Science.gov

Sample records for one-dimensional markov processes

  1. Computer model of one-dimensional equilibrium controlled sorption processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grove, D.B.; Stollenwerk, K.G.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical solution to the one-dimensional solute-transport equation with equilibrium-controlled sorption and a first-order irreversible-rate reaction is presented. The computer code is written in FORTRAN language, with a variety of options for input and output for user ease. Sorption reactions include Langmuir, Freundlich, and ion-exchange, with or without equal valance. General equations describing transport and reaction processes are solved by finite-difference methods, with nonlinearities accounted for by iteration. Complete documentation of the code, with examples, is included. (USGS)

  2. One-Dimensional Particle Processes with Acceleration/Braking Asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furtlehner, Cyril; Lasgouttes, Jean-Marc; Samsonov, Maxim

    2012-07-01

    The slow-to-start mechanism is known to play an important role in the particular shape of the Fundamental Diagram of traffic and to be associated to hysteresis effects of traffic flow. We study this question in the context of exclusion and queueing processes, by including an asymmetry between deceleration and acceleration in the formulation of these processes. For exclusions processes, this corresponds to a multi-class process with transition asymmetry between different speed levels, while for queueing processes we consider non-reversible stochastic dependency of the service rate w.r.t. the number of clients. The relationship between these 2 families of models is analyzed on the ring geometry, along with their steady state properties. Spatial condensation phenomena and metastability are observed, depending on the level of the aforementioned asymmetry. In addition, we provide a large deviation formulation of the fundamental diagram which includes the level of fluctuations, in the canonical ensemble when the stationary state is expressed as a product form of such generalized queues.

  3. Markov reward processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous applications in the area of computer system analysis can be effectively studied with Markov reward models. These models describe the behavior of the system with a continuous-time Markov chain, where a reward rate is associated with each state. In a reliability/availability model, upstates may have reward rate 1 and down states may have reward rate zero associated with them. In a queueing model, the number of jobs of certain type in a given state may be the reward rate attached to that state. In a combined model of performance and reliability, the reward rate of a state may be the computational capacity, or a related performance measure. Expected steady-state reward rate and expected instantaneous reward rate are clearly useful measures of the Markov reward model. More generally, the distribution of accumulated reward or time-averaged reward over a finite time interval may be determined from the solution of the Markov reward model. This information is of great practical significance in situations where the workload can be well characterized (deterministically, or by continuous functions e.g., distributions). The design process in the development of a computer system is an expensive and long term endeavor. For aerospace applications the reliability of the computer system is essential, as is the ability to complete critical workloads in a well defined real time interval. Consequently, effective modeling of such systems must take into account both performance and reliability. This fact motivates our use of Markov reward models to aid in the development and evaluation of fault tolerant computer systems.

  4. Markov Chains and Chemical Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    Views as important the relating of abstract ideas of modern mathematics now being taught in the schools to situations encountered in the sciences. Describes use of matrices and Markov chains to study first-order processes. (Author/DF)

  5. Fluctuations and Stochastic Processes in One-Dimensional Many-Body Quantum Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stimming, H.-P.; Mauser, N. J.; Mazets, I. E.

    2010-07-02

    We study the fluctuation properties of a one-dimensional many-body quantum system composed of interacting bosons and investigate the regimes where quantum noise or, respectively, thermal excitations are dominant. For the latter, we develop a semiclassical description of the fluctuation properties based on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck stochastic process. As an illustration, we analyze the phase correlation functions and the full statistical distributions of the interference between two one-dimensional systems, either independent or tunnel-coupled, and compare with the Luttinger-liquid theory.

  6. Relaxational processes in the one-dimensional Ising model with long-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Yusuke

    2016-12-01

    Relaxational processes in ordered phases of one-dimensional Ising models with long-range interactions are investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. Three types of spin model, the pure ferromagnetic, the diluted ferromagnetic, and the spin glass models, are examined. The effective dimension of the one-dimensional systems are controlled by a parameter σ , which tunes the rate of interaction decay. Systematical investigations of droplet dynamics, from the lower to the upper critical dimension, are conducted by changing the value of σ . Comparing numerical data with the droplet theory, it is found that the surface dimension of droplets is distributed around the effective dimension. The distribution in the surface dimension makes the droplet dynamics complex and extremely enhances dynamical crossover.

  7. Relaxational processes in the one-dimensional Ising model with long-range interactions.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Yusuke

    2016-12-01

    Relaxational processes in ordered phases of one-dimensional Ising models with long-range interactions are investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. Three types of spin model, the pure ferromagnetic, the diluted ferromagnetic, and the spin glass models, are examined. The effective dimension of the one-dimensional systems are controlled by a parameter σ, which tunes the rate of interaction decay. Systematical investigations of droplet dynamics, from the lower to the upper critical dimension, are conducted by changing the value of σ. Comparing numerical data with the droplet theory, it is found that the surface dimension of droplets is distributed around the effective dimension. The distribution in the surface dimension makes the droplet dynamics complex and extremely enhances dynamical crossover.

  8. Current Fluctuations in the One-Dimensional Symmetric Exclusion Process with Open Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, B.; Douçot, B.; Roche, P.-E.

    2004-05-01

    We calculate the first four cumulants of the integrated current of the one dimensional symmetric simple exclusion process of $N$ sites with open boundary conditions. For large system size $N$, the generating function of the integrated current depends on the densities $\\rho_a$ and $\\rho_b$ of the two reservoirs and on the fugacity $z$, the parameter conjugated to the integrated current, through a single parameter. Based on our expressions for these first four cumulants, we make a conjecture which leads to a prediction for all the higher cumulants. In the case $\\rho_a=1$ and $\\rho_b=0$, our conjecture gives the same universal distribution as the one obtained by Lee, Levitov and Yakovets for one dimensional quantum conductors in the metallic regime.

  9. A large-scale interactive one-dimensional array processing system. [for spectrophotometric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    The work describes a scientist/user oriented interactive program for processing one-dimensional arrays. It is shown that the program is oriented toward processing spectrophotometric astronomical data and can also be used for general I-D array processing. Further, the program has totally free format input with a sophisticated decoding capability which can cope with typographical plus other possible mistakes. Finally, a description of the program is given to provide information on implementing a large-scale data-reduction facility.

  10. Graphics processing unit accelerated one-dimensional blood flow computation in the human arterial tree.

    PubMed

    Itu, Lucian; Sharma, Puneet; Kamen, Ali; Suciu, Constantin; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2013-12-01

    One-dimensional blood flow models have been used extensively for computing pressure and flow waveforms in the human arterial circulation. We propose an improved numerical implementation based on a graphics processing unit (GPU) for the acceleration of the execution time of one-dimensional model. A novel parallel hybrid CPU-GPU algorithm with compact copy operations (PHCGCC) and a parallel GPU only (PGO) algorithm are developed, which are compared against previously introduced PHCG versions, a single-threaded CPU only algorithm and a multi-threaded CPU only algorithm. Different second-order numerical schemes (Lax-Wendroff and Taylor series) are evaluated for the numerical solution of one-dimensional model, and the computational setups include physiologically motivated non-periodic (Windkessel) and periodic boundary conditions (BC) (structured tree) and elastic and viscoelastic wall laws. Both the PHCGCC and the PGO implementations improved the execution time significantly. The speed-up values over the single-threaded CPU only implementation range from 5.26 to 8.10 × , whereas the speed-up values over the multi-threaded CPU only implementation range from 1.84 to 4.02 × . The PHCGCC algorithm performs best for an elastic wall law with non-periodic BC and for viscoelastic wall laws, whereas the PGO algorithm performs best for an elastic wall law with periodic BC.

  11. Universal scaling for second-class particles in a one-dimensional misanthrope process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rákos, Attila

    2010-06-01

    We consider the one-dimensional Katz-Lebowitz-Spohn (KLS) model, which is a generalization of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) with nearest neighbour interaction. Using a powerful mapping, the KLS model can be translated into a misanthrope process. In this model, for the repulsive case, it is possible to introduce second-class particles, the number of which is conserved. We study the distance distribution of second-class particles in this model numerically and find that for large distances it decreases as x-3/2. This agrees with a previous analytical result of Derrida et al (1993) for the TASEP, where the same asymptotic behaviour was found. We also study the dynamical scaling function of the distance distribution and find that it is universal within this family of models.

  12. Separation of time scales in one-dimensional directed nucleation-growth processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierobon, Paolo; Miné-Hattab, Judith; Cappello, Giovanni; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Lagomarsino, Marco Cosentino

    2010-12-01

    Proteins involved in homologous recombination such as RecA and hRad51 polymerize on single- and double-stranded DNA according to a nucleation-growth kinetics, which can be monitored by single-molecule in vitro assays. The basic models currently used to extract biochemical rates rely on ensemble averages and are typically based on an underlying process of bidirectional polymerization, in contrast with the often observed anisotropic polymerization of similar proteins. For these reasons, if one considers single-molecule experiments, the available models are useful to understand observations only in some regimes. In particular, recent experiments have highlighted a steplike polymerization kinetics. The classical model of one-dimensional nucleation growth, the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Mehl-Johnson (KAMJ) model, predicts the correct polymerization kinetics only in some regimes and fails to predict the steplike behavior. This work illustrates by simulations and analytical arguments the limitation of applicability of the KAMJ description and proposes a minimal model for the statistics of the steps based on the so-called stick-breaking stochastic process. We argue that this insight might be useful to extract information on the time and length scales involved in the polymerization kinetics.

  13. SPEFO---A Simple, Yet Powerful Program for One-Dimensional Spectra Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoda, Petr

    SPEFO is a small, yet powerful program used for processing stellar spectra at the Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in Ondřejov. It was originally written in 1990 by Dr. Jiři Horn for processing spectral plates obtained with the 2m telescope of the Ondřejov observatory and scanned with the local five channel microphotometer. Since then the code had been under constant improvement until the sudden death of the author in December 1994. Currently SPEFO is used mainly for the reduction of data from the Ondřejov Reticon detector (1872 pixels, 12 bit A/D), however it can process data from other instruments too, provided that they are in FITS one-dimensional format. The code was written in Turbo Pascal for MS-DOS; the size of the binaries is less than 350 KB. SPEFO will run on an ordinary PC computer with very modest hardware demands (PC AT 286, 1 MB RAM, 30 MB HD color EGA or VGA). Despite its small size the program is very powerful, and user friendly as well. The basic data reduction tasks such as derivation of the dispersion function, spectrum rectification, Fourier noise filtering, radial velocity and equivalent width measurements are performed in an easy manner, and the user can immediately see changes to the data on a screen plot (e.g., the line position is determined in the ``oscilloscopic'' mode by finding the coincidence of the displayed line and its interactively shifted mirrored profile, the continuum level spline is recalculated after fixing each new point, etc.). The main output of SPEFO is a table of radial velocities of measured stellar lines (including the atmospheric line correction), their equivalent widths and higher order moments, relative central line intensities and FWHM, together with the HPGL plot file. The program can do basic operations on spectra like comparison of two spectra, subtraction, adding, production of differential spectra or the transformation by rotational broadening. SPEFO can also deal with

  14. Multiplex templating process in one-dimensional nanoscale: controllable synthesis, macroscopic assemblies, and applications.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hai-Wei; Liu, Jian-Wei; Qian, Hai-Sheng; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2013-07-16

    Since their detection 20 years ago, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have captured the interest of scientists, because one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures (nanowires, nanotubes, and nanoribbons) have fascinating physical properties and many potential technological applications. These are materials with structural features limited to the range of 1-100 nm in one dimension, and unlimited in the others. When their size goes down to certain characteristic lengths, such as the Bohr radius, the wavelength of incandescent light, and the phonon mean-free path, quantum mechanical effects can occur. This results in novel optical, magnetic, and electronic characteristics. These physical properties, along with unique transport features in the longitudinal direction and large surface-to-volume ratio, make 1D nanostructures attract extensive attention in both fundamental research and engineering applications. From a synthetic point of view, it is highly desirable to develop a simple route for fabricating 1D nanostructures in large scale at low cost. On the other hand, in order to transfer the intrinsic features of individual 1D nanostructures into macroscopic scale and realize practical applications, we need to explore highly efficient and scalable assembly methods to integrate 1D nanostructures into functional macroscopic architectures. In 2006, our group developed a simple hydrothermal method for synthesizing ultrathin Te nanowires (TeNWs) using conventional chemicals. As we found through systematic study over the past several years, we can use the ultrathin TeNWs as a versatile templating material to fabricate a series of high-quality 1D nanostructures by taking the unique advantages of TeNWs, such as large-scale synthesis, high processability, and high reactivity. The obtained 1D products inherit the dimensional (high aspect ratio) and mechanical (high flexibility) features of the original TeNW templates, thus allowing us to construct macroscopic architectures by using them as

  15. Markov and semi-Markov processes as a failure rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabski, Franciszek

    2016-06-01

    In this paper the reliability function is defined by the stochastic failure rate process with a non negative and right continuous trajectories. Equations for the conditional reliability functions of an object, under assumption that the failure rate is a semi-Markov process with an at most countable state space are derived. A proper theorem is presented. The linear systems of equations for the appropriate Laplace transforms allow to find the reliability functions for the alternating, the Poisson and the Furry-Yule failure rate processes.

  16. One-dimensional turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Kerstein, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    One-Dimensional Turbulence is a new turbulence modeling strategy involving an unsteady simulation implemented in one spatial dimension. In one dimension, fine scale viscous and molecular-diffusive processes can be resolved affordably in simulations at high turbulence intensity. The mechanistic distinction between advective and molecular processes is thereby preserved, in contrast to turbulence models presently employed. A stochastic process consisting of mapping {open_quote}events{close_quote} applied to a one-dimensional velocity profile represents turbulent advection. The local event rate for given eddy size is proportional to the velocity difference across the eddy. These properties cause an imposed shear to induce an eddy cascade analogous in many respects to the eddy cascade in turbulent flow. Many scaling and fluctuation properties of self-preserving flows, and of passive scalars introduced into these flows, are reproduced.

  17. Current Fluctuations of the One Dimensional Symmetric Simple Exclusion Process with Step Initial Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, Bernard; Gerschenfeld, Antoine

    2009-07-01

    For the symmetric simple exclusion process on an infinite line, we calculate exactly the fluctuations of the integrated current Q t during time t through the origin when, in the initial condition, the sites are occupied with density ρ a on the negative axis and with density ρ b on the positive axis. All the cumulants of Q t grow like sqrt{t} . In the range where Qt˜ sqrt{t} , the decay exp [- Q {/t 3}/ t] of the distribution of Q t is non-Gaussian. Our results are obtained using the Bethe ansatz and several identities derived recently by Tracy and Widom for exclusion processes on the infinite line.

  18. Subensemble decomposition and Markov process analysis of Burgers turbulence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Xiong; She, Zhen-Su

    2011-08-01

    A numerical and statistical study is performed to describe the positive and negative local subgrid energy fluxes in the one-dimensional random-force-driven Burgers turbulence (Burgulence). We use a subensemble method to decompose the field into shock wave and rarefaction wave subensembles by group velocity difference. We observe that the shock wave subensemble shows a strong intermittency which dominates the whole Burgulence field, while the rarefaction wave subensemble satisfies the Kolmogorov 1941 (K41) scaling law. We calculate the two subensemble probabilities and find that in the inertial range they maintain scale invariance, which is the important feature of turbulence self-similarity. We reveal that the interconversion of shock and rarefaction waves during the equation's evolution displays in accordance with a Markov process, which has a stationary transition probability matrix with the elements satisfying universal functions and, when the time interval is much greater than the corresponding characteristic value, exhibits the scale-invariant property.

  19. Hybrid Discrete-Continuous Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Zhengzhu; Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicholas; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a Markov decision process (MDP) model that features both discrete and continuous state variables. We extend previous work by Boyan and Littman on the mono-dimensional time-dependent MDP to multiple dimensions. We present the principle of lazy discretization, and piecewise constant and linear approximations of the model. Having to deal with several continuous dimensions raises several new problems that require new solutions. In the (piecewise) linear case, we use techniques from partially- observable MDPs (POMDPS) to represent value functions as sets of linear functions attached to different partitions of the state space.

  20. Neyman, Markov processes and survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Grace

    2013-07-01

    J. Neyman used stochastic processes extensively in his applied work. One example is the Fix and Neyman (F-N) competing risks model (1951) that uses finite homogeneous Markov processes to analyse clinical trials with breast cancer patients. We revisit the F-N model, and compare it with the Kaplan-Meier (K-M) formulation for right censored data. The comparison offers a way to generalize the K-M formulation to include risks of recovery and relapses in the calculation of a patient's survival probability. The generalization is to extend the F-N model to a nonhomogeneous Markov process. Closed-form solutions of the survival probability are available in special cases of the nonhomogeneous processes, like the popular multiple decrement model (including the K-M model) and Chiang's staging model, but these models do not consider recovery and relapses while the F-N model does. An analysis of sero-epidemiology current status data with recurrent events is illustrated. Fix and Neyman used Neyman's RBAN (regular best asymptotic normal) estimates for the risks, and provided a numerical example showing the importance of considering both the survival probability and the length of time of a patient living a normal life in the evaluation of clinical trials. The said extension would result in a complicated model and it is unlikely to find analytical closed-form solutions for survival analysis. With ever increasing computing power, numerical methods offer a viable way of investigating the problem.

  1. Generator estimation of Markov jump processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzner, P.; Dittmer, E.; Jahnke, T.; Schütte, Ch.

    2007-11-01

    Estimating the generator of a continuous-time Markov jump process based on incomplete data is a problem which arises in various applications ranging from machine learning to molecular dynamics. Several methods have been devised for this purpose: a quadratic programming approach (cf. [D.T. Crommelin, E. Vanden-Eijnden, Fitting timeseries by continuous-time Markov chains: a quadratic programming approach, J. Comp. Phys. 217 (2006) 782-805]), a resolvent method (cf. [T. Müller, Modellierung von Proteinevolution, PhD thesis, Heidelberg, 2001]), and various implementations of an expectation-maximization algorithm ([S. Asmussen, O. Nerman, M. Olsson, Fitting phase-type distributions via the EM algorithm, Scand. J. Stat. 23 (1996) 419-441; I. Holmes, G.M. Rubin, An expectation maximization algorithm for training hidden substitution models, J. Mol. Biol. 317 (2002) 753-764; U. Nodelman, C.R. Shelton, D. Koller, Expectation maximization and complex duration distributions for continuous time Bayesian networks, in: Proceedings of the twenty-first conference on uncertainty in AI (UAI), 2005, pp. 421-430; M. Bladt, M. Sørensen, Statistical inference for discretely observed Markov jump processes, J.R. Statist. Soc. B 67 (2005) 395-410]). Some of these methods, however, seem to be known only in a particular research community, and have later been reinvented in a different context. The purpose of this paper is to compile a catalogue of existing approaches, to compare the strengths and weaknesses, and to test their performance in a series of numerical examples. These examples include carefully chosen model problems and an application to a time series from molecular dynamics.

  2. Analytical Approach to the One-Dimensional Disordered Exclusion Process with Open Boundaries and Random Sequential Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loulidi, M.

    2008-07-01

    A one-dimensional disordered particle hopping rate asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP) with open boundaries and a random sequential dynamics is studied analytically. Combining the exact results of the steady states in the pure case with a perturbative mean field-like approach the broken particle-hole symmetry is highlighted and the phase diagram is studied in the parameter space ( α, β), where α and β represent respectively the injection rate and the extraction rate of particles. The model displays, as in the pure case, high-density, low-density and maximum-current phases. All critical lines are determined analytically showing that the high-density low-density first order phase transition occurs at α≠ β. We show that the maximum-current phase extends its stability region as the disorder is increased and the usual 1/sqrt{ell} -decay of the density profile in this phase is universal. Assuming that some exact results for the disordered model on a ring hold for a system with open boundaries, we derive some analytical results for platoon phase transition within the low-density phase and we give an analytical expression of its corresponding critical injection rate α *. As it was observed numerically (Bengrine et al. J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 32:2527, [1999]), we show that the quenched disorder induces a cusp in the current-density relation at maximum flow in a certain region of parameter space and determine the analytical expression of its slope. The results of numerical simulations we develop agree with the analytical ones.

  3. Enantiodromic effective generators of a Markov jump process with Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terohid, S. A. A.; Torkaman, P.; Jafarpour, F. H.

    2016-11-01

    This paper deals with the properties of the stochastic generators of the effective (driven) processes associated with atypical values of transition-dependent time-integrated currents with Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry in Markov jump processes. Exploiting the concept of biased ensemble of trajectories by introducing a biasing field s , we show that the stochastic generators of the effective processes associated with the biasing fields s and E -s are enantiodromic with respect to each other where E is the conjugated field to the current. We illustrate our findings by considering an exactly solvable creation-annihilation process of classical particles with nearest-neighbor interactions defined on a one-dimensional lattice.

  4. Transition-Independent Decentralized Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Raphen; Silberstein, Shlomo; Lesser, Victor; Goldman, Claudia V.; Morris, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    There has been substantial progress with formal models for sequential decision making by individual agents using the Markov decision process (MDP). However, similar treatment of multi-agent systems is lacking. A recent complexity result, showing that solving decentralized MDPs is NEXP-hard, provides a partial explanation. To overcome this complexity barrier, we identify a general class of transition-independent decentralized MDPs that is widely applicable. The class consists of independent collaborating agents that are tied up by a global reward function that depends on both of their histories. We present a novel algorithm for solving this class of problems and examine its properties. The result is the first effective technique to solve optimally a class of decentralized MDPs. This lays the foundation for further work in this area on both exact and approximate solutions.

  5. Finite dimensional Markov process approximation for stochastic time-delayed dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a method of finite dimensional Markov process (FDMP) approximation for stochastic dynamical systems with time delay. The FDMP method preserves the standard state space format of the system, and allows us to apply all the existing methods and theories for analysis and control of stochastic dynamical systems. The paper presents the theoretical framework for stochastic dynamical systems with time delay based on the FDMP method, including the FPK equation, backward Kolmogorov equation, and reliability formulation. A simple one-dimensional stochastic system is used to demonstrate the method and the theory. The work of this paper opens a door to various studies of stochastic dynamical systems with time delay.

  6. Relativized hierarchical decomposition of Markov decision processes.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, B

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement Learning (RL) is a popular paradigm for sequential decision making under uncertainty. A typical RL algorithm operates with only limited knowledge of the environment and with limited feedback on the quality of the decisions. To operate effectively in complex environments, learning agents require the ability to form useful abstractions, that is, the ability to selectively ignore irrelevant details. It is difficult to derive a single representation that is useful for a large problem setting. In this chapter, we describe a hierarchical RL framework that incorporates an algebraic framework for modeling task-specific abstraction. The basic notion that we will explore is that of a homomorphism of a Markov Decision Process (MDP). We mention various extensions of the basic MDP homomorphism framework in order to accommodate different commonly understood notions of abstraction, namely, aspects of selective attention. Parts of the work described in this chapter have been reported earlier in several papers (Narayanmurthy and Ravindran, 2007, 2008; Ravindran and Barto, 2002, 2003a,b; Ravindran et al., 2007).

  7. Performability analysis using semi-Markov reward processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciardo, Gianfranco; Marie, Raymond A.; Sericola, Bruno; Trivedi, Kishor S.

    1990-01-01

    Beaudry (1978) proposed a simple method of computing the distribution of performability in a Markov reward process. Two extensions of Beaudry's approach are presented. The method is generalized to a semi-Markov reward process by removing the restriction requiring the association of zero reward to absorbing states only. The algorithm proceeds by replacing zero-reward nonabsorbing states by a probabilistic switch; it is therefore related to the elimination of vanishing states from the reachability graph of a generalized stochastic Petri net and to the elimination of fast transient states in a decomposition approach to stiff Markov chains. The use of the approach is illustrated with three applications.

  8. NonMarkov Ito Processes with 1- state memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Joseph L.

    2010-08-01

    A Markov process, by definition, cannot depend on any previous state other than the last observed state. An Ito process implies the Fokker-Planck and Kolmogorov backward time partial differential eqns. for transition densities, which in turn imply the Chapman-Kolmogorov eqn., but without requiring the Markov condition. We present a class of Ito process superficially resembling Markov processes, but with 1-state memory. In finance, such processes would obey the efficient market hypothesis up through the level of pair correlations. These stochastic processes have been mislabeled in recent literature as 'nonlinear Markov processes'. Inspired by Doob and Feller, who pointed out that the ChapmanKolmogorov eqn. is not restricted to Markov processes, we exhibit a Gaussian Ito transition density with 1-state memory in the drift coefficient that satisfies both of Kolmogorov's partial differential eqns. and also the Chapman-Kolmogorov eqn. In addition, we show that three of the examples from McKean's seminal 1966 paper are also nonMarkov Ito processes. Last, we show that the transition density of the generalized Black-Scholes type partial differential eqn. describes a martingale, and satisfies the ChapmanKolmogorov eqn. This leads to the shortest-known proof that the Green function of the Black-Scholes eqn. with variable diffusion coefficient provides the so-called martingale measure of option pricing.

  9. Birth-death process of local structures in defect turbulence described by the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Yusuke; Konno, Hidetoshi

    2014-04-01

    Defect turbulence described by the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation is investigated and analyzed via a birth-death process of the local structures composed of defects, holes, and modulated amplitude waves (MAWs). All the number statistics of each local structure, in its stationary state, are subjected to Poisson statistics. In addition, the probability density functions of interarrival times of defects, lifetimes of holes, and MAWs show the existence of long-memory and some characteristic time scales caused by zigzag motions of oscillating traveling holes. The corresponding stochastic process for these observations is fully described by a non-Markovian master equation.

  10. One-Dimensionality and Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    This article is a theoretical discussion that links Marcuse's concept of one-dimensional society and the Great Refusal with critical race theory in order to achieve a more robust interrogation of whiteness. The author argues that in the context of the United States, the one-dimensionality that Marcuse condemns in "One-Dimensional Man" is best…

  11. Finite Size Corrections to the Large Deviation Function of the Density in the One Dimensional Symmetric Simple Exclusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, Bernard; Retaux, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The symmetric simple exclusion process is one of the simplest out-of-equilibrium systems for which the steady state is known. Its large deviation functional of the density has been computed in the past both by microscopic and macroscopic approaches. Here we obtain the leading finite size correction to this large deviation functional. The result is compared to the similar corrections for equilibrium systems.

  12. Enantiodromic effective generators of a Markov jump process with Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry.

    PubMed

    Terohid, S A A; Torkaman, P; Jafarpour, F H

    2016-11-01

    This paper deals with the properties of the stochastic generators of the effective (driven) processes associated with atypical values of transition-dependent time-integrated currents with Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry in Markov jump processes. Exploiting the concept of biased ensemble of trajectories by introducing a biasing field s, we show that the stochastic generators of the effective processes associated with the biasing fields s and E-s are enantiodromic with respect to each other where E is the conjugated field to the current. We illustrate our findings by considering an exactly solvable creation-annihilation process of classical particles with nearest-neighbor interactions defined on a one-dimensional lattice.

  13. An innovative method for coordinate measuring machine one-dimensional self-calibration with simplified experimental process.

    PubMed

    Fang, Cheng; Butler, David Lee

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, an innovative method for CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine) self-calibration is proposed. In contrast to conventional CMM calibration that relies heavily on a high precision reference standard such as a laser interferometer, the proposed calibration method is based on a low-cost artefact which is fabricated with commercially available precision ball bearings. By optimizing the mathematical model and rearranging the data sampling positions, the experimental process and data analysis can be simplified. In mathematical expression, the samples can be minimized by eliminating the redundant equations among those configured by the experimental data array. The section lengths of the artefact are measured at arranged positions, with which an equation set can be configured to determine the measurement errors at the corresponding positions. With the proposed method, the equation set is short of one equation, which can be supplemented by either measuring the total length of the artefact with a higher-precision CMM or calibrating the single point error at the extreme position with a laser interferometer. In this paper, the latter is selected. With spline interpolation, the error compensation curve can be determined. To verify the proposed method, a simple calibration system was set up on a commercial CMM. Experimental results showed that with the error compensation curve uncertainty of the measurement can be reduced to 50%.

  14. Monte Carlo Simulation of Markov, Semi-Markov, and Generalized Semi- Markov Processes in Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    A standard tool of reliability analysis used at NASA-JSC is the event tree. An event tree is simply a probability tree, with the probabilities determining the next step through the tree specified at each node. The nodal probabilities are determined by a reliability study of the physical system at work for a particular node. The reliability study performed at a node is typically referred to as a fault tree analysis, with the potential of a fault tree existing.for each node on the event tree. When examining an event tree it is obvious why the event tree/fault tree approach has been adopted. Typical event trees are quite complex in nature, and the event tree/fault tree approach provides a systematic and organized approach to reliability analysis. The purpose of this study was two fold. Firstly, we wanted to explore the possibility that a semi-Markov process can create dependencies between sojourn times (the times it takes to transition from one state to the next) that can decrease the uncertainty when estimating time to failures. Using a generalized semi-Markov model, we studied a four element reliability model and were able to demonstrate such sojourn time dependencies. Secondly, we wanted to study the use of semi-Markov processes to introduce a time variable into the event tree diagrams that are commonly developed in PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) analyses. Event tree end states which change with time are more representative of failure scenarios than are the usual static probability-derived end states.

  15. On the Limiting Markov Process of Energy Exchanges in a Rarely Interacting Ball-Piston Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bálint, Péter; Gilbert, Thomas; Nándori, Péter; Szász, Domokos; Tóth, Imre Péter

    2017-02-01

    We analyse the process of energy exchanges generated by the elastic collisions between a point-particle, confined to a two-dimensional cell with convex boundaries, and a `piston', i.e. a line-segment, which moves back and forth along a one-dimensional interval partially intersecting the cell. This model can be considered as the elementary building block of a spatially extended high-dimensional billiard modeling heat transport in a class of hybrid materials exhibiting the kinetics of gases and spatial structure of solids. Using heuristic arguments and numerical analysis, we argue that, in a regime of rare interactions, the billiard process converges to a Markov jump process for the energy exchanges and obtain the expression of its generator.

  16. On the Limiting Markov Process of Energy Exchanges in a Rarely Interacting Ball-Piston Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bálint, Péter; Gilbert, Thomas; Nándori, Péter; Szász, Domokos; Tóth, Imre Péter

    2016-08-01

    We analyse the process of energy exchanges generated by the elastic collisions between a point-particle, confined to a two-dimensional cell with convex boundaries, and a `piston', i.e. a line-segment, which moves back and forth along a one-dimensional interval partially intersecting the cell. This model can be considered as the elementary building block of a spatially extended high-dimensional billiard modeling heat transport in a class of hybrid materials exhibiting the kinetics of gases and spatial structure of solids. Using heuristic arguments and numerical analysis, we argue that, in a regime of rare interactions, the billiard process converges to a Markov jump process for the energy exchanges and obtain the expression of its generator.

  17. Irreversible kinetics on a one-dimensional lattice: Comparison of exact result with a point-process nucleation-growth-collision model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, S.

    1983-02-01

    In this paper we discuss irreversible kinetics on a one-dimensional lattice. We compare the expectation value of the coverage of the lattice, as a function of time, with that predicted by a point-process nucleation-growth-collision model. We conclude that the nucleation-growth-collision model is only applicable to lattice kinetics when the spreading rate of clusters is much greater than their nucleation rate. Although the kinetics of coverage of a one-dimensional lattice are known exactly, the complete solution turns out to be rather complex. In order to facilitate comparison with the point-process nucleation and growth model, we calculate an approximation to the lattice kinetics which is valid when the collision rate of clusters is very fast. The result is complementary to an earlier approximation of McQuarrie, McTague and Reiss, which described the case when the collision rate of clusters was comparable with the spreading rate. We also consider an integral geometrical approach to discreteness effects in lattice models. The general approach which we suggest is to calculate coefficients of variation of the numbers of lattice sites covered by various geometric shapes as a measure of "discreteness". This method uses some mathematical results of Kendall et al.

  18. Efficient maximum likelihood parameterization of continuous-time Markov processes

    PubMed Central

    McGibbon, Robert T.; Pande, Vijay S.

    2015-01-01

    Continuous-time Markov processes over finite state-spaces are widely used to model dynamical processes in many fields of natural and social science. Here, we introduce a maximum likelihood estimator for constructing such models from data observed at a finite time interval. This estimator is dramatically more efficient than prior approaches, enables the calculation of deterministic confidence intervals in all model parameters, and can easily enforce important physical constraints on the models such as detailed balance. We demonstrate and discuss the advantages of these models over existing discrete-time Markov models for the analysis of molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:26203016

  19. Conditioned Limit Theorems for Some Null Recurrent Markov Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    this conlus ion is the lolloing Suppos I in Pt > t 0 for all (t - nd (iv) hold X10 I J -or each is arN > mtv ,x is an inureas tip function of St hen (v...Diffusion Processes and Their Sample Paths, Springer-Verlag, second printing, (1973). 39. Jacobsen , M., Splitting times for Markov processes and a

  20. Markov chain Monte Carlo inference for Markov jump processes via the linear noise approximation.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, Vassilios; Girolami, Mark A

    2013-02-13

    Bayesian analysis for Markov jump processes (MJPs) is a non-trivial and challenging problem. Although exact inference is theoretically possible, it is computationally demanding, thus its applicability is limited to a small class of problems. In this paper, we describe the application of Riemann manifold Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods using an approximation to the likelihood of the MJP that is valid when the system modelled is near its thermodynamic limit. The proposed approach is both statistically and computationally efficient whereas the convergence rate and mixing of the chains allow for fast MCMC inference. The methodology is evaluated using numerical simulations on two problems from chemical kinetics and one from systems biology.

  1. Markov and non-Markov processes in complex systems by the dynamical information entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulmetyev, R. M.; Gafarov, F. M.

    1999-12-01

    We consider the Markov and non-Markov processes in complex systems by the dynamical information Shannon entropy (DISE) method. The influence and important role of the two mutually dependent channels of entropy alternation (creation or generation of correlation) and anti-correlation (destroying or annihilation of correlation) have been discussed. The developed method has been used for the analysis of the complex systems of various natures: slow neutron scattering in liquid cesium, psychology (short-time numeral and pattern human memory and effect of stress on the dynamical taping-test), random dynamics of RR-intervals in human ECG (problem of diagnosis of various disease of the human cardio-vascular systems), chaotic dynamics of the parameters of financial markets and ecological systems.

  2. Development and Validation of a One-Dimensional Co-Electrolysis Model for Use in Large-Scale Process Modeling Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar; G. L. Hawkes; C. M. Stoots

    2007-07-01

    A one-dimensional chemical equilibrium model has been developed for analysis of simultaneous high-temperature electrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide (coelectrolysis) for the direct production of syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The model assumes local chemical equilibrium among the four process-gas species via the shift reaction. For adiabatic or specified-heat-transfer conditions, the electrolyzer model allows for the determination of coelectrolysis outlet temperature, composition (anode and cathode sides), mean Nernst potential, operating voltage and electrolyzer power based on specified inlet gas flow rates, heat loss or gain, current density, and cell area-specific resistance. Alternately, for isothermal operation, it allows for determination of outlet composition, mean Nernst potential, operating voltage, electrolyzer power, and the isothermal heat requirement for specified inlet gas flow rates, operating temperature, current density and area-specific resistance. This model has been developed for incorporation into a system-analysis code from which the overall performance of large-scale coelectrolysis plants can be evaluated. The one-dimensional co-electrolysis model has been validated by comparison with results obtained from a 3-D computational fluid dynamics model and by comparison with experimental results.

  3. Carrier relaxation through two-electron process during photoconduction in highly UV sensitive quasi-one-dimensional ZnO nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Bera, A.; Basak, D.

    2008-08-04

    We have investigated the carrier relaxation process during photoconduction in quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) ZnO nanowires (NWs) of diameters 29-36 nm on different substrates using photocurrent transient measurements. Ultraviolet (UV) sensitive NWs show around three to four orders of change in the photo-to-dark current ratio. Under steady UV illumination, the photocarrier relaxation occurs through two-electron process--carrier loss due to the trapping by the surface states and recombination at the deep defect states. The results demonstrate that the carrier relaxation during photoconduction in Q1D NWs of diameter comparable to the Debye length is also dominated by the surface states.

  4. a Markov-Process Inspired CA Model of Highway Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fa; Li, Li; Hu, Jian-Ming; Ji, Yan; Ma, Rui; Jiang, Rui

    To provide a more accurate description of the driving behaviors especially in car-following, namely a Markov-Gap cellular automata model is proposed in this paper. It views the variation of the gap between two consequent vehicles as a Markov process whose stationary distribution corresponds to the observed gap distribution. This new model provides a microscopic simulation explanation for the governing interaction forces (potentials) between the queuing vehicles, which cannot be directly measurable for traffic flow applications. The agreement between empirical observations and simulation results suggests the soundness of this new approach.

  5. Nonlinear Markov Semigroups and Interacting Lévy Type Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolokoltsov, Vassili N.

    2007-02-01

    Semigroups of positivity preserving linear operators on measures of a measurable space X describe the evolutions of probability distributions of Markov processes on X. Their dual semigroups of positivity preserving linear operators on the space of measurable bounded functions B( X) on X describe the evolutions of averages over the trajectories of these Markov processes. In this paper we introduce and study the general class of semigroups of non-linear positivity preserving transformations on measures that is non-linear Markov or Feller semigroups. An explicit structure of generators of such groups is given in case when X is the Euclidean space R d (or more generally, a manifold) showing how these semigroups arise from the general kinetic equations of statistical mechanics and evolutionary biology that describe the dynamic law of large numbers for Markov models of interacting particles. Well posedness results for these equations are given together with applications to interacting particles: dynamic law of large numbers and central limit theorem, the latter being new already for the standard coagulation-fragmentation models.

  6. MARKOV: A methodology for the solution of infinite time horizon MARKOV decision processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    1988-01-01

    Algorithms are described for determining optimal policies for finite state, finite action, infinite discrete time horizon Markov decision processes. Both value-improvement and policy-improvement techniques are used in the algorithms. Computing procedures are also described. The algorithms are appropriate for processes that are either finite or infinite, deterministic or stochastic, discounted or undiscounted, in any meaningful combination of these features. Computing procedures are described in terms of initial data processing, bound improvements, process reduction, and testing and solution. Application of the methodology is illustrated with an example involving natural resource management. Management implications of certain hypothesized relationships between mallard survival and harvest rates are addressed by applying the optimality procedures to mallard population models.

  7. Indexed semi-Markov process for wind speed modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, F.; D'Amico, G.; Prattico, F.

    2012-04-01

    -order Markov chain with different number of states, and Weibull distribution. All this model use Markov chains to generate synthetic wind speed time series but the search for a better model is still open. Approaching this issue, we applied new models which are generalization of Markov models. More precisely we applied semi-Markov models to generate synthetic wind speed time series. In a previous work we proposed different semi-Markov models, showing their ability to reproduce the autocorrelation structures of wind speed data. In that paper we showed also that the autocorrelation is higher with respect to the Markov model. Unfortunately this autocorrelation was still too small compared to the empirical one. In order to overcome the problem of low autocorrelation, in this paper we propose an indexed semi-Markov model. More precisely we assume that wind speed is described by a discrete time homogeneous semi-Markov process. We introduce a memory index which takes into account the periods of different wind activities. With this model the statistical characteristics of wind speed are faithfully reproduced. The wind is a very unstable phenomenon characterized by a sequence of lulls and sustained speeds, and a good wind generator must be able to reproduce such sequences. To check the validity of the predictive semi-Markovian model, the persistence of synthetic winds were calculated, then averaged and computed. The model is used to generate synthetic time series for wind speed by means of Monte Carlo simulations and the time lagged autocorrelation is used to compare statistical properties of the proposed models with those of real data and also with a time series generated though a simple Markov chain. [1] A. Shamshad, M.A. Bawadi, W.M.W. Wan Hussin, T.A. Majid, S.A.M. Sanusi, First and second order Markov chain models for synthetic generation of wind speed time series, Energy 30 (2005) 693-708. [2] H. Nfaoui, H. Essiarab, A.A.M. Sayigh, A stochastic Markov chain model for simulating

  8. On a Markov-Modulated Shock and Wear Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Markov-modulated shocks and wear. The transient results are derived from the (transform) solution of an integro - differential equation describing the...conditionally satisfies an integro - differential equation . This equation leads to the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) of the lifetime distribution function and...derived from the (transform) solution of an integro -di?erential equation describing the joint distribution of the cumulative degradation process and the

  9. Symbolic Heuristic Search for Factored Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert (Technical Monitor); Feng, Zheng-Zhu; Hansen, Eric A.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a planning algorithm that integrates two approaches to solving Markov decision processes with large state spaces. State abstraction is used to avoid evaluating states individually. Forward search from a start state, guided by an admissible heuristic, is used to avoid evaluating all states. We combine these two approaches in a novel way that exploits symbolic model-checking techniques and demonstrates their usefulness for decision-theoretic planning.

  10. Markov decision processes in natural resources management: observability and uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.

    2015-01-01

    The breadth and complexity of stochastic decision processes in natural resources presents a challenge to analysts who need to understand and use these approaches. The objective of this paper is to describe a class of decision processes that are germane to natural resources conservation and management, namely Markov decision processes, and to discuss applications and computing algorithms under different conditions of observability and uncertainty. A number of important similarities are developed in the framing and evaluation of different decision processes, which can be useful in their applications in natural resources management. The challenges attendant to partial observability are highlighted, and possible approaches for dealing with it are discussed.

  11. Markov decision processes in natural resources management: Observability and uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The breadth and complexity of stochastic decision processes in natural resources presents a challenge to analysts who need to understand and use these approaches. The objective of this paper is to describe a class of decision processes that are germane to natural resources conservation and management, namely Markov decision processes, and to discuss applications and computing algorithms under different conditions of observability and uncertainty. A number of important similarities are developed in the framing and evaluation of different decision processes, which can be useful in their applications in natural resources management. The challenges attendant to partial observability are highlighted, and possible approaches for dealing with it are discussed.

  12. Partially observable Markov decision processes for risk-based screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrozack, Alex; Liao, Xuejun; Skatter, Sondre; Carin, Lawrence

    2016-05-01

    A long-term goal for checked baggage screening in airports has been to include passenger information, or at least a predetermined passenger risk level, in the screening process. One method for including that information could be treating the checked baggage screening process as a system-of-systems. This would allow for an optimized policy builder, such as one trained using the methodology of partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDP), to navigate the different sensors available for screening. In this paper we describe the necessary steps to tailor a POMDP for baggage screening, as well as results of simulations for specific screening scenarios.

  13. Fabrication and luminescence properties of one-dimensional CaMoO(4): Ln(3+) (Ln = Eu, Tb, Dy) nanofibers via electrospinning process.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhiyao; Chai, Ruitao; Zhang, Milin; Zhang, Cuimiao; Chong, Peng; Xu, Zhenhe; Li, Guogang; Lin, Jun

    2009-10-20

    One-dimensional CaMoO(4):Ln(3+) (Ln = Eu, Tb, Dy) nanofibers have been prepared by a combination method of sol-gel and electrospinning process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL), and low voltage cathodoluminescence (CL) as well as kinetic decays were used to characterize the resulting samples. SEM and TEM analyses indicate that the obtained precursor fibers have a uniform size, and the as-formed CaMoO(4):Ln(3+) nanofibers consist of nanoparticles. Under ultraviolet excitation, the CaMoO(4) samples exhibit a blue-green emission band with a maximum at 500 nm originating from the MoO(4)(2-) groups. Due to an efficient energy transfer from molybdate groups to dopants, CaMoO(4):Ln(3+) phosphors show their strong characteristic emission under ultraviolet excitation and low-voltage electron beam excitation. The energy transfer process was further studied by the emission spectra and the kinetic decay curves of Ln(3+) upon excitation into the MoO(4)(2-) groups in the CaMoO(4):x mol % Ln(3+) samples (x = 0-5). Furthermore, the emission colors of CaMoO(4):Ln(3+) nanofibers can be tuned from blue-green to green, yellow, and orange-red easily by changing the doping concentrations (x) of Ln(3+) ions, making the materials have potential applications in fluorescent lamps and field emission displays (FEDs).

  14. Markov decision processes with iterated coherent risk measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Shanyun; Zhang, Yi

    2014-11-01

    This paper considers a Markov decision process in Borel state and action spaces with the aggregated (or say iterated) coherent risk measure to be minimised. For this problem, we establish the Bellman optimality equation as well as the value and policy iteration algorithms, and show the existence of a deterministic stationary optimal policy. The cost function, while being allowed to be unbounded from below (in the sense that its negative part needs be bounded by some nonnegative real-valued possibly unbounded weight function), can be arbitrarily unbounded from above and possibly infinitely valued.

  15. Inferring phenomenological models of Markov processes from data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Catalina; Nemenman, Ilya

    Microscopically accurate modeling of stochastic dynamics of biochemical networks is hard due to the extremely high dimensionality of the state space of such networks. Here we propose an algorithm for inference of phenomenological, coarse-grained models of Markov processes describing the network dynamics directly from data, without the intermediate step of microscopically accurate modeling. The approach relies on the linear nature of the Chemical Master Equation and uses Bayesian Model Selection for identification of parsimonious models that fit the data. When applied to synthetic data from the Kinetic Proofreading process (KPR), a common mechanism used by cells for increasing specificity of molecular assembly, the algorithm successfully uncovers the known coarse-grained description of the process. This phenomenological description has been notice previously, but this time it is derived in an automated manner by the algorithm. James S. McDonnell Foundation Grant No. 220020321.

  16. Markov modulated Poisson process models incorporating covariates for rainfall intensity.

    PubMed

    Thayakaran, R; Ramesh, N I

    2013-01-01

    Time series of rainfall bucket tip times at the Beaufort Park station, Bracknell, in the UK are modelled by a class of Markov modulated Poisson processes (MMPP) which may be thought of as a generalization of the Poisson process. Our main focus in this paper is to investigate the effects of including covariate information into the MMPP model framework on statistical properties. In particular, we look at three types of time-varying covariates namely temperature, sea level pressure, and relative humidity that are thought to be affecting the rainfall arrival process. Maximum likelihood estimation is used to obtain the parameter estimates, and likelihood ratio tests are employed in model comparison. Simulated data from the fitted model are used to make statistical inferences about the accumulated rainfall in the discrete time interval. Variability of the daily Poisson arrival rates is studied.

  17. Upscaling of Mixing Processes using a Spatial Markov Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolster, Diogo; Sund, Nicole; Porta, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    The Spatial Markov model is a model that has been used to successfully upscale transport behavior across a broad range of spatially heterogeneous flows, with most examples to date coming from applications relating to porous media. In its most common current forms the model predicts spatially averaged concentrations. However, many processes, including for example chemical reactions, require an adequate understanding of mixing below the averaging scale, which means that knowledge of subscale fluctuations, or closures that adequately describe them, are needed. Here we present a framework, consistent with the Spatial Markov modeling framework, that enables us to do this. We apply and present it as applied to a simple example, a spatially periodic flow at low Reynolds number. We demonstrate that our upscaled model can successfully predict mixing by comparing results from direct numerical simulations to predictions with our upscaled model. To this end we focus on predicting two common metrics of mixing: the dilution index and the scalar dissipation. For both metrics our upscaled predictions very closely match observed values from the DNS. This material is based upon work supported by NSF Grants EAR-1351625 and EAR-1417264.

  18. The exit-time problem for a Markov jump process

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, N.; D'Elia, Marta; Lehoucq, Richard B.

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of our paper is to consider the exit-time problem for a finite-range Markov jump process, i.e, the distance the particle can jump is bounded independent of its location. Such jump diffusions are expedient models for anomalous transport exhibiting super-diffusion or nonstandard normal diffusion. We refer to the associated deterministic equation as a volume-constrained nonlocal diffusion equation. The volume constraint is the nonlocal analogue of a boundary condition necessary to demonstrate that the nonlocal diffusion equation is well-posed and is consistent with the jump process. A critical aspect of the analysis is a variational formulation and a recently developed nonlocal vector calculus. Furthermore, this calculus allows us to pose nonlocal backward and forward Kolmogorov equations, the former equation granting the various moments of the exit-time distribution.

  19. Deciding when to intervene: a Markov decision process approach.

    PubMed

    Magni, P; Quaglini, S; Marchetti, M; Barosi, G

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to point out the difference between static and dynamic approaches to choosing the optimal time for intervention. The paper demonstrates that classical approaches, such as decision trees and influence diagrams, hardly cope with dynamic problems: they cannot simulate all the real-world strategies and consequently can only calculate suboptimal solutions. A dynamic formalism based on Markov decision processes (MPPs) is then proposed and applied to a medical problem: the prophylactic surgery in mild hereditary spherocytosis. The paper compares the proposed approach with a static approach on the same medical problem. The policy provided by the dynamic approach achieved significant gain over the static policy by delaying the intervention time in some categories of patients. The calculations are carried out with DT-Planner, a graphical decision aid specifically built for dealing with dynamic decision processes.

  20. One-dimensional Quantum Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervais, Guillaume

    2015-03-01

    Fifty year ago, Joachim Mazdak Luttinger generalized the Tomonaga theory of interactions in a one-dimensional metal and show that the prior restrictions imposed by Tomonaga were not necessary. This model is now known as the Tomonaga- Luttinger liquid model (TLL) and most remarkably it does have mathematically exact solutions. In the case of electrons, it predicts that the spin and charge sector should separate, with each of them propagating with their own velocities. While there has been many attempts (some with great success) to observe TLL behaviour in clean quantum wires designed on an ultra-clean semiconductor platform, overall the Luttinger physics is experimentally still in its infancy. For instance, little is known regarding the 1D physics in a strongly-interacting neutral system, whether from the point-of-view of TLL theory or even localization physics. Helium-4, the paradigm superfluid, and Helium-3, the paradigm Fermi liquid, should in principleboth become Luttinger liquids if taken to the one-dimensional limit. In the bosonic case, this is supported by large-scale Quantum Monte Carlo simulations which found that a lengthscale of ~ 2 nm is sufficient for the system to crossover to the 1D regime and display universal Luttinger scaling. At McGill University, an experiment has been constructed to measure the liquid helium mass flow through a single nanopore. The technique consists of drilling a single nanopore in a SiN membrane using a TEM, and then applying a pressure gradient across the membrane. Previously published data in 45nm diameter hole determined the superfluid critical velocity to be close to the limit set by the Feynman vortex rings model. More recent work performed on nanopores with radii as small as 3 nm (and a length of 30nm) show the critical exponent for superfluid velocity to significantly deviate from its bulk value, 2/3. This is an important hint for the crossing over to the one-dimensional state in a strongly-correlated bosonic liquid.

  1. From empirical data to time-inhomogeneous continuous Markov processes.

    PubMed

    Lencastre, Pedro; Raischel, Frank; Rogers, Tim; Lind, Pedro G

    2016-03-01

    We present an approach for testing for the existence of continuous generators of discrete stochastic transition matrices. Typically, existing methods to ascertain the existence of continuous Markov processes are based on the assumption that only time-homogeneous generators exist. Here a systematic extension to time inhomogeneity is presented, based on new mathematical propositions incorporating necessary and sufficient conditions, which are then implemented computationally and applied to numerical data. A discussion concerning the bridging between rigorous mathematical results on the existence of generators to its computational implementation is presented. Our detection algorithm shows to be effective in more than 60% of tested matrices, typically 80% to 90%, and for those an estimate of the (nonhomogeneous) generator matrix follows. We also solve the embedding problem analytically for the particular case of three-dimensional circulant matrices. Finally, a discussion of possible applications of our framework to problems in different fields is briefly addressed.

  2. Qualitative Analysis of Partially-Observable Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Doyen, Laurent; Henzinger, Thomas A.

    We study observation-based strategies for partially-observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) with parity objectives. An observation-based strategy relies on partial information about the history of a play, namely, on the past sequence of observations. We consider qualitative analysis problems: given a POMDP with a parity objective, decide whether there exists an observation-based strategy to achieve the objective with probability 1 (almost-sure winning), or with positive probability (positive winning). Our main results are twofold. First, we present a complete picture of the computational complexity of the qualitative analysis problem for POMDPs with parity objectives and its subclasses: safety, reachability, Büchi, and coBüchi objectives. We establish several upper and lower bounds that were not known in the literature. Second, we give optimal bounds (matching upper and lower bounds) for the memory required by pure and randomized observation-based strategies for each class of objectives.

  3. Hidden Markov model using Dirichlet process for de-identification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Cullen, Richard M; Godwin, Marshall

    2015-12-01

    For the 2014 i2b2/UTHealth de-identification challenge, we introduced a new non-parametric Bayesian hidden Markov model using a Dirichlet process (HMM-DP). The model intends to reduce task-specific feature engineering and to generalize well to new data. In the challenge we developed a variational method to learn the model and an efficient approximation algorithm for prediction. To accommodate out-of-vocabulary words, we designed a number of feature functions to model such words. The results show the model is capable of understanding local context cues to make correct predictions without manual feature engineering and performs as accurately as state-of-the-art conditional random field models in a number of categories. To incorporate long-range and cross-document context cues, we developed a skip-chain conditional random field model to align the results produced by HMM-DP, which further improved the performance.

  4. System Identification and Filtering of Nonlinear Controlled Markov Processes by Canonical Variate Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-30

    In this Phase I SBIR study, new methods are developed for the system identification and stochastic filtering of nonlinear controlled Markov processes...state space Markov process models and canonical variate analysis (CVA) for obtaining optimal nonlinear procedures for system identification and stochastic

  5. One-dimensional ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Jayadevan, K P; Tseng, T Y

    2012-06-01

    The wide-gap semiconductor ZnO with nanostructures such as nanoparticle, nanorod, nanowire, nanobelt, nanotube has high potential for a variety of applications. This article reviews the fundamentals of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures, including processing, structure, property, application and their processing-microstructure-property correlation. Various fabrication methods of the ZnO nanostructures including vapor-liquid-solid process, vapor-solid growth, solution growth, solvothermal growth, template-assisted growth and self-assembly are introduced. The characterization and properties of the ZnO nanostructures are described. The possible applications of these nanostructures are also discussed.

  6. Markov vs. Hurst-Kolmogorov behaviour identification in hydroclimatic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Gournari, Naya; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    Hydroclimatic processes are usually modelled either by exponential decay of the autocovariance function, i.e., Markovian behaviour, or power type decay, i.e., long-term persistence (or else Hurst-Kolmogorov behaviour). For the identification and quantification of such behaviours several graphical stochastic tools can be used such as the climacogram (i.e., plot of the variance of the averaged process vs. scale), autocovariance, variogram, power spectrum etc. with the former usually exhibiting smaller statistical uncertainty as compared to the others. However, most methodologies including these tools are based on the expected value of the process. In this analysis, we explore a methodology that combines both the practical use of a graphical representation of the internal structure of the process as well as the statistical robustness of the maximum-likelihood estimation. For validation and illustration purposes, we apply this methodology to fundamental stochastic processes, such as Markov and Hurst-Kolmogorov type ones. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  7. Volatility: A hidden Markov process in financial time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisler, Zoltán; Perelló, Josep; Masoliver, Jaume

    2007-11-01

    Volatility characterizes the amplitude of price return fluctuations. It is a central magnitude in finance closely related to the risk of holding a certain asset. Despite its popularity on trading floors, volatility is unobservable and only the price is known. Diffusion theory has many common points with the research on volatility, the key of the analogy being that volatility is a time-dependent diffusion coefficient of the random walk for the price return. We present a formal procedure to extract volatility from price data by assuming that it is described by a hidden Markov process which together with the price forms a two-dimensional diffusion process. We derive a maximum-likelihood estimate of the volatility path valid for a wide class of two-dimensional diffusion processes. The choice of the exponential Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (expOU) stochastic volatility model performs remarkably well in inferring the hidden state of volatility. The formalism is applied to the Dow Jones index. The main results are that (i) the distribution of estimated volatility is lognormal, which is consistent with the expOU model, (ii) the estimated volatility is related to trading volume by a power law of the form σ∝V0.55 , and (iii) future returns are proportional to the current volatility, which suggests some degree of predictability for the size of future returns.

  8. Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics of Piecewise Deterministic Markov Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggionato, A.; Gabrielli, D.; Ribezzi Crivellari, M.

    2009-10-01

    We consider a class of stochastic dynamical systems, called piecewise deterministic Markov processes, with states ( x, σ)∈Ω×Γ, Ω being a region in ℝ d or the d-dimensional torus, Γ being a finite set. The continuous variable x follows a piecewise deterministic dynamics, the discrete variable σ evolves by a stochastic jump dynamics and the two resulting evolutions are fully-coupled. We study stationarity, reversibility and time-reversal symmetries of the process. Increasing the frequency of the σ-jumps, the system behaves asymptotically as deterministic and we investigate the structure of its fluctuations (i.e. deviations from the asymptotic behavior), recovering in a non Markovian frame results obtained by Bertini et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(4):040601, 2001; J. Stat. Phys. 107(3-4):635-675, 2002; J. Stat. Mech. P07014, 2007; Preprint available online at http://www.arxiv.org/abs/0807.4457, 2008), in the context of Markovian stochastic interacting particle systems. Finally, we discuss a Gallavotti-Cohen-type symmetry relation with involution map different from time-reversal.

  9. Electrodeposition of one-dimensional nanostructures.

    PubMed

    She, Guangwei; Mu, Lixuan; Shi, Wensheng

    2009-01-01

    Electrodeposition is a simple and flexible method for the synthesis of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures and has attracted more and more attention in recent years. 1D nanostructures of metals, semiconductors and polymers have been successfully fabricated by electrodeposition. Templates were often used in the electrochemical process to realize the 1D growth. On the other hand, some materials with intrinsic anisotropic crystal structures can also be prepared by the template-free electrochemical method. In this paper, we review the recent patents progress and offer some prospects of future directions in electrodeposition of 1D nanostructures.

  10. Optimal Control of Markov Processes with Age-Dependent Transition Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Mrinal K. Saha, Subhamay

    2012-10-15

    We study optimal control of Markov processes with age-dependent transition rates. The control policy is chosen continuously over time based on the state of the process and its age. We study infinite horizon discounted cost and infinite horizon average cost problems. Our approach is via the construction of an equivalent semi-Markov decision process. We characterise the value function and optimal controls for both discounted and average cost cases.

  11. On the optimality equation for average cost Markov control processes with Feller transition probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskiewicz, Anna; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    2006-04-01

    We consider Markov control processes with Borel state space and Feller transition probabilities, satisfying some generalized geometric ergodicity conditions. We provide a new theorem on the existence of a solution to the average cost optimality equation.

  12. Students' Progress throughout Examination Process as a Markov Chain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlavatý, Robert; Dömeová, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    The paper is focused on students of Mathematical methods in economics at the Czech university of life sciences (CULS) in Prague. The idea is to create a model of students' progress throughout the whole course using the Markov chain approach. Each student has to go through various stages of the course requirements where his success depends on the…

  13. Co-crystal engineering: a novel method to obtain one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanocrystals of corannulene-fullerene by a solution process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Li, Yang; Zhu, Weigang; Liu, Jinyu; Zhang, Xiaotao; Li, Rongjin; Zhen, Yonggang; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping

    2016-08-11

    In this study, 1D nanocrystals composed of C60 and corannulene were synthesized efficiently through cocrystallization by a solution process. These 1D nanocrystals display high electron transport characteristics of up to 0.11 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and good photoresponse of 0.09 A W(-1), indicating their potential applications in optoelectronics. The results suggest that co-crystal engineering provides a novel strategy for the rational design of new carbon-based crystalline nanomaterials.

  14. One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical calculations indicate that it should be possible for one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystals (see figure) to exhibit giant dispersions known as the superprism effect. Previously, three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal superprisms have demonstrated strong wavelength dispersion - about 500 times that of conventional prisms and diffraction gratings. Unlike diffraction gratings, superprisms do not exhibit zero-order transmission or higher-order diffraction, thereby eliminating cross-talk problems. However, the fabrication of these 3D photonic crystals requires complex electron-beam substrate patterning and multilayer thin-film sputtering processes. The proposed 1D superprism is much simpler in structural complexity and, therefore, easier to design and fabricate. Like their 3D counterparts, the 1D superprisms can exhibit giant dispersions over small spectral bands that can be tailored by judicious structure design and tuned by varying incident beam direction. Potential applications include miniature gas-sensing devices.

  15. Value-Function Approximations for Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    The model of hoi e for problems similar to patient management is the partiallyobservable Markov de ision pro ess (POMDP) (Drake, 1962; Astrom , 1965...ient to work with belief statesthat assign probabilities to every possible pro ess state ( Astrom , 1965).2 In this ase theBellman equation redu es...approximate the value fun tion for a POMDP is to assumethat states of the pro ess are fully observable ( Astrom , 1965; Lovejoy, 1993). In that asethe

  16. Solution-Processed One-Dimensional ZnO@CdS Heterojunction toward Efficient Cu2ZnSnS4 Solar Cell with Inverted Structure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rongrong; Fan, Jiandong; Liu, Chong; Zhang, Xing; Shen, Yanjiao; Mai, Yaohua

    2016-01-01

    Kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) semiconductor has been demonstrated to be a promising alternative absorber in thin film solar cell in virtue of its earth-abundant, non-toxic element, suitable optical and electrical properties. Herein, a low-cost and non-toxic method that based on the thermal decomposition and reaction of metal-thiourea-oxygen sol-gel complexes to synthesize CZTS thin film was developed. The low-dimensional ZnO@CdS heterojunction nano-arrays coupling with the as-prepared CZTS thin film were employed to fabricate a novel solar cell with inverted structure. The vertically aligned nanowires (NWs) allow facilitating the charge carrier collection/separation/transfer with large interface areas. By optimizing the parameters including the annealing temperature of CZTS absorber, the thickness of CdS buffer layer and the morphology of ZnO NWs, an open-circuit voltage (VOC) as high as 589 mV was obtained by such solar cell with inverted structure. The all-solution-processed technic allows the realization of CZTS solar cell with extremely low cost. PMID:27734971

  17. Solution-Processed One-Dimensional ZnO@CdS Heterojunction toward Efficient Cu2ZnSnS4 Solar Cell with Inverted Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongrong; Fan, Jiandong; Liu, Chong; Zhang, Xing; Shen, Yanjiao; Mai, Yaohua

    2016-10-01

    Kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) semiconductor has been demonstrated to be a promising alternative absorber in thin film solar cell in virtue of its earth-abundant, non-toxic element, suitable optical and electrical properties. Herein, a low-cost and non-toxic method that based on the thermal decomposition and reaction of metal-thiourea-oxygen sol-gel complexes to synthesize CZTS thin film was developed. The low-dimensional ZnO@CdS heterojunction nano-arrays coupling with the as-prepared CZTS thin film were employed to fabricate a novel solar cell with inverted structure. The vertically aligned nanowires (NWs) allow facilitating the charge carrier collection/separation/transfer with large interface areas. By optimizing the parameters including the annealing temperature of CZTS absorber, the thickness of CdS buffer layer and the morphology of ZnO NWs, an open-circuit voltage (VOC) as high as 589 mV was obtained by such solar cell with inverted structure. The all-solution-processed technic allows the realization of CZTS solar cell with extremely low cost.

  18. Solution-Processed One-Dimensional ZnO@CdS Heterojunction toward Efficient Cu2ZnSnS4 Solar Cell with Inverted Structure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rongrong; Fan, Jiandong; Liu, Chong; Zhang, Xing; Shen, Yanjiao; Mai, Yaohua

    2016-10-13

    Kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) semiconductor has been demonstrated to be a promising alternative absorber in thin film solar cell in virtue of its earth-abundant, non-toxic element, suitable optical and electrical properties. Herein, a low-cost and non-toxic method that based on the thermal decomposition and reaction of metal-thiourea-oxygen sol-gel complexes to synthesize CZTS thin film was developed. The low-dimensional ZnO@CdS heterojunction nano-arrays coupling with the as-prepared CZTS thin film were employed to fabricate a novel solar cell with inverted structure. The vertically aligned nanowires (NWs) allow facilitating the charge carrier collection/separation/transfer with large interface areas. By optimizing the parameters including the annealing temperature of CZTS absorber, the thickness of CdS buffer layer and the morphology of ZnO NWs, an open-circuit voltage (VOC) as high as 589 mV was obtained by such solar cell with inverted structure. The all-solution-processed technic allows the realization of CZTS solar cell with extremely low cost.

  19. Dynamic response of mechanical systems to impulse process stochastic excitations: Markov approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwankiewicz, R.

    2016-05-01

    Methods for determination of the response of mechanical dynamic systems to Poisson and non-Poisson impulse process stochastic excitations are presented. Stochastic differential and integro-differential equations of motion are introduced. For systems driven by Poisson impulse process the tools of the theory of non-diffusive Markov processes are used. These are: the generalized Itô’s differential rule which allows to derive the differential equations for response moments and the forward integro-differential Chapman-Kolmogorov equation from which the equation governing the probability density of the response is obtained. The relation of Poisson impulse process problems to the theory of diffusive Markov processes is given. For systems driven by a class of non-Poisson (Erlang renewal) impulse processes an exact conversion of the original non-Markov problem into a Markov one is based on the appended Markov chain corresponding to the introduced auxiliary pure jump stochastic process. The derivation of the set of integro-differential equations for response probability density and also a moment equations technique are based on the forward integro-differential Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. An illustrating numerical example is also included.

  20. Average reflected power from a one-dimensional slab of discrete scatterers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sasan S.; Lang, Roger H.

    1990-01-01

    Reflection from a one-dimensional random medium of discrete scatterers is considered. The discrete scattering medium is modeled by a Poisson impulse process with concentration lambda. By employing the Markov property of the Poisson impulse process, an exact functional integro-differential equation of the Kolmogorov-Feller type is found for the average reflected power. Approximate solutions to this equation are obtained by regular perturbation and two variable expansion techniques in the limit of small lambda. The regular perturbation results is valid for small slab thicknesses, while the two-variable result is uniformly valid for any thickness. The two-variable result shows that as the slab size becomes infinite all of the incident power is reflected on the average.

  1. Second virial coefficient of one dimensional gas

    SciTech Connect

    Mijatovic, M.

    1982-08-01

    The second virial coefficient of a one dimensional gas is calculated using the expressions for the scattering amplitude. The scattering amplitude is chosen in the form of rational function of wave vector.

  2. One-Dimensional Czedli-Type Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Eszter K.; Mader, Attila; Tepavcevic, Andreja

    2011-01-01

    The notion of an island has surfaced in recent algebra and coding theory research. Discrete versions provide interesting combinatorial problems. This paper presents the one-dimensional case with finitely many heights, a topic convenient for student research.

  3. Factorizations of one-dimensional classical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kuru, Senguel; Negro, Javier

    2008-02-15

    A class of one-dimensional classical systems is characterized from an algebraic point of view. The Hamiltonians of these systems are factorized in terms of two functions that together with the Hamiltonian itself close a Poisson algebra. These two functions lead directly to two time-dependent integrals of motion from which the phase motions are derived algebraically. The systems so obtained constitute the classical analogues of the well known factorizable one-dimensional quantum mechanical systems.

  4. One dimensional representations in quantum optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janszky, J.; Adam, P.; Foldesi, I.; Vinogradov, An. V.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of representing the quantum states of a harmonic oscillator not on the whole alpha-plane but on its one dimensional manifolds is considered. It is shown that a simple Gaussian distribution along a straight line describes a quadrature squeezed state while a similar Gaussian distribution along a circle leads to the amplitude squeezed state. The connection between the one dimensional representations and the usual Glauber representation is discussed.

  5. Markov Decision Processes: A Tool for Sequential Decision Making under Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Alagoz, Oguzhan; Hsu, Heather; Schaefer, Andrew J.; Roberts, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    We provide a tutorial on the construction and evaluation of Markov decision processes (MDPs), which are powerful analytical tools used for sequential decision making under uncertainty that have been widely used in many industrial and manufacturing applications but are underutilized in medical decision making (MDM). We demonstrate the use of an MDP to solve a sequential clinical treatment problem under uncertainty. Markov decision processes generalize standard Markov models in that a decision process is embedded in the model and multiple decisions are made over time. Furthermore, they have significant advantages over standard decision analysis. We compare MDPs to standard Markov-based simulation models by solving the problem of the optimal timing of living-donor liver transplantation using both methods. Both models result in the same optimal transplantation policy and the same total life expectancies for the same patient and living donor. The computation time for solving the MDP model is significantly smaller than that for solving the Markov model. We briefly describe the growing literature of MDPs applied to medical decisions. PMID:20044582

  6. Markov decision processes: a tool for sequential decision making under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Alagoz, Oguzhan; Hsu, Heather; Schaefer, Andrew J; Roberts, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    We provide a tutorial on the construction and evaluation of Markov decision processes (MDPs), which are powerful analytical tools used for sequential decision making under uncertainty that have been widely used in many industrial and manufacturing applications but are underutilized in medical decision making (MDM). We demonstrate the use of an MDP to solve a sequential clinical treatment problem under uncertainty. Markov decision processes generalize standard Markov models in that a decision process is embedded in the model and multiple decisions are made over time. Furthermore, they have significant advantages over standard decision analysis. We compare MDPs to standard Markov-based simulation models by solving the problem of the optimal timing of living-donor liver transplantation using both methods. Both models result in the same optimal transplantation policy and the same total life expectancies for the same patient and living donor. The computation time for solving the MDP model is significantly smaller than that for solving the Markov model. We briefly describe the growing literature of MDPs applied to medical decisions.

  7. UAV Swarm Tactics: An Agent-Based Simulation and Markov Process Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    NPS NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS UAV SWARM TACTICS: AN AGENT-BASED SIM ULATION AND MARKOV PROCESS ANALYSIS Thesis...inina; tho d ... _ . aod oompiotinl and ~_i .. tho roIloction of .. form. tion. Sond oommonu fQPrdina; thi!; burdon Mlim. m 0< a ny <>tho< ...,oct...TACTICS : AN AGENT-BASED SIMULATION AND MARKOV PROCESS ANALYSIS 1 So. " NUMBER ’. AU 1 Sd. PROJECT Uwe Gaertner 1 s.. TASK NUMBER 1 sr. WORK UNIT

  8. Functional equation for the crossover in the model of one-dimensional Weierstrass random walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudoi, Yu. G.; Kotel'nikova, O. A.

    2016-12-01

    We consider the problem of one-dimensional symmetric diffusion in the framework of Markov random walks of the Weierstrass type using two-parameter scaling for the transition probability. We construct a solution for the characteristic Lyapunov function as a sum of regular (homogeneous) and singular (nonhomogeneous) solutions and find the conditions for the crossover from normal to anomalous diffusion.

  9. One-dimensional Gromov minimal filling problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Alexandr O.; Tuzhilin, Alexey A.

    2012-05-01

    The paper is devoted to a new branch in the theory of one-dimensional variational problems with branching extremals, the investigation of one-dimensional minimal fillings introduced by the authors. On the one hand, this problem is a one-dimensional version of a generalization of Gromov's minimal fillings problem to the case of stratified manifolds. On the other hand, this problem is interesting in itself and also can be considered as a generalization of another classical problem, the Steiner problem on the construction of a shortest network connecting a given set of terminals. Besides the statement of the problem, we discuss several properties of the minimal fillings and state several conjectures. Bibliography: 38 titles.

  10. Likelihood free inference for Markov processes: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Owen, Jamie; Wilkinson, Darren J; Gillespie, Colin S

    2015-04-01

    Approaches to Bayesian inference for problems with intractable likelihoods have become increasingly important in recent years. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) and "likelihood free" Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques are popular methods for tackling inference in these scenarios but such techniques are computationally expensive. In this paper we compare the two approaches to inference, with a particular focus on parameter inference for stochastic kinetic models, widely used in systems biology. Discrete time transition kernels for models of this type are intractable for all but the most trivial systems yet forward simulation is usually straightforward. We discuss the relative merits and drawbacks of each approach whilst considering the computational cost implications and efficiency of these techniques. In order to explore the properties of each approach we examine a range of observation regimes using two example models. We use a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model to explore the impact of full or partial species observations using various time course observations under the assumption of known and unknown measurement error. Further investigation into the impact of observation error is then made using a Schlögl system, a test case which exhibits bi-modal state stability in some regions of parameter space.

  11. Quantification of heart rate variability by discrete nonstationary non-Markov stochastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulmetyev, Renat; Hänggi, Peter; Gafarov, Fail

    2002-04-01

    We develop the statistical theory of discrete nonstationary non-Markov random processes in complex systems. The objective of this paper is to find the chain of finite-difference non-Markov kinetic equations for time correlation functions (TCF) in terms of nonstationary effects. The developed theory starts from careful analysis of time correlation through nonstationary dynamics of vectors of initial and final states and nonstationary normalized TCF. Using the projection operators technique we find the chain of finite-difference non-Markov kinetic equations for discrete nonstationary TCF and for the set of nonstationary discrete memory functions (MF's). The last one contains supplementary information about nonstationary properties of the complex system on the whole. Another relevant result of our theory is the construction of the set of dynamic parameters of nonstationarity, which contains some information of the nonstationarity effects. The full set of dynamic, spectral and kinetic parameters, and kinetic functions (TCF, short MF's statistical spectra of non-Markovity parameter, and statistical spectra of nonstationarity parameter) has made it possible to acquire the in-depth information about discreteness, non-Markov effects, long-range memory, and nonstationarity of the underlying processes. The developed theory is applied to analyze the long-time (Holter) series of RR intervals of human ECG's. We had two groups of patients: the healthy ones and the patients after myocardial infarction. In both groups we observed effects of fractality, standard and restricted self-organized criticality, and also a certain specific arrangement of spectral lines. The received results demonstrate that the power spectra of all orders (n=1,2,...) MF mn(t) exhibit the neatly expressed fractal features. We have found out that the full sets of non-Markov, discrete and nonstationary parameters can serve as reliable and powerful means of diagnosis of the cardiovascular system states and can

  12. Post processing with first- and second-order hidden Markov models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghva, Kazem; Poudel, Srijana; Malreddy, Spandana

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present the implementation and evaluation of first order and second order Hidden Markov Models to identify and correct OCR errors in the post processing of books. Our experiments show that the first order model approximately corrects 10% of the errors with 100% precision, while the second order model corrects a higher percentage of errors with much lower precision.

  13. Markov Processes: Exploring the Use of Dynamic Visualizations to Enhance Student Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfannkuch, Maxine; Budgett, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Finding ways to enhance introductory students' understanding of probability ideas and theory is a goal of many first-year probability courses. In this article, we explore the potential of a prototype tool for Markov processes using dynamic visualizations to develop in students a deeper understanding of the equilibrium and hitting times…

  14. One-Dimensional Fluids with Positive Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantoni, Riccardo

    2017-03-01

    We study a class of one-dimensional classical fluids with penetrable particles interacting through positive, purely repulsive, pair-potentials. Starting from some lower bounds to the total potential energy, we draw results on the thermodynamic limit of the given model.

  15. One-Dimensional Oscillator in a Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amore, Paolo; Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a quantum-mechanical model of two particles that interact by means of a harmonic potential and are confined to a one-dimensional box with impenetrable walls. We apply perturbation theory to the cases of different and equal masses and analyse the symmetry of the states in the latter case. We compare the approximate perturbation results…

  16. One-dimensional differential Hardy inequality.

    PubMed

    Kalybay, Aigerim

    2017-01-01

    We establish necessary and sufficient conditions for the one-dimensional differential Hardy inequality to hold, including the overdetermined case. The solution is given in terms different from those of the known results. Moreover, the least constant for this inequality is estimated.

  17. Experimental optimization of a real time fed-batch fermentation process using Markov decision process.

    PubMed

    Saucedo, V M; Karim, M N

    1997-07-20

    This article describes a methodology that implements a Markov decision process (MDP) optimization technique in a real time fed-batch experiment. Biological systems can be better modeled under the stochastic framework and MDP is shown to be a suitable technique for their optimization. A nonlinear input/output model is used to calculate the probability transitions. All elements of the MDP are identified according to physical parameters. Finally, this study compares the results obtained when optimizing ethanol production using the infinite horizon problem, with total expected discount policy, to previous experimental results aimed at optimizing ethanol production using a recombinant Escherichia coli fed-batch cultivation. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 55: 317-327, 1997.

  18. Transient One-dimensional Pipe Flow Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    1986-04-08

    TOPAZ-SNLL, the Transient One- dimensional Pipe flow AnalyZer code, is a user-friendly computer program for modeling the heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and thermodynamics of multi-species gas transfer in arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, vessels, and flow branches. Although the flow conservation equations are assumed to be one-dimensional and transient, multidimensional features of internal fluid flow and heat transfer may be accounted for using the available quasi-steady flow correlations (e.g., Moody friction factor correlation and various form loss and heat transfer correlations). Users may also model the effects of moving system boundaries such as pistons, diaphragms, and bladders. The features of fully compressible flow are modeled, including the propagation of shocks and rarefaction waves, as well as the establishment of multiple choke points along the flow path.

  19. One-dimensional opal photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapitonov, A. M.

    2008-12-01

    One-dimensional opals are 1D self-assembled close packed colloidal crystals consisting of monodisperse colloidal globules. Polystyrene globules with sizes in the 1.9-10 μm range sit on a flat substrate and touch two neighbors in diametrally opposite contact points. These opals are quasi-1D photonic crystals. Optical modes, including whispering gallery modes of individual globules, coupled collective modes, and nanojet-induced modes, are visualized in 1D opals.

  20. Goal Management in Organizations: A Markov Decision Process (MDP) Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    model by introducing novel problem domain-specific heuristic evaluation functions ( HEF ) to aid the search process. We employ the optimal AO* search...introducing novel problem domain-specific heuristic evaluation functions ( HEF ) to aid the search process. We employ the optimal AO* search and two...algorithm, and greedy heuristics. Novel problem domain-based heuristic evaluation functions ( HEFs ) are introduced and evidence of their admissibility is

  1. Unraveling Markov Processes in Movement Patterns of Indicator Species in Response to Chemical Stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tuyen Van; Liu, Yuedan; Jung, Il-Hyo; Chon, Tae-Soo; Lee, Sang-Hee

    Revealing biological responses of organisms in responding to environmental stressors is the critical issue in contemporary ecological sciences. Markov processes in behavioral data were unraveled by utilizing the hidden Markov model (HMM). Individual organisms of daphnia (Daphnia magna) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to diazinon at low concentrations. The transition probability matrix (TPM) and the emission probability matrix (EPM) were accordingly estimated by training with the HMM and were verified before and after the treatments with 10-6 tolerance in 103 iterations. Structured property in behavioral changes was accordingly revealed to characterize dynamic processes in movement patterns. Parameters and sequences produced through the HMM training could be a suitable means of monitoring toxic chemicals in environment.

  2. A fast exact simulation method for a class of Markov jump processes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yao; Hu, Lili

    2015-11-14

    A new method of the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA), named the Hashing-Leaping method (HLM), for exact simulations of a class of Markov jump processes, is presented in this paper. The HLM has a conditional constant computational cost per event, which is independent of the number of exponential clocks in the Markov process. The main idea of the HLM is to repeatedly implement a hash-table-like bucket sort algorithm for all times of occurrence covered by a time step with length τ. This paper serves as an introduction to this new SSA method. We introduce the method, demonstrate its implementation, analyze its properties, and compare its performance with three other commonly used SSA methods in four examples. Our performance tests and CPU operation statistics show certain advantages of the HLM for large scale problems.

  3. A one-dimensional tunable magnetic metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Butz, S; Jung, P; Filippenko, L V; Koshelets, V P; Ustinov, A V

    2013-09-23

    We present experimental data on a one-dimensional super-conducting metamaterial that is tunable over a broad frequency band. The basic building block of this magnetic thin-film medium is a single-junction (rf-) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Due to the nonlinear inductance of such an element, its resonance frequency is tunable in situ by applying a dc magnetic field. We demonstrate that this results in tunable effective parameters of our metamaterial consisting of 54 rf-SQUIDs. In order to obtain the effective magnetic permeability μr,eff from the measured data, we employ a technique that uses only the complex transmission coefficient S₂₁.

  4. Phase-Type Approximations for Wear Processes in A Semi-Markov Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    identically distributed exponential random variables, is equivalent to the absorption time of an underlying k-state Markov process. As noted by Perros ...the Coxian distribution is that it can exactly represent any distribution having a rational Laplace transform [23]. Moreover, Perros [23] gives the...Performance Evaluation (TOOLS 2003), 200-217. 23. Perros , H. (1994). Queueing Networks with Blocking. Oxford University Press, New York. 24. Ro, C.W

  5. Fluctuation-dissipation theorems for inhomogeneous Markov jump processes and a biochemical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Jia, Chen; Jiang, Da-Quan

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we establish a rigorous mathematical theory of three types of fluctuation-dissipation theorems (FDTs) for inhomogeneous Markov jump processes. It turns out that the FDTs and the response formula proved in this paper apply to any form of external perturbations and thus are quite general. Further physical and biochemical applications are also discussed. In particular, the FDTs are used to study an important biochemical phenomenon called adaptation.

  6. Assistive system for people with Apraxia using a Markov decision process.

    PubMed

    Jean-Baptiste, Emilie M D; Russell, Martin; Rothstein, Pia

    2014-01-01

    CogWatch is an assistive system to re-train stroke survivors suffering from Apraxia or Action Disorganization Syndrome (AADS) to complete activities of daily living (ADLs). This paper describes the approach to real-time planning based on a Markov Decision Process (MDP), and demonstrates its ability to improve task's performance via user simulation. The paper concludes with a discussion of the remaining challenges and future enhancements.

  7. A conditional Markov model for clustered progressive multistate processes under incomplete observation.

    PubMed

    Cook, Richard J; Yi, Grace Y; Lee, Ker-Ai; Gladman, Dafna D

    2004-06-01

    Clustered progressive chronic disease processes arise when interest lies in modeling damage in paired organ systems (e.g., kidneys, eyes), in diseases manifest in different organ systems, or in systemic conditions for which damage may occur in several locations of the body. Multistate Markov models have considerable appeal for modeling damage in such settings, particularly when patients are only under intermittent observation. Generalizations are necessary, however, to deal with the fact that processes within subjects may not be independent. We describe a conditional Markov model in which the clustering in processes within subjects is addressed by the use of multiplicative random effects for each transition intensity. The random effects for the different transition intensities may be correlated within subjects, but are assumed to be independent for different subjects. We apply the mixed Markov model to a motivating data set of patients with psoriatic arthritis, and characterize the progressive course of damage in joints of the hand. A generalization to accommodate a subpopulation of "stayers" and extensions which facilitate regression are indicated and illustrated.

  8. An Overview of Markov Chain Methods for the Study of Stage-Sequential Developmental Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapland, David

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an overview of quantitative methodologies for the study of stage-sequential development based on extensions of Markov chain modeling. Four methods are presented that exemplify the flexibility of this approach: the manifest Markov model, the latent Markov model, latent transition analysis, and the mixture latent Markov model.…

  9. Variance-penalized Markov decision processes: dynamic programming and reinforcement learning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosavi, Abhijit

    2014-08-01

    In control systems theory, the Markov decision process (MDP) is a widely used optimization model involving selection of the optimal action in each state visited by a discrete-event system driven by Markov chains. The classical MDP model is suitable for an agent/decision-maker interested in maximizing expected revenues, but does not account for minimizing variability in the revenues. An MDP model in which the agent can maximize the revenues while simultaneously controlling the variance in the revenues is proposed. This work is rooted in machine learning/neural network concepts, where updating is based on system feedback and step sizes. First, a Bellman equation for the problem is proposed. Thereafter, convergent dynamic programming and reinforcement learning techniques for solving the MDP are provided along with encouraging numerical results on a small MDP and a preventive maintenance problem.

  10. A reward semi-Markov process with memory for wind speed modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, F.; D'Amico, G.; Prattico, F.

    2012-04-01

    -order Markov chain with different number of states, and Weibull distribution. All this model use Markov chains to generate synthetic wind speed time series but the search for a better model is still open. Approaching this issue, we applied new models which are generalization of Markov models. More precisely we applied semi-Markov models to generate synthetic wind speed time series. The primary goal of this analysis is the study of the time history of the wind in order to assess its reliability as a source of power and to determine the associated storage levels required. In order to assess this issue we use a probabilistic model based on indexed semi-Markov process [4] to which a reward structure is attached. Our model is used to calculate the expected energy produced by a given turbine and its variability expressed by the variance of the process. Our results can be used to compare different wind farms based on their reward and also on the risk of missed production due to the intrinsic variability of the wind speed process. The model is used to generate synthetic time series for wind speed by means of Monte Carlo simulations and backtesting procedure is used to compare results on first and second oder moments of rewards between real and synthetic data. [1] A. Shamshad, M.A. Bawadi, W.M.W. Wan Hussin, T.A. Majid, S.A.M. Sanusi, First and second order Markov chain models for synthetic gen- eration of wind speed time series, Energy 30 (2005) 693-708. [2] H. Nfaoui, H. Essiarab, A.A.M. Sayigh, A stochastic Markov chain model for simulating wind speed time series at Tangiers, Morocco, Re- newable Energy 29 (2004) 1407-1418. [3] F. Youcef Ettoumi, H. Sauvageot, A.-E.-H. Adane, Statistical bivariate modeling of wind using first-order Markov chain and Weibull distribu- tion, Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1787-1802. [4]F. Petroni, G. D'Amico, F. Prattico, Indexed semi-Markov process for wind speed modeling. To be submitted.

  11. Availability Control for Means of Transport in Decisive Semi-Markov Models of Exploitation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migawa, Klaudiusz

    2012-12-01

    The issues presented in this research paper refer to problems connected with the control process for exploitation implemented in the complex systems of exploitation for technical objects. The article presents the description of the method concerning the control availability for technical objects (means of transport) on the basis of the mathematical model of the exploitation process with the implementation of the decisive processes by semi-Markov. The presented method means focused on the preparing the decisive for the exploitation process for technical objects (semi-Markov model) and after that specifying the best control strategy (optimal strategy) from among possible decisive variants in accordance with the approved criterion (criteria) of the activity evaluation of the system of exploitation for technical objects. In the presented method specifying the optimal strategy for control availability in the technical objects means a choice of a sequence of control decisions made in individual states of modelled exploitation process for which the function being a criterion of evaluation reaches the extreme value. In order to choose the optimal control strategy the implementation of the genetic algorithm was chosen. The opinions were presented on the example of the exploitation process of the means of transport implemented in the real system of the bus municipal transport. The model of the exploitation process for the means of transports was prepared on the basis of the results implemented in the real transport system. The mathematical model of the exploitation process was built taking into consideration the fact that the model of the process constitutes the homogenous semi-Markov process.

  12. One-dimensional spinon spin currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirobe, Daichi; Sato, Masahiro; Kawamata, Takayuki; Shiomi, Yuki; Uchida, Ken-Ichi; Iguchi, Ryo; Koike, Yoji; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Saitoh, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    Quantum spin fluctuation in a low-dimensional or frustrated magnet breaks magnetic ordering while keeping spin correlation. Such fluctuation has been a central topic in magnetism because of its relevance to high-Tc superconductivity and topological states. However, utilizing such spin states has been quite difficult. In a one-dimensional spin-1/2 chain, a particle-like excitation called a spinon is known to be responsible for spin fluctuation in a paramagnetic state. Spinons behave as a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid at low energy, and the spin system is often called a quantum spin chain. Here we show that a quantum spin chain generates and carries spin current, which is attributed to spinon spin current. This is demonstrated by observing an anisotropic negative spin Seebeck effect along the spin chains in Sr2CuO3. The results show that spin current can flow even in an atomic channel owing to long-range spin fluctuation.

  13. Three one-dimensional structural heating programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Two computer programs for calculating profiles in a ten-element structure consisting of up to ten materials are presented, along with a third program for calculating the mean temperature for a payload container placed in an orbiting vehicle cargo bay. The three programs are related by the sharing of a common analytical technique; the energy balance is based upon one-dimensional heat transfer. The first program, NQLDW112, assumes a non-ablating surface. NQLDW117 is very similar but allows the outermost element to ablate. NQLDW040 calculates an average temperature profile through an idealized model of the real payload cannister and contents in the cargo bay of an orbiting vehicle.

  14. One-dimensional frequency-based spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cygan, Agata; Wcisło, Piotr; Wójtewicz, Szymon; Masłowski, Piotr; Hodges, Joseph T; Ciuryło, Roman; Lisak, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Recent developments in optical metrology have tremendously improved the precision and accuracy of the horizontal (frequency) axis in measured spectra. However, the vertical (typically absorbance) axis is usually based on intensity measurements that are subject to instrumental errors which limit the spectrum accuracy. Here we report a one-dimensional spectroscopy that uses only the measured frequencies of high-finesse cavity modes to provide complete information about the dispersive properties of the spectrum. Because this technique depends solely on the measurement of frequencies or their differences, it is insensitive to systematic errors in the detection of light intensity and has the potential to become the most accurate of all absorptive and dispersive spectroscopic methods. The experimental results are compared to measurements by two other high-precision cavity-enhanced spectroscopy methods. We expect that the proposed technique will have significant impact in fields such as fundamental physics, gas metrology and environmental remote sensing.

  15. Superfluid helium-4 in one dimensional channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Duk Y.; Banavar, Samhita; Chan, Moses H. W.; Hayes, John; Sazio, Pier

    2013-03-01

    Superfluidity, as superconductivity, cannot exist in a strict one-dimensional system. However, the experiments employing porous media showed that superfluid helium can flow through the pores of nanometer size. Here we report a study of the flow of liquid helium through a single hollow glass fiber of 4 cm in length with an open id of 150 nm between 1.6 and 2.3 K. We found the superfluid transition temperature was suppressed in the hollow cylinder and that there is no flow above the transition. Critical velocity at temperature below the transition temperature was determined. Our results bear some similarity to that found by Savard et. al. studying the flow of helium through a nanohole in a silicon nitrite membrane. Experimental study at Penn State is supported by NSF Grants No. DMR 1103159.

  16. One-dimensional quantum pump simulated by cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yun-Chang; Zhu, Ming-Han; Liu, Zheng-Qin

    2015-05-01

    Quantum pump set up in one-dimensional (1D) channel was proposed by the cold atom simulation. The target pumping system is driven by the double time-dependent potentials. We investigated that the system can be achieved via the study of the cold atoms simulation. And by using the Floquet scattering method and the related transport theories in the mesoscopic systems, simulations of the pumping processes were presented in detail.

  17. The discovery of processing stages: analyzing EEG data with hidden semi-Markov models.

    PubMed

    Borst, Jelmer P; Anderson, John R

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we propose a new method for identifying processing stages in human information processing. Since the 1860s scientists have used different methods to identify processing stages, usually based on reaction time (RT) differences between conditions. To overcome the limitations of RT-based methods we used hidden semi-Markov models (HSMMs) to analyze EEG data. This HSMM-EEG methodology can identify stages of processing and how they vary with experimental condition. By combining this information with the brain signatures of the identified stages one can infer their function, and deduce underlying cognitive processes. To demonstrate the method we applied it to an associative recognition task. The stage-discovery method indicated that three major processes play a role in associative recognition: a familiarity process, an associative retrieval process, and a decision process. We conclude that the new stage-discovery method can provide valuable insight into human information processing.

  18. Multivariate Markov processes for stochastic systems with delays: application to the stochastic Gompertz model with delay.

    PubMed

    Frank, T D

    2002-07-01

    Using the method of steps, we describe stochastic processes with delays in terms of Markov diffusion processes. Thus, multivariate Langevin equations and Fokker-Planck equations are derived for stochastic delay differential equations. Natural, periodic, and reflective boundary conditions are discussed. Both Ito and Stratonovich calculus are used. In particular, our Fokker-Planck approach recovers the generalized delay Fokker-Planck equation proposed by Guillouzic et al. The results obtained are applied to a model for population growth: the Gompertz model with delay and multiplicative white noise.

  19. A statistical property of multiagent learning based on Markov decision process.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Kazunori; Ikeda, Kazushi; Sakai, Hideaki

    2006-07-01

    We exhibit an important property called the asymptotic equipartition property (AEP) on empirical sequences in an ergodic multiagent Markov decision process (MDP). Using the AEP which facilitates the analysis of multiagent learning, we give a statistical property of multiagent learning, such as reinforcement learning (RL), near the end of the learning process. We examine the effect of the conditions among the agents on the achievement of a cooperative policy in three different cases: blind, visible, and communicable. Also, we derive a bound on the speed with which the empirical sequence converges to the best sequence in probability, so that the multiagent learning yields the best cooperative result.

  20. Markov processes and partial differential equations on a group: the space-homogeneous case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendikov, A. D.

    1987-10-01

    CONTENTS Introduction Terminology and notation Chapter I. Potential theory of conjugate processes § 1.1. Markov processes and harmonic spaces § 1.2. Processes of class \\mathscr{A} and Brelot spaces § 1.3. Processes of class \\mathscr{B} and Bauer spaces Chapter II. Space-homogeneous processes on a group § 2.1. Space-homogeneous processes and harmonic structures § 2.2. Quasidiagonal processes § 2.3. An example of a non-quasidiagonal process Chapter III. Elliptic equations on a group § 3.1. Admissible distributions and multipliers § 3.2. Weak solutions of elliptic equations ( L_p-theory) § 3.3. Weyl's lemma and the hypoelliptic property References

  1. Finite Dimensional Markov Process Approximation for Time-Delayed Stochastic Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jian-Qiao

    This paper presents a method of finite dimensional Markov process (FDMP) approximation for stochastic dynamical systems with time delay. The FDMP method preserves the standard state space format of the system, and allows us to apply all the existing methods and theories for analysis and control of stochastic dynamical systems. The paper presents the theoretical framework for stochastic dynamical systems with time delay based on the FDMP method, including the FPK equation, backward Kolmogorov equation, and reliability formulation. The work of this paper opens a door to various studies of stochastic dynamical systems with time delay.

  2. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for state-space models with point process observations.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ke; Girolami, Mark; Niranjan, Mahesan

    2012-06-01

    This letter considers how a number of modern Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods can be applied for parameter estimation and inference in state-space models with point process observations. We quantified the efficiencies of these MCMC methods on synthetic data, and our results suggest that the Reimannian manifold Hamiltonian Monte Carlo method offers the best performance. We further compared such a method with a previously tested variational Bayes method on two experimental data sets. Results indicate similar performance on the large data sets and superior performance on small ones. The work offers an extensive suite of MCMC algorithms evaluated on an important class of models for physiological signal analysis.

  3. A Stable Clock Error Model Using Coupled First and Second Order Gauss-Markov Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Russell; Lee, Taesul

    2008-01-01

    Long data outages may occur in applications of global navigation satellite system technology to orbit determination for missions that spend significant fractions of their orbits above the navigation satellite constellation(s). Current clock error models based on the random walk idealization may not be suitable in these circumstances, since the covariance of the clock errors may become large enough to overflow flight computer arithmetic. A model that is stable, but which approximates the existing models over short time horizons is desirable. A coupled first- and second-order Gauss-Markov process is such a model.

  4. Pitch angle scattering of relativistic electrons from stationary magnetic waves: Continuous Markov process and quasilinear theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, Don S.

    2012-01-15

    We develop a Markov process theory of charged particle scattering from stationary, transverse, magnetic waves. We examine approximations that lead to quasilinear theory, in particular the resonant diffusion approximation. We find that, when appropriate, the resonant diffusion approximation simplifies the result of the weak turbulence approximation without significant further restricting the regime of applicability. We also explore a theory generated by expanding drift and diffusion rates in terms of a presumed small correlation time. This small correlation time expansion leads to results valid for relatively small pitch angle and large wave energy density - a regime that may govern pitch angle scattering of high-energy electrons into the geomagnetic loss cone.

  5. A patterned and un-patterned minefield detection in cluttered environments using Markov marked point process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trang, Anh; Agarwal, Sanjeev; Regalia, Phillip; Broach, Thomas; Smith, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    A typical minefield detection approach is based on a sequential processing employing mine detection and false alarm rejection followed by minefield detection. The current approach does not work robustly under different backgrounds and environment conditions because target signature changes with time and its performance degrades in the presence of high density of false alarms. The aim of this research will be to advance the state of the art in detection of both patterned and unpatterned minefield in high clutter environments. The proposed method seeks to combine false alarm rejection module and the minefield detection module of the current architecture by spatial-spectral clustering and inference module using a Markov Marked Point Process formulation. The approach simultaneously exploits the feature characteristics of the target signature and spatial distribution of the targets in the interrogation region. The method is based on the premise that most minefields can be characterized by some type of distinctive spatial distribution of "similar" looking mine targets. The minefield detection problem is formulated as a Markov Marked Point Process (MMPP) where the set of possible mine targets is divided into a possibly overlapping mixture of targets. The likelihood of the minefield depends simultaneously on feature characteristics of the target and their spatial distribution. A framework using "Belief Propagation" is developed to solve the minefield inference problem based on MMPP. Preliminary investigation using simulated data shows the efficacy of the approach.

  6. Singular Perturbation for the Discounted Continuous Control of Piecewise Deterministic Markov Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, O. L. V.; Dufour, F.

    2011-06-15

    This paper deals with the expected discounted continuous control of piecewise deterministic Markov processes (PDMP's) using a singular perturbation approach for dealing with rapidly oscillating parameters. The state space of the PDMP is written as the product of a finite set and a subset of the Euclidean space Double-Struck-Capital-R {sup n}. The discrete part of the state, called the regime, characterizes the mode of operation of the physical system under consideration, and is supposed to have a fast (associated to a small parameter {epsilon}>0) and a slow behavior. By using a similar approach as developed in Yin and Zhang (Continuous-Time Markov Chains and Applications: A Singular Perturbation Approach, Applications of Mathematics, vol. 37, Springer, New York, 1998, Chaps. 1 and 3) the idea in this paper is to reduce the number of regimes by considering an averaged model in which the regimes within the same class are aggregated through the quasi-stationary distribution so that the different states in this class are replaced by a single one. The main goal is to show that the value function of the control problem for the system driven by the perturbed Markov chain converges to the value function of this limit control problem as {epsilon} goes to zero. This convergence is obtained by, roughly speaking, showing that the infimum and supremum limits of the value functions satisfy two optimality inequalities as {epsilon} goes to zero. This enables us to show the result by invoking a uniqueness argument, without needing any kind of Lipschitz continuity condition.

  7. An overview of Markov chain methods for the study of stage-sequential developmental processes.

    PubMed

    Kapland, David

    2008-03-01

    This article presents an overview of quantitative methodologies for the study of stage-sequential development based on extensions of Markov chain modeling. Four methods are presented that exemplify the flexibility of this approach: the manifest Markov model, the latent Markov model, latent transition analysis, and the mixture latent Markov model. A special case of the mixture latent Markov model, the so-called mover-stayer model, is used in this study. Unconditional and conditional models are estimated for the manifest Markov model and the latent Markov model, where the conditional models include a measure of poverty status. Issues of model specification, estimation, and testing using the Mplus software environment are briefly discussed, and the Mplus input syntax is provided. The author applies these 4 methods to a single example of stage-sequential development in reading competency in the early school years, using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort.

  8. Simulation Study of Estimators for the Survival Probability of a First Passage Time for a Semi-Markov Process Using Censored Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Finite state space semi-Markov process find application in many areas. Often interest centers on whether or not the process has hit a particular state before a time t. This thesis reports results of a simulation study of the small behavior for three estimators of the survival probability of a first passage time for a semi-Markov process using censored data. Keywords: Semi- Markov; Kaplan Meier estimator; Confidence interval ; Jackknife; Problem; Theses.

  9. Markovian and Non-Markovian Protein Sequence Evolution: Aggregated Markov Process Models

    PubMed Central

    Kosiol, Carolin; Goldman, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, there have been claims that evolution proceeds according to systematically different processes over different timescales and that protein evolution behaves in a non-Markovian manner. On the other hand, Markov models are fundamental to many applications in evolutionary studies. Apparent non-Markovian or time-dependent behavior has been attributed to influence of the genetic code at short timescales and dominance of physicochemical properties of the amino acids at long timescales. However, any long time period is simply the accumulation of many short time periods, and it remains unclear why evolution should appear to act systematically differently across the range of timescales studied. We show that the observed time-dependent behavior can be explained qualitatively by modeling protein sequence evolution as an aggregated Markov process (AMP): a time-homogeneous Markovian substitution model observed only at the level of the amino acids encoded by the protein-coding DNA sequence. The study of AMPs sheds new light on the relationship between amino acid-level and codon-level models of sequence evolution, and our results suggest that protein evolution should be modeled at the codon level rather than using amino acid substitution models. PMID:21718704

  10. On-line monitoring of pharmaceutical production processes using Hidden Markov Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Zhuangde; Pi, J Y; Xu, H K; Du, R

    2009-04-01

    This article presents a new method for on-line monitoring of pharmaceutical production process, especially the powder blending process. The new method consists of two parts: extracting features from the Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy signals and recognizing patterns from the features. Features are extracted from spectra by using Partial Least Squares method (PLS). The pattern recognition is done by using Hidden Markov Model (HMM). A series of experiments are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of this new method. In the experiments, wheat powder and corn powder are blended together at a set concentration. The proposed method can effectively detect the blending uniformity (the success rate is 99.6%). In comparison to the conventional Moving Block of Standard Deviation (MBSD), the proposed method has a number of advantages, including higher reliability, higher robustness and more transparent decision making. It can be used for effective on-line monitoring of pharmaceutical production processes.

  11. Exploring the WTI crude oil price bubble process using the Markov regime switching model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Wang, Jing

    2015-03-01

    The sharp volatility of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price in the past decade triggers us to investigate the price bubbles and their evolving process. Empirical results indicate that the fundamental price of WTI crude oil appears relatively more stable than that of the market-trading price, which verifies the existence of oil price bubbles during the sample period. Besides, by allowing the WTI crude oil price bubble process to switch between two states (regimes) according to a first-order Markov chain, we are able to statistically discriminate upheaval from stable states in the crude oil price bubble process; and in most of time, the stable state dominates the WTI crude oil price bubbles while the upheaval state usually proves short-lived and accompanies unexpected market events.

  12. First Passage Moments of Finite-State Semi-Markov Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Warr, Richard; Cordeiro, James

    2014-03-31

    In this paper, we discuss the computation of first-passage moments of a regular time-homogeneous semi-Markov process (SMP) with a finite state space to certain of its states that possess the property of universal accessibility (UA). A UA state is one which is accessible from any other state of the SMP, but which may or may not connect back to one or more other states. An important characteristic of UA is that it is the state-level version of the oft-invoked process-level property of irreducibility. We adapt existing results for irreducible SMPs to the derivation of an analytical matrix expression for the first passage moments to a single UA state of the SMP. In addition, consistent point estimators for these first passage moments, together with relevant R code, are provided.

  13. Planning treatment of ischemic heart disease with partially observable Markov decision processes.

    PubMed

    Hauskrecht, M; Fraser, H

    2000-03-01

    Diagnosis of a disease and its treatment are not separate, one-shot activities. Instead, they are very often dependent and interleaved over time. This is mostly due to uncertainty about the underlying disease, uncertainty associated with the response of a patient to the treatment and varying cost of different diagnostic (investigative) and treatment procedures. The framework of partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) developed and used in the operations research, control theory and artificial intelligence communities is particularly suitable for modeling such a complex decision process. In this paper, we show how the POMDP framework can be used to model and solve the problem of the management of patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD), and demonstrate the modeling advantages of the framework over standard decision formalisms.

  14. Modeling treatment of ischemic heart disease with partially observable Markov decision processes.

    PubMed

    Hauskrecht, M; Fraser, H

    1998-01-01

    Diagnosis of a disease and its treatment are not separate, one-shot activities. Instead they are very often dependent and interleaved over time, mostly due to uncertainty about the underlying disease, uncertainty associated with the response of a patient to the treatment and varying cost of different diagnostic (investigative) and treatment procedures. The framework of Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) developed and used in operations research, control theory and artificial intelligence communities is particularly suitable for modeling such a complex decision process. In the paper, we show how the POMDP framework could be used to model and solve the problem of the management of patients with ischemic heart disease, and point out modeling advantages of the framework over standard decision formalisms.

  15. One-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation on the influence of electron and ion temperature on the sheath expansion process in the post-arc stage of vacuum circuit breaker

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, Yongpeng; Shi, Zongqian; Jia, Shenli; Wang, Lijun

    2015-02-15

    The inter-contact region of vacuum circuit breakers is filled with residual plasma at the moment when the current is zero after the burning of metal vapor arc. The residual plasma forms an ion sheath in front of the post-arc cathode. The sheath then expands towards the post-arc anode under the influence of a transient recovery voltage. In this study, a one-dimensional particle-in-cell model is developed to investigate the post-arc sheath expansion. The influence of ion and electron temperatures on the decrease in local plasma density at the post-arc cathode side and post-arc anode side is discussed. When the decay in the local plasma density develops from the cathode and anode sides into the high-density region and merges, the overall plasma density in the inter-contact region begins to decrease. Meanwhile, the ion sheath begins to expand faster. Furthermore, the theory of ion rarefaction wave only explains quantitatively the decrease in the overall plasma density at relatively low ion temperatures. With the increase of ion temperature to certain extent, another possible reason for the decrease in the overall plasma density is proposed and results from the more active thermal diffusion of plasma.

  16. Multi-Objective Markov Decision Processes for Data-Driven Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Lizotte, Daniel J.; Laber, Eric B.

    2016-01-01

    We present new methodology based on Multi-Objective Markov Decision Processes for developing sequential decision support systems from data. Our approach uses sequential decision-making data to provide support that is useful to many different decision-makers, each with different, potentially time-varying preference. To accomplish this, we develop an extension of fitted-Q iteration for multiple objectives that computes policies for all scalarization functions, i.e. preference functions, simultaneously from continuous-state, finite-horizon data. We identify and address several conceptual and computational challenges along the way, and we introduce a new solution concept that is appropriate when different actions have similar expected outcomes. Finally, we demonstrate an application of our method using data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness and show that our approach offers decision-makers increased choice by a larger class of optimal policies. PMID:28018133

  17. A second-order Markov process for modeling diffusive motion through spatial discretization.

    PubMed

    Sant, Marco; Papadopoulos, George K; Theodorou, Doros N

    2008-01-14

    A new "mesoscopic" stochastic model has been developed to describe the diffusive behavior of a system of particles at equilibrium. The model is based on discretizing space into slabs by drawing equispaced parallel planes along a coordinate direction. A central role is played by the probability that a particle exits a slab via the face opposite to the one through which it entered (transmission probability), as opposed to exiting via the same face through which it entered (reflection probability). A simple second-order Markov process invoking this probability is developed, leading to an expression for the self-diffusivity, applicable for large slab widths, consistent with a continuous formulation of diffusional motion. This model is validated via molecular dynamics simulations in a bulk system of soft spheres across a wide range of densities.

  18. A Gallavotti-Cohen-Evans-Morriss Like Symmetry for a Class of Markov Jump Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barato, Andre Cardoso; Chetrite, Raphaël; Hinrichsen, Haye; Mukamel, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a new symmetry of the large deviation function of certain time-integrated currents in non-equilibrium systems. The symmetry is similar to the well-known Gallavotti-Cohen-Evans-Morriss-symmetry for the entropy production, but it concerns a different functional of the stochastic trajectory. The symmetry can be found in a restricted class of Markov jump processes, where the network of microscopic transitions has a particular structure and the transition rates satisfy certain constraints. We provide three physical examples, where time-integrated observables display such a symmetry. Moreover, we argue that the origin of the symmetry can be traced back to time-reversal if stochastic trajectories are grouped appropriately.

  19. Sieve estimation in a Markov illness-death process under dual censoring.

    PubMed

    Boruvka, Audrey; Cook, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Semiparametric methods are well established for the analysis of a progressive Markov illness-death process observed up to a noninformative right censoring time. However, often the intermediate and terminal events are censored in different ways, leading to a dual censoring scheme. In such settings, unbiased estimation of the cumulative transition intensity functions cannot be achieved without some degree of smoothing. To overcome this problem, we develop a sieve maximum likelihood approach for inference on the hazard ratio. A simulation study shows that the sieve estimator offers improved finite-sample performance over common imputation-based alternatives and is robust to some forms of dependent censoring. The proposed method is illustrated using data from cancer trials.

  20. "Markov at the bat": a model of cognitive processing in baseball batters.

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob

    2002-11-01

    Anecdotal evidence from players and coaches indicates that cognitive processing (e.g., expectations about the upcoming pitch) plays an important role in successful baseball batting, yet this aspect of hitting has not been investigated in detail. The present study provides experimental evidence that prior expectations significantly influence the timing of a baseball swing. A two-state Markov model was used to predict the effects of pitch sequence and pitch count on batting performance. The model is a hitting strategy of switching between expectancy states using a simple set of transition rules. In a simulated batting experiment, the model provided a good fit to the hitting performance of 6 experienced college baseball players, and the estimated model parameters were highly correlated with playing level.

  1. An Online Policy Gradient Algorithm for Markov Decision Processes with Continuous States and Actions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yao; Zhao, Tingting; Hatano, Kohei; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2016-03-01

    We consider the learning problem under an online Markov decision process (MDP) aimed at learning the time-dependent decision-making policy of an agent that minimizes the regret-the difference from the best fixed policy. The difficulty of online MDP learning is that the reward function changes over time. In this letter, we show that a simple online policy gradient algorithm achieves regret O(√T) for T steps under a certain concavity assumption and O(log T) under a strong concavity assumption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to present an online MDP algorithm that can handle continuous state, action, and parameter spaces with guarantee. We also illustrate the behavior of the proposed online policy gradient method through experiments.

  2. On the Controller Synthesis for Markov Decision Process of Conflict Tolerant Specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junhua; Huang, Zhiqiu; Cao, Zining

    For an embedded control system, different requirements often need be satisfied at same time, and some of them make the system to act conflicted. Conflict tolerant specification is provided to denote this situation. In such a system, there often exist probabilistic and non-deterministic behaviors. We use Markov Decision Process (MDP) to denote these features. We study the controller synthesis for MDP over conflict tolerant specification. We extend PCTL star by adding past operator to denote the conflict tolerant specification succinctly. We use CT-PLTL to denote conflicted actions and PCTL to denote the specification for probability demand. We first synthesize a controller on a base system over CT-PLTL and then use it to prune the corresponding MDP of the system model. We use the resulting sub-MDP as the model to further synthesis a controller over PCTL. The whole controller for MDP is a conjunction of the two controllers obtained.

  3. Incorporating risk attitude into Markov-process decision models: importance for individual decision making.

    PubMed

    Cher, D J; Miyamoto, J; Lenert, L A

    1997-01-01

    Most decision models published in the medical literature take a risk-neutral perspective. Under risk neutrality, the utility of a gamble is equivalent to its expected value and the marginal utility of living a given unit of time is the same regardless of when it occurs. Most patients, however, are not risk-neutral. Not only does risk aversion affect decision analyses when tradeoffs between short- and long-term survival are involved, it also affects the interpretation of time-tradeoff measures of health-state utility. The proportional time tradeoff under- or overestimates the disutility of an inferior health state, depending on whether the patient is risk-seeking or risk-averse (it is unbiased if the patient is risk-neutral). The authors review how risk attitude with respect to gambles for survival duration can be incorporated into decision models using the framework of risk-adjusted quality-adjusted life years (RA-QALYs). They present a simple extension of this framework that allows RA-QALYs to be calculated for Markov-process decision models. Using a previously published Markov-process model of surgical vs expectant treatment for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), they show how attitude towards risk affects the expected number of QALYs calculated by the model. In this model, under risk neutrality, surgery was the preferred option. Under mild risk aversion, expectant treatment was the preferred option. Risk attitude is an important aspect of preferences that should be incorporated into decision models where one treatment option has upfront risks of morbidity or mortality.

  4. Research on Multi-Stage Inventory Model by Markov Decision Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Ke

    This paper researched multi-stage inventory system and established limited inventory Markov model, on the other hand it induced DP algorithm of limited inventory Markov model. The results proved that the reorder point of multi-stage inventory system can guarantee demand, and also allows the storage costs to a minimum level in accordance with the above model.

  5. Strongly-Refractive One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Prisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal prisms can separate a beam of polychromatic electromagnetic waves into constituent wavelength components and can utilize unconventional refraction properties for wavelength dispersion over significant portions of an entire photonic band rather than just near the band edges outside the photonic band gaps. Using a ID photonic crystal simplifies the design and fabrication process and allows the use of larger feature sizes. The prism geometry broadens the useful wavelength range, enables better optical transmission, and exhibits angular dependence on wavelength with reduced non-linearity. The properties of the 1 D photonic crystal prism can be tuned by varying design parameters such as incidence angle, exit surface angle, and layer widths. The ID photonic crystal prism can be fabricated in a planar process, and can be used as optical integrated circuit elements.

  6. Interpreting functions of one-dimensional kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canty, Reality S.

    The present work examined several factors related to interpreting graphical representations of motion concepts. Since the seminal work of Larkin and Simon (1987), cognitive research has investigated informational equivalence and computational efficiency by contrasting performance across different representations systems such as line versus bar graph (Ali & Peebles, 2012; Shah & Freedman, 2009; Zacks & Tversky, 1999), table versus graph (Speier, 2006; Vessey, 1991) or table versus map (Smelcer & Carmel, 1997). Physics education research has focused on difficulties related to interpreting motion concepts in graphs, accounting for them in terms of misconceptions. Kinematics, the branch of physics concerned with the motion of objects, makes an interesting study of informational equivalence and computational efficiency because its three primary representations -- position-time, velocity-time, and acceleration-time graphs -- can reflect the same information in the same representational system which provides a different type of contrast than has usually been used in this area of cognitive research. In the present work, four experiments were used to test several hypotheses concerned with whether information about the motion of objects can be directly read-off the graph or whether it needed additional processing beyond what was directly visible; Palmer (1987) referred to this as the derivational structure of representations. The main findings across the four experiments were that (a) graph type was not a reliable factor of graph interpretation difficulty, (b) derivational structure was useful for analyzing tasks but there was no evidence supporting it as a process account, (c) graph-based judgment is susceptible to visual features in the graph that trigger powerful spatial-conceptual correspondences particularly height (e.g., higher means more, lower means less), direction of slope (e.g., zero, positive, negative), and curvature (e.g., increasing rate of change, decreasing

  7. An information theoretic approach for generating an aircraft avoidance Markov Decision Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Andrew J.

    Developing a collision avoidance system that can meet safety standards required of commercial aviation is challenging. A dynamic programming approach to collision avoidance has been developed to optimize and generate logics that are robust to the complex dynamics of the national airspace. The current approach represents the aircraft avoidance problem as Markov Decision Processes and independently optimizes a horizontal and vertical maneuver avoidance logics. This is a result of the current memory requirements for each logic, simply combining the logics will result in a significantly larger representation. The "curse of dimensionality" makes it computationally inefficient and unfeasible to optimize this larger representation. However, existing and future collision avoidance systems have mostly defined the decision process by hand. In response, a simulation-based framework was built to better understand how each potential state quantifies the aircraft avoidance problem with regards to safety and operational components. The framework leverages recent advances in signals processing and database, while enabling the highest fidelity analysis of Monte Carlo aircraft encounter simulations to date. This framework enabled the calculation of how well each state of the decision process quantifies the collision risk and the associated memory requirements. Using this analysis, a collision avoidance logic that leverages both horizontal and vertical actions was built and optimized using this simulation based approach.

  8. Quasi- and pseudo-maximum likelihood estimators for discretely observed continuous-time Markov branching processes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Hyrien, Ollivier

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with quasi- and pseudo-likelihood estimation in a class of continuous-time multi-type Markov branching processes observed at discrete points in time. “Conventional” and conditional estimation are discussed for both approaches. We compare their properties and identify situations where they lead to asymptotically equivalent estimators. Both approaches possess robustness properties, and coincide with maximum likelihood estimation in some cases. Quasi-likelihood functions involving only linear combinations of the data may be unable to estimate all model parameters. Remedial measures exist, including the resort either to non-linear functions of the data or to conditioning the moments on appropriate sigma-algebras. The method of pseudo-likelihood may also resolve this issue. We investigate the properties of these approaches in three examples: the pure birth process, the linear birth-and-death process, and a two-type process that generalizes the previous two examples. Simulations studies are conducted to evaluate performance in finite samples. PMID:21552356

  9. Users manual for a one-dimensional Lagrangian transport model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, D.H.; Jobson, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    A Users Manual for the Lagrangian Transport Model (LTM) is presented. The LTM uses Lagrangian calculations that are based on a reference frame moving with the river flow. The Lagrangian reference frame eliminates the need to numerically solve the convective term of the convection-diffusion equation and provides significant numerical advantages over the more commonly used Eulerian reference frame. When properly applied, the LTM can simulate riverine transport and decay processes within the accuracy required by most water quality studies. The LTM is applicable to steady or unsteady one-dimensional unidirectional flows in fixed channels with tributary and lateral inflows. Application of the LTM is relatively simple and optional capabilities improve the model 's convenience. Appendices give file formats and three example LTM applications that include the incorporation of the QUAL II water quality model 's reaction kinetics into the LTM. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Using Bayesian Nonparametric Hidden Semi-Markov Models to Disentangle Affect Processes during Marital Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, William A.; Li, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Sequential affect dynamics generated during the interaction of intimate dyads, such as married couples, are associated with a cascade of effects—some good and some bad—on each partner, close family members, and other social contacts. Although the effects are well documented, the probabilistic structures associated with micro-social processes connected to the varied outcomes remain enigmatic. Using extant data we developed a method of classifying and subsequently generating couple dynamics using a Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden semi-Markov Model (HDP-HSMM). Our findings indicate that several key aspects of existing models of marital interaction are inadequate: affect state emissions and their durations, along with the expected variability differences between distressed and nondistressed couples are present but highly nuanced; and most surprisingly, heterogeneity among highly satisfied couples necessitate that they be divided into subgroups. We review how this unsupervised learning technique generates plausible dyadic sequences that are sensitive to relationship quality and provide a natural mechanism for computational models of behavioral and affective micro-social processes. PMID:27187319

  11. A Simulation Study of Estimates of a First Passage Time Distribution for a Semi-Markov Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    probability a semi-markov process enters a particular state before a fixed time t. Three estimators and confidence interval procedures are proposed and...compared. The different estimators use different amounts of information about the process. The maximum likelihood estimator and its normal confidence ... interval procedure uses the most; the estimator based on the empirical distribution function of the observed first passage times used the least. An

  12. One-dimensional Pt induced chains on Si(337)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McChesney, Jessica; Bostwick, A.; Rotenberg, E.; Lapeyre, Gerald

    2006-03-01

    The use of high index Si surfaces as templates for the formation of adsorbate induced one-dimensional chain structures have attracted considerable interest. These systems have been used as a test bed in which to study low-dimension physics and components of nanoelectronics. In addition to the Ag and Au induced chains reported to form on the Si(337) surface, Pt also produces one-dimensional chains. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy was used to investigate the electronic structure of these new Pt chains. The valence band mapping confirms the one-dimensional nature of these chains as seen in LEED. Supported by ONR and DOE.

  13. Torsional Detwinning Domino in Nanotwinned One-Dimensional Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haofei; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Ying; Liu, Zishun; Yang, Wei; Gao, Huajian

    2015-09-09

    How to maintain sustained deformation in one-dimensional nanostructures without localized failure is an important question for many applications of nanotechnology. Here we report a phenomenon of torsional detwinning domino that leads to giant rotational deformation without localized failure in nanotwinned one-dimensional metallic nanostructures. This mechanism is demonstrated in nanotwinned Cu nanorods via molecular dynamics simulations, where coherent twin boundaries are transformed into twist boundaries and then dissolved one by one, resulting in practically unlimited rotational deformation. This finding represents a fundamental advance in our understanding of deformation mechanisms in one-dimensional metallic nanostructures.

  14. Composition of web services using Markov decision processes and dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    Uc-Cetina, Víctor; Moo-Mena, Francisco; Hernandez-Ucan, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    We propose a Markov decision process model for solving the Web service composition (WSC) problem. Iterative policy evaluation, value iteration, and policy iteration algorithms are used to experimentally validate our approach, with artificial and real data. The experimental results show the reliability of the model and the methods employed, with policy iteration being the best one in terms of the minimum number of iterations needed to estimate an optimal policy, with the highest Quality of Service attributes. Our experimental work shows how the solution of a WSC problem involving a set of 100,000 individual Web services and where a valid composition requiring the selection of 1,000 services from the available set can be computed in the worst case in less than 200 seconds, using an Intel Core i5 computer with 6 GB RAM. Moreover, a real WSC problem involving only 7 individual Web services requires less than 0.08 seconds, using the same computational power. Finally, a comparison with two popular reinforcement learning algorithms, sarsa and Q-learning, shows that these algorithms require one or two orders of magnitude and more time than policy iteration, iterative policy evaluation, and value iteration to handle WSC problems of the same complexity.

  15. Dynamics of a tracer granular particle as a nonequilibrium Markov process.

    PubMed

    Puglisi, Andrea; Visco, Paolo; Trizac, Emmanuel; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2006-02-01

    The dynamics of a tracer particle in a stationary driven granular gas is investigated. We show how to transform the linear Boltzmann equation, describing the dynamics of the tracer into a master equation for a continuous Markov process. The transition rates depend on the stationary velocity distribution of the gas. When the gas has a Gaussian velocity probability distribution function (PDF), the stationary velocity PDF of the tracer is Gaussian with a lower temperature and satisfies detailed balance for any value of the restitution coefficient alpha. As soon as the velocity PDF of the gas departs from the Gaussian form, detailed balance is violated. This nonequilibrium state can be characterized in terms of a Lebowitz-Spohn action functional W(tau) defined over trajectories of time duration tau. We discuss the properties of this functional and of a similar functional W(tau), which differs from the first for a term that is nonextensive in time. On the one hand, we show that in numerical experiments (i.e., at finite times tau), the two functionals have different fluctuations and W always satisfies an Evans-Searles-like symmetry. On the other hand, we cannot observe the verification of the Lebowitz-Spohn-Gallavotti-Cohen (LS-GC) relation, which is expected for W(tau) at very large times tau. We give an argument for the possible failure of the LS-GC relation in this situation. We also suggest practical recipes for measuring W(tau) and W(tau) in experiments.

  16. Composition of Web Services Using Markov Decision Processes and Dynamic Programming

    PubMed Central

    Uc-Cetina, Víctor; Moo-Mena, Francisco; Hernandez-Ucan, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    We propose a Markov decision process model for solving the Web service composition (WSC) problem. Iterative policy evaluation, value iteration, and policy iteration algorithms are used to experimentally validate our approach, with artificial and real data. The experimental results show the reliability of the model and the methods employed, with policy iteration being the best one in terms of the minimum number of iterations needed to estimate an optimal policy, with the highest Quality of Service attributes. Our experimental work shows how the solution of a WSC problem involving a set of 100,000 individual Web services and where a valid composition requiring the selection of 1,000 services from the available set can be computed in the worst case in less than 200 seconds, using an Intel Core i5 computer with 6 GB RAM. Moreover, a real WSC problem involving only 7 individual Web services requires less than 0.08 seconds, using the same computational power. Finally, a comparison with two popular reinforcement learning algorithms, sarsa and Q-learning, shows that these algorithms require one or two orders of magnitude and more time than policy iteration, iterative policy evaluation, and value iteration to handle WSC problems of the same complexity. PMID:25874247

  17. Markov-CA model using analytical hierarchy process and multiregression technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, N. Q.; Sanusi, S. A. M.; Hussin, W. M. W.; Samat, N.; Mohammed, K. S.

    2014-06-01

    The unprecedented increase in population and rapid rate of urbanisation has led to extensive land use changes. Cellular automata (CA) are increasingly used to simulate a variety of urban dynamics. This paper introduces a new CA based on an integration model built-in multi regression and multi-criteria evaluation to improve the representation of CA transition rule. This multi-criteria evaluation is implemented by utilising data relating to the environmental and socioeconomic factors in the study area in order to produce suitability maps (SMs) using an analytical hierarchical process, which is a well-known method. Before being integrated to generate suitability maps for the periods from 1984 to 2010 based on the different decision makings, which have become conditioned for the next step of CA generation. The suitability maps are compared in order to find the best maps based on the values of the root equation (R2). This comparison can help the stakeholders make better decisions. Thus, the resultant suitability map derives a predefined transition rule for the last step for CA model. The approach used in this study highlights a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating land-use and land-cover changes in Kirkuk city, Iraq owing changes in the structures of governments, wars, and an economic blockade over the past decades. The present study asserts the high applicability and flexibility of Markov-CA model. The results have shown that the model and its interrelated concepts are performing rather well.

  18. Dynamics of a tracer granular particle as a nonequilibrium Markov process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Andrea; Visco, Paolo; Trizac, Emmanuel; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2006-02-01

    The dynamics of a tracer particle in a stationary driven granular gas is investigated. We show how to transform the linear Boltzmann equation, describing the dynamics of the tracer into a master equation for a continuous Markov process. The transition rates depend on the stationary velocity distribution of the gas. When the gas has a Gaussian velocity probability distribution function (PDF), the stationary velocity PDF of the tracer is Gaussian with a lower temperature and satisfies detailed balance for any value of the restitution coefficient α . As soon as the velocity PDF of the gas departs from the Gaussian form, detailed balance is violated. This nonequilibrium state can be characterized in terms of a Lebowitz-Spohn action functional W(τ) defined over trajectories of time duration τ . We discuss the properties of this functional and of a similar functional Wmacr (τ) , which differs from the first for a term that is nonextensive in time. On the one hand, we show that in numerical experiments (i.e., at finite times τ ), the two functionals have different fluctuations and Wmacr always satisfies an Evans-Searles-like symmetry. On the other hand, we cannot observe the verification of the Lebowitz-Spohn-Gallavotti-Cohen (LS-GC) relation, which is expected for W(τ) at very large times τ . We give an argument for the possible failure of the LS-GC relation in this situation. We also suggest practical recipes for measuring W(τ) and Wmacr (τ) in experiments.

  19. A Markov Decision Process Model for Cervical Cancer Screening Policies in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Akhavan-Tabatabaei, Raha; Sánchez, Diana Marcela; Yeung, Thomas G

    2017-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women around the world, and the human papillomavirus (HPV) is universally known as the necessary agent for developing this disease. Through early detection of abnormal cells and HPV virus types, cervical cancer incidents can be reduced and disease progression prevented. We propose a finite-horizon Markov decision process model to determine the optimal screening policies for cervical cancer prevention. The optimal decision is given in terms of when and what type of screening test to be performed on a patient based on her current diagnosis, age, HPV contraction risk, and screening test results. The cost function considers the tradeoff between the cost of prevention and treatment procedures and the risk of taking no action while taking into account a cost assigned to loss of life quality in each state. We apply the model to data collected from a representative sample of 1141 affiliates at a health care provider located in Bogotá, Colombia. To track the disease incidence more effectively and avoid higher cancer rates and future costs, the optimal policies recommend more frequent colposcopies and Pap tests for women with riskier profiles.

  20. A markov decision process model for the optimal dispatch of military medical evacuation assets.

    PubMed

    Keneally, Sean K; Robbins, Matthew J; Lunday, Brian J

    2016-06-01

    We develop a Markov decision process (MDP) model to examine aerial military medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) dispatch policies in a combat environment. The problem of deciding which aeromedical asset to dispatch to each service request is complicated by the threat conditions at the service locations and the priority class of each casualty event. We assume requests for MEDEVAC support arrive sequentially, with the location and the priority of each casualty known upon initiation of the request. The United States military uses a 9-line MEDEVAC request system to classify casualties as being one of three priority levels: urgent, priority, and routine. Multiple casualties can be present at a single casualty event, with the highest priority casualty determining the priority level for the casualty event. Moreover, an armed escort may be required depending on the threat level indicated by the 9-line MEDEVAC request. The proposed MDP model indicates how to optimally dispatch MEDEVAC helicopters to casualty events in order to maximize steady-state system utility. The utility gained from servicing a specific request depends on the number of casualties, the priority class for each of the casualties, and the locations of both the servicing ambulatory helicopter and casualty event. Instances of the dispatching problem are solved using a relative value iteration dynamic programming algorithm. Computational examples are used to investigate optimal dispatch policies under different threat situations and armed escort delays; the examples are based on combat scenarios in which United States Army MEDEVAC units support ground operations in Afghanistan.

  1. A test of multiple correlation temporal window characteristic of non-Markov processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arecchi, F. T.; Farini, A.; Megna, N.

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a sensitive test of memory effects in successive events. The test consists of a combination K of binary correlations at successive times. K decays monotonically from K = 1 for uncorrelated events as a Markov process. For a monotonic memory fading, K<1 always. Here we report evidence of a K>1 temporal window in cognitive tasks consisting of the visual identification of the front face of the Necker cube after a previous presentation of the same. We speculate that memory effects provide a temporal window with K>1 and this experiment could be a possible first step towards a better comprehension of this phenomenon. The K>1 behaviour is maximal at an inter-measurement time τ around 2s with inter-subject differences. The K>1 persists over a time window of 1s around τ; outside this window the K<1 behaviour is recovered. The universal occurrence of a K>1 window in pairs of successive perceptions suggests that, at variance with single visual stimuli eliciting a suitable response, a pair of stimuli shortly separated in time displays mutual correlations.

  2. Value-directed human behavior analysis from video using partially observable Markov decision processes.

    PubMed

    Hoey, Jesse; Little, James J

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a method for learning decision theoretic models of human behaviors from video data. Our system learns relationships between the movements of a person, the context in which they are acting, and a utility function. This learning makes explicit that the meaning of a behavior to an observer is contained in its relationship to actions and outcomes. An agent wishing to capitalize on these relationships must learn to distinguish the behaviors according to how they help the agent to maximize utility. The model we use is a partially observable Markov decision process, or POMDP. The video observations are integrated into the POMDP using a dynamic Bayesian network that creates spatial and temporal abstractions amenable to decision making at the high level. The parameters of the model are learned from training data using an a posteriori constrained optimization technique based on the expectation-maximization algorithm. The system automatically discovers classes of behaviors and determines which are important for choosing actions that optimize over the utility of possible outcomes. This type of learning obviates the need for labeled data from expert knowledge about which behaviors are significant and removes bias about what behaviors may be useful to recognize in a particular situation. We show results in three interactions: a single player imitation game, a gestural robotic control problem, and a card game played by two people.

  3. Strategic level proton therapy patient admission planning: a Markov decision process modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Gedik, Ridvan; Zhang, Shengfan; Rainwater, Chase

    2016-01-25

    A relatively new consideration in proton therapy planning is the requirement that the mix of patients treated from different categories satisfy desired mix percentages. Deviations from these percentages and their impacts on operational capabilities are of particular interest to healthcare planners. In this study, we investigate intelligent ways of admitting patients to a proton therapy facility that maximize the total expected number of treatment sessions (fractions) delivered to patients in a planning period with stochastic patient arrivals and penalize the deviation from the patient mix restrictions. We propose a Markov Decision Process (MDP) model that provides very useful insights in determining the best patient admission policies in the case of an unexpected opening in the facility (i.e., no-shows, appointment cancellations, etc.). In order to overcome the curse of dimensionality for larger and more realistic instances, we propose an aggregate MDP model that is able to approximate optimal patient admission policies using the worded weight aggregation technique. Our models are applicable to healthcare treatment facilities throughout the United States, but are motivated by collaboration with the University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute (UFPTI).

  4. Analyses of Markov decision process structure regarding the possible strategic use of interacting memory systems.

    PubMed

    Zilli, Eric A; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral tasks are often used to study the different memory systems present in humans and animals. Such tasks are usually designed to isolate and measure some aspect of a single memory system. However, it is not necessarily clear that any given task actually does isolate a system or that the strategy used by a subject in the experiment is the one desired by the experimenter. We have previously shown that when tasks are written mathematically as a form of partially observable Markov decision processes, the structure of the tasks provide information regarding the possible utility of certain memory systems. These previous analyses dealt with the disambiguation problem: given a specific ambiguous observation of the environment, is there information provided by a given memory strategy that can disambiguate that observation to allow a correct decision? Here we extend this approach to cases where multiple memory systems can be strategically combined in different ways. Specifically, we analyze the disambiguation arising from three ways by which episodic-like memory retrieval might be cued (by another episodic-like memory, by a semantic association, or by working memory for some earlier observation). We also consider the disambiguation arising from holding earlier working memories, episodic-like memories or semantic associations in working memory. From these analyses we can begin to develop a quantitative hierarchy among memory systems in which stimulus-response memories and semantic associations provide no disambiguation while the episodic memory system provides the most flexible disambiguation, with working memory at an intermediate level.

  5. Safety-cost trade-offs in medical device reuse: a Markov decision process model.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Thomas W

    2007-02-01

    Healthcare expenditures in the US are approaching 2 trillion dollars, and hospitals and other healthcare providers are under tremendous pressure to rein in costs. One cost-saving approach which is gaining popularity is the reuse of medical devices which were designed only for a single use. Device makers decry this practice as unsanitary and unsafe, but a growing number of third-party firms are willing to sterilize, refurbish, and/or remanufacture devices and resell them to hospitals at a fraction of the original price. Is this practice safe? Is reliance on single-use devices sustainable? A Markov decision process (MDP) model is formulated to study the trade-offs involved in these decisions. Several key parameters are examined: device costs, device failure probabilities, and failure penalty cost. For each of these parameters, expressions are developed which identify the indifference point between using new and reprocessed devices. The results can be used to inform the debate on the economic, ethical, legal, and environmental dimensions of this complex issue.

  6. A Markov decision process approach to temporal modulation of dose fractions in radiation therapy planning.

    PubMed

    Kim, M; Ghate, A; Phillips, M H

    2009-07-21

    The current state of the art in cancer treatment by radiation optimizes beam intensity spatially such that tumors receive high dose radiation whereas damage to nearby healthy tissues is minimized. It is common practice to deliver the radiation over several weeks, where the daily dose is a small constant fraction of the total planned. Such a 'fractionation schedule' is based on traditional models of radiobiological response where normal tissue cells possess the ability to repair sublethal damage done by radiation. This capability is significantly less prominent in tumors. Recent advances in quantitative functional imaging and biological markers are providing new opportunities to measure patient response to radiation over the treatment course. This opens the door for designing fractionation schedules that take into account the patient's cumulative response to radiation up to a particular treatment day in determining the fraction on that day. We propose a novel approach that, for the first time, mathematically explores the benefits of such fractionation schemes. This is achieved by building a stylistic Markov decision process (MDP) model, which incorporates some key features of the problem through intuitive choices of state and action spaces, as well as transition probability and reward functions. The structure of optimal policies for this MDP model is explored through several simple numerical examples.

  7. Optimizing prescription of chinese herbal medicine for unstable angina based on partially observable markov decision process.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Qiu, Yu; Zhou, Xuezhong; Wang, Yixin; Xu, Hao; Liu, Baoyan

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Initial optimized prescription of Chinese herb medicine for unstable angina (UA). Methods. Based on partially observable Markov decision process model (POMDP), we choose hospitalized patients of 3 syndrome elements, such as qi deficiency, blood stasis, and turbid phlegm for the data mining, analysis, and objective evaluation of the diagnosis and treatment of UA at a deep level in order to optimize the prescription of Chinese herb medicine for UA. Results. The recommended treatment options of UA for qi deficiency, blood stasis, and phlegm syndrome patients were as follows: Milkvetch Root + Tangshen + Indian Bread + Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome (ADR = 0.96630); Danshen Root + Chinese Angelica + Safflower + Red Peony Root + Szechwan Lovage Rhizome Orange Fruit (ADR = 0.76); Snakegourd Fruit + Longstamen Onion Bulb + Pinellia Tuber + Dried Tangerine peel + Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome + Platycodon Root (ADR = 0.658568). Conclusion. This study initially optimized prescriptions for UA based on POMDP, which can be used as a reference for further development of UA prescription in Chinese herb medicine.

  8. Real-time network security situation visualization and threat assessment based on semi-Markov process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junhua

    2013-03-01

    To cope with a large amount of data in current sensed environments, decision aid tools should provide their understanding of situations in a time-efficient manner, so there is an increasing need for real-time network security situation awareness and threat assessment. In this study, the state transition model of vulnerability in the network based on semi-Markov process is proposed at first. Once events are triggered by an attacker's action or system response, the current states of the vulnerabilities are known. Then we calculate the transition probabilities of the vulnerability from the current state to security failure state. Furthermore in order to improve accuracy of our algorithms, we adjust the probabilities that they exploit the vulnerability according to the attacker's skill level. In the light of the preconditions and post-conditions of vulnerabilities in the network, attack graph is built to visualize security situation in real time. Subsequently, we predict attack path, recognize attack intention and estimate the impact through analysis of attack graph. These help administrators to insight into intrusion steps, determine security state and assess threat. Finally testing in a network shows that this method is reasonable and feasible, and can undertake tremendous analysis task to facilitate administrators' work.

  9. An open Markov chain scheme model for a credit consumption portfolio fed by ARIMA and SARMA processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquível, Manuel L.; Fernandes, José Moniz; Guerreiro, Gracinda R.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a schematic formalism for the time evolution of a random population entering some set of classes and such that each member of the population evolves among these classes according to a scheme based on a Markov chain model. We consider that the flow of incoming members is modeled by a time series and we detail the time series structure of the elements in each of the classes. We present a practical application to data from a credit portfolio of a Cape Verdian bank; after modeling the entering population in two different ways - namely as an ARIMA process and as a deterministic sigmoid type trend plus a SARMA process for the residues - we simulate the behavior of the population and compare the results. We get that the second method is more accurate in describing the behavior of the populations when compared to the observed values in a direct simulation of the Markov chain.

  10. Alternative decision modelling techniques for the evaluation of health care technologies: Markov processes versus discrete event simulation.

    PubMed

    Karnon, Jonathan

    2003-10-01

    Markov models have traditionally been used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of competing health care technologies that require the description of patient pathways over extended time horizons. Discrete event simulation (DES) is a more flexible, but more complicated decision modelling technique, that can also be used to model extended time horizons. Through the application of a Markov process and a DES model to an economic evaluation comparing alternative adjuvant therapies for early breast cancer, this paper compares the respective processes and outputs of these alternative modelling techniques. DES displays increased flexibility in two broad areas, though the outputs from the two modelling techniques were similar. These results indicate that the use of DES may be beneficial only when the available data demonstrates particular characteristics.

  11. An investigation of dopping profile for a one dimensional heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhaohui

    2005-03-01

    A one-dimensional junction is formed by joining two silicon nanowires whose surfaces are terminated with capping groups of different electronegativity and polarizability. If this heterostructure is doped (with e.g. phosphorous) on the side with the higher bandgap, the system becomes a modulation doped heterostructure with novel one-dimensional electrostatics. We use density functional theory calculations in the pseudopotential approximation, plus empirical model calculations, to investigate doping profiles in this new class of nanostructures.

  12. Projected metastable Markov processes and their estimation with observable operator models

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hao Prinz, Jan-Hendrik Noé, Frank

    2015-10-14

    The determination of kinetics of high-dimensional dynamical systems, such as macromolecules, polymers, or spin systems, is a difficult and generally unsolved problem — both in simulation, where the optimal reaction coordinate(s) are generally unknown and are difficult to compute, and in experimental measurements, where only specific coordinates are observable. Markov models, or Markov state models, are widely used but suffer from the fact that the dynamics on a coarsely discretized state spaced are no longer Markovian, even if the dynamics in the full phase space are. The recently proposed projected Markov models (PMMs) are a formulation that provides a description of the kinetics on a low-dimensional projection without making the Markovianity assumption. However, as yet no general way of estimating PMMs from data has been available. Here, we show that the observed dynamics of a PMM can be exactly described by an observable operator model (OOM) and derive a PMM estimator based on the OOM learning.

  13. Characterization of Thermal Transport in One-dimensional Solid Materials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guoqing; Lin, Huan; Tang, Xiaoduan; Bergler, Kevin; Wang, Xinwei

    2014-01-01

    The TET (transient electro-thermal) technique is an effective approach developed to measure the thermal diffusivity of solid materials, including conductive, semi-conductive or nonconductive one-dimensional structures. This technique broadens the measurement scope of materials (conductive and nonconductive) and improves the accuracy and stability. If the sample (especially biomaterials, such as human head hair, spider silk, and silkworm silk) is not conductive, it will be coated with a gold layer to make it electronically conductive. The effect of parasitic conduction and radiative losses on the thermal diffusivity can be subtracted during data processing. Then the real thermal conductivity can be calculated with the given value of volume-based specific heat (ρcp), which can be obtained from calibration, noncontact photo-thermal technique or measuring the density and specific heat separately. In this work, human head hair samples are used to show how to set up the experiment, process the experimental data, and subtract the effect of parasitic conduction and radiative losses. PMID:24514072

  14. Nucleation and growth of nanoscaled one-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hongtao

    Nanoscaled one-dimensional materials have attracted great interest due to their novel physical and chemical properties. The purpose of this dissertation is to study the nucleation and growth mechanisms of carbon nanotubes and silicon nitride nanowires with their field emission applications in mind. As a result of this research, a novel methodology has been developed to deposit aligned bamboo-like carbon nanotubes on substrates using a methane and ammonia mixture in microwave plasma enhanced chemical deposition. Study of growth kinetics suggests that the carbon diffusion through bulk catalyst particles controls growth in the initial deposition process. Microstructures of carbon nanotubes are affected by the growth temperature and carbon concentration in the gas phase. High-resolution transmission electron microscope confirms the existence of the bamboo-like structure. Electron diffraction reveals that the iron-based catalyst nucleates and sustains the growth of carbon nanotubes. A nucleation and growth model has been constructed based upon experimental data and observations. In the study of silicon nitride nanoneedles, a vapor-liquid-solid model is employed to explain the nucleation and growth processes. Ammonia plasma etching is proposed to reduce the size of the catalyst and subsequently produce the novel needle-like nanostructure. High-resolution transmission electron microscope shows the structure is well crystallized and composed of alpha-silicon nitride. Other observations in the structure are also explained.

  15. Automated quantification of one-dimensional nanostructure alignment on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jianjin; Goldthorpe, Irene A.; Mohieddin Abukhdeir, Nasser

    2016-06-01

    A method for automated quantification of the alignment of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures from microscopy imaging is presented. Nanostructure alignment metrics are formulated and shown to be able to rigorously quantify the orientational order of nanostructures within a two-dimensional domain (surface). A complementary image processing method is also presented which enables robust processing of microscopy images where overlapping nanostructures might be present. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of nanowire-covered surfaces are analyzed using the presented methods and it is shown that past single parameter alignment metrics are insufficient for highly aligned domains. Through the use of multiple parameter alignment metrics, automated quantitative analysis of SEM images is shown to be possible and the alignment characteristics of different samples are able to be quantitatively compared using a similarity metric. The results of this work provide researchers in nanoscience and nanotechnology with a rigorous method for the determination of structure/property relationships, where alignment of 1D nanostructures is significant.

  16. Collaborative distributed sensor management and information exchange flow control for multitarget tracking using Markov decision processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akselrod, Dimitry; Kirubarajan, T.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of collaborative management of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) for multitarget tracking. In addition to providing a solution to the problem of controlling individual UAVs, we present a method for controlling the information flow among them. The latter provides a solution to one of the main problems in decentralized tracking, namely, distributed information transfer and fusion among the participating platforms. The problem of decentralized cooperative control considered in this paper is an optimization of the information obtained by a number of UAVs, carrying out surveillance over a region, which includes a number of confirmed and suspected moving targets with the goal to track confirmed targets and detects new targets in the area. Each UAV has to decide on the most optimal path with the objective to track as many targets as possible, maximizing the information obtained during its operation with the maximum possible accuracy at the lowest possible cost. Limited communication between UAVs and uncertainty in the information obtained by each UAV regarding the location of the ground targets are addressed in the problem formulation. In order to handle these issues, the problem is presented as an operation of a group of decision makers. Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) are incorporated into the solution. A decision mechanism for collaborative distributed data fusion provides each UAV with the required data for the fusion process while substantially reducing redundancy in the information flow in the overall system. We consider a distributed data fusion system consisting of UAVs that are decentralized, heterogenous, and potentially unreliable. Simulation results are presented on a representative multisensor-multitarget tracking problem.

  17. A robust hidden semi-Markov model with application to aCGH data processing.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiarui; Shah, Sohrab

    2013-01-01

    Hidden semi-Markov models are effective at modelling sequences with succession of homogenous zones by choosing appropriate state duration distributions. To compensate for model mis-specification and provide protection against outliers, we design a robust hidden semi-Markov model with Student's t mixture models as the emission distributions. The proposed approach is used to model array based comparative genomic hybridization data. Experiments conducted on the benchmark data from the Coriell cell lines, and glioblastoma multiforme data illustrate the reliability of the technique.

  18. An adaptive grid algorithm for one-dimensional nonlinear equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, William E.; Hills, Richard G.

    1990-01-01

    Richards' equation, which models the flow of liquid through unsaturated porous media, is highly nonlinear and difficult to solve. Step gradients in the field variables require the use of fine grids and small time step sizes. The numerical instabilities caused by the nonlinearities often require the use of iterative methods such as Picard or Newton interation. These difficulties result in large CPU requirements in solving Richards equation. With this in mind, adaptive and multigrid methods are investigated for use with nonlinear equations such as Richards' equation. Attention is focused on one-dimensional transient problems. To investigate the use of multigrid and adaptive grid methods, a series of problems are studied. First, a multigrid program is developed and used to solve an ordinary differential equation, demonstrating the efficiency with which low and high frequency errors are smoothed out. The multigrid algorithm and an adaptive grid algorithm is used to solve one-dimensional transient partial differential equations, such as the diffusive and convective-diffusion equations. The performance of these programs are compared to that of the Gauss-Seidel and tridiagonal methods. The adaptive and multigrid schemes outperformed the Gauss-Seidel algorithm, but were not as fast as the tridiagonal method. The adaptive grid scheme solved the problems slightly faster than the multigrid method. To solve nonlinear problems, Picard iterations are introduced into the adaptive grid and tridiagonal methods. Burgers' equation is used as a test problem for the two algorithms. Both methods obtain solutions of comparable accuracy for similar time increments. For the Burgers' equation, the adaptive grid method finds the solution approximately three times faster than the tridiagonal method. Finally, both schemes are used to solve the water content formulation of the Richards' equation. For this problem, the adaptive grid method obtains a more accurate solution in fewer work units and

  19. Collaborative distributed sensor management for multitarget tracking using hierarchical Markov decision processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akselrod, D.; Sinha, A.; Kirubarajan, T.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of collaborative sensor management with particular application to using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for multitarget tracking. The problem of decentralized cooperative control considered in this paper is an optimization of the information obtained by a number of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radars, carrying out surveillance over a region which includes a number of confirmed and suspected moving targets. The goal is to track confirmed targets and detect new targets in the area. Each UAV has to decide on the most optimal path with the objective to track as many targets as possible maximizing the information obtained during its operation with the maximum possible accuracy at the lowest possible cost. Limited communication between UAVs and uncertainty in the information obtained by each UAV regarding the location of the ground targets are addressed in the problem formulation. In order to handle these issues, the problem is presented as a decentralized operation of a group of decision-makers lacking full observability of the global state of the system. Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) are incorporated into the solution. Given the MDP model, a local policy of actions for a single agent (UAV) is given by a mapping from a current partial view of a global state observed by an agent to actions. The available probability model regarding possible and confirmed locations of the targets is considered in the computations of the UAVs' policies. The authors present multi-level hierarchy of MDPs controlling each of the UAVs. Each level in the hierarchy solves a problem at a different level of abstraction. Simulation results are presented on a representative multisensor-multitarget tracking problem.

  20. Decision Making Under Uncertainty: A Neural Model Based on Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Rajesh P. N.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental problem faced by animals is learning to select actions based on noisy sensory information and incomplete knowledge of the world. It has been suggested that the brain engages in Bayesian inference during perception but how such probabilistic representations are used to select actions has remained unclear. Here we propose a neural model of action selection and decision making based on the theory of partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs). Actions are selected based not on a single “optimal” estimate of state but on the posterior distribution over states (the “belief” state). We show how such a model provides a unified framework for explaining experimental results in decision making that involve both information gathering and overt actions. The model utilizes temporal difference (TD) learning for maximizing expected reward. The resulting neural architecture posits an active role for the neocortex in belief computation while ascribing a role to the basal ganglia in belief representation, value computation, and action selection. When applied to the random dots motion discrimination task, model neurons representing belief exhibit responses similar to those of LIP neurons in primate neocortex. The appropriate threshold for switching from information gathering to overt actions emerges naturally during reward maximization. Additionally, the time course of reward prediction error in the model shares similarities with dopaminergic responses in the basal ganglia during the random dots task. For tasks with a deadline, the model learns a decision making strategy that changes with elapsed time, predicting a collapsing decision threshold consistent with some experimental studies. The model provides a new framework for understanding neural decision making and suggests an important role for interactions between the neocortex and the basal ganglia in learning the mapping between probabilistic sensory representations and actions that maximize

  1. Learning to maximize reward rate: a model based on semi-Markov decision processes

    PubMed Central

    Khodadadi, Arash; Fakhari, Pegah; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    2014-01-01

    When animals have to make a number of decisions during a limited time interval, they face a fundamental problem: how much time they should spend on each decision in order to achieve the maximum possible total outcome. Deliberating more on one decision usually leads to more outcome but less time will remain for other decisions. In the framework of sequential sampling models, the question is how animals learn to set their decision threshold such that the total expected outcome achieved during a limited time is maximized. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework for answering this question. To this end, we consider an experimental design in which each trial can come from one of the several possible “conditions.” A condition specifies the difficulty of the trial, the reward, the penalty and so on. We show that to maximize the expected reward during a limited time, the subject should set a separate value of decision threshold for each condition. We propose a model of learning the optimal value of decision thresholds based on the theory of semi-Markov decision processes (SMDP). In our model, the experimental environment is modeled as an SMDP with each “condition” being a “state” and the value of decision thresholds being the “actions” taken in those states. The problem of finding the optimal decision thresholds then is cast as the stochastic optimal control problem of taking actions in each state in the corresponding SMDP such that the average reward rate is maximized. Our model utilizes a biologically plausible learning algorithm to solve this problem. The simulation results show that at the beginning of learning the model choses high values of decision threshold which lead to sub-optimal performance. With experience, however, the model learns to lower the value of decision thresholds till finally it finds the optimal values. PMID:24904252

  2. Comparative effectiveness research on patients with acute ischemic stroke using Markov decision processes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several methodological issues with non-randomized comparative clinical studies have been raised, one of which is whether the methods used can adequately identify uncertainties that evolve dynamically with time in real-world systems. The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of different combinations of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) treatments and combinations of TCM and Western medicine interventions in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) by using Markov decision process (MDP) theory. MDP theory appears to be a promising new method for use in comparative effectiveness research. Methods The electronic health records (EHR) of patients with AIS hospitalized at the 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine between May 2005 and July 2008 were collected. Each record was portioned into two "state-action-reward" stages divided by three time points: the first, third, and last day of hospital stay. We used the well-developed optimality technique in MDP theory with the finite horizon criterion to make the dynamic comparison of different treatment combinations. Results A total of 1504 records with a primary diagnosis of AIS were identified. Only states with more than 10 (including 10) patients' information were included, which gave 960 records to be enrolled in the MDP model. Optimal combinations were obtained for 30 types of patient condition. Conclusion MDP theory makes it possible to dynamically compare the effectiveness of different combinations of treatments. However, the optimal interventions obtained by the MDP theory here require further validation in clinical practice. Further exploratory studies with MDP theory in other areas in which complex interventions are common would be worthwhile. PMID:22400712

  3. Learning to maximize reward rate: a model based on semi-Markov decision processes.

    PubMed

    Khodadadi, Arash; Fakhari, Pegah; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2014-01-01

    WHEN ANIMALS HAVE TO MAKE A NUMBER OF DECISIONS DURING A LIMITED TIME INTERVAL, THEY FACE A FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEM: how much time they should spend on each decision in order to achieve the maximum possible total outcome. Deliberating more on one decision usually leads to more outcome but less time will remain for other decisions. In the framework of sequential sampling models, the question is how animals learn to set their decision threshold such that the total expected outcome achieved during a limited time is maximized. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework for answering this question. To this end, we consider an experimental design in which each trial can come from one of the several possible "conditions." A condition specifies the difficulty of the trial, the reward, the penalty and so on. We show that to maximize the expected reward during a limited time, the subject should set a separate value of decision threshold for each condition. We propose a model of learning the optimal value of decision thresholds based on the theory of semi-Markov decision processes (SMDP). In our model, the experimental environment is modeled as an SMDP with each "condition" being a "state" and the value of decision thresholds being the "actions" taken in those states. The problem of finding the optimal decision thresholds then is cast as the stochastic optimal control problem of taking actions in each state in the corresponding SMDP such that the average reward rate is maximized. Our model utilizes a biologically plausible learning algorithm to solve this problem. The simulation results show that at the beginning of learning the model choses high values of decision threshold which lead to sub-optimal performance. With experience, however, the model learns to lower the value of decision thresholds till finally it finds the optimal values.

  4. Using the NASA GRC Sectored-One-Dimensional Combustor Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Mehta, Vishal R.

    2014-01-01

    The document is a user manual for the NASA GRC Sectored-One-Dimensional (S-1-D) Combustor Simulation. It consists of three sections. The first is a very brief outline of the mathematical and numerical background of the code along with a description of the non-dimensional variables on which it operates. The second section describes how to run the code and includes an explanation of the input file. The input file contains the parameters necessary to establish an operating point as well as the associated boundary conditions (i.e. how it is fed and terminated) of a geometrically configured combustor. It also describes the code output. The third section describes the configuration process and utilizes a specific example combustor to do so. Configuration consists of geometrically describing the combustor (section lengths, axial locations, and cross sectional areas) and locating the fuel injection point and flame region. Configuration requires modifying the source code and recompiling. As such, an executable utility is included with the code which will guide the requisite modifications and insure that they are done correctly.

  5. One-dimensional flows of an imperfect diatomic gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    With the assumptions that Berthelot's equation of state accounts for molecular size and intermolecular force effects, and that changes in the vibrational heat capacities are given by a Planck term, expressions are developed for analyzing one-dimensional flows of a diatomic gas. The special cases of flow through normal and oblique shocks in free air at sea level are investigated. It is found that up to a Mach number 10 pressure ratio across a normal shock differs by less than 6 percent from its ideal gas value; whereas at Mach numbers above 4 the temperature rise is considerable below and hence the density rise is well above that predicted assuming ideal gas behavior. It is further shown that only the caloric imperfection in air has an appreciable effect on the pressures developed in the shock process considered. The effects of gaseous imperfections on oblique shock-flows are studied from the standpoint of their influence on the life and pressure drag of a flat plate operating at Mach numbers of 10 and 20. The influence is found to be small. (author)

  6. A Smart Colorful Supercapacitor with One Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cihui; Liu, Xing; Xuan, Hongyun; Ren, Jiaoyu; Ge, Liqin

    2015-01-01

    To meet the pressing demands for portable and flexible equipment in contemporary society, developing flexible, lightweight, and sustainable supercapacitor systems with large power densities, long cycle life, and ease of strongly required. However, estimating the state-of-charge of existing supercapacitors is difficult, and thus their service life is limited. In this study, we fabricate a flexible color indicative supercapacitor device with mesoporous polyaniline (mPANI)/Poly(N-Isopropyl acrylamide-Graphene Oxide-Acrylic Acid) (P(NiPPAm-GO-AA)) one dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs) as the electrode material through a low-cost, eco-friendly, and scalable fabrication process. We found that the state-of-charge could be monitored by the structural color oscillation due to the change in the photonic band gap position of the 1DPCs. The flexible 1DPCs supercapacitor is thin at 3 mm and exhibits good specific capacitance of 22.6 F g−1 with retention of 91.1% after 3,000 cycles. This study shows the application of the 1DPCs supercapacitor as a visual ultrathin power source. The technology may find many applications in future wearable electronics. PMID:26689375

  7. One-dimensional quantum walk with a moving boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Kwek, Leong Chuan; Setiawan

    2011-09-15

    Quantum walks are interesting models with potential applications to quantum algorithms and physical processes such as photosynthesis. In this paper, we study two models of one-dimensional quantum walks, namely, quantum walks with a moving absorbing wall and quantum walks with one stationary and one moving absorbing wall. For the former, we calculate numerically the survival probability, the rate of change of average position, and the rate of change of standard deviation of the particle's position in the long time limit for different wall velocities. Moreover, we also study the asymptotic behavior and the dependence of the survival probability on the initial particle's state. While for the latter, we compute the absorption probability of the right stationary wall for different velocities and initial positions of the left wall boundary. The results for these two models are compared with those obtained for the classical model. The difference between the results obtained for the quantum and classical models can be attributed to the difference in the probability distributions.

  8. A Smart Colorful Supercapacitor with One Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cihui; Liu, Xing; Xuan, Hongyun; Ren, Jiaoyu; Ge, Liqin

    2015-12-01

    To meet the pressing demands for portable and flexible equipment in contemporary society, developing flexible, lightweight, and sustainable supercapacitor systems with large power densities, long cycle life, and ease of strongly required. However, estimating the state-of-charge of existing supercapacitors is difficult, and thus their service life is limited. In this study, we fabricate a flexible color indicative supercapacitor device with mesoporous polyaniline (mPANI)/Poly(N-Isopropyl acrylamide-Graphene Oxide-Acrylic Acid) (P(NiPPAm-GO-AA)) one dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs) as the electrode material through a low-cost, eco-friendly, and scalable fabrication process. We found that the state-of-charge could be monitored by the structural color oscillation due to the change in the photonic band gap position of the 1DPCs. The flexible 1DPCs supercapacitor is thin at 3 mm and exhibits good specific capacitance of 22.6 F g-1 with retention of 91.1% after 3,000 cycles. This study shows the application of the 1DPCs supercapacitor as a visual ultrathin power source. The technology may find many applications in future wearable electronics.

  9. Carbyne with finite length: The one-dimensional sp carbon

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Bitao; Xiao, Jun; Li, Jiling; Liu, Pu; Wang, Chengxin; Yang, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    Carbyne is the one-dimensional allotrope of carbon composed of sp-hybridized carbon atoms. Definitive evidence for carbyne has remained elusive despite its synthesis and preparation in the laboratory. Given the remarkable technological breakthroughs offered by other allotropes of carbon, including diamond, graphite, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, interest in carbyne and its unusual potential properties remains intense. We report the first synthesis of carbyne with finite length, which is clearly composed of alternating single bonds and triple bonds, using a novel process involving laser ablation in liquid. Spectroscopic analyses confirm that the product is the structure of sp hybridization with alternating carbon-carbon single bonds and triple bonds and capped by hydrogen. We observe purple-blue fluorescence emissions from the gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of carbyne. Condensed-phase carbyne crystals have a hexagonal lattice and resemble the white crystalline powder produced by drying a carbyne solution. We also establish that the combination of gold and alcohol is crucial to carbyne formation because carbon-hydrogen bonds can be cleaved with the help of gold catalysts under the favorable thermodynamic environment provided by laser ablation in liquid and because the unique configuration of two carbon atoms in an alcohol molecule matches the elementary entity of carbyne. This laboratory synthesis of carbyne will enable the exploration of its properties and applications. PMID:26601318

  10. Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes Over an Infinite Planning Horizon with Discounting. Technical Report No. 77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollmer, Richard D.

    The true state of the system described here is characterized by a probability vector. At each stage of the system an action must be chosen from a finite set of actions. Each possible action yields an expected reward, transforms the system to a new state in accordance with a Markov transition matrix, and yields an observable outcome. The problem of…

  11. ONE-DIMENSIONAL ACCELERATOR IN PULSAR OUTER MAGNETOSPHERE REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, G. F.; Zhang, L.

    2009-07-10

    We re-examine the one-dimensional (1D) vacuum and nonvacuum accelerators in the outer magnetosphere of rotation-powered pulsars by considering the limit of trans-field height through pair-production process. In the original 1D nonvacuum outer gap model, both the Poisson equation for electrical potential and the Boltzmann equations of particles and gamma-rays are solved self-consistently by assuming the trans-field height as a free parameter, usually resulting in a narrow outer gap (i.e., gap length along magnetic field lines is short). In the modified 1D nonvacuum outer gap model, two improvements have been made: the trans-field height is limited by photon-photon pair production process and the outer boundary of the outer gap can be extended outside the light cylinder. Under the above assumptions, we self-consistently solve the Poisson equation for electrical potential, and the Boltzmann equations of electrons/positrons and gamma-rays in both vacuum and nonvacuum outer gaps for the parameters of both Vela and Geminga pulsars. We obtain an approximate geometry of the outer gap, i.e., the trans-field height is limited by the pair-production process and increases with the radial distance to the star, and the width of the outer gap starts at the inner boundary (near the null charge surface in the vacuum case) and ends at the outer boundary which is located inside or outside the light cylinder depending on the inclination angle. Our calculated results also indicate that gamma-ray spectrum from a wide outer gap is flatter than the one from a narrow outer gap and the relation between the electric field and trans-field height has an important effect on the structure of the outer gap.

  12. One-dimensional rainbow technique using Fourier domain filtering.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingchun; Promvongsa, Jantarat; Wu, Xuecheng; Cen, Kefa; Grehan, Gerard; Saengkaew, Sawitree

    2015-11-16

    Rainbow refractometry can measure the refractive index and the size of a droplet simultaneously. The refractive index measurement is extracted from the absolute rainbow scattering angle. Accordingly, the angular calibration is vital for accurate measurements. A new optical design of the one-dimensional rainbow technique is proposed by using a one-dimensional spatial filter in the Fourier domain. The relationship between the scattering angle and the CCD pixel of a recorded rainbow image can be accurately determined by a simple calibration. Moreover, only the light perpendicularly incident on the lens in the angle (φ) direction is selected, which exactly matches the classical inversion algorithm used in rainbow refractometry. Both standard and global one-dimensional rainbow techniques are implemented with the proposed optical design, and are successfully applied to measure the refractive index and the size of a line of n-heptane droplets.

  13. One-dimensional dynamics in locally heated liquid layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguete, J.; Maza, D.; Mancini, H. L.

    2003-01-01

    Recent results on one-dimensional patterns in locally heated experiments are presented. A fluid layer is heated locally by a nearly one-dimensional heater, and subjected to both horizontal and vertical temperature gradients. Depending on the fluid depth and on the temperature difference established across the layer different convective regimes appear. When a very small temperature gradient is applied a basic convective state appears. It consists of two big rolls parallel to the heater and filling the convective cell. A primary instability in the homogeneous basic flow gives rise to a one-dimensional cellular stationary pattern. For higher values of the control parameters, time-dependent patterns appear through a secondary instability. Various regimes are analyzed: oscillations, traveling waves and alternating patterns. The hydrodynamic characteristics of these patterns are provided. Local temperature measurements allows to describe the physical mechanisms responsible for the instabilities. The similarities and discrepancies of the experimental data with some theoretical models are provided.

  14. Few-body route to one-dimensional quantum liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiente, Manuel; Öhberg, Patrik

    2016-11-01

    Gapless many-body quantum systems in one spatial dimension are universally described by the Luttinger liquid effective theory at low energies. Essentially, only two parameters enter the effective low-energy description, namely, the speed of sound and the Luttinger parameter. These are highly system dependent and their calculation requires accurate nonperturbative solutions of the many-body problem. Here we present a simple theoretical method that only uses collisional information to extract the low-energy properties of spinless one-dimensional systems. Our results are in remarkable agreement with available results for integrable models and from large-scale Monte Carlo simulations of one-dimensional helium and hydrogen isotopes. Moreover, we estimate theoretically the critical point for spinodal decomposition in one-dimensional 4He and show that the exponent governing the divergence of the Luttinger parameter near the critical point is exactly 1/2, in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. Some topological states in one-dimensional cold atomic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Feng; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Zhu, Shi-Liang

    2015-07-15

    Ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattices nowadays have been widely used to mimic various models from condensed-matter physics. Recently, many great experimental progresses have been achieved for producing artificial magnetic field and spin–orbit coupling in cold atomic systems, which turn these systems into a new platform for simulating topological states. In this paper, we give a review focusing on quantum simulation of topologically protected soliton modes and topological insulators in one-dimensional cold atomic system. Firstly, the recent achievements towards quantum simulation of one-dimensional models with topological non-trivial states are reviewed, including the celebrated Jackiw–Rebbi model and Su–Schrieffer–Heeger model. Then, we will introduce a dimensional reduction method for systematically constructing high dimensional topological states in lower dimensional models and review its applications on simulating two-dimensional topological insulators in one-dimensional optical superlattices.

  16. Quantum solution for the one-dimensional Coulomb problem

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez-Yepez, H. N.; Salas-Brito, A. L.; Solis, Didier A.

    2011-06-15

    The one-dimensional hydrogen atom has been a much studied system with a wide range of applications. Since the pioneering work of Loudon [R. Loudon, Am. J. Phys. 27, 649 (1959).], a number of different features related to the nature of the eigenfunctions have been found. However, many of the claims made throughout the years in this regard are not correct--such as the existence of only odd eigenstates or of an infinite binding-energy ground state. We explicitly show that the one-dimensional hydrogen atom does not admit a ground state of infinite binding energy and that the one-dimensional Coulomb potential is not its own supersymmetric partner. Furthermore, we argue that at the root of many such false claims lies the omission of a superselection rule that effectively separates the right side from the left side of the singularity of the Coulomb potential.

  17. Ballistic transport in one-dimensional random dimer photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherid, Samira; Bentata, Samir; Zitouni, Ali; Djelti, Radouan; Aziz, Zoubir

    2014-04-01

    Using the transfer-matrix technique and the Kronig Penney model, we numerically and analytically investigate the effect of short-range correlated disorder in Random Dimer Model (RDM) on transmission properties of the light in one dimensional photonic crystals made of three different materials. Such systems consist of two different structures randomly distributed along the growth direction, with the additional constraint that one kind of these layers always appear in pairs. It is shown that the one dimensional random dimer photonic crystals support two types of extended modes. By shifting of the dimer resonance toward the host fundamental stationary resonance state, we demonstrate the existence of the ballistic response in these systems.

  18. Random registry shifts in quasi-one-dimensional adsorbate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, J.; Erwin, S. C.; Hansmann, M.; Song, Z.; Rotenberg, E.; Kevan, S. D.; Hellberg, C. S.; Horn, K.

    2003-02-01

    The apparent contradiction of one-dimensional adsorbate chains on Si(111) having a 3×2 unit cell and yet a 3×1 diffraction pattern is resolved for the example of Ba/Si(111)-(3×2). Random registry shifts between adsorbate chains are observed in tunneling microscopy, with very short interchain correlation lengths. Fourier analysis provides a natural explanation for a pseudo-(3×1) diffraction pattern. Within density-functional theory such registry shifts can occur with essentially negligible energy cost, leading to entropy-driven, virtually perfect disorder. Substrate states of high symmetry and one-dimensional character are inferred to promote this phenomenon.

  19. Random registry shifts in quasi-one-dimensional adsorbate systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, J.; Erwin, S.C.; Hansmann, M.; Song, Z.; Rotenberg, E.; Kevan, S.D.; Hellberg, C.S.; Horn, K.

    2003-02-18

    The apparent contradiction of one-dimensional adsorbate chains on Si(111) having a 3x2 unit cell and yet a 3x1 diffraction pattern is resolved for the example of Ba/Si(111)-(3x2). Random registry shifts between adsorbate chains are observed in tunneling microscopy, with very short interchain correlation lengths. Fourier analysis provides a natural explanation for a pseudo-(3x1) diffraction pattern. Within density-functional theory such registry shifts can occur with essentially negligible energy cost, leading to entropy-driven, virtually perfect disorder. Substrate states of high symmetry and one-dimensional character are inferred to promote this phenomenon.

  20. Noise, delocalization, and quantum diffusion in one-dimensional tight-binding models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami, Ehsan; Lashkami, Zahra Mohammaddoust

    2017-02-01

    As an unusual type of anomalous diffusion behavior, namely (transient) superballistic transport, has been experimentally observed recently, but it is not yet well understood. In this paper, we investigate the white noise effect (in the Markov approximation) on quantum diffusion in one-dimensional tight-binding models with a periodic, disordered, and quasiperiodic region of size L attached to two perfect lattices at both ends in which the wave packet is initially located at the center of the sublattice. We find that in a completely localized system, inducing noise could delocalize the system to a desirable diffusion phase. This controllable system may be used to investigate the interplay of disorder and white noise, as well as to explore an exotic quantum phase.

  1. Summary of the LLNL one-dimensional transport-kinetics model of the troposphere and stratosphere: 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.

    1981-09-01

    Since the LLNL one-dimensional coupled transport and chemical kinetics model of the troposphere and stratosphere was originally developed in 1972 (Chang et al., 1974), there have been many changes to the model's representation of atmospheric physical and chemical processes. A brief description is given of the current LLNL one-dimensional coupled transport and chemical kinetics model of the troposphere and stratosphere.

  2. Modeling of HIV/AIDS dynamic evolution using non-homogeneous semi-markov process.

    PubMed

    Dessie, Zelalem Getahun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to model the progression of HIV/AIDS disease of an individual patient under ART follow-up using non-homogeneous semi-Markov processes. The model focuses on the patient's age as a relevant factor to forecast the transitions among the different levels of seriousness of the disease. A sample of 1456 patients was taken from a hospital record at Amhara Referral Hospitals, Amhara Region, Ethiopia, who were under ART follow up from June 2006 to August 2013. The states of disease progression adopted in the model were defined based on of the following CD4 cell counts: >500 cells/mm(3) (SI); 349 to 500 cells/mm(3) (SII); 199 to 350 cells/mm(3)(SIII); ≤200 cells/mm(3) (SIV); and death (D). The first four states are referred as living states. The probability that an HIV/AIDS patient with any one of the living states will transition to the death state is greater with increasing age, irrespective of the current state and age of the patient. More generally, the probability of dying decreases with increasing CD4 counts over time. For an HIV/AIDS patient in a specific state of the disease, the probability of remaining in the same state decreases with increasing age. Within the living states, the results show that the probability of being in a better state is non-zero, but less than the probability of being in a worse state for all ages. A reliability analysis also revealed that the survival probabilities are all declining over time. Computed conditional probabilities show differential subject response that depends on the age of the patient. The dynamic nature of AIDS progression is confirmed with particular findings that patients are more likely to be in a worse state than a better one unless interventions are made. Our findings suggest that ongoing ART treatment services could be provided more effectively with careful consideration of the recent disease status of patients.

  3. Filtration-guided assembly for patterning one-dimensional nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaozhong; Wang, Chuan; Yeom, Junghoon

    2017-04-07

    Tremendous progress has been made in synthesizing various types of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures (NSs), such as nanotubes and nanowires, but some technical challenges still remain in the deterministic assembly of the solution-processed 1D NSs for device integration. In this work we investigate a scalable yet inexpensive nanomaterial assembly method, namely filtration-guided assembly (FGA), to place nanomaterials into desired locations as either an individual entity or ensembles, and form functional devices. FGA not only addresses the assembly challenges but also encompasses the notion of green nanomanufacturing, maximally utilizing nanomaterials and eliminating a waste stream of nanomaterials into the environment. FGA utilizes selective filtration of 1D NSs through the open windows on the nanoporous filter membrane whose surface is patterned by a polymer mask for guiding the 1D NS deposition. The modified soft-lithographic technique called blanket transfer (BT) is employed to create the various photoresist patterns of sub-10-micron resolution on the nanoporous filter membrane like mixed cellulose acetate. We use single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a model 1D NS and demonstrate the fabrication of an array pattern of homogeneous 1D NS network films over an area of 20 cm(2) within 10 min. The FGA-patterned SWCNT network films are transferred onto the substrate using the adhesive-based transfer technique, and show the highly uniform film thickness and resistance measurements across the entire substrate. Finally, the electrical performance of the back-gated transistors made from the FGA and transfer method of 95% pure SWCNTs is demonstrated.

  4. One dimensional time-to-explode (ODTX) in HMX spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Breshears, D.

    1997-06-02

    In a series of papers researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have reported measurements of the time to explosion in spheres of various high explosives following a rapid, uniform increase in the surface temperature of the sphere. Due to the spherical symmetry, the time-dependent properties of the explosive (temperature, chemical composition, etc.) are functions of the radial spatial coordinate only; thus the name one-dimensional time-to-explosion (ODTX). The LLNL researchers also report an evolving series of computational modeling results for the ODTX experiments, culminating in those obtained using a sophisticated heat transfer code incorporating accurate descriptions of chemical reaction. Although the chemical reaction mechanism used to describe HMX decomposition is quite simple, the computational results agree very well with the experimental data. In addition to reproducing the magnitude and temperature dependence of the measured times to explosion, the computational results also agree with the results of post reaction visual inspection. The ODTX experiments offer a near-ideal example of a transport process (heat transfer in this case) tightly coupled with chemical reaction. The LLNL computational model clearly captures the important features of the ODTX experiments. An obvious question of interest is to what extent the model and/or its individual components (specifically the chemical reaction mechanism) are applicable to other experimental scenarios. Valid exploration of this question requires accurate understanding of (1) the experimental scenario addressed by the LLNL model and (2) details of the application of the model. The author reports here recent work addressing points (1) and (2).

  5. Filtration-guided assembly for patterning one-dimensional nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaozhong; Wang, Chuan; Yeom, Junghoon

    2017-04-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in synthesizing various types of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures (NSs), such as nanotubes and nanowires, but some technical challenges still remain in the deterministic assembly of the solution-processed 1D NSs for device integration. In this work we investigate a scalable yet inexpensive nanomaterial assembly method, namely filtration-guided assembly (FGA), to place nanomaterials into desired locations as either an individual entity or ensembles, and form functional devices. FGA not only addresses the assembly challenges but also encompasses the notion of green nanomanufacturing, maximally utilizing nanomaterials and eliminating a waste stream of nanomaterials into the environment. FGA utilizes selective filtration of 1D NSs through the open windows on the nanoporous filter membrane whose surface is patterned by a polymer mask for guiding the 1D NS deposition. The modified soft-lithographic technique called blanket transfer (BT) is employed to create the various photoresist patterns of sub-10-micron resolution on the nanoporous filter membrane like mixed cellulose acetate. We use single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a model 1D NS and demonstrate the fabrication of an array pattern of homogeneous 1D NS network films over an area of 20 cm2 within 10 min. The FGA-patterned SWCNT network films are transferred onto the substrate using the adhesive-based transfer technique, and show the highly uniform film thickness and resistance measurements across the entire substrate. Finally, the electrical performance of the back-gated transistors made from the FGA and transfer method of 95% pure SWCNTs is demonstrated.

  6. One dimensional blood flow in a planetocentric orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haranas, Ioannis; Gkigkitzis, Ioannis

    2012-05-01

    All life on earth is accustomed to the presence of gravity. When gravity is altered, biological processes can go awry. It is of great importance to ensure safety during a spaceflight. Long term exposure to microgravity can trigger detrimental physiological responses in the human body. Fluid redistribution coupled with fluid loss is one of the effects. In particular, in microgravity blood volume is shifted towards the thorax and head. Sympathetic nervous system-induced vasoconstriction is needed to maintain arterial pressure, while venoconstriction limits venous pooling of blood prevents further reductions in venous return of blood to the heart. In this paper, we modify an existing one dimensional blood flow model with the inclusion of the hydrostatic pressure gradient that further depends on the gravitational field modified by the oblateness and rotation of the Earth. We find that the velocity of the blood flow VB is inversely proportional to the blood specific volume d, also proportional to the oblateness harmonic coefficient J2, the angular velocity of the Earth ωE, and finally proportional to an arbitrary constant c. For c = -0.39073 and ξH = -0.5 mmHg, all orbits result to less blood flow velocities than that calculated on the surface of the Earth. From all considered orbits, elliptical polar orbit of eccentricity e = 0.2 exhibit the largest flow velocity VB = 1.031 m/s, followed by the orbits of inclination i = 45°and 0°. The Earth's oblateness and its rotation contribute a 0.7% difference to the blood flow velocity.

  7. Lie symmetry algebra of one-dimensional nonconservative dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cui-Mei; Wu, Run-Heng; Fu, Jing-Li

    2007-09-01

    Lie symmetry algebra of linear nonconservative dynamical systems is studied in this paper. By using 1-1 mapping, the Lie point and Lie contact symmetry algebras are obtained from two independent solutions of the one-dimensional linear equations of motion.

  8. Underwater striling engine design with modified one-dimensional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daijin; Qin, Kan; Luo, Kai

    2015-09-01

    Stirling engines are regarded as an efficient and promising power system for underwater devices. Currently, many researches on one-dimensional model is used to evaluate thermodynamic performance of Stirling engine, but in which there are still some aspects which cannot be modeled with proper mathematical models such as mechanical loss or auxiliary power. In this paper, a four-cylinder double-acting Stirling engine for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) is discussed. And a one-dimensional model incorporated with empirical equations of mechanical loss and auxiliary power obtained from experiments is derived while referring to the Stirling engine computer model of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The P-40 Stirling engine with sufficient testing results from NASA is utilized to validate the accuracy of this one-dimensional model. It shows that the maximum error of output power of theoretical analysis results is less than 18% over testing results, and the maximum error of input power is no more than 9%. Finally, a Stirling engine for UUVs is designed with Schmidt analysis method and the modified one-dimensional model, and the results indicate this designed engine is capable of showing desired output power.

  9. Underwater striling engine design with modified one-dimensional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daijin; Qin, Kan; Luo, Kai

    2015-05-01

    Stirling engines are regarded as an efficient and promising power system for underwater devices. Currently, many researches on one-dimensional model is used to evaluate thermodynamic performance of Stirling engine, but in which there are still some aspects which cannot be modeled with proper mathematical models such as mechanical loss or auxiliary power. In this paper, a four-cylinder double-acting Stirling engine for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) is discussed. And a one-dimensional model incorporated with empirical equations of mechanical loss and auxiliary power obtained from experiments is derived while referring to the Stirling engine computer model of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The P-40 Stirling engine with sufficient testing results from NASA is utilized to validate the accuracy of this one-dimensional model. It shows that the maximum error of output power of theoretical analysis results is less than 18% over testing results, and the maximum error of input power is no more than 9%. Finally, a Stirling engine for UUVs is designed with Schmidt analysis method and the modified one-dimensional model, and the results indicate this designed engine is capable of showing desired output power.

  10. Approximate Approaches to the One-Dimensional Finite Potential Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Shilpi; Pathak, Praveen; Singh, Vijay A.

    2011-01-01

    The one-dimensional finite well is a textbook problem. We propose approximate approaches to obtain the energy levels of the well. The finite well is also encountered in semiconductor heterostructures where the carrier mass inside the well (m[subscript i]) is taken to be distinct from mass outside (m[subscript o]). A relevant parameter is the mass…

  11. The Long Decay Model of One-Dimensional Projectile Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattery, Mark Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a research study on student model formation and development in introductory mechanics. As a point of entry, I present a detailed analysis of the Long Decay Model of one-dimensional projectile motion. This model has been articulated by Galileo ("in De Motu") and by contemporary students. Implications for instruction are…

  12. One-Dimensional Ising Model with "k"-Spin Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Yale

    2011-01-01

    We examine a generalization of the one-dimensional Ising model involving interactions among neighbourhoods of "k" adjacent spins. The model is solved by exploiting a connection to an interesting computational problem that we call ""k"-SAT on a ring", and is shown to be equivalent to the nearest-neighbour Ising model in the absence of an external…

  13. SIMPLE ONE-DIMENSIONAL TRANSPORT CODE FOR MAGNETIZED TARGET FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    STEFANO MIGLUIOLO - MIT

    1999-10-30

    A one-dimensional (in space) time-dependent simulation code is development to study the transport of energy and particles in a field reversed configuration (FRC) plasma that is undergoing radial contraction. This contraction is due to an imploding metallic liner, which is treated through a boundary condition.

  14. Teaching Module for One-Dimensional, Transient Conduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribando, Robert J.; O'Leary, Gerald W.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a PC-based teaching module designed to instruct engineering students in transient one-dimensional conduction heat transfer analysis. The discussion considers problem formulation, nondimensionalization, discretization, numerical stability and the time-step restriction, program operation, and program verification. (MES)

  15. Toward precise solution of one-dimensional velocity inverse problems

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, S.; Hagin, F.

    1980-01-01

    A family of one-dimensional inverse problems are considered with the goal of reconstructing velocity profiles to reasonably high accuracy. The travel-time variable change is used together with an iteration scheme to produce an effective algorithm for computation. Under modest assumptions the scheme is shown to be convergent.

  16. Optically induced zener tunneling in one-dimensional lattices.

    PubMed

    Fratalocchi, Andrea; Assanto, Gaetano; Brzdakiewicz, Kasia A; Karpierz, Mirek A

    2006-03-15

    We investigate Landau-Zener tunneling in one-dimensional liquid crystalline waveguide arrays by all-optical impression of acceleration with an additional beam. We derive the Zener model from the governing equations and demonstrate a novel approach to Floquet-Bloch band tunneling.

  17. Perturbative and iterative methods for photon transport in one-dimensional waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obi, Kenechukwu C.; Shen, Jung-Tsung

    2015-05-01

    The problems of photon transport in one-dimensional waveguides have recently attracted great attentions. We consider the case of single photons scattering off a Λ-type three-level quantum emitter, and discuss the perturbative treatments of the scattering processes in terms of Born approximation for the Lippmann-Schwinger formalism. We show that the iterative Born series of the scattering amplitudes converge to the exact results obtained by other approaches. The generalization of our work provides a foundational basis for efficient computational schemes for photon scattering problems in one-dimensional waveguides.

  18. Signal processing of MEMS gyroscope arrays to improve accuracy using a 1st order Markov for rate signal modeling.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chengyu; Xue, Liang; Chang, Honglong; Yuan, Guangmin; Yuan, Weizheng

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a signal processing technique to improve angular rate accuracy of the gyroscope by combining the outputs of an array of MEMS gyroscope. A mathematical model for the accuracy improvement was described and a Kalman filter (KF) was designed to obtain optimal rate estimates. Especially, the rate signal was modeled by a first-order Markov process instead of a random walk to improve overall performance. The accuracy of the combined rate signal and affecting factors were analyzed using a steady-state covariance. A system comprising a six-gyroscope array was developed to test the presented KF. Experimental tests proved that the presented model was effective at improving the gyroscope accuracy. The experimental results indicated that six identical gyroscopes with an ARW noise of 6.2 °/√h and a bias drift of 54.14 °/h could be combined into a rate signal with an ARW noise of 1.8 °/√h and a bias drift of 16.3 °/h, while the estimated rate signal by the random walk model has an ARW noise of 2.4 °/√h and a bias drift of 20.6 °/h. It revealed that both models could improve the angular rate accuracy and have a similar performance in static condition. In dynamic condition, the test results showed that the first-order Markov process model could reduce the dynamic errors 20% more than the random walk model.

  19. Luttinger parameter of quasi-one-dimensional para -H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, G.; Gordillo, M. C.; Boronat, J.

    2017-02-01

    We have studied the ground-state properties of para-hydrogen in one dimension and in quasi-one-dimensional configurations using the path-integral ground-state Monte Carlo method. This method produces zero-temperature exact results for a given interaction and geometry. The quasi-one-dimensional setup has been implemented in two forms: the inner channel inside a carbon nanotube coated with H2 and a harmonic confinement of variable strength. Our main result is the dependence of the Luttinger parameter on the density within the stable regime. Going from one dimension to quasi-one dimension, keeping the linear density constant, produces a systematic increase of the Luttinger parameter. This increase is, however, not enough to reach the superfluid regime and the system always remain in the quasicrystal regime, according to Luttinger liquid theory.

  20. Fibonacci anyon excitations of one-dimensional dipolar lattice bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Äńurić, Tanja; Biedroń, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2017-02-01

    We study a system of dipolar bosons in a one-dimensional optical lattice using exact diagonalization and density matrix renormalization group methods. In particular, we analyze low energy properties of the system at an average filling of 3/2 atoms per lattice site. We identify the region of the parameter space where the system has non-Abelian Fibonacci anyon excitations that correspond to fractional domain walls between different charge-density waves. When such one-dimensional systems are combined into a two-dimensional network, braiding of Fibonacci anyon excitations has potential application for fault tolerant, universal, topological quantum computation. Contrary to previous calculations, our results also demonstrate that super-solid phases are not present in the phase diagram for the discussed 3/2 average filling. Instead, decreasing the value of the nearest-neighbor tunneling strength leads to a direct, Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless, superfluid to charge-density-wave quantum phase transition.

  1. One-dimensional Si nanolines in hydrogenated Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, Bianco; Köster, Sigrun A.; Owen, James G. H.; Renner, Christoph; Bowler, David R.

    2012-02-01

    We present a detailed study of the structural and electronic properties of a self-assembled silicon nanoline embedded in the H-terminated silicon (001) surface, known as the Haiku stripe. The nanoline is a perfectly straight and defect free endotaxial structure of huge aspect ratio; it can grow micrometre long at a constant width of exactly four Si dimers (1.54 nm). Another remarkable property is its capacity to be exposed to air without suffering any degradation. The nanoline grows independently of any step edges at tunable densities, from isolated nanolines to a dense array of nanolines. In addition to these unique structural characteristics, scanning tunnelling microscopy and density functional theory reveal a one-dimensional state confined along the Haiku core. This nanoline is a promising candidate for the long sought after electronic solid-state one-dimensional model system to explore the fascinating quantum properties emerging in such reduced dimensionality. Phys. Rev. B, 84, 035328 (2011)

  2. Control policies for a water-treatment system using the Markov Decision Process.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiam, Tze; Mitchell, Cary; Yih, Yuehwern

    the system's current state but not the "path" that it has taken. Due to this "memoryless" property and the stochastic properties of the system, the state transition can be modeled by the Markov process. A reward system was constructed to assign reward values to every state visited. A water system is considered to be in a "good" state when it has sufficient clean water to meet the demands of crewmembers. Such states will receive a much higher reward value than states in which crewmembers suffer from water deficiencies. Transition probabilities are obtained through simulation using the Markovian model. Nine policies based on different values of treatment efficiencies for both subsystems were defined. One policy is applied to the system at every hour. The choice of policy to apply affects the system behavior (and state). Hence, it is important to apply a policy that is "best" for the system every hour. The Policy Iteration algorithm is used for this purpose. This algorithm provides the best policy under steady-state conditions. The transition probabilities and reward values are formulated into appropriate mathematical representation and are solved by applying the Policy Iteration algorithm. A system that uses the best policy is compared against one that uses a fixed policy by the use of a paired-t test. Results show that a system applying best policies has statistically better performance than a system operating on a fixed policy. This methodology is also applicable to various other scenarios with different system design, magnitude of "stochastic-ness", including system modules such as the crop system. Research sponsored in part by NASA grant NAG5-12686.

  3. On numerical modeling of one-dimensional geothermal histories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugerud, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical models of one-dimensional geothermal histories are one way of understanding the relations between tectonics and transient thermal structure in the crust. Such models can be powerful tools for interpreting geochronologic and thermobarometric data. A flexible program to calculate these models on a microcomputer is available and examples of its use are presented. Potential problems with this approach include the simplifying assumptions that are made, limitations of the numerical techniques, and the neglect of convective heat transfer. ?? 1989.

  4. Duality and phase diagram of one-dimensional transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Somendra M.

    2007-02-01

    The idea of duality in one-dimensional nonequilibrium transport is introduced by generalizing the observations by Mukherji and Mishra. A general approach is developed for the classification and characterization of the steady state phase diagrams which are shown to be determined by the nature of the zeros of a set of coarse-grained functions that encode the microscopic dynamics. A new class of nonequilibrium multicritical points has been identified.

  5. Single parameter scaling in one-dimensional localization revisited

    PubMed

    Deych; Lisyansky; Altshuler

    2000-03-20

    The variance of the Lyapunov exponent is calculated exactly in the one-dimensional Anderson model with random site energies distributed according to the Cauchy distribution. We find a new significant scaling parameter in the system, and derive an exact analytical criterion for single parameter scaling which differs from the commonly used condition of phase randomization. The results obtained are applied to the Kronig-Penney model with the potential in the form of periodically positioned delta functions with random strength.

  6. Defects in a nonlinear pseudo one-dimensional solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Graciela B.; Fincher, C. R., Jr.

    1985-03-01

    These infrared studies of acetanilide together with the existence of two equivalent structures for the hydrogen-bonded chain suggest the possibility of a topological defect state rather than a Davydov soliton as suggested previously. Acetanilide is an example of a class of one-dimensional materials where solitons are a consequence of a twofold degenerate structure and the nonlinear dynamics of the hydrogen-bonded network.

  7. Thermalization in a one-dimensional integrable system

    SciTech Connect

    Grisins, Pjotrs; Mazets, Igor E.

    2011-11-15

    We present numerical results demonstrating the possibility of thermalization of single-particle observables in a one-dimensional system, which is integrable in both the quantum and classical (mean-field) descriptions (a quasicondensate of ultracold, weakly interacting bosonic atoms are studied as a definite example). We find that certain initial conditions admit the relaxation of single-particle observables to the equilibrium state reasonably close to that corresponding to the Bose-Einstein thermal distribution of Bogoliubov quasiparticles.

  8. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics in one-dimensional bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldovin, F.; Cappellaro, A.; Orlandini, E.; Salasnich, L.

    2016-06-01

    We study cold dilute gases made of bosonic atoms, showing that in the mean-field one-dimensional regime they support stable out-of-equilibrium states. Starting from the 3D Boltzmann-Vlasov equation with contact interaction, we derive an effective 1D Landau-Vlasov equation under the condition of a strong transverse harmonic confinement. We investigate the existence of out-of-equilibrium states, obtaining stability criteria similar to those of classical plasmas.

  9. Fast Integration of One-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Rafael G.; Ruiz, Rafael García

    2013-11-01

    Two-point nonlinear boundary value problems (BVPs) in both unbounded and bounded domains are solved in this paper using fast numerical antiderivatives and derivatives of functions of L2(-∞, ∞). This differintegral scheme uses a new algorithm to compute the Fourier transform. As examples we solve a fourth-order two-point boundary value problem (BVP) and compute the shape of the soliton solutions of a one-dimensional generalized Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation.

  10. Thermal breakage of a discrete one-dimensional string.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiu Fan

    2009-09-01

    We study the thermal breakage of a discrete one-dimensional string, with open and fixed ends, in the heavily damped regime. Basing our analysis on the multidimensional Kramers escape theory, we are able to make analytical predictions on the mean breakage rate and on the breakage propensity with respect to the breakage location on the string. We then support our predictions with numerical simulations.

  11. Analysis of necking based on a one-dimensional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audoly, Basile; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-12-01

    Dimensional reduction is applied to derive a one-dimensional energy functional governing tensile necking localization in a family of initially uniform prismatic solids, including as particular cases rectilinear blocks in plane strain and cylindrical bars undergoing axisymmetric deformations. The energy functional depends on both the axial stretch and its gradient. The coefficient of the gradient term is derived in an exact and general form. The one-dimensional model is used to analyze necking localization for nonlinear elastic materials that experience a maximum load under tensile loading, and for a class of nonlinear materials that mimic elastic-plastic materials by displaying a linear incremental response when stretch switches from increasing to decreasing. Bifurcation predictions for the onset of necking from the simplified theory compared with exact results suggest the approach is highly accurate at least when the departures from uniformity are not too large. Post-bifurcation behavior is analyzed to the point where the neck is fully developed and localized to a region on the order of the thickness of the block or bar. Applications to the nonlinear elastic and elastic-plastic materials reveal the highly unstable nature of necking for the former and the stable behavior for the latter, except for geometries where the length of the block or bar is very large compared to its thickness. A formula for the effective stress reduction at the center of a neck is established based on the one-dimensional model, which is similar to that suggested by Bridgman (1952).

  12. Dynamical structure factor of one-dimensional hard rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, M.; Vitali, E.; Rossi, M.; Galli, D. E.; Bertaina, G.

    2016-10-01

    The zero-temperature dynamical structure factor S (q ,ω ) of one-dimensional hard rods is computed using state-of-the-art quantum Monte Carlo and analytic continuation techniques, complemented by a Bethe ansatz analysis. As the density increases, S (q ,ω ) reveals a crossover from the Tonks-Girardeau gas to a quasisolid regime, along which the low-energy properties are found in agreement with the nonlinear Luttinger liquid theory. Our quantitative estimate of S (q ,ω ) extends beyond the low-energy limit and confirms a theoretical prediction regarding the behavior of S (q ,ω ) at specific wave vectors Qn=n 2 π /a , where a is the core radius, resulting from the interplay of the particle-hole boundaries of suitably rescaled ideal Fermi gases. We observe significant similarities between hard rods and one-dimensional 4He at high density, suggesting that the hard-rods model may provide an accurate description of dense one-dimensional liquids of quantum particles interacting through a strongly repulsive, finite-range potential.

  13. Numerical simulations of piecewise deterministic Markov processes with an application to the stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley model.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shaojie; Qian, Min; Qian, Hong; Zhang, Xuejuan

    2016-12-28

    The stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley model is one of the best-known examples of piecewise deterministic Markov processes (PDMPs), in which the electrical potential across a cell membrane, V(t), is coupled with a mesoscopic Markov jump process representing the stochastic opening and closing of ion channels embedded in the membrane. The rates of the channel kinetics, in turn, are voltage-dependent. Due to this interdependence, an accurate and efficient sampling of the time evolution of the hybrid stochastic systems has been challenging. The current exact simulation methods require solving a voltage-dependent hitting time problem for multiple path-dependent intensity functions with random thresholds. This paper proposes a simulation algorithm that approximates an alternative representation of the exact solution by fitting the log-survival function of the inter-jump dwell time, H(t), with a piecewise linear one. The latter uses interpolation points that are chosen according to the time evolution of the H(t), as the numerical solution to the coupled ordinary differential equations of V(t) and H(t). This computational method can be applied to all PDMPs. Pathwise convergence of the approximated sample trajectories to the exact solution is proven, and error estimates are provided. Comparison with a previous algorithm that is based on piecewise constant approximation is also presented.

  14. On a Result for Finite Markov Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulathinal, Sangita; Ghosh, Lagnojita

    2006-01-01

    In an undergraduate course on stochastic processes, Markov chains are discussed in great detail. Textbooks on stochastic processes provide interesting properties of finite Markov chains. This note discusses one such property regarding the number of steps in which a state is reachable or accessible from another state in a finite Markov chain with M…

  15. Using model-based proposals for fast parameter inference on discrete state space, continuous-time Markov processes

    PubMed Central

    Pooley, C. M.; Bishop, S. C.; Marion, G.

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian statistics provides a framework for the integration of dynamic models with incomplete data to enable inference of model parameters and unobserved aspects of the system under study. An important class of dynamic models is discrete state space, continuous-time Markov processes (DCTMPs). Simulated via the Doob–Gillespie algorithm, these have been used to model systems ranging from chemistry to ecology to epidemiology. A new type of proposal, termed ‘model-based proposal’ (MBP), is developed for the efficient implementation of Bayesian inference in DCTMPs using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). This new method, which in principle can be applied to any DCTMP, is compared (using simple epidemiological SIS and SIR models as easy to follow exemplars) to a standard MCMC approach and a recently proposed particle MCMC (PMCMC) technique. When measurements are made on a single-state variable (e.g. the number of infected individuals in a population during an epidemic), model-based proposal MCMC (MBP-MCMC) is marginally faster than PMCMC (by a factor of 2–8 for the tests performed), and significantly faster than the standard MCMC scheme (by a factor of 400 at least). However, when model complexity increases and measurements are made on more than one state variable (e.g. simultaneously on the number of infected individuals in spatially separated subpopulations), MBP-MCMC is significantly faster than PMCMC (more than 100-fold for just four subpopulations) and this difference becomes increasingly large. PMID:25994297

  16. Post processing of optically recognized text via second order hidden Markov model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudel, Srijana

    In this thesis, we describe a postprocessing system on Optical Character Recognition(OCR) generated text. Second Order Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approach is used to detect and correct the OCR related errors. The reason for choosing the 2nd order HMM is to keep track of the bigrams so that the model can represent the system more accurately. Based on experiments with training data of 159,733 characters and testing of 5,688 characters, the model was able to correct 43.38 % of the errors with a precision of 75.34 %. However, the precision value indicates that the model introduced some new errors, decreasing the correction percentage to 26.4%.

  17. Symbolic transfer entropy rate is equal to transfer entropy rate for bivariate finite-alphabet stationary ergodic Markov processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruna, Taichi; Nakajima, Kohei

    2013-05-01

    Transfer entropy is a measure of the magnitude and the direction of information flow between jointly distributed stochastic processes. In recent years, its permutation analogues are considered in the literature to estimate the transfer entropy by counting the number of occurrences of orderings of values, not the values themselves. It has been suggested that the method of permutation is easy to implement, computationally low cost and robust to noise when applying to real world time series data. In this paper, we initiate a theoretical treatment of the corresponding rates. In particular, we consider the transfer entropy rate and its permutation analogue, the symbolic transfer entropy rate, and show that they are equal for any bivariate finite-alphabet stationary ergodic Markov process. This result is an illustration of the duality method introduced in [T. Haruna, K. Nakajima, Physica D 240, 1370 (2011)]. We also discuss the relationship among the transfer entropy rate, the time-delayed mutual information rate and their permutation analogues.

  18. One-Dimensional Scanning Approach to Shock Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokars, Roger; Adamovsky, Girgory; Floyd, Bertram

    2009-01-01

    Measurement tools for high speed air flow are sought both in industry and academia. Particular interest is shown in air flows that exhibit aerodynamic shocks. Shocks are accompanied by sudden changes in density, pressure, and temperature. Optical detection and characterization of such shocks can be difficult because the medium is normally transparent air. A variety of techniques to analyze these flows are available, but they often require large windows and optical components as in the case of Schlieren measurements and/or large operating powers which precludes their use for in-flight monitoring and applications. The one-dimensional scanning approach in this work is a compact low power technique that can be used to non-intrusively detect shocks. The shock is detected by analyzing the optical pattern generated by a small diameter laser beam as it passes through the shock. The optical properties of a shock result in diffraction and spreading of the beam as well as interference fringes. To investigate the feasibility of this technique a shock is simulated by a 426 m diameter optical fiber. Analysis of results revealed a direct correlation between the optical fiber or shock location and the beam s diffraction pattern. A plot of the width of the diffraction pattern vs. optical fiber location reveals that the width of the diffraction pattern was maximized when the laser beam is directed at the center of the optical fiber. This work indicates that the one-dimensional scanning approach may be able to determine the location of an actual shock. Near and far field effects associated with a small diameter laser beam striking an optical fiber used as a simulated shock are investigated allowing a proper one-dimensional scanning beam technique.

  19. One-dimensional organic lead halide perovskites with efficient bluish white-light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhao; Zhou, Chenkun; Tian, Yu; Shu, Yu; Messier, Joshua; Wang, Jamie C.; van de Burgt, Lambertus J.; Kountouriotis, Konstantinos; Xin, Yan; Holt, Ethan; Schanze, Kirk; Clark, Ronald; Siegrist, Theo; Ma, Biwu

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid metal halide perovskites, an emerging class of solution processable photoactive materials, welcome a new member with a one-dimensional structure. Herein we report the synthesis, crystal structure and photophysical properties of one-dimensional organic lead bromide perovskites, C4N2H14PbBr4, in which the edge sharing octahedral lead bromide chains [PbBr4 2-]∞ are surrounded by the organic cations C4N2H14 2+ to form the bulk assembly of core-shell quantum wires. This unique one-dimensional structure enables strong quantum confinement with the formation of self-trapped excited states that give efficient bluish white-light emissions with photoluminescence quantum efficiencies of approximately 20% for the bulk single crystals and 12% for the microscale crystals. This work verifies once again that one-dimensional systems are favourable for exciton self-trapping to produce highly efficient below-gap broadband luminescence, and opens up a new route towards superior light emitters based on bulk quantum materials.

  20. One-dimensional organic lead halide perovskites with efficient bluish white-light emission

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhao; Zhou, Chenkun; Tian, Yu; Shu, Yu; Messier, Joshua; Wang, Jamie C.; van de Burgt, Lambertus J.; Kountouriotis, Konstantinos; Xin, Yan; Holt, Ethan; Schanze, Kirk; Clark, Ronald; Siegrist, Theo; Ma, Biwu

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid metal halide perovskites, an emerging class of solution processable photoactive materials, welcome a new member with a one-dimensional structure. Herein we report the synthesis, crystal structure and photophysical properties of one-dimensional organic lead bromide perovskites, C4N2H14PbBr4, in which the edge sharing octahedral lead bromide chains [PbBr4 2−]∞ are surrounded by the organic cations C4N2H14 2+ to form the bulk assembly of core-shell quantum wires. This unique one-dimensional structure enables strong quantum confinement with the formation of self-trapped excited states that give efficient bluish white-light emissions with photoluminescence quantum efficiencies of approximately 20% for the bulk single crystals and 12% for the microscale crystals. This work verifies once again that one-dimensional systems are favourable for exciton self-trapping to produce highly efficient below-gap broadband luminescence, and opens up a new route towards superior light emitters based on bulk quantum materials. PMID:28051092

  1. Three material and four material one-dimensional phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriegel, Ilka; Scotognella, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we studied one-dimensional phononic structures for selective acoustic filtering. The structures are composed of three and four materials which have different elastic properties. We have observed that the phononic band gaps split in two and three transmission valleys for the three-material and the four-material based phononic structures, respectively. Furthermore, the number of transmission peaks between the split gaps is directly related to the number of unit cells composing the phononic structures. The observations of this work can be useful for the fabrication of acoustic filters with the possibility to select the transmission of particular frequencies.

  2. Parallel solution of sparse one-dimensional dynamic programming problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Parallel computation offers the potential for quickly solving large computational problems. However, it is often a non-trivial task to effectively use parallel computers. Solution methods must sometimes be reformulated to exploit parallelism; the reformulations are often more complex than their slower serial counterparts. We illustrate these points by studying the parallelization of sparse one-dimensional dynamic programming problems, those which do not obviously admit substantial parallelization. We propose a new method for parallelizing such problems, develop analytic models which help us to identify problems which parallelize well, and compare the performance of our algorithm with existing algorithms on a multiprocessor.

  3. Quantum mechanics of graphene with a one-dimensional potential

    SciTech Connect

    Miserev, D. S.; Entin, M. V.

    2012-10-15

    Electron states in graphene with a one-dimensional potential have been studied. An approximate solution has been obtained for a small angle between vectors of the incident electron momentum and potential gradient. Exactly solvable problems with a potential of the smoothened step type U(x) Utanh(x/a) and a potential with a singularity U(x) = -U/(|x| + d) are considered. The transmission/reflection coefficients and phases for various potential barriers are determined. A quasi-classical solution is obtained.

  4. A statistical formulation of one-dimensional electron fluid turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fyfe, D.; Montgomery, D.

    1977-01-01

    A one-dimensional electron fluid model is investigated using the mathematical methods of modern fluid turbulence theory. Non-dissipative equilibrium canonical distributions are determined in a phase space whose co-ordinates are the real and imaginary parts of the Fourier coefficients for the field variables. Spectral densities are calculated, yielding a wavenumber electric field energy spectrum proportional to k to the negative second power for large wavenumbers. The equations of motion are numerically integrated and the resulting spectra are found to compare well with the theoretical predictions.

  5. One-dimensional hydrodynamic model generating a turbulent cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sakajo, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    As a minimal mathematical model generating cascade analogous to that of the Navier-Stokes turbulence in the inertial range, we propose a one-dimensional partial-differential-equation model that conserves the integral of the squared vorticity analog (enstrophy) in the inviscid case. With a large-scale random forcing and small viscosity, we find numerically that the model exhibits the enstrophy cascade, the broad energy spectrum with a sizable correction to the dimensional-analysis prediction, peculiar intermittency, and self-similarity in the dynamical system structure.

  6. One-dimensional model of fluidized-bed combustor dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Starting from Soo's basic multiphase equations, a set of one-dimensional time-dependent hydrodynamic and enthalpy equations was developed for a fluidized bed reactor by averaging over its cross sectional area. The following effects were not considered in the derivation of the FBC equations: forces to accelerate the apparent mass of the solid particle, basset force, heat exchange by radiation between solids and fluid or within each phase, and electrodynamic effects. Within these restrictions, the material developed here forms the basis for a sequel to this report devoted to the development of stability studies and to the application of stochastic methods for FBC surveillance.

  7. One-dimensional intense laser pulse solitons in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sudan, R.N.; Dimant, Y.S.; Shiryaev, O.B.

    1997-05-01

    A general analytical framework is developed for the nonlinear dispersion relations of a class of large amplitude one-dimensional isolated envelope solitons for modulated light pulse coupled to electron plasma waves, previously investigated numerically [Kozlov {ital et al.}, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. {bold 76}, 148 (1979); Kaw {ital et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 68}, 3172 (1992)]. The analytical treatment of weakly nonlinear solitons [Kuehl and Zhang, Phys. Rev. E {bold 48}, 1316 (1993)] is extended to the strongly nonlinear limit. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Singular Spectrum of Lebesgue Measure Zerofor One-Dimensional Quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Daniel

    The spectrum of one-dimensional discrete Schr\\"odinger operators associated to strictly ergodic dynamical systems is shown to coincide with the set of zeros of the Lyapunov exponent if and only if the Lyapunov exponent exists uniformly. This is used to obtain Cantor spectrum of zero Lebesgue measure for all aperiodic subshifts with uniform positive weights. This covers, in particular, all aperiodic subshifts arising from primitive substitutions including new examples as e.g. the Rudin-Shapiro substitution. Our investigation is not based on trace maps. Instead it relies on an Oseledec type theorem due to A. Furman and a uniform ergodic theorem due to the author.

  9. Numerical computations on one-dimensional inverse scattering problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.; Hariharan, S. I.

    1983-01-01

    An approximate method to determine the index of refraction of a dielectric obstacle is presented. For simplicity one dimensional models of electromagnetic scattering are treated. The governing equations yield a second order boundary value problem, in which the index of refraction appears as a functional parameter. The availability of reflection coefficients yield two additional boundary conditions. The index of refraction by a k-th order spline which can be written as a linear combination of B-splines is approximated. For N distinct reflection coefficients, the resulting N boundary value problems yield a system of N nonlinear equations in N unknowns which are the coefficients of the B-splines.

  10. Strongly anisotropic wetting on one-dimensional nanopatterned surfaces.

    PubMed

    Xia, Deying; Brueck, S R J

    2008-09-01

    This communication reports strongly anisotropic wetting behavior on one-dimensional nanopatterned surfaces. Contact angles, degree of anisotropy, and droplet distortion are measured on micro- and nanopatterned surfaces fabricated with interference lithography. Both the degree of anisotropy and the droplet distortion are extremely high as compared with previous reports because of the well-defined nanostructural morphology. The surface is manipulated to tune with the wetting from hydrophobic to hydrophilic while retaining the structural wetting anisotropy with a simple silica nanoparticle overcoat. The wetting mechanisms are discussed. Potential applications in microfluidic devices and evaporation-induced pattern formation are demonstrated.

  11. Quantum Criticality of Quasi-One-Dimensional Topological Anderson Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altland, Alexander; Bagrets, Dmitry; Fritz, Lars; Kamenev, Alex; Schmiedt, Hanno

    2014-05-01

    We present an analytic theory of quantum criticality in the quasi-one-dimensional topological Anderson insulators of class AIII and BDI. We describe the systems in terms of two parameters (g, χ) representing localization and topological properties, respectively. Surfaces of half-integer valued χ define phase boundaries between distinct topological sectors. Upon increasing system size, the two parameters exhibit flow similar to the celebrated two-parameter flow describing the class A quantum Hall insulator. However, unlike the quantum Hall system, an exact analytical description of the entire phase diagram can be given. We check the quantitative validity of our theory by comparison to numerical transfer matrix computations.

  12. Correlations in light propagation in one-dimensional waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javanainen, Juha; Ruostekoski, Janne

    2016-05-01

    We study light propagation between atoms in a one-dimensional waveguide both analytically and using numerical simulations. We employ classical electrodynamics, but in the limit of low light intensity the results are essentially exact also for quantum mechanics. We characterize the cooperative interactions between the atoms mediated by the electromagnetic field. The focus is on resonance shifts for various statistics of the positions of the atoms, such as statistically independent positions or atoms in a regular lattice. These shifts, potentially important if 1D waveguides are to be used in metrology, are different from the usual resonance shifts found in three spatial dimensions.

  13. Saturable discrete vector solitons in one-dimensional photonic lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Vicencio, Rodrigo A.; Smirnov, Eugene; Rueter, Christian E.; Kip, Detlef; Stepic, Milutin

    2007-09-15

    Localized vectorial modes, with equal frequencies and mutually orthogonal polarizations, are investigated both analytically and experimentally in a one-dimensional photonic lattice with defocusing saturable nonlinearity. It is shown that these modes may span over many lattice elements and that energy transfer among the two components is both phase and intensity dependent. The transverse electrically polarized mode exhibits a single-hump structure and spreads in cascades in saturation, while the transverse magnetically polarized mode exhibits splitting into a two-hump structure. Experimentally such discrete vector solitons are observed in lithium niobate lattices for both coherent and mutually incoherent excitations.

  14. Coupling of impurity modes in one-dimensional periodic systems.

    PubMed

    Royo, P; Stanley, R P; Ilegems, M

    2001-07-01

    One-dimensional periodic dielectric structures are known to exhibit band gaps because of their symmetry. Defect states can be found in the band gaps if an impurity layer is added to the lattice such that the symmetry of the structure is broken. In this paper, we consider the case where a second impurity layer is added and we discuss the existence of coupling between the two defects. We discuss the possibility of exploiting the coupling of impurity modes in the realization of tunable wavelength emitting devices and dual-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

  15. One-dimensional metal oxide nanostructures for heterogeneous catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Jia, Xinli; Liu, Bin; Yang, Yanhui

    2013-08-21

    Metal oxides are of paramount importance in heterogeneous catalysis as either supports or active phases. Controlled synthesis of one-dimensional (1D) metal oxide nanostructures has received enormous attention in heterogeneous catalysis due to the possibility of tailoring the properties of metal oxides by tuning their shapes, sizes, and compositions. This feature article highlights recent advances in shape controlled synthesis of 1D metal oxide nanostructures and their applications in heterogeneous catalysis, with the aim of introducing new insights into the heterogeneous catalyst design.

  16. Wave propagation in one-dimensional microscopic granular chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei-Hsun; Daraio, Chiara

    2016-11-01

    We employ noncontact optical techniques to generate and measure stress waves in uncompressed, one-dimensional microscopic granular chains, and support our experiments with discrete numerical simulations. We show that the wave propagation through dry particles (150 μm radius) is highly nonlinear and it is significantly influenced by the presence of defects (e.g., surface roughness, interparticle gaps, and misalignment). We derive an analytical relation between the group velocity and gap size, and define bounds for the formation of highly nonlinear solitary waves as a function of gap size and axial misalignment.

  17. Molecular nanostamp based on one-dimensional porphyrin polymers.

    PubMed

    Kanaizuka, Katsuhiko; Izumi, Atsushi; Ishizaki, Manabu; Kon, Hiroki; Togashi, Takanari; Miyake, Ryosuke; Ishida, Takao; Tamura, Ryo; Haga, Masa-aki; Moritani, Youji; Sakamoto, Masatomi; Kurihara, Masato

    2013-08-14

    Surface design with unique functional molecules by a convenient one-pot treatment is an attractive project for the creation of smart molecular devices. We have employed a silane coupling reaction of porphyrin derivatives that form one-dimensional polymer wires on substrates. Our simple one-pot treatment of a substrate with porphyrin has successfully achieved the construction of nanoscale bamboo shoot structures. The nanoscale bamboo shoots on the substrates were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis spectra, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The uneven and rigid nanoscale structure has been used as a stamp for constructing bamboo shoot structures of fullerene.

  18. One-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation of high energy density experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinenko, A.

    2009-07-01

    A new one-dimensional hydrodynamic code for simulation of experiments involving the creation of high energy density in matter by means of laser or heavy ion beam irradiation is described. The code uses well-tested second order Lagrangian scheme in combination with the flux-limited van Leer convection algorithm for re-mapping to an arbitrary grid. Simple test cases with self-similar solutions are examined. Finally, the heating of solid targets by lasers and ions beams is investigated as examples.

  19. Polarization hydrodynamics in a one-dimensional polariton condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larré, P.-É.; Pavloff, N.; Kamchatnov, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    We study the hydrodynamics of a nonresonantly pumped polariton condensate in a quasi-one-dimensional quantum wire taking into account the spin degree of freedom. We clarify the relevance of the Landau criterion for superfluidity in this dissipative two-component system. Two Cherenkov-like critical velocities are identified corresponding to the opening of different channels of radiation: one of (damped) density fluctuations and another of (weakly damped) polarization fluctuations. We determine the drag force exerted onto an external obstacle and propose experimentally measurable consequences of the specific features of the fluctuations of polarization.

  20. Absolute negative mobility in a one-dimensional overdamped system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ru-Yin; Nie, Lin-Ru; Pan, Wan-Li; Zhang, Jian-Qiang

    2015-10-01

    A one-dimensional overdamped system consisting of a symmetric periodic potential, a constant bias force and a trichotomous noise was investigated. In the frame of master equations, we derived analytical expression of its current. By means of numerical calculations, the results indicate that the current first increases, then decreases and finally increases with the bias force increasing, i.e., an absolute negative mobility (ANM) phenomenon. Our further investigations presented dependence of the ANM phenomenon on parameters of the noise. Its intrinsic physical mechanism was also open up, and a minimal model with ANM phenomenon is demonstrated.

  1. One-dimensional neutron imager for the Sandia Z facility.

    PubMed

    Fittinghoff, David N; Bower, Dan E; Hollaway, James R; Jacoby, Barry A; Weiss, Paul B; Buckles, Robert A; Sammons, Timothy J; McPherson, Leroy A; Ruiz, Carlos L; Chandler, Gordon A; Torres, José A; Leeper, Ramon J; Cooper, Gary W; Nelson, Alan J

    2008-10-01

    A multiinstitution collaboration is developing a neutron imaging system for the Sandia Z facility. The initial system design is for slit aperture imaging system capable of obtaining a one-dimensional image of a 2.45 MeV source producing 5x10(12) neutrons with a resolution of 320 microm along the axial dimension of the plasma, but the design being developed can be modified for two-dimensional imaging and imaging of DT neutrons with other resolutions. This system will allow us to understand the spatial production of neutrons in the plasmas produced at the Z facility.

  2. Quantum Simulations of One-Dimensional Nanostructures under Arbitrary Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, Pekka

    2016-09-01

    A powerful technique is introduced for simulating mechanical and electromechanical properties of one-dimensional nanostructures under arbitrary combinations of bending, twisting, and stretching. The technique is based on an unconventional control of periodic symmetry which eliminates artifacts due to deformation constraints and quantum finite-size effects and allows transparent electronic-structure analysis. Via density-functional tight-binding implementation, the technique demonstrates its utility by predicting nonlinear electromechanical properties in carbon nanotubes and abrupt behavior in the structural yielding of Au7 and Mo6 S6 nanowires. The technique drives simulations markedly closer to the realistic modeling of these slender nanostructures under experimental conditions.

  3. Coherent Backscattering of Light Off One-Dimensional Atomic Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, H. L.; Béguin, J.-B.; Kluge, K. W.; Iakoupov, I.; Sørensen, A. S.; Müller, J. H.; Polzik, E. S.; Appel, J.

    2016-09-01

    We present the first experimental realization of coherent Bragg scattering off a one-dimensional system—two strings of atoms strongly coupled to a single photonic mode—realized by trapping atoms in the evanescent field of a tapered optical fiber, which also guides the probe light. We report nearly 12% power reflection from strings containing only about 1000 cesium atoms, an enhancement of 2 orders of magnitude compared to reflection from randomly positioned atoms. This result paves the road towards collective strong coupling in 1D atom-photon systems. Our approach also allows for a straightforward fiber connection between several distant 1D atomic crystals.

  4. Functional One-Dimensional Lipid Bilayers on Carbon Nanotube Templates

    SciTech Connect

    Artyukhin, A; Shestakov, A; Harper, J; Bakajin, O; Stroeve, P; Noy, A

    2004-07-23

    We present one-dimensional (1-D) lipid bilayer structures that integrate carbon nanotubes with a key biological environment-phospholipid membrane. Our structures consist of lipid bilayers wrapped around carbon nanotubes modified with a hydrophilic polymer cushion layer. Despite high bilayer curvature, the lipid membrane maintains its fluidity and can sustain repeated damage-recovery cycles. We also present the first evidence of spontaneous insertion of pore-forming proteins into 1-D lipid bilayers. These structures could lead to the development of new classes of biosensors and bioelectronic devices.

  5. Scanned gate microscopy of a one-dimensional quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingfeng M; Fogler, Michael M

    2006-10-01

    We analyze electrostatic interaction between a sharp conducting tip and a thin one-dimensional wire, e.g., a carbon nanotube, in a scanned gate microscopy (SGM) experiment. The problem is analytically tractable if the wire resides on a thin dielectric substrate above a metallic backgate. The characteristic spatial scale of the electrostatic coupling to the tip is equal to its height above the substrate. Numerical simulations indicate that imaging of individual electrons by SGM is possible once the mean electron separation exceeds this scale (typically, a few tens of nm). Differences between weakly and strongly invasive SGM regimes are pointed out.

  6. Numerical Simulations of One-dimensional Microstructure Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Berezovski, M.; Berezovski, A.; Engelbrecht, J.

    2010-05-21

    Results of numerical simulations of one-dimensional wave propagation in microstructured solids are presented and compared with the corresponding results of wave propagation in given layered media. A linear microstructure model based on Mindlin theory is adopted and represented in the framework of the internal variable theory. Fully coupled systems of equations for macro-motion and microstructure evolution are rewritten in the form of conservation laws. A modification of wave propagation algorithm is used for numerical calculations. It is shown how the initial microstructure model can be improved in order to match the results obtained by both approaches.

  7. Dislocation-mediated melting of one-dimensional Rydberg crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Sela, Eran; Garst, Markus; Punk, Matthias

    2011-08-15

    We consider cold Rydberg atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice in the Mott regime with a single atom per site at zero temperature. An external laser drive with Rabi frequency {Omega} and laser detuning {Delta} creates Rydberg excitations whose dynamics is governed by an effective spin-chain model with (quasi) long-range interactions. This system possesses intrinsically a large degree of frustration resulting in a ground-state phase diagram in the ({Delta},{Omega}) plane with a rich topology. As a function of {Delta}, the Rydberg blockade effect gives rise to a series of crystalline phases commensurate with the optical lattice that form a so-called devil's staircase. The Rabi frequency {Omega}, on the other hand, creates quantum fluctuations that eventually lead to a quantum melting of the crystalline states. Upon increasing {Omega}, we find that generically a commensurate-incommensurate transition to a floating Rydberg crystal that supports gapless phonon excitations occurs first. For even larger {Omega}, dislocations within the floating Rydberg crystal start to proliferate and a second, Kosterlitz-Thouless-Nelson-Halperin-Young dislocation-mediated melting transition finally destroys the crystalline arrangement of Rydberg excitations. This latter melting transition is generic for one-dimensional Rydberg crystals and persists even in the absence of an optical lattice. The floating phase and the concomitant transitions can, in principle, be detected by Bragg scattering of light.

  8. Optical parametric oscillation in one-dimensional microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, Timothée; Ardizzone, Vincenzo; Abbarchi, Marco; Diederichs, Carole; Miard, Audrey; Lemaitre, Aristide; Sagnes, Isabelle; Senellart, Pascale; Bloch, Jacqueline; Delalande, Claude; Tignon, Jerome; Roussignol, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of optical parametric oscillation in resonantly excited one-dimensional semiconductor microcavities with embedded quantum wells. Such solid-state structures feature a fine control over light-matter coupling and produce a photonic/polaritonic mode fan that is exploited for the efficient emission of parametric beams. We implement an energy-degenerate optical parametric oscillator with balanced signal and idler intensities via a polarization-inverting mechanism. In this paper, we (i) precisely review the multimode photonic/polaritonic structure of individual emitters, (ii) provide a thorough comparison between experiment and theory, focusing on the power and the threshold dependence on the exciton-photon detuning, (iii) discuss the influence of inhomogeneous broadening of the excitonic transition and finite size, and (iv) find that a large exciton-photon detuning is a key parameter to reach a high output power and a high conversion efficiency. Our study highlights the predictive character of the polariton interaction theory and the flexibility of one-dimensional semiconductor microcavities as a platform to study parametric phenomena.

  9. One dimensional global and local solution for ICRF heating

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.; Batchelor, D.B.; Jaeger, E.F.; Carter, M.D.

    1995-02-01

    A numerical code GLOSI [Global and Local One-dimensional Solution for Ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating] is developed to solve one-dimensional wave equations resulting from the use of radio frequency (RF) waves to heat plasmas. The code uses a finite difference method. Due to its numerical stability, the code can be used to find both global and local solutions when imposed with appropriate boundary conditions. Three types of boundary conditions are introduced to describe wave scattering, antenna wave excitation, and fixed tangential wave magnetic field. The scattering boundary conditions are especially useful for local solutions. The antenna wave excitation boundary conditions can be used to excite fast and slow waves in a plasma. The tangential magnetic field boundary conditions are used to calculate impedance matrices, which describe plasma and antenna coupling and can be used by an antenna code to calculate antenna loading. These three types of boundary conditions can also be combined to describe various physical situations in RF plasma heating. The code also includes plasma thermal effects and calculates collisionless power absorption and kinetic energy flux. The plasma current density is approximated by a second-order Larmor radius expansion, which results in a sixth-order ordinary differential equation.

  10. Magnetic Stimulation of One-Dimensional Neuronal Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Rotem, Assaf; Moses, Elisha

    2008-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a remarkable tool for neuroscience research, with a multitude of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Surprisingly, application of the same magnetic stimulation directly to neurons that are dissected from the brain and grown in vitro was not reported to activate them to date. Here we report that central nervous system neurons patterned on large enough one-dimensional rings can be magnetically stimulated in vitro. In contrast, two-dimensional cultures with comparable size do not respond to excitation. This happens because the one-dimensional pattern enforces an ordering of the axons along the ring, which is designed to follow the lines of the magnetically induced electric field. A small group of sensitive (i.e., initiating) neurons respond even when the network is disconnected, and are presumed to excite the entire network when it is connected. This implies that morphological and electrophysiological properties of single neurons are crucial for magnetic stimulation. We conjecture that the existence of a select group of neurons with higher sensitivity may occur in the brain in vivo as well, with consequences for transcranial magnetic stimulation. PMID:18326634

  11. Majorana fermion exchange in quasi-one-dimensional networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, David J.; Sau, Jay D.; Tewari, Sumanta

    2011-07-01

    Heterostructures of spin-orbit coupled materials with s-wave superconductors are thought to be capable of supporting zero-energy Majorana bound states. Such excitations are known to obey non-Abelian statistics in two dimensions, and are thus relevant to topological quantum computation (TQC). In a one-dimensional system, Majorana states are localized to phase boundaries. In order to bypass the constraints of one dimension, a wire network may be created, allowing the exchange of Majoranas by way of junctions in the network. Alicea have proposed such a network as a platform for TQC, showing that the Majorana bound states obey non-Abelian exchange statistics even in quasi-one-dimensional systems. Here we show that the particular realization of non-Abelian statistics produced in a Majorana wire network is highly dependent on the local properties of individual wire junctions. For a simply connected network, the possible realizations can be characterized by the chirality of individual junctions. There is in general no requirement for junction chiralities to remain consistent across a wire network. We show how the chiralities of different junctions may be compared experimentally and discuss the implications for TQC in Majorana wire networks.

  12. Hydrogen peroxide stabilization in one-dimensional flow columns.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jeremy T; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J

    2011-09-25

    Rapid hydrogen peroxide decomposition is the primary limitation of catalyzed H(2)O(2) propagations in situ chemical oxidation (CHP ISCO) remediation of the subsurface. Two stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide, citrate and phytate, were investigated for their effectiveness in one-dimensional columns of iron oxide-coated and manganese oxide-coated sand. Hydrogen peroxide (5%) with and without 25 mM citrate or phytate was applied to the columns and samples were collected at 8 ports spaced 13 cm apart. Citrate was not an effective stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide in iron-coated sand; however, phytate was highly effective, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals two orders of magnitude over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Both citrate and phytate were effective stabilizers for manganese-coated sand, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals by four-fold over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Phytate and citrate did not degrade and were not retarded in the sand columns; furthermore, the addition of the stabilizers increased column flow rates relative to unstabilized columns. These results demonstrate that citrate and phytate are effective stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide under the dynamic conditions of one-dimensional columns, and suggest that citrate and phytate can be added to hydrogen peroxide before injection to the subsurface as an effective means for increasing the radius of influence of CHP ISCO.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide stabilization in one-dimensional flow columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jeremy T.; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L.; Watts, Richard J.

    2011-09-01

    Rapid hydrogen peroxide decomposition is the primary limitation of catalyzed H 2O 2 propagations in situ chemical oxidation (CHP ISCO) remediation of the subsurface. Two stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide, citrate and phytate, were investigated for their effectiveness in one-dimensional columns of iron oxide-coated and manganese oxide-coated sand. Hydrogen peroxide (5%) with and without 25 mM citrate or phytate was applied to the columns and samples were collected at 8 ports spaced 13 cm apart. Citrate was not an effective stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide in iron-coated sand; however, phytate was highly effective, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals two orders of magnitude over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Both citrate and phytate were effective stabilizers for manganese-coated sand, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals by four-fold over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Phytate and citrate did not degrade and were not retarded in the sand columns; furthermore, the addition of the stabilizers increased column flow rates relative to unstabilized columns. These results demonstrate that citrate and phytate are effective stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide under the dynamic conditions of one-dimensional columns, and suggest that citrate and phytate can be added to hydrogen peroxide before injection to the subsurface as an effective means for increasing the radius of influence of CHP ISCO.

  14. Stopping time of a one-dimensional bounded quantum walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hao; Zhan, Xiang; Zhang, Peng; Xue, Peng

    2016-11-01

    The stopping time of a one-dimensional bounded classical random walk (RW) is defined as the number of steps taken by a random walker to arrive at a fixed boundary for the first time. A quantum walk (QW) is a non-trivial generalization of RW, and has attracted a great deal of interest from researchers working in quantum physics and quantum information. In this paper, we develop a method to calculate the stopping time for a one-dimensional QW. Using our method, we further compare the properties of stopping time for QW and RW. We find that the mean value of the stopping time is the same for both of these problems. However, for short times, the probability for a walker performing a QW to arrive at the boundary is larger than that for a RW. This means that, although the mean stopping time of a quantum and classical walker are the same, the quantum walker has a greater probability of arriving at the boundary earlier than the classical walker. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11222430, 11434011, and 11474049), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB922104), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China, and the Research Funds of Renmin University of China (Grant No. 16XNLQ03).

  15. Transmission resonances anomaly in one-dimensional disordered quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbach, A.; Bliokh, Y.; Freilkher, V.; Kaveh, M.; Berkovits, R.

    2016-07-01

    Connections between the electronic eigenstates and conductivity of one-dimensional (1D) disordered systems is studied in the framework of the tight-binding model. We show that for weak disorder only part of the states exhibit resonant transmission and contribute to the conductivity. The rest of the eigenvalues are not associated with peaks in transmission and the amplitudes of their wave functions do not exhibit a significant maxima within the sample. Moreover, unlike ordinary states, the lifetimes of these "hidden" modes either remain constant or even decrease (depending on the coupling with the leads) as the disorder becomes stronger. In a wide range of the disorder strengths, the averaged ratio of the number of transmission peaks to the total number of the eigenstates is independent of the degree of disorder and is close to the value √{2 /5 }, which was derived analytically in the weak-scattering approximation. These results are in perfect analogy to the spectral and transport properties of light in one-dimensional randomly inhomogeneous media [Y. P. Bliokh et al., New J. Phys. 17, 113009 (2015), 10.1088/1367-2630/17/11/113009], which provides strong grounds to believe that the existence of hidden, nonconducting modes is a general phenomenon inherent to 1D open random systems, and their fraction of the total density of states is the same for quantum particles and classical waves.

  16. Complex Sequencing Rules of Birdsong Can be Explained by Simple Hidden Markov Processes

    PubMed Central

    Katahira, Kentaro; Suzuki, Kenta; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

    2011-01-01

    Complex sequencing rules observed in birdsongs provide an opportunity to investigate the neural mechanism for generating complex sequential behaviors. To relate the findings from studying birdsongs to other sequential behaviors such as human speech and musical performance, it is crucial to characterize the statistical properties of the sequencing rules in birdsongs. However, the properties of the sequencing rules in birdsongs have not yet been fully addressed. In this study, we investigate the statistical properties of the complex birdsong of the Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica). Based on manual-annotated syllable labeles, we first show that there are significant higher-order context dependencies in Bengalese finch songs, that is, which syllable appears next depends on more than one previous syllable. We then analyze acoustic features of the song and show that higher-order context dependencies can be explained using first-order hidden state transition dynamics with redundant hidden states. This model corresponds to hidden Markov models (HMMs), well known statistical models with a large range of application for time series modeling. The song annotation with these models with first-order hidden state dynamics agreed well with manual annotation, the score was comparable to that of a second-order HMM, and surpassed the zeroth-order model (the Gaussian mixture model; GMM), which does not use context information. Our results imply that the hierarchical representation with hidden state dynamics may underlie the neural implementation for generating complex behavioral sequences with higher-order dependencies. PMID:21915345

  17. Complex sequencing rules of birdsong can be explained by simple hidden Markov processes.

    PubMed

    Katahira, Kentaro; Suzuki, Kenta; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

    2011-01-01

    Complex sequencing rules observed in birdsongs provide an opportunity to investigate the neural mechanism for generating complex sequential behaviors. To relate the findings from studying birdsongs to other sequential behaviors such as human speech and musical performance, it is crucial to characterize the statistical properties of the sequencing rules in birdsongs. However, the properties of the sequencing rules in birdsongs have not yet been fully addressed. In this study, we investigate the statistical properties of the complex birdsong of the Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica). Based on manual-annotated syllable labeles, we first show that there are significant higher-order context dependencies in Bengalese finch songs, that is, which syllable appears next depends on more than one previous syllable. We then analyze acoustic features of the song and show that higher-order context dependencies can be explained using first-order hidden state transition dynamics with redundant hidden states. This model corresponds to hidden Markov models (HMMs), well known statistical models with a large range of application for time series modeling. The song annotation with these models with first-order hidden state dynamics agreed well with manual annotation, the score was comparable to that of a second-order HMM, and surpassed the zeroth-order model (the Gaussian mixture model; GMM), which does not use context information. Our results imply that the hierarchical representation with hidden state dynamics may underlie the neural implementation for generating complex behavioral sequences with higher-order dependencies.

  18. Metrics for Labeled Markov Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desharnais, Josee; Jagadeesan, Radha; Gupta, Vineet; Panangaden, Prakash

    1999-01-01

    Partial Labeled Markov Chains are simultaneously generalizations of process algebra and of traditional Markov chains. They provide a foundation for interacting discrete probabilistic systems, the interaction being synchronization on labels as in process algebra. Existing notions of process equivalence are too sensitive to the exact probabilities of various transitions. This paper addresses contextual reasoning principles for reasoning about more robust notions of "approximate" equivalence between concurrent interacting probabilistic systems. The present results indicate that:We develop a family of metrics between partial labeled Markov chains to formalize the notion of distance between processes. We show that processes at distance zero are bisimilar. We describe a decision procedure to compute the distance between two processes. We show that reasoning about approximate equivalence can be done compositionally by showing that process combinators do not increase distance. We introduce an asymptotic metric to capture asymptotic properties of Markov chains; and show that parallel composition does not increase asymptotic distance.

  19. Spin accumulation on a one-dimensional mesoscopic Rashba ring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yong

    2006-04-26

    The nonequilibrium spin accumulation on a one-dimensional (1D) mesoscopic Rashba ring is investigated with unpolarized current injected through ideal leads. Due to the Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling and back-scattering at the interfaces between the leads and the ring, a beating pattern is formed in the fast oscillation of spin accumulation. If every beating period is complete, a plateau is formed, where the variation of spin accumulation with the external voltage is slow, but if new incomplete periods emerge in the envelope function, a transitional region appears. This plateau structure and the beating pattern are related to the tunnelling through spin-dependent resonant states. Because of the Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect, the average spin accumulation oscillates quasi-periodically with the Rashba SO coupling and has a series of zeros. In some situations, the direction of the average spin accumulation can be reversed by the external voltage in this 1D Rashba ring.

  20. Strongly Interacting One-dimensional Systems with Small Mass Imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volosniev, Artem G.

    2017-03-01

    We study a strongly interacting system of N identical bosons and one impurity in a one-dimensional trap. First, we assume that the particles have identical masses and analyze the corresponding set-up. After that, we study the influence of a small mass asymmetry on our analysis. In particular, we discuss how the structure of the wave function and the degeneracy in the impenetrable regime depend on the mass ratio and the shape of the trapping potential. To illustrate our findings, we consider a four-body system in a box and in an oscillator. We show that in the former case the system has the smallest energy when a heavy (light) impurity is close to the edge (center) of the trap. And we demonstrate that the opposite is true in the latter case.

  1. Medical image denoising using one-dimensional singularity function model.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jianhua; Zhu, Yuemin; Hiba, Bassem

    2010-03-01

    A novel denoising approach is proposed that is based on a spectral data substitution mechanism through using a mathematical model of one-dimensional singularity function analysis (1-D SFA). The method consists in dividing the complete spectral domain of the noisy signal into two subsets: the preserved set where the spectral data are kept unchanged, and the substitution set where the original spectral data having lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are replaced by those reconstructed using the 1-D SFA model. The preserved set containing original spectral data is determined according to the SNR of the spectrum. The singular points and singularity degrees in the 1-D SFA model are obtained through calculating finite difference of the noisy signal. The theoretical formulation and experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method allows more efficient denoising while introducing less distortion, and presents significant improvement over conventional denoising methods.

  2. Experiment and simulation on one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lin; Ouyang, Ji-Ting

    2014-10-15

    The transmission characteristics of microwaves passing through one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) have been investigated by experiment and simulation. The PPCs were formed by a series of discharge tubes filled with argon at 5 Torr that the plasma density in tubes can be varied by adjusting the discharge current. The transmittance of X-band microwaves through the crystal structure was measured under different discharge currents and geometrical parameters. The finite-different time-domain method was employed to analyze the detailed properties of the microwaves propagation. The results show that there exist bandgaps when the plasma is turned on. The properties of bandgaps depend on the plasma density and the geometrical parameters of the PPCs structure. The PPCs can perform as dynamical band-stop filter to control the transmission of microwaves within a wide frequency range.

  3. One-Dimensional Time to Explosion (Thermal Sensitivity) of ANPZ

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P.; Hust, G.; McClelland, M.; Gresshoff, M.

    2014-11-12

    Incidents caused by fire and combat operations can heat energetic materials that may lead to thermal explosion and result in structural damage and casualty. Some explosives may thermally explode at fairly low temperatures (< 100 C) and the violence from thermal explosion may cause a significant damage. Thus it is important to understand the response of energetic materials to thermal insults. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been used for decades to measure times to explosion, threshold thermal explosion temperature, and determine kinetic parameters of energetic materials. Samples of different configurations (pressed part, powder, paste, and liquid) can be tested in the system. The ODTX testing can also provide useful data for assessing the thermal explosion violence of energetic materials. This report summarizes the recent ODTX experimental data and modeling results for 2,6-diamino-3,5-dintropyrazine (ANPZ).

  4. Characterizing high- n quasi-one-dimensional strontium Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, Moritz; Yoshida, Shuhei; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Ye, Shuzhen; Zhang, Xinyue; Dunning, F. Barry

    2014-05-01

    The production of high- n, n ~ 300 , quasi-one-dimensional strontium Rydberg atoms by two-photon excitation of selected extreme Stark states in the presence of a weak dc field is examined using a crossed laser-atom beam geometry. The polarization of the product states is probed using three independent techniques which are analyzed with the aid of classical-trajectory Monte Carlo simulations that employ initial ensembles based on quantum calculations using a two-active-electron model. Comparisons between theory and experiment demonstrate that the product states have large dipole moments, ~ 1 . 0 - 1 . 2n2 a . u . and that they can be engineered using pulsed electric fields to create a wide variety of target states. Research supported by the NSF, the Robert A Welch Foundation, and the FWF (Austria).

  5. Enhanced multiple exciton generation in quasi-one-dimensional semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Paul D; Boercker, Janice E; Foos, Edward E; Lumb, Matthew P; Smith, Anthony R; Tischler, Joseph G; Melinger, Joseph S

    2011-08-10

    The creation of a single electron-hole pair (i.e., exciton) per incident photon is a fundamental limitation for current optoelectronic devices including photodetectors and photovoltaic cells. The prospect of multiple exciton generation per incident photon is of great interest to fundamental science and the improvement of solar cell technology. Multiple exciton generation is known to occur in semiconductor nanostructures with increased efficiency and reduced threshold energy compared to their bulk counterparts. Here we report a significant enhancement of multiple exciton generation in PbSe quasi-one-dimensional semiconductors (nanorods) over zero-dimensional nanostructures (nanocrystals), characterized by a 2-fold increase in efficiency and reduction of the threshold energy to (2.23 ± 0.03)E(g), which approaches the theoretical limit of 2E(g). Photovoltaic cells based on PbSe nanorods are capable of improved power conversion efficiencies, in particular when operated in conjunction with solar concentrators.

  6. Equilibrium properties of a one-dimensional kinetic system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H.; Joyce, G.

    1973-01-01

    One-dimensional systems of N = 500 and 250 particles in equilibrium are numerically simulated utilizing the method of molecular dynamics. Periodic boundary conditions are imposed. The classical two-body interaction potential is short range, repulsive and has a corresponding finite force. The equations of state are determined for densities both less and greater than one. Corresponding theoretical isochores are determined from models based on nearest-neighbor interactions and on a truncated virial expansion, and a comparison is made with the experimental isochores. Time independent radial distributions are constructed numerically and discussed. A change of state from a solidlike state to a fluid-gas state based on the penetrability of the particles is predicted. The transition temperatures are estimated from the radial distribution functions and the nearest-neighbor model. Self-diffusion is observed and the corresponding constants are determined from the velocity autocorrelation functions.

  7. Solution of a one-dimensional ablation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupertijunior, Nerbe Jose

    1991-11-01

    Ablation in multilayered one-dimensional media is studied. A finite element technique using a Streamline Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SU/PG) formulation is employed with a moving mesh which adapts itself to the moving boundary at each time step. The SU/PG formulation is used to avoid oscillations caused by first order derivatives in the energy equation. Ablation problems with time-dependent heat fluxes and a typical example in aerospace thermal protection applications are solved. Critical comparisons are made with finite differences results recently obtained through the control volume approach with exponential differencing. The generalized integral transform technique (GITT) is used as an alternative solution to ablation in multilayered media and to validate the results obtained by the finite element method. The eigenvalues needed in the GITT solution are determined simultaneously with the tansformed temperatures by rewriting the associated transcedental equations into ordinary differential equations.

  8. Switching synchronization in one-dimensional memristive networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slipko, Valeriy A.; Shumovskyi, Mykola; Pershin, Yuriy V.

    2015-11-01

    We report on a switching synchronization phenomenon in one-dimensional memristive networks, which occurs when several memristive systems with different switching constants are switched from the high- to low-resistance state. Our numerical simulations show that such a collective behavior is especially pronounced when the applied voltage slightly exceeds the combined threshold voltage of memristive systems. Moreover, a finite increase in the network switching time is found compared to the average switching time of individual systems. An analytical model is presented to explain our observations. Using this model, we have derived asymptotic expressions for memory resistances at short and long times, which are in excellent agreement with results of our numerical simulations.

  9. One dimensional simulations of transients in heavy ion injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.J.; Caporaso, G.J.; Yu, S.S.; Eylon, E.

    1993-05-11

    A fast-running time-dependent one-dimensional particle code has been developed to simulate transients in both electrostatic quadrupole and electrostatic column heavy-ion injectors. Two-dimensional effects are incorporated through the use of an approximation to the transverse part of the Laplacian operator. Longitudinal electric fields are solved on a mesh. An external circuit is coupled to the column, and the effect of the beam on the circuit is modeled. Transients such as initial current spikes, space-charge de-bunching, and beam loading of the circuit, are simulated. Future directions for the code include introduction of envelope and centroid equations to provide beam radius and displacement information and the modeling of secondary electron currents arising from beam-spill.

  10. Magnons in one-dimensional k-component Fibonacci structures

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, C. H.; Vasconcelos, M. S.

    2014-05-07

    We have studied the magnon transmission through of one-dimensional magnonic k-component Fibonacci structures, where k different materials are arranged in accordance with the following substitution rule: S{sub n}{sup (k)}=S{sub n−1}{sup (k)}S{sub n−k}{sup (k)} (n≥k=0,1,2,…), where S{sub n}{sup (k)} is the nth stage of the sequence. The calculations were carried out in exchange dominated regime within the framework of the Heisenberg model and taking into account the RPA approximation. We have considered multilayers composed of simple cubic spin-S Heisenberg ferromagnets, and, by using the powerful transfer-matrix method, the spin wave transmission is obtained. It is demonstrated that the transmission coefficient has a rich and interesting magnonic pass- and stop-bands structures, which depends on the frequency of magnons and the k values.

  11. One-dimensional Electron Gases at Oxide Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yanwei; Zhong, Zhicheng; Shafer, P.; Liu, Xiaoran; Kareev, M.; Middey, S.; Meyers, D.; Arenholz, E.; Chakhalian, Jak

    Emergence of two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG) at the oxide interfaces of two dissimilar insulators is a remarkable manifestation of interface engineering. With continuously reduced dimensionality, it arises an interesting question: could one-dimensional electron gases (1DEG) be designed at oxide interfaces? So far there is no report on this. Here, we report on the formation of 1DEG at the carefully engineered titanate heterostructures. Combined resonant soft X-ray linear dichroism with electrical transport and the first-principles calculations have confirmed the formation of 1DEG driven by the interfacial symmetry breaking. Our findings provide a route to engineer new electronic and magnetic states. This work was supported by Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, DODARO, DOE, and the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. A Reduced Order, One Dimensional Model of Joint Response

    SciTech Connect

    DOHNER,JEFFREY L.

    2000-11-06

    As a joint is loaded, the tangent stiffness of the joint reduces due to slip at interfaces. This stiffness reduction continues until the direction of the applied load is reversed or the total interface slips. Total interface slippage in joints is called macro-slip. For joints not undergoing macro-slip, when load reversal occurs the tangent stiffness immediately rebounds to its maximum value. This occurs due to stiction effects at the interface. Thus, for periodic loads, a softening and rebound hardening cycle is produced which defines a hysteretic, energy absorbing trajectory. For many jointed sub-structures, this hysteretic trajectory can be approximated using simple polynomial representations. This allows for complex joint substructures to be represented using simple non-linear models. In this paper a simple one dimensional model is discussed.

  13. One-dimensional boron nanostructures: Prediction, synthesis, characterizations, and applications.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jifa; Xu, Zhichuan; Shen, Chengmin; Liu, Fei; Xu, Ningsheng; Gao, Hong-Jun

    2010-08-01

    One-dimensional (1D) boron nanostructures are very potential for nanoscale electronic devices since their physical properties including electric transport and field emission have been found very promising as compared to other well-developed 1D nanomaterials. In this article, we review the current progress that has been made on 1D boron nanostructures in terms of theoretical prediction, synthetic techniques, characterizations and potential applications. To date, the synthesis of 1D boron nanostructures has been well-developed. The popular structures include nanowires, nanobelts, and nanocones. Some of these 1D nanostructures exhibited improved electric transport properties over bulk boron materials as well as promising field emission properties. By current experimental findings, 1D boron nanostructures are promising to be one of core materials for future nanodevices. More efforts are expected to be made in future on the controlled growth of 1D boron nanostructures and tailoring their physical properties.

  14. One-dimensional quantum spin heterojunction as a thermal switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chuan-Jing; Jin, Li-Hui; Gong, Wei-Jiang

    2016-03-01

    We study the thermal transport through a quantum spin-1 2 heterojunction, which consists of a finite-size chain with two-site anisotropic XY interaction and three-site XZX+YZY interaction coupled at its ends to two semi-infinite isotropic XY chains. By performing the Jordan-Wigner transformation, the original spin Hamiltonian is mapped onto a fermionic Hamiltonian. Then, the fermionic structure is discussed, and the heat current as a function of structural parameters is evaluated. It is found that the magnetic fields applied at respective chains play different roles in adjusting the heat current in this heterojunction. Moreover, the interplay between the anisotropy of the XY interaction and the three-site spin interaction assists to further control the thermal transport. In view of the numerical results, we propose this heterojunction to be an alternate candidate for manipulating the heat current in one-dimensional (1D) systems.

  15. CHARGE ORDER FLUCTUATIONS IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL SILICIDES

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Changgan; Kent, P. R.C.; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Li, An-Ping; Weitering, Hanno H.

    2014-01-01

    Metallic nanowires are of great interest as interconnects in future nanoelectronic circuits. They also represent important systems for understanding the complexity of electronic interactions and conductivity in one-dimension. We have fabricated exceptionally long and uniform YSi2 nanowires via self-assembly of yttrium atoms on Si(001). The thinnest wires represent one of the closest realizations of the isolated Peierls chain, exhibiting van-Hove type singularities in the one-dimensional density of states and charge order fluctuations below 150 K. The structure of the wire was determined though a detailed comparison of scanning tunneling microscopy data and first-principles calculations. Sporadic broadenings of the wires’ cross section imply the existence of a novel metal-semiconductor junction whose electronic properties are governed by the finite-size- and temperature-scaling of the charge ordering correlation. PMID:18552849

  16. Loschmidt echo in one-dimensional interacting Bose gases

    SciTech Connect

    Lelas, K.; Seva, T.; Buljan, H.

    2011-12-15

    We explore Loschmidt echo in two regimes of one-dimensional interacting Bose gases: the strongly interacting Tonks-Girardeau (TG) regime, and the weakly interacting mean-field regime. We find that the Loschmidt echo of a TG gas decays as a Gaussian when small (random and time independent) perturbations are added to the Hamiltonian. The exponent is proportional to the number of particles and the magnitude of a small perturbation squared. In the mean-field regime the Loschmidt echo shows richer behavior: it decays faster for larger nonlinearity, and the decay becomes more abrupt as the nonlinearity increases; it can be very sensitive to the particular realization of the noise potential, especially for relatively small nonlinearities.

  17. Chaos in a one-dimensional compressible flow.

    PubMed

    Gerig, Austin; Hübler, Alfred

    2007-04-01

    We study the dynamics of a one-dimensional discrete flow with open boundaries--a series of moving point particles connected by ideal springs. These particles flow towards an inlet at constant velocity, pass into a region where they are free to move according to their nearest neighbor interactions, and then pass an outlet where they travel with a sinusoidally varying velocity. As the amplitude of the outlet oscillations is increased, we find that the resident time of particles in the chamber follows a bifurcating (Feigenbaum) route to chaos. This irregular dynamics may be related to the complex behavior of many particle discrete flows or is possibly a low-dimensional analogue of nonstationary flow in continuous systems.

  18. Majorana fermion exchange in strictly one-dimensional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Ching-Kai; Vazifeh, M. M.; Franz, M.

    2015-04-01

    It is generally thought that the adiabatic exchange of two identical particles is impossible in one spatial dimension. Here we describe a simple protocol that permits the adiabatic exchange of two Majorana fermions in a one-dimensional topological superconductor wire. The exchange relies on the concept of “Majorana shuttle” whereby a π domain wall in the superconducting order parameter which hosts a pair of ancillary majoranas delivers one zero mode across the wire while the other one tunnels in the opposite direction. The method requires some tuning of parameters and does not, therefore, enjoy full topological protection. The resulting exchange statistics, however, remain non-Abelian for a wide range of parameters that characterize the exchange.

  19. One dimensional 1H, 2H and 3H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, A. J.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Vranješ Markić, L.; Boronat, J.

    2016-05-01

    The ground-state properties of one-dimensional electron-spin-polarized hydrogen 1H, deuterium 2H, and tritium 3H are obtained by means of quantum Monte Carlo methods. The equations of state of the three isotopes are calculated for a wide range of linear densities. The pair correlation function and the static structure factor are obtained and interpreted within the framework of the Luttinger liquid theory. We report the density dependence of the Luttinger parameter and use it to identify different physical regimes: Bogoliubov Bose gas, super-Tonks-Girardeau gas, and quasi-crystal regimes for bosons; repulsive, attractive Fermi gas, and quasi-crystal regimes for fermions. We find that the tritium isotope is the one with the richest behavior. Our results show unambiguously the relevant role of the isotope mass in the properties of this quantum system.

  20. Capillary condensation in one-dimensional irregular confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handford, Thomas P.; Pérez-Reche, Francisco J.; Taraskin, Sergei N.

    2013-07-01

    A lattice-gas model with heterogeneity is developed for the description of fluid condensation in finite sized one-dimensional pores of arbitrary shape. Mapping to the random-field Ising model allows an exact solution of the model to be obtained at zero-temperature, reproducing the experimentally observed dependence of the amount of fluid adsorbed in the pore on external pressure. It is demonstrated that the disorder controls the sorption for long pores and can result in H2-type hysteresis. Finite-temperature Metropolis dynamics simulations support analytical findings in the limit of low temperatures. The proposed framework is viewed as a fundamental building block of the theory of capillary condensation necessary for reliable structural analysis of complex porous media from adsorption-desorption data.

  1. Erosion by a one-dimensional random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, Rebecca H.; Hughes, Barry D.; Landman, Kerry A.

    2014-08-01

    We consider a model introduced by Baker et al. [Phys. Rev. E 88, 042113 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.88.042113] of a single lattice random walker moving on a domain of allowed sites, surrounded by blocked sites. The walker enlarges the allowed domain by eroding the boundary at its random encounters with blocked boundary sites: attempts to step onto blocked sites succeed with a given probability and convert these sites to allowed sites. The model interpolates continuously between the Pólya random walker on the one-dimensional lattice and a "blind" walker who attempts freely, but always aborts, moves to blocked sites. We obtain some exact results about the walker's location and the rate of erosion.

  2. Critical conductance of a one-dimensional doped Mott insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garst, M.; Novikov, D. S.; Stern, Ady; Glazman, L. I.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the two-terminal conductance of a one-dimensional Mott insulator undergoing the commensurate-incommensurate quantum phase transition to a conducting state. We treat the leads as Luttinger liquids. At a specific value of compressibility of the leads, corresponding to the Luther-Emery point, the conductance can be described in terms of the free propagation of noninteracting fermions with charge e/2 . At that point, the temperature dependence of the conductance across the quantum phase transition is described by a Fermi function. The deviation from the Luther-Emery point in the leads changes the temperature dependence qualitatively. In the metallic state, the low-temperature conductance is determined by the properties of the leads, and is described by the conventional Luttinger-liquid theory. In the insulating state, conductance occurs via activation of e/2 charges, and is independent of the Luttinger-liquid compressibility.

  3. Quantum quench dynamics in analytically solvable one-dimensional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iucci, Anibal; Cazalilla, Miguel A.; Giamarchi, Thierry

    2008-03-01

    In connection with experiments in cold atomic systems, we consider the non-equilibrium dynamics of some analytically solvable one-dimensional systems which undergo a quantum quench. In this quench one or several of the parameters of the Hamiltonian of an interacting quantum system are changed over a very short time scale. In particular, we concentrate on the Luttinger model and the sine-Gordon model in the Luther-Emery point. For the latter, we show that the order parameter and the two-point correlation function relax in the long time limit to the values determined by a generalized Gibbs ensemble first discussed by J. T. Jaynes [Phys. Rev. 106, 620 (1957); 108, 171 (1957)], and recently conjectured by M. Rigol et.al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 050405 (2007)] to apply to the non-equilibrium dynamics of integrable systems.

  4. Atom-Molecule Coherence in a One-Dimensional System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citro, R.; Orignac, E.

    2005-09-01

    We study a model of one-dimensional fermionic atoms with a narrow Feshbach resonance that allows them to bind in pairs to form bosonic molecules. We show that at low energy, a coherence develops between the molecule and fermion Luttinger liquids. At the same time, a gap opens in the spin excitation spectrum. The coherence implies that the order parameters for the molecular Bose-Einstein condensation and the atomic BCS pairing become identical. Moreover, both bosonic and fermionic charge density wave correlations decay exponentially, in contrast with a usual Luttinger liquid. We exhibit a Luther-Emery point where the systems can be described in terms of noninteracting pseudofermions. At this point we discuss the threshold behavior of density-density response functions.

  5. Configurational and energy landscape in one-dimensional Coulomb systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Lucas; Téllez, Gabriel; Trizac, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    We study a one-dimensional Coulomb system, where two charged colloids are neutralized by a collection of point counterions, with global neutrality. With temperature being given, two situations are addressed: Either the colloids are kept at fixed positions (canonical ensemble) or the force acting on the colloids is fixed (isobaric-isothermal ensemble). The corresponding partition functions are worked out exactly, in view of determining which arrangement of counterions is optimal. How many counterions should be in the confined segment between the colloids? For the remaining ions outside, is there a left-right symmetry breakdown? We evidence a cascade of transitions as system size is varied in the canonical treatment or as pressure is increased in the isobaric formulation.

  6. Configurational and energy landscape in one-dimensional Coulomb systems.

    PubMed

    Varela, Lucas; Téllez, Gabriel; Trizac, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    We study a one-dimensional Coulomb system, where two charged colloids are neutralized by a collection of point counterions, with global neutrality. With temperature being given, two situations are addressed: Either the colloids are kept at fixed positions (canonical ensemble) or the force acting on the colloids is fixed (isobaric-isothermal ensemble). The corresponding partition functions are worked out exactly, in view of determining which arrangement of counterions is optimal. How many counterions should be in the confined segment between the colloids? For the remaining ions outside, is there a left-right symmetry breakdown? We evidence a cascade of transitions as system size is varied in the canonical treatment or as pressure is increased in the isobaric formulation.

  7. Magnons in one-dimensional k-component Fibonacci structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, C. H.; Vasconcelos, M. S.

    2014-05-01

    We have studied the magnon transmission through of one-dimensional magnonic k-component Fibonacci structures, where k different materials are arranged in accordance with the following substitution rule: Sn(k)=Sn-1(k)Sn-k(k) (n ≥k=0,1,2,…), where Sn(k) is the nth stage of the sequence. The calculations were carried out in exchange dominated regime within the framework of the Heisenberg model and taking into account the RPA approximation. We have considered multilayers composed of simple cubic spin-S Heisenberg ferromagnets, and, by using the powerful transfer-matrix method, the spin wave transmission is obtained. It is demonstrated that the transmission coefficient has a rich and interesting magnonic pass- and stop-bands structures, which depends on the frequency of magnons and the k values.

  8. One-dimensional three-body problem via symbolic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka; Mikkola, Seppo

    2000-09-01

    Symbolic dynamics is applied to the one-dimensional three-body problem with equal masses. The sequence of binary collisions along an orbit is expressed as a symbol sequence of two symbols. Based on the time reversibility of the problem and numerical data, inadmissible (i.e., unrealizable) sequences of collisions are systematically found. A graph for the transitions among various regions in the Poincare section is constructed. This graph is used to find an infinite number of periodic sequences, which implies an infinity of periodic orbits other than those accompanying a simple periodic orbit called the Schubart orbit. Finally, under reasonable assumptions on inadmissible sequences, we prove that the set of admissible symbol sequences forms a Cantor set. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Stepwise nanopore evolution in one-dimensional nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang Wook; McDonough, James; Jeong, Sangmoo; Yoo, Jee Soo; Chan, Candace K; Cui, Yi

    2010-04-14

    We report that established simple lithium (Li) ion battery cycles can be used to produce nanopores inside various useful one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures such as zinc oxide, silicon, and silver nanowires. Moreover, porosities of these 1D nanomaterials can be controlled in a stepwise manner by the number of Li-battery cycles. Subsequent pore characterization at the end of each cycle allows us to obtain detailed snapshots of the distinct pore evolution properties in each material due to their different atomic diffusion rates and types of chemical bonds. Also, this stepwise characterization led us to the first observation of pore size increases during cycling, which can be interpreted as a similar phenomenon to Ostwald ripening in analogous nanoparticle cases. Finally, we take advantage of the unique combination of nanoporosity and 1D materials and demonstrate nanoporous silicon nanowires (poSiNWs) as excellent supercapacitor (SC) electrodes in high power operations compared to existing devices with activated carbon.

  10. Crystallographic shear mechanisms in Rh one-dimensional oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernando, María; Boulahya, Khalid; Parras, Marina; González-Calbet, José M.

    2005-02-01

    Electron diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy have been used to characterize two new one-dimensional superstructures in the A sbnd Rh sbnd O system (A = Ca, Sr) related to the 2H-ABO 3-type. They are formed by the intergrowth of n A 3A'BO 6 blocks, showing the Sr 4RhO 6-type, with A 12A' 2B 8O 30 blocks, constituted by two A 3O 9 and two A 3A'O 6 layers alternating in the stacking sequence 1:1, leading to the A 27A' 7B 13O 60 ( n=5) and A 30A' 8B 14O 66 ( n=6) compositions. A crystallographic shear mechanism is proposed to describe the structural relationship between Sr 4RhO 6 (A 3A'BO 6-type) and the new superstructures.

  11. Quasi one dimensional transport in individual electrospun composite nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Avnon, A. Datsyuk, V.; Trotsenko, S.; Wang, B.; Zhou, S.

    2014-01-15

    We present results of transport measurements of individual suspended electrospun nanofibers Poly(methyl methacrylate)-multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The nanofiber is comprised of highly aligned consecutive multiwalled carbon nanotubes. We have confirmed that at the range temperature from room temperature down to ∼60 K, the conductance behaves as power-law of temperature with an exponent of α ∼ 2.9−10.2. The current also behaves as power law of voltage with an exponent of β ∼ 2.3−8.6. The power-law behavior is a footprint for one dimensional transport. The possible models of this confined system are discussed. Using the model of Luttinger liquid states in series, we calculated the exponent for tunneling into the bulk of a single multiwalled carbon nanotube α{sub bulk} ∼ 0.06 which agrees with theoretical predictions.

  12. One-dimensional hybrid nanostructures for heterogeneous photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fang-Xing; Miao, Jianwei; Tao, Hua Bing; Hung, Sung-Fu; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Hong Bin; Chen, Jiazang; Chen, Rong; Liu, Bin

    2015-05-13

    Semiconductor-based photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis have received considerable attention as alternative approaches for solar energy harvesting and storage. The photocatalytic or photoelectrocatalytic performance of a semiconductor is closely related to the design of the semiconductor at the nanoscale. Among various nanostructures, one-dimensional (1D) nanostructured photocatalysts and photoelectrodes have attracted increasing interest owing to their unique optical, structural, and electronic advantages. In this article, a comprehensive review of the current research efforts towards the development of 1D semiconductor nanomaterials for heterogeneous photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis is provided and, in particular, a discussion of how to overcome the challenges for achieving full potential of 1D nanostructures is presented. It is anticipated that this review will afford enriched information on the rational exploration of the structural and electronic properties of 1D semiconductor nanostructures for achieving more efficient 1D nanostructure-based photocatalysts and photoelectrodes for high-efficiency solar energy conversion.

  13. A radiating one-dimensional current sheet configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, P. L.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1993-01-01

    The structure of the x-independent (one-dimensional) forced current sheet including a self consistent By component is investigated for the case of small normal field component, Bz/B0 much less than 1. A hybrid (kinetic ions, massless fluid electrons) simulation model is used to demonstrate that such a current sheet has a time-dependent structure which radiates incompressible Alfven waves with amplitude of the order of the asymptotic (lobe) field strength B0. The central density enhancement acts as the source of a propagating wavetrain in which Bx rotates into By and back again. One of the characteristic signatures of the radiating current sheet is the presence of a reversal in Bx (or By) without a corresponding increase in density.

  14. One dimensional modeling of blood flow in large networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Lagree, Pierre-Yves; Fullana, Jose-Maria; Lorthois, Sylvie; Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    A fast and valid simulation of blood flow in large networks of vessels can be achieved with a one-dimensional viscoelastic model. In this paper, we developed a parallel code with this model and computed several networks: a circle of arteries, a human systemic network with 55 arteries and a vascular network of mouse kidney with more than one thousand segments. The numerical results were verified and the speedup of parallel computing was tested on multi-core computers. The evolution of pressure distributions in all the networks were visualized and we can see clearly the propagation patterns of the waves. This provides us a convenient tool to simulate blood flow in networks.

  15. Entangling Qubits in a One-Dimensional Harmonic Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Edmund; Dean, Matthew; Barnes, Crispin

    2012-02-01

    We present a method for generating entanglement between qubits associated with a pair of particles interacting in a one-dimensional harmonic potential. By considering the effect of the interaction on the energy spectrum of the system, we show that, under certain approximations, a ``power-of-SWAP" operation is performed on the initial two-qubit quantum state without requiring any time-dependent control. Initialization errors and deviations from our approximation are shown to have a negligible effect on the final state. Using a GPU-accelerated iteration scheme to find numerical solutions to the two-particle time-dependent Schr"odinger equation, we demonstrate that it is possible to generate maximally entangled Bell states between the two qubits with high fidelity for a range of possible interaction potentials.

  16. One-dimensional photonic crystals as selective back reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondek, Ewa; Karasiński, Paweł

    2013-06-01

    Using the sol-gel technology and dip-coating method involving the deposition of silica layers and titania layers, we have fabricated symmetrical structures with one-dimensional photonic crystals on both sides of glass substrates. For the structure with five bilayers (SiO2/TiO2) we have obtained the maximum reflectance of 0.967 for the wavelength λr=493 nm and full width at half maximum of the main reflectance peak of FWHM=185 nm. The fabricated structures have been analyzed theoretically with the application of the transfer matrix 2×2 method, allowing for complex refraction indexes for the component layers. The paper presents the applied theoretical model and the discussion involving the calculated and experimental results. Good agreement between the calculation and experimental results has been obtained. The elaborated photonic structures can be applied in solar light concentrators for photovoltaic systems.

  17. One-dimensional photonic crystal fishbone hybrid nanocavity with nanoposts

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Tsan-Wen; Lin, Pin-Tso; Lee, Po-Tsung

    2014-05-12

    We propose and investigate a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) fishbone (FB) hybrid nanocavity lying on silver substrate with a horizontal air slot. With very few PhC periods, the confined transverse-magnetic, TM{sub 10} hybrid mode concentrated within the air slot shows high quality factor over effective mode volume ratio larger than 10{sup 5}λ{sup −3}. Most importantly, this FB hybrid nanocavity allows formation of low-index nanoposts within the air slot without significantly affecting the mode properties. These nanoposts guarantee the structural stabilities under different environmental perturbations. Furthermore, capabilities of our proposed design in serving as optical sensors and tweezers for bio-sized nanoparticles are also investigated.

  18. One-dimensional photonic crystal fishbone hybrid nanocavity with nanoposts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tsan-Wen; Lin, Pin-Tso; Lee, Po-Tsung

    2014-05-01

    We propose and investigate a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) fishbone (FB) hybrid nanocavity lying on silver substrate with a horizontal air slot. With very few PhC periods, the confined transverse-magnetic, TM10 hybrid mode concentrated within the air slot shows high quality factor over effective mode volume ratio larger than 105λ-3. Most importantly, this FB hybrid nanocavity allows formation of low-index nanoposts within the air slot without significantly affecting the mode properties. These nanoposts guarantee the structural stabilities under different environmental perturbations. Furthermore, capabilities of our proposed design in serving as optical sensors and tweezers for bio-sized nanoparticles are also investigated.

  19. Bjorken flow in one-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamics with magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Shi; Roy, Victor; Rezzolla, Luciano; Rischke, Dirk H.

    2016-04-01

    We study the one-dimensional, longitudinally boost-invariant motion of an ideal fluid with infinite conductivity in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, i.e., in the ideal transverse magnetohydrodynamical limit. In an extension of our previous work Roy et al., [Phys. Lett. B 750, 45 (2015)], we consider the fluid to have a nonzero magnetization. First, we assume a constant magnetic susceptibility χm and consider an ultrarelativistic ideal gas equation of state. For a paramagnetic fluid (i.e., with χm>0 ), the decay of the energy density slows down since the fluid gains energy from the magnetic field. For a diamagnetic fluid (i.e., with χm<0 ), the energy density decays faster because it feeds energy into the magnetic field. Furthermore, when the magnetic field is taken to be external and to decay in proper time τ with a power law ˜τ-a, two distinct solutions can be found depending on the values of a and χm. Finally, we also solve the ideal magnetohydrodynamical equations for one-dimensional Bjorken flow with a temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility and a realistic equation of state given by lattice-QCD data. We find that the temperature and energy density decay more slowly because of the nonvanishing magnetization. For values of the magnetic field typical for heavy-ion collisions, this effect is, however, rather small. It is only for magnetic fields about an order of magnitude larger than expected for heavy-ion collisions that the system is substantially reheated and the lifetime of the quark phase might be extended.

  20. A One-Dimensional Synthetic-Aperture Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doiron, Terence; Piepmeier, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    A proposed one-dimensional synthetic- aperture microwave radiometer could serve as an alternative to either the two-dimensional synthetic-aperture radiometer described in the immediately preceding article or to a prior one-dimensional one, denoted the Electrically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR), mentioned in that article. The proposed radiometer would operate in a pushbroom imaging mode, utilizing (1) interferometric cross-track scanning to obtain cross-track resolution and (2) the focusing property of a reflector for along-track resolution. The most novel aspect of the proposed system would be the antenna (see figure), which would include a cylindrical reflector of offset parabolic cross section. The reflector could be made of a lightweight, flexible material amenable to stowage and deployment. Other than a stowage/deployment mechanism, the antenna would not include moving parts, and cross-track scanning would not entail mechanical rotation of the antenna. During operation, the focal line, parallel to the cylindrical axis, would be oriented in the cross-track direction, so that placement of receiving/radiating elements at the focal line would afford the desired along-track resolution. The elements would be microwave feed horns sparsely arrayed along the focal line. The feed horns would be oriented with their short and long cross-sectional dimensions parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the cylindrical axis to obtain fan-shaped beams having their broad and narrow cross-sectional dimensions parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the cylindrical axis. The interference among the beams would be controlled in the same manner as in the ESTAR to obtain along-cylindrical- axis (cross-track) resolution and cross-track scanning.

  1. One-dimensional cloud fluid model for propagating star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Struck-Marcell, Curtis

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this project was to study the propagation of star formation (SF) with a self-consistent deterministic model for the interstellar gas. The questions of under what conditions does star formation propagate in this model and what are the mechanisms of the propagation are explored. Here, researchers used the deterministic Oort-type cloud fluid model of Scalo and Struck-Marcell (1984, also see the review of Struck-Marcell, Scalo and Appleton 1987). This cloud fluid approach includes simple models for the effects of cloud collisional coalescence or disruption, collisional energy dissipation, and cloud disruption and acceleration as the result of young star winds, HII regions and supernovae. An extensive one-zone parameter study is presented in Struck-Marcell and Scalo (1987). To answer the questions above, researchers carried out one-dimensional calculations for an annulus within a galactic disk, like the so-called solar neighborhood of the galactic chemical evolution. In the calculations the left-hand boundary is set equal to the right hand boundary. The calculation is obviously idealized; however, it is computationally convenient to study the first order effects of propagating star formation. The annulus was treated as if it were at rest, i.e., in the local rotating frame. This assumption may remove some interesting effects of a supersonic gas flow, but was necessary to maintain a numerical stability in the annulus. The results on the one-dimensional propagation of SF in the Oort cloud fluid model follow: (1) SF is propagated by means of hydrodynamic waves, which can be generated by external forces or by the pressure generated by local bursts. SF is not effectively propagated via diffusion or variation in cloud interaction rates without corresponding density and velocity changes. (2) The propagation and long-range effects of SF depend on how close the gas density is to the critical threshold value, i.e., on the susceptibility of the medium.

  2. Classes of Multivariate Exponential and Multivariate Geometric Distributions Derived from Markov Processes. Program Statistics Research Technical Report No. 89-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    A class of multivariate exponential distributions is defined as the distributions of occupancy times in upwards skip-free Markov processes in continuous time. These distributions are infinitely divisible, and the multivariate gamma class defined by convolutions and fractions is a substantial generalization of the class defined by N. L. Johnson and…

  3. Lifetime effectiveness of mifamurtide addition to chemotherapy in nonmetastatic and metastatic osteosarcoma: a Markov process model analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Jun Ah; Han, Euna; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2015-09-01

    The mortality and progression rates in osteosarcoma differ depending on the presence of metastasis. A decision model would be useful for estimating long-term effectiveness of treatment with limited clinical trial data. The aim of this study was to explore the lifetime effectiveness of the addition of mifamurtide to chemotherapy for patients with metastatic and nonmetastatic osteosarcoma. The target population was osteosarcoma patients with or without metastasis. A Markov process model was used, whose time horizon was lifetime with a starting age of 13 years. There were five health states: disease-free (DF), recurrence, post-recurrence disease-free, post-recurrence disease-progression, and death. Transition probabilities of the starting state, DF, were calculated from the INT-0133 clinical trials for chemotherapy with and without mifamurtide. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) increased upon addition of mifamurtide to chemotherapy by 10.5 % (10.13 and 9.17 QALY with and without mifamurtide, respectively) and 45.2 % (7.23 and 4.98 QALY with and without mifamurtide, respectively) relative to the lifetime effectiveness of chemotherapy in nonmetastatic and metastatic osteosarcoma, respectively. Life-years gained (LYG) increased by 10.1 % (13.10 LYG with mifamurtide and 11.90 LYG without mifamurtide) in nonmetastatic patients and 42.2 % (9.43 LYG with mifamurtide and 6.63 LYG without mifamurtide) in metastatic osteosarcoma patients. The Markov model analysis showed that chemotherapy with mifamurtide improved the lifetime effectiveness compared to chemotherapy alone in both nonmetastatic and metastatic osteosarcoma. Relative effectiveness of the therapy was higher in metastatic than nonmetastatic osteosarcoma over lifetime. However, absolute lifetime effectiveness was higher in nonmetastatic than metastatic osteosarcoma.

  4. One-dimensional turbulence modeling of a turbulent counterflow flame with comparison to DNS

    SciTech Connect

    Jozefik, Zoltan; Kerstein, Alan R.; Schmidt, Heiko; Lyra, Sgouria; Kolla, Hemanth; Chen, Jackie H.

    2015-06-01

    The one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is applied to a reactant-to-product counterflow configuration and results are compared with DNS data. The model employed herein solves conservation equations for momentum, energy, and species on a one dimensional (1D) domain corresponding to the line spanning the domain between nozzle orifice centers. The effects of turbulent mixing are modeled via a stochastic process, while the Kolmogorov and reactive length and time scales are explicitly resolved and a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism is used. Comparisons between model and DNS results for spatial mean and root-meansquare (RMS) velocity, temperature, and major and minor species profiles are shown. The ODT approach shows qualitatively and quantitatively reasonable agreement with the DNS data. Scatter plots and statistics conditioned on temperature are also compared for heat release rate and all species. ODT is able to capture the range of results depicted by DNS. However, conditional statistics show signs of underignition.

  5. ODTLES : a model for 3D turbulent flow based on one-dimensional turbulence modeling concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Randy; Kerstein, Alan R.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon

    2005-01-01

    This report describes an approach for extending the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model of Kerstein [6] to treat turbulent flow in three-dimensional (3D) domains. This model, here called ODTLES, can also be viewed as a new LES model. In ODTLES, 3D aspects of the flow are captured by embedding three, mutually orthogonal, one-dimensional ODT domain arrays within a coarser 3D mesh. The ODTLES model is obtained by developing a consistent approach for dynamically coupling the different ODT line sets to each other and to the large scale processes that are resolved on the 3D mesh. The model is implemented computationally and its performance is tested and evaluated by performing simulations of decaying isotropic turbulence, a standard turbulent flow benchmarking problem.

  6. A Markov decision process for managing habitat for Florida scrub-jays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Breininger, David R.; Duncan, Brean W.; Nichols, James D.; Runge, Michael C.; Williams, B. Ken

    2011-01-01

    Florida scrub-jays Aphelocoma coerulescens are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act due to loss and degradation of scrub habitat. This study concerned the development of an optimal strategy for the restoration and management of scrub habitat at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which contains one of the few remaining large populations of scrub-jays in Florida. There are documented differences in the reproductive and survival rates of scrubjays among discrete classes of scrub height (<120 cm or "short"; 120-170 cm or "optimal"; .170 cm or "tall"; and a combination of tall and optimal or "mixed"), and our objective was to calculate a state-dependent management strategy that would maximize the long-term growth rate of the resident scrub-jay population. We used aerial imagery with multistate Markov models to estimate annual transition probabilities among the four scrub-height classes under three possible management actions: scrub restoration (mechanical cutting followed by burning), a prescribed burn, or no intervention. A strategy prescribing the optimal management action for management units exhibiting different proportions of scrub-height classes was derived using dynamic programming. Scrub restoration was the optimal management action only in units dominated by mixed and tall scrub, and burning tended to be the optimal action for intermediate levels of short scrub. The optimal action was to do nothing when the amount of short scrub was greater than 30%, because short scrub mostly transitions to optimal height scrub (i.e., that state with the highest demographic success of scrub-jays) in the absence of intervention. Monte Carlo simulation of the optimal policy suggested that some form of management would be required every year. We note, however, that estimates of scrub-height transition probabilities were subject to several sources of uncertainty, and so we explored the management implications of alternative sets of transition probabilities

  7. A disorder-enhanced quasi-one-dimensional superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Petrović, A. P.; Ansermet, D.; Chernyshov, D.; Hoesch, M.; Salloum, D.; Gougeon, P.; Potel, M.; Boeri, L.; Panagopoulos, C.

    2016-01-01

    A powerful approach to analysing quantum systems with dimensionality d>1 involves adding a weak coupling to an array of one-dimensional (1D) chains. The resultant quasi-1D (q1D) systems can exhibit long-range order at low temperature, but are heavily influenced by interactions and disorder due to their large anisotropies. Real q1D materials are therefore ideal candidates not only to provoke, test and refine theories of strongly correlated matter, but also to search for unusual emergent electronic phases. Here we report the unprecedented enhancement of a superconducting instability by disorder in single crystals of Na2−δMo6Se6, a q1D superconductor comprising MoSe chains weakly coupled by Na atoms. We argue that disorder-enhanced Coulomb pair-breaking (which usually destroys superconductivity) may be averted due to a screened long-range Coulomb repulsion intrinsic to disordered q1D materials. Our results illustrate the capability of disorder to tune and induce new correlated electron physics in low-dimensional materials. PMID:27448209

  8. Topological water wave states in a one-dimensional structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile

    2016-07-01

    Topological concepts have been introduced into electronic, photonic, and phononic systems, but have not been studied in surface-water-wave systems. Here we study a one-dimensional periodic resonant surface-water-wave system and demonstrate its topological transition. By selecting three different water depths, we can construct different types of water waves - shallow, intermediate and deep water waves. The periodic surface-water-wave system consists of an array of cylindrical water tanks connected with narrow water channels. As the width of connecting channel varies, the band diagram undergoes a topological transition which can be further characterized by Zak phase. This topological transition holds true for shallow, intermediate and deep water waves. However, the interface state at the boundary separating two topologically distinct arrays of water tanks can exhibit different bands for shallow, intermediate and deep water waves. Our work studies for the first time topological properties of water wave systems, and paves the way to potential management of water waves.

  9. Approximate approaches to the one-dimensional finite potential well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shilpi; Pathak, Praveen; Singh, Vijay A.

    2011-11-01

    The one-dimensional finite well is a textbook problem. We propose approximate approaches to obtain the energy levels of the well. The finite well is also encountered in semiconductor heterostructures where the carrier mass inside the well (mi) is taken to be distinct from mass outside (mo). A relevant parameter is the mass discontinuity ratio β = mi/mo. To correctly account for the mass discontinuity, we apply the BenDaniel-Duke boundary condition. We obtain approximate solutions for two cases: when the well is shallow and when the well is deep. We compare the approximate results with the exact results and find that higher-order approximations are quite robust. For the shallow case, the approximate solution can be expressed in terms of a dimensionless parameter σl = 2moV0L2/planck2 (or σ = β2σl for the deep case). We show that the lowest-order results are related by a duality transform. We also discuss how the energy upscales with L (E~1/Lγ) and obtain the exponent γ. Exponent γ → 2 when the well is sufficiently deep and β → 1. The ratio of the masses dictates the physics. Our presentation is pedagogical and should be useful to students on a first course on elementary quantum mechanics or low-dimensional semiconductors.

  10. One-dimensional Kac model of dense amorphous hard spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, H.; Ikeda, A.

    2015-08-01

    We introduce a new model of hard spheres under confinement for the study of the glass and jamming transitions. The model is a one-dimensional chain of the d-dimensional boxes each of which contains the same number of hard spheres, and the particles in the boxes of the ends of the chain are quenched at their equilibrium positions. We focus on the infinite-dimensional limit (d \\to ∞) of the model and analytically compute the glass transition densities using the replica liquid theory. From the chain length dependence of the transition densities, we extract the characteristic length scales at the glass transition. The divergence of the lengths are characterized by the two exponents, -1/4 for the dynamical transition and -1 for the ideal glass transition, which are consistent with those of the p-spin mean-field spin glass model. We also show that the model is useful for the study of the growing length scale at the jamming transition.

  11. One-Dimensional Quasi-Relativistic Particle in the Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleta, Kamil; Kwaśnicki, Mateusz; Małecki, Jacek

    2013-09-01

    The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the one-dimensional quasi-relativistic Hamiltonian (-ℏ2c2d2/dx2 + m2c4)1/2 + Vwell(x) (the Klein-Gordon square-root operator with electrostatic potential) with the infinite square well potential Vwell(x) are studied. Eigenvalues represent energies of a "massive particle in the box" quasi-relativistic model. Approximations to eigenvalues λn are given, uniformly in n, ℏ, m, c and a, with error less than C1ℏca-1exp(-C2ℏ-1mca)n-1. Here 2a is the width of the potential well. As a consequence, the spectrum is simple and the nth eigenvalue is equal to (nπ/2 - π/8)ℏc/a + O(1/n) as n → ∞. Non-relativistic, zero mass and semi-classical asymptotic expansions are included as special cases. In the final part, some L2 and L∞ properties of eigenfunctions are studied.

  12. Trapped Atoms in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimble, H.

    2013-05-01

    I describe one-dimensional photonic crystals that support a guided mode suitable for atom trapping within a unit cell, as well as a second probe mode with strong atom-photon interactions. A new hybrid trap is analyzed that combines optical and Casimir-Polder forces to form stable traps for neutral atoms in dielectric nanostructures. By suitable design of the band structure, the atomic spontaneous emission rate into the probe mode can exceed the rate into all other modes by more than tenfold. The unprecedented single-atom reflectivity r0 ~= 0 . 9 for the guided probe field could create new scientific opportunities, including quantum many-body physics for 1 D atom chains with photon-mediated interactions and high-precision studies of vacuum forces. Towards these goals, my colleagues and I are pursuing numerical simulation, device fabrication, and cold-atom experiments with nanoscopic structures. Funding is provided by by the IQIM, an NSF PFC with support of the Moore Foundation, by the AFOSR QuMPASS MURI, by the DoD NSSEFF program (HJK), and by NSF Grant PHY0652914 (HJK). DEC acknowledges funding from Fundacio Privada Cellex Barcelona.

  13. Energy transport in one-dimensional disordered granular solids.

    PubMed

    Achilleos, V; Theocharis, G; Skokos, Ch

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the energy transport in one-dimensional disordered granular solids by extensive numerical simulations. In particular, we consider the case of a polydisperse granular chain composed of spherical beads of the same material and with radii taken from a random distribution. We start by examining the linear case, in which it is known that the energy transport strongly depends on the type of initial conditions. Thus, we consider two sets of initial conditions: an initial displacement and an initial momentum excitation of a single bead. After establishing the regime of sufficiently strong disorder, we focus our study on the role of nonlinearity for both sets of initial conditions. By increasing the initial excitation amplitudes we are able to identify three distinct dynamical regimes with different energy transport properties: a near linear, a weakly nonlinear, and a highly nonlinear regime. Although energy spreading is found to be increasing for higher nonlinearities, in the weakly nonlinear regime no clear asymptotic behavior of the spreading is found. In this regime, we additionally find that energy, initially trapped in a localized region, can be eventually detrapped and this has a direct influence on the fluctuations of the energy spreading. We also demonstrate that in the highly nonlinear regime, the differences in energy transport between the two sets of initial conditions vanish. Actually, in this regime the energy is almost ballistically transported through shocklike excitations.

  14. Charge transport through one-dimensional Moiré crystals

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Roméo; Lherbier, Aurélien; Barraud, Clément; Rocca, Maria Luisa Della; Lafarge, Philippe; Charlier, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Moiré superlattices were generated in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures and have revealed intriguing electronic structures. The appearance of mini-Dirac cones within the conduction and valence bands of graphene is one of the most striking among the new quantum features. A Moiré superstructure emerges when at least two periodic sub-structures superimpose. 2D Moiré patterns have been particularly investigated in stacked hexagonal 2D atomic lattices like twisted graphene layers and graphene deposited on hexagonal boron-nitride. In this letter, we report both experimentally and theoretically evidence of superlattices physics in transport properties of one-dimensional (1D) Moiré crystals. Rolling-up few layers of graphene to form a multiwall carbon nanotube adds boundaries conditions that can be translated into interference fringes-like Moiré patterns along the circumference of the cylinder. Such a 1D Moiré crystal exhibits a complex 1D multiple bands structure with clear and robust interband quantum transitions due to the presence of mini-Dirac points and pseudo-gaps. Our devices consist in a very large diameter (>80 nm) multiwall carbon nanotubes of high quality, electrically connected by metallic electrodes acting as charge reservoirs. Conductance measurements reveal the presence of van Hove singularities assigned to 1D Moiré superlattice effect and illustrated by electronic structure calculations. PMID:26786067

  15. Charge transport through one-dimensional Moiré crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Roméo; Lherbier, Aurélien; Barraud, Clément; Rocca, Maria Luisa Della; Lafarge, Philippe; Charlier, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Moiré superlattices were generated in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures and have revealed intriguing electronic structures. The appearance of mini-Dirac cones within the conduction and valence bands of graphene is one of the most striking among the new quantum features. A Moiré superstructure emerges when at least two periodic sub-structures superimpose. 2D Moiré patterns have been particularly investigated in stacked hexagonal 2D atomic lattices like twisted graphene layers and graphene deposited on hexagonal boron-nitride. In this letter, we report both experimentally and theoretically evidence of superlattices physics in transport properties of one-dimensional (1D) Moiré crystals. Rolling-up few layers of graphene to form a multiwall carbon nanotube adds boundaries conditions that can be translated into interference fringes-like Moiré patterns along the circumference of the cylinder. Such a 1D Moiré crystal exhibits a complex 1D multiple bands structure with clear and robust interband quantum transitions due to the presence of mini-Dirac points and pseudo-gaps. Our devices consist in a very large diameter (>80 nm) multiwall carbon nanotubes of high quality, electrically connected by metallic electrodes acting as charge reservoirs. Conductance measurements reveal the presence of van Hove singularities assigned to 1D Moiré superlattice effect and illustrated by electronic structure calculations.

  16. Numerical Method of Characteristics for One-Dimensional Blood Flow.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Sebastian; Puelz, Charles; Riviére, Béatrice; Penny, Daniel J; Rusin, Craig G

    2015-08-01

    Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the utility of the proposed method by implementing it on small and large arterial networks of vessels whose elastic and geometrical parameters are physiologically relevant.

  17. Screw dislocation-driven growth of one-dimensional nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fei

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology are impacting our lives in many ways, from electronic and photonic devices to biosensors. They also hold the promise of tackling the renewable energy challenges facing us. However, one limiting scientific challenge is the effective and efficient bottom-up synthesis of nanomaterials. In this thesis, we discuss the fundamental theories of screw dislocation-driven growth of various nanostructures including one-dimensional nanowires and nanotubes, two-dimensional nanoplates, and three-dimensional hierarchical tree-like nanostructures. We then introduce the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques to structurally characterize the dislocation-driven nanomaterials for future searching and identifying purposes. We summarize the guidelines for rationally designing the dislocation-driven growth and discuss specific examples to illustrate how to implement the guidelines. We also show that dislocation growth is a general and versatile mechanism that can be used to grow a variety of nanomaterials via distinct reaction chemistry and synthetic methods. The fundamental investigation and development of dislocation-driven growth of nanomaterials will create a new dimension to the rational design and synthesis of increasingly complex nanomaterials.

  18. One-dimensional consolidation in unsaturated soils under cyclic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Wei-Cheng; Sposito, Garrison; Lee, Jhe-Wei; Chu, Hsiuhua

    2016-05-01

    The one-dimensional consolidation model of poroelasticity of Lo et al. (2014) for an unsaturated soil under constant loading is generalized to include an arbitrary time-dependent loading. A closed-form solution for the pore water and air pressures along with the total settlement is derived by employing a Fourier series representation in the spatial domain and a Laplace transformation in the time domain. This solution is illustrated for the important example of a fully-permeable soil cylinder with an undrained initial condition acted upon by a periodic stress. Our results indicate that, in terms of a dimensionless time scale, the transient solution decays to zero most slowly in a water-saturated soil, whereas for an unsaturated soil, the time for the transient solution to die out is inversely proportional to the initial water saturation. The generalization presented here shows that the diffusion time scale for pore water in an unsaturated soil is orders of magnitude greater than that in a water-saturated soil, mainly because of the much smaller hydraulic conductivity of the former.

  19. One-dimensional surface phonon polaritons in boron nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoji G.; Ghamsari, Behnood G.; Jiang, Jian-Hua; Gilburd, Leonid; Andreev, Gregory O.; Zhi, Chunyi; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Berini, Pierre; Walker, Gilbert C.

    2014-08-01

    Surface polaritons, which are electromagnetic waves coupled to material charge oscillations, have enabled applications in concentrating, guiding and harvesting optical energy below the diffraction limit. Surface plasmon polaritons involve oscillations of electrons and are accessible in noble metals at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, whereas surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) rely on phonon resonances in polar materials, and are active in the mid-infrared. Noble metal surface plasmon polaritons have limited applications in the mid-infrared. SPhPs at flat interfaces normally possess long polariton wavelengths and provide modest field confinement/enhancement. Here we demonstrate propagating SPhPs in a one-dimensional material consisting of a boron nitride nanotube at mid-infrared wavelengths. The observed SPhP exhibits high field confinement and enhancement, and a very high effective index (neff~70). We show that the modal and propagation length characteristics of the SPhPs may be controlled through the nanotube size and the supporting substrates, enabling mid-infrared applications.

  20. One-dimensional surface phonon polaritons in boron nitride nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoji G; Ghamsari, Behnood G; Jiang, Jian-Hua; Gilburd, Leonid; Andreev, Gregory O; Zhi, Chunyi; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Berini, Pierre; Walker, Gilbert C

    2014-08-26

    Surface polaritons, which are electromagnetic waves coupled to material charge oscillations, have enabled applications in concentrating, guiding and harvesting optical energy below the diffraction limit. Surface plasmon polaritons involve oscillations of electrons and are accessible in noble metals at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, whereas surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) rely on phonon resonances in polar materials, and are active in the mid-infrared. Noble metal surface plasmon polaritons have limited applications in the mid-infrared. SPhPs at flat interfaces normally possess long polariton wavelengths and provide modest field confinement/enhancement. Here we demonstrate propagating SPhPs in a one-dimensional material consisting of a boron nitride nanotube at mid-infrared wavelengths. The observed SPhP exhibits high field confinement and enhancement, and a very high effective index (neff~70). We show that the modal and propagation length characteristics of the SPhPs may be controlled through the nanotube size and the supporting substrates, enabling mid-infrared applications.

  1. Dynamic response of one-dimensional bosons in a trap

    SciTech Connect

    Golovach, Vitaly N.; Minguzzi, Anna; Glazman, Leonid I.

    2009-10-15

    We calculate the dynamic structure factor S(q,{omega}) of a one-dimensional (1D) interacting Bose gas confined in a harmonic trap. The effective interaction depends on the strength of the confinement enforcing the (1D) motion of atoms; interaction may be further enhanced by superimposing an optical lattice on the trap potential. In the compressible state, we find that the smooth variation in the gas density around the trap center leads to softening of the singular behavior of S(q,{omega}) at the first Lieb excitation mode compared to the behavior predicted for homogeneous 1D systems. Nevertheless, the density-averaged response S(q,{omega}) remains a nonanalytic function of q and {omega} at the first Lieb excitation mode in the limit of weak trap confinement. The exponent of the power-law nonanalyticity is modified due to the inhomogeneity in a universal way and thus bears unambiguously the information about the (homogeneous) Lieb-Liniger model. A strong optical lattice causes formation of Mott phases. Deep in the Mott regime, we predict a semicircular peak in S(q,{omega}) centered at the on-site repulsion energy, {omega}=U. Similar peaks of smaller amplitudes exist at multiples of U as well. We explain the suppression of the dynamic response with entering into the Mott regime, observed recently by Clement et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 155301 (2009)], based on an f-sum rule for the Bose-Hubbard model.

  2. Weak lasing in one-dimensional polariton superlattices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long; Xie, Wei; Wang, Jian; Poddubny, Alexander; Lu, Jian; Wang, Yinglei; Gu, Jie; Liu, Wenhui; Xu, Dan; Shen, Xuechu; Rubo, Yuri G; Altshuler, Boris L; Kavokin, Alexey V; Chen, Zhanghai

    2015-03-31

    Bosons with finite lifetime exhibit condensation and lasing when their influx exceeds the lasing threshold determined by the dissipative losses. In general, different one-particle states decay differently, and the bosons are usually assumed to condense in the state with the longest lifetime. Interaction between the bosons partially neglected by such an assumption can smear the lasing threshold into a threshold domain--a stable lasing many-body state exists within certain intervals of the bosonic influxes. This recently described weak lasing regime is formed by the spontaneously symmetry breaking and phase-locking self-organization of bosonic modes, which results in an essentially many-body state with a stable balance between gains and losses. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first observation of the weak lasing phase in a one-dimensional condensate of exciton-polaritons subject to a periodic potential. Real and reciprocal space photoluminescence images demonstrate that the spatial period of the condensate is twice as large as the period of the underlying periodic potential. These experiments are realized at room temperature in a ZnO microwire deposited on a silicon grating. The period doubling takes place at a critical pumping power, whereas at a lower power polariton emission images have the same periodicity as the grating.

  3. Weak lasing in one-dimensional polariton superlattices

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Long; Xie, Wei; Wang, Jian; Poddubny, Alexander; Lu, Jian; Wang, Yinglei; Gu, Jie; Liu, Wenhui; Xu, Dan; Shen, Xuechu; Rubo, Yuri G.; Altshuler, Boris L.; Kavokin, Alexey V.; Chen, Zhanghai

    2015-01-01

    Bosons with finite lifetime exhibit condensation and lasing when their influx exceeds the lasing threshold determined by the dissipative losses. In general, different one-particle states decay differently, and the bosons are usually assumed to condense in the state with the longest lifetime. Interaction between the bosons partially neglected by such an assumption can smear the lasing threshold into a threshold domain—a stable lasing many-body state exists within certain intervals of the bosonic influxes. This recently described weak lasing regime is formed by the spontaneously symmetry breaking and phase-locking self-organization of bosonic modes, which results in an essentially many-body state with a stable balance between gains and losses. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first observation of the weak lasing phase in a one-dimensional condensate of exciton–polaritons subject to a periodic potential. Real and reciprocal space photoluminescence images demonstrate that the spatial period of the condensate is twice as large as the period of the underlying periodic potential. These experiments are realized at room temperature in a ZnO microwire deposited on a silicon grating. The period doubling takes place at a critical pumping power, whereas at a lower power polariton emission images have the same periodicity as the grating. PMID:25787253

  4. One-dimensional nanoferroic rods; synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. A.; Seddik, U.; Okasha, N.; Imam, N. G.

    2015-11-01

    One-dimensional nanoferroic rods of BaTiO3 were synthesized by improved citrate auto-combustion technology using tetrabutyl titanate. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been used to characterize the prepared sample. The results indicated that the crystal structure of BaTiO3 is tetragonal phase with an average crystallite size of 47 nm. SEM image gives a cauliflower-like morphology of the agglomerated nanorods. The stoichiometry of the chemical composition of the BaTiO3 ceramic was confirmed by EDX. TEM micrograph exhibited that BaTiO3 nanoparticles have rod-like shape with an average length of 120 nm and width of 43 nm. AFM was used to investigate the surface topography and its roughness. The topography image in 3D showed that the BaTiO3 particles have a rod shape with an average particle size of 116 nm which in agreement with 3D TEM result.

  5. Supercurrent states in one-dimensional finite-size rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashurnikov, Vladimir A.; Podlivaev, Alexei I.; Prokof'ev, Nikolai V.; Svistunov, Boris V.

    1996-05-01

    We consider topological supercurrent excitations (SC's) in one-dimensional (1D) mesoscopic rings. In the superfluid phase such excitations are well defined except for (i) a tunneling between resonating states with clockwise and counterclockwise currents, which may be characterized by the amplitude Δ, and (ii) a decay of SC assisted by phonons of the substrate, both effects being macroscopically small. Our approach, being based on the hydrodynamical action for the phase field and its generalization to the effective Hamiltonian, explicitly takes into account transitions between the states with different topological numbers and turns out to be very effective for the calculation of Δ and estimation of the decay width of SC, as well as for the unified description of all known 1D superfluid-insulator transitions. Most attention is paid to the calculation of the macroscopic scaling of Δ (the main superfluid characteristic of a mesoscopic system) under different conditions: a commensurate system, a system with single impurity, and a disordered system. The results are in a very good agreement with the exact-diagonalization spectra of the boson Hubbard models. Apart from really 1D electron wires we discuss two other important experimental systems: the 2D electron gas in the fractional quantum Hall effect state and quasi-1D superconducting rings. We suggest some experimental setups for studying SC, e.g., via persistent current measurements, resonant electromagnetic absorption or echo signals, and relaxation of the metastable current states.

  6. Validation and Comparison of One-Dimensional Graound Motion Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    B. Darragh; W. Silva; N. Gregor

    2006-06-28

    Both point- and finite-source stochastic one-dimensional ground motion models, coupled to vertically propagating equivalent-linear shear-wave site response models are validated using an extensive set of strong motion data as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. The validation and comparison exercises are presented entirely in terms of 5% damped pseudo absolute response spectra. The study consists of a quantitative analyses involving modeling nineteen well-recorded earthquakes, M 5.6 to 7.4 at over 600 sites. The sites range in distance from about 1 to about 200 km in the western US (460 km for central-eastern US). In general, this validation demonstrates that the stochastic point- and finite-source models produce accurate predictions of strong ground motions over the range of 0 to 100 km and for magnitudes M 5.0 to 7.4. The stochastic finite-source model appears to be broadband, producing near zero bias from about 0.3 Hz (low frequency limit of the analyses) to the high frequency limit of the data (100 and 25 Hz for response and Fourier amplitude spectra, respectively).

  7. Numerical method of characteristics for one-dimensional blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Sebastian; Puelz, Charles; Rivière, Béatrice; Penny, Daniel J.; Rusin, Craig G.

    2015-08-01

    Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the utility of the proposed method by implementing it on small and large arterial networks of vessels whose elastic and geometrical parameters are physiologically relevant.

  8. Solitary Wave in One-dimensional Buckyball System at Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Zheng, Bowen; Liu, Yilun

    2016-02-19

    We have studied the stress wave propagation in one-dimensional (1-D) nanoscopic buckyball (C60) system by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and quantitative modeling. Simulation results have shown that solitary waves are generated and propagating in the buckyball system through impacting one buckyball at one end of the buckyball chain. We have found the solitary wave behaviors are closely dependent on the initial temperature and impacting speed of the buckyball chain. There are almost no dispersion and dissipation of the solitary waves (stationary solitary wave) for relatively low temperature and high impacting speed. While for relatively high temperature and low impacting speed the profile of the solitary waves is highly distorted and dissipated after propagating several tens of buckyballs. A phase diagram is proposed to describe the effect of the temperature and impacting speed on the solitary wave behaviors in buckyball system. In order to quantitatively describe the wave behavior in buckyball system, a simple nonlinear-spring model is established, which can describe the MD simulation results at low temperature very well. The results presented in this work may lay a solid step towards the further understanding and manipulation of stress wave propagation and impact energy mitigation at nanoscale.

  9. Multi-symplectic, Lagrangian, one-dimensional gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, G. M.

    2015-05-01

    The equations of Lagrangian, ideal, one-dimensional, compressible gas dynamics are written in a multi-symplectic form using the Lagrangian mass coordinate m and time t as independent variables, and in which the Eulerian position of the fluid element x = x(m, t) is one of the dependent variables. This approach differs from the Eulerian, multi-symplectic approach using Clebsch variables. Lagrangian constraints are used to specify equations for xm, xt, and St consistent with the Lagrangian map, where S is the entropy of the gas. We require St = 0 corresponding to advection of the entropy S with the flow. We show that the Lagrangian Hamiltonian equations are related to the de Donder-Weyl multi-momentum formulation. The pullback conservation laws and the symplecticity conservation laws are discussed. The pullback conservation laws correspond to invariance of the action with respect to translations in time (energy conservation) and translations in m in Noether's theorem. The conservation law due to m-translation invariance gives rise to a novel nonlocal conservation law involving the Clebsch variable r used to impose ∂S(m, t)/∂t = 0. Translation invariance with respect to x in Noether's theorem is associated with momentum conservation. We obtain the Cartan-Poincaré form for the system, and use it to obtain a closed ideal of two-forms representing the equation system.

  10. Developing one-dimensional implosions for inertial confinement fusion science

    DOE PAGES

    Kline, John L.; Yi, Sunghwan A.; Simakov, Andrei Nikolaevich; ...

    2016-12-12

    Experiments on the National Ignition Facility show that multi-dimensional effects currently dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a one-dimensional (1D) implosion platform where 1D means measured yield overmore » the 1D clean calculation. A high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed using beryllium capsules enabling larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the implosion convergence can be controlled via the initial vapor pressure set by the target fielding temperature. The last method is double shell targets. For double shells, the smaller inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. However, double shell targets have a different set of trade-off versus advantages. As a result, details for each of these approaches are described.« less

  11. Developing one-dimensional implosions for inertial confinement fusion science

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, John L.; Yi, Sunghwan A.; Simakov, Andrei Nikolaevich; Olson, Richard Edward; Wilson, Douglas Carl; Kyrala, George Amine; Perry, Theodore Sonne; Batha, Steven H.; Dewald, Eddie L.; Ralph, Joe E.; Strozzi, David J.; MacPhee, Andy G.; Callahan, Debbie A.; Hinkel, Denise; Hurricane, Omar A.; Leeper, Ramon J.; Zylstra, Alex B.; Peterson, Robert Ross; Haines, Brian Michael; Yin, Lin; Bradley, Paul Andrew; Shah, Rahul C.; Braun, Tom; Biener, Jorgan; Kozioziemski, Bernie J.; Sater, Jim D.; Biener, Monika M.; Hamza, Alex V.; Nikroo, Abbas; Berzak Hopkins, Laura F.; Ho, Darwin; LePape, Sebastian; Meezan, Nathan B.; Montgomery, David S.; Daughton, William Scott; Merritt, Elizabeth Catherine; Cardenas, Tana; Dodd, Evan S.

    2016-12-12

    Experiments on the National Ignition Facility show that multi-dimensional effects currently dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a one-dimensional (1D) implosion platform where 1D means measured yield over the 1D clean calculation. A high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed using beryllium capsules enabling larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the implosion convergence can be controlled via the initial vapor pressure set by the target fielding temperature. The last method is double shell targets. For double shells, the smaller inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. However, double shell targets have a different set of trade-off versus advantages. As a result, details for each of these approaches are described.

  12. Solitary Wave in One-dimensional Buckyball System at Nanoscale

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Zheng, Bowen; Liu, Yilun

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the stress wave propagation in one-dimensional (1-D) nanoscopic buckyball (C60) system by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and quantitative modeling. Simulation results have shown that solitary waves are generated and propagating in the buckyball system through impacting one buckyball at one end of the buckyball chain. We have found the solitary wave behaviors are closely dependent on the initial temperature and impacting speed of the buckyball chain. There are almost no dispersion and dissipation of the solitary waves (stationary solitary wave) for relatively low temperature and high impacting speed. While for relatively high temperature and low impacting speed the profile of the solitary waves is highly distorted and dissipated after propagating several tens of buckyballs. A phase diagram is proposed to describe the effect of the temperature and impacting speed on the solitary wave behaviors in buckyball system. In order to quantitatively describe the wave behavior in buckyball system, a simple nonlinear-spring model is established, which can describe the MD simulation results at low temperature very well. The results presented in this work may lay a solid step towards the further understanding and manipulation of stress wave propagation and impact energy mitigation at nanoscale. PMID:26891624

  13. Dispersive excitations in one-dimensional ionic Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez Torbati, M.; Drescher, Nils A.; Uhrig, Götz S.

    2014-06-01

    A detailed study of the one-dimensional ionic Hubbard model with interaction U is presented. We focus on the band insulating (BI) phase and the spontaneously dimerized insulating (SDI) phase which appears on increasing U. By a recently introduced continuous unitary transformation [H. Krull et al., Phys. Rev. B 86, 125113 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.125113] we are able to describe the system even close to the phase transition from BI to SDI although the bare perturbative series diverges before the transition is reached. First, the dispersion of single fermionic quasiparticles is determined in the full Brillouin zone. Second, we describe the binding phenomena between two fermionic quasiparticles leading to an S =0 and to an S =1 exciton. The latter corresponds to the lowest spin excitation and defines the spin gap which remains finite through the transition from BI to SDI. The former becomes soft at the transition, indicating that the SDI corresponds to a condensate of these S =0 excitons. This view is confirmed by a BCS mean-field theory for the SDI phase.

  14. Majorana Fermions in Disordered Quasi-One-Dimensional Topological Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Andrew; Lee, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    Majorana fermions have long been predicted to emerge in certain quantum Hall states and other naturally occurring p-wave superconductors. However, these materials are quite delicate and consequently the experimental realization of Majorana fermions remains elusive. The possibility of engineering 1D networks of topological superconducting wires from conventional materials offers a promising alternative route to realize Majorana fermions and probe their predicted non-Abelian statistics. In practice, it is impossible to fabricate perfectly clean and strictly one-dimensional structures; how do these non-idealities affect the proposed Majorana states? This talk will show that Majorana end states are robust away from the strict 1D limit, so long as the sample width is not much larger than the superconducting coherence length. The effects of disorder are potentially more severe, as impurity scattering is generally pair-breaking and tends to suppress the gap protecting the Majorana modes. Finally, we propose new candidate materials and geometries that greatly simplify the experimental setup and mitigate the harmful effects of disorder.

  15. Topological phase in one-dimensional Rashba wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa-Ke, Wang; Jun, Wang; Jun-Feng, Liu

    2016-07-01

    We study the possible topological phase in a one-dimensional (1D) quantum wire with an oscillating Rashba spin-orbital coupling in real space. It is shown that there are a pair of particle-hole symmetric gaps forming in the bulk energy band and fractional boundary states residing in the gap when the system has an inversion symmetry. These states are topologically nontrivial and can be characterized by a quantized Berry phase ±π or nonzero Chern number through dimensional extension. When the Rashba spin-orbital coupling varies slowly with time, the system can pump out 2 charges in a pumping cycle because of the spin flip effect. This quantized pumping is protected by topology and is robust against moderate disorders as long as the disorder strength does not exceed the opened energy gap. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 115074045 and 11204187) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20131284).

  16. Single ions trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Enderlein, Martin; Huber, Thomas; Schneider, Christian; Schaetz, Tobias

    2012-12-07

    We report on three-dimensional optical trapping of single ions in a one-dimensional optical lattice formed by two counterpropagating laser beams. We characterize the trapping parameters of the standing-wave using the ion as a sensor stored in a hybrid trap consisting of a radio-frequency (rf), a dc, and the optical potential. When loading ions directly from the rf into the standing-wave trap, we observe a dominant heating rate. Monte Carlo simulations confirm rf-induced parametric excitations within the deep optical lattice as the main source. We demonstrate a way around this effect by an alternative transfer protocol which involves an intermediate step of optical confinement in a single-beam trap avoiding the temporal overlap of the standing-wave and the rf field. Implications arise for hybrid (rf-optical) and pure optical traps as platforms for ultracold chemistry experiments exploring atom-ion collisions or quantum simulation experiments with ions, or combinations of ions and atoms.

  17. Topological water wave states in a one-dimensional structure

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    Topological concepts have been introduced into electronic, photonic, and phononic systems, but have not been studied in surface-water-wave systems. Here we study a one-dimensional periodic resonant surface-water-wave system and demonstrate its topological transition. By selecting three different water depths, we can construct different types of water waves - shallow, intermediate and deep water waves. The periodic surface-water-wave system consists of an array of cylindrical water tanks connected with narrow water channels. As the width of connecting channel varies, the band diagram undergoes a topological transition which can be further characterized by Zak phase. This topological transition holds true for shallow, intermediate and deep water waves. However, the interface state at the boundary separating two topologically distinct arrays of water tanks can exhibit different bands for shallow, intermediate and deep water waves. Our work studies for the first time topological properties of water wave systems, and paves the way to potential management of water waves. PMID:27373982

  18. Interspecies tunneling in one-dimensional Bose mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Pflanzer, Anika C.; Zoellner, Sascha; Schmelcher, Peter

    2010-02-15

    We study the ground-state properties and quantum dynamics of few-boson mixtures with strong interspecies repulsion in one-dimensional traps. If one species localizes at the center, e.g., due to a very large mass compared to the other component, it represents an effective barrier for the latter, and the system can be mapped onto identical bosons in a double well. For weaker localization, the barrier atoms begin to respond to the light component, leading to an induced attraction between the mobile atoms that may even outweigh their bare intraspecies repulsion. To explain the resulting effects, we derive an effective Hubbard model for the lighter species accounting for the back action of the barrier in correction terms to the lattice parameters. Also the tunneling is drastically affected: by varying the degree of localization of the 'barrier' atoms, the dynamics of intrinsically noninteracting bosons can change from Rabi oscillations to effective pair tunneling. For identical fermions (or fermionized bosons), this leads to the tunneling of attractively bound pairs.

  19. One-dimensional kinetics modifications for BWR reload methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chandola, V.; Robichaud, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) currently uses RETRAN-02 to analyze limiting transients and establish operating minimum critical power ratio (MCPR) limits for Vermont Yankee (VY) boiling water reactor (BWR) reload analysis. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-approved analysis methods, used in previous cycles, use the point-kinetics modeling option in RETRAN-02 to represent transient-induced neutronic feedback. RETRAN-02 also contains a one-dimensional (1-D) kinetics neutronic feedback model option that provides a more accurate transient power prediction than the point-kinetics model. In the past few fuel cycles, the thermal or MCPR operating margin at VY has eroded due to increases in fuel cycle length. To offset this decrease, YAEC has developed the capability to use the more accurate 1-D kinetics RETRAN option. This paper reviews the qualification effort for the YAEC BWR methods. This paper also presents a comparison between RETRAN-02 predictions using 1-D and point kinetics for the limiting transient, and demonstrates the typical gain in thermal margin from 1-D kinetics.

  20. Bulk-edge correspondence of one-dimensional quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedzich, C.; Grünbaum, F. A.; Stahl, C.; Velázquez, L.; Werner, A. H.; Werner, R. F.

    2016-05-01

    We outline a theory of symmetry protected topological phases of one-dimensional quantum walks. We assume spectral gaps around the symmetry-distinguished points +1 and -1, in which only discrete eigenvalues are allowed. The phase classification by integer or binary indices extends the classification known for translation invariant systems in terms of their band structure. However, our theory requires no translation invariance whatsoever, and the indices we define in this general setting are invariant under arbitrary symmetric local perturbations, even those that cannot be continuously contracted to the identity. More precisely we define two indices for every walk, characterizing the behavior far to the right and far to the left, respectively. Their sum is a lower bound on the number of eigenstates at +1 and -1. For a translation invariant system the indices add up to zero, so one of them already characterizes the phase. By joining two bulk phases with different indices we get a walk in which the right and left indices no longer cancel, so the theory predicts bound states at +1 or -1. This is a rigorous statement of bulk-edge correspondence. The results also apply to the Hamiltonian case with a single gap at zero.

  1. Transmission properties of one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shiveshwari, Laxmi; Awasthi, S. K.

    2015-09-15

    Omnidirectional photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals (PPC) composed of single negative metamaterials. The band characteristics and transmission properties are investigated through the transfer matrix method. We show that the proposed structure can trap light in three-dimensional space due to the elimination of Brewster's angle transmission resonance allowing the existence of complete PBG. The results are discussed in terms of incident angle, layer thickness, dielectric constant of the dielectric material, and number of unit cells (N) for TE and TM polarizations. It is seen that PBG characteristics is apparent even in an N ≥ 2 system, which is weakly sensitive to the incident angle and completely insensitive to the polarization. Finite PPC could be used for multichannel transmission filter without introducing any defect in the geometry. We show that the locations of the multichannel transmission peaks are in the allowed band of the infinite structure. The structure can work as a single or multichannel filter by varying the number of unit cells. Binary PPC can also work as a polarization sensitive tunable filter.

  2. Fractal geometry in an expanding, one-dimensional, Newtonian universe.

    PubMed

    Miller, Bruce N; Rouet, Jean-Louis; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel

    2007-09-01

    Observations of galaxies over large distances reveal the possibility of a fractal distribution of their positions. The source of fractal behavior is the lack of a length scale in the two body gravitational interaction. However, even with new, larger, sample sizes from recent surveys, it is difficult to extract information concerning fractal properties with confidence. Similarly, three-dimensional N-body simulations with a billion particles only provide a thousand particles per dimension, far too small for accurate conclusions. With one-dimensional models these limitations can be overcome by carrying out simulations with on the order of a quarter of a million particles without compromising the computation of the gravitational force. Here the multifractal properties of two of these models that incorporate different features of the dynamical equations governing the evolution of a matter dominated universe are compared. For each model at least two scaling regions are identified. By employing criteria from dynamical systems theory it is shown that only one of them can be geometrically significant. The results share important similarities with galaxy observations, such as hierarchical clustering and apparent bifractal geometry. They also provide insights concerning possible constraints on length and time scales for fractal structure. They clearly demonstrate that fractal geometry evolves in the mu (position, velocity) space. The observed patterns are simply a shadow (projection) of higher-dimensional structure.

  3. One dimensional coordination polymers: Synthesis, crystal structures and spectroscopic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaağaç, Dursun; Kürkçüoğlu, Güneş Süheyla; Şenyel, Mustafa; Şahin, Onur

    2016-11-01

    Two new one dimensional (1D) cyanide complexes, namely [M(4-aepy)2(H2O)2][Pt(CN)4], (4-aepy = 4-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine M = Cu(II) (1) or Zn(II) (2)), have been synthesized and characterized by vibrational (FT-IR and Raman) spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, thermal and elemental analyses techniques. The crystallographic analyses reveal that 1 and 2 are isomorphous and isostructural, and crystallize in the monoclinic system and C2 space group. The Pt(II) ions are coordinated by four cyanide-carbon atoms in the square-planar geometry and the [Pt(CN)4]2- ions act as a counter ion. The M(II) ions display an N4O2 coordination sphere with a distorted octahedral geometry, the nitrogen donors belonging to four molecules of the organic 4-aepy that act as unidentate ligands and two oxygen atoms from aqua ligands. The crystal structures of 1 and 2 are similar each other and linked via intermolecular hydrogen bonding, Pt⋯π interactions to form 3D supramolecular network. Vibration assignments of all the observed bands are given and the spectral features also supported to the crystal structures of the complexes.

  4. Reentrant phase coherence in a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansermet, Diane; Petrovic, Alexander P.; He, Shikun; Chernyshov, Dmitri; Hoesch, Moritz; Salloum, Diala; Gougeon, Patrick; Potel, Michel; Boeri, Lilia; Andersen, Ole K.; Panagopoulos, Christos

    Short coherence lengths characteristic of low-dimensional superconductors are related to high critical fields or temperatures. Fatally, such materials are often sensitive to disorder and suffer from phase fluctuations in the order parameter which diverge with temperature T, magnetic field H or current I. To solve synthesis and fluctuation problems, we propose to build superconductors from inhomogeneous composites of nanofilaments. Single crystals of quasi-one-dimensional Na2-δMo6Se6 featuring Na vacancy disorder (δ ~ 0 . 2) behave as percolative networks of superconducting nanowires. Long range order is established via transverse coupling between individual filaments, yet phase coherence is unstable to fluctuations and localization in the zero-(T, H, I) limit. A region of reentrant phase coherence develops upon raising (T, H, I) and is attributed to an enhancement of the transverse coupling due to electron delocalization. The observed reentrance in the electronic transport coincides with a peak in the Josephson energy EJ at non-zero (T, H, I). Na2-δMo6Se6 is a blueprint for a new generation of low dimensional superconductors with resilience to phase fluctuations at high (T, H, I). This work was supported by the National Research Foundation, Singapore, through Grant NRF-CRP4-2008-04.

  5. One-dimensional simulation of lanthanide isotachophoresis using COMSOL.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Derek R; Clark, Sue B; Ivory, Cornelius F

    2012-03-01

    Electrokinetic separations can be used to quickly separate rare earth metals to determine their forensic signature. In this work, we simulate the concentration and separation of trivalent lanthanide cations by isotachophoresis. A one-dimensional simulation is developed using COMSOL v4.0a, a commercial finite element simulator, to represent the isotachophoretic separation of three lanthanides: lanthanum, terbium, and lutetium. The binding ligand chosen for complexation with the lanthanides is α-hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA) and the buffer system includes acetate, which also complexes with the lanthanides. The complexes formed between the three lanthanides, HIBA, and acetate are all considered in the simulation. We observe that the presence of only lanthanide:HIBA complexes in a buffer system with 10 mM HIBA causes the slowest lanthanide peak (lutetium) to split from the other analytes. The addition of lanthanide:acetate complexes into the simulation of the same buffer system eliminates this splitting. Decreasing the concentration of HIBA in the buffer to 7 mM causes the analyte stack to migrate faster through the capillary.

  6. Nonequilibrium electronic transport in a one-dimensional Mott insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Heidrich-Meisner, F.; Gonzalez, Ivan; Al-Hassanieh, K. A.; Feiguin, A. E.; Rozenberg, M. J.; Dagotto, Elbio R

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the nonequilibrium electronic transport properties of a one-dimensional interacting chain at half filling, coupled to noninteracting leads. The interacting chain is initially in a Mott insulator state that is driven out of equilibrium by applying a strong bias voltage between the leads. For bias voltages above a certain threshold we observe the breakdown of the Mott insulator state and the establishment of a steady-state elec- tronic current through the system. Based on extensive time-dependent density-matrix renormalization-group simulations, we show that this steady-state current always has the same functional dependence on voltage, independent of the microscopic details of the model and we relate the value of the threshold to the Lieb-Wu gap. We frame our results in terms of the Landau-Zener dielectric breakdown picture. Finally, we also discuss the real-time evolution of the current, and characterize the current-carrying state resulting from the breakdown of the Mott insulator by computing the double occupancy, the spin structure factor, and the entanglement entropy.

  7. Thermal transport in disordered one-dimensional spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poboiko, Igor; Feigel'man, Mikhail

    2015-12-01

    We study a one-dimensional anisotropic XXZ Heisenberg spin-1/2 chain with weak random fields hizSiz by means of Jordan-Wigner transformation to spinless Luttinger liquid with disorder and bosonization technique. First, we reinvestigate the phase diagram of the system in terms of dimensionless disorder γ =

    /J2≪1 and anisotropy parameter Δ =Jz/Jx y , we find the range of these parameters where disorder is irrelevant in the infrared limit and spin-spin correlations are described by power laws, and compare it with previously obtained numerical and analytical results. Then we use the diagram technique in terms of plasmon excitations to study the low-temperature (T ≪J ) behavior of heat conductivity κ and spin conductivity σ in this power-law phase. The obtained Lorentz number L ≡κ /σ T differs from the value derived earlier by means of the memory function method. We argue also that in the studied region inelastic scattering is strong enough to suppress quantum interference in the low-temperature limit.

  8. Cooperative eigenmodes and scattering in one-dimensional atomic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettles, Robert J.; Gardiner, Simon A.; Adams, Charles S.

    2016-10-01

    Collective coupling between dipoles can dramatically modify the optical response of a medium. Such effects depend strongly on the geometry of the medium and the polarization of the light. Using a classical coupled dipole model, here we investigate the simplest case of one-dimensional arrays of interacting atomic dipoles driven by a weak laser field. Changing the polarization and direction of the driving field allows us to separately address superradiant, subradiant, redshifted, and blueshifted eigenmodes, as well as observe strong Fano-like interferences between different modes. The cooperative eigenvectors can be characterized by the phase difference between nearest-neighbor dipoles, ranging from all oscillating in phase to all oscillating out of phase with their nearest neighbors. Investigating the eigenvalue behavior as a function of atom number and lattice spacing, we find that certain eigenmodes of an infinite atomic chain have the same decay rate as a single atom between two mirrors. The effects we observe provide a framework for collective control of the optical response of a medium, giving insight into the behavior of more complicated geometries, as well as providing further evidence for the dipolar analog of cavity QED.

  9. Digital noise generators using one-dimensional chaotic maps

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-Ñonthe, J. A; Palacios-Luengas, L.; Cruz-Irisson, M.; Vazquez Medina, R.; Díaz Méndez, J. A.

    2014-05-15

    This work shows how to improve the statistical distribution of signals produced by digital noise generators designed with one-dimensional (1-D) chaotic maps. It also shows that in a digital electronic design the piecewise linear chaotic maps (PWLCM) should be considered because they do not have stability islands in its chaotic behavior region, as it occurs in the case of the logistic map, which is commonly used to build noise generators. The design and implementation problems of the digital noise generators are analyzed and a solution is proposed. This solution relates the output of PWLCM, usually defined in the real numbers' domain, with a codebook of S elements, previously defined. The proposed solution scheme produces digital noise signals with a statistical distribution close to a uniform distribution. Finally, this work shows that it is possible to have control over the statistical distribution of the noise signal by selecting the control parameter of the PWLCM and using, as a design criterion, the bifurcation diagram.

  10. Conjugated Molecules Described by a One-Dimensional Dirac Equation.

    PubMed

    Ernzerhof, Matthias; Goyer, Francois

    2010-06-08

    Starting from the Hückel Hamiltonian of conjugated hydrocarbon chains (ethylene, allyl radical, butadiene, pentadienyl radical, hexatriene, etc.), we perform a simple unitary transformation and obtain a Dirac matrix Hamiltonian. Thus already small molecules are described exactly in terms of a discrete Dirac equation, the continuum limit of which yields a one-dimensional Dirac Hamiltonian. Augmenting this Hamiltonian with specially adapted boundary conditions, we find that all the orbitals of the unsaturated hydrocarbon chains are reproduced by the continuous Dirac equation. However, only orbital energies close to the highest occupied molecular orbital/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy are accurately predicted by the Dirac equation. Since it is known that a continuous Dirac equation describes the electronic structure of graphene around the Fermi energy, our findings answer the question to what extent this peculiar electronic structure is already developed in small molecules containing a delocalized π-electron system. We illustrate how the electronic structure of small polyenes carries over to a certain class of rectangular graphene sheets and eventually to graphene itself. Thus the peculiar electronic structure of graphene extends to a large degree to the smallest unsaturated molecule (ethylene).

  11. Plasmonic photocatalytic reactions enhanced by hot electrons in a one-dimensional quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H. J. E-mail: hhjhuangkimo@gmail.com; Liu, B. H.; Lin, C. T.; Su, W. S.

    2015-11-15

    The plasmonic endothermic oxidation of ammonium ions in a spinning disk reactor resulted in light energy transformation through quantum hot charge carriers (QHC), or quantum hot electrons, during a chemical reaction. It is demonstrated with a simple model that light of various intensities enhance the chemical oxidization of ammonium ions in water. It was further observed that light illumination, which induces the formation of plasmons on a platinum (Pt) thin film, provided higher processing efficiency compared with the reaction on a bare glass disk. These induced plasmons generate quantum hot electrons with increasing momentum and energy in the one-dimensional quantum well of a Pt thin film. The energy carried by the quantum hot electrons provided the energy needed to catalyze the chemical reaction. The results indicate that one-dimensional confinement in spherical coordinates (i.e., nanoparticles) is not necessary to provide an extra excited state for QHC generation; an 8 nm Pt thin film for one-dimensional confinement in Cartesian coordinates can also provide the extra excited state for the generation of QHC.

  12. Synthesis High Sensivity ZnO Cholesterol Biosensor with One Dimensional Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y. M.; Jhuang, P. G.; Tang, J. F.; Chu, S. Y.; Hsu, CW

    2016-05-01

    Chelosterol ZnO biosensors were synthesized by hydrothermal method with predeposited ALD-ZnO seed layers. The ZnO nanostructures were examined by SEM, XRD, AFM, respectively. The XRD is used to analyze the crystal structures of ZnO seed layers that were grown by ALD process, then using SEM and AFM to analysis the surface morphologies of them. Growing of one dimensional ZnO nanostructures on seed layer of 10nm thickness, reveals high sensitivity of 3.15 uA (mg/dl)-1cm-2(121.96 uAmM-1cm-2) and low Km value of 29mM in 25-100mg/dl cholesterol concentration range. The response time could be as low as 10seconds. In the study, it is found that increasing the aspect ratio of ZnO one dimensional nanostructure also increases the sensitivity and expends the linear measureable range of detecting cholesterol in solution. The thickness of seed layer has a significant influence on sensitivity for one dimensional nano ZnO cholesterol biosensor.

  13. Plasmonic photocatalytic reactions enhanced by hot electrons in a one-dimensional quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. J.; Liu, B.-H.; Lin, C.-T.; Su, W. S.

    2015-11-01

    The plasmonic endothermic oxidation of ammonium ions in a spinning disk reactor resulted in light energy transformation through quantum hot charge carriers (QHC), or quantum hot electrons, during a chemical reaction. It is demonstrated with a simple model that light of various intensities enhance the chemical oxidization of ammonium ions in water. It was further observed that light illumination, which induces the formation of plasmons on a platinum (Pt) thin film, provided higher processing efficiency compared with the reaction on a bare glass disk. These induced plasmons generate quantum hot electrons with increasing momentum and energy in the one-dimensional quantum well of a Pt thin film. The energy carried by the quantum hot electrons provided the energy needed to catalyze the chemical reaction. The results indicate that one-dimensional confinement in spherical coordinates (i.e., nanoparticles) is not necessary to provide an extra excited state for QHC generation; an 8 nm Pt thin film for one-dimensional confinement in Cartesian coordinates can also provide the extra excited state for the generation of QHC.

  14. The Art of Extracting One-Dimensional Flow Properties from Multi-Dimensional Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baurle, R. A.; Gaffney, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    The engineering design and analysis of air-breathing propulsion systems relies heavily on zero- or one-dimensional properties (e:g: thrust, total pressure recovery, mixing and combustion efficiency, etc.) for figures of merit. The extraction of these parameters from experimental data sets and/or multi-dimensional computational data sets is therefore an important aspect of the design process. A variety of methods exist for extracting performance measures from multi-dimensional data sets. Some of the information contained in the multi-dimensional flow is inevitably lost when any one-dimensionalization technique is applied. Hence, the unique assumptions associated with a given approach may result in one-dimensional properties that are significantly different than those extracted using alternative approaches. The purpose of this effort is to examine some of the more popular methods used for the extraction of performance measures from multi-dimensional data sets, reveal the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, and highlight various numerical issues that result when mapping data from a multi-dimensional space to a space of one dimension.

  15. Two-boundary first exit time of Gauss-Markov processes for stochastic modeling of acto-myosin dynamics.

    PubMed

    D'Onofrio, Giuseppe; Pirozzi, Enrica

    2016-09-26

    We consider a stochastic differential equation in a strip, with coefficients suitably chosen to describe the acto-myosin interaction subject to time-varying forces. By simulating trajectories of the stochastic dynamics via an Euler discretization-based algorithm, we fit experimental data and determine the values of involved parameters. The steps of the myosin are represented by the exit events from the strip. Motivated by these results, we propose a specific stochastic model based on the corresponding time-inhomogeneous Gauss-Markov and diffusion process evolving between two absorbing boundaries. We specify the mean and covariance functions of the stochastic modeling process taking into account time-dependent forces including the effect of an external load. We accurately determine the probability density function (pdf) of the first exit time (FET) from the strip by solving a system of two non singular second-type Volterra integral equations via a numerical quadrature. We provide numerical estimations of the mean of FET as approximations of the dwell-time of the proteins dynamics. The percentage of backward steps is given in agreement to experimental data. Numerical and simulation results are compared and discussed.

  16. Approximating spatially exclusive invasion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Joshua V.; Binder, Benjamin J.

    2014-05-01

    A number of biological processes, such as invasive plant species and cell migration, are composed of two key mechanisms: motility and reproduction. Due to the spatially exclusive interacting behavior of these processes a cellular automata (CA) model is specified to simulate a one-dimensional invasion process. Three (independence, Poisson, and 2D-Markov chain) approximations are considered that attempt to capture the average behavior of the CA. We show that our 2D-Markov chain approximation accurately predicts the state of the CA for a wide range of motility and reproduction rates.

  17. Unification of one-dimensional Fokker-Planck equations beyond hypergeometrics: Factorizer solution method and eigenvalue schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debosscher, A.

    1998-01-01

    A one-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation with nonmonotonic exponentially dependent drift and diffusion coefficients is defined by further generalizing a previously studied ``unifying stochastic Markov process.'' The equation, which has six essential parameters, defines and unifies a large class of interdisciplinary relevant stochastic processes, many of them being ``embedded'' as limiting cases. In addition to several known processes that previously have been solved independently, the equation also covers a wide ``interpolating'' variety of different, more general stochastic systems that are characterized by a more complex state dependence of the stochastic forces determining the process. The systems can be driven by additive and/or multiplicative noises. They can have saturating or nonsaturating characteristics and they can have unimodal or bimodal equilibrium distributions. Mathematically, the generalization considered parallels the extension from the Gauss hypergeometric to the Heun differential equation, by adding one more finite regular singularity and its associated confluence possibilities. A previously developed constructive solution method, based upon double integral transforms and contour integral representation, is extended for the actual equation by introducing ``factorizers'' and by using a few of their fundamental properties (compiled in Appendix A). In addition, the equivalent Schrödinger equation and the reflection symmetry principle prove to be important tools for analysis. Fully analytical results including normalization are obtained for the discrete part of the generally mixed spectrum. Only the eigenvalues have to be numerically determined as zeros of a spectral kernel. This kernel generally is unknown, but its zeros are accessible via appropriate, infinite continued fraction based search schemes. The basic role of ``congruence'' in this context is highlighted. For clarity, the simpler standard case corresponding to directly accessible zeros is

  18. One-dimensional semirelativistic Hamiltonian with multiple Dirac delta potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erman, Fatih; Gadella, Manuel; Uncu, Haydar

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we consider the one-dimensional semirelativistic Schrödinger equation for a particle interacting with N Dirac delta potentials. Using the heat kernel techniques, we establish a resolvent formula in terms of an N ×N matrix, called the principal matrix. This matrix essentially includes all the information about the spectrum of the problem. We study the bound state spectrum by working out the eigenvalues of the principal matrix. With the help of the Feynman-Hellmann theorem, we analyze how the bound state energies change with respect to the parameters in the model. We also prove that there are at most N bound states and explicitly derive the bound state wave function. The bound state problem for the two-center case is particularly investigated. We show that the ground state energy is bounded below, and there exists a self-adjoint Hamiltonian associated with the resolvent formula. Moreover, we prove that the ground state is nondegenerate. The scattering problem for N centers is analyzed by exactly solving the semirelativistic Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The reflection and the transmission coefficients are numerically and asymptotically computed for the two-center case. We observe the so-called threshold anomaly for two symmetrically located centers. The semirelativistic version of the Kronig-Penney model is shortly discussed, and the band gap structure of the spectrum is illustrated. The bound state and scattering problems in the massless case are also discussed. Furthermore, the reflection and the transmission coefficients for the two delta potentials in this particular case are analytically found. Finally, we solve the renormalization group equations and compute the beta function nonperturbatively.

  19. Spatial modes in one-dimensional models for capillary jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, J.; González, H.; García, F. J.

    2016-03-01

    One-dimensional (1D) models are widely employed to simplify the analysis of axisymmetric capillary jets. These models postulate that, for slender deformations of the free surface, the radial profile of the axial velocity can be approximated as uniform (viscous slice, averaged, and Cosserat models) or parabolic (parabolic model). In classical works on spatial stability analysis with 1D models, considerable misinterpretation was generated about the modes yielded by each model. The already existing physical analysis of three-dimensional (3D) axisymmetric spatial modes enables us to relate these 1D spatial modes to the exact 3D counterparts. To do so, we address the surface stimulation problem, which can be treated as linear, by considering the effect of normal and tangential stresses to perturb the jet. A Green's function for a spatially local stimulation having a harmonic time dependence provides the general formalism to describe any time-periodic stimulation. The Green's function of this signaling problem is known to be a superposition of the spatial modes, but in fact these modes are of fundamental nature, i.e., not restricted to the surface stimulation problem. The smallness of the wave number associated with each mode is the criterion to validate or invalidate the 1D approaches. The proposed axial-velocity profiles (planar or parabolic) also have a remarkable influence on the outcomes of each 1D model. We also compare with the classical 3D results for (i) conditions for absolute instability, and (ii) the amplitude of the unstable mode resulting from both normal and tangential surface stress stimulation. Incidentally, as a previous task, we need to re-deduce 1D models in order to include eventual stresses of various possible origins (electrohydrodynamic, thermocapillary, etc.) applied on the free surface, which were not considered in the previous general formulations.

  20. Spectroscopy of one-dimensionally inhomogeneous media with quadratic nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Golubkov, A A; Makarov, Vladimir A

    2011-11-30

    We present a brief review of the results of fifty years of development efforts in spectroscopy of one-dimensionally inhomogeneous media with quadratic nonlinearity. The recent original results obtained by the authors show the fundamental possibility of determining, from experimental data, the coordinate dependences of complex quadratic susceptibility tensor components of a onedimensionally inhomogeneous (along the z axis) medium with an arbitrary frequency dispersion, if the linear dielectric properties of the medium also vary along the z axis and are described by a diagonal tensor of the linear dielectric constant. It is assumed that the medium in question has the form of a plane-parallel plate, whose surfaces are perpendicular to the direction of the inhomogeneity. Using the example of several components of the tensors X{sup (2)}(z, {omega}{sub 1} {+-} {omega}{sub 2}; {omega}{sub 1}, {+-} {omega}{sub 2}), we describe two methods for finding their spatial profiles, which differ in the interaction geometry of plane monochromatic fundamental waves with frequencies {omega}{sub 1} and {omega}{sub 2}. The both methods are based on assessing the intensity of the waves propagating from the plate at the sum or difference frequency and require measurements over a range of angles of incidence of the fundamental waves. Such measurements include two series of additional estimates of the intensities of the waves generated under special conditions by using the test and additional reference plates, which eliminates the need for complicated phase measurements of the complex amplitudes of the waves at the sum (difference) frequency.

  1. Inferring Markov chains: Bayesian estimation, model comparison, entropy rate, and out-of-class modeling.

    PubMed

    Strelioff, Christopher C; Crutchfield, James P; Hübler, Alfred W

    2007-07-01

    Markov chains are a natural and well understood tool for describing one-dimensional patterns in time or space. We show how to infer kth order Markov chains, for arbitrary k , from finite data by applying Bayesian methods to both parameter estimation and model-order selection. Extending existing results for multinomial models of discrete data, we connect inference to statistical mechanics through information-theoretic (type theory) techniques. We establish a direct relationship between Bayesian evidence and the partition function which allows for straightforward calculation of the expectation and variance of the conditional relative entropy and the source entropy rate. Finally, we introduce a method that uses finite data-size scaling with model-order comparison to infer the structure of out-of-class processes.

  2. A New Framework for Airborne Minefield Detection Using Markov Marked Point Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    image as input and gives it a classification as output. The ontology then processes the classified output, revealing relationships among objects...noisy images to overcome imprecision that might be inherent in the measurement process . However, the computational cost of the algorithm was even...Iterative Detection of Land Mines in Highly Cluttered Environments,” IEEE Trans. on Image Processing , Vol. 12, pp. 509-523 (2003) [6] G. Clark, S

  3. Semi-Markov Graph Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Raberto, Marco; Rapallo, Fabio; Scalas, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we outline a model of graph (or network) dynamics based on two ingredients. The first ingredient is a Markov chain on the space of possible graphs. The second ingredient is a semi-Markov counting process of renewal type. The model consists in subordinating the Markov chain to the semi-Markov counting process. In simple words, this means that the chain transitions occur at random time instants called epochs. The model is quite rich and its possible connections with algebraic geometry are briefly discussed. Moreover, for the sake of simplicity, we focus on the space of undirected graphs with a fixed number of nodes. However, in an example, we present an interbank market model where it is meaningful to use directed graphs or even weighted graphs. PMID:21887245

  4. An implicit finite volume scheme for a scalar hyperbolic problem with measure data related to piecewise deterministic Markov processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eymard, Robert; Mercier, Sophie; Prignet, Alain

    2008-12-01

    We are interested here in the numerical approximation of a family of probability measures, solution of the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation associated to some non-diffusion Markov process with uncountable state space. Such an equation contains a transport term and another term, which implies redistribution of the probability mass on the whole space. An implicit finite volume scheme is proposed, which is intermediate between an upstream weighting scheme and a modified Lax-Friedrichs one. Due to the seemingly unusual probability framework, a new weak bounded variation inequality had to be developed, in order to prove the convergence of the discretised transport term. Such an inequality may be used in other contexts, such as for the study of finite volume approximations of scalar linear or nonlinear hyperbolic equations with initial data in L1. Also, due to the redistribution term, the tightness of the family of approximate probability measures had to be proven. Numerical examples are provided, showing the efficiency of the implicit finite volume scheme and its potentiality to be helpful in an industrial reliability context.

  5. Multimodal Brain-Tumor Segmentation Based on Dirichlet Process Mixture Model with Anisotropic Diffusion and Markov Random Field Prior

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yisu; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Wufan

    2014-01-01

    Brain-tumor segmentation is an important clinical requirement for brain-tumor diagnosis and radiotherapy planning. It is well-known that the number of clusters is one of the most important parameters for automatic segmentation. However, it is difficult to define owing to the high diversity in appearance of tumor tissue among different patients and the ambiguous boundaries of lesions. In this study, a nonparametric mixture of Dirichlet process (MDP) model is applied to segment the tumor images, and the MDP segmentation can be performed without the initialization of the number of clusters. Because the classical MDP segmentation cannot be applied for real-time diagnosis, a new nonparametric segmentation algorithm combined with anisotropic diffusion and a Markov random field (MRF) smooth constraint is proposed in this study. Besides the segmentation of single modal brain-tumor images, we developed the algorithm to segment multimodal brain-tumor images by the magnetic resonance (MR) multimodal features and obtain the active tumor and edema in the same time. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using 32 multimodal MR glioma image sequences, and the segmentation results are compared with other approaches. The accuracy and computation time of our algorithm demonstrates very impressive performance and has a great potential for practical real-time clinical use. PMID:25254064

  6. Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation for Bayesian Hidden Markov Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Lay Guat; Ibrahim, Adriana Irawati Nur Binti

    2016-10-01

    A hidden Markov model (HMM) is a mixture model which has a Markov chain with finite states as its mixing distribution. HMMs have been applied to a variety of fields, such as speech and face recognitions. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the Bayesian approach to HMMs. Using this approach, we can simulate from the parameters' posterior distribution using some Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. HMMs seem to be useful, but there are some limitations. Therefore, by using the Mixture of Dirichlet processes Hidden Markov Model (MDPHMM) based on Yau et. al (2011), we hope to overcome these limitations. We shall conduct a simulation study using MCMC methods to investigate the performance of this model.

  7. Strong correlations and topological order in one-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gottardi, Wade Wells

    This thesis presents theoretical studies of strongly correlated systems as well as topologically ordered systems in 1D. Non-Fermi liquid behavior characteristic of interacting 1D electron systems is investigated with an emphasis on experimentally relevant setups and observables. The existence of end Majorana fermions in a 1D p-wave superconductor subject to periodic, incommensurate and disordered potentials is studied. The Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL), a model of interacting electrons in one spatial dimension, is considered in the context of two systems of experimental interest. First, a study of the electronic properties of single-walled armchair carbon nanotubes in the presence of transverse electric and magnetic fields is presented. As a result of their effect on the band structure and electron wave functions, fields alter the nature of the (effective) Coulomb interaction in tubes. In particular, it is found that fields couple to nanotube bands (or valleys), a quantum degree of freedom inherited from the underlying graphene lattice. As revealed by a detailed TLL calculation, it is predicted that fields induce electrons to disperse into their spin, band, and charge components. Fields also provide a means of tuning the shell-filling behavior associated with short tubes. The phenomenon of charge fractionalization is investigated in a one-dimensional ring. TLL theory predicts that momentum-resolved electrons injected into the ring will fractionalize into clockwise- and counterclockwise-moving quasiparticles. As a complement to transport measurements in quantum wires connected to leads, non-invasive measures involving the magnetic field profiles around the ring are proposed. Topological aspects of 1D p-wave superconductors are explored. The intimate connection between non-trivial topology (fermions) and spontaneous symmetry breaking (spins) in one-dimension is investigated. Building on this connection, a spin ladder system endowed with vortex degrees of freedom is

  8. Extracting complexity waveforms from one-dimensional signals

    PubMed Central

    Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Bojić, Tijana; Rakić, Ljubisav

    2009-01-01

    Background Nonlinear methods provide a direct way of estimating complexity of one-dimensional sampled signals through calculation of Higuchi's fractal dimension (1

  9. Quasi-one-dimensional models for glassy dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Prasanta

    2011-12-01

    We describe analytical calculations and simulations of the quasi-one-dimensional (Q1-D) model for glassy dynamics. In the Q1-D models, hard rods undergo single-file diffusion through a series of narrow channels connected by J intersections. The topology of the model is specified by J, the maximum number of rods in each middle channel K, and the number of rods N. We assume that the rods cannot turn at the intersections, and thus there is a single, continuous route through the system. This model displays hallmarks of glassy dynamics including caging behavior and subdiffusion, rapid growth in the structural relaxation time and collective particle rearrangements. The mean-square displacement Sigma(t) for the Q1-D model displays four dynamical regimes: 1) short-time diffusion Sigma( t) ˜ t, 2) a plateau Sigma(t) ˜ t0 caused by caging behavior, 3) single-file diffusion characterized by anomalous scaling Sigma(t) ˜ t0.5 at intermediate times, and 4) a crossover to long-tine diffusion Sigma(t) ˜ t for times that grow with the system size. We develop a general procedure for calculating analytically the structural relaxation time tD, beyond which the system undergoes long-time diffusion, as a function of density and system topology. The method involves several steps: 1) uniquely defining the set of microstates for the system and transitions among them, 2) constructing networks of connected microstates and identifying minimal, closed, directed loops that give rise to structural relaxation, 3) calculating the probabilities for obtaining each of the microstates that form the closed loops and for transitioning from one microstate to another, and 4) using these probabilities to deduce the dependence of tD on packing fraction. We find that to obeys power-law scaling tD ˜ (φ g-φ)-alpha, where φ g (the packing fraction corresponding to complete kinetic arrest) and alpha depend on the system topology, and can be calculated exactly. The analytical calculations are supported

  10. Improved object segmentation using Markov random fields, artificial neural networks, and parallel processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulkes, Stephen B.; Booth, David M.

    1997-07-01

    Object segmentation is the process by which a mask is generated which identifies the area of an image which is occupied by an object. Many object recognition techniques depend on the quality of such masks for shape and underlying brightness information, however, segmentation remains notoriously unreliable. This paper considers how the image restoration technique of Geman and Geman can be applied to the improvement of object segmentations generated by a locally adaptive background subtraction technique. Also presented is how an artificial neural network hybrid, consisting of a single layer Kohonen network with each of its nodes connected to a different multi-layer perceptron, can be used to approximate the image restoration process. It is shown that the restoration techniques are very well suited for parallel processing and in particular the artificial neural network hybrid has the potential for near real time image processing. Results are presented for the detection of ships in SPOT panchromatic imagery and the detection of vehicles in infrared linescan images, these being a fair representation of the wider class of problem.

  11. Rapid sintering of silicon nitride foams decorated with one-dimensional nanostructures by intense thermal radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Duan; Guzi de Moraes, Elisângela; Guo, Peng; Zou, Ji; Zhang, Junzhan; Colombo, Paolo; Shen, Zhijian

    2014-08-01

    Silicon nitride foams were prepared by direct foaming and subsequent rapid sintering at 1600 °C. The intense thermal radiation generated under the pressureless spark plasma sintering condition facilitated necking of Si3N4 grains. The prepared foams possessed a porosity of ˜80 vol% and a compressive strength of ˜10 MPa, which required only ˜30 min for the entire sintering processes. Rapid growth of one-dimensional SiC nanowires from the cell walls was also observed. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the vapor-liquid-solid model is applicable to the formation of SiC nanowires under vacuum.

  12. Rapid sintering of silicon nitride foams decorated with one-dimensional nanostructures by intense thermal radiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Duan; Guzi de Moraes, Elisângela; Guo, Peng; Zou, Ji; Zhang, Junzhan; Colombo, Paolo; Shen, Zhijian

    2014-08-01

    Silicon nitride foams were prepared by direct foaming and subsequent rapid sintering at 1600 °C. The intense thermal radiation generated under the pressureless spark plasma sintering condition facilitated necking of Si3N4 grains. The prepared foams possessed a porosity of ∼80 vol% and a compressive strength of ∼10 MPa, which required only ∼30 min for the entire sintering processes. Rapid growth of one-dimensional SiC nanowires from the cell walls was also observed. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the vapor-liquid-solid model is applicable to the formation of SiC nanowires under vacuum.

  13. Fabrication of one-dimensional programmable-height nanostructures via dynamic stencil deposition.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, J L; Lucas, K; Lee, S H; Ashton, A; Crowl, C T; Marković, N

    2008-07-01

    Dynamic stencil deposition (DSD) techniques offer a variety of fabrication advantages not possible with traditional lithographic processing, such as the ability to directly deposit nanostructures with programmable-height profiles. However, DSD systems have not enjoyed widespread usage due to their complexity. We demonstrate a simple, low-profile, portable, one-dimensional nanotranslation system that facilitates access to nanoscale DSD abilities. Furthermore we show a variety of fabricated programmable-height nanostructures, including parallel arrays of such structures, and suggest other applications that exploit the unique capabilities of DSD fabrication methods.

  14. Studying non-equilibrium many-body dynamics using one-dimensional Bose gases

    SciTech Connect

    Langen, Tim; Gring, Michael; Kuhnert, Maximilian; Rauer, Bernhard; Geiger, Remi; Mazets, Igor; Smith, David Adu; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Kitagawa, Takuya; Demler, Eugene

    2014-12-04

    Non-equilibrium dynamics of isolated quantum many-body systems play an important role in many areas of physics. However, a general answer to the question of how these systems relax is still lacking. We experimentally study the dynamics of ultracold one-dimensional (1D) Bose gases. This reveals the existence of a quasi-steady prethermalized state which differs significantly from the thermal equilibrium of the system. Our results demonstrate that the dynamics of non-equilibrium quantum many-body systems is a far richer process than has been assumed in the past.

  15. NASA One-Dimensional Combustor Simulation--User Manual for S1D_ML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    The work presented in this paper is to promote research leading to a closed-loop control system to actively suppress thermo-acoustic instabilities. To serve as a model for such a closed-loop control system, a one-dimensional combustor simulation composed using MATLAB software tools has been written. This MATLAB based process is similar to a precursor one-dimensional combustor simulation that was formatted as FORTRAN 77 source code. The previous simulation process requires modification to the FORTRAN 77 source code, compiling, and linking when creating a new combustor simulation executable file. The MATLAB based simulation does not require making changes to the source code, recompiling, or linking. Furthermore, the MATLAB based simulation can be run from script files within the MATLAB environment or with a compiled copy of the executable file running in the Command Prompt window without requiring a licensed copy of MATLAB. This report presents a general simulation overview. Details regarding how to setup and initiate a simulation are also presented. Finally, the post-processing section describes the two types of files created while running the simulation and it also includes simulation results for a default simulation included with the source code.

  16. One-dimensional Turbulence Models of Type I X-ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Chen

    2016-01-06

    Type I X-ray bursts are caused by thermonuclear explosions occurring on the surface of an accreting neutron star in a binary star system. Observations and simulations of these phenomena are of great importance for understanding the fundamental properties of neutron stars and dense matter because the equation of state for cold dense matter can be constrained by the mass-radius relationship of neutron stars. During the bursts, turbulence plays a key role in mixing the fuels and driving the unstable nuclear burning process. This dissertation presents one-dimensional models of photospheric radius expansion bursts with a new approach to simulate turbulent advection. Compared with the traditional mixing length theory, the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model represents turbulent motions by a sequence of maps that are generated according to a stochastic process. The light curves I obtained with the ODT models are in good agreement with those of the KEPLER model in which the mixing length theory and various diffusive processes are applied. The abundance comparison, however, indicates that the differences in turbulent regions and turbulent diffusivities result in more 12C survival during the bursts in the ODT models, which can make a difference in the superbursts phenomena triggered by unstable carbon burning.

  17. Linearization Techniques for Controlled Piecewise Deterministic Markov Processes; Application to Zubov's Method

    SciTech Connect

    Goreac, Dan; Serea, Oana-Silvia

    2012-10-15

    We aim at characterizing domains of attraction for controlled piecewise deterministic processes using an occupational measure formulation and Zubov's approach. Firstly, we provide linear programming (primal and dual) formulations of discounted, infinite horizon control problems for PDMPs. These formulations involve an infinite-dimensional set of probability measures and are obtained using viscosity solutions theory. Secondly, these tools allow to construct stabilizing measures and to avoid the assumption of stability under concatenation for controls. The domain of controllability is then characterized as some level set of a convenient solution of the associated Hamilton-Jacobi integral-differential equation. The theoretical results are applied to PDMPs associated to stochastic gene networks. Explicit computations are given for Cook's model for gene expression.

  18. Distribution of chirality in the quantum walk: Markov process and entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Romanelli, Alejandro

    2010-06-15

    The asymptotic behavior of the quantum walk on the line is investigated, focusing on the probability distribution of chirality independently of position. It is shown analytically that this distribution has a longtime limit that is stationary and depends on the initial conditions. This result is unexpected in the context of the unitary evolution of the quantum walk as it is usually linked to a Markovian process. The asymptotic value of the entanglement between the coin and the position is determined by the chirality distribution. For given asymptotic values of both the entanglement and the chirality distribution, it is possible to find the corresponding initial conditions within a particular class of spatially extended Gaussian distributions.

  19. A Markov process analysis comparing the cost effectiveness of maintenance therapy with citalopram versus standard therapy in major depression.

    PubMed

    Nuijten, M J; Hardens, M; Souêtre, E

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the cost effectiveness of long term maintenance treatment with citalopram versus standard therapy (defined as short term antidepressant treatment) in patients with major depression in Germany. We chose doxepin, amitriptyline and trimipramine as standard therapy because these drugs are the leading antidepressants in that country. A Markov process analysis was used to model health status and economic outcomes as they accrued over a 1-year follow-up period. The main outcome measures were time without depression, direct costs and indirect costs (work days lost). All costs were in 1993 Deutsche marks. The clinical data were obtained from the published literature and US clinical practice guidelines; the associated unit costs of the medical resources used were derived from official German tariff lists. The results show that, compared with standard therapy, long-term maintenance treatment with citalopram is associated with a mean increase in time without depression of 7.9% (8.2 vs 7.6 months). The total costs of maintenance treatment with citalopram were substantially lower than with standard therapy (DM7985 vs DM11,948 per patient per year. In addition, both the direct and indirect costs of maintenance treatment with citalopram (DM3764 vs DM4221 per patient, respectively) were lower than with standard therapy (DM4577 vs DM7371 per patient, respectively). In conclusion, the study demonstrates that one year's maintenance treatment with citalopram is both more effective and less costly than standard therapy in the treatment of patients with major depression.

  20. Evaluation of linearly solvable Markov decision process with dynamic model learning in a mobile robot navigation task.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Ken; Uchibe, Eiji; Doya, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Linearly solvable Markov Decision Process (LMDP) is a class of optimal control problem in which the Bellman's equation can be converted into a linear equation by an exponential transformation of the state value function (Todorov, 2009b). In an LMDP, the optimal value function and the corresponding control policy are obtained by solving an eigenvalue problem in a discrete state space or an eigenfunction problem in a continuous state using the knowledge of the system dynamics and the action, state, and terminal cost functions. In this study, we evaluate the effectiveness of the LMDP framework in real robot control, in which the dynamics of the body and the environment have to be learned from experience. We first perform a simulation study of a pole swing-up task to evaluate the effect of the accuracy of the learned dynamics model on the derived the action policy. The result shows that a crude linear approximation of the non-linear dynamics can still allow solution of the task, despite with a higher total cost. We then perform real robot experiments of a battery-catching task using our Spring Dog mobile robot platform. The state is given by the position and the size of a battery in its camera view and two neck joint angles. The action is the velocities of two wheels, while the neck joints were controlled by a visual servo controller. We test linear and bilinear dynamic models in tasks with quadratic and Guassian state cost functions. In the quadratic cost task, the LMDP controller derived from a learned linear dynamics model performed equivalently with the optimal linear quadratic regulator (LQR). In the non-quadratic task, the LMDP controller with a linear dynamics model showed the best performance. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the LMDP framework in real robot control even when simple linear models are used for dynamics learning.

  1. The influence of Markov decision process structure on the possible strategic use of working memory and episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Zilli, Eric A; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2008-07-23

    Researchers use a variety of behavioral tasks to analyze the effect of biological manipulations on memory function. This research will benefit from a systematic mathematical method for analyzing memory demands in behavioral tasks. In the framework of reinforcement learning theory, these tasks can be mathematically described as partially-observable Markov decision processes. While a wealth of evidence collected over the past 15 years relates the basal ganglia to the reinforcement learning framework, only recently has much attention been paid to including psychological concepts such as working memory or episodic memory in these models. This paper presents an analysis that provides a quantitative description of memory states sufficient for correct choices at specific decision points. Using information from the mathematical structure of the task descriptions, we derive measures that indicate whether working memory (for one or more cues) or episodic memory can provide strategically useful information to an agent. In particular, the analysis determines which observed states must be maintained in or retrieved from memory to perform these specific tasks. We demonstrate the analysis on three simplified tasks as well as eight more complex memory tasks drawn from the animal and human literature (two alternation tasks, two sequence disambiguation tasks, two non-matching tasks, the 2-back task, and the 1-2-AX task). The results of these analyses agree with results from quantitative simulations of the task reported in previous publications and provide simple indications of the memory demands of the tasks which can require far less computation than a full simulation of the task. This may provide a basis for a quantitative behavioral stoichiometry of memory tasks.

  2. Time-reversal symmetry in nonstationary Markov processes with application to some fluctuation theorems.

    PubMed

    Van Vliet, Carolyne M

    2012-11-01

    Nonequilibrium processes require that the density operator of an interacting system with Hamiltonian H(t) = H(0)(t)+λV converges and produces entropy. Employing projection operators in the state space, the density operator is developed to all orders of perturbation and then resummed. In contrast to earlier treatments by Van Hove [Physica 21, 517 (1955)] and others [U. Fano, Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 74 (1959); U. Fano, in Lectures on the Many-Body Problem, Vol 2, edited by E. R. Caniello (Academic Press, New York, 1964); R. Zwanzig, in Lectures in Theoretical Physics, Vol. III, edited by W. E. Britten, B. W. Downs, and J. Downs (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1961), pp. 116-141; K. M. Van Vliet, J. Math. Phys. 19, 1345 (1978); K. M. Van Vliet, Can. J. Phys. 56, 1206 (1978)], closed expressions are obtained. From these we establish the time-reversal symmetry property P(γ,t|γ',t') = Pγ',t'|γ,t), where the tilde refers to the time-reversed protocol; also a nonstationary Markovian master equation is derived. Time-reversal symmetry is then applied to thermostatted systems yielding the Crooks-Tasaki fluctuation theorem (FT) and the quantum Jarzynski work-energy theorem, as well as the general entropy FT. The quantum mechanical concepts of work and entropy are discussed in detail. Finally, we present a nonequilibrium extension of Mazo's lemma of linear response theory, obtaining some applications via this alternate route.

  3. On the Exit Boundary Condition for One-Dimensional Calculations of Pulsed Detonation Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jack; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2002-01-01

    In one-dimensional calculations of pulsed detonation engine (PDE) performance, the exit boundary condition is frequently taken to be a constant static pressure. In reality, for an isolated detonation tube, after the detonation wave arrives at the exit plane, there will be a region of high pressure, which will gradually return to ambient pressure as an almost spherical shock wave expands away from the exit, and weakens. Initially, the flow is supersonic, unaffected by external pressure, but later becomes subsonic. Previous authors have accounted for this situation either by assuming the subsonic pressure decay to be a relaxation phenomenon, or by running a two-dimensional calculation first, including a domain external to the detonation tube, and using the resulting exit pressure temporal distribution as the boundary condition for one-dimensional calculations. These calculations show that the increased pressure does affect the PDE performance. In the present work, a simple model of the exit process is used to estimate the pressure decay time. The planar shock wave emerging from the tube is assumed to transform into a spherical shock wave. The initial strength of the spherical shock wave is determined from comparison with experimental results. Its subsequent propagation, and resulting pressure at the tube exit, is given by a numerical blast wave calculation. The model agrees reasonably well with other, limited, results. Finally, the model was used as the exit boundary condition for a one-dimensional calculation of PDE performance to obtain the thrust wall pressure for a hydrogen-air detonation in tubes of length to diameter ratio (L/D) of 4, and 10, as well as for the original, constant pressure boundary condition. The modified boundary condition had no performance impact for values of L/D > 10, and moderate impact for L/D = 4.

  4. Modeling Dyadic Processes Using Hidden Markov Models: A Time Series Approach to Mother-Infant Interactions during Infant Immunization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifter, Cynthia A.; Rovine, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The focus of the present longitudinal study, to examine mother-infant interaction during the administration of immunizations at 2 and 6?months of age, used hidden Markov modelling, a time series approach that produces latent states to describe how mothers and infants work together to bring the infant to a soothed state. Results revealed a…

  5. Electron acceleration at nearly perpendicular collisionless shocks. I - One-dimensional simulations without electron scale fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss-Varban, D.; Burgess, D.; Wu, C. S.

    1989-01-01

    Under certain conditions electrons can be reflected and effectively energized at quasi-perpendicular shocks. This process is most prominent close to the point where the upstream magnetic field is tangent to the curved shock. A theoretical explanation of the underlying physical mechanism has been proposed which assumes conservation of magnetic moment and a static, simplified shock profile are performed. Test particle calculations of the electron reflection process in order to examine the results of the theoretical analysis without imposing these restrictive conditions. A one-dimensional hybrid simulation code generates the characteristic field variations across the shock. Special emphasis is placed on the spatial and temporal length scales involved in the mirroring process. The simulation results agree generally well with the predictions from adiabatic theory. The effects of the cross-shock potential and unsteadiness are quantified, and the influence of field fluctuations on the reflection process is discussed.

  6. The physicist's companion to current fluctuations: one-dimensional bulk-driven lattice gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarescu, Alexandre

    2015-12-01

    One of the main features of statistical systems out of equilibrium is the currents they exhibit in their stationary state: microscopic currents of probability between configurations, which translate into macroscopic currents of mass, charge, etc. Understanding the general behaviour of these currents is an important step towards building a universal framework for non-equilibrium steady states akin to the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution for equilibrium systems. In this review, we consider one-dimensional bulk-driven particle gases, and in particular the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) with open boundaries, which is one of the most popular models of one-dimensional transport. We focus, in particular, on the current of particles flowing through the system in its steady state, and on its fluctuations. We show how one can obtain the complete statistics of that current, through its large deviation function, by combining results from various methods: exact calculation of the cumulants of the current, using the integrability of the model; direct diagonalization of a biased process in the limits of very high or low current; hydrodynamic description of the model in the continuous limit using the macroscopic fluctuation theory. We give a pedagogical account of these techniques, starting with a quick introduction to the necessary mathematical tools, as well as a short overview of the existing works relating to the ASEP. We conclude by drawing the complete dynamical phase diagram of the current. We also remark on a few possible generalizations of these results.

  7. Information transmission for one-dimensional stimuli: the role of strategies.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Pierfilippo; Sommer, Werner

    2009-05-01

    Important evidence about the information flow between perceptual and motor processes has been obtained from the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) recorded in two-choice go/nogo tasks. Here, we investigated the effect of time pressure on information transmission for one-dimensional stimuli (four squares differing in size). In between- and within-subject designs, respectively, Experiments 1 and 2 showed that under time pressure partial information initiates hand decision and response preparation before complete size information is available. These findings appear to be at odds with the asynchronous discrete coding model. Experiment 3 assessed the mechanisms behind these effects by manipulating the relative difficulty of extracting hand- and go/nogo-specific information from the size of the stimuli. Consistent with asynchronous coding, our results suggest that serial-consecutive processes in extracting partial and full size information may occur also for one-dimensional stimuli. Our data are inconclusive as to the question of discreteness or continuity of information transmission. On a more general level, our data support the notion of flexibility in the coding of perceptual dimensions to adapt performance to environmental conditions.

  8. A detailed one-dimensional model of combustion of a woody biomass particle.

    PubMed

    Haseli, Y; van Oijen, J A; de Goey, L P H

    2011-10-01

    A detailed one-dimensional model for combustion of a single biomass particle is presented. It accounts for particle heating up, pyrolysis, char gasification and oxidation and gas phase reactions within and in the vicinity of the particle. The biomass pyrolysis is assumed to take place through three competing reactions yielding char, light gas and tar. The model is validated using different sets of experiments reported in the literature. Special emphasis is placed on examination of the effects of pyrolysis kinetic constants and gas phase reactions on the combustion process which have not been thoroughly discussed in previous works. It is shown that depending on the process condition and reactor temperature, correct selection of the pyrolysis kinetic data is a necessary step for simulation of biomass particle conversion. The computer program developed for the purpose of this study enables one to get a deeper insight into the biomass particle combustion process.

  9. Quantized impedance dealing with the damping behavior of the one-dimensional oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jinghao; Zhang, Jing; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Yong; Fang, Zhengji; Zhao, Peide E-mail: pdzhao@hebut.edu.cn; Li, Erping

    2015-11-15

    A quantized impedance is proposed to theoretically establish the relationship between the atomic eigenfrequency and the intrinsic frequency of the one-dimensional oscillator in this paper. The classical oscillator is modified by the idea that the electron transition is treated as a charge-discharge process of a suggested capacitor with the capacitive energy equal to the energy level difference of the jumping electron. The quantized capacitance of the impedance interacting with the jumping electron can lead the resonant frequency of the oscillator to the same as the atomic eigenfrequency. The quantized resistance reflects that the damping coefficient of the oscillator is the mean collision frequency of the transition electron. In addition, the first and third order electric susceptibilities based on the oscillator are accordingly quantized. Our simulation of the hydrogen atom emission spectrum based on the proposed method agrees well with the experimental one. Our results exhibits that the one-dimensional oscillator with the quantized impedance may become useful in the estimations of the refractive index and one- or multi-photon absorption coefficients of some nonmagnetic media composed of hydrogen-like atoms.

  10. Mechanical parts range-image segmentation by locating critical points of one-dimensional curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-Chun; Fan, Kuang-Chao

    1996-02-01

    A modified edge-based segmentation algorithm specially designed for mechanical parts is proposed. The technique used is based on a concept of 3-views of engineering drawings and is a partial parallel algorithm. Mechanical parts considered here are composed of planes, cylindrical and spherical surfaces. At first, a set of critical points is extracted from each row and column of range image by one dimensional curves' segmentation technique. Edge linking process is performed on the map of critical points by morphological dilation, thinning and edge tracking. After that, a connected component labeling procedure is done and all pixels belonging to the same 4-connected region are assigned a unique label. An efficient run-length implementation of local table method is used to do the connected components' analysis. Finally, a robust least squares surface fitting is employed for each label to accommodate the error of previous steps, and outliers are discarded according to errors. Experiments are presented for numerous scenes of both real and synthetic range images of mechanical parts including concave and convex surfaces, noiseless and noisy. The results show that the proposed one dimensional critical point locating method segments the range image of mechanical parts fast and accurately.

  11. One-dimensional turbulence modeling of a turbulent counterflow flame with comparison to DNS

    DOE PAGES

    Jozefik, Zoltan; Kerstein, Alan R.; Schmidt, Heiko; ...

    2015-06-01

    The one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is applied to a reactant-to-product counterflow configuration and results are compared with DNS data. The model employed herein solves conservation equations for momentum, energy, and species on a one dimensional (1D) domain corresponding to the line spanning the domain between nozzle orifice centers. The effects of turbulent mixing are modeled via a stochastic process, while the Kolmogorov and reactive length and time scales are explicitly resolved and a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism is used. Comparisons between model and DNS results for spatial mean and root-meansquare (RMS) velocity, temperature, and major and minor species profiles aremore » shown. The ODT approach shows qualitatively and quantitatively reasonable agreement with the DNS data. Scatter plots and statistics conditioned on temperature are also compared for heat release rate and all species. ODT is able to capture the range of results depicted by DNS. However, conditional statistics show signs of underignition.« less

  12. Energy relaxation in one-dimensional polariton condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, M.; Liew, T. C. H.; Savona, V.

    2010-12-15

    We study the kinetics of polariton condensation accounting for the condensation process as well as the energy relaxation of condensed polaritons due to their scattering with phonons and excitons. By assuming a Boltzmann kinetic description of the scattering process, we show that intracondensate relaxation can be accounted for by an additional time-dependent term in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. As an example, we apply the formalism to the experimental results recently obtained in polariton microwires [E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, Nat. Phys. 6, 860 (2010)]. In the presence of a local nonresonant optical pump, a dynamic balance between spatially dependent relaxation and particle loss develops and excites a series of modes, roughly equally spaced in energy. Upon comparison, excellent agreement is found with the experimental data.

  13. Lifting—A nonreversible Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucelja, Marija

    2016-12-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms are invaluable tools for exploring stationary properties of physical systems, especially in situations where direct sampling is unfeasible. Common implementations of Monte Carlo algorithms employ reversible Markov chains. Reversible chains obey detailed balance and thus ensure that the system will eventually relax to equilibrium, though detailed balance is not necessary for convergence to equilibrium. We review nonreversible Markov chains, which violate detailed balance and yet still relax to a given target stationary distribution. In particular cases, nonreversible Markov chains are substantially better at sampling than the conventional reversible Markov chains with up to a square root improvement in the convergence time to the steady state. One kind of nonreversible Markov chain is constructed from the reversible ones by enlarging the state space and by modifying and adding extra transition rates to create non-reversible moves. Because of the augmentation of the state space, such chains are often referred to as lifted Markov Chains. We illustrate the use of lifted Markov chains for efficient sampling on several examples. The examples include sampling on a ring, sampling on a torus, the Ising model on a complete graph, and the one-dimensional Ising model. We also provide a pseudocode implementation, review related work, and discuss the applicability of such methods.

  14. A one-dimensional ice structure built from pentagons.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Javier; Michaelides, Angelos; Forster, Matthew; Haq, Sam; Raval, Rasmita; Hodgson, Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation has a key role in fields as diverse as atmospheric chemistry and biology. Ice nucleation on metal surfaces affords an opportunity to watch this process unfold at the molecular scale on a well-defined, planar interface. A common feature of structural models for such films is that they are built from hexagonal arrangements of molecules. Here we show, through a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and density-functional theory, that about 1-nm-wide ice chains that nucleate on Cu(110) are not built from hexagons, but instead are built from a face-sharing arrangement of water pentagons. The pentagon structure is favoured over others because it maximizes the water-metal bonding while maintaining a strong hydrogen-bonding network. It reveals an unanticipated structural adaptability of water-ice films, demonstrating that the presence of the substrate can be sufficient to favour non-hexagonal structural units.

  15. Computational Model of One-Dimensional Dielectric Barrier Discharges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Siemens proposed a special electrical discharge to produce ozone (6:309). In 1955, Tanaka discovered that the DBD could be used for excimer...un t x t n nx t x tnn unn nu t n n n un u t nx t nx t x t n nx t x tunneNE ν δδϕ ϕ δ ν δ ν δϕ ϕϕ δδϕ ϕ ϕ . (91) This process is repeated for the...or blocks, consisting of the coefficients of the δ terms, nx is a four-term sub-vector of the unknown δ ’s and nb is a four-term sub- vector

  16. Lempel-Ziv complexity analysis of one dimensional cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Estevez-Rams, E; Lora-Serrano, R; Nunes, C A J; Aragón-Fernández, B

    2015-12-01

    Lempel-Ziv complexity measure has been used to estimate the entropy density of a string. It is defined as the number of factors in a production factorization of a string. In this contribution, we show that its use can be extended, by using the normalized information distance, to study the spatiotemporal evolution of random initial configurations under cellular automata rules. In particular, the transfer information from time consecutive configurations is studied, as well as the sensitivity to perturbed initial conditions. The behavior of the cellular automata rules can be grouped in different classes, but no single grouping captures the whole nature of the involved rules. The analysis carried out is particularly appropriate for studying the computational processing capabilities of cellular automata rules.

  17. One-dimensional silicon-cadmium selenide heterostructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, X. H.; Sham, T. K.; Rosenberg, R. A.; Shenoy, G. K.; X-Ray Science Division; Univ. of Western Ontario

    2007-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of 1D Si-CdSe heteronanostructures with different morphologies such as coaxial, biaxial, sandwiched, pattern wrapping, coiling, structures etc., via a one-step metal catalyzed thermal evaporation method. Both Si and CdSe exhibit single crystalline characteristics in the heterostructures, as revealed by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The Si nanowires formed directly from the Si substrate via the solid-liquid-solid process acts as the absorption site for CdSe deposition as well as the template for the formation of 1D Si-CdSe heterostructures. Time-resolved X-ray excited optical luminescence from the 1D Si-CdSe heteronanostructures reveals two main emission features at 530 and 637 nm with slow and fast decay lifetime, respectively. The 530 and 637 nm emission is associated with the Si and CdSe component of the heterostructures, respectively.

  18. One-Dimensional Bose Chemistry: Effects of Nonintegrability

    SciTech Connect

    Yurovsky, V.A.; Ben-Reuven, A.; Olshanii, M.

    2006-04-28

    Three-body collisions of ultracold identical Bose atoms under tight cylindrical confinement are analyzed. A Feshbach resonance in two-body collisions is described by a two-channel zero-range interaction. Elimination of the closed channel in the three-body problem reduces the interaction to a one-channel zero-range one with an energy-dependent strength. The related integrable Lieb-Liniger-McGuire (LLMG) model, with an energy-independent strength, forbids all chemical processes, such as three-atom association and diatom dissociation, as well as reflection in atom-diatom collisions. The resonant case is analyzed by a numerical solution of the Faddeev equations. The results demonstrate that as the internal symmetry of the LLMG model is lifted, reflection and chemical reactions become allowed and may be observed in experiments.

  19. One-dimensional cold cap model for melters with bubblers

    DOE PAGES

    Pokorny, Richard; Hilliard, Zachary J.; Dixon, Derek R.; ...

    2015-07-28

    The rate of glass production during vitrification in an all-electrical melter greatly impacts the cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization. The feed is charged to the melter on the top of the molten glass, where it forms a layer of reacting and melting material, called the cold cap. During the final stages of the batch-to-glass conversion process, gases evolved from reactions produce primary foam, the growth and collapse of which controls the glass production rate. The mathematical model of the cold cap was revised to include functional representation of primary foam behavior and to account for themore » dry cold cap surface. The melting rate is computed as a response to the dependence of the primary foam collapse temperature on the heating rate and melter operating conditions, including the effect of bubbling on the cold cap bottom and top surface temperatures. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data from laboratory-scale and pilot-scale melter studies. Lastly, the cold cap model will become part of the full three-dimensional mathematical model of the waste glass melter.« less

  20. One-dimensional cold cap model for melters with bubblers

    SciTech Connect

    Pokorny, Richard; Hilliard, Zachary J.; Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Guillen, Donna P.; Kruger, Albert A.; Hrma, Pavel

    2015-07-28

    The rate of glass production during vitrification in an all-electrical melter greatly impacts the cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization. The feed is charged to the melter on the top of the molten glass, where it forms a layer of reacting and melting material, called the cold cap. During the final stages of the batch-to-glass conversion process, gases evolved from reactions produce primary foam, the growth and collapse of which controls the glass production rate. The mathematical model of the cold cap was revised to include functional representation of primary foam behavior and to account for the dry cold cap surface. The melting rate is computed as a response to the dependence of the primary foam collapse temperature on the heating rate and melter operating conditions, including the effect of bubbling on the cold cap bottom and top surface temperatures. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data from laboratory-scale and pilot-scale melter studies. Lastly, the cold cap model will become part of the full three-dimensional mathematical model of the waste glass melter.

  1. One-dimensional gravity in infinite point distributions.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, A; Joyce, M; Sicard, F

    2009-10-01

    The dynamics of infinite asymptotically uniform distributions of purely self-gravitating particles in one spatial dimension provides a simple and interesting toy model for the analogous three dimensional problem treated in cosmology. In this paper we focus on a limitation of such models as they have been treated so far in the literature: the force, as it has been specified, is well defined in infinite point distributions only if there is a centre of symmetry (i.e., the definition requires explicitly the breaking of statistical translational invariance). The problem arises because naive background subtraction (due to expansion, or by "Jeans swindle" for the static case), applied as in three dimensions, leaves an unregulated contribution to the force due to surface mass fluctuations. Following a discussion by Kiessling of the Jeans swindle in three dimensions, we show that the problem may be resolved by defining the force in infinite point distributions as the limit of an exponentially screened pair interaction. We show explicitly that this prescription gives a well defined (finite) force acting on particles in a class of perturbed infinite lattices, which are the point processes relevant to cosmological N -body simulations. For identical particles the dynamics of the simplest toy model (without expansion) is equivalent to that of an infinite set of points with inverted harmonic oscillator potentials which bounce elastically when they collide. We discuss and compare with previous results in the literature and present new results for the specific case of this simplest (static) model starting from "shuffled lattice" initial conditions. These show qualitative properties of the evolution (notably its "self-similarity") like those in the analogous simulations in three dimensions, which in turn resemble those in the expanding universe.

  2. Large Deviations for Finite State Markov Jump Processes with Mean-Field Interaction Via the Comparison Principle for an Associated Hamilton-Jacobi Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraaij, Richard

    2016-07-01

    We prove the large deviation principle (LDP) for the trajectory of a broad class of finite state mean-field interacting Markov jump processes via a general analytic approach based on viscosity solutions. Examples include generalized Ehrenfest models as well as Curie-Weiss spin flip dynamics with singular jump rates. The main step in the proof of the LDP, which is of independent interest, is the proof of the comparison principle for an associated collection of Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Additionally, we show that the LDP provides a general method to identify a Lyapunov function for the associated McKean-Vlasov equation.

  3. Localized surface plasmon of quasi-one-dimensional metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingzhao

    2007-05-01

    The plasmon resonance of noble metal nanoparticles provides interesting optical properties in the visible and near-infrared region, and is highly tunable by varying the shape and the composition of the nanoparticles. The rod-like gold nanostructures can be synthesized by a seed-mediated method in aqueous surfactant solutions. Starting from different types of gold seeds, either single crystalline gold nanorods or penta-fold twinned gold bipyramids can be synthesized in decent yield with silver(I) added into the growth solution. These nanostructures have pronounced plasmon resonance varying in the 1˜2 eV range. The bipyramids are strikingly monodisperse in shape, which leads to the sharpest ensemble longitudinal plasmon resonance reported so far for metal colloid solutions. A mechanism based on the underpotential deposition of silver was thus suggested to explain the essential role of Ag(I) in the growth process. The optical spectra of the gold colloids were simulated with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The results show excellent agreement with recent experimental optical spectra. The local field enhancement (|E|/|E0|) was studied at the plasmon resonance. Sharper structural features produce more significant enhancement and the largest enhancement of more than a factor of 200 is seen around the poles of the bipyramid. A large internal field enhancement by more than a factor of 30 is found for the bipyramids, which suggests that they will exhibit very strong optical nonlinearities. The plasmon can be further tuned by introducing the core/shell nanostructures such as metal/metal or metal/semiconductor nanorods. Following a simple procedure, a homogeneous layer of silver with 1-4 nm thickness can be plated onto the gold nanorods, which shifts the longitudinal plasmon mode of the nanorods toward blue. The silver layer can be converted to semiconductors silver sulfide or selenide, with the longitudinal plasmon resonance tuned toward red. The metal

  4. An interacting spin-flip model for one-dimensional proton conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Tom

    2002-05-01

    A discrete asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP) is developed to model proton conduction along one-dimensional water wires. Each lattice site represents a water molecule that can be in only one of three states; protonated, left-pointing and right-pointing. Only a right- (left-) pointing water can accept a proton from its left (). Results of asymptotic mean field analysis and Monte Carlo simulations for the three-species, open boundary exclusion model are presented and compared. The mean field results for the steady-state proton current suggest a number of regimes analogous to the low and maximal current phases found in the single-species ASEP (Derrida B 1998 Phys. Rep. 301 65-83). We find that the mean field results are accurate (compared with lattice Monte Carlo simulations) only in certain regimes. Refinements and extensions including more elaborate forces and pore defects are also discussed.

  5. Ab-initio study of quasi one-dimensional Br adsorption on Pt(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchini, Cesare; Redinger, Josef; Podloucky, Raimund

    2001-03-01

    Halogen atoms interact strongly with metal surfaces. For this reason they play an important role in many technologically important processes. The Pt(110) surface is known to reconstruct into an (1x2) structure of "missing-row" type (MR). Its strong anisotropic character can be used as template to prepare single crystal surfaces of Pt-Br-Pt chains, which exhibit quasi one-dimensional (1D) behavior. We present ab-initio investigations based on the Full-potential Linearized Augmented Plane Wave method (FLAPW), as implemented in the FLEUR package, and the Tersoff-Hamann model for simulating STM images. Structural and electronic properties of the Br/Pt(110) surface at half coverage and of the clean Pt(110) surface and its (1x2) MR reconstruction are studied in detail. Results are compared to available LEED and STM data.

  6. Variability and self-average of impurity-limited resistance in quasi-one dimensional nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Nobuyuki

    2017-02-01

    The impurity-limited resistance in quasi-one dimensional (quasi-1D) nanowires is studied under the framework of the Lippmann-Schwinger scattering theory. The resistance of cylindrical nanowires is calculated theoretically under various spatial configurations of localized impurities with a simplified short-range scattering potential. Then, the relationship between the phase interference and the variability in the impurity-limited resistances is clarified. We show that there are two different and independent mechanisms leading to the variability in impurity-limited resistances; incoherent and phase-coherent randomization processes. The latter is closely related to the so-called "self-average" and its physical origin under nanowire structures is clarified. We point out that the ensemble average also comes into play in the cases of long channel nanowires, which leads to the self-average resistance of multiple impurities.

  7. Atom-by-atom assembly of defect-free one-dimensional cold atom arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, Manuel; Bernien, Hannes; Keesling, Alexander; Levine, Harry; Anschuetz, Eric R.; Krajenbrink, Alexandre; Senko, Crystal; Vuletic, Vladan; Greiner, Markus; Lukin, Mikhail D.

    2016-11-01

    The realization of large-scale fully controllable quantum systems is an exciting frontier in modern physical science. We use atom-by-atom assembly to implement a platform for the deterministic preparation of regular one-dimensional arrays of individually controlled cold atoms. In our approach, a measurement and feedback procedure eliminates the entropy associated with probabilistic trap occupation and results in defect-free arrays of more than 50 atoms in less than 400 milliseconds. The technique is based on fast, real-time control of 100 optical tweezers, which we use to arrange atoms in desired geometric patterns and to maintain these configurations by replacing lost atoms with surplus atoms from a reservoir. This bottom-up approach may enable controlled engineering of scalable many-body systems for quantum information processing, quantum simulations, and precision measurements.

  8. One-dimensional time-dependent debris bed model. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham-Bergeron, E.

    1982-01-01

    The dryout process is described for a particle bed using a time-dependent one-dimensional porous bed model. The model is based on momentum, energy and mass conservation equations for separated flow. The model is applicable to the case in which capillary forces can be neglected. For the case in which only laminar flow is considered exact algebraic solutions to the equations can be obtained. These are presented. Distinct regimes for the parameterized solutions can be identified and associated with moving fronts in the bed. Extension to the full turbulent and laminar equations is made with the aid of insights gained from solution of the laminar case. Comparison with recent experimental results and theoretical predictions is made. The model is seen to encompass and extend the theoretical models. It suggests additional experiments.

  9. Twisted superfluid phase in the extended one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lühmann, Dirk-Sören

    2016-07-01

    In one-dimensional systems a twisted superfluid phase is found which is induced by a spontaneous breaking of the time-reversal symmetry. Using the density-matrix renormalization group allows us to show that the excitation energy gap closes exponentially causing a quasidegenerate ground state. The two degenerate ground states are connected by the time-reversal symmetry which manifests itself in an alternating complex phase of the long-range correlation function. The quantum phase transition to the twisted superfluid is driven by pair tunneling processes in an extended Bose-Hubbard model. The phase boundaries of several other phases are discussed including a supersolid, a pair superfluid, and a pair supersolid phase as well as a highly unconventional Mott insulator with a degenerate ground state and a staggered pair correlation function.

  10. A New Binning Method for Metagenomics by One-Dimensional Cellular Automata.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Chih

    2015-01-01

    More and more developed and inexpensive next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies allow us to extract vast sequence data from a sample containing multiple species. Characterizing the taxonomic diversity for the planet-size data plays an important role in the metagenomic studies, while a crucial step for doing the study is the binning process to group sequence reads from similar species or taxonomic classes. The metagenomic binning remains a challenge work because of not only the various read noises but also the tremendous data volume. In this work, we propose an unsupervised binning method for NGS reads based on the one-dimensional cellular automaton (1D-CA). Our binning method facilities to reduce the memory usage because 1D-CA costs only linear space. Experiments on synthetic dataset exhibit that our method is helpful to identify species of lower abundance compared to the proposed tool.

  11. Quantum information entropy for one-dimensional system undergoing quantum phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu-Dong, Song; Shi-Hai, Dong; Yu, Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Calculations of the quantum information entropy have been extended to a non-analytically solvable situation. Specifically, we have investigated the information entropy for a one-dimensional system with a schematic “Landau” potential in a numerical way. Particularly, it is found that the phase transitional behavior of the system can be well expressed by the evolution of quantum information entropy. The calculated results also indicate that the position entropy Sx and the momentum entropy Sp at the critical point of phase transition may vary with the mass parameter M but their sum remains as a constant independent of M for a given excited state. In addition, the entropy uncertainty relation is proven to be robust during the whole process of the phase transition. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11375005) and partially by 20150964-SIP-IPN, Mexico.

  12. Polariton condensation in solitonic gap states in a one-dimensional periodic potential

    PubMed Central

    Tanese, D.; Flayac, H.; Solnyshkov, D.; Amo, A.; Lemaître, A.; Galopin, E.; Braive, R.; Senellart, P.; Sagnes, I.; Malpuech, G.; Bloch, J.

    2013-01-01

    Manipulation of nonlinear waves in artificial periodic structures leads to spectacular spatial features, such as generation of gap solitons or onset of the Mott insulator phase transition. Cavity exciton–polaritons are strongly interacting quasiparticles offering large possibilities for potential optical technologies. Here we report their condensation in a one-dimensional microcavity with a periodic modulation. The resulting mini-band structure dramatically influences the condensation process. Contrary to non-modulated cavities, where condensates expand, here, we observe spontaneous condensation in localized gap soliton states. Depending on excitation conditions, we access different dynamical regimes: we demonstrate the formation of gap solitons either moving along the ridge or bound to the potential created by the reservoir of uncondensed excitons. We also find Josephson oscillations of gap solitons triggered between the two sides of the reservoir. This system is foreseen as a building block for polaritonic circuits, where propagation and localization are optically controlled and reconfigurable. PMID:23612290

  13. Melting of Wigner Crystal on Helium in Quasi-One-Dimensional Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Hiroki; Akimoto, Hikota; Kono, Kimitoshi

    2015-05-01

    We discuss melting of a Wigner crystal formed on a free surface of superfluid He, in quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) channels of width between 5 and 15 m. We reexamine our previous transport data (Ikegami et al. in Phys Rev B 82:201104(R), 2010), in particular, by estimating the number of electrons across the channel in a more accurate way with the aid of numerical calculations of distributions of the electrons in the channels. The results of reexamination indicate more convincingly that the melting of the Wigner crystal in the Q1D geometry is understood by the finite size effect on the Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young melting process. We also present technical details of the transport measurements of the electrons in a Q1D geometry, including a fabrication method of devices used for the transport measurements, numerical simulations of response of the devices, and a procedure for analyzing transport data.

  14. Deterministic hopping in a Josephson circuit described by a one-dimensional mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Miracky, R.F.; Devoret, M.H.; Clarke, J.

    1985-04-01

    Analog simulations of the hopping noise of a current-biased Josephson tunnel junction shunted with an inductor in series with a resistor reveal a 1/..omega.. spectral density over two decades of frequency ..omega.. for a narrow range of bias currents. The amplitude of the low-frequency part of the spectrum decreases when white noise, representing Nyquist noise in the resistor at a few degrees Kelvin, is added to the simulation. We explain the shape of the power spectrum and its dependence on bias current and added white noise in terms of a deterministic process, involving a one-dimensional mapping, that is analogous to that found in Pomeau-Manneville intermittency. Moreover, we are able to establish a detailed relationship between the origin of the mapping and the differential equation describing the dynamics of the system.

  15. Porous one-dimensional nanostructures through confined cooperative self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Bai, Feng; Sun, Zaicheng; Wu, Huimeng; Haddad, Raid E; Coker, Eric N; Huang, Jian Yu; Rodriguez, Mark A; Fan, Hongyou

    2011-12-14

    We report a simple confined self-assembly process to synthesize nanoporous one-dimensional photoactive nanostructures. Through surfactant-assisted cooperative interactions (e.g., π-π stacking, ligand coordination, and so forth) of the macrocyclic building block, zinc meso-tetra (4-pyridyl) porphyrin (ZnTPyP), self-assembled ZnTPyP nanowires and nanorods with controlled diameters and aspect ratios are prepared. Electron microscopy characterization in combination with X-ray diffraction and gas sorption experiments indicate that these materials exhibit stable single-crystalline and high surface area nanoporous frameworks with well-defined external morphology. Optical characterizations using UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy show enhanced collective optical properties over the individual chromophores (ZnTPyP), favorable for exciton formation and transport.

  16. Markov stochasticity coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-01-01

    Markov dynamics constitute one of the most fundamental models of random motion between the states of a system of interest. Markov dynamics have diverse applications in many fields of science and engineering, and are particularly applicable in the context of random motion in networks. In this paper we present a two-dimensional gauging method of the randomness of Markov dynamics. The method-termed Markov Stochasticity Coordinates-is established, discussed, and exemplified. Also, the method is tweaked to quantify the stochasticity of the first-passage-times of Markov dynamics, and the socioeconomic equality and mobility in human societies.

  17. Symmetries and invariant solutions of the one-dimensional Boltzmann equation for inelastic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    We consider the one-dimensional integro-differential Boltzmann equation for Maxwell particles with inelastic collisions. We show that the equation has a five-dimensional algebra of point symmetries for all dissipation parameter values and obtain an optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras and classes of invariant solutions.

  18. Markov Analysis of Sleep Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. W.; Lee, J.-S.; Robinson, P. A.; Jeong, D.-U.

    2009-05-01

    A new approach, based on a Markov transition matrix, is proposed to explain frequent sleep and wake transitions during sleep. The matrix is determined by analyzing hypnograms of 113 obstructive sleep apnea patients. Our approach shows that the statistics of sleep can be constructed via a single Markov process and that durations of all states have modified exponential distributions, in contrast to recent reports of a scale-free form for the wake stage and an exponential form for the sleep stage. Hypnograms of the same subjects, but treated with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, are analyzed and compared quantitatively with the pretreatment ones, suggesting potential clinical applications.

  19. Solution of the One-Dimensional Consolidation Equation for Saturated Clays Using a Spectral Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepulveda, N.

    2003-12-01

    The nonlinear, one-dimensional consolidation equation of fully saturated clays interbedded in an aquifer, derived by Gibson and others in 1967, is solved using a spectral method. This equation considers the variation of soil compressibility and permeability during consolidation and recasts Darcy's law so that the relative velocity of the soil skeleton and the pore fluid are related to the excess pore fluid pressure gradient. The spectral solution presented herein uses the matrix representation with Chebyshev collocation to compute the spatial derivative of functions that depend on void ratio, vertical hydraulic conductivity, and the vertical gradient of effective stress. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm is used to solve the derivative of the void ratio with respect to time. The spectral method requires neither the linearization of the originally nonlinear equation nor the convergence of iterative processes of traditional numerical methods such as finite differences and finite elements. The solution identifies temporal changes in void ratio within the clay lenses occurring in the aquifer system. The compaction is calculated from void ratio changes accumulated throughout the simulated time periods. Laboratory data were used to obtain the mean value for the soil grain density and depth-dependent profiles for aquifer compressibility, hydraulic conductivity, and initial vertical distribution of void ratio for each clay lens. The vertical gradient of the effective stress, needed in the consolidation equation, was derived and the resulting expression was evaluated by using the depth-dependent void ratio profile and drawdown data from a well hydrograph. Compactions and expansions of the clay lens resulting from temporal variations in drawdown due to ground-water withdrawals and recharge periods were simulated for two observation wells in the Santa Clara Valley, California. The solution of the one-dimensional consolidation equation generated temporal changes in void

  20. Simultaneous one-dimensional fluorescence lifetime measurements of OH and CO in premixed flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, Malin; Ehn, Andreas; Christensen, Moah; Aldén, Marcus; Bood, Joakim

    2014-04-01

    A method for simultaneous measurements of fluorescence lifetimes of two species along a line is described. The experimental setup is based on picosecond laser pulses from two tunable optical parametric generator/optical parametric amplifier systems together with a streak camera. With an appropriate optical time delay between the two laser pulses, whose wavelengths are tuned to excite two different species, laser-induced fluorescence can be both detected temporally and spatially resolved by the streak camera. Hence, our method enables one-dimensional imaging of fluorescence lifetimes of two species in the same streak camera recording. The concept is demonstrated for fluorescence lifetime measurements of CO and OH in a laminar methane/air flame on a Bunsen-type burner. Measurements were taken in flames with four different equivalence ratios, namely ϕ = 0.9, 1.0, 1.15, and 1.25. The measured one-dimensional lifetime profiles generally agree well with lifetimes calculated from quenching cross sections found in the literature and quencher concentrations predicted by the GRI 3.0 mechanism. For OH, there is a systematic deviation of approximately 30 % between calculated and measured lifetimes. It is found that this is mainly due to the adiabatic assumption regarding the flame and uncertainty in H2O quenching cross section. This emphasizes the strength of measuring the quenching rates rather than relying on models. The measurement concept might be useful for single-shot measurements of fluorescence lifetimes of several species pairs of vital importance in combustion processes, hence allowing fluorescence signals to be corrected for quenching and ultimately yield quantitative concentration profiles.

  1. Zero- vs. one-dimensional, parametric vs. non-parametric, and confidence interval vs. hypothesis testing procedures in one-dimensional biomechanical trajectory analysis.

    PubMed

    Pataky, Todd C; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Robinson, Mark A

    2015-05-01

    Biomechanical processes are often manifested as one-dimensional (1D) trajectories. It has been shown that 1D confidence intervals (CIs) are biased when based on 0D statistical procedures, and the non-parametric 1D bootstrap CI has emerged in the Biomechanics literature as a viable solution. The primary purpose of this paper was to clarify that, for 1D biomechanics datasets, the distinction between 0D and 1D methods is much more important than the distinction between parametric and non-parametric procedures. A secondary purpose was to demonstrate that a parametric equivalent to the 1D bootstrap exists in the form of a random field theory (RFT) correction for multiple comparisons. To emphasize these points we analyzed six datasets consisting of force and kinematic trajectories in one-sample, paired, two-sample and regression designs. Results showed, first, that the 1D bootstrap and other 1D non-parametric CIs were qualitatively identical to RFT CIs, and all were very different from 0D CIs. Second, 1D parametric and 1D non-parametric hypothesis testing results were qualitatively identical for all six datasets. Last, we highlight the limitations of 1D CIs by demonstrating that they are complex, design-dependent, and thus non-generalizable. These results suggest that (i) analyses of 1D data based on 0D models of randomness are generally biased unless one explicitly identifies 0D variables before the experiment, and (ii) parametric and non-parametric 1D hypothesis testing provide an unambiguous framework for analysis when one׳s hypothesis explicitly or implicitly pertains to whole 1D trajectories.

  2. Controlling spatio-temporal chaos in the scenario of the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation.

    PubMed

    Boccaletti, S; Bragard, J

    2006-09-15

    We discuss some issues related with the process of controlling space-time chaotic states in the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. We address the problem of gathering control over turbulent regimes with the use of only a limited number of controllers, each one of them implementing, in parallel, a local control technique for restoring an unstable plane-wave solution. We show that the system extension does not influence the density of controllers needed in order to achieve control.

  3. One-Dimensional Perovskite Manganite Oxide Nanostructures: Recent Developments in Synthesis, Characterization, Transport Properties, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Liang, Lizhi; Wu, Heng; Zhu, Xinhua

    2016-12-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures, including nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes, nanofibers, and nanobelts, have promising applications in mesoscopic physics and nanoscale devices. In contrast to other nanostructures, one-dimensional nanostructures can provide unique advantages in investigating the size and dimensionality dependence of the materials' physical properties, such as electrical, thermal, and mechanical performances, and in constructing nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. Among the one-dimensional nanostructures, one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures have been received much attention due to their unusual electron transport and magnetic properties, which are indispensable for the applications in microelectronic, magnetic, and spintronic devices. In the past two decades, much effort has been made to synthesize and characterize one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures in the forms of nanorods, nanowires, nanotubes, and nanobelts. Various physical and chemical deposition techniques and growth mechanisms are explored and developed to control the morphology, identical shape, uniform size, crystalline structure, defects, and homogenous stoichiometry of the one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures. This article provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art research activities that focus on the rational synthesis, structural characterization, fundamental properties, and unique applications of one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures in nanotechnology. It begins with the rational synthesis of one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures and then summarizes their structural characterizations. Fundamental physical properties of one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures are also highlighted, and a range of unique applications in information storages, field-effect transistors, and spintronic devices are discussed. Finally, we conclude this review with some perspectives/outlook and future

  4. Effect of interchain frustration in quasi-one-dimensional conductors at half-filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiizu, M.; Suzumura, Y.; Bourbonnais, C.

    2007-04-01

    We examine the effect of frustrated interchain hoppings t_{\\perp 1} and t_{\\perp 2} on one-dimensional Mott insulators. By applying an N_\\perp -chain two-loop renormalization-group method to the half-filled quasi-one-dimensional Hubbard model, we show that the system remains insulating even for the large t_{\\perp 1} as far as t_{\\perp 2}=0 and vice versa, whereas a metallic state emerges by increasing both interchain hoppings. We also discuss the metallic behaviour suggested in the quasi-one-dimensional organic compound (TTM-TTP)I3 under high pressure.

  5. The Discounted Method and Equivalence of Average Criteria for Risk-Sensitive Markov Decision Processes on Borel Spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cavazos-Cadena, Rolando; Salem-Silva, Francisco

    2010-04-15

    This note concerns discrete-time controlled Markov chains with Borel state and action spaces. Given a nonnegative cost function, the performance of a control policy is measured by the superior limit risk-sensitive average criterion associated with a constant and positive risk sensitivity coefficient. Within such a framework, the discounted approach is used (a) to establish the existence of solutions for the corresponding optimality inequality, and (b) to show that, under mild conditions on the cost function, the optimal value functions corresponding to the superior and inferior limit average criteria coincide on a certain subset of the state space. The approach of the paper relies on standard dynamic programming ideas and on a simple analytical derivation of a Tauberian relation.

  6. One-dimensional ion-beam figuring for grazing-incidence reflective optics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Idir, Mourad; Bouet, Nathalie; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Huang, Lei; Vescovi, Matthew; Dai, Yifan; Li, Shengyi

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional ion-beam figuring (1D-IBF) can improve grazing-incidence reflective optics, such as Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors. 1D-IBF requires only one motion degree of freedom, which reduces equipment complexity, resulting in compact and low-cost IBF instrumentation. Furthermore, 1D-IBF is easy to integrate into a single vacuum system with other fabrication processes, such as a thin-film deposition. The NSLS-II Optical Metrology and Fabrication Group has recently integrated the 1D-IBF function into an existing thin-film deposition system by adding an RF ion source to the system. Using a rectangular grid, a 1D removal function needed to perform 1D-IBF has been produced. In this paper, demonstration experiments of the 1D-IBF process are presented on one spherical and two plane samples. The final residual errors on both plane samples are less than 1 nm r.m.s. The surface error on the spherical sample has been successfully reduced by a factor of 12. The results show that the 1D-IBF method is an effective method to process high-precision 1D synchrotron optics.

  7. Gas sensors based on one dimensional nanostructured metal-oxides: a review.

    PubMed

    Arafat, M M; Dinan, B; Akbar, Sheikh A; Haseeb, A S M A

    2012-01-01

    Recently one dimensional (1-D) nanostructured metal-oxides have attracted much attention because of their potential applications in gas sensors. 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides provide high surface to volume ratio, while maintaining good chemical and thermal stabilities with minimal power consumption and low weight. In recent years, various processing routes have been developed for the synthesis of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides such as hydrothermal, ultrasonic irradiation, electrospinning, anodization, sol-gel, molten-salt, carbothermal reduction, solid-state chemical reaction, thermal evaporation, vapor-phase transport, aerosol, RF sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy, chemical vapor deposition, gas-phase assisted nanocarving, UV lithography and dry plasma etching. A variety of sensor fabrication processing routes have also been developed. Depending on the materials, morphology and fabrication process the performance of the sensor towards a specific gas shows a varying degree of success. This article reviews and evaluates the performance of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxide gas sensors based on ZnO, SnO(2), TiO(2), In(2)O(3), WO(x), AgVO(3), CdO, MoO(3), CuO, TeO(2) and Fe(2)O(3). Advantages and disadvantages of each sensor are summarized, along with the associated sensing mechanism. Finally, the article concludes with some future directions of research.

  8. Gas Sensors Based on One Dimensional Nanostructured Metal-Oxides: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Arafat, M. M.; Dinan, B.; Akbar, Sheikh A.; Haseeb, A. S. M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently one dimensional (1-D) nanostructured metal-oxides have attracted much attention because of their potential applications in gas sensors. 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides provide high surface to volume ratio, while maintaining good chemical and thermal stabilities with minimal power consumption and low weight. In recent years, various processing routes have been developed for the synthesis of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides such as hydrothermal, ultrasonic irradiation, electrospinning, anodization, sol-gel, molten-salt, carbothermal reduction, solid-state chemical reaction, thermal evaporation, vapor-phase transport, aerosol, RF sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy, chemical vapor deposition, gas-phase assisted nanocarving, UV lithography and dry plasma etching. A variety of sensor fabrication processing routes have also been developed. Depending on the materials, morphology and fabrication process the performance of the sensor towards a specific gas shows a varying degree of success. This article reviews and evaluates the performance of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxide gas sensors based on ZnO, SnO2, TiO2, In2O3, WOx, AgVO3, CdO, MoO3, CuO, TeO2 and Fe2O3. Advantages and disadvantages of each sensor are summarized, along with the associated sensing mechanism. Finally, the article concludes with some future directions of research. PMID:22969344

  9. Ultra-refractive and extended-range one-dimensional photonic crystal superprisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, D. Z. Y.

    2003-01-01

    We describe theoretical analysis and design of one-dimensional photonic crystal prisms. We found that inside the photonic crystal, for frequencies near the band edges, light propagation direction is extremely sensitive to the variations in wavelength and incident angle.

  10. A Large Class of Exact Solutions to the One-Dimensional Schrodinger Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaoglu, Bekir

    2007-01-01

    A remarkable property of a large class of functions is exploited to generate exact solutions to the one-dimensional Schrodinger equation. The method is simple and easy to implement. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  11. Simulating higher-dimensional geometries in GADRAS using approximate one-dimensional solutions.

    SciTech Connect

    Thoreson, Gregory G.; Mitchell, Dean J; Harding, Lee T.

    2013-02-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) software package is capable of simulating the radiation transport physics for one-dimensional models. Spherical shells are naturally one-dimensional, and have been the focus of development and benchmarking. However, some objects are not spherical in shape, such as cylinders and boxes. These are not one-dimensional. Simulating the radiation transport in two or three dimensions is unattractive because of the extra computation time required. To maintain computational efficiency, higher-dimensional geometries require approximations to simulate them in one-dimension. This report summarizes the theory behind these approximations, tests the theory against other simulations, and compares the results to experimental data. Based on the results, it is recommended that GADRAS users always attempt to approximate reality using spherical shells. However, if fissile material is present, it is imperative that the shape of the one-dimensional model matches the fissile material, including the use of slab and cylinder geometry.

  12. On global solutions for quasilinear one-dimensional parabolic problems with dynamical boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvelesiani, Simon; Lippoth, Friedrich; Walker, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    We provide sufficient and almost optimal conditions for global existence of classical solutions in parabolic Hölder spaces to quasilinear one-dimensional parabolic problems with dynamical boundary conditions.

  13. Semi-Markov adjunction to the Computer-Aided Markov Evaluator (CAME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosch, Gene; Hutchins, Monica A.; Leong, Frank J.; Babcock, Philip S., IV

    1988-01-01

    The rule-based Computer-Aided Markov Evaluator (CAME) program was expanded in its ability to incorporate the effect of fault-handling processes into the construction of a reliability model. The fault-handling processes are modeled as semi-Markov events and CAME constructs and appropriate semi-Markov model. To solve the model, the program outputs it in a form which can be directly solved with the Semi-Markov Unreliability Range Evaluator (SURE) program. As a means of evaluating the alterations made to the CAME program, the program is used to model the reliability of portions of the Integrated Airframe/Propulsion Control System Architecture (IAPSA 2) reference configuration. The reliability predictions are compared with a previous analysis. The results bear out the feasibility of utilizing CAME to generate appropriate semi-Markov models to model fault-handling processes.

  14. Quasicrystalline electronic states of a one-dimensionally modulated Ag film.

    PubMed

    Moras, P; Theis, W; Ferrari, L; Gardonio, S; Fujii, J; Horn, K; Carbone, C

    2006-04-21

    Ag films on GaAs(110) exhibit a one-dimensional quasiperiodic modulation, resulting in a Fibonacci sequence of parallel stripes with two different widths. Valence level photoemission shows that the Ag electronic states acquire a unique character along the quasiperiodic direction, distinctively manifested by a hierarchy of energy level replicas and avoided crossings at characteristic intervals in reciprocal space. These observations demonstrate the strong influence of the one-dimensional quasiperiodic potential on the Ag film states.

  15. Elementary excitations for the one-dimensional Hubbard model at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, A.; Suga, S.; Okiji, A.

    1997-07-01

    The elementary excitations for the one-dimensional Hubbard model at finite temperatures are studied with the use of the Bethe ansatz solution. The formulation is based on the method of Yang and Yang, which was developed for the one-dimensional boson systems with the 0953-8984/9/27/014/img1-function type interaction. The dispersion relations and the excitation spectrums are obtained numerically for the charge and the spin degrees of freedom.

  16. Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation Efficiencies in One-Dimensional CdSe Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Tongying, Pornthip; Plashnitsa, Vladimir V; Petchsang, Nattasamon; Vietmeyer, Felix; Ferraudi, Guillermo J; Krylova, Galyna; Kuno, Masaru

    2012-11-01

    To better understand the role nanoscale heterojunctions play in the photocatalytic generation of hydrogen, we have designed several model one-dimensional (1D) heterostructures based on CdSe nanowires (NWs). Specifically, CdSe/CdS core/shell NWs and Au nanoparticle (NP)-decorated core and core/shell NWs have been produced using facile solution chemistries. These systems enable us to explore sources for efficient charge separation and enhanced carrier lifetimes important to photocatalytic processes. We find that visible light H2 generation efficiencies in the produced hybrid 1D structures increase in the order CdSe < CdSe/Au NP < CdSe/CdS/Au NP < CdSe/CdS with a maximum H2 generation rate of 58.06 ± 3.59 μmol h(-1) g(-1) for CdSe/CdS core/shell NWs. This is 30 times larger than the activity of bare CdSe NWs. Using femtosecond transient differential absorption spectroscopy, we subsequently provide mechanistic insight into the role nanoscale heterojunctions play by directly monitoring charge flow and accumulation in these hybrid systems. In turn, we explain the observed trend in H2 generation rates with an important outcome being direct evidence for heterojunction-influenced charge transfer enhancements of relevant chemical reduction processes.

  17. Solution synthesis of one-dimensional ZnO nanomaterials and their applications.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Benjamin; Zhou, Zhengzhi; Li, Yinhua; Deng, Yulin

    2010-09-01

    Recently, one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanomaterials (NMs) have been extensively studied because both their functional properties and highly controllable morphology make them important building blocks for understanding nanoscale phenomena and realizing nanoscale devices. Compared with high temperature (>450 degrees C) vapor phase methods, solution-based synthesis methods can be conducted at low temperatures (25-200 degrees C) allowing for compatibility with many organic substrate materials and offer additional advantages such as straightforward processing, low cost, and ease of scale up. Although there exist several review articles in the literature regarding the synthesis and applications of 1D ZnO NMs, those focusing on solution-based synthesis methods are lacking. Thus, this review focuses mainly on 1D ZnO NMs synthesized by solution-based processing. Firstly, 1D ZnO non-patterned, nanoparticle-seeded synthesis and its associated solution growth kinetics are discussed. Next, synthesis of vertically-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays with controlled pattern and density on various substrates is reviewed. Finally, important applications of 1D ZnO NMs are highlighted including sensors, field emission devices, photodetectors, optical switches, and solar cells.

  18. Reducing radiation losses of one-dimensional photonic-crystal mirrors in a silica waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wei; Liu, Rong-juan; Li, Zhi-yuan

    2012-11-01

    One-dimensional PhC mirrors are constructed in a single-mode silica slab waveguide with a row of elliptical holes. The photonic band gap (PBG) of the PhC structure is attained by fast eigen-mode calculations. Being aware that component radiated waves of the PhC mirror are generated at interfaces between different waveguide sections, when propagating guided waves impinge on these interfaces, we point out that the total radiation loss of the PhC mirror is consequence of interferometric interplays of component radiated waves. We visualize this radiation generation process with intuitive pictures. We also estimate total radiation losses of PhC mirrors by using an analytical model. For uniform PhC mirrors, our model explains the oscillations of the total radiation loss with the increase of the period number. The calculated results agree well with the numerical simulations in terms of the oscillation period, the damping speed, the initial phase, and the relative intensity. For non-uniform PhC mirrors, our model finds that the progressively tapered transition from the feeding waveguide to the PhC mirror does not yield the lowest radiation loss. This finding is against to the well known "impedance-matching" picture. The matching of our model with the simulated results certifies the interferometric nature of the radiation generation process in a PhC mirror especially when a low-index waveguide is considered.

  19. One-dimensional model of the equiaxed grain formation in multi-crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudhuin, M.; Duffar, T.; Lemiti, M.; Zaidat, K.

    2011-03-01

    During solidification of low purity silicon for photovoltaic (PV) cells, solute rejection at the growth interface leads to an increase of the carbon concentration in the liquid phase and then to the precipitation of silicon carbide (SiC). When the precipitate radius becomes higher than the silicon critical nucleus radius, SiC can act as a refining agent for the Si and Si equiaxed grains appear in the liquid. The grain structure of the ingot changes from columnar to small grains, also known as grits. We developed a one-dimensional analytical model of this series of phenomena, including C segregation, SiC nucleation and growth, Si nucleation on the SiC precipitates and subsequent growth of the Si equiaxed grains. The equations are implemented under Matlab software in order to predict the columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) during the directional solidification of PV Si. We carried out calculations of the position and thickness of the equiaxed areas and of the number and size of Si grits as a function of the main process parameters: thermal gradient and growth velocity. Recommendations in order to adapt the growth process parameters to the initial carbon content are given. It is expected that coupling this model to global 3D numerical simulation codes could help improving the yield of ingot solidification.

  20. Numerical Modeling of Underwater Explosion by One-Dimensional ANSYS-AUTODYN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hao; Jie Jiao, Qing; Nie, Jian Xin; Qin, Jian Feng

    2011-10-01

    This article presents numerical simulation of underwater explosions using a one-dimensional "wedge" model of ANSYS-AUTODYN explicit software for nonlinear dynamics, provided by ANSYS Century Dynamics, Inc. (Canonsburg, PA, USA). Through numerical analysis of a typical underwater TNT explosion problems, the effects of the quadratic and linear viscosity on the key phenomenon of this complicated energetic physical process are conducted. The results show that appropriate values exist for these two viscosities to model the process in given mesh sizes. Based on these preliminary simulations, values of quadratic and linear viscosity, 1 and 0.034, 1 and 0.068 are determined for the ranges of scaled distance from 3 to 10 and 1.5 to 3, respectively. Effects of charge depth, charge mass, and mesh density on the shock wave and bubble pulse parameters are performed for four different explosives, 2,4,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT), H-6, pentolite, and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). All of the results are compared with empirical equations and show that the ANSYS-AUTODYN software can be used to model and capture the major features of underwater explosion phenomena at acceptable accuracy and timesaving.

  1. Dynamic one-dimensional modeling of secondary settling tanks and design impacts of sizing decisions.

    PubMed

    Li, Ben; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2014-03-01

    As one of the most significant components in the activated sludge process (ASP), secondary settling tanks (SSTs) can be investigated with mathematical models to optimize design and operation. This paper takes a new look at the one-dimensional (1-D) SST model by analyzing and considering the impacts of numerical problems, especially the process robustness. An improved SST model with Yee-Roe-Davis technique as the PDE solver is proposed and compared with the widely used Takács model to show its improvement in numerical solution quality. The improved and Takács models are coupled with a bioreactor model to reevaluate ASP design basis and several popular control strategies for economic plausibility, contaminant removal efficiency and system robustness. The time-to-failure due to rising sludge blanket during overloading, as a key robustness indicator, is analyzed to demonstrate the differences caused by numerical issues in SST models. The calculated results indicate that the Takács model significantly underestimates time to failure, thus leading to a conservative design.

  2. Multi-perspective views of students’ difficulties with one-dimensional vector and two-dimensional vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzi, Ahmad; Ratna Kawuri, Kunthi; Pratiwi, Retno

    2017-01-01

    Researchers of students’ conceptual change usually collects data from written tests and interviews. Moreover, reports of conceptual change often simply refer to changes in concepts, such as on a test, without any identification of the learning processes that have taken place. Research has shown that students have difficulties with vectors in university introductory physics courses and high school physics courses. In this study, we intended to explore students’ understanding of one-dimensional and two-dimensional vector in multi perspective views. In this research, we explore students’ understanding through test perspective and interviews perspective. Our research study adopted the mixed-methodology design. The participants of this research were sixty students of third semester of physics education department. The data of this research were collected by testand interviews. In this study, we divided the students’ understanding of one-dimensional vector and two-dimensional vector in two categories, namely vector skills of the addition of one-dimensionaland two-dimensional vector and the relation between vector skills and conceptual understanding. From the investigation, only 44% of students provided correct answer for vector skills of the addition of one-dimensional and two-dimensional vector and only 27% students provided correct answer for the relation between vector skills and conceptual understanding.

  3. One-dimensional self-assembly of mouse embryonic stem cells using an array of hydrogel microstrands.

    PubMed

    Raof, Nurazhani Abdul; Padgen, Michael R; Gracias, Alison R; Bergkvist, Magnus; Xie, Yubing

    2011-07-01

    The ability of embryonic stem (ES) cells to self-renew indefinitely and to differentiate into multiple cell lineages holds promise for advances in modeling disease progression, screening drugs and treating diseases. To realize these potentials, it is imperative to study self-assembly in an embryonic microenvironment, as this may increase our understanding of ES cell maintenance and differentiation. In this study, we synthesized an array of one-dimensional alginate gel microstrands and aqueous microstrands through an SU-8 filter device by means of capillary action. Furthermore, we investigated self-assembly behaviors and differentiation potentials of mouse ES cells cultured in microstrands of varying diameters. We found that microstrands with an aqueous interior facilitated high density cell culture and formed compact microtissue structures, while microstrands with gelled interiors promote smaller cell aggregate structures. In particular, we noticed that ES cells collected from one-dimensional aqueous microstrands favored the differentiation towards cell lineages of endoderm and mesoderm, whereas those from gelled microstrands preferred to differentiate into ectoderm and mesoderm lineages. In addition to providing a "liquid-like" tubular microenvironment to understand one-dimensional self-assembly process of ES cells, this alginate hydrogel microstrand system also offers an alternative way to manipulate the stem cell fate-decision using bioengineered microenvironments.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of boron-based one-dimensional nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Carolyn Jones

    New synthetic methods for the preparation of boron-based one-dimensional nanostructures are developed that employ catalytic chemical vapor deposition. The structures, morphologies, and elemental compositions of the nanostructures are characterized using electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Electrical-transport measurements performed on individual boron nanowires assess their potential as nanoscale interconnects. Multi-walled boron nitride nanotubes are generated from a molten salt mixture containing (NH4)2SO4, NaBH4, and Co3O4 at 300--400°C. Volatile BN-containing species generated in the molten salt are transported via a carrier gas to a nickel boride catalyst at 1100°C, whereupon precursor decomposition upon the catalyst material results in the formation of crystalline boron nitride nanotubes. The BN nanotubes have concentric-tube structures, are free of internal closures, have crystalline walls, and exhibit lengths of up to ca. 5 mum. The nanotubes often possess bulbous, flag-like, or club-like tip closures. A root-growth mechanism is proposed for the catalyzed process. This work provides the first CVD synthesis of BN nanotubes not requiring the use of carbon nanotube templates. A theoretical prediction for the existence of conductive boron nanotubes inspired our next project in the search for ideal nanostructured electrical interconnects for nanoelectronics. Promising candidates should be highly refractory, covalently bonded, and conductive irrespective of their crystallographic orientation. We report the growth of crystalline boron nanowires from a nickel boride catalyst using diborane at temperatures of 1100°C. However, our one-dimensional boron nanostructures are dense nanowhiskers rather than hollow nanotubes. Electrical-conductivity measurements indicate the boron nanowires to be semiconductors, with properties consistent with bulk elemental boron. To our knowledge, these are the first measurements reported on crystalline boron nanowires. To probe the

  5. Low temperature dynamics of the one-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendl, Christian B.; Spohn, Herbert

    2015-08-01

    We study equilibrium time correlations for the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation on a one-dimensional lattice and unravel three dynamical regimes. There is a high temperature regime with density and energy as the only two conserved fields. Their correlations have zero velocity and spread diffusively. In the low temperature regime umklapp processes are rare with the consequence that phase differences appear as an additional (almost) conserved field. In an approximation where all umklapp is suppressed, while the equilibrium state remains untouched, one arrives at an anharmonic chain. Using the method of nonlinear fluctuating hydrodynamics we establish that the DNLS equilibrium time correlations have the same signature as a generic anharmonic chain, in particular KPZ broadening for the sound peaks and Lévy 5/3 broadening for the heat peak. In the, so far not sharply defined, ultra-low temperature regime the integrability of the dynamics becomes visible. As an illustration we simulate the completely integrable Ablowitz-Ladik model and confirm ballistic broadening of the time correlations.

  6. Observation of high Tc one dimensional superconductivity in 4 angstrom carbon nanotube arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing; Liu, Yang; Chen, Qihong; Lai, Zhiping; Sheng, Ping

    2017-02-01

    The only known approach to fabricate large, uniform arrays of 4-Å single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is by using zeolite crystals as the template, in which the nanotubes are formed by chemical vapor deposition inside the linear channels of the AlPO4-5 (AFI for short) zeolite. However, up to now the pore filling factor has been very low, as evidenced by the weight percentage of carbon in thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements. In this work, we show that by using a new, micro-platelet AFI crystals as the template, combined with the use of a new CVD process, we can increase the TGA result to 22.5wt%, which translates to a pore filling factor of 91%. We have observed one dimensional (1D) superconductivity in such samples. The temperature dependence of resistance shows a smooth decreasing trend below 60 K, and the differential resistance displays a gap that disappears above the 1D superconducting initiation temperature. The observed behaviour is shown to agree very well with the theoretical predictions of 1D superconductivity.

  7. Spatial Density Distributions and Correlations in a Quasi-one-Dimensional Polydisperse Granular Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Duan-Ming

    2009-02-01

    By Monte Carlo simulations, the effect of the dispersion of particle size distribution on the spatial density distributions and correlations of a quasi one-dimensional polydisperse granular gas with fractal size distribution is investigated in the same inelasticity. The dispersive degree of the particle size distribution can be measured by a fractal dimension df, and the smooth particles are constrained to move along a circle of length L, colliding inelastically with each other and thermalized by a viscosity heat bath. When the typical relaxation time τ of the driving Brownian process is longer than the mean collision time τc, the system can reach a nonequilibrium steady state. The average energy of the system decays exponentially with time towards a stable asymptotic value, and the energy relaxation time τB to the steady state becomes shorter with increasing values of df. In the steady state, the spatial density distribution becomes more clusterized as df increases, which can be quantitatively characterized by statistical entropy of the system. Furthermore, the spatial correlation functions of density and velocities are found to be a power-law form for small separation distance of particles, and both of the correlations become stronger with the increase of df. Also, the density clusterization is explained from the correlations.

  8. One-dimensional densely aligned perovskite-decorated semiconductor heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengye; Zheng, Dajiang; Ye, Meidan; Zhang, Chuchu; Xu, Binbin; Lin, Changjian; Sun, Lan; Lin, Zhiqun

    2015-03-25

    By using one-dimensional rutile TiO(2) nanorod arrays as the structure-directing scaffold as well as the TiO(2) source to two consecutive hydrothermal reactions, densely aligned SrTiO(3) -modified rutile TiO(2) heterojunction photocatalysts are crafted for the first time. The first hydrothermal processing yielded nanostructured rutile TiO(2) with the hollow openings on the top of nanorods (i.e., partially etched rutile TiO(2) nanorod arrays; denoted PE-TNRAs). The subsequent second hydrothermal treatment in the presence of Sr(2+) transforms the surface of partially etched rutile TiO(2) nanorods into SrTiO(3) nanoparticles via the concurrent dissolution of TiO(2) and precipitation of SrTiO(3) while retaining the cylindrical shape (i.e., forming SrTiO(3) -decorated rutile TiO(2) composite nanorods; denoted STO-TNRAs). The structural and composition characterizations substantiate the success in achieving STO-TNRA nanostructures. In comparison to PE-TNRAs, STO-TNRA photocatalysts exhibit higher photocurrents and larger photocatalytic degradation rates of methylene blue (3.21 times over PE-TNRAs) under UV light illumination as a direct consequence of improved charge carrier mobility and enhanced electron/hole separation. Such 1D perovskite-decorated semiconductor nanoarrays are very attractive for optoelectronic applications in photovoltaics, photocatalytic hydrogen production, among other areas.

  9. Quasiparticle decay in a one-dimensional Bose-Fermi mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Benjamin; Petković, Aleksandra; Ristivojevic, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    In a one-dimensional weakly interacting Bose-Fermi mixture, one branch of elementary excitations is well described by the Bogoliubov spectrum. Here we use the microscopic theory to study the decay of such quasiparticle excitations. The main scattering process which leads to their decay is the backscattering of a Bogoliubov quasiparticle off the Fermi sea, where a particle-hole pair is excited. For a low-momentum quasiparticle (phonon) of momentum q , we find that the decay rate scales as q3 provided q is smaller than the Fermi momentum kF, while in the opposite case the decay behaves as q2. If the ratio of the masses of fermions and bosons is equal to the ratio of the boson-fermion and the boson-boson interaction strengths, the decay rate changes dramatically. It scales as q7 for q kF . For a high-momentum Bogoliubov quasiparticle, we find a constant decay rate for q kF . We also find an analytic expression for the decay rate in the crossover region between low and high momenta. The decay rate is a continuous, but nonanalytic function of the momentum at q =kF . In the special case when the parameters of our system correspond to the integrable model, we observe that the decay rate vanishes.

  10. A 16-bit Coherent Ising Machine for One-Dimensional Ring and Cubic Graph Problems

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Kenta; Marandi, Alireza; Hamerly, Ryan; Haribara, Yoshitaka; Maruo, Daiki; Tamate, Shuhei; Sakaguchi, Hiromasa; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    Many tasks in our modern life, such as planning an efficient travel, image processing and optimizing integrated circuit design, are modeled as complex combinatorial optimization problems with binary variables. Such problems can be mapped to finding a ground state of the Ising Hamiltonian, thus various physical systems have been studied to emulate and solve this Ising problem. Recently, networks of mutually injected optical oscillators, called coherent Ising machines, have been developed as promising solvers for the problem, benefiting from programmability, scalability and room temperature operation. Here, we report a 16-bit coherent Ising machine based on a network of time-division-multiplexed femtosecond degenerate optical parametric oscillators. The system experimentally gives more than 99.6% of success rates for one-dimensional Ising ring and nondeterministic polynomial-time (NP) hard instances. The experimental and numerical results indicate that gradual pumping of the network combined with multiple spectral and temporal modes of the femtosecond pulses can improve the computational performance of the Ising machine, offering a new path for tackling larger and more complex instances. PMID:27659312

  11. Negative-quench-induced excitation dynamics for ultracold bosons in one-dimensional lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistakidis, S. I.; Cao, L.; Schmelcher, P.

    2015-03-01

    The nonequilibrium dynamics following a quench of strongly repulsive bosonic ensembles in one-dimensional finite lattices is investigated by employing interaction quenches and/or a ramp of the lattice potential. Both sudden and time-dependent quenches are analyzed in detail. For the case of interaction quenches we address the transition from the strong repulsive to the weakly interacting regime, suppressing in this manner the heating of the system. The excitation modes such as the cradle process and the local breathing mode are examined via local density observables. In particular, the cradle mode is inherently related to the initial delocalization and, following a negative interaction quench, can be excited only for incommensurate setups with filling larger than unity. Alternatively, a negative quench of the lattice depth which favors the spatial delocalization is used to access the cradle mode for setups with filling smaller than unity. Our results shed light on possible schemes to control the cradle and the breathing modes. Finally, employing the notion of fidelity we study the dynamical response of the system after a diabatic or adiabatic parameter modulation for short and long evolution times. The evolution of the system is obtained numerically using the ab initio multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree method for bosons, which permits us to follow nonequilibrium dynamics including the corresponding investigation of higher-band effects.

  12. Positive and negative quenches induced excitation dynamics for ultracold bosons in one-dimensional lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistakidis, Simeon; Cao, Lushuai; Schmelcher, Peter

    2015-05-01

    The correlated non-equilibrium dynamics of few-boson systems in one-dimensional finite lattices is investigated. Focusing on the low-lying modes of the finite lattice we observe the emergence of density-wave tunneling, breathing and cradle-like processes. In particular, the tunneling induced by the quench leads to a global density-wave oscillation. The resulting breathing and cradle modes are inherent to the local intrawell dynamics and related to excited-band states. Positive interaction quenches couple the density-wave and the cradle modes allowing for resonance phenomena. Moreover, the cradle mode is associated with the initial delocalization and following a negative interaction quench can be excited for setups with filling larger than unity. For subunit fillings it can be accessed with the aid of a negative quench of the lattice depth. Finally, our results shed light to possible controlling schemes for the cradle and the breathing modes. The evolution of the system is obtained numerically using the ab-initio multi-layer multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method for bosons. (1)Hamburgisches Gesetz zur Förderung des wissenschaftlichen und künstlerischen Nachwuchses (HmbNFG), (2,3) Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  13. Alignment of One-Dimensional SnO2 Lines by Electrohydrodynamic Jet Printing.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hanna; Jung, Hyunsung; Choi, Duck-Kyun; Kim, Chang-Yeoul

    2016-02-01

    One-dimensional (1-D) SnO2 line as a representative semiconducting oxide were formed by electro- hydrodynamic jet-printing (EHD) of tin chloride pentahydrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, 1,200 k, Aldrich) solution ink. The 1-D polymer lines including Sn precursors were created by controlling the viscosity, that is, polymer/tin precursor ratio, and adjusting printing conditions such as tip to substrate distance, applying voltage, flow rate of ink and velocity. The printed lines were dried at 200 degrees C to get rid of solvent and finally heat-treated at 600 degrees C to burn out PVP and form tin oxide line. We found out that the linearity and shape of the aligned 1-D SnO2 could be controlled by adjusting various parameters such as the viscosity of a precursor solution, the ratio of Sn to PVP polymer in the solution, the shape of a cone, the size of a droplet, the applied voltages, the working distance, the flow rate on the glass slides and the Si wafers with a SiPO2 layer, respectively. It is found out that the heat-treatment for the removal of polymers should be tailored to produce continuous 1-D SnO2 lines due to the drastic volume reduction (>90%) of the aligned fibers in the annealing process. The electrical properties of the 1-D SnO2 aligned on the Si wafers with Au electrode patterns were evaluated.

  14. Superconducting pairing and density-wave instabilities in quasi-one-dimensional conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, J. C.; Duprat, R.; Bourbonnais, C.; Dupuis, N.

    2006-04-01

    Using a renormalization group approach, we determine the phase diagram of an extended quasi-one-dimensional electron gas model that includes interchain hopping, nesting deviations, and both intrachain and interchain repulsive interactions. d -wave superconductivity, which dominates over the spin-density-wave (SDW) phase at large nesting deviations, becomes unstable to the benefit of a triplet f -wave phase for a weak repulsive interchain backscattering term g1⊥>0 , despite the persistence of dominant SDW correlations in the normal state. Antiferromagnetism becomes unstable against the formation of a charge-density-wave state when g1⊥ exceeds some critical value. While these features persist when both Umklapp processes and interchain forward scattering (g2⊥) are taken into account, the effect of g2⊥ alone is found to frustrate nearest-neighbor interchain d - and f -wave pairing and instead favor next-nearest-neighbor interchain singlet or triplet pairing. We argue that the close proximity of SDW and charge-density-wave phases, singlet d -wave, and triplet f -wave superconducting phases in the theoretical phase diagram provides a possible explanation for recent puzzling experimental findings in the Bechgaard salts, including the coexistence of SDW and charge-density-wave phases and the possibility of a triplet pairing in the superconducting phase.

  15. Experimentally observed route to spatiotemporal chaos in an extended one-dimensional array of convective oscillators.

    PubMed

    Miranda, M A; Burguete, J

    2009-04-01

    We report experimental evidence of the route to spatiotemporal chaos in a large one-dimensional array of hotspots in a thermoconvective system. As the driving force is increased, a stationary cellular pattern becomes unstable toward a mixed pattern of irregular clusters which consist of time-dependent localized patterns of variable spatiotemporal coherence. These irregular clusters coexist with the basic cellular pattern. The Fourier spectra corresponding to this synchronization transition reveal the weak coupling of a resonant triad. This pattern saturates with the formation of a unique domain of high spatiotemporal coherence. As we further increase the driving force, a supercritical bifurcation to a spatiotemporal beating regime takes place. The new pattern is characterized by the presence of two stationary clusters with a characteristic zig-zag geometry. The Fourier analysis reveals a stronger coupling than the previous mixed pattern and enables us to find out that this beating phenomenon is produced by the splitting of the fundamental spatiotemporal frequencies in a narrow band. Both secondary instabilities are phaselike synchronization transitions with global and absolute character. Far beyond this threshold, a new instability takes place when the system is not able to sustain the spatial frequency splitting, although the temporal beating remains inside these domains. These experimental results may support the understanding of other systems in nature undergoing similar clustering processes.

  16. Experimentally observed route to spatiotemporal chaos in an extended one-dimensional array of convective oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, M. A.; Burguete, J.

    2009-04-01

    We report experimental evidence of the route to spatiotemporal chaos in a large one-dimensional array of hotspots in a thermoconvective system. As the driving force is increased, a stationary cellular pattern becomes unstable toward a mixed pattern of irregular clusters which consist of time-dependent localized patterns of variable spatiotemporal coherence. These irregular clusters coexist with the basic cellular pattern. The Fourier spectra corresponding to this synchronization transition reveal the weak coupling of a resonant triad. This pattern saturates with the formation of a unique domain of high spatiotemporal coherence. As we further increase the driving force, a supercritical bifurcation to a spatiotemporal beating regime takes place. The new pattern is characterized by the presence of two stationary clusters with a characteristic zig-zag geometry. The Fourier analysis reveals a stronger coupling than the previous mixed pattern and enables us to find out that this beating phenomenon is produced by the splitting of the fundamental spatiotemporal frequencies in a narrow band. Both secondary instabilities are phaselike synchronization transitions with global and absolute character. Far beyond this threshold, a new instability takes place when the system is not able to sustain the spatial frequency splitting, although the temporal beating remains inside these domains. These experimental results may support the understanding of other systems in nature undergoing similar clustering processes.

  17. A 16-bit Coherent Ising Machine for One-Dimensional Ring and Cubic Graph Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Kenta; Marandi, Alireza; Hamerly, Ryan; Haribara, Yoshitaka; Maruo, Daiki; Tamate, Shuhei; Sakaguchi, Hiromasa; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-09-01

    Many tasks in our modern life, such as planning an efficient travel, image processing and optimizing integrated circuit design, are modeled as complex combinatorial optimization problems with binary variables. Such problems can be mapped to finding a ground state of the Ising Hamiltonian, thus various physical systems have been studied to emulate and solve this Ising problem. Recently, networks of mutually injected optical oscillators, called coherent Ising machines, have been developed as promising solvers for the problem, benefiting from programmability, scalability and room temperature operation. Here, we report a 16-bit coherent Ising machine based on a network of time-division-multiplexed femtosecond degenerate optical parametric oscillators. The system experimentally gives more than 99.6% of success rates for one-dimensional Ising ring and nondeterministic polynomial-time (NP) hard instances. The experimental and numerical results indicate that gradual pumping of the network combined with multiple spectral and temporal modes of the femtosecond pulses can improve the computational performance of the Ising machine, offering a new path for tackling larger and more complex instances.

  18. Electric-field-induced interferometric resonance of a one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled electron.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jingtao; Chen, Yuansen; Chen, Gang; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco

    2016-12-14

    The efficient control of electron spins is of crucial importance for spintronics, quantum metrology, and quantum information processing. We theoretically formulate an electric mechanism to probe the electron spin dynamics, by focusing on a one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled nanowire quantum dot. Owing to the existence of spin-orbit coupling and a pulsed electric field, different spin-orbit states are shown to interfere with each other, generating intriguing interference-resonant patterns. We also reveal that an in-plane magnetic field does not affect the interval of any neighboring resonant peaks, but contributes a weak shift of each peak, which is sensitive to the direction of the magnetic field. We find that this proposed external-field-controlled scheme should be regarded as a new type of quantum-dot-based interferometry. This interferometry has potential applications in precise measurements of relevant experimental parameters, such as the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupling strengths, as well as the Landé factor.

  19. A Comprehensive Review of One-Dimensional Metal-Oxide Nanostructure Photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Tianyou; Fang, Xiaosheng; Liao, Meiyong; Xu, Xijin; Zeng, Haibo; Yoshio, Bando; Golberg, Dmitri

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) metal-oxide nanostructures are ideal systems for exploring a large number of novel phenomena at the nanoscale and investigating size and dimensionality dependence of nanostructure properties for potential applications. The construction and integration of photodetectors or optical switches based on such nanostructures with tailored geometries have rapidly advanced in recent years. Active 1D nanostructure photodetector elements can be configured either as resistors whose conductions are altered by a charge-transfer process or as field-effect transistors (FET) whose properties can be controlled by applying appropriate potentials onto the gates. Functionalizing the structure surfaces offers another avenue for expanding the sensor capabilities. This article provides a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art research activities in the photodetector field. It mainly focuses on the metal oxide 1D nanostructures such as ZnO, SnO2, Cu2O, Ga2O3, Fe2O3, In2O3, CdO, CeO2, and their photoresponses. The review begins with a survey of quasi 1D metal-oxide semiconductor nanostructures and the photodetector principle, then shows the recent progresses on several kinds of important metal-oxide nanostructures and their photoresponses and briefly presents some additional prospective metal-oxide 1D nanomaterials. Finally, the review is concluded with some perspectives and outlook on the future developments in this area. PMID:22454597

  20. One-Dimensional Earth-Abundant Nanomaterials for Water-Splitting Electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2017-03-01

    Hydrogen fuel acquisition based on electrochemical or photoelectrochemical water splitting represents one of the most promising means for the fast increase of global energy need, capable of offering a clean and sustainable energy resource with zero carbon footprints in the environment. The key to the success of this goal is the realization of robust earth-abundant materials and cost-effective reaction processes that can catalyze both hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), with high efficiency and stability. In the past decade, one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials and nanostructures have been substantially investigated for their potential in serving as these electrocatalysts for reducing overpotentials and increasing catalytic activity, due to their high electrochemically active surface area, fast charge transport, efficient mass transport of reactant species, and effective release of gas produced. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in developing new 1D nanomaterials as catalysts for HER, OER, as well as bifunctional electrocatalysts for both half reactions. Different categories of earth-abundant materials including metal-based and metal-free catalysts are introduced, with their representative results presented. The challenges and perspectives in this field are also discussed.

  1. Electric-field-induced interferometric resonance of a one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jingtao; Chen, Yuansen; Chen, Gang; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco

    2016-12-01

    The efficient control of electron spins is of crucial importance for spintronics, quantum metrology, and quantum information processing. We theoretically formulate an electric mechanism to probe the electron spin dynamics, by focusing on a one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled nanowire quantum dot. Owing to the existence of spin-orbit coupling and a pulsed electric field, different spin-orbit states are shown to interfere with each other, generating intriguing interference-resonant patterns. We also reveal that an in-plane magnetic field does not affect the interval of any neighboring resonant peaks, but contributes a weak shift of each peak, which is sensitive to the direction of the magnetic field. We find that this proposed external-field-controlled scheme should be regarded as a new type of quantum-dot-based interferometry. This interferometry has potential applications in precise measurements of relevant experimental parameters, such as the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupling strengths, as well as the Landé factor.

  2. A 16-bit Coherent Ising Machine for One-Dimensional Ring and Cubic Graph Problems.

    PubMed

    Takata, Kenta; Marandi, Alireza; Hamerly, Ryan; Haribara, Yoshitaka; Maruo, Daiki; Tamate, Shuhei; Sakaguchi, Hiromasa; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-09-23

    Many tasks in our modern life, such as planning an efficient travel, image processing and optimizing integrated circuit design, are modeled as complex combinatorial optimization problems with binary variables. Such problems can be mapped to finding a ground state of the Ising Hamiltonian, thus various physical systems have been studied to emulate and solve this Ising problem. Recently, networks of mutually injected optical oscillators, called coherent Ising machines, have been developed as promising solvers for the problem, benefiting from programmability, scalability and room temperature operation. Here, we report a 16-bit coherent Ising machine based on a network of time-division-multiplexed femtosecond degenerate optical parametric oscillators. The system experimentally gives more than 99.6% of success rates for one-dimensional Ising ring and nondeterministic polynomial-time (NP) hard instances. The experimental and numerical results indicate that gradual pumping of the network combined with multiple spectral and temporal modes of the femtosecond pulses can improve the computational performance of the Ising machine, offering a new path for tackling larger and more complex instances.

  3. One-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures as absorber layers in solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jayadevan, K P; Tseng, T Y

    2005-11-01

    The one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures of cadmium chalcogenides (Il-VI: CdSe, CdTe), InP and GaAs (III-V), and the ternary chalcopyrites CulnS2, CulnSe2, and CulnTe2 (I-III-VI2) are the candidate semiconductors of interest as absorber layers in solar cells. In the confinement regime (approximately 1-10 nm) of these 1-D nanostructures, the electronic energy levels are quantized so that the oscillator strength and the resultant absorption of solar energy are enhanced. Moreover, the discrete energy levels effectively separate the electrons and holes at the two electrodes or at the interfaces with a polymer in a hybrid structure, so that an oriented and 1-D nanostructured absorber layer is expected to improve the conversion efficiency of solar cells. The intrinsic anisotropy of Il-VI and l-lll-VI2 crystal lattices and the progress in various growth processes are assessed to derive suitable morphological features of these 1-D semiconductor nanostructures. The present status of research in nanorod-based solar cells is reviewed and possible routes are identified to improve the performance of nanorod-based solar cells. Finally, the characteristics of nanorod-based solar cells are compared with the dye-sensitized and organic solar cells.

  4. Quantum phases of one-dimensional Hubbard models with three- and four-body couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolcini, Fabrizio; Montorsi, Arianna

    2013-09-01

    The experimental advances in cold atomic and molecular gases stimulate the investigation of lattice correlated systems beyond the conventional on-site Hubbard approximation, by possibly including multiparticle processes. We study fermionic extended Hubbard models in a one-dimensional lattice with different types of particle couplings, including also three- and four-body interactions up to nearest neighboring sites. By using the bosonization technique, we investigate the low-energy regime and determine the conditions for the appearance of ordered phases, for arbitrary particle filling. We find that three- and four-body couplings may significantly modify the phase diagram. In particular, diagonal three-body terms that directly couple the local particle densities have qualitatively different effects from off-diagonal three-body couplings originating from correlated hopping, and favor the appearance of a Luther-Emery phase even when two-body terms are repulsive. Furthermore, the four-body coupling gives rise to a rich phase diagram and may lead to the realization of the Haldane insulator phase at half-filling.

  5. Sculpting quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate to generate calibrated matter waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akram, Javed; Pelster, Axel

    2016-02-01

    We explore theoretically how to tune the dynamics of a quasi-one-dimensional harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) due to an additional red- and blue-detuned Hermite-Gaussian dimple trap (HGdT). To this end we study a BEC in a highly nonequilibrium state, which is not possible in a traditional harmonically confined trap. Our system is modeled by a time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which is numerically solved by the Crank-Nicolson method in both imaginary and real time. For equilibrium, we obtain a condensate with two bumps or dips which are induced by the chosen TEM01 mode for the red- or blue-detuned HGdT, respectively. Afterward, in time-of-flight dynamics, we examine the adherence or decay of the two bumps or dips in the condensate, which are induced by the still present red- or blue-detuned HGdT, respectively. On the other hand, once the red or blue HGdT potential is switched off, shock waves or bi-trains of gray or dark pair-solitons are created. During this process it is found that the generation of gray or dark pair-soliton bi-trains are generic phenomena of collisions of moderately or fully fragmented BEC. Additionally, it turns out that the special shape of generated solitons in the harmonically trapped BEC firmly depends upon the geometry of the HGdT.

  6. Elaboration of one-dimensional photonic structure on silicon by electrochemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellahi, O.; Hadjersi, T.; Ouadah, Y.

    2009-11-01

    We present a study on the formation of One-Dimensional Photonic Band Gap structure with electrochemical etching of p+-type Si (100) with resistivity 0.01 Ω.cm in HF/ CH3COOH/H2O solution. The process can be precisely controlled by varying the experimental parameter (current density, etching time, number of porous layer). The elaborated structures consisting of porous layers with periodically modulated current densities provide an opportunity to create multilayer structures: Distribution Bragg Reflector's (DBR), Optical Micro-Cavities (OMC).To obtain a periodic porous silicon multilayer structure we switched the current density between low (7-14 mA/cm2) and high (50-100 mA/cm2) values. Reflection spectra measured from DBR and OMC are acquired by spectroscopy Cary 500. Morphological analysis of porous silicon surface was carried out by scanning electron microscope. The reflectivity for DBR shows an increase reflectivity from 55% to 95%, when the periodic layers number increases from 20 to 40. It is clearly shown that the changing of the experimental parameter induces a shift of the reflectivity of OMC from 2030 nm to 1265 nm. Moreover, it is noted that the reflectivity increases from 65% for the 1st OMC to 70% for the second one.

  7. One-dimensional BiFeO3 nanotubes: Preparation, characterization, improved magnetic behaviors, and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lei; Sui, Wenbo; Dong, Chunhui; Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Changjun

    2016-10-01

    With the progress of science and technology, the growing demands for practical applications make low-dimensional multiferroics more appealing in areas such as chemical and bio-sensors, nanoelectronic, high-density data storage devices. One-dimensional BiFeO3 nanotubes were successfully synthesized by sol-gel-based electrospinning process. The images of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy collectively demonstrate that BiFeO3 nanotubes with long slender structure and virtually uniform diameter of approximately 100 nm were observed at 500 °C annealing temperature. By compared with BiFeO3 bulks observed at 800 °C annealing temperature, enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism was successfully realized in BiFeO3 nanotubes at room temperature. The results of electron spin resonance measurement further confirm that ferromagnetic resonances were detected in BiFeO3 nanotubes at different temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study proves the existence of plentiful oxygen vacancies in BiFeO3 nanotubes, which will play a key role in terms of enhanced ferromagnetism. The results will contribute to expand the applications of BiFeO3 into the new field of spintronic devices and high-density data storage media.

  8. Electric-field-induced interferometric resonance of a one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled electron

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jingtao; Chen, Yuansen; Chen, Gang; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The efficient control of electron spins is of crucial importance for spintronics, quantum metrology, and quantum information processing. We theoretically formulate an electric mechanism to probe the electron spin dynamics, by focusing on a one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled nanowire quantum dot. Owing to the existence of spin-orbit coupling and a pulsed electric field, different spin-orbit states are shown to interfere with each other, generating intriguing interference-resonant patterns. We also reveal that an in-plane magnetic field does not affect the interval of any neighboring resonant peaks, but contributes a weak shift of each peak, which is sensitive to the direction of the magnetic field. We find that this proposed external-field-controlled scheme should be regarded as a new type of quantum-dot-based interferometry. This interferometry has potential applications in precise measurements of relevant experimental parameters, such as the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupling strengths, as well as the Landé factor. PMID:27966598

  9. One-dimensional wave bottom boundary layer model comparison: specific eddy viscosity and turbulence closure models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puleo, J.A.; Mouraenko, O.; Hanes, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Six one-dimensional-vertical wave bottom boundary layer models are analyzed based on different methods for estimating the turbulent eddy viscosity: Laminar, linear, parabolic, k—one equation turbulence closure, k−ε—two equation turbulence closure, and k−ω—two equation turbulence closure. Resultant velocity profiles, bed shear stresses, and turbulent kinetic energy are compared to laboratory data of oscillatory flow over smooth and rough beds. Bed shear stress estimates for the smooth bed case were most closely predicted by the k−ω model. Normalized errors between model predictions and measurements of velocity profiles over the entire computational domain collected at 15° intervals for one-half a wave cycle show that overall the linear model was most accurate. The least accurate were the laminar and k−ε models. Normalized errors between model predictions and turbulence kinetic energy profiles showed that the k−ω model was most accurate. Based on these findings, when the smallest overall velocity profile prediction error is required, the processing requirements and error analysis suggest that the linear eddy viscosity model is adequate. However, if accurate estimates of bed shear stress and TKE are required then, of the models tested, the k−ω model should be used.

  10. Improving Brush Polymer Infrared One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals via Linear Polymer Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Macfarlane, Robert J.; Kim, Bongkeun; Lee, Byeongdu; Weitekamp, Raymond A.; Bates, Christopher M.; Lee, Siu Fung; Chang, Alice B.; Delaney, Kris T.; Fredrickson, Glen H.; Atwater, Harry A.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2014-12-17

    Brush block copolymers (BBCPs) enable the rapid fabrication of self-assembled one-dimensional photonic crystals with photonic band gaps that are tunable in the UV-vis-IR, where the peak wavelength of reflection scales with the molecular weight of the BBCPs. Due to the difficulty in synthesizing very large BBCPs, the fidelity of the assembled lamellar nanostructures drastically erodes as the domains become large enough to reflect IR light, severely limiting their performance as optical filters. To overcome this challenge, short linear homopolymers are used to swell the arrays to ~180% of the initial domain spacing, allowing for photonic band gaps up to~1410 nm without significant opacity in the visible, demonstrating improved ordering of the arrays. Additionally, blending BBCPs with random copolymers enables functional groups to be incorporated into the BBCP array without attaching them directly to the BBCPs. The addition of short linear polymers to the BBCP arrays thus offers a facile means of improving the self-assembly and optical properties of these materials, as well as adding a route to achieving films with greater functionality and tailorability, without the need to develop or optimize the processing conditions for each new brush polymer synthesized.

  11. General electromagnetic density of modes for a one-dimensional photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Yeung, T. C. Au; Lim, T. K.; Kam, C. H.

    2000-11-01

    In this paper, we present more general, exact, and concise expressions for calculating the electromagnetic density of modes (EDOM) in one dimension photonic crystal (superlattice) for E and H polarizations. The expression is used for numerical computation of the EDOM in the lower-index (dielectric constant) layer. We discuss the difference between the EDOM in high- and low-index layers as due to the presence of waveguiding modes and evanescent-excited Bloch modes in the higher-index layer. Two methods of computation are presented to compute the EDOM in the lower-index layer. We suggest the possibility of using the EDOM to establish population inversion, which may be useful for higher-frequency lasers (e.g., x rays) and control any radiative processes. We also elaborate on the limitations of the results of Alvarado Rodriguez et al. as due to the approximation used in the evaluation of ∂ω/∂ky,z for ∇kω and comment on the limitations of the one-dimensional EDOM expression of Bendickson et al.

  12. Island nucleation inside a one-dimensional gap with hindered aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Diego Luis

    2017-01-01

    The island formation process inside a one-dimensional gap with length L is studied. In the model i  +  1 monomers are required to form an stable island. The aggregation of monomers to the islands at the ends of the gap is hindered by an additional attachment barrier E a which reduces the hopping rate of the monomers to the island. Depending on E a there are different regimes: zero and weak barriers, large but finite barriers and infinite barriers. The probability of nucleation at position n inside a gap with length L, \\wp (n,L) , and the nucleation rate ω are studied. Both, \\wp (n,L) and ω, are calculated by using two different analytical methods: exact master equation for the time evolution of i  +  1 monomers deposited simultaneously and mean field approximation. In all cases the results are compared with Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to explore the range of applicability of both methods.

  13. Effect of diffusion in one-dimensional discontinuous absorbing phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Carlos E; Landi, Gabriel T

    2014-09-01

    It is known that diffusion provokes substantial changes in continuous absorbing phase transitions. Conversely, its effect on discontinuous transitions is much less understood. In order to shed light in this direction, we study the inclusion of diffusion in the simplest one-dimensional model with a discontinuous absorbing phase transition, namely, the long-range contact process (σ-CP). Particles interact as in the usual CP, but the transition rate depends on the length ℓ of inactive sites according to 1+aℓ(-σ), where a and σ are control parameters. The inclusion of diffusion in this model has been investigated by numerical simulations and mean-field calculations. Results show that there exists three distinct regimes. For sufficiently low and large σ's the transition is, respectively, always discontinuous or continuous, independently of the strength of the diffusion. On the other hand, in an intermediate range of σ's, the diffusion causes a suppression of the phase coexistence leading to a continuous transition belonging to the directed percolation universality class.

  14. Application of Markov Graphs in Marketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bešić, C.; Sajfert, Z.; Đorđević, D.; Sajfert, V.

    2007-04-01

    The applications of Markov's processes theory in marketing are discussed. It was turned out that Markov's processes have wide field of applications. The advancement of marketing by the use of convolution of stationary Markov's distributions is analysed. It turned out that convolution distribution gives average net profit that is two times higher than the one obtained by usual Markov's distribution. It can be achieved if one selling chain is divided onto two parts with different ratios of output and input frequencies. The stability of marketing system was examined by the use of conforming coefficients. It was shown, by means of Jensen inequality that system remains stable if initial capital is higher than averaged losses.

  15. Geothermal well behaviour prediction after air compress stimulation using one-dimensional transient numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusman, W.; Viridi, S.; Rachmat, S.

    2016-01-01

    The non-discharges geothermal wells have been a main problem in geothermal development stages and well discharge stimulation is required to initiate a flow. Air compress stimulation is one of the methods to trigger a fluid flow from the geothermal reservoir. The result of this process can be predicted by using by the Af / Ac method, but sometimes this method shows uncertainty result in several geothermal wells and also this prediction method does not take into account the flowing time of geothermal fluid to discharge after opening the well head. This paper presents a simulation of non-discharges well under air compress stimulation to predict well behavior and time process required. The component of this model consists of geothermal well data during heating-up process such as pressure, temperature and mass flow in the water column and main feed zone level. The one-dimensional transient numerical model is run based on the Single Fluid Volume Element (SFVE) method. According to the simulation result, the geothermal well behavior prediction after air compress stimulation will be valid under two specific circumstances, such as single phase fluid density between 1 - 28 kg/m3 and above 28.5 kg/m3. The first condition shows that successful well discharge and the last condition represent failed well discharge after air compress stimulation (only for two wells data). The comparison of pf values between simulation and field observation shows the different result according to the success discharge well. Time required for flow to occur as observed in well head by using the SFVE method is different with the actual field condition. This model needs to improve by updating more geothermal well data and modified fluid phase condition inside the wellbore.

  16. Markov Tracking for Agent Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Richard; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) axe an attractive representation for representing agent behavior, since they capture uncertainty in both the agent's state and its actions. However, finding an optimal policy for POMDPs in general is computationally difficult. In this paper we present Markov Tracking, a restricted problem of coordinating actions with an agent or process represented as a POMDP Because the actions coordinate with the agent rather than influence its behavior, the optimal solution to this problem can be computed locally and quickly. We also demonstrate the use of the technique on sequential POMDPs, which can be used to model a behavior that follows a linear, acyclic trajectory through a series of states. By imposing a "windowing" restriction that restricts the number of possible alternatives considered at any moment to a fixed size, a coordinating action can be calculated in constant time, making this amenable to coordination with complex agents.

  17. Finite-time Landau-Zener processes and counterdiabatic driving in open systems: Beyond Born, Markov, and rotating-wave approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhe; Zhou, Longwen; Xiao, Gaoyang; Poletti, Dario; Gong, Jiangbin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate Landau-Zener processes modeled by a two-level quantum system, with its finite bias energy varied in time and in the presence of a single broadened cavity mode at zero temperature. By applying the hierarchy equation method to the Landau-Zener problem, we computationally study the survival fidelity of adiabatic states without Born, Markov, rotating-wave, or other perturbative approximations. With this treatment it also becomes possible to investigate cases with very strong system-bath coupling. Different from a previous study of infinite-time Landau-Zener processes, the fidelity of the time-evolving state as compared with instantaneous adiabatic states shows nonmonotonic dependence on the system-bath coupling and on the sweep rate of the bias. We then consider the effect of applying a counterdiabatic driving field, which is found to be useful in improving the fidelity only for sufficiently short Landau-Zener processes. Numerically exact results show that different counterdiabatic driving fields can have very different robustness against environment effects. Lastly, using a case study, we discuss the possibility of introducing a dynamical decoupling field in order to eliminate the decoherence effect of the environment and, at the same time, to retain the positive role of a counterdiabatic field. Our work indicates that finite-time Landau-Zener processes with counterdiabatic driving offer a fruitful testbed to understand controlled adiabatic processes in open systems.

  18. The character of W-doped one-dimensional VO{sub 2} (M)

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jing; Liu Chunyan; Mao Lijuan

    2009-10-15

    The one-dimensional W-doped VO{sub 2} (M) solid solutions with a various doped content were successfully synthesized under hydrothermal condition and subsequent calcination for the first time, and physical-chemical and phase transformation character were explored, subsequently. DSC analyses displayed that the phase-transition temperature of VO{sub 2} (M) solid solution could be linearly tuned with the doped content. Promisingly, the one-dimensional W-doped VO{sub 2} (M) had a good thermochromic property. - Graphical Abstract: One-dimensional W-doped VO{sub 2} (M) solid solutions with a various doped content were synthesized under hydrothermal condition and subsequent calcination. The physical-chemical and phase transformation character were explored, subsequently.

  19. Superfluid, solid, and supersolid phases of dipolar bosons in a quasi-one-dimensional optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Jonathan M.; Carr, Sam T.

    2011-11-15

    We discuss a model of dipolar bosons trapped in a weakly coupled planar array of one-dimensional tubes. We consider the situation where the dipolar moments are aligned by an external field, and we find a rich phase diagram as a function of the angle of this field exhibiting quantum phase transitions between solid, superfluid, and supersolid phases. In the low energy limit, the model turns out to be identical to one describing quasi-one-dimensional superconductivity in condensed matter systems. This opens the possibility of using bosons as a quantum analog simulator of electronic systems, a scenario arising from the intricate relation between statistics and interactions in quasi-one-dimensional systems.

  20. Robust unidirectional transport in a one-dimensional metacrystal with long-range hopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, S.

    2016-11-01

    In two- and three-dimensional structures, topologically protected chiral edge modes offer a powerful mean to realize robust light transport. However, little attention has been paid so far to robust one-way transport in one-dimensional systems. Here it is shown that unidirectional transport, which is immune to disorder and backscattering, can occur in certain one-dimensional metacrystals with long-range hopping without resorting to topological protection. Such metacrystals are described by an effective Hermitian Hamiltonian with broken time-reversal symmetry, and transport does not require adiabatic (Thouless) pumping. A simple implementation in optics of such one-dimensional metacrystals, based on transverse light dynamics in a self-imaging optical cavity with phase gratings, is suggested.