quantum quench of a Bose–Einstein condensate residing in a one-dimensional optical lattice. Our technique of measuring finite-range phase coherence is generic, easy to adopt and can be applied in practically all lattice experiments without further modifications. PMID:28580941
Frustrated spin one on a diamond lattice in NiRh2O4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamorro, J. R.; Ge, L.; Flynn, J.; Subramanian, M. A.; Mourigal, M.; McQueen, T. M.
2018-03-01
We report the discovery of a spin one diamond lattice in NiRh2O4 . This spinel undergoes a cubic to tetragonal phase transition at T =440 K that leaves all nearest neighbor interactions equivalent. In the tetragonal phase, magnetization measurements show a Ni2 + effective moment of peff=3.3 (1 ) and dominant antiferromagnetic interactions with ΘCW=-11.3 (7 ) K. No phase transition to a long-range magnetically ordered state is observed by specific heat measurements down to T =0.1 K. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on substoichiometric NiRh2O4 reveal possible valence-bond behavior and show no visible signs of magnetic ordering. NiRh2O4 provides a platform on which to explore the previously unknown and potentially rich physics of spin one interacting on the diamond lattice, including the realization of theoretically predicted quantum spin liquid and topological paramagnet states.
Yamamoto, Arata
2016-07-29
We propose the lattice QCD calculation of the Berry phase, which is defined by the ground state of a single fermion. We perform the ground-state projection of a single-fermion propagator, construct the Berry link variable on a momentum-space lattice, and calculate the Berry phase. As the first application, the first Chern number of the (2+1)-dimensional Wilson fermion is calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation.
Chen, Leiming; Lee, Chiu Fan; Toner, John
2016-07-25
Active fluids and growing interfaces are two well-studied but very different non-equilibrium systems. Each exhibits non-equilibrium behaviour distinct from that of their equilibrium counterparts. Here we demonstrate a surprising connection between these two: the ordered phase of incompressible polar active fluids in two spatial dimensions without momentum conservation, and growing one-dimensional interfaces (that is, the 1+1-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation), in fact belong to the same universality class. This universality class also includes two equilibrium systems: two-dimensional smectic liquid crystals, and a peculiar kind of constrained two-dimensional ferromagnet. We use these connections to show that two-dimensional incompressible flocks are robust against fluctuations, and exhibit universal long-ranged, anisotropic spatio-temporal correlations of those fluctuations. We also thereby determine the exact values of the anisotropy exponent ζ and the roughness exponents χx,y that characterize these correlations.
Mapping two-dimensional polar active fluids to two-dimensional soap and one-dimensional sandblasting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Leiming; Lee, Chiu Fan; Toner, John
2016-07-01
Active fluids and growing interfaces are two well-studied but very different non-equilibrium systems. Each exhibits non-equilibrium behaviour distinct from that of their equilibrium counterparts. Here we demonstrate a surprising connection between these two: the ordered phase of incompressible polar active fluids in two spatial dimensions without momentum conservation, and growing one-dimensional interfaces (that is, the 1+1-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation), in fact belong to the same universality class. This universality class also includes two equilibrium systems: two-dimensional smectic liquid crystals, and a peculiar kind of constrained two-dimensional ferromagnet. We use these connections to show that two-dimensional incompressible flocks are robust against fluctuations, and exhibit universal long-ranged, anisotropic spatio-temporal correlations of those fluctuations. We also thereby determine the exact values of the anisotropy exponent ζ and the roughness exponents χx,y that characterize these correlations.
Park, Hyun Soon; Yu, Xiuzhen; Aizawa, Shinji; Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Akashi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Yoshio; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Kanazawa, Naoya; Onose, Yoshinori; Shindo, Daisuke; Tonomura, Akira; Tokura, Yoshinori
2014-05-01
Skyrmions are nanoscale spin textures that are viewed as promising candidates as information carriers in future spintronic devices. Skyrmions have been observed using neutron scattering and microscopy techniques. Real-space imaging using electrons is a straightforward way to interpret spin configurations by detecting the phase shifts due to electromagnetic fields. Here, we report the first observation by electron holography of the magnetic flux and the three-dimensional spin configuration of a skyrmion lattice in Fe(0.5)Co(0.5)Si thin samples. The magnetic flux inside and outside a skyrmion was directly visualized and the handedness of the magnetic flux flow was found to be dependent on the direction of the applied magnetic field. The electron phase shifts φ in the helical and skyrmion phases were determined using samples with a stepped thickness t (from 55 nm to 510 nm), revealing a linear relationship (φ = 0.00173 t). The phase measurements were used to estimate the three-dimensional structures of both the helical and skyrmion phases, demonstrating that electron holography is a useful tool for studying complex magnetic structures and for three-dimensional, real-space mapping of magnetic fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ulibarrena, Manuel; Carretero, Luis; Acebal, Pablo; Madrigal, Roque; Blaya, Salvador; Fimia, Antonio
2004-09-01
Holographic techniques have been used for manufacturing multiple band one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional photonic crystals with different configurations, by multiplexing reflection and transmission setups on a single layer of holographic material. The recording material used for storage is an ultra fine grain silver halide emulsion, with an average grain size around 20 nm. The results are a set of photonic crystals with the one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional index modulation structure consisting of silver halide particles embedded in the gelatin layer of the emulsion. The characterisation of the fabricated photonic crystals by measuring their transmission band structures has been done and compared with theoretical calculations.
Lineshapes of Dipole-Dipole Resonances in a Cold Rydberg Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richards, B. G.; Jones, R. R.
2015-05-01
We have examined the lineshapes associated with Stark tuned, dipole-dipole resonances involving Rydberg atoms in a cold gas. Rb atoms in a MOT are laser excited from the 5 p level to 32p3 / 2 in the presence of a weak electric field. A fast rising electric field pulse Stark tunes the total energy of two 32 p atom pairs so it is (nearly) degenerate with that of the 32s1 / 2+33s1 / 2 states. Because of the dipole-dipole coupling, atom pairs separated by a distance R, develop 32s1 / 2+33s1 / 2 character. The maximum probability for finding atoms in s-states depends on the detuning from degeneracy and on the dipole-dipole coupling. We obtain the ``resonance'' lineshape by measuring, via state-selective field ionization, the s-state population as a function of the tuning field. The resonance width decreases with density due to R-3 dependence of the dipole-dipole coupling. In principle, the lineshape provides information about the distribution of Rydberg atom spacings in the sample. For equally spaced atoms, the lineshape should be Lorentzian while for a random nearest neighbor distribution it appears as a cusp. At low densities nearly Gaussian lineshapes are observed with widths that are too large to be the result of inhomogeneous electric or magnetic fields. Supported by the NSF.
Härtel, Steffen; Fanani, María Laura; Maggio, Bruno
2005-01-01
Sphingomyelinases (SMases) hydrolyze the membrane constituent sphingomyelin (SM) to phosphocholine and ceramide (Cer). Growing evidence supports that SMase-induced SM→Cer conversion leads to the formation of lateral Cer-enriched domains which drive structural reorganization in lipid membranes. We previously provided visual evidence in real-time for the formation of Cer-enriched domains in SM monolayers through the action of the neutral Bacillus cereus SMase. In this work, we disclose a succession of discrete morphologic transitions and lateral organization of Cer-enriched domains that underlay the SMase-generated surface topography. We further reveal how these structural parameters couple to the generation of two-dimensional electrostatic fields, based upon the specific orientation of the lipid dipole moments in the Cer-enriched domains. Advanced image processing routines in combination with time-resolved epifluorescence microscopy on Langmuir monolayers revealed: 1), spontaneous nucleation and circular growth of Cer-enriched domains after injection of SMase into the subphase of the SM monolayer; 2), domain-intrinsic discrete transitions from circular to periodically undulating shapes followed by a second transition toward increasingly branched morphologies; 3), lateral superstructure organization into predominantly hexagonal domain lattices; 4), formation of super-superstructures by the hexagonal lattices; and 5), rotationally and laterally coupled domain movement before domain border contact. All patterns proved to be specific for the SMase-driven system since they could not be observed with Cer-enriched domains generated by defined mixtures of SM/Cer in enzyme-free monolayers at the same surface pressure (Π = 10 mN/m). Following the theories of lateral shape transitions, dipolar electrostatic interactions of lipid domains, and direct determinations of the monolayer dipole potential, our data show that SMase induces a domain-specific packing and orientation of
Laser one-dimensional range profile and the laser two-dimensional range profile of cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Yanjun; Wang, Mingjun; Gong, Lei
2015-10-01
Laser one-dimensional range profile, that is scattering power from pulse laser scattering of target, is a radar imaging technology. The laser two-dimensional range profile is two-dimensional scattering imaging of pulse laser of target. Laser one-dimensional range profile and laser two-dimensional range profile are called laser range profile(LRP). The laser range profile can reflect the characteristics of the target shape and surface material. These techniques were motivated by applications of laser radar to target discrimination in ballistic missile defense. The radar equation of pulse laser is given in this paper. This paper demonstrates the analytical model of laser range profile of cylinder based on the radar equation of the pulse laser. Simulations results of laser one-dimensional range profiles of some cylinders are given. Laser range profiles of cylinder, whose surface material with diffuse lambertian reflectance, is given in this paper. Laser range profiles of different pulse width of cylinder are given in this paper. The influences of geometric parameters, pulse width, attitude on the range profiles are analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyutyy, T. V.; Reva, V. V.
2018-05-01
Ferrofluid heating by an external alternating field is studied based on the rigid dipole model, where the magnetization of each particle in a fluid is supposed to be firmly fixed in the crystal lattice. Equations of motion, employing Newton's second law for rotational motion, the condition of rigid body rotation, and the assumption that the friction torque is proportional to angular velocity are used. This oversimplification permits us to expand the model easily: to take into account the thermal noise and interparticle interaction that allows us to estimate from unified positions the role of thermal activation and dipole interaction in the heating process. Our studies are conducted in three stages. The exact expressions for the average power loss of a single particle are obtained within the dynamical approximation. Then, in the stochastic case, the power loss of a single particle is estimated analytically using the Fokker-Planck equation and numerically using the effective Langevin equation. Finally, the power loss for the particle ensemble is obtained using the molecular dynamics method. Here, the local dipole fields are calculated approximately based on the Barnes-Hut algorithm. The revealed trends in the behavior of both a single particle and the particle ensemble suggest the way of choosing the conditions for obtaining the maximum heating efficiency. The competitiveness character of the interparticle interaction and thermal noise is investigated in detail. Two situations, when the thermal noise rectifies the power loss reduction caused by the interaction, are described. The first of them is related to the complete destruction of dense clusters at high noise intensity. The second one originates from the rare switching of the particles in clusters due to thermal activation, when the noise intensity is relatively weak. In this way, the constructive role of noise appears in the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Childress, Stephen; Gilbert, Andrew D.
2018-02-01
A theory of an eroding ‘hairpin’ vortex dipole structure in three-dimensions is developed, extending our previous study of an axisymmetric eroding dipole without swirl. The axisymmetric toroidal dipole was found to lead to maximal growth of vorticity, as {t}4/3. The hairpin is here similarly proposed as a model to produce large ‘self-stretching’ of vorticity, with the possibility of finite-time blow-up. We derive a system of partial differential equations of ‘generalized’ form, involving contour averaging of a locally two-dimensional Euler flow. We do not attempt here to solve the system exactly, but point out that non-existence of physically acceptable solutions would most probably be a result of the axial flow. Because of the axial flow the vorticity distribution within the dipole eddies is no longer of the simple Sadovskii type (vorticity constant over a cross-section) obtained in the axisymmetric problem. Thus the solution of the system depends upon the existence of a larger class of propagating two-dimensional dipoles. The hairpin model is obtained by formal asymptotic analysis. As in the axisymmetric problem a local transformation to ‘shrinking’ coordinates is introduced, but now in a self-similar form appropriate to the study of a possible finite-time singularity. We discuss some properties of the model, including a study of the helicity and a first step in iterating toward a solution from the Sadovskii structure. We also present examples of two-dimensional propagating dipoles not previously studied, which have a vorticity profile consistent with our model. Although no rigorous results can be given, and analysis of the system is only partial, the formal calculations are consistent with the possibility of a finite time blowup of vorticity at a point of vanishing circulation of the dipole eddies, but depending upon the existence of the necessary two-dimensional propagating dipole. Our results also suggest that conservation of kinetic energy as
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Lu; Kamm, Paul; García-Moreno, Francisco; Banhart, John; Pasini, Damiano
2017-10-01
This paper examines three-dimensional metallic lattices with regular octet and rhombicuboctahedron units fabricated with geometric imperfections via Selective Laser Sintering. We use X-ray computed tomography to capture morphology, location, and distribution of process-induced defects with the aim of studying their role in the elastic response, damage initiation, and failure evolution under quasi-static compression. Testing results from in-situ compression tomography show that each lattice exhibits a distinct failure mechanism that is governed not only by cell topology but also by geometric defects induced by additive manufacturing. Extracted from X-ray tomography images, the statistical distributions of three sets of defects, namely strut waviness, strut thickness variation, and strut oversizing, are used to develop numerical models of statistically representative lattices with imperfect geometry. Elastic and failure responses are predicted within 10% agreement from the experimental data. In addition, a computational study is presented to shed light into the relationship between the amplitude of selected defects and the reduction of elastic properties compared to their nominal values. The evolution of failure mechanisms is also explained with respect to strut oversizing, a parameter that can critically cause failure mode transitions that are not visible in defect-free lattices.
Quasi-one-dimensional spin-orbit- and Rabi-coupled bright dipolar Bose-Einstein-condensate solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiquillo, Emerson
2018-01-01
We study the formation of stable bright solitons in quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) spin-orbit- (SO-) and Rabi-coupled two pseudospinor dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of 164Dy atoms in the presence of repulsive contact interactions. As a result of the combined attraction-repulsion effect of both interactions and the addition of SO and Rabi couplings, two kinds of ground states in the form of self-trapped bright solitons can be formed, a plane-wave soliton (PWS) and a stripe soliton (SS). These quasi-1D solitons cannot exist in a condensate with purely repulsive contact interactions and SO and Rabi couplings (no dipole). Neglecting the repulsive contact interactions, our findings also show the possibility of creating PWSs and SSs. When the strengths of the two interactions are close to each other, the SS develops an oscillatory instability indicating a possibility of a breather solution, eventually leading to its destruction. We also obtain a phase diagram showing regions where the solution is a PWS or SS.
Constraints on exotic dipole-dipole couplings between electrons at the micron scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotler, Shlomi; Ozeri, Roee; Jackson Kimball, Derek
2015-05-01
Until recently, the magnetic dipole-dipole coupling between electrons had not been directly observed experimentally. This is because at the atomic scale dipole-dipole coupling is dominated by the exchange interaction and at larger distances the dipole-dipole coupling is overwhelmed by ambient magnetic field noise. In spite of these challenges, the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction between two electron spins separated by 2.4 microns was recently measured using the valence electrons of trapped Strontium ions [S. Kotler, N. Akerman, N. Navon, Y. Glickman, and R. Ozeri, Nature 510, 376 (2014)]. We have used this measurement to directly constrain exotic dipole-dipole interactions between electrons at the micron scale. For light bosons (mass 0.1 eV), we find that coupling constants describing pseudoscalar and axial-vector mediated interactions must be | gPegPe/4 πℏc | <= 1 . 5 × 10-3 and | gAegAe/4 πℏc | <= 1 . 2 × 10-17 , respectively, at the 90% confidence level. These bounds significantly improve on previous constraints in this mass range: for example, the constraints on axial-vector interactions are six orders of magnitude stronger than electron-positron constraints based on positronium spectroscopy. Supported by the National Science Foundation, I-Core: the Israeli excellence center, and the European Research Council.
Wavepacket dynamics in a family of nonlinear Fibonacci lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandey, Mohit; Campbell, David
We examine the dynamics of a quantum particle in a variety of one-dimensional Fibonacci lattices (which are shifted from each other) in the presence of interaction. To describe the nonlinear interactions we employ the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation. Using a single-site localized state in the lattice as our initial condition, we evolve the wavepacket numerically using DNLS equation. We compute the root-mean-square width of the wavepacket as it evolves in time and show how the ``global location'' of initial wavepacket affects the dynamics. We compare and contrast our results with earlier studies of related but distinct models.
Polymer chain collapse induced by many-body dipole correlations.
Budkov, Yu A; Kalikin, N N; Kolesnikov, A L
2017-04-01
We present a simple analytical theory of a flexible polymer chain dissolved in a good solvent, carrying permanent freely oriented dipoles on the monomers. We take into account the dipole correlations within the random phase approximation (RPA), as well as a dielectric heterogeneity in the internal polymer volume relative to the bulk solution. We demonstrate that the dipole correlations of monomers can be taken into account as pairwise ones only when the polymer chain is in a coil conformation. In this case the dipole correlations manifest themselves through the Keesom interactions of the permanent dipoles. On the other hand, the dielectric heterogeneity effect (dielectric mismatch effect) leads to the effective interaction between the monomers of the polymeric coil. Both of these effects can be taken into account by renormalizing the second virial coefficient of the monomer-monomer volume interactions. We establish that in the case when the solvent dielectric permittivity exceeds the dielectric permittivity of the polymeric material, the dielectric mismatch effect competes with the dipole attractive interactions, leading to polymer coil expansion. In the opposite case, both the dielectric mismatch effect and the dipole attractive interaction lead to the polymer coil collapse. We analyse the coil-globule transition caused by the dipole correlations of monomers within the many-body theory. We demonstrate that accounting for the dipole correlations higher than the pairwise ones smooths this pure electrostatics driven coil-globule transition of the polymer chain.
Spatial Lattice Modulation for MIMO Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Jiwook; Nam, Yunseo; Lee, Namyoon
2018-06-01
This paper proposes spatial lattice modulation (SLM), a spatial modulation method for multipleinput-multiple-output (MIMO) systems. The key idea of SLM is to jointly exploit spatial, in-phase, and quadrature dimensions to modulate information bits into a multi-dimensional signal set that consists oflattice points. One major finding is that SLM achieves a higher spectral efficiency than the existing spatial modulation and spatial multiplexing methods for the MIMO channel under the constraint ofM-ary pulseamplitude-modulation (PAM) input signaling per dimension. In particular, it is shown that when the SLM signal set is constructed by using dense lattices, a significant signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) gain, i.e., a nominal coding gain, is attainable compared to the existing methods. In addition, closed-form expressions for both the average mutual information and average symbol-vector-error-probability (ASVEP) of generic SLM are derived under Rayleigh-fading environments. To reduce detection complexity, a low-complexity detection method for SLM, which is referred to as lattice sphere decoding, is developed by exploiting lattice theory. Simulation results verify the accuracy of the conducted analysis and demonstrate that the proposed SLM techniques achieve higher average mutual information and lower ASVEP than do existing methods.
Axial-vector form factors of the nucleon from lattice QCD
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Gupta, Rajan; Jang, Yong-Chull; Lin, Huey-Wen
In this paper, we present results for the form factors of the isovector axial vector current in the nucleon state using large scale simulations of lattice QCD. The calculations were done using eight ensembles of gauge configurations generated by the MILC collaboration using the HISQ action with 2 + 1 + 1 dynamical flavors. These ensembles span three lattice spacings a ≈ 0.06 , 0.09, and 0.12 fm and light-quark masses corresponding to the pion masses M π ≈ 135, 225, and 310 MeV. High-statistics estimates allow us to quantify systematic uncertainties in the extraction of G A (Q 2)more » and the induced pseudoscalar form factor G P(Q 2) . We perform a simultaneous extrapolation in the lattice spacing, lattice volume and light-quark masses of the axial charge radius r A data to obtain physical estimates. Using the dipole ansatz to fit the Q 2 behavior we obtain r A | dipole = 0.49(3) fm , which corresponds to M A = 1.39(9) GeV , and is consistent with M A = 1.35(17) GeV obtained by the miniBooNE collaboration. The estimate obtained using the z -expansion is r A | z - expansion = 0.46(6) fm, and the combined result is r A | combined = 0.48(4) fm. Analysis of the induced pseudoscalar form factor G P (Q 2) yields low estimates for g* P and g πNN compared to their phenomenological values. To understand these, we analyze the partially conserved axial current (PCAC) relation by also calculating the pseudoscalar form factor. Lastly, we find that these low values are due to large deviations in the PCAC relation between the three form factors, and in the pion-pole dominance hypothesis.« less
Axial-vector form factors of the nucleon from lattice QCD
Gupta, Rajan; Jang, Yong-Chull; Lin, Huey-Wen; ...
2017-12-04
In this paper, we present results for the form factors of the isovector axial vector current in the nucleon state using large scale simulations of lattice QCD. The calculations were done using eight ensembles of gauge configurations generated by the MILC collaboration using the HISQ action with 2 + 1 + 1 dynamical flavors. These ensembles span three lattice spacings a ≈ 0.06 , 0.09, and 0.12 fm and light-quark masses corresponding to the pion masses M π ≈ 135, 225, and 310 MeV. High-statistics estimates allow us to quantify systematic uncertainties in the extraction of G A (Q 2)more » and the induced pseudoscalar form factor G P(Q 2) . We perform a simultaneous extrapolation in the lattice spacing, lattice volume and light-quark masses of the axial charge radius r A data to obtain physical estimates. Using the dipole ansatz to fit the Q 2 behavior we obtain r A | dipole = 0.49(3) fm , which corresponds to M A = 1.39(9) GeV , and is consistent with M A = 1.35(17) GeV obtained by the miniBooNE collaboration. The estimate obtained using the z -expansion is r A | z - expansion = 0.46(6) fm, and the combined result is r A | combined = 0.48(4) fm. Analysis of the induced pseudoscalar form factor G P (Q 2) yields low estimates for g* P and g πNN compared to their phenomenological values. To understand these, we analyze the partially conserved axial current (PCAC) relation by also calculating the pseudoscalar form factor. Lastly, we find that these low values are due to large deviations in the PCAC relation between the three form factors, and in the pion-pole dominance hypothesis.« less
Solitons in a one-dimensional Wigner crystal
Pustilnik, M.; Matveev, K. A.
2015-04-16
In one-dimensional quantum systems with strong long-range repulsion particles arrange in a quasi-periodic chain, the Wigner crystal. Here, we demonstrate that besides the familiar phonons, such one-dimensional Wigner crystal supports an additional mode of elementary excitations, which can be identified with solitons in the classical limit. Furthermore, we compute the corresponding excitation spectrum and argue that the solitons have a parametrically small decay rate at low energies. Finally, we discuss implications of our results for the behavior of the dynamic structure factor.
Dipole oscillator strengths, dipole properties and dispersion energies for SiF4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Mukesh; Meath, William J.
2003-01-01
A recommended isotropic dipole oscillator strength distribution (DOSD) has been constructed for the silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4) molecule through the use of quantum mechanical constraint techniques and experimental dipole oscillator strength data. The constraints are furnished by experimental molar refractivity data and the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. The DOSD is used to evaluate a variety of isotropic dipole oscillator strength sums, logarithmic dipole oscillator strength sums and mean excitation energies for the molecule. A pseudo-DOSD for SiF4 is also presented which is used to obtain reliable results for the isotropic dipole-dipole dispersion energy coefficients C6, for the interaction of SiF4 with itself and with 43 other species and the triple-dipole dispersion energy coefficient C9 for (SiF4)3.
Collapsing lattice animals and lattice trees in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Grassberger, Peter
2005-06-01
We present high statistics simulations of weighted lattice bond animals and lattice trees on the square lattice, with fugacities for each non-bonded contact and for each bond between two neighbouring monomers. The simulations are performed using a newly developed sequential sampling method with resampling, very similar to the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM) used for linear chain polymers. We determine with high precision the line of second-order transitions from an extended to a collapsed phase in the resulting two-dimensional phase diagram. This line includes critical bond percolation as a multicritical point, and we verify that this point divides the line into different universality classes. One of them corresponds to the collapse driven by contacts and includes the collapse of (weakly embeddable) trees. There is some evidence that the other is subdivided again into two parts with different universality classes. One of these (at the far side from collapsing trees) is bond driven and is represented by the Derrida-Herrmann model of animals having bonds only (no contacts). Between the critical percolation point and this bond-driven collapse seems to be an intermediate regime, whose other end point is a multicritical point P* where a transition line between two collapsed phases (one bond driven and the other contact driven) sparks off. This point P* seems to be attractive (in the renormalization group sense) from the side of the intermediate regime, so there are four universality classes on the transition line (collapsing trees, critical percolation, intermediate regime, and Derrida-Herrmann). We obtain very precise estimates for all critical exponents for collapsing trees. It is already harder to estimate the critical exponents for the intermediate regime. Finally, it is very difficult to obtain with our method good estimates of the critical parameters of the Derrida-Herrmann universality class. As regards the bond-driven to contact-driven transition in the
Generalized hydrodynamic transport in lattice-gas automata
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luo, Li-Shi; Chen, Hudong; Chen, Shiyi; Doolen, Gary D.; Lee, Yee-Chun
1991-01-01
The generalized hydrodynamics of two-dimensional lattice-gas automata is solved analytically in the linearized Boltzmann approximation. The dependence of the transport coefficients (kinematic viscosity, bulk viscosity, and sound speed) upon wave number k is obtained analytically. Anisotropy of these coefficients due to the lattice symmetry is studied for the entire range of wave number, k. Boundary effects due to a finite mean free path (Knudsen layer) are analyzed, and accurate comparisons are made with lattice-gas simulations.
Takashima, S
2001-04-05
The large dipole moment of globular proteins has been well known because of the detailed studies using dielectric relaxation and electro-optical methods. The search for the origin of these dipolemoments, however, must be based on the detailed knowledge on protein structure with atomic resolutions. At present, we have two sources of information on the structure of protein molecules: (1) x-ray databases obtained in crystalline state; (2) NMR databases obtained in solution state. While x-ray databases consist of only one model, NMR databases, because of the fluctuation of the protein folding in solution, consist of a number of models, thus enabling the computation of dipole moment repeated for all these models. The aim of this work, using these databases, is the detailed investigation on the interdependence between the structure and dipole moment of protein molecules. The dipole moment of protein molecules has roughly two components: one dipole moment is due to surface charges and the other, core dipole moment, is due to polar groups such as N--H and C==O bonds. The computation of surface charge dipole moment consists of two steps: (A) calculation of the pK shifts of charged groups for electrostatic interactions and (B) calculation of the dipole moment using the pK corrected for electrostatic shifts. The dipole moments of several proteins were computed using both NMR and x-ray databases. The dipole moments of these two sets of calculations are, with a few exceptions, in good agreement with one another and also with measured dipole moments.
Index Theory of One Dimensional Quantum Walks and Cellular Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gross, D.; Nesme, V.; Vogts, H.; Werner, R. F.
2012-03-01
If a one-dimensional quantum lattice system is subject to one step of a reversible discrete-time dynamics, it is intuitive that as much "quantum information" as moves into any given block of cells from the left, has to exit that block to the right. For two types of such systems — namely quantum walks and cellular automata — we make this intuition precise by defining an index, a quantity that measures the "net flow of quantum information" through the system. The index supplies a complete characterization of two properties of the discrete dynamics. First, two systems S 1, S 2 can be "pieced together", in the sense that there is a system S which acts like S 1 in one region and like S 2 in some other region, if and only if S 1 and S 2 have the same index. Second, the index labels connected components of such systems: equality of the index is necessary and sufficient for the existence of a continuous deformation of S 1 into S 2. In the case of quantum walks, the index is integer-valued, whereas for cellular automata, it takes values in the group of positive rationals. In both cases, the map {S mapsto ind S} is a group homomorphism if composition of the discrete dynamics is taken as the group law of the quantum systems. Systems with trivial index are precisely those which can be realized by partitioned unitaries, and the prototypes of systems with non-trivial index are shifts.
Quadrupole radiation from terahertz dipole antennas.
Rudd, J V; Johnson, J L; Mittleman, D M
2000-10-15
We report what is to our knowledge the first detailed investigation of the polarization state of radiation from lens-coupled terahertz dipole antennas. The radiation exhibits a weak but measurable component that is polarized orthogonally to the orientation of the emitter dipole. The angular radiation pattern of this cross-polarized emission reveals that it is quadrupolar, rather than dipolar, in nature. One can understand this result by taking into account the photocurrent flowing in the strip lines that feed the dipole antenna. A Fresnel-Kirchhoff scalar diffraction calculation is used for calculating the frequency-dependent angular distribution of the radiation pattern, providing satisfactory agreement with the measurements.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Zhdanov, E. Yu., E-mail: zhdanov@isp.nsc.ru; Pogosov, A. G.; Budantsev, M. V.
2017-01-15
The magnetoresistance of suspended semiconductor nanostructures with a two-dimensional electron gas structured by periodic square antidot lattices is studied. It is shown that the ballistic regime of electron transport is retained after detaching the sample from the substrate. Direct comparative analysis of commensurability oscillations of magnetoresistance and their temperature dependences in samples before and after suspension is performed. It is found that the temperature dependences are almost identical for non-suspended and suspended samples, whereas significant differences are observed in the nonlinear regime, caused by direct current passage. Commensurability oscillations in the suspended samples are more stable with respect to exposuremore » to direct current, which can be presumably explained by electron–electron interaction enhancement after detaching nanostructures from the high-permittivity substrate.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Ajit; Verma, Sanjay K.; Alvi, P. A.; Jasrotia, Dinesh
2016-04-01
The nanospatial morphological features of [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ hybrid derivative depicts 28 nm granular size and 3D spreader shape packing pattern as analyzed by FESEM and single crystal XRD structural studies. The organic moiety connect the inorganic components through N-H+…Cl- hydrogen bond to form a hybrid composite, the replacement of organic derivatives from 2-methylpyridine to 2-Amino-5-choloropyridine results the increase in granular size from 28nm to 60nm and unit cell packing pattern from 3D-2D lattice dimensionality along ac plane. The change in optical energy direct band gap value from 3.01eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ (HM1) to 3.42eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H5ClN2]+ (HM2) indicates the role of organic moiety in optical properties of hybrid materials. The photoluminescence emission spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 370 to 600 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.66a.u. at 438 nm for (HM1) and 370 to 600 nm with max peak intensity of 9.91 a.u. at 442 nm for (HM2), indicating that the emission spectra lies in visible range. PL excitation spectra depicts the maximum excitation intensity [9.8] at 245.5 nm for (HM1) and its value of 9.9 a.u. at 294 nm, specify the excitation spectra lies in UV range. Photoluminescence excitation spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 280 to 350 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.4 a.u. at 285.5 nm and 9.9 a.u. at 294 and 297 nm, indicating excitation in the UV spectrum. Single crystal growth process and detailed physiochemical characterization such as XRD, FESEM image analysis photoluminescence property reveals the structure stability with non-covalent interactions, lattice dimensionality (3D-2D) correlations interweaving into the design of inorganic-organic hybrid materials.
Bose-Hubbard lattice as a controllable environment for open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cosco, Francesco; Borrelli, Massimo; Mendoza-Arenas, Juan José; Plastina, Francesco; Jaksch, Dieter; Maniscalco, Sabrina
2018-04-01
We investigate the open dynamics of an atomic impurity embedded in a one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard lattice. We derive the reduced evolution equation for the impurity and show that the Bose-Hubbard lattice behaves as a tunable engineered environment allowing one to simulate both Markovian and non-Markovian dynamics in a controlled and experimentally realizable way. We demonstrate that the presence or absence of memory effects is a signature of the nature of the excitations induced by the impurity, being delocalized or localized in the two limiting cases of a superfluid and Mott insulator, respectively. Furthermore, our findings show how the excitations supported in the two phases can be characterized as information carriers.
Lattice Three-Species Models of the Spatial Spread of Rabies among FOXES
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benyoussef, A.; Boccara, N.; Chakib, H.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.
Lattice models describing the spatial spread of rabies among foxes are studied. In these models, the fox population is divided into three-species: susceptible (S), infected or incubating (I), and infectious or rabid (R). They are based on the fact that susceptible and incubating foxes are territorial while rabid foxes have lost their sense of direction and move erratically. Two different models are investigated: a one-dimensional coupled-map lattice model, and a two-dimensional automata network model. Both models take into account the short-range character of the infection process and the diffusive motion of rabid foxes. Numerical simulations show how the spatial distribution of rabies, and the speed of propagation of the epizootic front depend upon the carrying capacity of the environment and diffusion of rabid foxes out of their territory.
Topology Optimization of Lightweight Lattice Structural Composites Inspired by Cuttlefish Bone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Zhong; Gadipudi, Varun Kumar; Salem, David R.
2018-03-01
Lattice structural composites are of great interest to various industries where lightweight multifunctionality is important, especially aerospace. However, strong coupling among the composition, microstructure, porous topology, and fabrication of such materials impedes conventional trial-and-error experimental development. In this work, a discontinuous carbon fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite was adopted for structural design. A reliable and robust design approach for developing lightweight multifunctional lattice structural composites was proposed, inspired by biomimetics and based on topology optimization. Three-dimensional periodic lattice blocks were initially designed, inspired by the cuttlefish bone microstructure. The topologies of the three-dimensional periodic blocks were further optimized by computer modeling, and the mechanical properties of the topology optimized lightweight lattice structures were characterized by computer modeling. The lattice structures with optimal performance were identified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yong-Yang; Xu, Yu-Liang; Liu, Zhong-Qiang; Li, Jing; Wang, Chun-Yang; Kong, Xiang-Mu
2018-07-01
Employing the correlation matrix technique, the spatial distribution of thermal energy in two-dimensional triangular lattices in equilibrium, interacting with linear springs, is studied. It is found that the spatial distribution of thermal energy varies with the included angle of the springs. In addition, the average thermal energy of the longer springs is lower. Springs with different included angle and length will lead to an inhomogeneous spatial distribution of thermal energy. This suggests that the spatial distribution of thermal energy is affected by the geometrical structure of the system: the more asymmetric the geometrical structure of the system is, the more inhomogeneous is the spatial distribution of thermal energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, D.; Jiang, F.-J.; Olesen, T. Z.; Orland, P.; Wiese, U.-J.
2018-05-01
We consider the (2 +1 ) -dimensional S U (2 ) quantum link model on the honeycomb lattice and show that it is equivalent to a quantum dimer model on the kagome lattice. The model has crystalline confined phases with spontaneously broken translation invariance associated with pinwheel order, which is investigated with either a Metropolis or an efficient cluster algorithm. External half-integer non-Abelian charges [which transform nontrivially under the Z (2 ) center of the S U (2 ) gauge group] are confined to each other by fractionalized strings with a delocalized Z (2 ) flux. The strands of the fractionalized flux strings are domain walls that separate distinct pinwheel phases. A second-order phase transition in the three-dimensional Ising universality class separates two confining phases: one with correlated pinwheel orientations, and the other with uncorrelated pinwheel orientations.
An alternative subspace approach to EEG dipole source localization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Bobby; He, Bin
2004-01-01
In the present study, we investigate a new approach to electroencephalography (EEG) three-dimensional (3D) dipole source localization by using a non-recursive subspace algorithm called FINES. In estimating source dipole locations, the present approach employs projections onto a subspace spanned by a small set of particular vectors (FINES vector set) in the estimated noise-only subspace instead of the entire estimated noise-only subspace in the case of classic MUSIC. The subspace spanned by this vector set is, in the sense of principal angle, closest to the subspace spanned by the array manifold associated with a particular brain region. By incorporating knowledge of the array manifold in identifying FINES vector sets in the estimated noise-only subspace for different brain regions, the present approach is able to estimate sources with enhanced accuracy and spatial resolution, thus enhancing the capability of resolving closely spaced sources and reducing estimation errors. The present computer simulations show, in EEG 3D dipole source localization, that compared to classic MUSIC, FINES has (1) better resolvability of two closely spaced dipolar sources and (2) better estimation accuracy of source locations. In comparison with RAP-MUSIC, FINES' performance is also better for the cases studied when the noise level is high and/or correlations among dipole sources exist.
Dagdeviren, Omur E
2018-08-03
The effect of surface disorder, load, and velocity on friction between a single asperity contact and a model surface is explored with one-dimensional and two-dimensional Prandtl-Tomlinson (PT) models. We show that there are fundamental physical differences between the predictions of one-dimensional and two-dimensional models. The one-dimensional model estimates a monotonic increase in friction and energy dissipation with load, velocity, and surface disorder. However, a two-dimensional PT model, which is expected to approximate a tip-sample system more realistically, reveals a non-monotonic trend, i.e. friction is inert to surface disorder and roughness in wearless friction regime. The two-dimensional model discloses that the surface disorder starts to dominate the friction and energy dissipation when the tip and the sample interact predominantly deep into the repulsive regime. Our numerical calculations address that tracking the minimum energy path and the slip-stick motion are two competing effects that determine the load, velocity, and surface disorder dependence of friction. In the two-dimensional model, the single asperity can follow the minimum energy path in wearless regime; however, with increasing load and sliding velocity, the slip-stick movement dominates the dynamic motion and results in an increase in friction by impeding tracing the minimum energy path. Contrary to the two-dimensional model, when the one-dimensional PT model is employed, the single asperity cannot escape to the minimum energy minimum due to constraint motion and reveals only a trivial dependence of friction on load, velocity, and surface disorder. Our computational analyses clarify the physical differences between the predictions of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional models and open new avenues for disordered surfaces for low energy dissipation applications in wearless friction regime.
Edge magnetism of Heisenberg model on honeycomb lattice.
Huang, Wen-Min; Hikihara, Toshiya; Lee, Yen-Chen; Lin, Hsiu-Hau
2017-03-07
Edge magnetism in graphene sparks intense theoretical and experimental interests. In the previous study, we demonstrated the existence of collective excitations at the zigzag edge of the honeycomb lattice with long-ranged Néel order. By employing the Schwinger-boson approach, we show that the edge magnons remain robust even when the long-ranged order is destroyed by spin fluctuations. Furthermore, in the effective field-theory limit, the dynamics of the edge magnon is captured by the one-dimensional relativistic Klein-Gordon equation. It is intriguing that the boundary field theory for the edge magnon is tied up with its bulk counterpart. By performing density-matrix renormalization group calculations, we show that the robustness may be attributed to the closeness between the ground state and the Néel state. The existence of edge magnon is not limited to the honeycomb structure, as demonstrated in the rotated-square lattice with zigzag edges as well. The universal behavior indicates that the edge magnons may attribute to the uncompensated edges and can be detected in many two-dimensional materials.
Dubček, Tena; Lelas, Karlo; Jukić, Dario; ...
2015-12-07
Here we propose the realization of a grating assisted tunneling scheme for tunable synthetic magnetic fields in optically induced one- and two-dimensional dielectric photonic lattices. As a signature of the synthetic magnetic fields, we demonstrate conical diffraction patterns in particular realization of these lattices, which possess Dirac points in k-space. Lastly, we compare the light propagation in these realistic (continuous) systems with the evolution in discrete models representing the Harper-Hofstadter Hamiltonian, and obtain excellent agreement.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Albia, Jason R.; Albao, Marvin A., E-mail: maalbao@uplb.edu.ph
Classical nucleation theory predicts that the evolution of mean island density with temperature during growth in one-dimensional systems obeys the Arrhenius relation. In this study, kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a suitable atomistic lattice-gas model were performed to investigate the experimentally observed non-Arrhenius scaling behavior of island density in the case of one-dimensional Al islands grown on Si(100). Previously, it was proposed that adatom desorption resulted in a transition temperature signaling the departure from classical predictions. Here, the authors demonstrate that desorption above the transition temperature is not possible. Instead, the authors posit that the existence of a transition temperaturemore » is due to a combination of factors such as reversibility of island growth, presence of C-defects, adatom diffusion rates, as well as detachment rates at island ends. In addition, the authors show that the anomalous non-Arrhenius behavior vanishes when adatom binds irreversibly with C-defects as observed in In on Si(100) studies.« less
One Dimensional(1D)-to-2D Crossover of Spin Correlations in the 3D Magnet ZnMn 2O 4
Disseler, S. M.; Chen, Y.; Yeo, S.; ...
2015-12-08
In this paper we report on the intriguing evolution of the dynamical spin correlations of the frustrated spinel ZnMn 2O 4. Inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization studies reveal that the dynamical correlations at high temperatures are 1D. At lower temperature, these dynamical correlations become 2D. Surprisingly, the dynamical correlations condense into a quasi 2D Ising-like ordered state, making this a rare observation of two dimensional order on the spinel lattice. Remarkably, 3D ordering is not observed down to temperatures as low as 300 mK. This unprecedented dimensional crossover stems from frustrated exchange couplings due to the huge Jahn-Teller distortions aroundmore » Mn 3+ ions on the spinel lattice.« less
Lattice Boltzmann model capable of mesoscopic vorticity computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Cheng; Guo, Zhaoli; Wang, Lian-Ping
2017-11-01
It is well known that standard lattice Boltzmann (LB) models allow the strain-rate components to be computed mesoscopically (i.e., through the local particle distributions) and as such possess a second-order accuracy in strain rate. This is one of the appealing features of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) which is of only second-order accuracy in hydrodynamic velocity itself. However, no known LB model can provide the same quality for vorticity and pressure gradients. In this paper, we design a multiple-relaxation time LB model on a three-dimensional 27-discrete-velocity (D3Q27) lattice. A detailed Chapman-Enskog analysis is presented to illustrate all the necessary constraints in reproducing the isothermal Navier-Stokes equations. The remaining degrees of freedom are carefully analyzed to derive a model that accommodates mesoscopic computation of all the velocity and pressure gradients from the nonequilibrium moments. This way of vorticity calculation naturally ensures a second-order accuracy, which is also proven through an asymptotic analysis. We thus show, with enough degrees of freedom and appropriate modifications, the mesoscopic vorticity computation can be achieved in LBM. The resulting model is then validated in simulations of a three-dimensional decaying Taylor-Green flow, a lid-driven cavity flow, and a uniform flow passing a fixed sphere. Furthermore, it is shown that the mesoscopic vorticity computation can be realized even with single relaxation parameter.
Superfluid qubit systems with ring shaped optical lattices
Amico, Luigi; Aghamalyan, Davit; Auksztol, Filip; Crepaz, Herbert; Dumke, Rainer; Kwek, Leong Chuan
2014-01-01
We study an experimentally feasible qubit system employing neutral atomic currents. Our system is based on bosonic cold atoms trapped in ring-shaped optical lattice potentials. The lattice makes the system strictly one dimensional and it provides the infrastructure to realize a tunable ring-ring interaction. Our implementation combines the low decoherence rates of neutral cold atoms systems, overcoming single site addressing, with the robustness of topologically protected solid state Josephson flux qubits. Characteristic fluctuations in the magnetic fields affecting Josephson junction based flux qubits are expected to be minimized employing neutral atoms as flux carriers. By breaking the Galilean invariance we demonstrate how atomic currents through the lattice provide an implementation of a qubit. This is realized either by artificially creating a phase slip in a single ring, or by tunnel coupling of two homogeneous ring lattices. The single qubit infrastructure is experimentally investigated with tailored optical potentials. Indeed, we have experimentally realized scaled ring-lattice potentials that could host, in principle, n ~ 10 of such ring-qubits, arranged in a stack configuration, along the laser beam propagation axis. An experimentally viable scheme of the two-ring-qubit is discussed, as well. Based on our analysis, we provide protocols to initialize, address, and read-out the qubit. PMID:24599096
One-way mode transmission in one-dimensional phononic crystal plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Xuefeng; Zou, Xinye; Liang, Bin; Cheng, Jianchun
2010-12-01
We investigate theoretically the band structures of one-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) plates with both antisymmetric and symmetric structures, and show how unidirectional transmission behavior can be obtained for either antisymmetric waves (A modes) or symmetric waves (S modes) by exploiting mode conversion and selection in the linear plate systems. The theoretical approach is illustrated for one PC plate example where unidirectional transmission behavior is obtained in certain frequency bands. Employing harmonic frequency analysis, we numerically demonstrate the one-way mode transmission for the PC plate with finite superlattice by calculating the steady-state displacement fields under A modes source (or S modes source) in forward and backward direction, respectively. The results show that the incident waves from A modes source (or S modes source) are transformed into S modes waves (or A modes waves) after passing through the superlattice in the forward direction and the Lamb wave rejections in the backward direction are striking with a power extinction ratio of more than 1000. The present structure can be easily extended to two-dimensional PC plate and efficiently encourage practical studies of experimental realization which is believed to have much significance for one-way Lamb wave mode transmission.
Observation of topological states in an optical Raman lattice with ultracold fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Bo; He, Chengdong; Zhang, Long; Poon, Ting Fung Jeffrey; Hajiyev, Elnur; Ren, Zejian; Seo, Bojeong; Zhang, Shanchao; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Jo, Gyu-Boong
2017-04-01
The spin-orbit coupling with cold atoms, especially in optical lattices, provides a versatile platform to investigate the intriguing topological matters. In this talk, we will present the realization of one-dimensional spin-dependent lattice dressed by the periodic Raman field. Ultracold 173Yb fermions loaded into an optical Raman lattice reveal non-trivial spin textures due to the band topology, by which we measured topological invariants and determined a topological phase transition. In addition, we explored the non-equilibrium quench dynamics between the topological and the trivial states by suddenly changing the band topology of the optical Raman lattice. The optical Raman lattice demonstrated here opens a new avenue to study the spin-orbit coupling physics and furthermore to realize novel quantum matters such as symmetry-protected topological states. Funded by Croucher Foundation and Research Grants Council (RGC) of Hong Kong (Project ECS26300014, GRF16300215, GRF16311516, and Croucher Innovation Grants); MOST (Grant No. 2016YFA0301604) and NSFC (No. 11574008).
Lattice spin models for non-Abelian chiral spin liquids
Lecheminant, P.; Tsvelik, A. M.
2017-04-26
Here, we suggest a class of two-dimensional lattice spin Hamiltonians describing non-Abelian SU(2) chiral spin liquids—spin analogs of fractional non-Abelian quantum Hall states—with gapped bulk and gapless chiral edge excitations described by the SU(2) n Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten conformal field theory. The models are constructed from an array of generalized spin-n/2 ladders with multi-spin-exchange interactions which are coupled by isolated spins. Such models allow a controllable analytic treatment starting from the one-dimensional limit and are characterized by a bulk gap and non-Abelian SU(2) n gapless edge excitations.
Viscous Dissipation in One-Dimensional Quantum Liquids
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Matveev, K. A.; Pustilnik, M.
We develop a theory of viscous dissipation in one-dimensional single-component quantum liquids at low temperatures. Such liquids are characterized by a single viscosity coefficient, the bulk viscosity. We show that for a generic interaction between the constituent particles this viscosity diverges in the zerotemperature limit. In the special case of integrable models, the viscosity is infinite at any temperature, which can be interpreted as a breakdown of the hydrodynamic description. In conclusion, our consideration is applicable to all single-component Galilean- invariant one-dimensional quantum liquids, regardless of the statistics of the constituent particles and the interaction strength.
Viscous Dissipation in One-Dimensional Quantum Liquids
Matveev, K. A.; Pustilnik, M.
2017-07-20
We develop a theory of viscous dissipation in one-dimensional single-component quantum liquids at low temperatures. Such liquids are characterized by a single viscosity coefficient, the bulk viscosity. We show that for a generic interaction between the constituent particles this viscosity diverges in the zerotemperature limit. In the special case of integrable models, the viscosity is infinite at any temperature, which can be interpreted as a breakdown of the hydrodynamic description. In conclusion, our consideration is applicable to all single-component Galilean- invariant one-dimensional quantum liquids, regardless of the statistics of the constituent particles and the interaction strength.
Electron-pinned defect-dipoles for high-performance colossal permittivity materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Wanbiao; Liu, Yun; Withers, Ray L.; Frankcombe, Terry J.; Norén, Lasse; Snashall, Amanda; Kitchin, Melanie; Smith, Paul; Gong, Bill; Chen, Hua; Schiemer, Jason; Brink, Frank; Wong-Leung, Jennifer
2013-09-01
The immense potential of colossal permittivity (CP) materials for use in modern microelectronics as well as for high-energy-density storage applications has propelled much recent research and development. Despite the discovery of several new classes of CP materials, the development of such materials with the required high performance is still a highly challenging task. Here, we propose a new electron-pinned, defect-dipole route to ideal CP behaviour, where hopping electrons are localized by designated lattice defect states to generate giant defect-dipoles and result in high-performance CP materials. We present a concrete example, (Nb+In) co-doped TiO2 rutile, that exhibits a largely temperature- and frequency-independent colossal permittivity (> 104) as well as a low dielectric loss (mostly < 0.05) over a very broad temperature range from 80 to 450 K. A systematic defect analysis coupled with density functional theory modelling suggests that ‘triangular’ In23+VO••Ti3+ and ‘diamond’ shaped Nb25+Ti3+ATi (A = Ti3+/In3+/Ti4+) defect complexes are strongly correlated, giving rise to large defect-dipole clusters containing highly localized electrons that are together responsible for the excellent CP properties observed in co-doped TiO2. This combined experimental and theoretical work opens up a promising feasible route to the systematic development of new high-performance CP materials via defect engineering.
Electron-pinned defect-dipoles for high-performance colossal permittivity materials.
Hu, Wanbiao; Liu, Yun; Withers, Ray L; Frankcombe, Terry J; Norén, Lasse; Snashall, Amanda; Kitchin, Melanie; Smith, Paul; Gong, Bill; Chen, Hua; Schiemer, Jason; Brink, Frank; Wong-Leung, Jennifer
2013-09-01
The immense potential of colossal permittivity (CP) materials for use in modern microelectronics as well as for high-energy-density storage applications has propelled much recent research and development. Despite the discovery of several new classes of CP materials, the development of such materials with the required high performance is still a highly challenging task. Here, we propose a new electron-pinned, defect-dipole route to ideal CP behaviour, where hopping electrons are localized by designated lattice defect states to generate giant defect-dipoles and result in high-performance CP materials. We present a concrete example, (Nb+In) co-doped TiO₂ rutile, that exhibits a largely temperature- and frequency-independent colossal permittivity (> 10(4)) as well as a low dielectric loss (mostly < 0.05) over a very broad temperature range from 80 to 450 K. A systematic defect analysis coupled with density functional theory modelling suggests that 'triangular' In₂(3+)Vo(••)Ti(3+) and 'diamond' shaped Nb₂(5+)Ti(3+)A(Ti) (A = Ti(3+)/In(3+)/Ti(4+)) defect complexes are strongly correlated, giving rise to large defect-dipole clusters containing highly localized electrons that are together responsible for the excellent CP properties observed in co-doped TiO₂. This combined experimental and theoretical work opens up a promising feasible route to the systematic development of new high-performance CP materials via defect engineering.
Giant Primeval Magnetic Dipoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Christopher
2017-07-01
Macroscopic magnetic dipoles are considered cosmic dark matter. Permanent magnetism in relativistic field structures can involve some form of superconductivity, one example being current-carrying string loops (“springs”) with vanishing net tension. We derive the cross-section for free classical dipoles to collide, finding it depends weakly on orientation when mutual precession is rapid. The collision rate of “spring” loops with tension { T }˜ {10}-8{c}4/G in galactic halos approaches the measured rate of fast radio bursts (FRBs) if the loops compose most of the dark matter. A large superconducting dipole (LSD) with mass ˜1020 g and size ˜1 mm will form a ˜100 km magnetosphere moving through interstellar plasma. Although hydromagnetic drag is generally weak, it is strong enough to capture some LSDs into long-lived rings orbiting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) that form by the direct collapse of massive gas clouds. Repeated collisions near young SMBHs could dominate the global collision rate, thereby broadening the dipole mass spectrum. Colliding LSDs produce tiny, hot electromagnetic explosions. The accompanying paper shows that these explosions couple effectively to propagating low-frequency electromagnetic modes, with output peaking at 0.01-1 THz. We describe several constraints on, and predictions of, LSDs as cosmic dark matter. The shock formed by an infalling LSD triggers self-sustained thermonuclear burning in a C/O (ONeMg) white dwarf (WD) of mass ≳1 M ⊙ (1.3 M ⊙). The spark is generally located off the center of the WD. The rate of LSD-induced explosions matches the observed rate of Type Ia supernovae.
The Existence of Topological Edge States in Honeycomb Plasmonic Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Li
In this paper, we investigate the band properties of 2D honeycomb plasmonic lattices consisting of metallic nanoparticles. By means of the coupled dipole method and quasi-static approximation, we theoretically analyze the band structures stemming from near-field interaction of localized surface plasmon polaritons for both the infinite lattice and ribbons. Naturally, the interaction of point dipoles decouples into independent out-of-plane and in-plane polarizations. For the out-of-plane modes, both the bulk spectrum and the range of the momentum k∥ where edge states exist in ribbons are similar to the electronic bands in graphene. Nevertheless, the in-plane polarized modes show significant differences, which do not only possess additional non-flat edge states in ribbons, but also have different distributions of the flat edge states in reciprocal space. For in-plane polarized modes, we derived the bulk-edge correspondence, namely, the relation between the number of flat edge states at a fixed k∥, Zak phases of the bulk bands and the winding number associated with the bulk hamiltonian, and verified it through four typical ribbon boundaries, i.e. zigzag, bearded zigzag, armchair, and bearded armchair. Our approach gives a new topological understanding of edge states in such plasmonic systems, and may also apply to other 2D vector wave systems.
Hierarchical Freezing in a Lattice Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byington, Travis W.; Socolar, Joshua E. S.
2012-01-01
A certain two-dimensional lattice model with nearest and next-nearest neighbor interactions is known to have a limit-periodic ground state. We show that during a slow quench from the high temperature, disordered phase, the ground state emerges through an infinite sequence of phase transitions. We define appropriate order parameters and show that the transitions are related by renormalizations of the temperature scale. As the temperature is decreased, sublattices with increasingly large lattice constants become ordered. A rapid quench results in a glasslike state due to kinetic barriers created by simultaneous freezing on sublattices with different lattice constants.
Quenched dynamics and spin-charge separation in an interacting topological lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbiero, L.; Santos, L.; Goldman, N.
2018-05-01
We analyze the static and dynamical properties of a one-dimensional topological lattice, the fermionic Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model, in the presence of on-site interactions. Based on a study of charge and spin correlation functions, we elucidate the nature of the topological edge modes, which, depending on the sign of the interactions, either display particles of opposite spin on opposite edges, or a pair and a holon. This study of correlation functions also highlights the strong entanglement that exists between the opposite edges of the system. This last feature has remarkable consequences upon subjecting the system to a quench, where an instantaneous edge-to-edge signal appears in the correlation functions characterizing the edge modes. Besides, other correlation functions are shown to propagate in the bulk according to the light cone imposed by the Lieb-Robinson bound. Our study reveals how one-dimensional lattices exhibiting entangled topological edge modes allow for a nontrivial correlation spreading, while providing an accessible platform to detect spin-charge separation using state-of-the-art experimental techniques.
An existence criterion for low-dimensional materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jiapeng; Wang, Biao; Hu, Yangfan
2017-10-01
The discovery of graphene and other two-dimensional (2-D) materials has stimulated a general interest in low-dimensional (low-D) materials. Whereas long time ago, Peierls (1935) and Landau's (1937) theoretical work demonstrated that any one- and two-dimensional materials could not exist in any finite temperature environment. Then, two basic issues became a central concern for many researchers: How can stable low-D materials exist? What kind of low-D materials are stable? Here, we establish an energy stability criterion for low-D materials, which seeks to provide a clear answer to these questions. For a certain kind of element, the stability of its specific low-D structure is determined by several derivatives of its interatomic potential. This atomistic-based approach is then applied to study any straight/planar, low-D, equal-bond-length elemental materials. We found that 1-D monatomic chains, 2-D honeycomb lattices, square lattices, and triangular lattices are the only four permissible structures, and the stability of these structures can only be understood by assuming multi-body interatomic potentials. Using this approach, the stable existence of graphene, silicene and germanene can be explained.
Computational study of energy filtering effects in one-dimensional composite nano-structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Raseong; Lundstrom, Mark S.
2012-01-01
Possibilities to improve the Seebeck coefficient S versus electrical conductance G trade-off of diffusive composite nano-structures are explored using an electro-thermal simulation framework based on the non-equilibrium Green's function method for quantum electron transport and the lattice heat diffusion equation. We examine the role of the grain size d, potential barrier height ΦB, grain doping, and the lattice thermal conductivity κL using a one-dimensional model structure. For a uniform κL, simulation results show that the power factor of a composite structure may be improved over bulk with the optimum ΦB being about kBT, where kB and T are the Boltzmann constant and the temperature, respectively. An optimum ΦB occurs because the current flow near the Fermi level is not obstructed too much while S still improves due to barriers. The optimum grain size dopt is significantly longer than the momentum relaxation length λp so that G is not seriously degraded due to the barriers, and dopt is comparable to or somewhat larger than the energy relaxation length λE so that the carrier energy is not fully relaxed within the grain and |S| remains high. Simulation results also show that if κL in the barrier region is smaller than in the grain, S and power factor are further improved. In such cases, the optimum ΦB and dopt increase, and the power factor may improve even for ΦB (d) significantly higher (longer) than kBT (λE). We find that the results from this quantum mechanical approach are readily understood using a simple, semi-classical model.
Superconductivity at 5 K in quasi-one-dimensional Cr-based KCr3As3 single crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Qing-Ge; Ruan, Bin-Bin; Pan, Bo-Jin; Liu, Tong; Yu, Jia; Zhao, Kang; Chen, Gen-Fu; Ren, Zhi-An
2017-10-01
Recently a new family of Cr-based A2Cr3As3 (A =K , Rb, Cs) superconductors was reported, which own a rare quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) crystal structure with infinite (Cr3As3) 2 - chains and exhibit intriguing superconducting characteristics possibly derived from spin-triplet electron pairing. The crystal structure of A2Cr3As3 is actually a slight variation of the hexagonal TlFe3Te3 prototype, although they have different lattice symmetry. Here we report superconductivity in a 133-type KCr3As3 compound that belongs to the latter structure. The single crystals of KCr3As3 were prepared by the deintercalation of K ions from K2Cr3As3 crystals which were grown from a high-temperature solution growth method, and it owns a centrosymmetric lattice in contrast to the noncentrosymmetric K2Cr3As3 . After annealing at a moderate temperature, the KCr3As3 crystals show superconductivity at 5 K revealed by electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and heat capacity measurements. The discovery of this KCr3As3 superconductor provides a different structural instance to study the exotic superconductivity in these Q1D Cr-based superconductors.
Sets meeting isometric copies of the lattice Z2 in exactly one point
Jackson, Steve; Mauldin, R. Daniel
2002-01-01
The construction of a subset S of ℝ2 such that each isometric copy of ℤ2 (the lattice points in the plane) meets S in exactly one point is indicated. This provides a positive answer to a problem of H. Steinhaus [Sierpiński, W. (1958) Fund. Math. 46, 191–194]. PMID:12466499
Electric dipole moment of magnetoexciton in concentric quantum rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García, L. F.; Mikhailov, I. D.; Revinova, S. Yu
2017-12-01
We study properties of exciton in a weakly coupled concentric quantum rings, penetrated by an axially directed magnetic flux and subjected to an electric field in the ring’s plane. To this end, we adopt a simple model of quasi-one-dimensional rotator, for which the wave functions and the corresponding energies we found by using the double Fourier series expansion method. Revealed multiple intersections of the energy levels provide conditions for abrupt changes of the radial and the angular quantum numbers, making possible the tunnelling of carriers between rings and allowing the formation of a permanent large dipole moment. We show that the electric and magnetic polarizability of concentric quantum rings with a trapped exciton are very sensible to external electric and magnetic fields.
Investigation of the Fermi-Hubbard model with 6Li in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hart, R. A.; Duarte, P. M.; Yang, T.-L.; Hulet, R. G.
2013-05-01
We present our results on investigation of the physics of the Fermi-Hubbard model using an ultracold gas of 6Li loaded into an optical lattice. We use all-optical methods to efficiently cool and load the lattice beginning with laser cooling on the 2S1 / 2 --> 2P3 / 2 transition and then further cooling using the narrow 2S1 / 2 --> 3P3 / 2 transition to T ~ 59 μK. The second stage of laser cooling greatly enhances loading to an optical dipole trap where a two spin state mixture of atoms is evaporatively cooled to degeneracy. We then adiabatically load ~106 degenerate fermions into a 3D optical lattice formed by three orthogonal standing waves of 1064 nm light. Overlapped with each of the three lattice beams is a non-retroreflected beam at 532 nm. This light cancels the harmonic trapping caused by the lattice beams, which extends the number of lattice sites over which a Néel phase can exist and may allow evaporative cooling in the lattice. By using Bragg scattering of light, we investigate the possibility of observing long-range antiferromagnetic ordering of spins in the lattice. Supported by NSF, ONR, DARPA, and the Welch Foundation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Endo, Akito; Kawashima, Norimichi; Takeuchi, Shinichi; Ishikawa, Mutsuo; Kurosawa, Minoru Kuribayashi
2007-07-01
We deposited a lead zirconate titanete (PZT) polycrystalline film on a titanium substrate by the hydrothermal method and fabricated a transducer using the PZT film for use as an ultrasound probe. A 10 MHz miniature one-dimensional-array medical ultrasound probe containing the PZT film was developed. After sputtering titanium on the surface of a hydroxyapatite substrate, the titanium film on the substrate was etched by the photolithography to form a one-dimensional titanium film electrode array. We could thus fabricate a miniature one-dimensional-array ultrasound probe by the hydrothermal method. Transmitted ultrasound pulses from a 10 MHz commercial ultrasound probe were received by the newly fabricated one-dimensional-array ultrasound probe. The fabrication process of the probe and the results of experiments on receiving waveforms were reported in this paper.
Entropic lattice Boltzmann representations required to recover Navier-Stokes flows.
Keating, Brian; Vahala, George; Yepez, Jeffrey; Soe, Min; Vahala, Linda
2007-03-01
There are two disparate formulations of the entropic lattice Boltzmann scheme: one of these theories revolves around the analog of the discrete Boltzmann H function of standard extensive statistical mechanics, while the other revolves around the nonextensive Tsallis entropy. It is shown here that it is the nonenforcement of the pressure tensor moment constraints that lead to extremizations of entropy resulting in Tsallis-like forms. However, with the imposition of the pressure tensor moment constraint, as is fundamentally necessary for the recovery of the Navier-Stokes equations, it is proved that the entropy function must be of the discrete Boltzmann form. Three-dimensional simulations are performed which illustrate some of the differences between standard lattice Boltzmann and entropic lattice Boltzmann schemes, as well as the role played by the number of phase-space velocities used in the discretization.
Bloch oscillations in the absence of a lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meinert, Florian; Knap, Michael; Kirilov, Emil; Jag-Lauber, Katharina; Zvonarev, Mikhail B.; Demler, Eugene; Nägerl, Hanns-Christoph
2017-06-01
The interplay of strong quantum correlations and far-from-equilibrium conditions can give rise to striking dynamical phenomena. We experimentally investigated the quantum motion of an impurity atom immersed in a strongly interacting one-dimensional Bose liquid and subject to an external force. We found that the momentum distribution of the impurity exhibits characteristic Bragg reflections at the edge of an emergent Brillouin zone. Although Bragg reflections are typically associated with lattice structures, in our strongly correlated quantum liquid they result from the interplay of short-range crystalline order and kinematic constraints on the many-body scattering processes in the one-dimensional system. As a consequence, the impurity exhibits periodic dynamics, reminiscent of Bloch oscillations, although the quantum liquid is translationally invariant. Our observations are supported by large-scale numerical simulations.
Characterization of dipole defects in MgAl2O4 spinel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carvalhaes, R. P. M.; da Rocha, M. S. F.; de Souza, S. S.; Blak, A. R.
2005-01-01
Dipole defects in gamma-irradiated and thermal treated MgAl2O4 samples have been studied through thermally stimulated depolarisation currents(TSDC) technique and computer modelling methods. The presence of TSDC bands varies from sample to sample and some crystals do not present any band. The origin of these bands has been investigated in several different samples. In the spectra of spinels showing TSDC peaks, three bands at 130K, 160K and 320K are observed. The peaks at 130K and 160K have been attributed to dipole defects. After 1200kGy of gamma irradiation the broad band at 320K dislocates to 290K and increases ten times. Pulsed thermal treatments between 350K and 470K produce a progressive reduction of the peak area and a shift in the peak position back to 320K. A detailed analysis of the curve indicates the possibility of a superposition of peaks. Gamma irradiation restores the 320K TSDC peak. Taking into account optical absorption(OA) and electron paramagnetic resonance(EPR) results, the thermal reduction of the 320K TSDC band was attributed to V-type centres as a result of hole trapping at tetrahedral and octahedral cation vacancies. Computer modelling methods, based on lattice energy and defect minimisation, were applied to identify dipole defects that occur in these crystals. The calculations were made in normal and inverse spinel structures, doped with Cr, Co, Mn and Fe in order to justify the presence of dipole bands.
Correlations and sum rules in a half-space for a quantum two-dimensional one-component plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jancovici, B.; Šamaj, L.
2007-05-01
This paper is the continuation of a previous one (Šamaj and Jancovici, 2007 J. Stat. Mech. P02002); for a nearly classical quantum fluid in a half-space bounded by a plain plane hard wall (no image forces), we had generalized the Wigner Kirkwood expansion of the equilibrium statistical quantities in powers of Planck's constant \\hbar . As a model system for a more detailed study, we consider the quantum two-dimensional one-component plasma: a system of charged particles of one species, interacting through the logarithmic Coulomb potential in two dimensions, in a uniformly charged background of opposite sign, such that the total charge vanishes. The corresponding classical system is exactly solvable in a variety of geometries, including the present one of a half-plane, when βe2 = 2, where β is the inverse temperature and e is the charge of a particle: all the classical n-body densities are known. In the present paper, we have calculated the expansions of the quantum density profile and truncated two-body density up to order \\hbar ^2 (instead of only to order \\hbar as in the previous paper). These expansions involve the classical n-body densities up to n = 4; thus we obtain exact expressions for these quantum expansions in this special case. For the quantum one-component plasma, two sum rules involving the truncated two-body density (and, for one of them, the density profile) have been derived, a long time ago, by using heuristic macroscopic arguments: one sum rule concerns the asymptotic form along the wall of the truncated two-body density; the other one concerns the dipole moment of the structure factor. In the two-dimensional case at βe2 = 2, we now have explicit expressions up to order \\hbar^2 for these two quantum densities; thus we can microscopically check the sum rules at this order. The checks are positive, reinforcing the idea that the sum rules are correct.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Ke; Li, Hong-Yu; Liu, Ji-Cai; Wang, Chuan-Kui; Luo, Yi
2005-12-01
The dynamic behaviour of ultrashort (femtosecond) laser pulses in a molecular medium is studied by solving the full Maxwell-Bloch equations beyond the limits of the slowly varying envelope approximation and the rotating-wave approximation under the resonant and the non-resonant conditions. A one-dimensional asymmetric charge-transfer molecule, para-nitroaniline, is used as a model molecule whose electronic properties are calculated with the time-dependent hybrid density functional theory. Under the one-photon resonant condition, 4π pulse is separated into two sub-pulses. The weight of the second-harmonic component mainly contributed by the two-photon excitation becomes stronger with longer propagation time. Under the two-photon resonant condition, the separation of 4π pulse is not induced and many higher-order spectral components beyond the second-harmonic generation occur. Interestingly, when the pulse propagates for long enough, the carrier modification becomes so significant that a continuous spectrum is generated. The Fourier transform of the high-harmonic spectrum demonstrates that an even shorter laser pulse can be produced in both resonant and non-resonant propagations. The effects of permanent dipole moments on the pulse evolution are discussed.
Electric-dipole-induced universality for Dirac fermions in graphene.
De Martino, Alessandro; Klöpfer, Denis; Matrasulov, Davron; Egger, Reinhold
2014-05-09
We study electric dipole effects for massive Dirac fermions in graphene and related materials. The dipole potential accommodates towers of infinitely many bound states exhibiting a universal Efimov-like scaling hierarchy. The dipole moment determines the number of towers, but there is always at least one tower. The corresponding eigenstates show a characteristic angular asymmetry, observable in tunnel spectroscopy. However, charge transport properties inferred from scattering states are highly isotropic.
Quantum solution for the one-dimensional Coulomb problem
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Nunez-Yepez, H. N.; Salas-Brito, A. L.; Solis, Didier A.
2011-06-15
The one-dimensional hydrogen atom has been a much studied system with a wide range of applications. Since the pioneering work of Loudon [R. Loudon, Am. J. Phys. 27, 649 (1959).], a number of different features related to the nature of the eigenfunctions have been found. However, many of the claims made throughout the years in this regard are not correct--such as the existence of only odd eigenstates or of an infinite binding-energy ground state. We explicitly show that the one-dimensional hydrogen atom does not admit a ground state of infinite binding energy and that the one-dimensional Coulomb potential is notmore » its own supersymmetric partner. Furthermore, we argue that at the root of many such false claims lies the omission of a superselection rule that effectively separates the right side from the left side of the singularity of the Coulomb potential.« less
kmos: A lattice kinetic Monte Carlo framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffmann, Max J.; Matera, Sebastian; Reuter, Karsten
2014-07-01
Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulations have emerged as a key tool for microkinetic modeling in heterogeneous catalysis and other materials applications. Systems, where site-specificity of all elementary reactions allows a mapping onto a lattice of discrete active sites, can be addressed within the particularly efficient lattice kMC approach. To this end we describe the versatile kmos software package, which offers a most user-friendly implementation, execution, and evaluation of lattice kMC models of arbitrary complexity in one- to three-dimensional lattice systems, involving multiple active sites in periodic or aperiodic arrangements, as well as site-resolved pairwise and higher-order lateral interactions. Conceptually, kmos achieves a maximum runtime performance which is essentially independent of lattice size by generating code for the efficiency-determining local update of available events that is optimized for a defined kMC model. For this model definition and the control of all runtime and evaluation aspects kmos offers a high-level application programming interface. Usage proceeds interactively, via scripts, or a graphical user interface, which visualizes the model geometry, the lattice occupations and rates of selected elementary reactions, while allowing on-the-fly changes of simulation parameters. We demonstrate the performance and scaling of kmos with the application to kMC models for surface catalytic processes, where for given operation conditions (temperature and partial pressures of all reactants) central simulation outcomes are catalytic activity and selectivities, surface composition, and mechanistic insight into the occurrence of individual elementary processes in the reaction network.
Qian, Yu; Zhang, Zhaoyang
2016-01-01
In this paper we have systematically investigated the fundamental structure and the reproduction of spiral wave in a two-dimensional excitable lattice. A periodically rotating spiral wave is introduced as the model to reproduce spiral wave artificially. Interestingly, by using the dominant phase-advanced driving analysis method, the fundamental structure containing the loop structure and the wave propagation paths has been revealed, which can expose the periodically rotating orbit of spiral tip and the charity of spiral wave clearly. Furthermore, the fundamental structure is utilized as the core for artificial spiral wave. Additionally, the appropriate parameter region, in which the artificial spiral wave can be reproduced, is studied. Finally, we discuss the robustness of artificial spiral wave to defects.
Thermal conductivity in one-dimensional nonlinear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Politi, Antonio; Giardinà, Cristian; Livi, Roberto; Vassalli, Massimo
2000-03-01
Thermal conducitivity of one-dimensional nonlinear systems typically diverges in the thermodynamic limit, whenever the momentum is conserved (i.e. in the absence of interactions with an external substrate). Evidence comes from detailed studies of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam and diatomic Toda chains. Here, we discuss the first example of a one-dimensional system obeying Fourier law : a chain of coupled rotators. Numerical estimates of the thermal conductivity obtained by simulating a chain in contact with two thermal baths at different temperatures are found to be consistent with those ones based on linear response theory. The dynamics of the Fourier modes provides direct evidence of energy diffusion. The finiteness of the conductivity is traced back to the occurrence of phase-jumps. Our conclusions are confirmed by the analysis of two variants of the rotator model.
Spontaneous magnetization and anomalous Hall effect in an emergent Dice lattice
Dutta, Omjyoti; Przysiężna, Anna; Zakrzewski, Jakub
2015-01-01
Ultracold atoms in optical lattices serve as a tool to model different physical phenomena appearing originally in condensed matter. To study magnetic phenomena one needs to engineer synthetic fields as atoms are neutral. Appropriately shaped optical potentials force atoms to mimic charged particles moving in a given field. We present the realization of artificial gauge fields for the observation of anomalous Hall effect. Two species of attractively interacting ultracold fermions are considered to be trapped in a shaken two dimensional triangular lattice. A combination of interaction induced tunneling and shaking can result in an emergent Dice lattice. In such a lattice the staggered synthetic magnetic flux appears and it can be controlled with external parameters. The obtained synthetic fields are non-Abelian. Depending on the tuning of the staggered flux we can obtain either anomalous Hall effect or its quantized version. Our results are reminiscent of Anomalous Hall conductivity in spin-orbit coupled ferromagnets. PMID:26057635
Limit Properties of One Dimensional Periodic Hopping Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yun-xin
2010-02-01
One dimensional periodic hopping model is useful to understand the motion of microscopic particles in thermal noise environment. In this research, by formal calculation and based on detailed balance, the explicit expressions of the limits of mean velocity and diffusion constant of this model as the number of internal mechanochemical sates tend to infinity are obtained. These results will be helpful to understand the limit of the one dimensional hopping model. At the same time, the work can be used to get more useful results in continuous form from the corresponding ones obtained by discrete models.
One-Dimensional Harmonic Model for Biomolecules
Krizan, John E.
1973-01-01
Following in spirit a paper by Rosen, we propose a one-dimensional harmonic model for biomolecules. Energy bands with gaps of the order of semi-conductor gaps are found. The method is discussed for general symmetric and periodic potential functions. PMID:4709518
Torres, Felipe; Morales, Rafael; Schuller, Ivan K; Kiwi, Miguel
2017-11-09
The discovery of dipole-induced exchange bias (EB), switching from negative to positive sign, is reported in systems where the antiferromagnet and the ferromagnet are separated by a paramagnetic spacer (AFM-PM-FM). The magnitude and sign of the EB is determined by the cooling field strength and the PM thickness. The same cooling field yields negative EB for thin spacers, and positive EB for thicker ones. The EB decay profile as a function of the spacer thickness, and the change of sign, are attributed to long-ranged dipole coupling. Our model, which accounts quantitatively for the experimental results, ignores the short range interfacial exchange interactions of the usual EB theories. Instead, it retains solely the long range dipole field that allows for the coupling of the FM and AFM across the PM spacer. The experiments allow for novel switching capabilities of long range EB systems, while the theory allows description of the structures where the FM and AFM are not in atomic contact. The results provide a new approach to design novel interacting heterostructures.
A thermodynamic counterpart of the Axelrod model of social influence: The one-dimensional case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gandica, Y.; Medina, E.; Bonalde, I.
2013-12-01
We propose a thermodynamic version of the Axelrod model of social influence. In one-dimensional (1D) lattices, the thermodynamic model becomes a coupled Potts model with a bonding interaction that increases with the site matching traits. We analytically calculate thermodynamic and critical properties for a 1D system and show that an order-disorder phase transition only occurs at T=0 independent of the number of cultural traits q and features F. The 1D thermodynamic Axelrod model belongs to the same universality class of the Ising and Potts models, notwithstanding the increase of the internal dimension of the local degree of freedom and the state-dependent bonding interaction. We suggest a unifying proposal to compare exponents across different discrete 1D models. The comparison with our Hamiltonian description reveals that in the thermodynamic limit the original out-of-equilibrium 1D Axelrod model with noise behaves like an ordinary thermodynamic 1D interacting particle system.
Spin-orbital quantum liquid on the honeycomb lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corboz, Philippe
2013-03-01
The symmetric Kugel-Khomskii can be seen as a minimal model describing the interactions between spin and orbital degrees of freedom in transition-metal oxides with orbital degeneracy, and it is equivalent to the SU(4) Heisenberg model of four-color fermionic atoms. We present simulation results for this model on various two-dimensional lattices obtained with infinite projected-entangled pair states (iPEPS), an efficient variational tensor-network ansatz for two dimensional wave functions in the thermodynamic limit. This approach can be seen as a two-dimensional generalization of matrix product states - the underlying ansatz of the density matrix renormalization group method. We find a rich variety of exotic phases: while on the square and checkerboard lattices the ground state exhibits dimer-Néel order and plaquette order, respectively, quantum fluctuations on the honeycomb lattice destroy any order, giving rise to a spin-orbital liquid. Our results are supported from flavor-wave theory and exact diagonalization. Furthermore, the properties of the spin-orbital liquid state on the honeycomb lattice are accurately accounted for by a projected variational wave-function based on the pi-flux state of fermions on the honeycomb lattice at 1/4-filling. In that state, correlations are algebraic because of the presence of a Dirac point at the Fermi level, suggesting that the ground state is an algebraic spin-orbital liquid. This model provides a good starting point to understand the recently discovered spin-orbital liquid behavior of Ba3CuSb2O9. The present results also suggest to choose optical lattices with honeycomb geometry in the search for quantum liquids in ultra-cold four-color fermionic atoms. We acknowledge the financial support from the Swiss National Science Foundation.
Critical Dipole Length for the Wetting Transition Due to Collective Water-dipoles Interactions
Wang, Chunlei; Zhou, Bo; Tu, Yusong; Duan, Manyi; Xiu, Peng; Li, Jingye; Fang, Haiping
2012-01-01
The wetting behavior of water on the solid surfaces is fundamental to various physical, chemical and biological processes. Conventionally, the surface with charges or charge dipoles is hydrophilic, whereas the non-polar surface is hydrophobic though some exceptions were recently reported. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that there is a critical length of the charge dipoles on the solid surface. The solid surface still exhibited hydrophobic behavior when the dipole length was less than the critical value, indicating that the water molecules on the solid surface seemed not “feel” attractive interactions from the charge dipoles on the solid surface. Those unexpected observations result from the collective interactions between the water molecules and charge dipoles on the solid surface, where the steric exclusion effect between water molecules greatly reduces the water-dipole interactions. Remarkably, the steric exclusion effect is also important for surfaces with charge dipole lengths greater than this critical length. PMID:22496954
Stability of skyrmion lattices and symmetries of quasi-two-dimensional chiral magnets
Gungordu, Utkan; Nepal, Rabindra; Tretiakov, Oleg A.; ...
2016-02-24
Recently there has been substantial interest in realizations of skyrmions, in particular in quasi-two-dimensional (2D) systems due to increased stability resulting from reduced dimensionality. A stable skyrmion, representing the smallest realizable magnetic texture, could be an ideal element for ultradense magnetic memories. Here we use the most general form of the quasi-2D free energy with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions constructed from general symmetry considerations reflecting the underlying system. We predict that the skyrmion phase is robust and it is present even when the system lacks the in-plane rotational symmetry. In fact, the lowered symmetry leads to increased stability of vortex-antivortex lattices withmore » fourfold symmetry and in-plane spirals, in some instances even in the absence of an external magnetic field. Our results relate different hexagonal and square cell phases to the symmetries of materials used for realizations of skyrmions. This will give clear directions for experimental realizations of hexagonal and square cell phases, and will allow engineering of skyrmions with unusual properties. We also predict striking differences in gyrodynamics induced by spin currents for isolated skyrmions and for crystals where spin currents can be induced by charge carriers or by thermal magnons. As a result, we find that under certain conditions, isolated skyrmions can move along the current without a side motion which can have implications for realizations of magnetic memories.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langlois, Alexandre; Poirier, Mario; Bourbonnais, Claude; Bechgaard, Klaus
2008-03-01
Through competing electronic instabilities, the anion sublattice plays an important role in the rich phase diagram of the Bechgaard salts. In the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF)2ClO4, anion ordering at 24 K affects the nesting properties of the Fermi surface and controls the stability of the superconducting phase below 1.2 K at ambient pressure. Moreover, the field induced spin density wave phases FISDW, one of the several features induced by a magnetic field in this compound, are also sensitive to the symmetry of the anions. In order to address the coupling issue between the lattice and these electronic instabilities, we have performed the first ultrasonic measurements on (TMTSF)2ClO4 in the relaxed state below 4 K using longitudinal and transverses waves (30-500 MHz). If low-frequency vibrating reed experiments have revealed magneto-elastic anomalies in the FISDW phases [1], the superconducting one was never investigated by similar techniques. We report anomalies in the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation for the superconducting and the FISDW phases. The coupling of these phases to the lattice is discussed in relation with the known T-B phase diagram. [1] X.D. Shi et al., Phys. Rev. B. 50, 1984 (1994).
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Hu, Qing; Jin, Dafei; Xiao, Jun
Two-dimensional molecular aggregate (2DMA), a thin sheet of strongly interacting dipole molecules self-assembled at close distance on an ordered lattice, is a fascinating fluorescent material. It is distinctively different from the conventional (single or colloidal) dye molecules and quantum dots. Here, in this paper, we verify that when a 2DMA is placed at a nanometric distance from a metallic substrate, the strong and coherent interaction between the dipoles inside the 2DMA dominates its fluorescent decay at a picosecond timescale. Our streak-camera lifetime measurement and interacting lattice–dipole calculation reveal that the metal-mediated dipole–dipole interaction shortens the fluorescent lifetime to about one-halfmore » and increases the energy dissipation rate by 10 times that expected from the noninteracting single-dipole picture. In conclusion, our finding can enrich our understanding of nanoscale energy transfer in molecular excitonic systems and may designate a unique direction for developing fast and efficient optoelectronic devices.« less
Thermodynamics of a lattice gas with linear attractive potential
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Pirjol, Dan; Schat, Carlos
We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of a one-dimensional lattice gas with interaction V(|i−j|)=−1/(μn) (ξ−1/n |i−j|) given by the superposition of a universal attractive interaction with strength −1/(μn) ξ<0, and a linear attractive potential 1/(μn{sup 2}) |i−j|. The interaction is rescaled with the lattice size n, such that the thermodynamical limit n → ∞ is well-behaved. The thermodynamical properties of the system can be found exactly, both for a finite size lattice and in the thermodynamical limit n → ∞. The lattice gas can be mapped to a system of non-interacting bosons which are placed on known energy levels. The exactmore » solution shows that the system has a liquid-gas phase transition for ξ > 0. In the large temperature limit T ≫ T{sub 0}(ρ) = ρ{sup 2}/(4μ) with ρ the density, the system becomes spatially homogeneous, and the equation of state is given to a good approximation by a lattice version of the van der Waals equation, with critical temperature T{sub c}{sup (vdW)}=1/(12μ) (3ξ−1)« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopes, R. J. C.; Moura, A. R.
2018-06-01
We study the thermodynamics of the classical anisotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model in a checkerboard lattice. The checkerboard lattice is distinguished from the antiferromagnetic square lattice (with coupling constant J) by the presence of a diagonal crossing (coupling constant J‧) in half of the sites. This lattice model is the direct analog of the three-dimensional pyrochlore lattice on a two-dimensional surface. Besides, we considered a single-ion anisotropy D that breaks the O (3) symmetry and contributes to planar spin fields. Since the model is two-dimensional endowed with an O (2) symmetry, a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition is expected to take place. We also investigated the BKT temperature as a function of the coupling constants J‧ and D. The problem is developed through a continuous representation given by the O (3) Nonlinear Sigma Model (NLSM). Computer simulations were also carried out, and the results were in accordance with the analytical model.
Lattice-Assisted Spectroscopy: A Generalized Scanning Tunneling Microscope for Ultracold Atoms.
Kantian, A; Schollwöck, U; Giamarchi, T
2015-10-16
We propose a scheme to measure the frequency-resolved local particle and hole spectra of any optical lattice-confined system of correlated ultracold atoms that offers single-site addressing and imaging, which is now an experimental reality. Combining perturbation theory and time-dependent density matrix renormalization group simulations, we quantitatively test and validate this approach of lattice-assisted spectroscopy on several one-dimensional example systems, such as the superfluid and Mott insulator, with and without a parabolic trap, and finally on edge states of the bosonic Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. We highlight extensions of our basic scheme to obtain an even wider variety of interesting and important frequency resolved spectra.
Comparisons between thermodynamic and one-dimensional combustion models of spark-ignition engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramos, J. I.
1986-01-01
Results from a one-dimensional combustion model employing a constant eddy diffusivity and a one-step chemical reaction are compared with those of one-zone and two-zone thermodynamic models to study the flame propagation in a spark-ignition engine. One-dimensional model predictions are found to be very sensitive to the eddy diffusivity and reaction rate data. The average mixing temperature found using the one-zone thermodynamic model is higher than those of the two-zone and one-dimensional models during the compression stroke, and that of the one-dimensional model is higher than those predicted by both thermodynamic models during the expansion stroke. The one-dimensional model is shown to predict an accelerating flame even when the front approaches the cold cylinder wall.
Lattice Entertain You: Paper Modeling of the 14 Bravais Lattices on Youtube
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sein, Lawrence T., Jr.; Sein, Sarajane E.
2015-01-01
A system for the construction of double-sided paper models of the 14 Bravais lattices, and important crystal structures derived from them, is described. The system allows the combination of multiple unit cells, so as to better represent the overall three-dimensional structure. Students and instructors can view the models in use on the popular…
Ultra-high-Q three-dimensional photonic crystal nano-resonators.
Tang, Lingling; Yoshie, Tomoyuki
2007-12-10
Two nano-resonator modes are designed in a woodpile three-dimensional photonic crystal by the modulation of unit cell size along a low-loss optical waveguide. One is a dipole mode with 2.88 cubic half-wavelengths mode volume. The other is a quadrupole mode with 8.3 cubic half-wavelengths mode volume. Light is three-dimensionally confined by a complete photonic band gap so that, in the analyzed range, the quality factor exponentially increases as the increase in the number of unit cells used for confinement of light.
One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ting, David
2005-01-01
Theoretical calculations indicate that it should be possible for one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystals (see figure) to exhibit giant dispersions known as the superprism effect. Previously, three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal superprisms have demonstrated strong wavelength dispersion - about 500 times that of conventional prisms and diffraction gratings. Unlike diffraction gratings, superprisms do not exhibit zero-order transmission or higher-order diffraction, thereby eliminating cross-talk problems. However, the fabrication of these 3D photonic crystals requires complex electron-beam substrate patterning and multilayer thin-film sputtering processes. The proposed 1D superprism is much simpler in structural complexity and, therefore, easier to design and fabricate. Like their 3D counterparts, the 1D superprisms can exhibit giant dispersions over small spectral bands that can be tailored by judicious structure design and tuned by varying incident beam direction. Potential applications include miniature gas-sensing devices.
Lattice distortions and local compressibility around trivalent rare-earth impurities in fluorites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tovar, M.; Ramos, C. A.; Fainstein, C.
1983-10-01
We have calculated the lattice distortions around trivalent rare-earth dilute impurities, occupying substitutionally metal sites in fluorites. Explicit results are given for the equilibrium positions of the nearest fluorine ligands, R, the induced electric dipole moments, and the local hydrostatic strains for MF2 (M=Cd, Ca, Sr, Pb, and Ba). These results are used to study the impurity-ligand distance dependence of the fourth-order cubic-crystal-field parameter, b4, for Gd3+ and the isoelectronic ion Eu2+. Comparison is made with the change of b4 with hydrostatic stress using the calculated local compressibility of the lattice. A consistent description of the experimental data is obtained assuming b4~R-m with m~10.
A lattice approach to spinorial quantum gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Renteln, Paul; Smolin, Lee
1989-01-01
A new lattice regularization of quantum general relativity based on Ashtekar's reformulation of Hamiltonian general relativity is presented. In this form, quantum states of the gravitational field are represented within the physical Hilbert space of a Kogut-Susskind lattice gauge theory. The gauge field of the theory is a complexified SU(2) connection which is the gravitational connection for left-handed spinor fields. The physical states of the gravitational field are those which are annihilated by additional constraints which correspond to the four constraints of general relativity. Lattice versions of these constraints are constructed. Those corresponding to the three-dimensional diffeomorphism generators move states associated with Wilson loops around on the lattice. The lattice Hamiltonian constraint has a simple form, and a correspondingly simple interpretation: it is an operator which cuts and joins Wilson loops at points of intersection.
Underwater striling engine design with modified one-dimensional model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Daijin; Qin, Kan; Luo, Kai
2015-09-01
Stirling engines are regarded as an efficient and promising power system for underwater devices. Currently, many researches on one-dimensional model is used to evaluate thermodynamic performance of Stirling engine, but in which there are still some aspects which cannot be modeled with proper mathematical models such as mechanical loss or auxiliary power. In this paper, a four-cylinder double-acting Stirling engine for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) is discussed. And a one-dimensional model incorporated with empirical equations of mechanical loss and auxiliary power obtained from experiments is derived while referring to the Stirling engine computer model of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The P-40 Stirling engine with sufficient testing results from NASA is utilized to validate the accuracy of this one-dimensional model. It shows that the maximum error of output power of theoretical analysis results is less than 18% over testing results, and the maximum error of input power is no more than 9%. Finally, a Stirling engine for UUVs is designed with Schmidt analysis method and the modified one-dimensional model, and the results indicate this designed engine is capable of showing desired output power.
High-temperature supersolid of He 4 in a one-dimensional periodic potential
Olsen, Raina J.
2015-03-02
The search for robust experimental proof of supersolidity has encountered many complicating factors, such as temperature dependent changes in the mechanical properties of solid 4He which mimic the signature of superfluid flow. As a result, the physical existence and true nature of this unique state of matter are still under debate. Here we consider 4He stabilized by a one-dimensional periodic potential whose lattice spacing is similar to the length scale of the 4He- 4He interaction. We use the Bogoliubov transformation to calculate the excitation spectrum, finding that when interactions between nearest or next-nearest neighbors are attractive, there is a finitemore » positive gap in energy between the delocalized ground state and the lowest energy excitations which, under certain conditions, is significantly larger than both the melting temperature and the lambda temperature. This means that it should be possible to observe a supersolid at a high enough temperature that superfluidity in bulk liquid 4He or changes in the mechanical properties of bulk solid 4He do not obscure it. Lastly, we also discuss the properties of experimentally achievable materials which could support this type of supersolid.« less
Reactive Orthotropic Lattice Diffuser for Noise Reduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor)
2016-01-01
An orthotropic lattice structure interconnects porous surfaces of the flap with internal lattice-structured perforations to equalize the steady pressure field on the flap surfaces adjacent to the end and to reduce the amplitude of the fluctuations in the flow field near the flap end. The global communication that exists within all of the perforations provides the mechanism to lessen the pressure gradients experienced by the end portion of the flap. In addition to having diffusive effects (diffusing the incoming flow), the three-dimensional orthogonal lattice structure is also reactive (acoustic wave phase distortion) due to the interconnection of the perforations.
Counting in Lattices: Combinatorial Problems from Statistical Mechanics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Randall, Dana Jill
In this thesis we consider two classical combinatorial problems arising in statistical mechanics: counting matchings and self-avoiding walks in lattice graphs. The first problem arises in the study of the thermodynamical properties of monomers and dimers (diatomic molecules) in crystals. Fisher, Kasteleyn and Temperley discovered an elegant technique to exactly count the number of perfect matchings in two dimensional lattices, but it is not applicable for matchings of arbitrary size, or in higher dimensional lattices. We present the first efficient approximation algorithm for computing the number of matchings of any size in any periodic lattice in arbitrary dimension. The algorithm is based on Monte Carlo simulation of a suitable Markov chain and has rigorously derived performance guarantees that do not rely on any assumptions. In addition, we show that these results generalize to counting matchings in any graph which is the Cayley graph of a finite group. The second problem is counting self-avoiding walks in lattices. This problem arises in the study of the thermodynamics of long polymer chains in dilute solution. While there are a number of Monte Carlo algorithms used to count self -avoiding walks in practice, these are heuristic and their correctness relies on unproven conjectures. In contrast, we present an efficient algorithm which relies on a single, widely-believed conjecture that is simpler than preceding assumptions and, more importantly, is one which the algorithm itself can test. Thus our algorithm is reliable, in the sense that it either outputs answers that are guaranteed, with high probability, to be correct, or finds a counterexample to the conjecture. In either case we know we can trust our results and the algorithm is guaranteed to run in polynomial time. This is the first algorithm for counting self-avoiding walks in which the error bounds are rigorously controlled. This work was supported in part by an AT&T graduate fellowship, a University of
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Abernathy, Douglas L.; Ma, Jie; Yan, Jiaqiang
A variety of crystals contain quasi-one-dimensional substructures, which yield distinctive electronic, spintronic, optical and thermoelectric properties. There is a lack of understanding of the lattice dynamics that influences the properties of such complex crystals. Here we employ inelastic neutron scatting measurements and density functional theory calculations to show that numerous low-energy optical vibrational modes exist in higher manganese silicides, an example of such crystals. These optical modes, including unusually low-frequency twisting motions of the Si ladders inside the Mn chimneys, provide a large phase space for scattering acoustic phonons. A hybrid phonon and diffuson model is proposed to explain themore » low and anisotropic thermal conductivity of higher manganese silicides and to evaluate nanostructuring as an approach to further suppress the thermal conductivity and enhance the thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency. This discovery offers new insights into the structure-property relationships of a broad class of materials with quasi-one-dimensional substructures for various applications.« less
Abernathy, Douglas L.; Ma, Jie; Yan, Jiaqiang; ...
2015-04-15
A variety of crystals contain quasi-one-dimensional substructures, which yield distinctive electronic, spintronic, optical and thermoelectric properties. There is a lack of understanding of the lattice dynamics that influences the properties of such complex crystals. Here we employ inelastic neutron scatting measurements and density functional theory calculations to show that numerous low-energy optical vibrational modes exist in higher manganese silicides, an example of such crystals. These optical modes, including unusually low-frequency twisting motions of the Si ladders inside the Mn chimneys, provide a large phase space for scattering acoustic phonons. A hybrid phonon and diffuson model is proposed to explain themore » low and anisotropic thermal conductivity of higher manganese silicides and to evaluate nanostructuring as an approach to further suppress the thermal conductivity and enhance the thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency. This discovery offers new insights into the structure-property relationships of a broad class of materials with quasi-one-dimensional substructures for various applications.« less
The existence of topological edge states in honeycomb plasmonic lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Li; Zhang, Ruo-Yang; Xiao, Meng; Han, Dezhuan; Chan, C. T.; Wen, Weijia
2016-10-01
In this paper, we investigate the band properties of 2D honeycomb plasmonic lattices consisting of metallic nanoparticles. By means of the coupled dipole method and quasi-static approximation, we theoretically analyze the band structures stemming from near-field interaction of localized surface plasmon polaritons for both the infinite lattice and ribbons. Naturally, the interaction of point dipoles decouples into independent out-of-plane and in-plane polarizations. For the out-of-plane modes, both the bulk spectrum and the range of the momentum k ∥ where edge states exist in ribbons are similar to the electronic bands in graphene. Nevertheless, the in-plane polarized modes show significant differences, which do not only possess additional non-flat edge states in ribbons, but also have different distributions of the flat edge states in reciprocal space. For in-plane polarized modes, we derived the bulk-edge correspondence, namely, the relation between the number of flat edge states at a fixed {k}\\parallel , Zak phases of the bulk bands and the winding number associated with the bulk Hamiltonian, and verified it through four typical ribbon boundaries, i.e. zigzag, bearded zigzag, armchair, and bearded armchair. Our approach gives a new topological understanding of edge states in such plasmonic systems, and may also apply to other 2D ‘vector wave’ systems.
The Fundamental Structure and the Reproduction of Spiral Wave in a Two-Dimensional Excitable Lattice
Qian, Yu; Zhang, Zhaoyang
2016-01-01
In this paper we have systematically investigated the fundamental structure and the reproduction of spiral wave in a two-dimensional excitable lattice. A periodically rotating spiral wave is introduced as the model to reproduce spiral wave artificially. Interestingly, by using the dominant phase-advanced driving analysis method, the fundamental structure containing the loop structure and the wave propagation paths has been revealed, which can expose the periodically rotating orbit of spiral tip and the charity of spiral wave clearly. Furthermore, the fundamental structure is utilized as the core for artificial spiral wave. Additionally, the appropriate parameter region, in which the artificial spiral wave can be reproduced, is studied. Finally, we discuss the robustness of artificial spiral wave to defects. PMID:26900841
Transient Stress Wave Propagation in One-Dimensional Micropolar Bodies
2009-02-01
based on Biot’s theory of poro- elasticity. Two compressional waves were then observed in the resulting one-dimensional model of a poroelastic column...Lisina, S., Potapov, A., Nesterenko, V., 2001. A nonlinear granular medium with particle rotation: a one-dimensional model . Acoustical Physics 47 (5...zones in failed ceramics, may be modeled using continuum theories incorporating additional kinematic degrees of freedom beyond the scope of classical
Long range magnetic ordering of ultracold fermions in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duarte, P. M.; Hart, R. A.; Yang, T.-L.; Hulet, R. G.
2013-05-01
We present progress towards the observation of long range antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of fermionic 6Li atoms in an optical lattice. We prepare a two spin state mixture of 106 atoms at T /TF = 0 . 1 by evaporatively cooling in an optical dipole trap. The sample is then transferred to a dimple trap formed by three retroreflected laser beams at 1064 nm that propagate in orthogonal directions. The polarization of the retroreflected light is controlled using liquid crystal retarders, which allow us to adiabatically transform the dimple trap into a 3D lattice. Overlapped with each of the three dimple/lattice beams is a beam at 532 nm, which can cancel the harmonic confinement and flatten the band structure in the lattice. This setup offers the possibility of implementing proposed schemes which enlarge the size of the AFM phase in the trap. As a probe for AFM we use Bragg scattering of light. We have observed Bragg scattering off of the (100) lattice planes, and using an off-angle probe we can see the diffuse scattering from the sample which serves as background for the small signals expected before the onset of AFM ordering. Supported by NSF, ONR, DARPA, and the Welch Foundation.
One-Dimensional Modelling of Internal Ballistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monreal-González, G.; Otón-Martínez, R. A.; Velasco, F. J. S.; García-Cascáles, J. R.; Ramírez-Fernández, F. J.
2017-10-01
A one-dimensional model is introduced in this paper for problems of internal ballistics involving solid propellant combustion. First, the work presents the physical approach and equations adopted. Closure relationships accounting for the physical phenomena taking place during combustion (interfacial friction, interfacial heat transfer, combustion) are deeply discussed. Secondly, the numerical method proposed is presented. Finally, numerical results provided by this code (UXGun) are compared with results of experimental tests and with the outcome from a well-known zero-dimensional code. The model provides successful results in firing tests of artillery guns, predicting with good accuracy the maximum pressure in the chamber and muzzle velocity what highlights its capabilities as prediction/design tool for internal ballistics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halliday, I.; Xu, X.; Burgin, K.
2017-02-01
An extended Benzi-Dellar lattice Boltzmann equation scheme [R. Benzi, S. Succi, and M. Vergassola, Europhys. Lett. 13, 727 (1990), 10.1209/0295-5075/13/8/010; R. Benzi, S. Succi, and M. Vergassola, Phys. Rep. 222, 145 (1992), 10.1016/0370-1573(92)90090-M; P. J. Dellar, Phys. Rev. E 65, 036309 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.036309] is developed and applied to the problem of confirming, at low Re and drop fluid concentration, c , the variation of effective shear viscosity, ηeff=η1[1 +f (η1,η2) c ] , with respect to c for a sheared, two-dimensional, initially crystalline emulsion [here η1 (η2) is the fluid (drop fluid) shear viscosity]. Data obtained with our enhanced multicomponent lattice Boltzmann method, using average shear stress and hydrodynamic dissipation, agree well once appropriate corrections to Landau's volume average shear stress [L. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1966)] are applied. Simulation results also confirm the expected form for f (ηi,η2) , and they provide a reasonable estimate of its parameters. Most significantly, perhaps, the generality of our data supports the validity of Taylor's disputed simplification [G. I. Taylor, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 138, 133 (1932), 10.1098/rspa.1932.0175] to reduce the effect of one hydrodynamic boundary condition (on the continuity of the normal contraction of stress) to an assumption that interfacial tension is sufficiently strong to maintain a spherical drop shape.
electric dipole superconductor in bilayer exciton system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Qing-Feng; Jiang, Qing-Dong; Bao, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, X. C.
Recently, it was reported that the bilayer exciton systems could exhibit many new phenomena, including the large bilayer counterflow conductivity, the Coulomb drag, etc. These phenomena imply the formation of exciton condensate superfluid state. On the other hand, it is now well known that the superconductor is the condensate superfluid state of the Cooper pairs, which can be viewed as electric monopoles. In other words, the superconductor state is the electric monopole condensate superfluid state. Thus, one may wonder whether there exists electric dipole superfluid state. In this talk, we point out that the exciton in a bilayer system can be considered as a charge neutral electric dipole. And we derive the London-type and Ginzburg-Landau-type equations of electric dipole superconductivity. From these equations, we discover the Meissner-type effect (against spatial variation of magnetic fields), and the dipole current Josephson effect. The frequency in the AC Josephson effect of the dipole current is equal to that in the normal (monopole) superconductor. These results can provide direct evidence for the formation of exciton superfluid state in the bilayer systems and pave new ways to obtain the electric dipole current. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support by NBRP of China (2012CB921303 and 2015CB921102) and NSF-China under Grants Nos. 11274364 and 11574007.
Quasi-two-dimensional spin correlations in the triangular lattice bilayer spin glass LuCoGaO 4
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Fritsch, Katharina; Ross, Kathyrn A.; Granroth, Garrett E.
Here we present a single-crystal time-of-flight neutron scattering study of the static and dynamic spin correlations in LuCoGaO 4, a quasi-two-dimensional dilute triangular lattice antiferromagnetic spin-glass material. This system is based on Co 2+ ions that are randomly distributed on triangular bilayers within the YbFe 2O 4 type, hexagonal crystal structure. Antiferromagnetic short-range two-dimensional correlations at wave vectors Q = (1/3,1/3, L) develop within the bilayers at temperatures as high as |Θ CW| ~100 K and extend over roughly five unit cells at temperatures below T g = 19 K. These two-dimensional static correlations are observed as diffuse rods ofmore » neutron scattering intensity along c * and display a continuous spin freezing process in their energy dependence. Aside from exhibiting these typical spin-glass characteristics, this insulating material reveals a novel gapped magnetic resonant spin excitation at ΔE ~12 meV localized around Q = (1 / 3, 1 / 3,L) . The temperature dependence of the spin gap associated with this two-dimensional excitation correlates with the evolution of the static correlations into the spin-glass state ground state. Lastly, we associate it with the effect of the staggered exchange field acting on the S eff = 1/2 Ising-like doublet of the Co 2+ moments.« less
Quasi-two-dimensional spin correlations in the triangular lattice bilayer spin glass LuCoGaO 4
Fritsch, Katharina; Ross, Kathyrn A.; Granroth, Garrett E.; ...
2017-09-13
Here we present a single-crystal time-of-flight neutron scattering study of the static and dynamic spin correlations in LuCoGaO 4, a quasi-two-dimensional dilute triangular lattice antiferromagnetic spin-glass material. This system is based on Co 2+ ions that are randomly distributed on triangular bilayers within the YbFe 2O 4 type, hexagonal crystal structure. Antiferromagnetic short-range two-dimensional correlations at wave vectors Q = (1/3,1/3, L) develop within the bilayers at temperatures as high as |Θ CW| ~100 K and extend over roughly five unit cells at temperatures below T g = 19 K. These two-dimensional static correlations are observed as diffuse rods ofmore » neutron scattering intensity along c * and display a continuous spin freezing process in their energy dependence. Aside from exhibiting these typical spin-glass characteristics, this insulating material reveals a novel gapped magnetic resonant spin excitation at ΔE ~12 meV localized around Q = (1 / 3, 1 / 3,L) . The temperature dependence of the spin gap associated with this two-dimensional excitation correlates with the evolution of the static correlations into the spin-glass state ground state. Lastly, we associate it with the effect of the staggered exchange field acting on the S eff = 1/2 Ising-like doublet of the Co 2+ moments.« less
Renormalization of Supersymmetric QCD on the Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, Marios; Panagopoulos, Haralambos
2018-03-01
We perform a pilot study of the perturbative renormalization of a Supersymmetric gauge theory with matter fields on the lattice. As a specific example, we consider Supersymmetric N=1 QCD (SQCD). We study the self-energies of all particles which appear in this theory, as well as the renormalization of the coupling constant. To this end we compute, perturbatively to one-loop, the relevant two-point and three-point Green's functions using both dimensional and lattice regularizations. Our lattice formulation involves theWilson discretization for the gluino and quark fields; for gluons we employ the Wilson gauge action; for scalar fields (squarks) we use naive discretization. The gauge group that we consider is SU(Nc), while the number of colors, Nc, the number of flavors, Nf, and the gauge parameter, α, are left unspecified. We obtain analytic expressions for the renormalization factors of the coupling constant (Zg) and of the quark (ZΨ), gluon (Zu), gluino (Zλ), squark (ZA±), and ghost (Zc) fields on the lattice. We also compute the critical values of the gluino, quark and squark masses. Finally, we address the mixing which occurs among squark degrees of freedom beyond tree level: we calculate the corresponding mixing matrix which is necessary in order to disentangle the components of the squark field via an additional finite renormalization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malpetti, Daniele; Roscilde, Tommaso
2017-02-01
The mean-field approximation is at the heart of our understanding of complex systems, despite its fundamental limitation of completely neglecting correlations between the elementary constituents. In a recent work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 130401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.130401], we have shown that in quantum many-body systems at finite temperature, two-point correlations can be formally separated into a thermal part and a quantum part and that quantum correlations are generically found to decay exponentially at finite temperature, with a characteristic, temperature-dependent quantum coherence length. The existence of these two different forms of correlation in quantum many-body systems suggests the possibility of formulating an approximation, which affects quantum correlations only, without preventing the correct description of classical fluctuations at all length scales. Focusing on lattice boson and quantum Ising models, we make use of the path-integral formulation of quantum statistical mechanics to introduce such an approximation, which we dub quantum mean-field (QMF) approach, and which can be readily generalized to a cluster form (cluster QMF or cQMF). The cQMF approximation reduces to cluster mean-field theory at T =0 , while at any finite temperature it produces a family of systematically improved, semi-classical approximations to the quantum statistical mechanics of the lattice theory at hand. Contrary to standard MF approximations, the correct nature of thermal critical phenomena is captured by any cluster size. In the two exemplary cases of the two-dimensional quantum Ising model and of two-dimensional quantum rotors, we study systematically the convergence of the cQMF approximation towards the exact result, and show that the convergence is typically linear or sublinear in the boundary-to-bulk ratio of the clusters as T →0 , while it becomes faster than linear as T grows. These results pave the way towards the development of semiclassical numerical
Nonlattice simulation for supersymmetric gauge theories in one dimension.
Hanada, Masanori; Nishimura, Jun; Takeuchi, Shingo
2007-10-19
Lattice simulation of supersymmetric gauge theories is not straightforward. In some cases the lack of manifest supersymmetry just necessitates cumbersome fine-tuning, but in the worse cases the chiral and/or Majorana nature of fermions makes it difficult to even formulate an appropriate lattice theory. We propose circumventing all these problems inherent in the lattice approach by adopting a nonlattice approach for one-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories, which are important in the string or M theory context. In particular, our method can be used to investigate the gauge-gravity duality from first principles, and to simulate M theory based on the matrix theory conjecture.
The dipole anisotropy of AllWISE galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rameez, M.; Mohayaee, R.; Sarkar, S.; Colin, J.
2018-06-01
We determine the dipole in the WISE (Wide Infrared Satellite Explorer) galaxy catalogue. After reducing star contamination to < 0.1 per cent by rejecting sources with high apparent motion and those close to the Galactic plane, we eliminate low redshift sources to suppress the non-kinematic, clustering dipole. We remove sources within ±5° of the supergalactic plane, as well as those within 1ʺ of 2MRS sources at redshift z < 0.03. We enforce cuts on the source angular extent to preferentially select distant ones. As we progress along these steps, the dipole converges in direction to within 5° of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) dipole and its magnitude also progressively reduces but stabilizes at ˜0.012, corresponding to a velocity >1000 km s-1 if it is solely of kinematic origin. However, previous studies have shown that only ˜ 70 per cent of the velocity of the Local Group as inferred from the CMB dipole is due to sources at z < 0.03. We examine the Dark Sky simulations to quantify the prevalence of such environments and find that <2.1 per cent of Milky Way-like observers in a ΛCDM universe should observe the bulk flow (>240 km s-1 extending to z > 0.03) that we do. We construct mock catalogues in the neighbourhood of such peculiar observers in order to mimic our final galaxy selection and quantify the residual clustering dipole. After subtracting this, the remaining dipole is 0.0048 ± 0.0022, corresponding to a velocity of 420 ± 213 km s-1, which is consistent with the CMB. However, the sources (at z > 0.03) of such a large clustering dipole remain to be identified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leclaire, Sébastien; Parmigiani, Andrea; Malaspinas, Orestis; Chopard, Bastien; Latt, Jonas
2017-03-01
This article presents a three-dimensional numerical framework for the simulation of fluid-fluid immiscible compounds in complex geometries, based on the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method to model the fluid dynamics and the color-gradient approach to model multicomponent flow interaction. New lattice weights for the lattices D3Q15, D3Q19, and D3Q27 that improve the Galilean invariance of the color-gradient model as well as for modeling the interfacial tension are derived and provided in the Appendix. The presented method proposes in particular an approach to model the interaction between the fluid compound and the solid, and to maintain a precise contact angle between the two-component interface and the wall. Contrarily to previous approaches proposed in the literature, this method yields accurate solutions even in complex geometries and does not suffer from numerical artifacts like nonphysical mass transfer along the solid wall, which is crucial for modeling imbibition-type problems. The article also proposes an approach to model inflow and outflow boundaries with the color-gradient method by generalizing the regularized boundary conditions. The numerical framework is first validated for three-dimensional (3D) stationary state (Jurin's law) and time-dependent (Washburn's law and capillary waves) problems. Then, the usefulness of the method for practical problems of pore-scale flow imbibition and drainage in porous media is demonstrated. Through the simulation of nonwetting displacement in two-dimensional random porous media networks, we show that the model properly reproduces three main invasion regimes (stable displacement, capillary fingering, and viscous fingering) as well as the saturating zone transition between these regimes. Finally, the ability to simulate immiscible two-component flow imbibition and drainage is validated, with excellent results, by numerical simulations in a Berea sandstone, a frequently used benchmark case used in this
Cross-circularly polarized two-exciton states in one to three dimensions.
Ajiki, Hiroshi
2015-03-14
Biexciton and two-exciton dissociated states of Frenkel-type excitons are studied theoretically using an exciton tight-binding (TB) model including a polarization degree of freedom. Because the biexciton consists of two cross-circularly polarized excitons, an on-site interaction (V) between the two excitons should be considered in addition to a nearest-neighbor two-exciton attractive interaction (δ). Although there are an infinitely large number of combinations of V and δ providing the observed binding energy of a biexciton, the wave function of the biexciton and two-exciton dissociated states is nearly independent of these parameter sets. This means that all the two-exciton states are uniquely determined from the exciton TB model. There are a spatially symmetric and an antisymmetric biexciton state for a one-dimensional (1D) lattice and two symmetric and one antisymmetric biexciton states at most for two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) lattices. In contrast, when the polarization degree of freedom is ignored, there is one biexciton state for 1D, 2D, and 3D lattices. For this study, a rapid and memory-saving calculation method for two-exciton states is extended to include the polarization degree of freedom.
Cross-circularly polarized two-exciton states in one to three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ajiki, Hiroshi
2015-03-01
Biexciton and two-exciton dissociated states of Frenkel-type excitons are studied theoretically using an exciton tight-binding (TB) model including a polarization degree of freedom. Because the biexciton consists of two cross-circularly polarized excitons, an on-site interaction (V) between the two excitons should be considered in addition to a nearest-neighbor two-exciton attractive interaction (δ). Although there are an infinitely large number of combinations of V and δ providing the observed binding energy of a biexciton, the wave function of the biexciton and two-exciton dissociated states is nearly independent of these parameter sets. This means that all the two-exciton states are uniquely determined from the exciton TB model. There are a spatially symmetric and an antisymmetric biexciton state for a one-dimensional (1D) lattice and two symmetric and one antisymmetric biexciton states at most for two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) lattices. In contrast, when the polarization degree of freedom is ignored, there is one biexciton state for 1D, 2D, and 3D lattices. For this study, a rapid and memory-saving calculation method for two-exciton states is extended to include the polarization degree of freedom.
Entropic multirelaxation lattice Boltzmann models for turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bösch, Fabian; Chikatamarla, Shyam S.; Karlin, Ilya V.
2015-10-01
We present three-dimensional realizations of a class of lattice Boltzmann models introduced recently by the authors [I. V. Karlin, F. Bösch, and S. S. Chikatamarla, Phys. Rev. E 90, 031302(R) (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.031302] and review the role of the entropic stabilizer. Both coarse- and fine-grid simulations are addressed for the Kida vortex flow benchmark. We show that the outstanding numerical stability and performance is independent of a particular choice of the moment representation for high-Reynolds-number flows. We report accurate results for low-order moments for homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence and second-order grid convergence for most assessed statistical quantities. It is demonstrated that all the three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann realizations considered herein converge to the familiar lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model when the resolution is increased. Moreover, thanks to the dynamic nature of the entropic stabilizer, the present model features less compressibility effects and maintains correct energy and enstrophy dissipation. The explicit and efficient nature of the present lattice Boltzmann method renders it a promising candidate for both engineering and scientific purposes for highly turbulent flows.
Energy flow of electric dipole radiation in between parallel mirrors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Zhangjin; Arnoldus, Henk F.
2017-11-01
We have studied the energy flow patterns of the radiation emitted by an electric dipole located in between parallel mirrors. It appears that the field lines of the Poynting vector (the flow lines of energy) can have very intricate structures, including many singularities and vortices. The flow line patterns depend on the distance between the mirrors, the distance of the dipole to one of the mirrors and the angle of oscillation of the dipole moment with respect to the normal of the mirror surfaces. Already for the simplest case of a dipole moment oscillating perpendicular to the mirrors, singularities appear at regular intervals along the direction of propagation (parallel to the mirrors). For a parallel dipole, vortices appear in the neighbourhood of the dipole. For a dipole oscillating under a finite angle with the surface normal, the radiating tends to swirl around the dipole before travelling off parallel to the mirrors. For relatively large mirror separations, vortices appear in the pattern. When the dipole is off-centred with respect to the midway point between the mirrors, the flow line structure becomes even more complicated, with numerous vortices in the pattern, and tiny loops near the dipole. We have also investigated the locations of the vortices and singularities, and these can be found without any specific knowledge about the flow lines. This provides an independent means of studying the propagation of dipole radiation between mirrors.
Chemically Reacting One-Dimensional Gas-Particle Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tevepaugh, J. A.; Penny, M. M.
1975-01-01
The governing equations for the one-dimensional flow of a gas-particle system are discussed. Gas-particle effects are coupled via the system momentum and energy equations with the gas assumed to be chemically frozen or in chemical equilibrium. A computer code for calculating the one-dimensional flow of a gas-particle system is discussed and a user's input guide presented. The computer code provides for the expansion of the gas-particle system from a specified starting velocity and nozzle inlet geometry. Though general in nature, the final output of the code is a startline for initiating the solution of a supersonic gas-particle system in rocket nozzles. The startline includes gasdynamic data defining gaseous startline points from the nozzle centerline to the nozzle wall and particle properties at points along the gaseous startline.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Zhang, Hai-Feng, E-mail: hanlor@163.com, E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Nanjing Artillery Academy, Nanjing 211132; Liu, Shao-Bin, E-mail: hanlor@163.com, E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn
In this paper, the tunable all-angle negative refraction and photonic band gaps (PBGs) in two types of two-dimensional (2D) plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) composed of homogeneous plasma and dielectric (GaAs) with square-like Archimedean lattices (ladybug and bathroom lattices) for TM wave are theoretically investigated based on a modified plane wave expansion method. The type-1 structure is dielectric rods immersed in the plasma background, and the complementary structure is named as type-2 PPCs. Theoretical simulations demonstrate that the both types of PPCs with square-like Archimedean lattices have some advantages in obtaining the higher cut-off frequency, the larger PBGs, more number ofmore » PBGs, and the relative bandwidths compared to the conventional square lattices as the filling factor or radius of inserted rods is same. The influences of plasma frequency and radius of inserted rod on the properties of PBGs for both types of PPCs also are discussed in detail. The calculated results show that PBGs can be manipulated by the parameters as mentioned above. The possibilities of all-angle negative refraction in such two types of PPCs at low bands also are discussed. Our calculations reveal that the all-angle negative phenomena can be observed in the first two TM bands, and the frequency range of all-angle negative refraction can be tuned by changing plasma frequency. Those properties can be used to design the optical switching and sensor.« less
Partial entropic stabilization of lattice Boltzmann magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flint, Christopher; Vahala, George
2018-01-01
The entropic lattice Boltzmann algorithm of Karlin et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 031302 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.031302] is partially extended to magnetohydrodynamics, based on the Dellar model of introducing a vector distribution for the magnetic field. This entropic ansatz is now applied only to the scalar particle distribution function so as to permit the many problems entailing magnetic field reversal. A 9-bit lattice is employed for both particle and magnetic distributions for our two-dimensional simulations. The entropic ansatz is benchmarked against our earlier multiple relaxation lattice-Boltzmann model for the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a magnetized jet. Other two-dimensional simulations are performed and compared to results determined by more standard direct algorithms: in particular the switch over between the Kelvin-Helmholtz or tearing mode instability of Chen et al. [J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys. 102, 151 (1997), 10.1029/96JA03144], and the generalized Orszag-Tang vortex model of Biskamp-Welter [Phys. Fluids B 1, 1964 (1989), 10.1063/1.859060]. Very good results are achieved.
Spatial self-organization of macroscopic quantum states of exciton-polaritons in acoustic lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buller, J. V. T.; Cerda-Méndez, E. A.; Balderas-Navarro, R. E.; Biermann, K.; Santos, P. V.
2016-07-01
Exciton-polariton systems can sustain macroscopic quantum states (MQSs) under a periodic potential modulation. In this paper, we investigate the structure of these states in acoustic square lattices by probing their wave functions in real and momentum spaces using spectral tomography. We show that the polariton MQSs, when excited by a Gaussian laser beam, self-organize in a concentric structure, consisting of a single, two-dimensional gap-soliton (GS) state surrounded by one dimensional (1D) MQSs with lower energy. The latter form at hyperbolical points of the modulated polariton dispersion. While the size of the GS tends to saturate with increasing particle density, the emission region of the surrounding 1D states increases. The existence of these MQSs in acoustic lattices is quantitatively supported by a theoretical model based on the variational solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The formation of the 1D states in a ring around the central GS is attributed to the energy gradient in this region, which reduces the overall symmetry of the lattice. The results broaden the experimental understanding of self-localized polariton states, which may prove relevant for functionalities exploiting solitonic objects.
Femtosecond visualization of lattice dynamics in shock-compressed matter.
Milathianaki, D; Boutet, S; Williams, G J; Higginbotham, A; Ratner, D; Gleason, A E; Messerschmidt, M; Seibert, M M; Swift, D C; Hering, P; Robinson, J; White, W E; Wark, J S
2013-10-11
The ultrafast evolution of microstructure is key to understanding high-pressure and strain-rate phenomena. However, the visualization of lattice dynamics at scales commensurate with those of atomistic simulations has been challenging. Here, we report femtosecond x-ray diffraction measurements unveiling the response of copper to laser shock-compression at peak normal elastic stresses of ~73 gigapascals (GPa) and strain rates of 10(9) per second. We capture the evolution of the lattice from a one-dimensional (1D) elastic to a 3D plastically relaxed state within a few tens of picoseconds, after reaching shear stresses of 18 GPa. Our in situ high-precision measurement of material strength at spatial (<1 micrometer) and temporal (<50 picoseconds) scales provides a direct comparison with multimillion-atom molecular dynamics simulations.
Master equation with quantized atomic motion including dipole-dipole interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damanet, François; Braun, Daniel; Martin, John
2016-05-01
We derive a markovian master equation for the internal dynamics of an ensemble of two-level atoms including all effects related to the quantization of their motion. Our equation provides a unifying picture of the consequences of recoil and indistinguishability of atoms beyond the Lamb-Dicke regime on both their dissipative and conservative dynamics, and is relevant for experiments with ultracold trapped atoms. We give general expressions for the decay rates and the dipole-dipole shifts for any motional states, and we find analytical formulas for a number of relevant states (Gaussian states, Fock states and thermal states). In particular, we show that the dipole-dipole interactions and cooperative photon emission can be modulated through the external state of motion. The effects predicted should be experimentally observable with Rydberg atoms. FD would like to thank the F.R.S.-FNRS for financial support. FD is a FRIA Grant holder of the Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique-FNRS.
One-Dimensional Oscillator in a Box
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Amore, Paolo; Fernandez, Francisco M.
2010-01-01
We discuss a quantum-mechanical model of two particles that interact by means of a harmonic potential and are confined to a one-dimensional box with impenetrable walls. We apply perturbation theory to the cases of different and equal masses and analyse the symmetry of the states in the latter case. We compare the approximate perturbation results…
Multiple film plane diagnostic for shocked lattice measurements (invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalantar, Daniel H.; Bringa, E.; Caturla, M.; Colvin, J.; Lorenz, K. T.; Kumar, M.; Stölken, J.; Allen, A. M.; Rosolankova, K.; Wark, J. S.; Meyers, M. A.; Schneider, M.; Boehly, T. R.
2003-03-01
Laser-based shock experiments have been conducted in thin Si and Cu crystals at pressures above the Hugoniot elastic limit. In these experiments, static film and x-ray streak cameras recorded x rays diffracted from lattice planes both parallel and perpendicular to the shock direction. These data showed uniaxial compression of Si(100) along the shock direction and three-dimensional compression of Cu(100). In the case of the Si diffraction, there was a multiple wave structure observed, which may be due to a one-dimensional phase transition or a time variation in the shock pressure. A new film-based detector has been developed for these in situ dynamic diffraction experiments. This large-angle detector consists of three film cassettes that are positioned to record x rays diffracted from a shocked crystal anywhere within a full π steradian. It records x rays that are diffracted from multiple lattice planes both parallel and at oblique angles with respect to the shock direction. It is a time-integrating measurement, but time-resolved data may be recorded using a short duration laser pulse to create the diffraction source x rays. This new instrument has been fielded at the OMEGA and Janus lasers to study single-crystal materials shock compressed by direct laser irradiation. In these experiments, a multiple wave structure was observed on many different lattice planes in Si. These data provide information on the structure under compression.
Lattice engineering through nanoparticle–DNA frameworks
Tian, Ye; Zhang, Yugang; Wang, Tong; ...
2016-02-22
Advances in self-assembly over the past decade have demonstrated that nano- and microscale particles can be organized into a large diversity of ordered three-dimensional (3D) lattices. However, the ability to generate different desired lattice types from the same set of particles remains challenging. Here, we show that nanoparticles can be assembled into crystalline and open 3D frameworks by connecting them through designed DNA-based polyhedral frames. The geometrical shapes of the frames, combined with the DNA-assisted binding properties of their vertices, facilitate the well-defined topological connections between particles in accordance with frame geometry. With this strategy, different crystallographic lattices using themore » same particles can be assembled by introduction of the corresponding DNA polyhedral frames. As a result, this approach should facilitate the rational assembly of nanoscale lattices through the design of the unit cell.« less
The Dipole Segment Model for Axisymmetrical Elongated Asteroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Xiangyuan; Zhang, Yonglong; Yu, Yang; Liu, Xiangdong
2018-02-01
Various simplified models have been investigated as a way to understand the complex dynamical environment near irregular asteroids. A dipole segment model is explored in this paper, one that is composed of a massive straight segment and two point masses at the extremities of the segment. Given an explicitly simple form of the potential function that is associated with the dipole segment model, five topological cases are identified with different sets of system parameters. Locations, stabilities, and variation trends of the system equilibrium points are investigated in a parametric way. The exterior potential distribution of nearly axisymmetrical elongated asteroids is approximated by minimizing the acceleration error in a test zone. The acceleration error minimization process determines the parameters of the dipole segment. The near-Earth asteroid (8567) 1996 HW1 is chosen as an example to evaluate the effectiveness of the approximation method for the exterior potential distribution. The advantages of the dipole segment model over the classical dipole and the traditional segment are also discussed. Percent error of acceleration and the degree of approximation are illustrated by using the dipole segment model to approximate four more asteroids. The high efficiency of the simplified model over the polyhedron is clearly demonstrated by comparing the CPU time.
Fabrication routes for one-dimensional nanostructures via block copolymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tharmavaram, Maithri; Rawtani, Deepak; Pandey, Gaurav
2017-05-01
Nanotechnology is the field which deals with fabrication of materials with dimensions in the nanometer range by manipulating atoms and molecules. Various synthesis routes exist for the one, two and three dimensional nanostructures. Recent advancements in nanotechnology have enabled the usage of block copolymers for the synthesis of such nanostructures. Block copolymers are versatile polymers with unique properties and come in many types and shapes. Their properties are highly dependent on the blocks of the copolymers, thus allowing easy tunability of its properties. This review briefly focusses on the use of block copolymers for synthesizing one-dimensional nanostructures especially nanowires, nanorods, nanoribbons and nanofibers. Template based, lithographic, and solution based approaches are common approaches in the synthesis of nanowires, nanorods, nanoribbons, and nanofibers. Synthesis of metal, metal oxides, metal oxalates, polymer, and graphene one dimensional nanostructures using block copolymers have been discussed as well.
A firefly-inspired method for protein structure prediction in lattice models.
Maher, Brian; Albrecht, Andreas A; Loomes, Martin; Yang, Xin-She; Steinhöfel, Kathleen
2014-01-07
We introduce a Firefly-inspired algorithmic approach for protein structure prediction over two different lattice models in three-dimensional space. In particular, we consider three-dimensional cubic and three-dimensional face-centred-cubic (FCC) lattices. The underlying energy models are the Hydrophobic-Polar (H-P) model, the Miyazawa-Jernigan (M-J) model and a related matrix model. The implementation of our approach is tested on ten H-P benchmark problems of a length of 48 and ten M-J benchmark problems of a length ranging from 48 until 61. The key complexity parameter we investigate is the total number of objective function evaluations required to achieve the optimum energy values for the H-P model or competitive results in comparison to published values for the M-J model. For H-P instances and cubic lattices, where data for comparison are available, we obtain an average speed-up over eight instances of 2.1, leaving out two extreme values (otherwise, 8.8). For six M-J instances, data for comparison are available for cubic lattices and runs with a population size of 100, where, a priori, the minimum free energy is a termination criterion. The average speed-up over four instances is 1.2 (leaving out two extreme values, otherwise 1.1), which is achieved for a population size of only eight instances. The present study is a test case with initial results for ad hoc parameter settings, with the aim of justifying future research on larger instances within lattice model settings, eventually leading to the ultimate goal of implementations for off-lattice models.
Olson, Peter; Amit, Hagay
2006-11-01
The dipole moment of Earth's magnetic field has decreased by nearly 9% over the past 150 years and by about 30% over the past 2,000 years according to archeomagnetic measurements. Here, we explore the causes and the implications of this rapid change. Maps of the geomagnetic field on the core-mantle boundary derived from ground-based and satellite measurements reveal that most of the present episode of dipole moment decrease originates in the southern hemisphere. Weakening and equatorward advection of normal polarity magnetic field by the core flow, combined with proliferation and growth of regions where the magnetic polarity is reversed, are reducing the dipole moment on the core-mantle boundary. Growth of these reversed flux regions has occurred over the past century or longer and is associated with the expansion of the South Atlantic Anomaly, a low-intensity region in the geomagnetic field that presents a radiation hazard at satellite altitudes. We address the speculation that the present episode of dipole moment decrease is a precursor to the next geomagnetic polarity reversal. The paleomagnetic record contains a broad spectrum of dipole moment fluctuations with polarity reversals typically occurring during dipole moment lows. However, the dipole moment is stronger today than its long time average, indicating that polarity reversal is not likely unless the current episode of moment decrease continues for a thousand years or more.
Lattice Boltzmann approach for complex nonequilibrium flows.
Montessori, A; Prestininzi, P; La Rocca, M; Succi, S
2015-10-01
We present a lattice Boltzmann realization of Grad's extended hydrodynamic approach to nonequilibrium flows. This is achieved by using higher-order isotropic lattices coupled with a higher-order regularization procedure. The method is assessed for flow across parallel plates and three-dimensional flows in porous media, showing excellent agreement of the mass flow with analytical and numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation across the full range of Knudsen numbers, from the hydrodynamic regime to ballistic motion.
Evaporative cooling in a compensated optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duarte, P. M.; Hart, R.; Yang, T. L.; Liu, X.; Hulet, R. G.
2014-03-01
We present experimental results of evaporative cooling in a three-dimensional, red-detuned optical lattice. The lattice is compensated by the addition of three blue-detuned gaussian beams which overlap each of the lattice laser beams, but are not retro-reflected. The intensity of the compensating beams can be used to control the difference between the chemical potential in the lattice and the threshold for evaporation. We start with a two spin component degenerate Fermi gas of 6Li atoms at a temperature < 0 . 05TF in a dimple potential, which is obtained by rotating the polarization of the lattice retro beams to prevent the formation of standing waves. The temperature of the cloud is measured by releasing it from the dimple and fitting the momentum distribution to a Thomas-Fermi profile. We perform round-trip measurements into, and out of the lattice to study the adiabaticity of the loading as well as the effect of the compensating beams. Using the compensated lattice potential, we have reached temperatures low enough to produce antiferromagnetic spin correlations, which we detect via Bragg scattering of light. Supported by NSF, ONR, DARPA/ARO, and the Welch Foundation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirata, Satoshi; Kurita, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Motoki; Tanaka, Hidekazu
2017-05-01
K2CuF4 is magnetically described as a spin-1/2 , quasi-two-dimensional (2D), square-lattice XXZ ferromagnet with weak easy-plane anisotropy. The magnetic ordering for an applied magnetic field H parallel to the c axis is equivalent to the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of lattice bosons, as discussed by Matsubara and Matsuda [T. Matsubara and H. Matsuda, Prog. Theor. Phys. 16, 569 (1956), 10.1143/PTP.16.569]. Magnetization and specific-heat measurements were performed to obtain the temperature versus magnetic field phase diagram for H ∥c . The phase boundary between polarized and ordered phases was found to be expressed by the power law Hc(T ) -Hc(0 ) ∝Tϕ with exponent ϕ ≈1.0 in a wide temperature range, in agreement with the theory of quasi-2D BEC.
Analytic treatment of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation for diffusion in a cone model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sitnitsky, A. E.
2011-12-01
We consider nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate resulted from a diffusion equation for rotational wobbling in a cone. We show that the widespread point of view that there are no analytical expressions for correlation functions for wobbling in a cone model is invalid and prove that nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in this model is exactly tractable and amenable to full analytical description. The mechanism of relaxation is assumed to be due to dipole-dipole interaction of nuclear spins and is treated within the framework of the standard Bloemberger, Purcell, Pound-Solomon scheme. We consider the general case of arbitrary orientation of the cone axis relative the magnetic field. The BPP-Solomon scheme is shown to remain valid for systems with the distribution of the cone axes depending only on the tilt relative the magnetic field but otherwise being isotropic. We consider the case of random isotropic orientation of cone axes relative the magnetic field taking place in powders. Also we consider the cases of their predominant orientation along or opposite the magnetic field and that of their predominant orientation transverse to the magnetic field which may be relevant for, e.g., liquid crystals. Besides we treat in details the model case of the cone axis directed along the magnetic field. The latter provides direct comparison of the limiting case of our formulas with the textbook formulas for free isotropic rotational diffusion. The dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate on the cone half-width yields results similar to those predicted by the model-free approach.