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Sample records for one-pill once-a-day haart

  1. Understanding Motivations to Adopt Once-a-Day Milking amongst New Zealand Dairy Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bewsell, D.; Clark, D. A.; Dalley, D. E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study to understand why some New Zealand dairy farmers are changing from twice-a-day (TAD) to once-a-day (OAD) milking. Increasing herd size, unavailability of suitable labour and changing lifestyle expectations from farmers and their staff have led some to explore OAD milking as a means of alleviating these…

  2. Design and in vivo evaluation of oxycodone once-a-day controlled-release tablets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Park, Chun-Woong; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Junsang; Lee, Moonseok; Seo, Jeong-Woong; Park, Eun-Seok

    2015-01-01

    The aim of present study was to design oxycodone once-a-day controlled-release (CR) tablets and to perform in vitro/in vivo characterizations. Release profiles to achieve desired plasma concentration versus time curves were established by using simulation software and reported pharmacokinetic parameters of the drug. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) 100,000 mPa·s was used as a release modifier because the polymer was found to be resistant to changes in conditions of the release study, including rotation speed of paddle and ion strength. The burst release of the drug from the CR tablets could be suppressed by applying an additional HPMC layer as a physical barrier. Finally, the oxycodone once-a-day tablet was comprised of two layers, an inert HPMC layer and a CR layer containing drug and HPMC. Commercial products, either 10 mg bis in die (bid [twice a day]) or once-a-day CR tablets (20 mg) were administered to healthy volunteers, and calculated pharmacokinetic parameters indicated bioequivalence of the two different treatments. The findings of the present study emphasize the potential of oxycodone once-a-day CR tablets for improved patient compliance, safety, and efficacy, which could help researchers to develop new CR dosage forms of oxycodone.

  3. Design and in vivo evaluation of oxycodone once-a-day controlled-release tablets

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Park, Chun-Woong; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Junsang; Lee, Moonseok; Seo, Jeong-Woong; Park, Eun-Seok

    2015-01-01

    The aim of present study was to design oxycodone once-a-day controlled-release (CR) tablets and to perform in vitro/in vivo characterizations. Release profiles to achieve desired plasma concentration versus time curves were established by using simulation software and reported pharmacokinetic parameters of the drug. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) 100,000 mPa·s was used as a release modifier because the polymer was found to be resistant to changes in conditions of the release study, including rotation speed of paddle and ion strength. The burst release of the drug from the CR tablets could be suppressed by applying an additional HPMC layer as a physical barrier. Finally, the oxycodone once-a-day tablet was comprised of two layers, an inert HPMC layer and a CR layer containing drug and HPMC. Commercial products, either 10 mg bis in die (bid [twice a day]) or once-a-day CR tablets (20 mg) were administered to healthy volunteers, and calculated pharmacokinetic parameters indicated bioequivalence of the two different treatments. The findings of the present study emphasize the potential of oxycodone once-a-day CR tablets for improved patient compliance, safety, and efficacy, which could help researchers to develop new CR dosage forms of oxycodone. PMID:25678774

  4. Understanding Motivations to Adopt Once-a-Day Milking amongst New Zealand Dairy Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bewsell, D.; Clark, D. A.; Dalley, D. E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study to understand why some New Zealand dairy farmers are changing from twice-a-day (TAD) to once-a-day (OAD) milking. Increasing herd size, unavailability of suitable labour and changing lifestyle expectations from farmers and their staff have led some to explore OAD milking as a means of alleviating these…

  5. A Two-Impulse Plan for Performing Rendezvous on a Once-A-Day Basis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John D.; Thomas, David F., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation of a two-impulse plan for performing rendezvous on a once-a-day basis with a near-earth satellite station indicates that launch into rendezvous from slightly less than maximum satellite latitude is an unusually favorable circumstance in that no appreciable expense in mass ratio is incurred. In addition, it was found for the two-impulse maneuver employed in this study that the optimum angular travel of the ferry vehicle to rendezvous was considerably less than the 1800 transfer which is optimum for the two-impulse in-plane launch.

  6. Effects of oxytocin, machine stripping and milking rate on production loss of cows milked once a day.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, V R; Davis, S R; Copeman, P J

    1993-02-01

    The effect of treatments designed to improve the efficiency of milk removal and minimize loss of production in cows milked once a day (OAD) was assessed in short-term trials involving Friesian and Jersey cows. Trial 1 involved 80 cows and compared twice a day (TAD) milking with OAD milking with the administration of 20 i.u. of oxytocin (OX), OAD milking with udder massage before and during milking (OS) and no treatment during OAD milking (OC). The OX and OS groups had increased yields of milk and milk solids when treatments were applied, though yields were not restored to previous TAD levels. The percentage increase shown by OX cows was greater than that of OS cows for fat yield. The level of residual milk in the udder after milking was lower for the OX group than for the OAD and TAD controls. In Trial 2, 12 cows were subjected to fast or slow rates of milking OAD in each of two periods. Losses in milk, fat and protein yields averaged 9.1, 9.9 and 1.0% respectively. Increased rate of milking reduced milking time and time to let-down but did not affect response to OAD milking. The results showed that treatments that increased the evacuation of the udder during milking and decreased the level of residual milk reduced losses in production that occur on OAD milking. Increasing the rate of milking was ineffective in reducing losses on OAD milking.

  7. New fixed-dose once-a-day starting regimens: interview with Cal Cohen, M.D. Interview by John S. James.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Cal

    2004-09-24

    A leading AIDS physician looks at the advantages and disadvantages of once-a day treatment with two new fixed-dose combinations of previously approved drugs, for patients who are first starting antiretrovirals.

  8. Anaerobic organic acid production of food waste in once-a-day feeding and drawing-off bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Jin; Kim, Byoung Jin; Jeong, Chang-Moon; Choi, Jin-dal-rae; Ahn, Yeong Hee; Chang, Ho Nam

    2008-11-01

    Acidogenesis of food waste was studied in a 2-L reactor with semi-continuous mode operation (once-a-day feeding and draw-off) for maximum 65 days to examine optimal volatile acid compositions for biological nitrogen removal (BNR) and enhanced biological phosphorus removal (ENPR). Various operational parameters of hydraulic retention time (HRT), organic loading rate (ORL), pH and temperature were investigated for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), volatile fatty acid composition, nitrogen and phosphate. The yields (gTVFA/g VS) and the volumetric productivity (gTVFA/d L) increased with HRT from 0.26-0.32, 1.25-1.50 (at 4 days) to 0.36-0.39, 1.71-1.83 (at 12 days). However, the acetate fraction (%) decreased with HRT from 35.7-37.5 at 4 days to 23.5-25 at 12 days. The yields decreased with increase of organic loading from 0.34-0.37 at 5 g/L d to 0.29-0.30 at 13 g/L d and the productivity increased from 1.63-1.65 to 3.61-3.75. The yield and productivity were highest at 35 degrees C among 25, 35 and 45 degrees C. The yield and productivity at pH 5.5 and 6.0 were best and very similar to each other. The condition of 35 degrees C, pH 6.0, HRT 8 days, ORL 9 g/L d resulted in TVFA, SCOD, acetate and butyrate of 25, 39.5, 12 and 5.25 g/L, respectively.

  9. Once-a-day Concerta methylphenidate versus three-times-daily methylphenidate in laboratory and natural settings.

    PubMed

    Pelham, W E; Gnagy, E M; Burrows-Maclean, L; Williams, A; Fabiano, G A; Morrisey, S M; Chronis, A M; Forehand, G L; Nguyen, C A; Hoffman, M T; Lock, T M; Fielbelkorn, K; Coles, E K; Panahon, C J; Steiner, R L; Meichenbaum, D L; Onyango, A N; Morse, G D

    2001-06-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH), the most commonly prescribed drug for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has a short half-life, which necessitates multiple daily doses. The need for multiple doses produces problems with medication administration during school and after-school hours, and therefore with compliance. Previous long-acting stimulants and preparations have shown effects equivalent to twice-daily dosing of MPH. This study tests the efficacy and duration of action, in natural and laboratory settings, of an extended-release MPH preparation designed to last 12 hours and therefore be equivalent to 3-times-daily dosing. Sixty-eight children with ADHD, 6 to 12 years old, participated in a within-subject, double-blind comparison of placebo, immediate-release (IR) MPH 3 times a day (tid), and Concerta, a once-daily MPH formulation. Three dosing levels of medication were used: 5 mg IR MPH tid/18 mg Concerta once a day (qd); 10 mg IR MPH tid/36 mg Concerta qd; and 15 mg IR MPH tid/54 mg Concerta qd. All children were currently medicated with MPH at enrollment, and each child's dose level was based on that child's MPH dosing before the study. The doses of Concerta were selected to be comparable to the daily doses of MPH that each child received. To achieve the ascending rate of MPH delivery determined by initial investigations to provide the necessary continuous coverage, Concerta doses were 20% higher on a daily basis than a comparable tid regimen of IR MPH. Children received each medication condition for 7 days. The investigation was conducted in the context of a background clinical behavioral intervention in both the natural environment and the laboratory setting. Parents received behavioral parent training and teachers were taught to establish a school-home daily report card (DRC). A DRC is a list of individual target behaviors that represent a child's most salient areas of impairment. Teachers set daily goals for each child's impairment targets, and parents

  10. Comparison of once a day rifaximin to twice a day dosage in the prevention of recurrence of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Nasir; Qureshi, Muhammad Omar; Ahmad, Shafiq; Ahmad, Aiza; Khan, Hamza Hassan; Shafqat, Farzana; Salih, Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    Rifaximin has been used for prevention of recurrence of hepatic encephalopathy in twice a day dosage. The drug is expensive and lower dising may be possible. To determine the efficacy of rifaximin once a day dose in the prevention of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in patients with liver cirrhosis as compared with twice daily dose of rifaximin. This Randomized control trial was carried out at the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan from November 2012 to February 2014. Patients with known chronic liver disease with at least one episode of HE in the past were randomized to group A (rifaximin 550 mg OD) and group B (rifaximin 550 mg BD), after fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Each patient was followed for 6 months for any episode of HE. Patients in each group were identified for any breakthrough episode of encephalopathy during this period. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Chi-squared test and t-test were applied where required to determine the significant difference between the two groups. There were a total of 306 patients: 128 patients in Group A while 178 in group B. Majority of patients (75.81%) had hepatitis C virus with mean age of 52.30 ± 9.92, MELD score 13.58 ± 8.3, and 55.22% were in Child-Pugh B. Eighty-one patients had an episode of HE during the study period. There were 27 patients in group A and 54 patients in group B with breakthrough episode of HE (P = 0.088). This study suggests that there is no significant difference in rifaximin once a day or twice daily dose in preventing HE. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Ertapenem Once a Day Versus Piperacillin–Tazobactam Every 6 Hours for Treatment of Acute Pelvic Infections: A Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Subir; Higareda, Iliana; Angel-Muller, Edith; Ismail, Mahmoud; Hague, Caren; Adeyi, Ben; Teppler, Hedy

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare ertapenem therapy with piperacillin–tazobactam therapy for the management of acute pelvic infections. Methods: In a multicenter, double-blind study, 412 women with acute pelvic infection were assigned to one of two strata, namely obstetric/postpartum infection or gynecologic/postoperative infection, and were then randomized to ertapenem, 1 g once a day, or piperacillin–tazobactam, 3.375 g every 6 hours, both administered intravenously. Results: In total, 163 patients in the ertapenem group and 153 patients in the piperacillin–tazobactam group were clinically evaluable. The median duration of therapy was 4.0 days in both treatment groups. The most common single pathogen was Escherichia coli . At the primary efficacy endpoint 2–4 weeks post therapy, 93.9% of patients who received ertapenem and 91.5% of those who received piperacillin–tazobactam were cured (95% confidence interval for the difference, adjusting for strata, –4% to 8.8%), indicating that cure rates for both treatment groups were equivalent. Cure rates for both treatment groups were also similar when compared by stratum and severity of infection. The frequency and severity of drug-related adverse events were generally similar in both groups. Conclusions: In this study, ertapenem was as effective as piperacillin–tazobactam for the treatment of acute pelvic infection, was generally well tolerated, and had an overall safety profile similar to that of piperacillin–tazobactam. PMID:12839630

  12. [Study on the safety and efficacy of sitafloxacin at a dose of 100 mg once a day--results of the use-results survey].

    PubMed

    Hori, Seiji; Uchino, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takuyuki; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Takahashi, Megumi; Hamajima, Satoko; Nukui, Kaori; Eda, Hisano; Shiina, Akiko; Takita, Atsushi; Yamanouchi, Naoki; Mizuno, Masami; Okutani, Yukihiro

    2014-06-01

    Sitafloxacin (STFX, Gracevit 50 mg, fine granules 10%), an oral quinolone antibacterial agent, was approved additionally for administration at a dose of 100 mg once a day in August 2011. A use-results survey on STFX 100 mg/day was performed from December 2011 to May 2013. In total, 1,186 case cards were collected from 226 medical institutions and 1,089 cases were subjected to a safety evaluation and 1,069 were subjected to an efficacy evaluation. The incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) was 2.11% (23/1,089 cases) and no serious ADRs were observed. The major ADR was diarrhea at 1.10% (12/1,089 cases). Of these 12 cases, 10 cases developed symptoms within 4 days of treatment. All of them, except one case that could not be followed up, either recovered or improved. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs of the phenyl acetate and propionate types, which require caution when coadministered with STFX, were used concomitantly by 17.6% (192/1,089 cases) of patients but no central nervous system ADRs were observed. The overall efficacy rate was 96.4% (1,030/1,069 cases) and by types of infections, it was 97.0% (387/399 cases) for respiratory tract infections, 96.7% (353/365 cases) for urinary tract infections, 94.7% (36/38 cases) for gynecological infections, 92.3% (132/143 cases) for otorhinolaryngological infections, 98.4% (122/124 cases) for dental and oral surgical infections. The efficacy rate in every category of site of infection exceeded 90%. The overall eradication rate was 94.4% (185/196 strains) including Gram-positive bacteria at 95.4% (62/65 strains), Gram-negative bacteria at 92.2% (94/102 strains), anaerobes at 100.0% (11/11 strains) and atypical bacteria at 100.0% (18/18 strains). In conclusion, this use-results survey confirmed that STFX 100 mg/day is an effective administration with no serious problems in its safety profile and efficacy rate of over 90% in every category of site of infection.

  13. A new once-a-day fentanyl citrate patch (Fentos Tape) could be a new treatment option in patients with end-of-dose failure using a 72-h transdermal fentanyl matrix patch.

    PubMed

    Koike, Kazuhiko; Terui, Takeshi; Nagasako, Tomokazu; Horiuchi, Iori; Machino, Takayuki; Kusakabe, Toshiro; Hirayama, Yasuo; Mihara, Hiroyoshi; Yamakage, Michiaki; Kato, Junji; Nishisato, Takuji; Ishitani, Kunihiko

    2016-03-01

    The recommended dosing interval for transdermal fentanyl is every 72 h. However, some patients will have "end-of-dose failure," which may be seen as an increase of episodes of severe pain flares at the third day after application of the patch. A new once-a-day fentanyl patch was developed in Japan since 2010. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of the once-a-day fentanyl citrate patch for patients with cancer-related pain receiving the 72-h transdermal fentanyl not lasting 72 h. We performed a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of 445 inpatients with the 72-h transdermal fentanyl at Higashi Sapporo Hospital. We could switch to the once-a-day fentanyl citrate patch if patients reported inadequate pain relief beyond 48 h after application of the 72-h transdermal fentanyl. Patients recorded baseline scores for background pain intensity (PI) and the frequency of use of daily rescue medication for breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP). Of all patients, 10.1% showed the increase in PI of 30% or more baseline PI on the third day after application of the 72-h transdermal fentanyl. Of patients, 84.4% were converted from equivalent dose of the 72-h transdermal fentanyl to the once-a-day fentanyl citrate patch. On the third day after switching, 60.5% of patients showed a reduction of more than 30% from baseline PI. Switching to the once-a-day fentanyl citrate patch significantly reduced the mean frequency of daily rescue dose for BTcP. A once-a-day fentanyl citrate patch provided stable pain control. Its use may be considered as the dominant strategy for patients receiving a 72-h transdermal fentanyl not lasting 72 h.

  14. The Intelence aNd pRezista Once A Day Study (INROADS): a multicentre, single-arm, open-label study of etravirine and darunavir/ritonavir as dual therapy in HIV-1-infected early treatment-experienced subjects.

    PubMed

    Ruane, P J; Brinson, C; Ramgopal, M; Ryan, R; Coate, B; Cho, M; Kakuda, T N; Anderson, D

    2015-05-01

    Following antiretroviral therapy failure, patients are often treated with a three-drug regimen that includes two nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors [N(t)RTIs]. An alternative two-drug nucleoside-sparing regimen may decrease the pill burden and drug toxicities associated with the use of N(t)RTIs. The Intelence aNd pRezista Once A Day Study (INROADS; NCT01199939) evaluated the nucleoside-sparing regimen of etravirine 400 mg with darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once-daily in HIV-1-infected treatment-experienced subjects or treatment-naïve subjects with transmitted resistance. In this exploratory phase 2b, single-arm, open-label, multicentre, 48-week study, the primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects who achieved HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/mL at week 48 [confirmed virological response (CVR), non-virological failure (VF) censored]. Key secondary endpoints included assessments of changes from baseline to week 48 in viral load, immunological response, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, safety, tolerability, metabolic and bone markers and body fat. Forty-one of the 54 enrolled subjects completed the study. Adverse events (7%) and VF (7%) were the most common reasons for discontinuation. The week 48 CVR rate in the intent-to-treat (ITT) non-VF censored population was 89% (primary endpoint). Seven subjects experienced VF. Common adverse events were diarrhoea (15%), rash (15%) and upper respiratory tract infection (11%). Mild/moderate lipid elevations, minimal changes in limb fat distribution and bone mineral density and no clinically relevant changes in glucose metabolism were observed. Etravirine 400 mg and darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg as a two-drug once-daily regimen in treatment-experienced subjects or treatment-naïve subjects with transmitted resistance was virologically efficacious and well tolerated. © 2014 British HIV Association.

  15. Field test data on small strongyles in evaluation of activity of fenbendazole given once a day for 5 consecutive days to thoroughbred yearlings on two farms in Kentucky in 2002 and 2003.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C

    2003-10-01

    Fenbendazole (FBZ) suspension was administered intraorally at the dose rate of 7.0-10.3 mg/kg once a day for 5 consecutive days to 58 thoroughbred yearlings on two farms in central Kentucky in April, 2002. The average dose rates of drug given to groups of colts and fillies on each farm were 7.8-8.5 mg/kg. Only 3 of the yearlings had negative counts of strongyle eggs per gram of feces (EPGs) after treatment which was at 8.4, 8.7, or 9.4 mg/kg; the pretreatment EPG counts were low (10-30). Reduction of EPG values at the highest dose rates was 0% (at 9.5 mg/kg) and 78% (at 10.3 mg/kg). This study was repeated in April, 2003 in 38 thoroughbred yearlings on one of the two same farms used in the 2002 research, but all horses were treated at the same dose rate (10 mg/kg) of FBZ paste once daily for 5 consecutive days. Only 1 of these yearlings had a negative EPG count after treatment, but this value was also negative before treatment. Reductions of EPG counts after treatment ranged from 0% to 85% (mean =22%) for the colts and from 0 to 63% (mean =14%) for the fillies. Examination of cultures of fecal samples from these yearlings revealed that only small strongyle larvae were present. There was obvious FBZ-resistance of the small strongyles in yearlings on both farms at the dose rates used.

  16. Viral BLIP dynamics during HAART.

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, M.; Louie, M.; Hurley, A.; Ho, David D.; Perelson, Alan S.,; Di Mascio, M.

    2001-01-01

    Intermittent episodes of low-level viremia (blips) are often observed in well-suppressed, HAART-treated patients. It has been reported that viral blips do not correlate with the emergence of new HAART-related mutations; however, increased frequency of blips correlates with slower decay of latently infected cells. Since blips are transient and unpredictable, detailed knowledge about them is difficult to obtain. We present an analysis of the dynamics of viral blips from viral load (VL) measurements on 123 patients for a period of 809k480d (21-1817d) and sampled every 31{+-}12d for a total of 26{+-}15 samples per patient.

  17. Blepharoptosis and HAART related mitochondrial myopathy.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Kristin Ow; Lelli, Gary

    2014-12-01

    To report a case of blepharoptosis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with biopsy confirmed mitochondrial deletions consistent with HAART related myopathy. A 51-year-old man with HIV demonstrated visually significant ptosis after being on HAART therapy for over 20 years. Muscle tissue biopsy following blepharoplasty was analyzed and found to have significant mitochondrial deletions. This patient represents a case of isolated ptosis consistent with acquired myopathy secondary to mitochondrial dysfunction without systemic manifestations otherwise seen in inherited mitochondrial disorders.

  18. Neurological complications of HIV infection in pre-HAART and HAART era: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Matinella, Angela; Lanzafame, M; Bonometti, M A; Gajofatto, A; Concia, E; Vento, S; Monaco, S; Ferrari, S

    2015-05-01

    The introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) led to a radical change in the natural history of HIV infection and of the associated neurological opportunistic infections. However, the mortality of central nervous system (CNS) complications and opportunistic infections is still high in untreated HIV-infected individuals or in patients unaware of their HIV infection. We describe the outcome of HIV-infected patients followed at a single center for AIDS-related neurological syndromes in the 16 years following the introduction of HAART, and compare the findings with those in patients admitted up to 1996. We have conducted a retrospective study of patients with HIV infection or AIDS (based on WHO criteria and classified according to the 1993 CDC criteria) admitted during 20 years (January 1992 to March 2012) to the Infectious Diseases Unit of the University of Verona for the presence of focal or widespread CNS lesion on neuroimaging. Clinical history, CD4 cell count, HIV-RNA level, neurological examination, imaging, cerebrospinal fluid examination and eventual cerebral biopsy results were reviewed as well as the final neurological diagnosis and the treatment. The survival time from the clinical onset of the neurologic syndrome to death was calculated for each patient who died. A statistical analysis was performed comparing data collected up to and after 1996, i.e., before and after HAART introduction. Among 1043 patients with HIV infection or AIDS admitted to the Infectious Diseases Unit of the University of Verona between January 1992 and March 2012, 114 had a CNS lesion. The following diseases were observed: neurotoxoplasmosis (NT), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy), primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), the severe form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, cryptococcal encephalitis (CE) and lesions of undetermined origin. The follow-up period was 4 weeks to 72 months both in the pre-HAART and HAART era. Cerebral lesions

  19. Premature and accelerated aging: HIV or HAART?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Reuben L.; de Boer, Richard; Brul, Stanley; Budovskaya, Yelena; van Spek, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly increased life expectancy of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population. Nevertheless, the average lifespan of HIV-patients remains shorter compared to uninfected individuals. Immunosenescence, a current explanation for this difference invokes heavily on viral stimulus despite HAART efficiency in viral suppression. We propose here that the premature and accelerated aging of HIV-patients can also be caused by adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs, specifically those that affect the mitochondria. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) antiretroviral drug class for instance, is known to cause depletion of mitochondrial DNA via inhibition of the mitochondrial specific DNA polymerase-γ. Besides NRTIs, other antiretroviral drug classes such as protease inhibitors also cause severe mitochondrial damage by increasing oxidative stress and diminishing mitochondrial function. We also discuss important areas for future research and argue in favor of the use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a novel model system for studying these effects. PMID:23372574

  20. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of a new 30 mg modified-release tablet formulation of metoclopramide for once-a-day administration versus 10 mg immediate-release tablets: a single and multiple-dose, randomized, open-label, parallel study in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Bernardo-Escudero, Roberto; Alonso-Campero, Rosalba; Francisco-Doce, María Teresa de Jesús; Cortés-Fuentes, Myriam; Villa-Vargas, Miriam; Angeles-Uribe, Juan

    2012-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the pharmacokinetics of a new, modified-release metoclopramide tablet, and compare it to an immediate-release tablet. A single and multiple-dose, randomized, open-label, parallel, pharmacokinetic study was conducted. Investigational products were administered to 26 healthy Hispanic Mexican male volunteers for two consecutive days: either one 30 mg modified-release tablet every 24 h, or one 10 mg immediate-release tablet every 8 h. Blood samples were collected after the first and last doses of metoclopramide. Plasma metoclopramide concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Safety and tolerability were assessed through vital signs measurements, clinical evaluations, and spontaneous reports from study subjects. All 26 subjects were included in the analyses [mean (SD) age: 27 (8) years, range 18-50; BMI: 23.65 (2.22) kg/m², range 18.01-27.47)]. Peak plasmatic concentrations were not statistically different with both formulations, but occurred significantly later (p < 0.05) with the modified-release form [tmax: 3.15 (1.28) vs. 0.85 (0.32) h and tmax-ss: 2.92 (1.19) vs. 1.04 (0.43) h]. There was no difference noted in the average plasma concentrations [Cavgτ: 23.90 (7.90) vs. 20.64 (7.43) ng/mL after the first dose; and Cavg-ss: 31.14 (9.64) vs. 35.59 (12.29) ng/mL after the last dose, (p > 0.05)]. One adverse event was reported in the test group (diarrhea), and one in the reference group (headache). This study suggests that the 30 mg modified-release metoclopramide tablets show features compatible with slow-release formulations when compared to immediate-release tablets, and is suitable for once-a-day administration.

  1. Fluticasone furoate/Vilanterol 92/22 μg once-a-day vs Beclomethasone dipropionate/ Formoterol 100/6 μg b.i.d.: a 12-week cost analysis in mild-to-moderate asthma.

    PubMed

    Dal Negro, Roberto W; Distante, Chiara; Bonadiman, Luca; Turco, Paola; Iannazzo, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a disease with high cost for the National Health Service. Two of the most recent LABA/ICS combinations for persistent bronchial asthma are Beclomethasone dipropionate/Formoterol (B/F) delivered via the Nexthaler device and Fluticasone furoate/Vilanterol (F/V) delivered via the Ellipta device. No comparison has been carried out yet in terms of cost analysis in asthma, to our knowledge. Aim of the present monocentric, observational, retrospective study was to calculate and compare the costs of mild-to-moderate asthma patients assuming B/F 100/6 μg b.i.d. to those of patients assuming F/V 92/22 μg once-a-day over a 12-week treatment period from the Italian National Health Service perspective. Data were obtained automatically and anonymously from the institutional database of the Lung Unit of the Specialist Medical Centre (CEMS), Verona, Italy, UNI EN ISO 9001-2008 validated. FEV1 values, number of relapses, healthcare resources as hospitalizations due to asthma relapses, days of hospitalization, general practitioner (GP), specialist visits, and days of inactivity, were recorded over the study period together with the use of extra medications (systemic steroids and antibiotics). In order to compare the outcomes achieved in both groups, the propensity score matching method was used in STATA, and statistical significance was accepted for p < 0.05. Clinical data of 77 patients treated with B/F b.i.d (Group A) and of 40 patients treated with F/V 92/22 μg once-a-day (Group B) were selected. The PS-matching process, designed as matching on the baseline covariates, gender, age, FEV1 and comorbidities, returned a cohort of 40 group A patients of the entire cohort matched with 40 patients of group B, fully comparable for demographics and clinical characteristics. In the PS-matched cohort, the mean (±SE) number of relapses per patient during the follow-up was 0.53 (±0.12) in group A and 0.28 (±0.07) in group B. In group A, n = 25 (62.50 %), n = 9

  2. Prevalence of anaemia and immunological markers among ghanaian HAART-naïve HIV-patients and those on HAART.

    PubMed

    Owiredu, W K B A; Quaye, L; Amidu, N; Addai-Mensah, O

    2011-03-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has been generally accepted as the gold standard for the management of HIV patients but conflicting reports about the ability of HAART to improve upon the quality of life of HIV patients has cast doubts over the efficacy and the need for therapy. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy and ability of HAART to resolve immunological and haematological abnormalities in HIV infected patients, existent sex variations in immunological and haematological parameters and CD4 predictive ability of the study parameters. A total of 442 PLWHA consisting of 166 patients on HAART (28 males and 138 females) and 276 HAART-naïve patients (76 males and 200 females) were recruited for this study. Complete haemogram, immunological analysis (CD4 & CD3) and weight were measured for all the patients. HAART patients were older and heavier than their naïve counterparts. The incidence of anaemia (Hb less or equal to 10.5 (63%) and PCV < 30% (37.6%)) and lymphopoenia (16.7%) in HAART-naïve patients was significantly higher compared to their counterparts on HAART (46%, 15.2% and 5.3%) respectively. 70% of HAART-naïve females had anaemia in comparison to 44% in HAART-naïve males (P = 0.0001). The likelihood of developing microcytic hypochromic anaemia in HAART-naïve patients was 5 times more compared to those on HAART (P = 0.0002). Total lymphocyte count, haemoglobin, lymphocyte count and weight were significant predictors of CD4 counts and TLC values between 1.0 - 2.0 k µL(-1) was a significant predictor of CD4 <200 cells mm(-3). HAART has the capability of reducing the incidence of anaemia and lymphopoenia which are associated with disease progression and death in HIV infected patients. Total lymphocyte count, haemoglobin and weight could also serve as useful predictive tools in the management and monitoring of HIV infected patients in resource limited settings.

  3. Oral manifestations in the era of HAART.

    PubMed Central

    Cherry-Peppers, Gail; Daniels, Christine O.; Meeks, Valli; Sanders, Charles F.; Reznik, David

    2003-01-01

    AIDS has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, disproportionately affecting African-Americans and other minorities. As highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have improved the length and quality of life for HIV-Infected people, oral health care has made similar strides. It is important that physicians and dentists recognize the earliest signs and symptoms of HIV infection in order that a timely diagnosis and patient referral can be made for early counseling testing, and treatment. At the same time, dentists have seen themselves at considerable risk from HIV Infection. Some dentists believe that they may also be more at risk from stigma then other providers if they treat HIV patients. Images p22S-a p22S-b p24S-a p25S-a p28S-a PMID:12656429

  4. Oral innate immunity in HIV infection in HAART era.

    PubMed

    Nittayananta, Wipawee; Tao, Renchuan; Jiang, Lanlan; Peng, Yuanyuan; Huang, Yuxiao

    2016-01-01

    Oral innate immunity, an important component in host defense and immune surveillance in the oral cavity, plays a crucial role in the regulation of oral health. As part of the innate immune system, epithelial cells lining oral mucosal surfaces not only provide a physical barrier but also produce different antimicrobial peptides, including human β-defensins (hBDs), secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and various cytokines. These innate immune mediators help in maintaining oral homeostasis. When they are impaired either by local or systemic causes, various oral infections and malignancies may be developed. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other co-infections appear to have both direct and indirect effects on systemic and local innate immunity leading to the development of oral opportunistic infections and malignancies. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the standard treatment of HIV infection, contributed to a global reduction of HIV-associated oral lesions. However, prolonged use of HAART may lead to adverse effects on the oral innate immunity resulting in the relapse of oral lesions. This review article focused on the roles of oral innate immunity in HIV infection in HAART era. The following five key questions were addressed: (i) What are the roles of oral innate immunity in health and disease?, (ii) What are the effects of HIV infection on oral innate immunity?, (iii) What are the roles of oral innate immunity against other co-infections?, (iv) What are the effects of HAART on oral innate immunity?, and (v) Is oral innate immunity enhanced by HAART?

  5. Fatal Fentanyl: One Pill Can Kill.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Mark E; Gerona, Roy R; Davis, M Thais; Roche, Bailey M; Colby, Daniel K; Chenoweth, James A; Adams, Axel J; Owen, Kelly P; Ford, Jonathan B; Black, Hugh B; Albertson, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

    The current national opioid epidemic is a public health emergency. We have identified an outbreak of exaggerated opioid toxicity caused by fentanyl adulterated tablets purchased on the street as hydrocodone/acetaminophen. Over an 8-day period in late March 2016, a total of 18 patients presented to our institution with exaggerated opioid toxicity. The patients provided a similar history: ingesting their "normal dose" of hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets but with more pronounced symptoms. Toxicology testing and analysis was performed on serum, urine, and surrendered pills. One of the 18 patients died in hospital. Five patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation, one required extracorporeal life support, three required intubation, and two received bag-valve-mask ventilation. One patient had recurrence of toxicity after 8 hours after naloxone discontinuation. Seventeen of 18 patients required boluses of naloxone, and four required prolonged naloxone infusions (26-39 hours). All 18 patients tested positive for fentanyl in the serum. Quantitative assays conducted in 13 of the sera revealed fentanyl concentrations of 7.9 to 162 ng/mL (mean = 52.9 ng/mL). Pill analysis revealed fentanyl amounts of 600-6,900 μg/pill. The pills are virtually indistinguishable from authentic hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets and are similar in weight. To date, our county has reported 56 cases of fentanyl opioid toxicity, with 15 fatalities. In our institution, the outbreak has stressed the capabilities and resources of the emergency department and intensive care units. A serious outbreak of exaggerated opioid toxicity caused by fentanyl-adulterated tablets purchased on the street as hydrocodone/acetaminophen is under way in California. These patients required higher dosing and prolonged infusions of naloxone. Additionally, observation periods off naloxone were extended due to delayed, recurrent toxicity. The outbreak has serious ramifications for public health and safety, law enforcement, and healthcare facilities and resources. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  6. Use of HAART Among Young People Living With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Comulada, W. Scott; Swendeman, Dallas T.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mattes, Kathy M.; Weiss, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine HAART use. Methods HIV+ youth, aged 14-29 (n=253; 71% male; 74% ethnic minority), were recruited in Los Angeles, San Francisco, and New York. Results Almost all youth had been offered HAART (84%); 77% had ever used it, 54% were currently using, and 63% of users adhered to 90% of their medications. Compared to non-users, users were more likely to be female, Latino or African American. Users were also more likely to have the following: AIDS, positive coping styles, social support, and a high quality of life. Users were less likely to: do jail time, perform sexual-risk acts, and use substances. Conclusions HIV+ youth self-select to use HAART. PMID:12882433

  7. Ocular Manifestations in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the Pre-HAART Versus the HAART Era in the North Indian Population.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Aniruddha; Singh, Ramandeep; Sharma, Aman; Gupta, Vishali; Dogra, Mangat R

    2017-06-01

    To compare changes in the demographic profile and ocular manifestations in patients with HIV in the pre-HAART and HAART era in North India. In this single-center cross-sectional study, 100 HIV patients receiving HAART and 96 HIV patients in the pre-HAART era were enrolled. Prevalence of ocular manifestations of HIV was calculated for both cohorts. The prevalence of ocular manifestations was not statistically different in the two eras (38%, SE: 4.85% in HAART era; 41.67%, SE: 5% in pre-HAART era) (p = 0.60). Mean CD4 counts were lower in the pre-HAART era compared with the HAART era (p < 0.001). In the HAART era, cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis and HIV retinopathy continued to remain the most common infectious and non-infectious cause of visual morbidity. While the introduction of HAART has resulted in a major impact on the overall health of patients with HIV, the spectrum of ocular disease remains largely unchanged in developing countries such as India.

  8. Predictors of HAART Utilization for Behaviorally HIV-1 Infected Youth: Impact of Adult vs. Pediatric Clinical Care Site

    PubMed Central

    Agwu, Allison L.; Siberry, George K.; Ellen, Jonathan; Fleishman, John A.; Rutstein, Richard; Gaur, Aditya H.; Korthuis, P. Todd; Warford, Robert; Spector, Stephen A.; Gebo, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We evaluated highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) utilization in youth infected with HIV through risk behaviors (BIY) who met treatment criteria for HAART. We assessed the impact of receiving care at an adult or pediatric HIV clinical site on initiation and discontinuation of the first HAART regimen in BIY. METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of treatment-naive BIY, aged 12–24, who enrolled in the HIV Research Network (HIVRN) between 2002 and 2008 and who met criteria for HAART. The outcomes were time from meeting criteria to initiation of HAART and time to discontinuation of the first HAART regimen. Analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS Of 287 treatment-eligible youth, 198 (69%) received HAART and 58/198 (29.3%) subsequently discontinued HAART. In multivariable analyses, there was no significant difference in the time between meeting treatment criteria and initiating HAART for BIY followed at adult or pediatric HIV clinical sites. However, BIY followed at adult sites discontinued HAART sooner than BIY followed at pediatric HIV clinical sites (AHR 3.19 [1.26–8.06]). CONCLUSIONS Two thirds of treatment-eligible BIY in the HIVRN cohort initiated HAART; however, one third who initiated HAART discontinued HAART during the study period. Identifying factors associated with earlier HAART initiation and HAART sustainability can inform interventions to enhance HAART utilization among treatment-eligible youth. The finding of earlier HAART discontinuation for youth at adult care sites deserves further study. PMID:22525110

  9. Characterizing retention in HAART as a recurrent event process: insights into 'cascade churn'.

    PubMed

    Nosyk, Bohdan; Lourenço, Lillian; Min, Jeong Eun; Shopin, Dimitry; Lima, Viviane D; Montaner, Julio S G

    2015-08-24

    The benefits of HAART rely on continuous lifelong treatment retention. We used linked population-level health administrative data to characterize durations of HAART retention and nonretention. This is a retrospective cohort study. We considered individuals initiating HAART in British Columbia (1996-2012). An HAART episode was considered discontinued if individuals had a gap of at least 30 days between days in which medication was prescribed. We considered durations of HAART retention and nonretention separately, and used Cox proportional hazards frailty models to identify demographic and treatment-related factors associated with durations of HAART retention and nonretention. Six thousand one hundred fifty-two individuals were included in the analysis; 81.2% were male, 40.6% were people who inject drugs, and 42.8% initiated treatment with CD4 cell count less than 200 cells/μl. Overall, 29% were continuously retained on HAART through the end of follow-up. HAART episodes were a median 6.8 months (25th, 75th percentile: 2.3, 19.5), whereas off-HAART episodes lasted a median 1.9 months (1.2, 4.5). In Cox proportional hazards frailty models, durations of HAART retention improved over time. Successive treatment episodes tended to decrease in duration among those with multiple attempts, whereas off-HAART episodes remained relatively stable. Younger age, earlier stages of disease progression, and injection drug use were all associated with shorter durations of HAART retention and longer off-HAART durations. Metrics to monitor HAART retention, dropout, and reentry should be prioritized for HIV surveillance. Clinical strategies and public health policies are urgently needed to improve HAART retention, particularly among those at earlier stages of disease progression, the young, and people who inject drugs.

  10. Adipokines in the HIV/HAART-associated lipodystrophy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Paruthi, Jason; Gill, Natasha; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2013-09-01

    The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus has dramatically altered both the landscape of this disease and the prognosis for those affected. With more patients now receiving HAART, adverse effects such as lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome have emerged. In HIV/HAART-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS), patients demonstrate fat maldistribution with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and other metabolic complications. Recent studies have contributed to the elucidation of the pathophysiological abnormalities seen in this syndrome and have provided guidance for the study and use of potential treatments for these patients, but widely accepted guidelines have not yet been established. Two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, are decreased in patients with HALS and lipoatrophy or lipodystrophy. Further, recent proof-of-concept clinical trials have proven the efficacy of leptin replacement and medications that increase circulating adiponectin levels in improving the metabolic profile of HALS patients. This review article highlights recent evidence on leptin replacement and compares leptin's efficacy to that of other treatments, including metformin and thiazolidinediones, on metabolic abnormalities such as impaired insulin-glucose homeostasis associated with lipodystrophy in patients receiving HAART. It is hoped that forthcoming large phase III clinical trials will allow the addition of leptin to our therapeutic armamentarium for use in patients suffering from this disease state.

  11. Cohort Profile: HAART Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Sophie; Cescon, Angela; Samji, Hasina; Cui, Zishan; Yip, Benita; Lepik, Katherine J; Moore, David; Lima, Viviane D; Nosyk, Bohdan; Harrigan, P Richard; Montaner, Julio SG; Shannon, Kate; Wood, Evan; Hogg, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Since 1986, antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been available free of charge to individuals living with HIV in British Columbia (BC), Canada, through the BC Centre of Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE) Drug Treatment Program (DTP). The Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) cohort was established in 1996 to maintain a prospective record of clinical measurements and medication profiles of a subset of DTP participants initiating HAART in BC. This unique cohort provides a comprehensive data source to investigate mortality, prognostic factors and treatment response among people living with HIV in BC from the inception of HAART. Currently over 5000 individuals are enrolled in the HOMER cohort. Data captured include socio-demographic characteristics (e.g. sex, age, ethnicity, health authority), clinical variables (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma HIV viral load, AIDS-defining illness, hepatitis C co-infection, mortality) and treatment variables (e.g. HAART regimens, date of treatment initiation, treatment interruptions, adherence data, resistance testing). Research findings from the HOMER cohort have featured in numerous high-impact peer-reviewed journals. The HOMER cohort collaborates with other HIV cohorts on both national and international scales to answer complex HIV-specific research questions, and welcomes input from external investigators regarding potential research proposals or future collaborations. For further information please contact the principal investigator, Dr Robert Hogg (robert_hogg@sfu.ca). PMID:24639444

  12. Cohort Profile: HAART Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) cohort.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Sophie; Cescon, Angela; Samji, Hasina; Cui, Zishan; Yip, Benita; Lepik, Katherine J; Moore, David; Lima, Viviane D; Nosyk, Bohdan; Harrigan, P Richard; Montaner, Julio S G; Shannon, Kate; Wood, Evan; Hogg, Robert S

    2015-02-01

    Since 1986, antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been available free of charge to individuals living with HIV in British Columbia (BC), Canada, through the BC Centre of Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE) Drug Treatment Program (DTP). The Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) cohort was established in 1996 to maintain a prospective record of clinical measurements and medication profiles of a subset of DTP participants initiating HAART in BC. This unique cohort provides a comprehensive data source to investigate mortality, prognostic factors and treatment response among people living with HIV in BC from the inception of HAART. Currently over 5000 individuals are enrolled in the HOMER cohort. Data captured include socio-demographic characteristics (e.g. sex, age, ethnicity, health authority), clinical variables (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma HIV viral load, AIDS-defining illness, hepatitis C co-infection, mortality) and treatment variables (e.g. HAART regimens, date of treatment initiation, treatment interruptions, adherence data, resistance testing). Research findings from the HOMER cohort have featured in numerous high-impact peer-reviewed journals. The HOMER cohort collaborates with other HIV cohorts on both national and international scales to answer complex HIV-specific research questions, and welcomes input from external investigators regarding potential research proposals or future collaborations. For further information please contact the principal investigator, Dr Robert Hogg (robert_hogg@sfu.ca).

  13. PMTCT, HAART, and Childbearing in Mozambique: An Institutional Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Maternal and Child Health (MCH) units, where VCT/PMTCT/HAART have been integrated with traditional services, play a critical role in the connection between the massive HAART rollout and reproductive behavior. In this article, we use data from semi-structured interviews with MCH workers and ethnographic observations carried out in southern Mozambique to explore this role from the institutional perspective. We find that, along with logistical and workload problems, the de facto segregation of PMTCT/HAART clients within the “integrated” MCH system and the simplistic and uncompromising message discouraging further fertility and stressing condom-based contraception, may pose serious challenges to a successful formulation and implementation of reproductive goals among seropositive clients. Although the recency of PMTCT/HAART services may partly explain these challenges, we argue that they are due largely to cultural miscommunication between providers and clients. We show how the cultural gap between the two is bridged by community activists and peer interactions among clients. PMID:19326206

  14. Oral innate immunity in HIV infection in HAART era

    PubMed Central

    Nittayananta, Wipawee; Tao, Renchuan; Jiang, Lanlan; Peng, Yuanyuan; Huang, Yuxiao

    2015-01-01

    Oral innate immunity, an important component in host defense and immune surveillance in the oral cavity, plays a crucial role in the regulation of oral health. As part of the innate immune system, epithelial cells lining oral mucosal surfaces provide not only a physical barrier but also produce different antimicrobial peptides, including human β-defensins (hBDs), secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and various cytokines. These innate immune mediators help in maintaining oral homeostasis. When they are impaired either by local or systemic causes, various oral infections and malignancies may be developed. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other co-infections appear to have both direct and indirect effects on systemic and local innate immunity leading to the development of oral opportunistic infections and malignancies. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the standard treatment of HIV infection contributed to a global reduction of HIV-associated oral lesions. However, prolonged treatment by HAART may lead to adverse effects on the oral innate immunity resulting in the relapse of oral lesions. This review article focused on the roles of oral innate immunity in HIV infection in HAART era. The following five key questions were addressed: 1) What are the roles of oral innate immunity in health and disease?, 2) What are the effects of HIV infection on oral innate immunity?, 3) What are the roles of oral innate immunity against other co-infections?, 4) What are the effects of HAART on oral innate immunity?, and 5) Is oral innate immunity enhanced by HAART? PMID:25639844

  15. Medically Eligible Women Who Do Not Use HAART: The Importance of Abuse, Drug Use, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Mardge H.; Cook, Judith A.; Grey, Dennis; Young, Mary; Hanau, Lawrence H.; Tien, Phyllis; Levine, Alexandra M.; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of HIV-positive women who do not report highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use. Methods. We analyzed HAART use among 1165 HIV-positive participants in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Results. Between October 1, 2000, and March 31, 2001, 254 women with clinical indications for HAART reported not using it, 635 reported HAART use, and 276 had no clinical indications. In multivariate analysis, using crack/cocaine/heroin and a history of abuse decreased the likelihood of using HAART, whereas being White increased it. Conclusions. One of 4 women for whom HAART was indicated reported not using HAART. Childhood sexual abuse prevention, more intensive abuse treatment, and continuing drug treatment may enhance HIV disease treatment of women. PMID:15226135

  16. The effects of cefonicid on the pharmacokinetics of a once-a-day theophylline formulation.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, M; Lobefalo, G; Lupis, F; Vanacore, L; Martucci, P; D'Amato, G

    1989-01-01

    The authors have explored the effects of cefonicid on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of a new sustained-release theophylline formulation in 12 adult patients suffering from chronic obstructive lung disease, by comparing the pharmacokinetic data obtained following four days of medication with theophylline alone with those found at the end of seven days of combined treatment with the same theophylline preparation plus cefonicid. Blood theophylline levels were assessed in duplicate by polarized immunofluorescence with a TDx analyser. Theophylline kinetics were totally unaffected by simultaneous cefonicid treatment, showing that the two drugs may be administered together without any need for adjustment of the theophylline dosage.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and renal toxicity of three once-a-day doses of amikacin in cows.

    PubMed

    Sumano, H; Gutierrez, Lilia; Velazquez, C; Hayashida, Sayuri

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic variables of amikacin in cows were determined after administration of amikacin sulphate either intravenously (IV) or intramuscularly (IM) at a dose of 25 mg/kg per day for three days. Amikacin concentrations at time zero and maximum serum concentrations were 240.8 microg/mL and 122.53 microg/mL, respectively. The elimination half-life remained unchanged during the three days of administration (T1/2beta = 1.33 +/- 0.029 h for the IV route and T1/2beta = 2.75 +/- 0.38 h for the IM route). Apparent volumes of distribution suggest limited distribution out of the central compartment (VdAUC = 0.154 +/- 0.005 L/kg; Vdc = 36.50 +/- 2.35 L; Vdss = 0.092 +/- 0.004 L/kg). Bioavailability after IM administration was 95%. Serum profiles of urea, creatinine, albumin, electrolytes and pH after 5-day treatment with amikacin at a dose of 25 mg/kg per day IM revealed no changes. Assessment of diffusion of amikacin to milk by a commercially available screening method to detect antibiotic residues revealed that amikacin could not be detected by the fifth milking period after the last treatment. These results suggest that it would be rational to use a large single-daily dose of amikacin for future clinical trials in cows.

  18. PDT in periodontal disease of HAART resistance patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovani, Elcio M.; Noro-Filho, Gilberto A.; Caputo, Bruno V.; Casarin, Renato; Costa, Claudio; Salgado, Daniela; Santos, Camila C.

    2016-03-01

    HIV/Aids patients present a change of microbiota associated with host immunodeficiency. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) showed as a promising and viable alternative in reducing microbiota. Present study evaluate effectiveness of photodynamic therapy in periodontal disease of AIDS patients with highly activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART) failure, measuring the clinical periodontal parameters and periodontal microbiota. Twelve patients with HARRT resistance (R group) divided into two groups (control and PDT) and 12 patients with no HAART resistance (NR group) divided into two groups (control and PDT). The results show the difference in baseline of CD4 cells count, NR group 640.0 +/- 176.2 cells/mm3 R group and 333.3 +/- 205.8 cells / mm3 (p<0.05), and in 8.3% detectable viral load in NR group and 75% detectable (p <0.001) in R group. As clinical periodontal parameters (PD and CAL), PDT was more effective than the control group only in the NR group (p <0.05%), moreover, there was no difference in the evaluation of clinical periodontal parameters between the both R groups (p>0.05%). Microbiological evaluation in R group presents a general reduction in the Aa at 3 and 6 months. Furthermore, demonstrated a reduction of Pg in all groups at 6 months and in R group at 3 months. The impact assessment of photodynamic therapy in patients with different levels of immunosuppression determined that the combination of mechanical periodontal treatment with photodynamic therapy in patients with HAART failure did not cause additional benefits. Therefore, PDT in this study could not been indicated in HAART resistance patients.

  19. Adherence discourse among African-American women taking HAART

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, A.; Luborsky, M.; Schuman, P.; Roberts, G.

    2014-01-01

    Low adherence is the single most important challenge to controlling HIV through the use of high acting anti-retrovirals (HAART). Non-adherence poses an immediate threat to individuals who develop resistant forms of the virus as well as a public health threat if those individuals pass on treatment-resistant forms of the virus. To understand the concerns and perceptions that promote or deter adherence to antiretroviral medication by HIV-positive African-American women, we conducted in-depth interviews with 15 African-American women taking HAART. We focused on the discourse and narratives women use in talking about their adherence practice. Discourse analysis was utilized to identify and explore the sources of influence used by these women in describing their adherence practice. Roughly a third of the sample fell into each of the three self-assessed adherence categories: always adherent, mostly adherent and somewhat adherent. Among the ‘always adherent’, 80% of the sources of influence cited supported adherence, while only 48% and 47% of the authoritative sources cited by women in the ‘mostly’ and ‘somewhat’ categories supported adherence. Each self-assessed adherence group was characterized by its own distinctive discourse style. Findings suggest that adherence to HAART among African-American HIV-positive women would be improved by identifying those influences undermining adherence. Focused study of the ‘always adherent’ types is recommended. PMID:11940279

  20. Relationship between oral Kaposi 's sarcoma and HAART: contribution of two case reports.

    PubMed

    Campo-Trapero, Julián; Del Romero-Guerrero, Jorge; Cano-Sánchez, Jorge; Rodríguez-Martín, Carmen; Martínez-González, José Ma; Bascones-Martínez, Antonio

    2008-11-01

    Two HIV infected patients not receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART) presented with epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma of the oral cavity. One patient initially refused HAART, but when the lesion became large enough to be noticeable he agreed to HAART associated with excision of the intraoral lesion by CO2 laser. The other patient developed KS and progressed to AIDS at two years after ceasing HAART due to adverse effects; he was referred to hospital for renewed administration of HAART. In both cases, the lesions observed in the oral cavity were the first clinical manifestation of AIDS. These reports underline the close relationship between the use of HAART and the control of KS lesions, highlighting the important role of the dentist in the identification and early diagnosis of these oral lesions.

  1. A randomized controlled trial of HAART versus HAART and chemotherapy in therapy-naïve patients with HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mosam, Anisa; Shaik, Fahmida; Uldrick, Thomas S.; Esterhuizen, Tonya; Friedland, Gerald H.; Scadden, David T.; Aboobaker, Jamila; Coovadia, Hoosen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The optimal approach to HIV-associated KS (HIV-KS) in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. With large-scale rollout of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in South Africa, we hypothesized survival in HIV-KS would improve and administration of chemotherapy in addition to HAART would be feasible and improve KS-specific outcomes. Methods We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label trial with intention-to-treat analysis. Treatment-naïve patients from King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa, a public-sector tertiary referral center, with HIV-KS, but no symptomatic visceral disease or fungating lesions requiring urgent chemotherapy, were randomized to HAART alone or HAART and chemotherapy (CXT). HAART arm received stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (Triomune®); CXT arm received Triomune® plus bleomycin, doxorubicin, and vincristine (ABV) every 3 weeks. When ABV was not available, oral etoposide (50-100 mg days 1-21 of a 28 day cycle) was substituted. Primary outcome was overall KS response using AIDS Clinical Trial Group criteria 12 months after HAART initiation. Secondary comparisons included: time to response, progression-free survival, overall survival, adverse events, HIV control, CD4 reconstitution, adherence and quality-of-life. Results 59 subjects were randomized to HAART, 53 to CXT. 12-month overall KS response was 39% in the HAART arm and 66% in the CXT arm (difference 27%; 95% CI 9%-43%, p=0.005). At 12 months, 77% were alive (no survival difference between arms, p=0.49), 82% had HIV viral load <50 copies/mL without difference between arms, (p=0.47); CD4 counts and QOL measures improved in all patients. Conclusions HAART with chemotherapy produced higher overall KS response over 12 months, while HAART alone provided similar improvement in survival and select measures of morbidity. In Africa, with high prevalence of HIV and HHV-8 and limited resources, HAART alone provides important benefit in patients with HIV-KS. PMID:22395672

  2. High rates of Tuberculosis in patients accessing HAART in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Kogieleum; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Bhushan, Ambika; Naidoo, Kasavan; Yende-Zuma, Nonhlanhla; Mchunu, Patricia K; Frohlich, Janet; Karim, Farina; Upfold, Michele; Pharm, BSc; Kocheleff, Paul; Abdool Karim, Salim S

    2014-01-01

    Background The challenge of early Tuberculosis (TB) infection among rural patients accessing HAART in a resource-limited setting with high HIV and TB burden has not been fully quantified. Methods This is a retrospective study nested within a prospective study of 969 patients consecutively initiated onto HAART at the CAPRISA AIDS Treatment programme in rural KwaZulu-Natal between January 2007 and December 2010. Patients were screened for clinical symptoms consistent with TB using a standardized checklist, and routine clinical investigations that included sputum microscopy and chest X-Ray diagnosis. Results Of 969 HIV-infected patients initiated on HAART, 173 (17.9%; 95% CI: 15.5 to 20.4) had active TB at HAART initiation. TB incidence rates were three fold higher in the first 3 months (early incident TB) following HAART initiation (11.5/100 person years (py); 95%CI: 7.1 to 17.5); compared to 4 – 24 months (late incident TB) post HAART initiation (3.2/100 py; 95%CI: 2.2 to 4.5; incidence rate ratio (IRR): 3.6; 95%CI: 2.0 to 6.4; p value <0.001). Immune status of patients at HAART initiation did not impact TB incidence rates in patients with CD4+ counts <50 (5.3/100) and >200 (4.9/100 py; p=0.81); cells/mm3. CD4+ count gains achieved 12 months post HAART initiation were significantly different in patients with early incident TB versus late incident TB; p=0.03. Conclusion Rural HIV treatment programmes in TB endemic settings experience high rates of TB irrespective of immunologic status of patients at HAART initiation, or duration on HAART. PMID:24256629

  3. Temporal trends in HAART initiation among injection drug users in Baltimore, MD, 1996–2008

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Shruti H.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Astemborski, Jacquie; Galai, Noya; Celentano, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Background We characterized temporal trends in HAART initiation (1996–2008) among treatment eligible persons in a community-based cohort of current and former injection drug users (IDUs) in Baltimore. Methods The AIDS Linked to the IntraVenous Experience (ALIVE) cohort has been following HIV positive IDUs since 1988. HAART eligibility was defined as the first visit after January 1, 1996 where CD4 was <350 cells/µl. Temporal trends and predictors of HAART initiation were examined using chi-square tests for trend and lognormal survival models. Results The median age of 582 HAART-eligible IDUs was 41; 75% were male, 97% African American and 60% active injectors. 345 initiated HAART over 1803 person-years (19.2 per 100 person-years, 95% CI, 17.2–21.3); there was no significant temporal trend in HAART initiation. Independent predictors of delayed initiation included heavy injection and higher CD4 count; prior AIDS diagnosis, usual source of care and health insurance were predictors of more rapid initiation. The delay between eligibility and initiation decreased among those becoming eligible most recently (2003–07) compared with those in earlier calendar periods (1996–2003); however, a substantial number initiated HAART in recent calendar years either after substantial delay or not at all. Conclusions We failed to observe substantial improvement in HAART initiation among current and former IDUs over 12 years; heavy drug injection remains the major barrier to HAART initiation and consistent HIV care. The fact that many IDUs initiate HAART after significant delay or not at all raises concern that disparities in HIV care for IDUs remain at a time of simplified antiretroviral regimens and increasing adoption of earlier treatment. PMID:20450418

  4. Short communication: oral lesions in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing HAART including efavirenz.

    PubMed

    Aquino-García, S I; Rivas, M A; Ceballos-Salobreña, A; Acosta-Gio, A E; Gaitán-Cepeda, L A

    2008-06-01

    Oral lesions (OL) have an important prognostic value for HIV/AIDS patients. However, the behavior of OL in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy including efavirenz (HAART/EFV) has not been documented. Our objective was to establish the prevalence of OL in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing HAART/EFV and to compare it with the prevalence of OL in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy including a protease inhibitor (HAART/PI). Seventy-three HIV/AIDS patients undergoing antiretroviral treatment for at least for 6 months at "La Raza" Medical Center's Internal Medicine Unit (IMSS, Mexico City) were included. To detect OL, a detailed examination of oral soft tissues was performed in each patient. Patient records recorded gender, seropositivity time, route of contagion, antiretroviral therapy type and duration, CD4 lymphocyte count/ml, and viral load. Two groups were formed: 38 patients receiving HAART/EFV [two nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NARTI) plus efavirenz] and 35 patients receiving HAART/PI (two NARTIs plus one PI). OL prevalence was established in each study group. The Chi-square test was applied (p < 0.05(IC95%)). OL prevalence in the HAART/EFV group (32%) was lower (p < 0.007) than in the HAART/PI group (63%). Candidosis was the most prevalent OL in both groups. Herpes labialis, HIV-associated necrotizing periodontitis, xerostomia, hairy leukoplakia, and nonspecific oral sores were identified. The highest prevalence for all OL was found in the HAART/PI group. These findings suggest that HIV/AIDS patients undergoing HAART/EFV show a lower prevalence of oral lesions than patients undergoing HAART/PI.

  5. Metropolitan Social Environments and Pre-HAART/HAART Era Changes in Mortality Rates (per 10,000 Adult Residents) among Injection Drug Users Living with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Samuel R.; West, Brooke S.; Pouget, Enrique R.; Hall, H. Irene; Cantrell, Jennifer; Tempalski, Barbara; Chatterjee, Sudip; Hu, Xiaohong; Cooper, Hannah L. F.; Galea, Sandro; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Among the largest US metropolitan areas, trends in mortality rates for injection drug users (IDUs) with AIDS vary substantially. Ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories suggest many metropolitan areas characteristics that might drive this variation. We assess metropolitan area characteristics associated with decline in mortality rates among IDUs living with AIDS (per 10,000 adult MSA residents) after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was developed. Methods This is an ecological cohort study of 86 large US metropolitan areas from 1993–2006. The proportional rate of decline in mortality among IDUs diagnosed with AIDS (as a proportion of adult residents) from 1993–1995 to 2004–2006 was the outcome of interest. This rate of decline was modeled as a function of MSA-level variables suggested by ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories. In multiple regression analyses, we used 1993–1995 mortality rates to (partially) control for pre-HAART epidemic history and study how other independent variables affected the outcomes. Results In multivariable models, pre-HAART to HAART era increases in ‘hard drug’ arrest rates and higher pre-HAART income inequality were associated with lower relative declines in mortality rates. Pre-HAART per capita health expenditure and drug abuse treatment rates, and pre- to HAART-era increases in HIV counseling and testing rates, were weakly associated with greater decline in AIDS mortality. Conclusions Mortality among IDUs living with AIDS might be decreased by reducing metropolitan income inequality, increasing public health expenditures, and perhaps increasing drug abuse treatment and HIV testing services. Given prior evidence that drug-related arrest rates are associated with higher HIV prevalence rates among IDUs and do not seem to decrease IDU population prevalence, changes in laws and policing practices to reduce such arrests while still protecting public order should be considered

  6. [Pharmacokinetic Effect of Aikeqing Granule by Different Medication Ways on Zidovudine in HAART of Rats].

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhen-zhen; Su, Qi-jian; Ma, Jia-bao; Tang, Dan-hui; Song, Ce; Fu, Lin-chun

    2015-12-01

    To study pharmacokinetic effect of Aikeqing Granule (AG) by different medication ways on zidovudine (AZT) in highly active antiretroviral therapy ( HAART) of rats. Totally 36 rats were administered with corresponding medications by gastrogavage, group I [HAART: AZT 31.5 mg/kg +3TC 31.5 mg/kg + Efavirenz (EFV) 63.0 mg/kg], group II (HAART+AG525 mg/kg), group III (HAART and AG 525 mg/kg after a 2-h interval). Drug concentrations of AZT were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS) before HAART, and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 h after HAART, respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters [such as t1/2, Tmax, Cmax, AUCo-t, plasma clearance rate (CL)] were calculated by DAS2.0 Software. The-equation of linear regression of AZT was good, with the precision, coefficient of recovery, and stability definitely confirmed. AUC in group II and III was larger than that of group I. There was no statistical difference in t1/2, Tmax, Cmax, AUC0-12 h, or AUC0-∞ among groups (P > 0.05). AG combined HAART could enhance the Cmax of AZT.

  7. Therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa on chronic HAART-induced hyperinsulinemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Surabhi; Murthy, Subramanyam N; Mondal, Debasis; Agrawal, Krishna C

    2009-04-01

    Prolonged use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with insulin resistance in HIV-1-positive patients. Small animal models that recapitulate the long-term effects of HAART may facilitate the identification of therapeutic agents to suppress these side effects. We investigated the protective effects of black seed oil (BSO) from Nigella sativa in Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a daily HAART regimen for 7 months. The antiretroviral drugs, consisting of nelfinavir (200 mg/kg), zidovudine (50 mg/kg), and efavirenz (20 mg/kg), were mixed with diet with or without BSO (400 microL/kg) supplementation. Significant increases in insulin and C-peptide levels were observed in HAART-treated groups, and concomitant BSO treatment reduced this hyperinsulinemia. Interestingly, HAART-treated rats showed reduced size of pancreatic islets that was not seen in BSO-exposed rats. In vitro studies showed that nelfinavir, alone and in combination with HAART, induced oxidative stress and decreased glucose-induced insulin production in INS-1 cells. Suppressed insulin production was restored in cells coexposed to either BSO or thymoquinone. Our findings demonstrated that chronic HAART may increase serum insulin levels by dysregulating both insulin production by beta cells and insulin action at the periphery. These deleterious effects may be prevented by dietary supplementation with BSO.

  8. [Retrospective study of ocular complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection before and after HAART].

    PubMed

    Hamamotoo, Ayumi; Tatebayashi, Misako; Uehira, Asako; Kuroda, Sato; Morimoto, Yuko; Nakagawa, Tomoya; Usui, Shinichi; Watanabe, Masaki; Kazuo, Kumiko; Otori, Yasumasa

    2012-08-01

    To describe ocular complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy(HAART). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 261 patients who underwent HAART and visited our clinic between April, 2007 and March, 2010, and recorded ocular complications, CD4 cell counts, visual acuity and other relevant patient information. Befor HAART patients were found to have the following conditions: HIV retinopathy (41 cases), cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis (23 cases), and others (6 cases); and after HAART HIV retinopathy (5 cases), CMV retinitis (16 cases), Immune recovery uveitis(IRU) (4 cases), and others(9 cases). The average CD4+ T-cell counts at diagnosis of CMV retinitis were 45.2/microl before and 116.7/microl after HAART. Since a substantial number of patients develop CMV retinitis after the initiation of HAART, we need to examine patients to check for either the onset or reactivation of CMV retinitis and IRU even after HAART.

  9. HAART in hand: The change in Kaposi's sarcoma presentation in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Levashni; Jacobson, Judith S; Neugut, Alfred I; Dlova, Ncoza C; Mosam, Anisa

    2016-05-11

    HIV/AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (HIV-KS) is a public health problem in South Africa (SA). It is AIDS defining. There have been no studies evaluating its prevalence since the national roll-out of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To evaluate the effect of HAART on the disease profile of HIV-KS in KwaZulu-Natal Province (KZN), SA. Charts of patients with histologically confirmed HIV-KS were reviewed at an oncology clinic in KZN. The significance of associations of HAART with age, gender, CD4 count, urban/rural residence, fungating lesions, ulceration and lymphoedema, and treatment delay, was determined by t-tests for normally distributed continuous variables and χ2 tests for categorical variables. Logistic regression models were used to analyse the association of HAART with CD4 count. Of 198 patients, 194 were documented as HIV-positive; 168 (86.6%) were on HAART at the time of their KS diagnosis. The mean CD4 count of 266 cells/μL was higher than that in previous studies at this site. The mean age at presentation was 36.6 (standard deviation 10.1) years. Females presented at a younger mean age than males (p<0.001). The mean age of females on HAART was 34.7 years and that of males 39.0 years (p=0.003). HAART-naive patients were three times more likely than those receiving HAART (15.4% v. 4.8%) to have visceral involvement (p=0.03). HAART use has resulted in outcome improvement. Mean age at presentation has increased in the group as a whole and for females in particular. The trend in mean CD4 counts has shown positive growth. Females no longer shoulder a disproportionate burden of disease.

  10. Incident Neuropathy in HIV-Infected Patients on HAART

    PubMed Central

    McMurtray, Aaron; Davis, James; Valcour, Victor; Watters, Michael R.; Shiramizu, Bruce; Chow, Dominic C.; Kallianpur, Kalpana; Shikuma, Cecilia M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We determined the incidence of and risk factors for distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) in individuals on HAART. Sixty-one HIV-positive subjects on HAART for at least 6 months and neuropathy free were retrospectively selected. The study included subjects who had previously tolerated d-drugs without developing DSP. Neuropathy incidence over 4 years was calculated. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine risk factors associated with incident DSP. Nineteen subjects developed DSP over a mean follow-up of 2.4 years. Subjects never treated with a d-drug developed DSP at a rate of 21 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI, 8.9–33.7). Subjects with a history of d-drug treatment but not on a d-drug at enrollment developed DSP at a rate of 17 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI, 2.1–31.8). Those on d-drug treatment developed DSP at a rate of 25 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI, 8.7–41.6). Multivariable analysis identified age [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.09; p < 0.01] and low CD4+ nadir [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.79; p = 0.03] as significant risk factors. Current or prior history of treatment with d-drug was not a significant risk factor for incident DSP in subjects who had previously tolerated d-drug treatment without developing a toxic DSP. Age and low CD4+ are risk factors for incident DSP. However, current or prior history of d-drug treatment is not a significant risk factor for incident DSP in subjects who had previously tolerated d-drug treatment without developing a toxic DSP. PMID:20624077

  11. Drug interactions associated with HAART: focus on treatments for addiction and recreational drugs.

    PubMed

    Faragon, John J; Piliero, Peter J

    2003-09-01

    The advent of HAART has improved survival in patients infected with HIV; however, treatment is complicated by potential drug interactions. The risk of drug interactions is compounded by the use of additional therapies for comorbid conditions, such as substance abuse, and by the use of recreational drugs. HIV health care providers should be aware of the potential interaction of recreational drugs and addiction treatments with HAART because of the potential for significant adverse effects for their HIV-infected patients. This article provides a review of the literature on drug interactions among addiction therapies, recreational drugs, and HAART.

  12. Effects of long-term use of HAART on oral health status of HIV-infected subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nittayananta, Wipawee; Talungchit, Sineepat; Jaruratanasirikul, Sutep; Silpapojakul, Kachornsakdi; Chayakul, Panthip; Nilmanat, Ampaipith; Pruphetkaew, Nannapat

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the effects of long-term use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on oral health status of HIV-infected subjects. METHODS Oral examination and measurement of saliva flow rate of both unstimulated and wax-stimulated whole saliva were performed in HIV-infected subjects with and without HAART, and in non-HIV individuals. The following data were recorded; duration and risk of HIV infection, type and duration of HAART, CD4 cell count, viral load, presence of orofacial pain, oral dryness, oral burning sensation, oral lesions, cervical caries, and periodontal pocket. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the effects of long-term use of HAART on oral health status of HIV-infected subjects. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-seven HIV-infected subjects – 99 on HAART (age range 23–57 years, mean 39 years) and 58 not on HAART (age range 20–59 years, mean 34 years) – and 50 non-HIV controls (age range 19–59 years, mean 36 years) were enrolled. The most common HAART regimen was 2 NRTI + 2 NNRTI. HIV-infected subjects without HAART showed greater risks of having orofacial pain, oral dryness, oral lesions, and periodontal pockets than those with short-term HAART (P < 0.01). The subjects with long-term HAART were found to have a greater risk of having oral lesions than those with short-term HAART (P < 0.05). The unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates of the subjects with HAART were significantly lower than in those without HAART (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION We conclude that long-term HAART has adverse effects on oral health status of HIV-infected subjects. PMID:20202089

  13. Response to hepatitis A vaccine in HIV patients in the HAART era.

    PubMed

    Rimland, David; Guest, Jodie L

    2005-10-14

    We evaluated the development of hepatitis A antibody after vaccination in a large cohort of patients studied in a clinical setting after the introduction of HAART. Overall, 130 of 214 vaccinated individuals developed hepatitis A antibody. In a multivariate analysis, only the CD4 cell count at the time of vaccination was associated with an absence of response. The lack of association with the nadir CD4 cell count suggests that patients will respond to vaccine after immunological reconstitution in response to HAART.

  14. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Mortality in HIV-Infected HAART Users in the Women's Interagency HIV Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anjali; Hoover, Donald R.; Shi, Qiuhu; Gustafson, Deborah; Plankey, Michael W.; Hershow, Ronald C.; Tien, Phyllis C.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Anastos, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Early HIV studies suggested protective associations of overweight against mortality, yet data are lacking for the era of potent highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We evaluated associations of pre-HAART initiation body mass index (BMI) with mortality among HAART-using women. Methods Prospective study of time to death after HAART initiation among continuous HAART users in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Unadjusted Kaplan–Meier and adjusted proportional hazards survival models assessed time to AIDS and non-AIDS death by last measured pre-HAART BMI. Results Of 1428 continuous HAART users 39 (2.7%) were underweight, 521 (36.5%) normal weight, 441 (30.9%) overweight, and 427 (29.9%) obese at time of HAART initiation. A total of 322 deaths occurred during median follow-up of 10.4 years (IQR 5.9–14.6). Censoring at non-AIDS death, the highest rate of AIDS death was observed among underweight women (p = 0.0003 for all 4 categories). In multivariate models, women underweight prior to HAART died from AIDS more than twice as rapidly vs. normal weight women (aHR 2.04, 95% CI 1.03, 4.04); but being overweight or obese (vs. normal weight) was not independently associated with AIDS death. Cumulative incidence of non-AIDS death was similar across all pre-HAART BMI categories. Conclusions Among continuous HAART-using women, being overweight prior to initiation was not associated with lower risk of AIDS or non-AIDS death. Being underweight prior to HAART was associated with over double the rate of AIDS death in adjusted analyses. Although overweight and obesity may be associated with many adverse health conditions, neither was predictive of mortality among the HAART-using women. PMID:26699870

  15. Treatment of opportunistic infections prior to HAART initiation does not affect immune reconstitution in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Pornprasert, Sakorn; Traisathit, Patrinee; Singboottra, Panthong; Huong, Nicole N

    2012-10-01

    In patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), increase of naive T-cell production, as measured by T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circles (TRECs), is an indicator of immune reconstitution. Our objective was to assess whether treating opportunistic infections (OIs) prior to HAART initiation affects CD4 T-cells recovery and TRECs in patients on HAART. HIV-infected patients presenting no OIs or treated OIs were prospectively enrolled prior to HAART initiation and followed-up over 12 months of HAART. CD4 T-cells and TRECs were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months HAART and compared between patients presenting no OIs and those with treated OIs. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify potential factors associated with low TREC increase after 12 months HAART. Forty-four HIV-infected patients, 31 presenting no OIs and 13 with treated OIs at HAART initiation were enrolled. Patients presenting no OIs tended to have higher CD4 T-cell gain than those with treated OIs (151 vs 89 cells/μL; p = 0.05) after 6 months HAART but not after 12 months HAART (120 vs 149 cells/μL; p = 0.84). Among patients presenting no OIs, TREC levels significantly increased from baseline through 12 months HAART while among those with treated OIs, there was a trend for increase only after 12 months. Our study indicates that treatment of OIs prior to HAART does not lead to impaired CD4 T-cells recovery and thymic outputs.

  16. Increased Risk of Severe Infant Anemia Following Exposure to Maternal HAART, Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Dryden-Peterson, Scott; Shapiro, Roger L.; Hughes, Michael D.; Powis, Kathleen; Ogwu, Anthony; Moffat, Claire; Moyo, Sikhulile; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Max; Lockman, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternal highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT), but may increase the risk for infant anemia. Methods The incidence of first severe anemia (Grade 3 or 4, Division of AIDS 2004 Toxicity Table) was assessed among HIV-uninfected infants in the Mashi and Mma Bana MTCT prevention trials in Botswana. Severe anemia rates were compared between 3 groups: infants exposed to maternal HAART in utero and during breastfeeding and 1 month of postnatal zidovudine (HAART-BF); infants exposed to maternal zidovudine (ZDV) in utero, 6 months of postnatal ZDV, and breastfeeding (ZDV-BF); and infants exposed to maternal ZDV in utero, 1 month of postnatal ZDV, and formula-feeding (ZDV-FF). Results A total of 1719 infants were analyzed— 691 HAART-BF, 503 ZDV-BF, and 525 ZDV-FF. Severe anemia was detected in 118 infants (7.4%). By 6 months, 12.5% of HAART-BF infants experienced severe anemia, compared with 5.3% of ZDV-BF (P<0.001) and 2.5% of ZDV-FF infants (P<0.001). In adjusted analysis, HAART-BF infants were at greater risk of severe anemia than ZDV-BF or ZDV-FF infants (adjusted odds ratios 2.6 and 5.8, respectively; P < 0.001). Most anemias were asymptomatic and improved with iron/multivitamin supplementation and cessation of ZDV exposure. However, 11 infants (0.6% of all infants) required transfusion for symptomatic anemia. Microcytosis and hypochromia were common among infants with severe anemia. Conclusions Exposure to maternal HAART starting in utero was associated with severe infant anemia. Confirmation of this finding and possible strategies to mitigate hematologic toxicity warrant further study. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00197587 and NCT00270296. PMID:21266910

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine use decreases adherence to HAART in HIV-positive women.

    PubMed

    Owen-Smith, A; Diclemente, R; Wingood, G

    2007-05-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to treat chronic illnesses, especially HIV, is becoming increasingly widespread. Given this popularity, it is critical to understand how HIV-positive individuals use CAM and, more specifically, whether CAM use impacts their adherence to prescribed antiretroviral regimens (HAART). The present study examined the relationship between CAM use and HAART adherence among HIV+ women. Data were analysed from 366 HIV-positive, mostly African-American women, aged 18-50 years in Alabama and Georgia who were enrolled in an intervention to reduce high-risk sexual behaviour. At enrollment data were collected describing use of CAM and HAART use. Women were classified as CAM users if they reported taking herbal/natural immunity boosters (Chinese herbs, mushrooms, garlic, ginseng or algae) or multivitamins, or reported using religious/psychic health or bodywork to treat HIV. Women were classified as non-adherent if they reported missing any doses of their HAART medication in the 30 days preceding baseline assessment. Logistic regressions models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to investigate the relationship between CAM use and HAART adherence. Women using CAM (immunity boosters or vitamins), relative to non-CAM users, were 1.69 times more likely to report missing HAART doses in the last 30 days (CI: 1.02-2.80; P=.041) even after adjusting for age, education, race, religion and income. The findings provide preliminary evidence that patients using CAM may be doing so as an alternative to traditional medicine as opposed to complementing prescribed HARRT treatment regimens. The inconsistent use of HAART is problematic given its association with drug resistance. Therefore, health care providers and patients should have explicit dialogues about how to effectively integrate CAM practices into traditional treatment regimens so that the safety and health of HIV-positive patients is not compromised.

  18. Magnitude of cytopenias among HIV-infected children in Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia: a comparison of HAART-naïve and HAART-experienced children

    PubMed Central

    Tsegay, Yakob Gebregziabher; Tadele, Agerie; Addis, Zelalem; Alemu, Agersew; Melku, Mulugeta

    2017-01-01

    Background AIDS, caused by HIV, is a multisystem disease that affects hematopoiesis. The aim of this study was to assess cytopenias among HIV-infected children who had a follow-up at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted between April and May 2013. Systematic random sampling method was used to select the study participants. Descriptive statistics, independent t-test as well as chi-square and logistic regression were used for analysis. A p-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results A total of 224 children (112 highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART]-naïve and 112 HAART-experienced) participated in the study. The magnitude of anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, leukopenia and pancytopenia among HAART-naïve HIV-infected children were 30.4%, 9.8%, 8%, 4.5% and 1.8%, respectively. The overall prevalence of anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia and pancytopenia were 29.5%, 8.9%, 8%, 4.5% and 1.4%, respectively. Cluster of differentiation-4 percentage and mean corpuscular volume were significantly different between HAART-experienced and HAART-naïve children. Being of younger age and severely immunosuppressed were risk factors of anemia. Conclusion Anemia was the most common cytopenia, followed by neutropenia. Severe immunosuppression and younger age were significantly associated with anemia. Therefore, emphasis should be given for investigation and management of cytopenias in HIV-infected children, particularly for those who are immunosuppressed and of younger age. PMID:28260948

  19. HIV/AIDS Patients’ Medical and Psychosocial Needs in the Era of HAART: A Cross-sectional Study among HIV/AIDS Patients Receiving HAART in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yi; Shi, Yun; Jiang, Chengqin; Detels, Roger; Wu, Di

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the launch of China’s Free Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Program in 2002, more than 100,000 HIV/AIDS patients have been treated with highly actively antiretroviral therapy (HAART). However, the current evaluation system for this program mainly focused on its medical outcomes. This study aims to evaluate the medical and psychosocial needs of HIV/AIDS patients after initiating HAART. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 499 HIV/AIDS patients who were currently being treated with HAART in three designated hospitals in Luxi City, Yunnan Province. A questionnaire was used to collect information about participants’ demographic characteristics, perceived HIV-related stigma, physician-patient relationship, quality of life, family functioning, etc. Patients’ medical records in the National HIV Information System were linked with their questionnaire by their ART identification number. Results Patients on HAART who were infected with HIV through injection drug use and were current smokers typically had poorer physical health than other participants on HAART. Better financial status and better physician-patient relationship were associated with both physical and psychological well-being. Family awareness of the patient’s HIV status was negatively associated with the patient’s psychological well-being. Higher levels of perceived HIV-related stigma were associated with poorer psychological health and poorer family functioning. Conclusion This study emphasizes the importance of assuring a caring environment in China’s AIDS treatment program and re-enforces the need to combat the stigma encountered with health providers and the public. PMID:23061980

  20. Long-term CD4+ lymphocyte response following HAART initiation in a U.S. Military prospective cohort

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Among HIV-infected persons initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), early CD4+ lymphocyte count increases are well described. However, whether CD4+ levels continue to increase or plateau after 4-6 years is controversial. Methods To address this question and identify other determinants of CD4+ response, we analyzed data for 1,846 persons from a prospective HIV military cohort study who initiated HAART, who had post-HAART CD4+ measurements, and for whom HIV seroconversion (SC) date was estimated. Results CD4+ count at HAART initiation was ≤ 200 cells/mm3 for 23%, 201-349 for 31%, 350-499 for 27%, and ≥500 for 19%. The first 6 months post-HAART, the greatest CD4+ increases (93-151 cells) occurred, with lesser increases (22-36 cells/year) through the first four years. Although CD4+ changes for the entire cohort were relatively flat thereafter, HIV viral load (VL) suppressors showed continued increases of 12-16 cells/year. In multivariate analysis adjusting for baseline CD4+ and post-HAART time interval, CD4+ responses were poorer in those with: longer time from HIV SC to HAART start, lower pre-HAART CD4+ nadir, higher pre-HAART VL, and clinical AIDS before HAART (P < 0.05). Conclusions Small but positive long-term increases in CD4+ count in virally suppressed patients were observed. CD4+ response to HAART is influenced by multiple factors including duration of preceding HIV infection, and optimized if treatment is started with virally suppressive therapy as early as possible. PMID:21244701

  1. [Cerebrospinal fluid viral load in HIV-1 positive hemophilic patients treated with HAART].

    PubMed

    Corti, M E; Villafañe, M F; Baré, P; Alves Rosa, F; Cermelj, M; Candela, M; Pérez Bianco, R; Tezanos Pinto, M

    2001-01-01

    As HIV seropositive patients with undetectable CSF viral load have a lower likelihood of developing neurologic disease, the determination of CSF viral load levels may be useful to evaluate the efficacy of HAART. We compared plasma viral load levels with HIV-1 RNA CSF levels in 18 hemophilic patients without neurocognitive involvement under HAART. We detected a significant correlation between plasma viral load levels and CSF viral load levels. Fourteen patients with undetectable plasma viral load had undetectable RNA HIV-1 CSF levels as well. Four patients with detectable plasma viral load had detectable HIV-RNA in CSF, but the latter were significantly lower. Viral load is usually lower in non-blood fluids and HAART decreases the viral load in CSF as well as in blood.

  2. [Historical Review of Kaposi sarcoma in pre-HAART era: evolution with different chemotherapy schedules and remission with ganciclovir use].

    PubMed

    Volkow, Patricia; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Zinser, Juan W; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio

    2016-10-01

    Ganciclovir has shown in vitro anti-human herpesvirus-8 activity, Kaposi sarcoma agent. We analyzed all Kaposi sarcoma patients from 1985 to 1996 pre-HAART era and identified Kaposi sarcoma/AIDS patients who achieved complete remission prior to HAART use.

  3. Reconstitution of antimycobacterial immune responses in HIV-infected children receiving HAART.

    PubMed

    Kampmann, Beate; Tena-Coki, Gwen N; Nicol, Mark P; Levin, Michael; Eley, Brian

    2006-04-24

    Recent epidemiological studies in adults suggest that HAART can prevent the development of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals, but the mechanisms are incompletely understood and no data exist in children. We investigated whether changes in mycobacterial-specific immune responses can be demonstrated in children after commencing antiretroviral therapy. We measured mycobacterial growth in vitro using a novel whole-blood assay employing reporter-gene tagged bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in a prospective cohort study in the tuberculosis-endemic environment of South Africa. Key cytokines were measured in supernatants collected from the whole-blood assay using cytometric bead array. A cohort of 15 BCG-vaccinated HIV-infected children was evaluated prospectively for in-vitro antimycobacterial immune responses before and during the first year of HAART. All children had advanced HIV disease. Nine children completed all study timepoints. Before HAART, blood from children showed limited ability to restrict the growth of mycobacteria in the functional whole-blood assay. The introduction of HAART was followed by rapid and sustained reconstitution of specific antimycobacterial immune responses, measured as the decreased growth of mycobacteria. IFN-gamma levels in culture supernatants did not reflect this response; however, a decline in TNF-alpha was observed. This is the first study using a functional in-vitro assay to assess the effect of HAART on immune responses to mycobacteria in HIV-infected children. Our in-vitro data mirror the in-vivo observation of decreased susceptibility to tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral agents. This model may be useful for further characterizing immune reconstitution after HAART.

  4. Plasma cholesterol efflux capacity from human THP-1 macrophages is reduced in HIV-infected patients: impact of HAART[S

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, Petra; Ghislain, Mathilde; Villard, Elise F.; Le Goff, Wilfried; Lascoux-Combe, Caroline; Yeni, Patrick; Meyer, Laurence; Vigouroux, Corinne; Goujard, Cécile; Guerin, Maryse

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of HDL to remove cholesterol from macrophages is inversely associated with the severity of angiographic coronary artery disease. The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or its treatment on the ability of HDL particles to stimulate cholesterol efflux from human macrophages has never been studied. We evaluated the capacity of whole plasma and isolated HDL particles from HIV-infected subjects (n = 231) and uninfected controls (n = 200), as well as in a subset of 41 HIV subjects receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to mediate cholesterol efflux from human macrophages. Plasma cholesterol efflux capacity was reduced (−12%; P = 0.001) in HIV patients as compared with controls. HIV infection reduced by 27% (P < 0.05) the capacity of HDL subfractions to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages. We observed a reduced ABCA1-dependent efflux capacity of plasma (−27%; P < 0.0001) from HIV-infected subjects as a result of a reduction in the efflux capacity of HDL3 particles. HAART administration restored the capacity of plasma from HIV patients to stimulate cholesterol efflux from human macrophages (9.4%; P = 0.04). During HIV infection, the capacity of whole plasma to remove cholesterol from macrophages is reduced, thus potentially contributing to the increased coronary heart disease in the HIV population. HAART administration restored the removal of cholesterol from macrophages by increasing HDL functionality. PMID:25573889

  5. Novel therapies for hepatitis C - one pill fits all?

    PubMed

    Manns, Michael P; von Hahn, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Almost 25 years after the hepatitis C virus (HCV) was identified, and following intense research and development efforts, a large number of direct-acting antiviral drugs are now beginning to reach patient care. Accordingly, the way in which care is delivered is evolving at a breath-taking pace. Here, we review the current and upcoming treatment options for HCV, describe the key challenges facing clinicians and drug developers and discuss how the landscape in the HCV arena will change over the coming years.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of an oral once-a-day controlled-release oxybutynin formulation compared with immediate-release oxybutynin.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Sathyan, G

    1999-03-01

    Oxybutynin is used for the treatment of urge urinary incontinence. In this randomized, open-label, two-way crossover, multiple-dose study, the pharmacokinetics of a once-daily, controlled-release formulation, OROS oxybutynin chloride, was compared with that of immediate-release (IR) oxybutynin (Ditropan). Thirteen healthy female volunteers received three 5 mg OROS oxybutynin chloride tablets once daily for 4 days or IR oxybutynin 5 mg administered every 8 hours for 4 days. On day 1, with OROS oxybutynin chloride, mean plasma concentrations rose slowly over approximately 6 hours following dosing (mean Cmax 4.2 ng/mL) and remained fairly constant over the 24-hour dosing interval, whereas with IR oxybutynin, mean plasma concentrations rose rapidly within the first hour after dosing (mean Cmax 12.0 ng/mL), then declined. The mean oxybutynin degree of fluctuation was much lower for OROS oxybutynin chloride (78%) than for IR oxybutynin (371%). For both formulations, the plasma concentration-time profiles for the metabolite N-desethyloxybutynin paralleled those of oxybutynin but at higher concentrations. Steady-state oxybutynin concentrations were achieved by day 3 for both formulations. Mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values for both oxybutynin and its metabolite were similar between day 1 and day 4 for each treatment, suggesting time-invariant pharmacokinetics. With OROS oxybutynin chloride, mean relative bioavailability was higher (153%) for oxybutynin and lower (69%) for N-desethyloxybutynin compared with IR oxybutynin. This increased bioavailability may be due to reduced first-pass metabolism; within 3 to 5 hours after dosing, OROS systems are thought to reach the colon, where cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation (oxybutynin's primary metabolic pathway) may be less extensive than in the small intestine. Fewer subjects reported any adverse event with OROS oxybutynin chloride than with IR oxybutynin (including dry mouth, oxybutynin's most frequently reported anticholinergic adverse effect).

  7. Effect of HAART on brain organization and function in HIV-negative subjects

    PubMed Central

    Brier, Matthew R.; Wu, Qian; Tannenbaum, Aaron B.; Westerhaus, Elizabeth; Kharasch, Evan; Ances, Beau M.

    2015-01-01

    HIV causes neural dysfunction in infected individuals. This dysfunction often manifests as cognitive symptoms and can be detected using neuroimaging. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), in addition to providing virologic control, has reduced the number of profoundly impaired individuals but more mild forms of neurocognitive disorders remains prevalent. A potential confound in previous studies of HIV-associated cognitive dysfunction is that HAART may be neurotoxic. Thus, observed effects, attributed to HIV, may be in part due to HAART. It is unclear whether and to what extent current medications contribute to observed brain dysfunction. We studied changes in functional connectivity and cerebral blood flow in HIV uninfected (HIV−) individuals before and after being given two common antiretroviral medications: efavirenz and ritonavir. Neither drug was associated with significant changes in functional connectivity or cerebral blood flow. Our results suggests that previous changes in functional connectivity and cerebral blood flow in HIV infected individuals receiving HAART may largely due to the virus and remaining reservoirs and less due to toxic action of these anti-retroviral medications. PMID:26446778

  8. Association of HIV infection with spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm delivery: effect of HAART.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Marta; Figueras, Francesc; Hernandez, Sandra; Lonca, Montserrat; Garcia, Raul; Palacio, Montse; Coll, Oriol

    2012-01-02

    To assess the association between HIV infection and both spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm delivery (PTD), and to explore the impact of HAART on both entities. A matched retrospective cohort study was carried out on 517 HIV-infected pregnant women who consecutively attended a university referral hospital between 1986 and 2010. Two controls were assigned for each case. They were matched by ethnicity, smoking, maternal age and educational level. Exclusion criteria were multiple pregnancy and active injection drug use (IDU). PTD was defined as delivery less than 37.0 weeks. Spontaneous PTD included preterm premature rupture of membranes. Iatrogenic delivery was considered if medically indicated. Factors associated with PTD among HIV-infected women were analyzed by logistic regression. A total of 1557 pregnant women were analyzed (519 HIV-infected and 1038 noninfected). The incidence of PTD was 19.7% in HIV-infected women and 8.5% in controls [odds ratio (OR) 2.6; 95% CI 1.9-3.6]. There was a significantly higher incidence of both spontaneous [adjusted OR (AOR) 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-3.0] and iatrogenic prematurity (AOR 3.2; 95% CI 1.8-5.7). Iatrogenic PTD was significantly associated with the use of HAART during the second half of pregnancy, whereas spontaneous PTD was not related to HAART. There is a significant association of HIV infection with PTD, both spontaneous and iatrogenic PTD. HAART use was predominantly associated with iatrogenic PTD.

  9. Clinical Features, Treatment, and Outcome of HIV-Associated Immune Thrombocytopenia in the HAART Era

    PubMed Central

    Ambler, Kimberley L. S.; Vickars, Linda M.; Leger, Chantal S.; Foltz, Lynda M.; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Harris, Marianne; Dias Lima, Viviane; Leitch, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of HIV-associated ITP were documented prior to the HAART era, and the optimal treatment beyond HAART is unknown. We performed a review of patients with HIV-associated ITP and at least one platelet count <20 × 109/L since January 1996. Of 5290 patients in the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS database, 31 (0.6%) had an ITP diagnosis and platelet count <20 × 109/L. Initial ITP treatment included IVIG, n = 12; steroids, n = 10; anti-RhD, n = 8; HAART, n = 3. Sixteen patients achieved response and nine patients achieved complete response according to the International Working Group criteria. Median time to response was 14 days. Platelet response was not significantly associated with treatment received, but complete response was lower in patients with a history of injection drug use. Complications of ITP treatment occurred in two patients and there were four unrelated deaths. At a median followup of 48 months, 22 patients (71%) required secondary ITP treatment. This is to our knowledge the largest series of severe HIV-associated ITP reported in the HAART era. Although most patients achieved a safe platelet count with primary ITP treatment, nearly all required retreatment for ITP recurrence. New approaches to the treatment of severe ITP in this population are needed. PMID:22693513

  10. [Psychosocial factors associated with late HAART initiation in Mexican patients with HIV].

    PubMed

    Nogueda-Orozco, María José; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Vázquez-Pineda, Fernando; Sierra-Madero, Juan G

    2015-01-01

    To explore the association between psychosocial factors and late highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation in a sample of Mexican patients with HIV. We conducted a cross-sectional study at the HIV Clinic of the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ), and applied structured questionnaires to 150 patients who initiated HAART between January 2010 and August 2011. Late HAART initiation (LHI) was considered when patients started HAART with CD4 counts of <200+ cells/mm³. By multivariate analysis, the strongest psychosocial risk factor for LHI observed was self-stigma towards HIV/AIDS. In addition, being tested by medical prescription, not by own initiative, as well as having one or more previous medical contacts, were associated with greater risk for LH. Our findings suggest the need to develop psychosocial interventions to decrease negative self-image and stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors in risk groups for HIV in Mexico.

  11. Effect of HAART on Incident Cancer and Non-Cancer AIDS Events among Male HIV Seroconverters

    PubMed Central

    Shiels, MS; Cole, SR; Wegner, S; Armenian, H; Chmiel, JS; Ganesan, A; Marconi, VC; Martinez-Maza, O; Martinson, J; Weintrob, A; Jacobson, LP; Crum-Cianflone, NF

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the prevention of AIDS-defining cancers relative to other AIDS-defining events. Design Prospective cohort study using 2,121 HIV+ male seroconverters (median age: 28, 51% white/non-Hispanic) in the Tri-service AIDS Clinical Consortium (n=1,694) and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Studies (n=427). Methods Poisson regression models, with calendar periods to represent antiretroviral therapy, were extended to analyze first incident AIDS-defining cancers and other first AIDS-defining events as competing risks. Results 81 AIDS-defining cancers (64 Kaposi’s sarcoma; 17 non-Hodgkin lymphoma) and 343 other AIDS events occurred during 14,483 person-years in 1990-2006. The rate ratio of AIDS-defining cancers during the HAART calendar period was 0.26 (95% confidence limits [CL]: 0.15, 0.46) and of other AIDS-defining events was 0.28 (95% CL: 0.21, 0.36) compared to the monotherapy/combination therapy calendar period, adjusting for age, infection duration, race and cohort. The association of HAART with decreased AIDS incidence appeared to be equal (interaction ratio=0.95 (95% CL: 0.51, 1.74) for AIDS-defining cancers and other AIDS-defining events. Conclusion In HIV-infected men, HAART appears equally protective against first AIDS-defining cancers and other first AIDS-defining events. PMID:18614916

  12. Prevalence of anaemia among HIV patients in rural China during the HAART era.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yantao; Li, Qingya; Meng, Xiangle; Xu, Qianlei; Yuan, Jun; Li, Zhengwei; Guo, Huijun; Liu, Zhibin

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of anaemia among HIV patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in China has not been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anaemia among HIV patients receiving HAART in China. This cross-sectional study was conducted based on data in routine record registers. Factors associated with anaemia were evaluated by logistic regression model. Among the 8632 HIV patients in this analysis, the overall prevalence of anaemia was 39.2%, and the prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe anaemia were 27.2%, 10.8%, and 1.2%, respectively. Anaemia was more prevalence among male, older, little time taken HAART and lower CD4 cell count. Patients taken TCM had lower prevalence of anaemia. The prevalence of anaemia among the HIV patients receiving HAART was high in this study. HIV patients with anaemia who are older and have CD4 cells count lower than 200 cells/mL require more attention. Traditional Chinese medicine may be a potential method to lower the frequency of anaemia.

  13. Association of Y chromosome haplogroup I with HIV progression, and HAART outcome.

    PubMed

    Sezgin, Efe; Lind, Joanne M; Shrestha, Sadeep; Hendrickson, Sher; Goedert, James J; Donfield, Sharyne; Kirk, Gregory D; Phair, John P; Troyer, Jennifer L; O'Brien, Stephen J; Smith, Michael W

    2009-04-01

    The host genetic basis of differential outcomes in HIV infection, progression, viral load set point and highly active retroviral therapy (HAART) responses was examined for the common Y haplogroups in European Americans and African Americans. Accelerated progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and related death in European Americans among Y chromosome haplogroup I (Y-I) subjects was discovered. Additionally, Y-I haplogroup subjects on HAART took a longer time to HIV-1 viral suppression and were more likely to fail HAART. Both the accelerated progression and longer time to viral suppression results observed in haplogroup Y-I were significant after false-discovery-rate corrections. A higher frequency of AIDS-defining illnesses was also observed in haplogroup Y-I. These effects were independent of the previously identified autosomal AIDS restriction genes. When the Y-I haplogroup subjects were further subdivided into six I subhaplogroups, no one subhaplogroup accounted for the effects on HIV progression, viral load or HAART response. Adjustment of the analyses for population stratification found significant and concordant haplogroup Y-I results. The Y chromosome haplogroup analyses of HIV infection and progression in African Americans were not significant. Our results suggest that one or more loci on the Y chromosome found on haplogroup Y-I have an effect on AIDS progression and treatment responses in European Americans.

  14. Polymorphisms of Cx(3)CR1 and CXCR6 receptors in relation to HAART therapy of HIV type 1 patients.

    PubMed

    Passam, A M; Sourvinos, G; Krambovitis, E; Miyakis, S; Stavrianeas, N; Zagoreos, I; Spandidos, D A

    2007-08-01

    The chemokine polymorphisms CXCR6-3E/K, In1.1T/C, H7 haplotype, CX(3)CR1-V249I, and CX(3)CR1-T280M have been shown to affect the course of HIV infection. We studied their influence on immunologic and virologic response to HAART in a group of 143 HIV-1 patients. We performed Kaplan-Meier analysis using the following end-point criteria: (1) time from HAART initiation to undetectable viral load (VL < 50 copies/ml), (2) maximum duration of viral suppression, (3) time from HAART administration until CD4 elevation above 200 cells/microl for patients with baseline CD4 below 200 cells/microl and above 500 cells/microl for patients with baseline CD4 between 200 and 500 cells/microl, respectively, and (4) time from HAART initiation until CD4 reduction below baseline values. Our results revealed an improved immunologic response to HAART in patients with the CX(3)CR1-249I or CX(3)CR1-280M allele. On the contrary, patients with initial VL suppression due to HAART showed a faster virologic failure in the presence of the CXCR6-3K allele. The In1.1T/C polymorphism and H7 haplotype did not reveal any specific effect on HAART response.

  15. Absence of transmission from HIV-infected individuals with HAART to their heterosexual serodiscordant partners.

    PubMed

    Del Romero, Jorge; Río, Isabel; Castilla, Jesús; Baza, Begoña; Paredes, Vanessa; Vera, Mar; Rodríguez, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Further studies are needed to evaluate the level of effectiveness and durability of HAART to reduce the risk of HIV sexual transmission in serodiscordant couples having unprotected sexual practices. A cross-sectional study was conducted with prospective cohort of heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples where the only risk factor for HIV transmission to the uninfected partner (sexual partner) was the sexual relationship with the infected partner (index case). HIV prevalence in sexual partners at enrolment and seroconversions in follow-up were compared by antiretroviral treatment in the index partner, HIV plasma viral load in index cases and sexual risk exposures in sexual partners. In each visit, an evaluation of the risks for HIV transmission, preventive counselling and screening for genitourinary infections in the sexual partner was performed, as well as the determination of the immunological and virological situation and antiretroviral treatment in the index case. At enrolment no HIV infection was detected in 202 couples where the index case was taking HAART. HIV prevalence in sexual partners was 9.6% in 491 couples where the index case was not taking antiretroviral treatment (p<0.001). During follow-up there was no HIV seroconversion among 199 partners whose index case was taking HAART, accruing 7600 risky sexual exposures and 85 natural pregnancies. Among 359 couples whose index case was not under antiretroviral treatment, over 13,000 risky sexual exposures and 5 HIV seroconversions of sexual partners were recorded. The percentage of seroconversion among couples having risky sexual intercourse was 2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-5.6) when the index case did not undergo antiretroviral treatment and zero (95% CI: 0-3.2) when the index case received HAART. The risk of sexual transmission of HIV from individuals with HAART to their heterosexual partners can become extremely low. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  16. Increase in sexually transmitted infections among homosexual men in Amsterdam in relation to HAART

    PubMed Central

    Stolte, I.; Dukers, N.; de Wit, J. B F; Fennema, J.; Coutinho, R.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated if a rise in rectal gonorrhoea and early syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Amsterdam coincided with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) in July 1996 and determined risk factors for these sexually transmitted infections (STI). Methods: Subjects were patients of the STI clinic of the municipal health service in Amsterdam. Surveillance data (1994–9) represented consultations (n=11 240) of MSM (n=6103). For analyses we used logistic regression. Results: Comparing the periods before and after the introduction of HAART, the infection rate for rectal gonorrhoea increased from 4% to 5.4% (p=.001) and for syphilis, from 0.5% to 0.8% (p = 0.050). Independent risk factors for rectal gonorrhoea (younger age, western nationality, and concurrent infection with another STI) and for early syphilis (non-western nationality and concurrent infection with rectal gonorrhoea) did not change after HAART became available. For rectal gonorrhoea, however, the infection rate increased only among men who had exclusively homosexual contacts (OR 1.38, p<0.01), compared with bisexual men. For early syphilis, the infection rate increased only among men of western nationality (OR 3.38, p<0.01) compared to men of non-western nationality. Conclusions: Infection rates of rectal gonorrhoea and early syphilis increased, indicating a change in sexual behaviour, possibly as a result of the introduction of HAART. For now, it is important to find out how sexual behaviour is changing and to keep monitoring trends in STIs (including HIV) among MSM in Amsterdam. Key Words: rectal gonorrhoea; syphilis; HAART; high risk sexual behaviour; MSM PMID:11402225

  17. AIDS-defining illnesses: a comparison between before and after commencement of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

    PubMed

    Lian, Yvonne Lim Ai; Heng, Benedict Sim Lim; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Lee, Christopher

    2007-09-01

    Attempts to address the significant impact of HAART on medical variables on the Malaysian HIV/AIDS population have yet to be evaluated. This study aims to analyze the proportions of AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) before and after HAART. A retrospective study was carried out on 128 new cases of HIV infected patients who first commenced HAART in 2004 at the national HIV reference center. Before commencement of HAART, 76 clinical episodes of ADIs were recorded in 52 patients. Most common being pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (28.9%), PCP (27.6%) and disseminated and extrapulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (11.8%). During HAART, 8 clinical episodes of ADIs were documented in 7 patients with a median time of onset of 10 weeks after initiation of HAART (range, 4-36 weeks). The median CD4 count at the time of the commencement of HAART for these patients was 11 cells/mm(3). ADIs reported include PCP (2 episodes), disseminated and extrapulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (2 episodes), extrapulmonary cryptococcosis (1 episode), esophageal candidiasis (1 episode), recurrent pneumonia (1 episode) and disseminated or extrapulmonary histoplasmosis (1 episode). Three (37.5%) of these occurred despite a reduction of viral load by at least 2 log(10) and an increased in the CD4 cell count. In conclusion, ADIs can still present after the initiation of successful HAART especially in those with CD4 counts below 100 cells/mm(3). In Malaysia, ADIs are the major causes of HIV/AIDS associated morbidity and mortality, thus increased awareness on the management of these illnesses is warranted especially in the months following HAART.

  18. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Cortes, Claudia P.; Padgett, Denis; Carriquiry, Gabriela; Fink, Valeria; Jayathilake, Karu; Person, Anna K.; McGowan, Catherine; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after an opportunistic infection (OI) has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in “real life” settings in Latin America has not been evaluated. Methods Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet) ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001–2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH) group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI) and a delayed HAART (DH) group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI). All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009) were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models. Results A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%), followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%), Invasive Candidiasis (16%) and Toxoplasmosis (9%). Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8–12.1) weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0–7.1) after 2009 (p<0.01). Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001), having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001), study site (p<0.001), and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001). Discussion The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has

  19. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Cortes, Claudia P; Padgett, Denis; Carriquiry, Gabriela; Fink, Valeria; Jayathilake, Karu; Person, Anna K; McGowan, Catherine; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after an opportunistic infection (OI) has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in "real life" settings in Latin America has not been evaluated. Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet) ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001-2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH) group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI) and a delayed HAART (DH) group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI). All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009) were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models. A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%), followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%), Invasive Candidiasis (16%) and Toxoplasmosis (9%). Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8-12.1) weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0-7.1) after 2009 (p<0.01). Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001), having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001), study site (p<0.001), and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001). The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has decreased in Latin America coinciding with the

  20. Timing of HAART initiation and clinical outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconverters.

    PubMed

    2011-09-26

    To estimate the clinical benefit of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation vs deferral in a given month in patients with CD4 cell counts less than 800/μL. In this observational cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconverters from CASCADE (Concerted Action on SeroConversion to AIDS and Death in Europe), we constructed monthly sequential nested subcohorts between January 1996 and May 2009, including all eligible HAART-naive, AIDS-free individuals with a CD4 cell count less than 800/μL. The primary outcome was time to AIDS or death in those who initiated HAART in the baseline month compared with those who did not, pooled across subcohorts and stratified by CD4 cell count. Using inverse probability-of-treatment weighted survival curves and Cox proportional hazards regression models, we estimated the absolute and relative effects of treatment with robust 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Of 9455 patients with 52,268 person-years of follow-up, 812 (8.6%) developed AIDS and 544 (5.8%) died. In CD4 cell count strata of 200 to 349, 350 to 499, and 500 to 799/μL, HAART initiation was associated with adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) for AIDS/death of 0.59 (0.43-0.81), 0.75 (0.49-1.14), and 1.10 (0.67-1.79), respectively. In the analysis of all-cause mortality, HAART initiation was associated with adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) of 0.71 (0.44-1.15), 0.51 (0.33-0.80), and 1.02 (0.49-2.12), respectively. Numbers needed to treat (95% CIs) to prevent 1 AIDS event or death within 3 years were 21 (14-38) and 34 (20-115) in CD4 cell count strata of 200 to 349 and 350 to 499/μL, respectively. Compared with deferring in a given month, HAART initiation at CD4 cell counts less than 500/μL (but not 500-799/μL) was associated with slower disease progression.

  1. Clinical, Demographic and Laboratory Parameters at HAART Initiation Associated with Decreased Post-HAART Survival in a U.S. Military Prospective HIV Cohort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-10

    Rai RM, et al: The natural history of hepatitis C virus infection: host, viral , and environmental factors. JAMA 2000, 284:450-6. 15 25...greater HIV RNA level (HR=1.36 per one log10 increase), hepatitis C antibody or chronic hepatitis B (HR=1.96), and HIV diagnosis before 1996 (HR=2.44...AIDS events before HAART (HR=1.93), ≤50 CD4+ cells/mm3 (vs. CD4+ ≥500, HR=2.97), greater HIV RNA level (HR=1.36 per one log10 increase), hepatitis

  2. Informal care and reciprocity of support are associated with HAART adherence among men in Baltimore, MD, USA.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Amy R; Yang, Cui; Bohnert, Amy; Wissow, Lawrence; Chander, Geetanjali; Arnsten, Julia A

    2011-10-01

    Research suggests gender differences in interpersonal relationship factors important to health. This study examined relationship factors associated with HAART adherence among men. The sample (n = 154) comprised 95% African Americans and 48% current illicit drug users; 83% reported HAART adherence. Results revealed adherence was associated with comfort level taking HAART in the presence of close friends, and the interaction between informal care (having someone to care for oneself when sick in bed) and reciprocity of support. Among those with informal care, higher reciprocity of support to caregivers was associated with greater adherence. Promoting men's reciprocity of support to their caregivers and enhancing peer norms of medication taking are important strategies for improving men's adherence. The findings complement previous findings on relationship factors adversely associated with women's adherence. Results suggest the merit of interventions targeting men and their informal caregivers, particularly main partners, and gender-specific, contextually tailored strategies to promote HAART adherence.

  3. Informal Care and Reciprocity of Support are Associated with HAART Adherence among Men in Baltimore, MD, USA

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Amy R.; Yang, Cui; Bohnert, Amy; Wissow, Lawrence; Chander, Geetanjali; A. Arnsten, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests gender differences in interpersonal relationship factors important to health. This study examined relationship factors associated with HAART adherence among men. The sample (n=154) comprised 95% African Americans and 48% current illicit drug users; 83% reported HAART adherence. Results revealed adherence was associated with comfort level taking HAART in the presence of close friends, and the interaction between informal care (having someone to care for oneself when sick in bed) and reciprocity of support. Among those with informal care, higher reciprocity of support to caregivers was associated with greater adherence. Promoting men’s reciprocity of support to their caregivers and enhancing peer norms of medication taking are important strategies for improving men’s adherence. The findings complement previous findings on relationship factors adversely associated with women’s adherence. Results suggest the merit of interventions targeting men and their informal caregivers, particularly main partners, and gender-specific, contextually tailored strategies to promote HAART adherence. PMID:20632081

  4. Prognosis of HIV-1-infected patients up to 5 years after initiation of HAART: collaborative analysis of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prognosis over 5 years of HIV-1-infected, treatment-naive patients starting HAART, taking into account the immunological and virological response to therapy. Design A collaborative analysis of data from 12 cohorts in Europe and north America on 20 379 adults who started HAART between 1995 and 2003. Methods Parametric survival models were used to predict the cumulative incidence at 5 years of a new AIDS-defining event or death, and death alone, first from the start of HAART and second from 6 months after the start of HAART. Data were analysed by intention-to-continue-treatment, ignoring treatment changes and interruptions. Results During 61 798 person-years of follow-up, 1005 patients died and an additional 1303 developed AIDS. A total of 10 046 (49%) patients started HAART either with a CD4 cell count of less than 200 cells/μl or with a diagnosis of AIDS. The 5-year risk of AIDS or death (death alone) from the start of HAART ranged from 5.6 to 77% (1.8–65%), depending on age, CD4 cell count, HIV-1-RNA level, clinical stage, and history of injection drug use. From 6 months the corresponding figures were 4.1–99% for AIDS or death and 1.3–96% for death alone. Conclusion On the basis of data collected routinely in HIV care, prognostic models with high discriminatory power over 5 years were developed for patients starting HAART in industrialized countries. A risk calculator that produces estimates for progression rates at years 1 to 5 after starting HAART is available from www.art-cohort-collaboration.org. PMID:17502729

  5. [Recurrent diarrhea due to Cystoisopora belli in HIV/AIDS patients receiving HAART].

    PubMed

    Montalvo, Raúl; Ticona, Eduardo; Ñavincopa, Marcos; García, Yuri; Chávez, Gonzalo; Chávez, Víctor; Arévalo, Jorge; Soria, Jaime; Huiza, Alina

    2013-04-01

    The Cystoisospora belli, before denominated as Isospora belli, is the etiologic agent of cystoisosoporiasis, an opportunistic infection affecting immunocompromised patients, characterized by chronic diarrhea and weight loss. The incidence of chronic diarrhea for this agent, in HIV patients, has decreased considerably. This thanks to the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which has improved the patient's immune response and decrease viral load. We present six cases of cystoisosoporiasis recurrent and refractory to treatment in HIV patients, who was being treated with with trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole (TMP / SMX) orally as a prophylaxis. Five of these patients passed away due to the infection, despite of the fact that they had a good response to HAART (adequate increase in CD4 and viral load undetectable) and they had been treated with second line drugs.

  6. Toxoplasmic encephalitis in an AIDS cohort at Puerto Rico before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

    PubMed

    Mayor, Angel M; Fernández Santos, Diana M; Dworkin, Mark S; Ríos-Olivares, Eddy; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F

    2011-05-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) significantly reduced the toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) incidence in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. The TE incidence and mortality were evaluated in an AIDS cohort followed in Puerto Rico before, during, and after HAART implementation in the Island. Of the 2,431 AIDS studied patients 10.9% had TE diagnosis, with an incidence density that decreased from 5.9/100 person-years to 1.1/100 person-years after HAART. Cox proportional hazard analysis showed substantial mortality reduction among TE cases who received HAART. No mortality reduction was seen in those cases who received TE prophylaxis. Although this study shows a TE incidence and mortality reduction in the AIDS cohort after HAART, the incidence was higher than those reported in the United States AIDS patients. Poor TE prophylaxis compliance might explain the lack of impact of this intervention. Strengthening the diagnostic and opportune TE diagnosis and prompt initiation of HAART in susceptible patients is important to control this opportunistic infection.

  7. Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in an AIDS Cohort at Puerto Rico before and after Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Angel M.; Fernández Santos, Diana M.; Dworkin, Mark S.; Ríos-Olivares, Eddy; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) significantly reduced the toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) incidence in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. The TE incidence and mortality were evaluated in an AIDS cohort followed in Puerto Rico before, during, and after HAART implementation in the Island. Of the 2,431 AIDS studied patients 10.9% had TE diagnosis, with an incidence density that decreased from 5.9/100 person-years to 1.1/100 person-years after HAART. Cox proportional hazard analysis showed substantial mortality reduction among TE cases who received HAART. No mortality reduction was seen in those cases who received TE prophylaxis. Although this study shows a TE incidence and mortality reduction in the AIDS cohort after HAART, the incidence was higher than those reported in the United States AIDS patients. Poor TE prophylaxis compliance might explain the lack of impact of this intervention. Strengthening the diagnostic and opportune TE diagnosis and prompt initiation of HAART in susceptible patients is important to control this opportunistic infection. PMID:21540399

  8. A Case of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy with HIV Infection in Which HAART Possibly Influenced the Prognosis of Visual Function

    PubMed Central

    Kitagaki, Takakuni; Sato, Takaki; Hirai, Junko; Kimura, Daisaku; Kakurai, Keigo; Fukumoto, Masanori; Tajiri, Kensuke; Kobayashi, Takatoshi; Kida, Teruyo; Kojima, Shota; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2016-01-01

    Background We report on a patient with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who exhibited extremely active PDR followed by a rapid onset of blindness in the right eye. The progression of visual disturbance in the patient's left eye was slowed after starting highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), and vision in that eye was rescued after vitrectomy. Case Report A 72-year-old male developed pneumocystis carinii pneumonia stemming from an HIV infection and began HAART at the Department of Hematology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki City, Japan. Prior to HAART, the patient had shown rapidly progressing retinopathy in the right eye accompanied by vitreous hemorrhage, tractional retinal detachment, and neovascular glaucoma, ultimately leading to early-onset blindness. After starting HAART, the progression of the retinopathy in the left eye became slower compared to the right eye, with corrected visual acuity improving to 0.6 after vitrectomy, despite being accompanied by vitreous hemorrhage. The patient's overall condition has remained stable following the operation, and the condition of the ocular fundus in the left eye has also settled. Conclusion Significant differences were found in the progression rate of PDR with HIV infection between before and after starting HAART. Our findings suggest that early administration of HAART to HIV patients with diabetic retinopathy is crucial for maintaining visual function. PMID:27990117

  9. Randomized Control Trial of Peer-Delivered, Modified Directly Observed Therapy for HAART in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Cynthia R.; Micek, Mark A.; Simoni, Jane M.; Hoff, Peter D.; Matediana, Eduardo; Martin, Diane P.; Gloyd, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of a peer-delivered intervention to promote short-term (6-month) and long-term (12-month) adherence to HAART in a Mozambican clinic population. Design A 2-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted between October 2004 and June 2006. Participants Of 350 men and women (≥18 years) initiating HAART, 53.7% were female, and 97% were on 1 fixed-dose combination pill twice a day. Intervention Participants were randomly assigned to receive 6 weeks (Monday through Friday; 30 daily visits) of peer-delivered, modified directly observed therapy (mDOT) or standard care. Peers provided education about treatment and adherence and sought to identify and mitigate adherence barriers. Outcome Participants' self-reported medication adherence was assessed 6 months and 12 months after starting HAART. Adherence was defined as the proportion of prescribed doses taken over the previous 7 days. Statistical analyses were performed using intention-to-treat (missing = failure). Results Intervention participants, compared to those in standard care, showed significantly higher mean medication adherence at 6 months (92.7% vs. 84.9%, difference 7.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.0.02, 13.0) and 12 months (94.4% vs. 87.7%, difference 6.8, 95% CI: 0.9, 12.9). There were no between-arm differences in chart-abstracted CD4 counts. Conclusions A peer-delivered mDOT program may be an effective strategy to promote long-term adherence among persons initiating HAART in resource-poor settings. PMID:17693890

  10. Effectiveness of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Among HIV-Infected Patients in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Villasís-Keever, Angelina; Galindo-Fraga, Arturo; del Río, Carlos; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The National Government HAART Program (NGP) for the provision of HAART to uninsured HIV-infected persons in Mexico began in 2001. The objective was to describe the virologic outcome of patients enrolled in the NGP in a large HIV treatment center in Mexico City. HIV-infected persons, naive or ≤6 months on HAART, who entered the NGP from 2001 to 2005 were included. Patients with virological suppression were compared to those with virologic failure (VF) during follow-up. Of 377 patients enrolled, 191 where eligible for analysis. The median age was 35.9 (18–75 years) and 85% were male. The median baseline CD4+ T cell count was 183 cells/mm3; 63.9% had <200 cells/mm3 and/or an AIDS-defining event. During follow-up (median: 17.77 months), 55 patients (28.7%) changed their first regimen: 8.3% because of VF and the remaining due to toxicity. The probability of VF at 48 months was 20%. VF was associated with age <30 years (p = 0.003, RR 4.7, IC 95% 1.5–14.4). The use of NNRTI was associated with lower risk of VF (p = 0.042, RR 0.3, IC 95% 0.12–0.99). Nadir CD4+ and AIDS-defining at baseline were not associated with VF. Implementation of NGP for HAART access in a specialized care setting in Mexico resulted in an excellent virologic response. Younger age was a significant risk factor for VF. PMID:20377418

  11. Immunologic and virologic predictors of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the HAART era

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Eric A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Landgren, Ola; Moore, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    HIV-infected persons treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) continue to have elevated risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We conducted a retrospective cohort study of NHL among patients at an urban HIV clinic (N=3025). Proportional hazards models identified immunologic and virologic predictors of NHL. Sixty-five NHLs arose during 1989-2006. NHL incidence declined over time. Nonetheless, 51 NHLs (78%) occurred within the HAART era (1996-2006). NHL risk increased with declining CD4 count (p-trend<0.0001) and increasing HIV viral load (p-trend=0.005). In a multivariable model, NHL risk was independently associated with both current CD4 count (hazard ratios 7.7 and 3.8, respectively, for CD4 counts 0-99 and 100-249 vs. 250+ cells/mm3; p-trend<0.0001) and prior time spent with a viral load above 5.00 log10 copies/ml (hazard ratios of 3.4, 2.6, and 6.8, respectively, for 0.1-0.4, 0.5-1.4, and 1.5+ years vs. 0 years; p-trend=0.004). Although serum globulin levels were elevated compared to the general population, NHL risk was unrelated to this B-cell activation marker (p=0.39). Among HIV-infected individuals in the HAART era, NHLs are linked to immunosuppression and extended periods of uncontrolled HIV viremia. The association with high-level viremia could reflect detrimental effects on immune function related to incompletely effective HAART or direct effects on B-cells. PMID:20418723

  12. Incident Hepatitis B Virus Infection in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Men Who Have Sex With Men From Pre-HAART to HAART Periods: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Falade-Nwulia, Oluwaseun; Seaberg, Eric C; Snider, Anna E; Rinaldo, Charles R; Phair, John; Witt, Mallory D; Thio, Chloe L

    2015-11-03

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Data on the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on incident HBV infection in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected MSM are limited. To determine predictors of incident HBV infection in MSM during pre-HAART and HAART periods. Observational cohort study. Cohort of MSM who have, or are at risk for, HIV infection. 2375 HBV-uninfected MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Poisson regression was used to compare incidence rates of HBV infection in the pre-HAART and HAART eras and to identify factors associated with incidence of HBV infection. In 25,322 person-years of follow-up, 244 incident HBV infections occurred. The unadjusted incidence rate was higher in HIV-infected MSM than in HIV-uninfected MSM (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.9 [95% CI, 1.5 to 2.4]) and was significantly lower in the HAART era than in the pre-HAART era among HIV-infected (IRR, 0.2 [CI, 0.1 to 0.4]) and HIV-uninfected (IRR, 0.3 [CI, 0.2 to 0.4]) MSM. Age younger than 40 years (IRR, 2.3 [CI, 1.7 to 3.0]), more than 1 recent sexual partner (IRR, 3.1 [CI, 2.3 to 4.2]), and HIV infection (IRR, 2.4 [CI, 1.8 to 3.1]) were independently associated with higher incidence of HBV infection, whereas HBV vaccination was protective (IRR, 0.3 [CI, 0.2 to 0.4]). Highly active antiretroviral therapy with HIV RNA levels less than 400 copies/mL was associated with protection (IRR, 0.2 [CI, 0.1 to 0.5]), but HAART in those with HIV RNA levels of 400 copies/mL or greater was not. The observational nature limits inferences about causality. Effective HAART is associated with lower incidence of HBV infection; however, even in the HAART era, incidence of HBV infection remains high among MSM. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

  13. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections among HIV-Infected Persons in the Late HAART Era

    PubMed Central

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.; Grandits, Greg; Weintrob, Amy; Ganesan, Anurahda; Agan, Brian; Landrum, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) occur at higher rates among HIV-infected persons, but current trends and risk factors are largely undefined. We evaluated SSTIs among a prospective cohort of HIV-infected persons during the late HAART era (2006-2010). Of the 1918 HIV-infected persons evaluated, 379 (20%) developed an SSTI during a median of 3.7 years of follow-up; of these,118 (31%) developed at least one recurrent SSTI. The incidence rate of SSTIs was 101 (95% CI 93-109) cases per 1000 PYs, and rates did not significantly change during the study period. Compared to not receiving HAART and having an HIV RNA level ≥1000 copies/ml, patients receiving HAART with an HIV RNA level <1000 copies/ml had a reduced risk of an SSTI (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48-0.86, p<0.01). In summary, initial and recurrent SSTIs are common among HIV-infected persons. HIV control is associated with a lower risk of SSTIs. PMID:22844006

  14. Optimization of HAART with genetic algorithms and agent-based models of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Castiglione, F; Pappalardo, F; Bernaschi, M; Motta, S

    2007-12-15

    Highly Active AntiRetroviral Therapies (HAART) can prolong life significantly to people infected by HIV since, although unable to eradicate the virus, they are quite effective in maintaining control of the infection. However, since HAART have several undesirable side effects, it is considered useful to suspend the therapy according to a suitable schedule of Structured Therapeutic Interruptions (STI). In the present article we describe an application of genetic algorithms (GA) aimed at finding the optimal schedule for a HAART simulated with an agent-based model (ABM) of the immune system that reproduces the most significant features of the response of an organism to the HIV-1 infection. The genetic algorithm helps in finding an optimal therapeutic schedule that maximizes immune restoration, minimizes the viral count and, through appropriate interruptions of the therapy, minimizes the dose of drug administered to the simulated patient. To validate the efficacy of the therapy that the genetic algorithm indicates as optimal, we ran simulations of opportunistic diseases and found that the selected therapy shows the best survival curve among the different simulated control groups. A version of the C-ImmSim simulator is available at http://www.iac.cnr.it/~filippo/c-ImmSim.html

  15. Pattern of cancer risk in persons with AIDS in Italy in the HAART era

    PubMed Central

    Dal Maso, L; Polesel, J; Serraino, D; Lise, M; Piselli, P; Falcini, F; Russo, A; Intrieri, T; Vercelli, M; Zambon, P; Tagliabue, G; Zanetti, R; Federico, M; Limina, R M; Mangone, L; De Lisi, V; Stracci, F; Ferretti, S; Piffer, S; Budroni, M; Donato, A; Giacomin, A; Bellù, F; Fusco, M; Madeddu, A; Vitarelli, S; Tessandori, R; Tumino, R; Suligoi, B; Franceschi, S

    2009-01-01

    A record-linkage study was carried out between the Italian AIDS Registry and 24 Italian cancer registries to compare cancer excess among persons with HIV/AIDS (PWHA) before and after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) were computed in 21951 AIDS cases aged 16–69 years reported between 1986 and 2005. Of 101 669 person-years available, 45 026 were after 1996. SIR for Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma greatly decreased in 1997–2004 compared with 1986–1996, but high SIRs for KS persisted in the increasingly large fraction of PWHA who had an interval of <1 year between first HIV-positive test and AIDS diagnosis. A significant excess of liver cancer (SIR=6.4) emerged in 1997–2004, whereas the SIRs for cancer of the cervix (41.5), anus (44.0), lung (4.1), brain (3.2), skin (non-melanoma, 1.8), Hodgkin lymphoma (20.7), myeloma (3.9), and non-AIDS-defining cancers (2.2) were similarly elevated in the two periods. The excess of some potentially preventable cancers in PWHA suggests that HAART use must be accompanied by cancer-prevention strategies, notably antismoking and cervical cancer screening programmes. Improvements in the timely identification of HIV-positive individuals are also a priority in Italy to avoid the adverse consequences of delayed HAART use. PMID:19223894

  16. Impact of HCV treatment and depressive symptoms on adherence to HAART among coinfected HIV-HCV patients: results from the ANRS-CO13-HEPAVIH cohort

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Perrine; Lions, Caroline; Cohen, Julien; Winnock, Maria; Salmon-Céron, Dominique; Bani-Sadr, Firouzé; Sogni, Philippe; Spire, Bruno; Dabis, François; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    Background The additional burden of HCV infection in HIV-HCV coinfected individuals may have some consequences on adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Few studies have explored the pattern of correlates of non-adherence to HAART while simultaneously considering the impact of HCV treatment and depressive symptoms on adherence to HAART. We used longitudinal data to assess factors associated with non-adherence to HAART. Methods The French national prospective cohort ANRS-CO-13-HEPAVIH is a multi-center cohort which recruited 1175 HIV-HCV coinfected patients in 17 hospital outpatient units delivering HIV and HCV care in France between October 2006 and June 2008. For this analysis, we selected participants on HAART with self-reported data for adherence to HAART (n = 727 patients, 1190 visits). Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and medical records. A mixed logistic regression model based on an exchangeable correlation matrix was used to identify factors associated with non-adherence to HAART. Results Patients reported non-adherence to HAART in 808 (68%) of the 1190 visits. Four variables remained associated with non-adherence to HAART after multivariate analysis: hazardous alcohol consumption, cocaine use and depressive symptoms, regardless of whether treatment for depression was being received. Finally, patients being treated for HCV infection were less likely to be non-adherent to HAART. Conclusions Besides the problem of polydrug use, two other dimensions deserve special attention when considering adherence to HAART in HIV-HCV coinfected patients. Access to HCV treatment should be encouraged as well adequate treatment for depression in this population to improve adherence and response to HAART. PMID:24166726

  17. Childbearing Intentions of HIV-Positive Women of Reproductive Age in Soweto, South Africa: The Influence of Expanding Access to HAART in an HIV Hyperendemic Setting

    PubMed Central

    Laher, Fatima; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Janssen, Patricia A.; Money, Deborah; Hogg, Robert S.; Gray, Glenda

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether the intention to have children varied according to HIV status and use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among women in Soweto, South Africa. Methods. We used survey data from 674 women aged 18 to 44 years recruited from the Perinatal HIV Research Unit in Soweto (May through December 2007); 217 were HIV-positive HAART users (median duration of use = 31 months; interquartile range = 28, 33), 215 were HIV-positive and HAART–naive, and 242 were HIV negative. Logistic regression models examined associations between HIV status, HAART use, and intention to have children. Results. Overall, 44% of women reported intent to have children, with significant variation by HIV status: 31% of HAART users, 29% of HAART-naive women, and 68% of HIV-negative women (P < .001). In adjusted models, HIV-positive women were nearly 60% less likely to report childbearing intentions compared with HIV-negative women (for HAART users, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.23, 0.69; for HAART-naive women, AOR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.21, 0.60), with minimal differences according to use or duration of HAART. Conclusions. Integrated HIV, HAART, and reproductive health services must be provided to support the rights of all women to safely achieve their fertility goals. PMID:20403884

  18. Changes in cellular immune activation and memory T-cell subsets in HIV-infected Zambian children receiving HAART.

    PubMed

    Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Nkamba, Hope; Mubiana-Mbewe, Mwangelwa; Moore, Carolyn B; Margolick, Joseph; Moss, William J

    2014-12-15

    Increased exposure to a broad array of pathogens in children residing in sub-Saharan Africa may lead to heightened immune activation and increased proportions of memory T cells. Changes in the size of these cellular subsets have implications for restoration of normal immune function after treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and are not well characterized in young sub-Saharan African children. CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cell subsets were measured by flow cytometry in 157 HIV-infected Zambian children before and at 3-month intervals during HAART for up to 30 months and in 34 control children at a single study visit. Before HAART, HIV-infected children had higher levels of activated and effector memory (EM) CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cells, and lower levels of naive T cells and CD8⁺ T cells expressing IL-7Rα, compared with control children. The median duration of follow-up was 14.9 months (interquartile range, 6.4-23.2) among 120 HIV-infected children with at least 1 study follow-up visit. Levels of immune activation and EM CD4⁺ T cells declined within 6 months of HAART, but the percentages of EM CD4 T cells and effector CD8⁺ T cells remained elevated through 30 months of HAART. IL-7Rα-expressing CD8⁺ T cells increased with HAART, suggesting expansion of memory capacity. HAART significantly reduced levels of immune activation and EM CD4⁺ T cells, and promoted reconstitution of naive T cells and IL-7Rα-expressing CD8⁺ T cells. However, persistently high levels of EM CD4⁺ T cells in HIV-infected children may reflect chronic perturbations in T-cell subset composition.

  19. Community-based treatment of advanced HIV disease: introducing DOT-HAART (directly observed therapy with highly active antiretroviral therapy).

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, P.; Léandre, F.; Mukherjee, J.; Gupta, R.; Tarter, L.; Kim, J. Y.

    2001-01-01

    In 2000, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) overtook tuberculosis (TB) as the world's leading infectious cause of adult deaths. In affluent countries, however, AIDS mortality has dropped sharply, largely because of the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Antiretroviral agents are not yet considered essential medications by international public health experts and are not widely used in the poor countries where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) takes its greatest toll. Arguments against the use of HAART have mainly been based on the high cost of medications and the lack of the infrastructure necessary for using them wisely. We re- examine these arguments in the setting of rising AIDS mortality in developing countries and falling drug prices, and describe a small community-based treatment programme based on lessons gained in TB control. With the collaboration of Haitian community health workers experienced in the delivery of home-based and directly observed treatment for TB, an AIDS-prevention project was expanded to deliver HAART to a subset of HIV patients deemed most likely to benefit. The inclusion criteria and preliminary results are presented. We conclude that directly observed therapy (DOT) with HAART, "DOT-HAART", can be delivered effectively in poor settings if there is an uninterrupted supply of high-quality drugs. PMID:11799447

  20. [Successful treatment with hyper-CVAD and highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) for AIDS-related Burkitt lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kazuhito; Nakazato, Tomonori; Sanada, Yukinari; Mihara, Ai; Tachikawa, Natsuo; Kurai, Hanako; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Sachiko; Kakimoto, Tsunayuki

    2010-03-01

    A 38-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of continuous fever and right facial palsy. He was diagnosed as HIV positive. Abdominal CT scan showed a large mass in the ascending colon. Gallium scintigraphy demonstrated increased uptake in the ascending colon. Colonoscopy was performed and histological examination of the colon tumor revealed Burkitt's lymphoma (BL). He received highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) and his facial palsy improved. Because CD4 count was significantly low at 31/microl, he was treated with dose-adjusted EPOCH (DA-EPOCH) combined with HAART. Although the tumor was decreased in size by DA-EPOCH, we changed to the combination of hyper-CVAD/MTX-Ara-C alternating therapy with HAART in order to increase dose intensity. Six cycles of hyper-CVAD/MTX-Ara-C were performed and complete remission was obtained. In the HAART era, the survival of patients with AIDS-related diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL) improved dramatically, whereas the survival of similarly treated patients with AIDS-related BL remained poor. Our case suggests that intensive chemotherapy with hyper-CVAD/MTX-Ara-C combined with HAART may be well tolerated and effective in AIDS-related BL.

  1. HIV enteropathy: HAART reduces HIV-induced stem cell hyperproliferation and crypt hypertrophy to normal in jejunal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Batman, Philip A; Kapembwa, Moses S; Belmonte, Liliana; Tudor, Gregory; Kotler, Donald P; Potten, Christopher S; Booth, Catherine; Cahn, Pedro; Griffin, George E

    2014-01-01

    To analyse the structural and kinetic response of small intestinal crypt epithelial cells including stem cells to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Crypt size and proliferative activity of transit and stem cells in jejunal mucosa were quantified using morphometric techniques. Crypt length was measured by counting the number of enterocytes along one side of a number of crypts in each biopsy specimen and the mean crypt length was calculated. Proliferating crypt cells were identified with MIB-1 monoclonal antibody, and the percentage of crypt cells in proliferation was calculated at each cell position along the length of the crypt (proliferation index). Data were obtained from 9 HIV-positive test patients co-infected with microsporidia, 34 HIV-positive patients receiving HAART and 13 control cases. Crypt length was significantly greater in test patients than in controls, but crypt length in patients receiving HAART was normal. The proliferation index was greater in test subjects than in controls in stem and transit cell compartments, and was decreased in patients treated with HAART only in the stem cell region of the crypt. Villous atrophy in HIV enteropathy is attributed to crypt hypertrophy and encroachment of crypt cells onto villi. HAART restores normal crypt structure by inhibition of HIV-driven stem cell hyperproliferation at the crypt bases.

  2. The influence of nutritional status on the response to HAART in HIV-infected children in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Reené; Rennert, Wolfgang; Lung, Audrey; Naidoo, Kimesh; McKerrow, Neil

    2010-06-01

    While the impact of HAART on growth in children is well established, the influence of prior nutritional status on the response to HAART is not well known. A retrospective study was conducted on 120 children in South Africa. Patients were divided into 3 groups (normal, moderately underweight, and severely underweight) based on weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ). Age, weight, height, CD4 cell percentage, and viral load were recorded at initiation of HAART and after 24 months of therapy. Data were analyzed using t-tests, chi tests, and one-way ANOVA. At baseline, 58% of children were normal weight, 18% moderately underweight, and 23% severely underweight. After 24 months of HAART, WAZ improved significantly in moderately and severely underweight patient groups compared with the normal group. Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) increased in all 3 groups with severely underweight children gaining more height than normal weight counterparts. Weight-for-height z-scores (WHZ) normalized in the severely underweight group. Mean CD4 cell percentages increased significantly in all 3 groups while viral loads decreased significantly in all groups with no differences among the groups at the end of 24 months of therapy. Of the entire cohort, 75% achieved undetectable HIV RNA viral loads. Underlying malnutrition does not adversely affect growth, immunologic or virologic response to HAART in HIV-infected children. Underweight children exhibit an equally robust response to treatment as their well-nourished peers.

  3. Main partner factors associated with worse adherence to HAART among women in Baltimore, U.S.: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Amy R.; Yang, Cui; Bohnert, Amy; Wissow, Lawrence; Chander, Geetanjali; Arnsten, Julia A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. women have worse HAART and HIV health outcomes compared to U.S. men. The study examined main partner factors associated with women's HAART adherence. The community sample comprised 85% African Americans; 63% had a main partner and 32% relied on their partner for emotional support. Adherence was highest (92%) among those without a main partner, and lowest (57%) among those with an HIV seropositive main partner. In adjusted analysis, adherence was 75% less likely among women with an HIV seropositive main partner, and 78% less likely among those relying on their partner for emotional support. Furthermore, HIV seropositive versus other serostatus main partners were most likely to provide medication taking assistance and to be preferred in helping participants deal with HIV, yet were no more likely to be nominated as the most helpful to them. Findings reveal women's perceived unmet support needs from HIV seropositive main partners in this population, and the need for interventions to promote their HAART adherence. Seroconcordant couples-focused intervention that enhances mutual support of HAART adherence may be an effective approach to improving women's HAART adherence and reducing US gender disparities in HIV health outcomes. PMID:21476149

  4. Successful simplification of HAART in patients with acute primary HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Sinicco, A; Bonora, S; Arnaudo, I; Zeme, D A; Audagnotto, S; Raiteri, R; Di Perri, G

    2002-01-01

    Aggressive treatment has been advocated for the management of primary HIV infection (PHI), but the composition and the optimal duration of therapy are still to be determined. In addition, time to undetectable viral load (VL), rate and duration of VL suppression as well as subsequent therapeutic choices remain issues widely debated. We evaluated the rate and duration of VL suppression in 12 consecutive patients with PHI given triple-drug treatment with zidovudine, lamivudine and indinavir (highly active antiretroviral therapy, HAART) at onset of the acute illness and subsequently switched to a simplified 2-NRTI-based regimen once VL suppression was maintained for at least 6 months. Throughout the study, no patient discontinued treatment because of symptoms attributed to the study medications. In the study population, undetectable VL was achieved after a median of 84 days (range: 67-135) on HAART and was maintained for a median of 194 days (range: 179-205) before simplification. After switching to simplified maintenace, undetectable VL was maintained in all patients for at least 6 months. Only one patient experienced virological failure, plasma HIV-RNA remaining suppressed for a median foliow-up of 33 months (15-54) and T-CD4+ being steadily higher than 500/mL in the remaining patients. Our results suggest that simplification of HAART in patients promptly treated during PHI and maintaining undetectable VL for at least 6 months before simplification may be a valid option capable of controlling viral replication and maintaining an optimal immunological profile for a prolonged time.

  5. Incidence and determinants of new AIDS-defining illnesses after HAART initiation in a Senegalese cohort

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although a dramatic decrease in AIDS progression has been observed after Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy (HAART) in both low- and high-resource settings, few data support that fact in low-resource settings. This study describes the incidence of AIDS-defining illnesses (ADI) after HAART initiation and analyzes their risk factors in a low-resource setting. A focus was put on CD4 cell counts and viral load measurements. Methods 404 HIV-1-infected Senegalese adult patients were enrolled in a prospective observational cohort and data censored as of April 2008. A Poisson regression was used to model the incidence of ADIs over two periods and to assess its association with baseline variables, current CD4, current viral load, CD4 response, and virological response. Results ADI incidence declined from 20.5 ADIs per 100 person-years, 95% CI = [16.3;25.8] during the first year to 4.3, 95% CI = [2.3;8.1] during the fourth year but increased afterwards. Before 42 months, the decrease was greater in patients with clinical stage CDC-C at baseline and with a viral load remaining below 1000 cp/mL but was uniform across CD4 strata (p = 0.1). After 42 months, 293 patients were still at risk. The current CD4 and viral load were associated with ADI incidence (decrease of 21% per 50 CD4/mm3 and of 61% for patients with a viral load < 1000 cp/mL). Conclusions During the first four years, a uniform decline of ADI incidence was observed even in patients with low CD4-cell counts at HAART initiation as long as the viral load remained undetectable. An increase was noted later in patients with immunologic and virological failures but also in patients with only virological failure. PMID:20565900

  6. Low cholesterol? Don't brag yet ... hypocholesterolemia blunts HAART effectiveness: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In vitro studies suggest that reducing cholesterol inhibits HIV replication. However, this effect may not hold in vivo, where other factors, such as cholesterol's immunomodulatory properties, may interact. Methods Fasting blood samples were obtained on 165 people living with HIV at baseline and after 24 weeks on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Participants were classified as hypocholesterolemic (HypoCHL; <150 mg/dl) or non-HypoCHL (>150 mg/dl) and were compared on viro-immune outcomes. Results At baseline, participants with HypoCHL (40%) exhibited lower CD4 (197 ± 181 vs. 295 ± 191 cells/mm3, p = 0.02) and CD8 (823 ± 448 vs. 1194 ± 598 cells/mm3, p = 0.001) counts and were more likely to have detectable viral loads (OR = 3.5, p = 0.01) than non-HypoCHL controls. After HAART, participants with HypoCHL were twice as likely to experience a virological failure >400 copies (95% CI 1-2.6, p = 0.05) and to exhibit <200 CD4 (95% CI 1.03-2.9, p = 0.04) compared with non-HypoCHL. Low thymic output was related to poorer CD4 cell response in HypoCHL subjects. Analyses suggest a dose-response relationship with every increase of 50 mg/dl in cholesterol related to a parallel rise of 50 CD4 cells. Conclusions The study implicates, for the first time, HypoCHL with impaired HAART effectiveness, including limited CD4 repletion by the thymus and suboptimal viral clearance. PMID:20626901

  7. Low cholesterol? Don't brag yet ... hypocholesterolemia blunts HAART effectiveness: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Míguez, María Jose; Lewis, John E; Bryant, Vaughn E; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Burbano, Ximena; Fishman, Joel; Asthana, Deshratn; Duan, Rui; Madhavan, Nair; Malow, Robert M

    2010-07-13

    In vitro studies suggest that reducing cholesterol inhibits HIV replication. However, this effect may not hold in vivo, where other factors, such as cholesterol's immunomodulatory properties, may interact. Fasting blood samples were obtained on 165 people living with HIV at baseline and after 24 weeks on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Participants were classified as hypocholesterolemic (HypoCHL; <150 mg/dl) or non-HypoCHL (>150 mg/dl) and were compared on viro-immune outcomes. At baseline, participants with HypoCHL (40%) exhibited lower CD4 (197 +/- 181 vs. 295 +/- 191 cells/mm3, p = 0.02) and CD8 (823 +/- 448 vs. 1194 +/- 598 cells/mm3, p = 0.001) counts and were more likely to have detectable viral loads (OR = 3.5, p = 0.01) than non-HypoCHL controls. After HAART, participants with HypoCHL were twice as likely to experience a virological failure >400 copies (95% CI 1-2.6, p = 0.05) and to exhibit <200 CD4 (95% CI 1.03-2.9, p = 0.04) compared with non-HypoCHL. Low thymic output was related to poorer CD4 cell response in HypoCHL subjects. Analyses suggest a dose-response relationship with every increase of 50 mg/dl in cholesterol related to a parallel rise of 50 CD4 cells. The study implicates, for the first time, HypoCHL with impaired HAART effectiveness, including limited CD4 repletion by the thymus and suboptimal viral clearance.

  8. Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms Amongst Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Patients in AIDSRelief Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Atukunda, Ruth; Imakit, Richard; Memiah, Peter

    2013-01-01

    There is limited data on the prevalence of depression in HIV and AIDS patients in Sub-Saharan Africa and little resources have been allocated to address this issue. Depression affects patient adherence to treatment and predisposes patients to resistance which poses a public health threat. It also affects quality of life and productivity of patients. From August 2008 to March 2009, 731 patient adherence surveys were administered to assess disease, treatment knowledge and services received. The primary variable of interest was patients’ level of depressive symptoms score, constructed using factor analysis from five survey questions relating to: sadness, need to be alone, hopelessness and confusion and was categorized as no depressive symptoms (score 0), low depressive symptoms (score 1-2), moderate depressive symptoms (score 3-4) and high depressive symptoms (score 5-10). Majority of the patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (59%) were found to have depressive symptoms and this was more among women than men (66% vs 43%). There was some association of depressive symptoms with non-disclosure (70% of those who had not disclosed had depressive symptoms compared to 53% among those who had disclosed). There is a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among adult patients on HAART. There is need for in-depth evaluation to find out the root causes of depressive symptoms among HAART patients in AIDSRelief clinics. There is need to integrate mental health management in HIV care and treatment as well as training the existing health workers on mental health management. PMID:28299108

  9. Intensive lifestyle modification reduces Lp-PLA2 in dyslipidemic HIV/HAART patients.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Joshua S; Nambi, Preethi; Gillard, Baiba K; Pownall, Henry J; Coraza, Ivonne; Scott, Lynne W; Nambi, Vijay; Ballantyne, Christie M; Balasubramanyam, Ashok

    2013-06-01

    Patients with dyslipidemia associated with HIV-1 infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have elevated levels of Lp-PLA2 and CCL5/regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), which may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to determine whether an intensive diet and exercise (D/E) program, independently or combined with fenofibrate or niacin, could reduce Lp-PLA2 or RANTES. Patients with hypertriglyceridemic HIV on stable HAART (n = 107) were randomized to one of five interventions: 1) usual care, 2) D/E with placebos, 3) D/E with fenofibrate and placebo, 4) D/E with niacin and placebo, or 5) D/E with fenofibrate and niacin for 24 wk. Lp-PLA2 and RANTES concentrations were measured in fasting plasma samples at baseline and postintervention. General linear models were used to compare Lp-PLA2 and RANTES levels between the five groups postintervention, controlling for baseline levels, age, body mass index, CD4 T-cell count, viral load, duration of infection, and HAART. At baseline, fasting plasma Lp-PLA2 (388.5 ± 127.5 ng·mL) and RANTES (43.8 ± 25.5 ng·mL) levels were elevated when compared with healthy controls. Posttreatment Lp-PLA2 mass was lower in patients who received D/E only (323.0 ± 27.2 ng·mL), D/E plus fenofibrate (327.2 ± 25.9 ng·mL), and D/E plus niacin (311.1 ± 27.8 ng·mL) when compared with patients receiving usual care (402.2 ± 25.3 ng·mL). RANTES concentrations were not significantly affected by any intervention. Elevated plasma Lp-PLA2 mass can be reduced by an intensive D/E program in patients with HIV/HAART-associated dyslipidemia. RANTES is elevated but is not reduced by lifestyle modification, fenofibrate, or niacin.

  10. Intensive Lifestyle Modification Reduces Lp-PLA2 in Dyslipidemic HIV/HAART Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, Joshua S.; Nambi, Preethi; Gillard, Baiba K.; Pownall, Henry J.; Coraza, Ivonne; Scott, Lynne W.; Nambi, Vijay; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Balasubramanyam, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Patients with dyslipidemia associated with HIV-1 infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have elevated levels of Lp-PLA2 and CCL5/RANTES, which may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Purpose This study aimed to determine whether an intensive diet and exercise (D/E) program, independently or combined with fenofibrate or niacin, could reduce Lp-PLA2 or RANTES. Methods Hypertriglyceridemic HIV patients on stable HAART (n=107) were randomized to one of five interventions: 1) Usual Care (UC); 2) D/E with placebos; 3) D/E with fenofibrate and placebo; 4) D/E with niacin and placebo; or 5) D/E with fenofibrate and niacin for 24 weeks. Lp-PLA2 and RANTES concentrations were measured in fasting plasma samples at baseline and post-intervention. General linear models were used to compare Lp-PLA2 and RANTES levels between the five groups post-intervention, controlling for baseline levels, age, BMI, CD4+ T-cell count, viral load, duration of infection, and HAART. Results At baseline, fasting plasma Lp-PLA2 (388.5 ± 127.5 ng/mL) and RANTES (43.8 ± 25.5 ng/mL) levels were elevated when compared to healthy controls. Post-treatment Lp-PLA2 mass was lower in patients who received D/E only (323.0 ± 27.2 ng/mL), D/E plus fenofibrate (327.2 ± 25.9 ng/mL) and D/E plus niacin (311.1 ± 27.8 ng/mL) when compared to patients receiving UC (402.2 ± 25.3 ng/mL). RANTES concentrations were not significantly affected by any intervention. Conclusions Elevated plasma Lp-PLA2 mass can be reduced by an intensive diet and exercise program in patients with HIV/HAART-associated dyslipidemia. RANTES is elevated but is not reduced by lifestyle modification, fenofibrate or niacin. PMID:23299761

  11. Social grants, welfare, and the incentive to trade-off health for income among individuals on HAART in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Venkataramani, Atheendar S; Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Nattrass, Nicoli; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2010-12-01

    South Africa's government disability grants are considered important in providing income support to low-income AIDS patients. Indeed, anecdotal evidence suggests that some individuals may opt to compromise their health by foregoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART) to remain eligible for the grant. In this study, we examined the disability grant's importance to individual and household welfare, and the impact of its loss using a unique longitudinal dataset of HAART patients in Khayelitsha, Cape Town. We found that grant loss was associated with sizeable declines in income and changes in household composition. However, we found no evidence of individuals choosing poor health over grant loss. Our analysis also suggested that though the grants officially target those too sick to work, some people were able to keep grants longer than expected, and others received grants while employed. This has helped cushion people on HAART, but other welfare measures need consideration.

  12. Oral candidosis as a clinical marker of immune failure in patients with HIV/AIDS on HAART.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Martínez-González, Mario; Ceballos-Salobreña, Alejandro

    2005-02-01

    Oral candidosis (OC) has been proposed as a clinical marker of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) success or failure. The principal objective of this work was to assess whether the presence OC is associated with immunologic or virologic failure in patients with HIV/AIDS undergoing HAART. One hundred fifty-one patients with HIV/AIDS from Regional Hospital "Carlos Haya," Malaga, Spain, were examined orally. All patients had been undergoing HAART for a minimum of 6 months prior to oral examination. OC diagnosis was in accordance with World Health Organization-Centers for Disease Control (WHO-CDC) criteria. Age, gender, route of HIV infection, CD4 lymphocyte counts, and viral load were taken from the medical records. In regard to HAART response the patients were classified as: virologic- responders (viral load < 50 copies per milliliter), virologic nonresponders (viral load >50 copies per milliliter); immunologic responders (CD4 cells counts > 500 per milliliter), and immunologic nonresponders (CD4 cells counts < 500 per milliliter). Prevalence of OC was determined for each group. The presence of OC was closely related to immune failure (p 0.006; odds ratio [OR] 3.38 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.262-12.046) in patients with HIV/AIDS undergoing HAART. The probability of immune failure in the presence of OC was 91% for men who have sex with men, 95.5% for heterosexuals, and 96% for intravenous drug users. In conclusion, OC should be considered a clinical marker of immune failure in patients with HIV/AIDS undergoing HAART.

  13. Impact of HAART and CNS-penetrating antiretroviral regimens on HIV encephalopathy among perinatally infected children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kunjal; Ming, Xue; Williams, Paige L; Robertson, Kevin R; Oleske, James M; Seage, George R

    2009-09-10

    Prior to antiretroviral treatment, HIV-infected children frequently developed encephalopathy, resulting in debilitating morbidity and mortality. This is the first large study to evaluate the impact of HAART and central nervous system (CNS)-penetrating antiretroviral regimens on the incidence of HIV encephalopathy and survival after diagnosis of HIV encephalopathy among perinatally infected children. A total of 2398 perinatally HIV-infected children with at least one neurological examination were followed in a US-based prospective cohort study conducted from 1993 to 2007. Trends in incidence rates over calendar time were described and Cox regression models were used to estimate the effects of time-varying HAART and CNS-penetrating antiretroviral regimens on HIV encephalopathy and on survival after diagnosis of HIV encephalopathy. During a median of 6.4 years of follow-up, 77 incident cases of HIV encephalopathy occurred [incidence rate 5.1 cases per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.0-6.3]. A 10-fold decline in incidence was observed beginning in 1996, followed by a stable incidence rate after 2002. HAART regimens were associated with a 50% decrease (95% CI 14-71%) in the incidence of HIV encephalopathy compared with non-HAART regimens. High CNS-penetrating regimens were associated with a substantial survival benefit (74% reduction in the risk of death, 95% CI 39-89%) after HIV encephalopathy diagnosis compared with low CNS-penetrating regimens. A dramatic decrease in the incidence of HIV encephalopathy occurred after the introduction of HAART. The use of HAART was highly effective in reducing the incidence of HIV encephalopathy among perinatally infected children and adolescents. Effective CNS-penetrating antiretroviral regimens are important in affecting survival after diagnosis of HIV encephalopathy. 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  14. Relationship of ethnicity and CD4 Count with glucose metabolism among HIV patients on Highly-Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV patients on HAART are prone to metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, lipodystrophy and diabetes. This study purports to investigate the relationship of ethnicity and CD4+ T cell count attained after stable highly-active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) with glucose metabolism in hyperrtriglyceridemic HIV patients without a history of diabetes. Methods Demographic, anthropometric, clinical, endocrinologic, energy expenditure and metabolic measures were obtained in 199 multiethnic, healthy but hypertriglyceridemic HIV-infected patients [46% Hispanic, 17% African-American, 37% Non-Hispanic White (NHW)] on stable HAART without a history of diabetes. The relationship of glucose and insulin responses to ethnicity, CD4 strata (low (<300/cc) or moderate-to-high (≥ 300/cc)), and their interaction was determined. Results African-Americans had significantly greater impairment of glucose tolerance (P < 0.05) and HbA1c levels (P < .001) than either Hispanics or NHWs. In multivariate models, after adjusting for confounders (age, sex, HIV/HAART duration, smoking, obesity, glucose, insulin and lipids), African-Americans and Hispanics had significantly higher HbA1c and 2-hour glucose levels than NHW’s. Demonstrating a significant interaction between ethnicity and CD4 count (P = 0.023), African Americans with CD4 <300/cc and Hispanics with CD4 ≥300/cc had the most impaired glucose response following oral glucose challenge. Conclusions Among hypertriglyceridemic HIV patients on HAART, African-Americans and Hispanics are at increased risk of developing diabetes. Ethnicity also interacts with CD4+ T cell count attained on stable HAART to affect post-challenge glycemic response. PMID:23607267

  15. Impact of HAART and CNS-penetrating antiretroviral regimens on HIV encephalopathy among perinatally infected children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kunjal; Ming, Xue; Williams, Paige L.; Robertson, Kevin R.; Oleske, James M.; Seage, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Prior to antiretroviral treatment, HIV-infected children frequently developed encephalopathy, resulting in debilitating morbidity and mortality. This is the first large study to evaluate the impact of HAART and central nervous system (CNS)-penetrating antiretroviral regimens on the incidence of HIV encephalopathy and survival after diagnosis of HIV encephalopathy among perinatally infected children. Design A total of 2398 perinatally HIV-infected children with at least one neurological examination were followed in a US-based prospective cohort study conducted from 1993 to 2007. Methods Trends in incidence rates over calendar time were described and Cox regression models were used to estimate the effects of time-varying HAART and CNS-penetrating antiretroviral regimens on HIV encephalopathy and on survival after diagnosis of HIV encephalopathy. Results During a median of 6.4 years of follow-up, 77 incident cases of HIV encephalopathy occurred [incidence rate 5.1 cases per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.0–6.3]. A 10-fold decline in incidence was observed beginning in 1996, followed by a stable incidence rate after 2002. HAART regimens were associated with a 50% decrease (95% CI 14–71%) in the incidence of HIV encephalopathy compared with non-HAART regimens. High CNS-penetrating regimens were associated with a substantial survival benefit (74% reduction in the risk of death, 95% CI 39–89%) after HIV encephalopathy diagnosis compared with low CNS-penetrating regimens. Conclusion A dramatic decrease in the incidence of HIV encephalopathy occurred after the introduction of HAART. The use of HAART was highly effective in reducing the incidence of HIV encephalopathy among perinatally infected children and adolescents. Effective CNS-penetrating antiretroviral regimens are important in affecting survival after diagnosis of HIV encephalopathy. PMID:19644348

  16. Expanding HAART treatment to all currently eligible individuals under the 2008 IAS-USA Guidelines in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lima, Viviane D; Hogg, Robert S; Montaner, Julio S G

    2010-06-07

    In 2008, the IAS-USA published the revised guidelines for the use of HAART in adults substantially increasing the number of individuals eligible for HAART. The epidemic in British Columbia (BC) is mainly among men who have sex with men and those with injection drug use. Here, we explored the potential impact of different HAART coverage scenarios, based on the new guidelines, on the HIV-related incidence, morbidity and mortality in BC, Canada. We built a mathematical transmission model to investigate different HAART coverage scenarios (50%, 60%, 75% and 100%) of those medically eligible to receive HAART under the 2008 IAS guidelines. All new scenarios were compared to the current coverage in BC under the 2006 IAS guidelines (i.e. baseline scenario). In BC, it is estimated that 25-30% of individuals are unaware of their status. Costs were drug-related and reported in Canadian dollars. HIV-related morbidity and mortality were estimated based on the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) methodology. Currently, there are 4379 individuals on HAART under the IAS 2006 guidelines and 6781 individuals who qualify for treatment based on the new guidelines. Within 5 years, increasing HAART coverage decreased yearly new infections by at least 44.8%. In the 50% scenario, in 5 years, DALY decreased by 53% corresponding to 4155 averted DALYs, and in 25 years it decreased by 66% corresponding to 5837 averted DALYs. The effect was even stronger if the 75% scenario was chosen instead. Compared to the 100% expansion scenario, we observed an excess in annual direct treatment expenditures at the end of 5 years of approximately 1 million dollars in the 75% scenario, and of approximately 2 million dollars in the 50% scenario. The individual and public health benefits of these new guidelines are immense. The results show that by increasing the number of individuals on HAART save lives, it is cost averting, and it positively impacts society by decreasing the number of new HIV infections

  17. Neurotoxicity in the Post-HAART Era: Caution for the Antiretroviral Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ankit; Gangwani, Mohitkumar R; Chaudhari, Nitish S; Glazyrin, Alexy; Bhat, Hari K; Kumar, Anil

    2016-11-01

    Despite the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND) remain a major challenge in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment. The early implementation of HAART in the infected individuals helps suppress the viral replication in the plasma and other compartments. Several studies also report the beneficial effect of drugs that successfully penetrate central nervous system (CNS). However, recent data in both clinical setup and in in vitro studies indicate CNS toxicity of the antiretrovirals (ARVs). Although the evidence is limited, correlation between prolonged use of ARVs and neurotoxicity strongly suggests that it is essential to study the underlying mechanisms responsible for such toxicity. Furthermore, closer attention toward clinical outcomes is required to screen various ARV regimens for their association with HAND and other comorbidities. A growing body of literature also indicates a possible role of accelerated aging in the antiretroviral therapy-associated neurotoxicity. Lastly, owing to high pill burden, multiple drugs in the HIV treatment also invite a possible role of drug-drug interaction via various cytochrome P450 enzymes. The particular emphasis of this review is to highlight the need to identify alternative approaches in reducing the CNS toxicity of the ARV drugs in HIV-infected individuals.

  18. [Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. Epidemiology and mortality risk factors in pre- and post-HAART era].

    PubMed

    Cabello Úbeda, Alfonso; Fortes Alen, José; Gadea, Ignacio; Mahillo, Ignacio; Górgolas, Miguel; Fernández Guerrero, Manuel L

    2016-05-06

    Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) is an uncommon entity, but remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with AIDS. Review of CM cases in a university hospital. The diagnosis was determined by isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid. Morbidity and mortality was assessed at 12 weeks (early mortality) and between 3 and 18 months after diagnosis (late mortality). We analyzed 32 patients from 2,269 AIDS cases (1.41%). 10 patients between 1990-1996 and 22 between 1997-2014. Cryptococcal antigen in CSF was positive in all cases, with titers>1,024 in 19 patients (63%); this group had lower CD4+ counts (40 ± 33 vs. 139 ± 78 cel/μL) and greater disseminated involvement. After a first CM episode the relapse rate was 34%. Global mortality rate was 28% (9/32), much higher in the pre-HAART era. CM morbidity and mortality is related to severe immunodeficiency, disseminated disease, high titers of antigen in CSF and delayed initiation of HAART. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. CD4 T cell recovery is slower in patients experiencing viral load rebounds during HAART

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Algara, D; Aboulker, J-P; Durier, C; Badell, E; Marcellin, F; Prud'homme, M; Jouanne, C; Meiffredy, V; Brun-Vezinet, F; Pialoux, G; Raffi, F

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether viral load rebounds during HAART impact on CD4+ T cell recovery and immune reconstitution, we studied a prospective cohort of 355 antiretroviral naive patients enrolled to be randomized in a trial of three strategies of induction/maintenance HAART. The extent of immune reconstitution in blood through 72 weeks of antiretroviral treatment was evaluated. Lymphocyte subset markers (CD4, CD8, CD45RA, CD62L, CD16, CD19), activation markers (HLA-DR, CD38, CD25) were performed by cytometry analysis. Our results showed that plasma HIV-1 RNA was suppressed to below 500 copies per ml through week 72 in 240 patients (group 1) while the remaining 115 patients experienced at least one viral rebound (group 2). At baseline, CD4 cell count was higher and HIV-1 RNA was lower in group 1 than in group 2. Over 72 weeks, mean increase in CD4+ T cell count was 0·32 cell/mm3/day in group 1 and only 0·14 cell/mm3/day in group 2 (P < 0·0001). However, the patterns of changes in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets during therapy were very similar across the two groups with only subtle and very limited differences. We conclude that permanent control of HIV replication could be necessary for faster immune reconstitution. PMID:11703374

  20. AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses in the HAART era in New York City.

    PubMed

    Hanna, D B; Gupta, L S; Jones, L E; Thompson, D M; Kellerman, S E; Sackoff, J E

    2007-02-01

    Despite widespread availability of HAART, opportunistic illnesses (OIs) still occur and result in an increased risk of mortality among persons with AIDS. We estimated the incidence of OIs among all new adult AIDS cases in New York City in 2000 overall and in demographic and clinical subgroups and identified factors associated with occurrence of an AIDS-defining OI versus AIDS diagnosis based on low CD4+ values only. In 2000, 5,451 new AIDS cases were reported to the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Of these 27.4% (95% CI: 22.8-32.6) had at least one OI, most frequent being Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (12.2%) and M. tuberculosis (5.3%); 47.1% (41.7-52.5) had a late HIV diagnosis (i.e.< or =6 months before AIDS diagnosis). Persons with a late HIV diagnosis not in recent care had a 3.5-fold increased odds (1.29-9.63) of an OI, compared to non-late testers in care. Other predictors of an OI were injection drug use and older age. We conclude that OIs remain prevalent in the HAART era and late testers not in care are especially likely to develop an OI. Our results support comprehensive HIV programs promoting early HIV testing and linkage to care to prevent OI-related morbidity and mortality.

  1. The pathophysiology of HIV-/HAART-related metabolic syndrome leading to cardiovascular disorders: the emerging role of adipokines.

    PubMed

    Palios, John; Kadoglou, Nikolaos P E; Lampropoulos, Stylianos

    2012-01-01

    Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) frequently demonstrate metabolic syndrome (MS) associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disorders. Characteristics of HIV infection, such as immunodeficiency, viral load, and duration of the disease, in addition to the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have been suggested to induce MS in these patients. It is well documented that MS involves a number of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, like glucose, lipids, and arterial blood pressure abnormalities, leading to extensive atherogenic arterial wall changes. Nevertheless, the above traditional cardiovascular risk factors merely explain the exacerbated cardiovascular risk in MS. Nowadays, the adipose-tissue derivatives, known as adipokines, have been suggested to contribute to chronic inflammation and the MS-related cardiovascular disease. In view of a novel understanding on how adipokines affect the pathogenesis of HIV/HAART-related MS and cardiovascular complications, this paper focuses on the interaction of the metabolic pathways and the potential cardiovascular consequences. Based on the current literature, we suggest adipokines to have a role in the pathogenesis of the HIV/HAART-related MS. It is crucial to understand the pathophysiology of the HIV/HAART-related MS and apply therapeutic strategies in order to reduce cardiovascular risk in HIV patients.

  2. People with HIV in HAART-era Russia: transmission risk behavior prevalence, antiretroviral medication-taking, and psychosocial distress.

    PubMed

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A; Kelly, Jeffrey A; Kuznetsova, Anna V; DiFranceisco, Wayne J; Musatov, Vladimir B; Pirogov, Dmitry G

    2011-05-01

    Russia has seen one of the world's fastest-growing HIV epidemics. Transmission risk behavior, HAART-taking, and psychosocial distress of the growing population of Russian people living with HIV (PLH) in the HAART era are understudied. Participants of a systematically-recruited cross-sectional sample of 492 PLH in St. Petersburg completed measures of sexual and drug injection practices, adherence, perceived discrimination, and psychosocial distress. Since learning of their status, 58% of participants had partners of HIV-negative or unknown serostatus (mean = 5.8). About 52% reported unprotected intercourse with such partners, with 30% of acts unprotected. Greater perceived discrimination predicted lower condom use. A 47% of IDU PLH still shared needles, predicted by having no primary partner, lower education, and more frequently-encountered discrimination. Twenty-five percentage of PLH had been refused general health care, 11% refused employment, 7% fired, and 6% forced from family homes. Thirty-nine percentage of participants had probable clinical depression, 37% had anxiety levels comparable to psychiatric inpatients, and social support was low. Of the 54% of PLH who were offered HAART, 16% refused HAART regimens, and 5% of those on the therapy took less than 90% of their doses. Comprehensive community services for Russian PLH are needed to reduce AIDS-related psychosocial distress and continued HIV transmission risk behaviors. Social programs should reduce stigma and discrimination, and promote social integration of affected persons and their families.

  3. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Late HAART Initiation in Latin America and the Caribbean: Late Testers and Late Presenters

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Wehbe, Firas; Cesar, Carina; Cortés, Claudia; Padgett, Denis; Koenig, Serena; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cahn, Pedro; McGowan, Catherine; Masys, Daniel; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Background Starting HAART in a very advanced stage of disease is assumed to be the most prevalent form of initiation in HIV-infected subjects in developing countries. Data from Latin America and the Caribbean is still lacking. Our main objective was to determine the frequency, risk factors and trends in time for being late HAART initiator (LHI) in this region. Methodology Cross-sectional analysis from 9817 HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients initiating HAART at 6 sites (Argentina, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Peru and Mexico) from October 1999 to July 2010. LHI had CD4+ count ≤200cells/mm3 prior to HAART. Late testers (LT) were those LHI who initiated HAART within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. Late presenters (LP) initiated after 6 months of diagnosis. Prevalence, risk factors and trends over time were analyzed. Principal Findings Among subjects starting HAART (n = 9817) who had baseline CD4+ available (n = 8515), 76% were LHI: Argentina (56%[95%CI:52–59]), Chile (80%[95%CI:77–82]), Haiti (76%[95%CI:74–77]), Honduras (91%[95%CI:87–94]), Mexico (79%[95%CI:75–83]), Peru (86%[95%CI:84–88]). The proportion of LHI statistically changed over time (except in Honduras) (p≤0.02; Honduras p = 0.7), with a tendency towards lower rates in recent years. Males had increased risk of LHI in Chile, Haiti, Peru, and in the combined site analyses (CSA). Older patients were more likely LHI in Argentina and Peru (OR 1.21 per +10-year of age, 95%CI:1.02–1.45; OR 1.20, 95%CI:1.02–1.43; respectively), but not in CSA (OR 1.07, 95%CI:0.94–1.21). Higher education was associated with decreased risk for LHI in Chile (OR 0.92 per +1-year of education, 95%CI:0.87–0.98) (similar trends in Mexico, Peru, and CSA). LHI with date of HIV-diagnosis available, 55% were LT and 45% LP. Conclusion LHI was highly prevalent in CCASAnet sites, mostly due to LT; the main risk factors associated were being male and older age. Earlier HIV-diagnosis and earlier treatment initiation

  4. Prevalence and determinants of adherence to HAART amongst PLHIV in a tertiary health facility in south-south Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oku, Afiong O; Owoaje, Eme T; Ige, Olusimbo K; Oyo-Ita, Angela

    2013-08-30

    Adherence to Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a major predictor of the success of HIV/AIDS treatment. Good adherence to HAART is necessary to achieve the best virologic response, lower the risk of drug resistance and reduce morbidity and mortality. This study therefore aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of adherence to HAART amongst PLHIV accessing treatment in a tertiary location in Cross River State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients on HAART attending the Presidential Emergency plan for AIDS relief (PEPFAR) clinic of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital between October-December 2011. A total of 411 PLHIV visiting the study site during the study period were interviewed. PLHIV who met the inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited into the study till the desired sample size was attained. Information was obtained from participants using a semi-structured, pretested, interviewer administered questionnaire. Adherence was measured via patients self report and were termed adherent if they took at least 95% of prescribed medication in the previous week prior to the study. Data were summarized using proportions, and χ2 test was used to explore associations between categorical variables. Predictors of adherence to HAART were determined by binary logistic regression. Level of significance was set at p < 0.05. The mean age of PLHIV who accessed treatment was 35.7 ± 9.32 years. Females constituted 68.6% of all participants. The self reported adherence rate based on a one week recall prior to the study was 59.9%. The major reasons cited by respondents for skipping doses were operating a busy schedule, simply forgot medications, felt depressed, and travelling out of town. On logistic regression analysis, perceived improved health status [OR 3.11; CI: 1.58-6.11], reduced pill load [OR 1.25; 95% CI: 0.46-2.72] and non-use of herbal remedies [OR 1.83; 95% CI: 1.22-2.72] were the major predictors for

  5. Increased mortality among publicly insured participants in the HIV Outpatient Study despite HAART treatment.

    PubMed

    Palella, Frank J; Baker, Rose K; Buchacz, Kate; Chmiel, Joan S; Tedaldi, Ellen M; Novak, Richard M; Durham, Marcus D; Brooks, John T

    2011-09-24

    Understanding mortality differences among HIV-infected patients can focus efforts to improve survival. We evaluated death rates, causes, and associated factors among treated patients in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS), a large, prospective, multicenter observational cohort of HIV-infected persons seen at a diverse set of US sites of care. Among 3754 HOPS participants seen during 1996-2007 with at least 6 months of follow-up after initiating HAART and receiving HAART at least 75% of time under observation ('substantially treated'), we calculated hazard ratios for death using proportional hazards regression models. We also examined death causes and comorbidities among decedents. Substantially treated participants, followed a median 4.7 years (interquartile range, 2.2-8.5), experienced 331 deaths. In multivariable analyses, higher mortality was associated with an index CD4 cell count less than 200 cells/μl [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR), 2.86; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95-4.21], older age (aHR, 1.50 per 10 years; 95% CI 1.33-1.70), log(10)HIV RNA (aHR, 1.67 per log(10); 95% CI 1.51-1.85), but not race/ethnicity (aHR, 0.99 for blacks vs. whites, P = 0.92). Mortality was increased among publicly insured (PUB) vs. privately insured participants (PRV) when index CD4 cell count was at least 200 cells/μl (aHR, 2.03; 95% CI 1.32-3.14) but not when index CD4 cell count was less than 200 cells/μl (aHR, 1.3, P = 0.13). By death cause, PUB had significantly more cardiovascular events and hepatic disorders than PRV. Comorbidities more frequent among PUB vs. PRV decedents included cardiovascular disease, renal impairment, and chronic hepatitis. Among HAART-treated participants with CD4 cell counts at least 200 cells/μl, PUB experienced higher death rates than PRV. Non-AIDS death and disease causes predominated among publicly insured decedents, suggesting that treatable comorbidities contributed to survival disparities.

  6. Current use of statins reduces risk of HIV rebound on suppressive HAART

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Colby; Cutrell, James; Maalouf, Naim; Tebas, Pablo; Bedimo, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite compelling evidence for activity against HIV-1 in vitro, a virologic effect of statins has not been shown in clinical studies. Given their short plasma half-lives, such an effect may be transient and only apparent during ongoing exposure. Methods We studied all HIV infected US-Veterans who started HAART 1995–2011, had a documented HIV viral load (VL) >1000 copies/mL, reached an undetectable VL on HAART, and had ≥1 follow-up VL within 13 months. We defined virologic failure (VF) as the first VL >1,000 copies/mL or the first of 2 consecutive VL >200 copies/mL. We built a time-updated drug exposure model for antiretrovirals (ARVs), statins, and other cardiovascular drugs (CVMs), investigating current use (yes/no), recent use (proportion of days used), and categorical use (ever/never). We used both multiply adjusted and inverse-probability-weighted (IPW) Cox models to explore the association between statin and CVM use and VF. Results 19,324 veterans met inclusion criteria. Median follow-up was 13 months (IQR: 5–32 months); 63% experienced VF after a median time of 9 months (IQR 4–21 months). Almost 1/3 patients ever used statins but exposure comprised only 41% of follow-up time covered after initial prescription. Unadjusted, current statin use was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) for VF of 0.60 (CI: 0.56–0.65). This remained statistically significant after multivariate adjustment (MVA) for demographics, HIV and HAART parameters [HR 0.81 (CI: 0.75–0.88), p<0.001] and IPW (truncation <1%/>99%) HR: 0.83 (CI: 0.75–0.92), p<0.001]. No independent association was observed for other CVMs. The association between categorical-statin use and VF after MVA was much weaker: HR 0.94 (CI: 0.88–1.00, p = 0.04). Conclusion Current statin exposure was associated with reduced risk of VF in univariate, multivariate, and inverse-probability-weighted models. Our results highlight the importance of time-updated medication exposure models for

  7. Long-term immunologic outcome in HAART-experienced subjects receiving lopinavir/ritonavir.

    PubMed

    Bongiovanni, Marco; Bini, Teresa; Casana, Maddalena; Cicconi, Paola; Tordato, Federica; Monforte, Antonella D'Arminio

    2006-11-01

    The long-term immunological efficacy of regimens including lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) has not been assessed in HIV-infected HAART-experienced subjects. The present study included 452 consecutive HIV-infected outpatients starting LPV/r before May 2003 after failing (HIV-RNA > 1000 copies/ml) HAART. Four groups were considered according to CD4 cell counts at LPV/r initiation: group 1 (G1, n = 115) < 100 cells/mm(3); group 2 (G2, n = 113) 100-199 cells/mm(3); group 3 (G3, n = 115) 200-349 cells/mm(3); group 4 (G4, n = 109) >/= 350 cells/mm(3). The majority of patients were males (n = 320, 70.8%), the median age was 38 years, and 180 (39.6%) were on CDC stage C. The median time of previous HAART was 51.1 months (12-81.7) and a median of 7 antiretroviral regimens and of 3 protease inhibitors was changed before LPV/r. The mean CD4 cell count increase was 105, 113, 128, and 144 cells/mm(3) after 12 months (p < 0.01 for each group) and 128, 106, 90, and 100 cells/mm(3) at month 48 (p < 0.01 for each group) in G1, G2, G3, and G4, respectively. The mean increase was comparable among the four groups. The on treatment analysis showed a better immunologic response among G1 and G2 patients from month 36. Forty-seven patients (10.4%), mainly in G1 and G2, maintained LPV/r despite persistent HIV-RNA > 1000 copies/ml. A mean increase of 64 and 65 cells/mm(3) and of 88 and 56 cells/mm(3) at month 12 and 48 was observed in G1 and G2, respectively. The use of LPV/r-based regimens also provided a durable immunologic recovery in highly pretreated HIV-infected subjects.

  8. Nonorgan-specific autoantibodies in HIV-infected patients in the HAART era

    PubMed Central

    Iordache, Laura; Bengoufa, Djaouida; Taulera, Olivier; Rami, Agathe; Lascoux-Combe, Caroline; Day, Nesrine; Parrinello, Maguy; Sellier, Pierre-Olivier; Molina, Jean-Michel; Mahr, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Nonorgan-specific autoantibodies (AAbs) are used for diagnosing autoimmune diseases but can also be detected in other conditions. We carried out a cross-sectional study with the aim to screen HIV1-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for AAbs and to analyze the association of their presence with hypergammaglobulinemia and immunovirological status. Blood samples from HIV1-infected patients without major concomitant illnesses followed in 2 hospitals in Paris, France were tested for immunovirological status, serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) level, antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA), anti-extractable nuclear antigens (anti-ENAs), anticardiolipin (aCL), anti-β2glycoprotein1 (anti-β2GP1), and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs). Clinically relevant AAbs were defined as ANAs with titers ≥1:160, anti-dsDNA or anti-ENA antibodies; aCL or anti-β2GP1 antibodies with a level ≥40 U/ml; and ANCAs reacting with proteinase 3 or myeloperoxidase. We included 92 patients (mean age 47 years, men 55%, sub-Saharan African background 55%, HAART 85%, mean CD4 lymphocyte count 611/mm3, viral load < 40 copies/mL 74%). At least 1 AAb was detected in 45% of patients, mostly ANAs (33%) and ANCAs (13%); 12% had ≥1 clinically relevant AAb. Above-normal IgG levels were found in 71% of patients. We found an inverse association between the presence of ≥1 AAb and CD4 lymphocyte count (P = 0.03) and between above-normal IgG levels and duration of virological control (P = 0.02) and non-sub-Saharan African background (P = 0.001). In sum, in HIV1-infected patients without any major concomitant illness in the HAART era, the prevalence of AAbs remains high but AAb patterns leading to high suspicion of autoimmune diseases are rather uncommon. AAb presence is associated with reduced CD4 lymphocyte count but not hypergammaglobulinemia. PMID:28272216

  9. Nonorgan-specific autoantibodies in HIV-infected patients in the HAART era.

    PubMed

    Iordache, Laura; Bengoufa, Djaouida; Taulera, Olivier; Rami, Agathe; Lascoux-Combe, Caroline; Day, Nesrine; Parrinello, Maguy; Sellier, Pierre-Olivier; Molina, Jean-Michel; Mahr, Alfred

    2017-03-01

    Nonorgan-specific autoantibodies (AAbs) are used for diagnosing autoimmune diseases but can also be detected in other conditions. We carried out a cross-sectional study with the aim to screen HIV1-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for AAbs and to analyze the association of their presence with hypergammaglobulinemia and immunovirological status.Blood samples from HIV1-infected patients without major concomitant illnesses followed in 2 hospitals in Paris, France were tested for immunovirological status, serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) level, antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA), anti-extractable nuclear antigens (anti-ENAs), anticardiolipin (aCL), anti-β2glycoprotein1 (anti-β2GP1), and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs). Clinically relevant AAbs were defined as ANAs with titers ≥1:160, anti-dsDNA or anti-ENA antibodies; aCL or anti-β2GP1 antibodies with a level ≥40 U/ml; and ANCAs reacting with proteinase 3 or myeloperoxidase.We included 92 patients (mean age 47 years, men 55%, sub-Saharan African background 55%, HAART 85%, mean CD4 lymphocyte count 611/mm, viral load < 40 copies/mL 74%). At least 1 AAb was detected in 45% of patients, mostly ANAs (33%) and ANCAs (13%); 12% had ≥1 clinically relevant AAb. Above-normal IgG levels were found in 71% of patients. We found an inverse association between the presence of ≥1 AAb and CD4 lymphocyte count (P = 0.03) and between above-normal IgG levels and duration of virological control (P = 0.02) and non-sub-Saharan African background (P = 0.001).In sum, in HIV1-infected patients without any major concomitant illness in the HAART era, the prevalence of AAbs remains high but AAb patterns leading to high suspicion of autoimmune diseases are rather uncommon. AAb presence is associated with reduced CD4 lymphocyte count but not hypergammaglobulinemia.

  10. Cancer incidence in the multicenter AIDS Cohort Study before and during the HAART era: 1984 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Seaberg, Eric C; Wiley, Dorothy; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Chmiel, Joan S; Kingsley, Lawrence; Tang, Yiwei; Margolick, Joseph B; Jacobson, Lisa P

    2010-12-01

    The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals declined after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the mid-1990s, but the cancer risk associated with HIV infection during the HAART era remains to be clarified. Cancer incidence among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants in the Multicenter AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Cohort Study (MACS) between 1984 and 2007 was compared with the expected incidence using US population-based data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Age- and race-adjusted cancer incidence rates were also compared HIV by status and over time within the MACS. Exact statistical methods were used for all analyses. A total of 933 incident cancers were observed during 77,320 person-years of follow-up. Compared with SEER, MACS HIV-infected men had significantly (P<.05) elevated rates of KS (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 139.10), NHL (SIR, 36.80), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL)(SIR, 7.30), and anal cancer (SIR, 25.71). Within MACS, HIV infection was found to be independently associated with each of these cancers across the entire follow-up period, and KS (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 54.93), NHL (IRR, 11.18), and anal cancer (IRR, 18.50) were each found to be significantly elevated among HIV-infected men during the HAART era. Among these men, the incidence of KS and NHL declined (IRR, 0.13 and 0.23, respectively), the incidence of anal cancer increased (IRR, 5.84), and the incidence of HL remained statistically unchanged (IRR, 0.75) from the pre-HAART to the HAART era. Cancer risk remains elevated among HIV-infected men who have sex with men, highlighting the continuing need for appropriate cancer screening in this population. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  11. The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on visceral leishmaniasis in Spanish patients who are co-infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    López-Vélez, R

    2003-10-01

    Clinicians in Madrid have been observing and treating HIV-positive patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) for over a decade. As their records cover some of the co-infection cases that occurred before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was introduced into Spain, retrospective analysis of the records has allowed some of the effects of HAART on local VL to be determined. Encouragingly, HAART appears to have decreased the annual incidence of VL among local AIDS cases, from 4.81 cases/100 to just 0.8 case/100 (P <0.0005), a first episode of VL now appearing only when there is obvious HAART failure. Unfortunately, it does not seem to be very good at preventing VL relapses; within 24 months of antileishmanial treatment, 70% of patients who were receiving HAART had such relapses. The mean time between antileishmanial treatment and VL relapse was, however, longer when HAART was used than when it was not (20 v. 13 months). In those receiving HAART, relapses of the VL often occurred despite increasing CD4+ cell counts and undetectable HIV loads, indicating that successful treatment of the viral infection is insufficient to prevent the relapse of the leishmaniasis. These results are in general agreement with other observations made in Spain. VL relapses are possible and even frequent in HIV-positives who have no more than 200 CD4+ cells/microl, but secondary prophylaxis to prevent VL relapses may be safely suspended if a CD4+ count of >200 cells/microl can be maintained using HAART. VL also seems to hamper the immunological recovery of the HIV-positive, although HAART appears to have little effect on the clinical manifestations of VL.

  12. Periodontal disease in HIV-infected adults in the HAART era: Clinical, immunological, and microbiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Lucio Souza; Gonçalves, Barbara Mulatinho Lopo; Fontes, Tatiana Vasconcellos

    2013-10-01

    The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has decreased the incidence and prevalence of several oral manifestations such as oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, and Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-infected patients. Regarding periodontal disease the findings are not clear. This disease represents a group of chronic oral diseases characterized by infection and inflammation of the periodontal tissues. These tissues surround the teeth and provide periodontal protection (the gingival tissue) and periodontal support (periodontal ligament, root cementum, alveolar bone). Clinical, immunological, and microbiological aspects of these diseases, such as linear gingival erythema (LGE), necrotizing periodontal diseases (NPD) (necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis [NUG], necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis [NUP] and necrotizing stomatitis), and chronic periodontitis, have been widely studied in HIV-infected individuals, but without providing conclusive results. The purpose of this review was to contribute to a better overall understanding of the probable impact of HIV-infection on the characteristics of periodontal infections.

  13. Hybrid data capture for monitoring patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in urban Botswana.

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Hermann; Wester, C. William; Ndwapi, Ndwapi; Vanderwarker, Chris; Gaolathe, Tendani; Tirelo, Geoffrey; Avalos, Ava; Moffat, Howard; Marlink, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    Individual patient care and programme evaluation are pivotal for the success of antiretroviral treatment programmes in resource-limited countries. While computer-aided documentation and data storage are indispensable for any large programme, several important issues need to be addressed including which data are to be collected, who collects it and how it is entered into an electronic database. We describe a patient-monitoring approach, which uses patient encounter forms (in hybrid paper + electronic format) based on optical character recognition, piloted at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana's first public highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) outpatient clinic. Our novel data capture approach collects "key" data for tracking patient and programme outcomes. It saves physician time and does not detract from clinical care. PMID:16501730

  14. BK virus associated meningoencephalitis in an AIDS patient treated with HAART

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, José E; Fink, Maria C; Cedeno-Laurent, Filiberto; Delbue, Serena; Ferrante, Pasquale; Dauar, Rafi F; Filho, Francisco Bonasser; Nogueira, Roberta Schiavon; Calore, Eduardo E; Pannuti, Claudio S; Trujillo, J Roberto; de Oliveira, Augusto C Penalva

    2007-01-01

    A severely immune-suppressed AIDS patient was suspected of suffering from BK virus (BKV) meningoencephalitis, after being studied for common causes of neurological complications of co-infectious origin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis of cerebrospinal fluid and brain samples, confirmed the presence of BKV. His clinical condition improved along with the regression of brain lesions, after modifications on his antiretroviral regime. Five months after discharge, the patient was readmitted because of frequent headaches, and a marked inflammatory reaction was evidenced by a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The symptoms paralleled a rising CD4+ lymphocyte count, and immune reconstitution syndrome was suspected. This is the first non-postmortem report of BKV meningoencephalitis in an AIDS patient, showing clinical and radiographic improvement solely under HAART. PMID:17559655

  15. Immunologic basis for revaccination of HIV-infected children receiving HAART

    PubMed Central

    Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Moss, William J

    2011-01-01

    With increasing access to antiretroviral therapy for children infected with HIV, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, better understanding of the development and maintenance of memory T- and B-cell responses to pathogens after immune reconstitution is needed to assess the risk of infection. Knowledge of long-term immune responses after starting HAART is of particular importance for policies on revaccination of HIV-infected children, who may lose protective immunity to prior infections and immunizations. We review normal development of T- and B-cell memory responses to viruses and vaccines against viral pathogens, and contrast the immunological effects of perinatal HIV transmission with HIV infection acquired later in life. We then explore the potential benefits of antiretroviral therapy and revaccination, using measles virus as a model. PMID:21339832

  16. Simplification of HAART therapy on ambulatory HIV patients in Malaysia:a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Velvanathan, Tineshwaran; Islahudin, Farida; Sim, Benedict L.; Taha, Nur A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the impact of fixed-dose combination (FDC) containing emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir (TDF), and efavirenz (EFV) versus a free-dose combination (FRC) of the same three drugs on clinical outcomes, adherence and quality of life in Malaysian outpatients with HIV. Methods: HIV patients (n=120) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the infectious disease clinic of Hospital Sungai Buloh were randomized to either FDC (n=60) or FRC (n=60). Morisky scores, health-related quality of life scores and clinical outcomes such as CD4 count and viral load were assessed in both groups at baseline and six months. Result: Patients on FDC (108 SD=1.1) had a significantly higher CD4 count increase compared to the FRC group (746.1 SD=36.3 vs 799.8 SD=33.8) (p <0.001). The viral load profile was unchanged and remained undetectable in both groups. The quality of life EQ-5D scores showed a positive correlation with CD4 counts in the FDC group (ρ=0.301, p=0.019) at six months. On the other hand, quality of life EQ-VAS scores was significantly associated with medication adherence in the FDC group at six months (ρ=0.749, p=0.05). However, no significant changes or associations were observed in the FRC group. Conclusion: Management of HAART using an FDC demonstrated a positive clinical outcome, adherence and quality of life within six months in local HIV patients. PMID:28042354

  17. PPARgamma Pro12Ala polymorphism in HIV-1-infected patients with HAART-related lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Saumoy, Maria; Veloso, Sergi; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Domingo, Pere; Chacón, Matilde R; Miranda, Merce; Aragonès, Gerard; Gutiérrez, Maria Mar; Viladés, Consuelo; Peraire, Joaquim; Sirvent, Joan-Josep; López-Dupla, Miguel; Aguilar, Carmen; Richart, Cristóbal; Vidal, Francesc

    2009-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is involved in obesity and in some components of the metabolic syndrome in unselected population. To determine whether PPARgamma genetic variants are associated with the risk of developing lipodystrophy and its associated metabolic disturbances in HIV-1-infected patients treated with HAART and to assess PPARgamma mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). The study group comprised 278 patients infected with HIV-1 and treated with antiretroviral drugs (139 with lipodystrophy and 139 without) and 105 uninfected controls (UC). The PPARgamma Pro12Ala (C%>G) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was assessed using PCR-RFLPs on white cell DNA. PPARgamma mRNA expression in SAT was assessed in 38 patients (25 with lipodystrophy and 13 without) and in 21 UC by real-time PCR. Statistical analysis was based on Student's T tests, Chi(2) tests, Spearman's correlations tests and logistic regression tests. PPARgamma Pro12Ala genotype distribution and allele frequencies were non-significantly different between both HIV-1-infected categories, lipodystrophy vs non-lipodystrophy (p=0.9 and p=0.87, respectively). Lipodystrophic patients harbouring the rare X/Ala genotype (Ala/Ala plus Pro/Ala) had significantly greater plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels compared with carriers of the common Pro/Pro genotype (p=0.029 and p=0.016, respectively) at univariate analyses. At multivariate analyses these associations were no longer significant. There was a near-significant decreased SAT PPARgamma mRNA expression in patients with lipodystrophy compared to UC (p=0.054). PPARgamma Pro12Ala SNP has no effect on the risk of developing lipodystrophy in HIV-1-infected patients treated with HAART. PPARgamma mRNA SAT expression appears decreased in lipodystrophy.

  18. Effect of GB virus C co-infection on response to generic HAART in African patients with HIV-1 clade C infection.

    PubMed

    Mosam, Anisa; Sathar, Mahomed A; Dawood, Halima; Cassol, Edana; Esterhuizen, Tonya M; Coovadia, Hoosen M

    2007-06-19

    In 38 African AIDS patients initiating generic HAART, GB virus C (GBV-C) RNA-positive patients retained GBV-C viraemia during 52 weeks of HAART, had a faster decline in HIV viral load (P = 0.03), fewer opportunistic infections (14.3 versus 50%, P = 0.18), and suffered no serious adverse events (none versus 61%, P = 0.008) compared with patients without GBV-C. GBV-C co-infection may be associated with a beneficial effect on African AIDS patients treated with generic HAART.

  19. CHAGASIC MENINGOENCEPHALITIS IN AN HIV INFECTED PATIENT WITH MODERATE IMMUNOSUPPRESSION: PROLONGED SURVIVAL AND CHALLENGES IN THE HAART ERA.

    PubMed

    Buccheri, Renata; Kassab, Maria José; Freitas, Vera Lucia Teixeira de; Silva, Sheila Cristina Vicente da; Bezerra, Rita C; Khoury, Zarifa; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida; Vidal, José E

    2015-12-01

    The reactivation of Chagas disease in HIV infected patients presents high mortality and morbidity. We present the case of a female patient with confirmed Chagasic meningoencephalitis as AIDS-defining illness. Interestingly, her TCD4+ lymphocyte cell count was 318 cells/mm3. After two months of induction therapy, one year of maintenance with benznidazol, and early introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the patient had good clinical, parasitological and radiological evolution. We used a qualitative polymerase chain reaction for the monitoring of T. cruzi parasitemia during and after the treatment. We emphasize the potential value of molecular techniques along with clinical and radiological parameters in the follow-up of patients with Chagas disease and HIV infection. Early introduction of HAART, prolonged induction and maintenance of antiparasitic therapy, and its discontinuation are feasible, in the current management of reactivation of Chagas disease.

  20. CHAGASIC MENINGOENCEPHALITIS IN AN HIV INFECTED PATIENT WITH MODERATE IMMUNOSUPPRESSION: PROLONGED SURVIVAL AND CHALLENGES IN THE HAART ERA

    PubMed Central

    BUCCHERI, Renata; KASSAB, Maria José; de FREITAS, Vera Lucia Teixeira; da SILVA, Sheila Cristina Vicente; BEZERRA, Rita C.; KHOURY, Zarifa; SHIKANAI-YASUDA, Maria Aparecida; VIDAL, José E.

    2015-01-01

    The reactivation of Chagas disease in HIV infected patients presents high mortality and morbidity. We present the case of a female patient with confirmed Chagasic meningoencephalitis as AIDS-defining illness. Interestingly, her TCD4+ lymphocyte cell count was 318 cells/mm3. After two months of induction therapy, one year of maintenance with benznidazol, and early introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the patient had good clinical, parasitological and radiological evolution. We used a qualitative polymerase chain reaction for the monitoring of T. cruzi parasitemia during and after the treatment. We emphasize the potential value of molecular techniques along with clinical and radiological parameters in the follow-up of patients with Chagas disease and HIV infection. Early introduction of HAART, prolonged induction and maintenance of antiparasitic therapy, and its discontinuation are feasible, in the current management of reactivation of Chagas disease. PMID:27049711

  1. Predictors of serostatus disclosure to partners among young people living with HIV in the pre- and post-HAART eras.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Philip; Rice, Eric; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2005-09-01

    Predictors of serostatus disclosure were identified among youth living with HIV pre- and post-introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Two cohorts of HIV-positive youth, aged 13-24, in 1994-1996 (n = 351) and 1999-2000 (n = 253) in Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, and Miami were sampled through medical providers and a variety of social service agencies. Data were collected on demographic, social, medical, and behavioral topics. Men who had sex with men were more likely to disclose serostatus to their partners. Moreover, a positive association with length of time since diagnosis and the likelihood of disclosure exists; across time, youth were less likely to disclose serostatus to casual partners or HIV-negative partners. Post-HAART, number of sex acts with a partner was associated with increased likelihood of disclosure. Interventions for HIV-positive youth must improve disclosure to casual and serodiscordant sexual partners.

  2. Differential survival benefit of universal HAART access in Brazil: A Nation-wide Comparison of Injecting Drug Users versus Men who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Malta, Monica; Bastos, Francisco I.; da Silva, Cosme MFP; Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Lucena, Francisca FA; Fonseca, Maria GP; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Brazil accounts for ∼70% of injection drug users (IDU) receiving HAART in low/middle income countries. We evaluated the impact of HAART availability/access on AIDS-related mortality among IDU versus men who have sex with men (MSM). Design Nationwide analysis on Brazilian IDU and MSM diagnosed with AIDS in 2000-2006. Methods Four national information systems were linked and Cox regression was used to assess impact of HAART availability/access on differential AIDS-related mortality. Results Among 28,426 patients, 6,777 died during 87,792 person-years of follow-up. Compared to MSM, IDU were significantly less likely to be receiving HAART, to have ever had determinations for CD4 or viral load. After controlling for confounders, IDU had a significantly higher risk of death (AHR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.84-2.05). Among the subset that had at least one CD4 and viral load determination, higher risk of death among IDU persisted (HR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.58-2.11). Non-white ethnicity significantly increased this risk, while prompt HAART uptake after AIDS diagnosis reduced the risk of death. After controlling for spatially-correlated survival data, AIDS-related mortality remained higher in IDU than in MSM. Conclusions Despite free/universal HAART access, differential AIDS-related mortality exists in Brazil. Efforts are needed to identify and eliminate these health disparities. PMID:19675464

  3. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)-Related Hypertriglyceridemia Is Associated With Failure of Recovery of CD14lowCD16+ Monocyte Subsets in AIDS Patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Junyan; Zhao, Hongxin; Ma, Yaluan; Zhou, Haiwei; Hao, Yu; Li, Yanmei; Song, Chuan; Han, Ning; Liu, Xiangyi; Zeng, Hui; Qin, Mingzhao

    2015-07-01

    As cellular reservoirs, CD16 monocyte subsets play important roles in the progression of HIV infection. Previous studies have shown that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduced the percentages of CD14CD16 monocyte subsets, but did not recover the percentages of CD14CD16 subsets. Eighty-four chronic HIV-infected, HAART-naïve individuals and 55 HIV-negative subjects (31 without hyperlipidemia and 24 with hypertriglyceridemia) were enrolled. Plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, CD4 T-cell counts, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein were followed up for 48 weeks during HAART treatment in the longitudinal study. We found that mild hypertriglyceridemia in HIV-negative subjects and HIV-infected patients, naïve to HAART, did not affect the percentage of monocyte subsets. However, a failure of CD14CD16 subset recovery was observed in patients with HAART-related hypertriglyceridemia at 48 weeks. Thus, HAART-related hypertriglyceridemia altered homeostasis of monocyte subsets to antiviral therapy, which might further affect immune reconstitution.

  4. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)-Related Hypertriglyceridemia Is Associated With Failure of Recovery of CD14lowCD16+ Monocyte Subsets in AIDS Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Junyan; Zhao, Hongxin; Ma, Yaluan; Zhou, Haiwei; Hao, Yu; Li, Yanmei; Song, Chuan; Han, Ning; Liu, Xiangyi; Zeng, Hui; Qin, Mingzhao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As cellular reservoirs, CD16+ monocyte subsets play important roles in the progression of HIV infection. Previous studies have shown that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduced the percentages of CD14highCD16+ monocyte subsets, but did not recover the percentages of CD14lowCD16+ subsets. Eighty-four chronic HIV-infected, HAART-naïve individuals and 55 HIV-negative subjects (31 without hyperlipidemia and 24 with hypertriglyceridemia) were enrolled. Plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, CD4+ T-cell counts, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein were followed up for 48 weeks during HAART treatment in the longitudinal study. We found that mild hypertriglyceridemia in HIV-negative subjects and HIV-infected patients, naïve to HAART, did not affect the percentage of monocyte subsets. However, a failure of CD14lowCD16+ subset recovery was observed in patients with HAART-related hypertriglyceridemia at 48 weeks. Thus, HAART-related hypertriglyceridemia altered homeostasis of monocyte subsets to antiviral therapy, which might further affect immune reconstitution. PMID:26166108

  5. [In-hospital mortality in HIV-infected patients: 10 years after the implementation of universal access to HAART in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Martín-Onraet, Alexandra; Piñeirua-Menéndez, Alicia; Perales-Martínez, Diana; Ortega-Pérez, Raúl; Barrera-García, Alejandro; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Volkow-Fernández, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    To establish the characteristics and causes of death of HIV patients who die while hospitalized. We included HIV+ patients who died during hospitalization, in three hospitals in Mexico City between 2010 and 2013. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected as well as causes of death. We identified preventable deaths (defined as deaths that occurred in patients with less than six months of HAART, or without HAART, with less than 350 CD4 at diagnosis and/or opportunistic events as the cause of hospitalization). 128 deaths were analyzed. The median of CD4 count was 47 cells/mm³; 18% of the patients ignored their HIV status at the time of hospitalization, 51% had less than six months of HAART, 40.5% had never received HAART before. The main causes of death were AIDS defining events, with 65.6%. We identified 70 preventable deaths (57%). Despite universal access to HAART, HIV patients in Mexico are still dying of AIDS defining illnesses, an indicator of late diagnosis. It is urgent to implement HIV testing programs to allow earlier diagnosis and make HAART benefit accessible to all.

  6. Targeted therapies to treat Non-AIDS Defining Cancers in patients with HIV on HAART therapy – treatment considerations and research outlook

    PubMed Central

    Deeken, John F.; Pantanowitz, Liron; Dezube, Bruce J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a dramatic improvement in the prognosis of patients diagnosed with HIV and AIDS. This includes a significant decline in the rates of AIDS-related cancers, including Kaposi Sarcoma and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. Unfortunately, rates of Non-AIDS Defining Cancers (NADCs) are on the rise, and now exceed the rates of AIDS-related cancers in patients with HIV. Treating NADCs in patients who are on HAART therapy is an open and complicated clinical question. Recent findings Newer targeted therapies are now available to treat cancers which were historically refractory to traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. HAART agents are notorious for causing drug-drug interactions. The co-administration of targeted chemotherapies with HAART could well impede the efficacy or increase the toxicity of these targeted therapies. Unfortunately little is known about possible drug-drug interactions because HIV patients are typically excluded from clinical trials. Summary We highlight what is known about how and why HAART agents can affect drug metabolism. We then present the clinical and pharmacological data for nine recently approved targeted therapies – imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, erlotinib, sunitinib, lapatinib, bortezomib, sorafenib, and temsirolimus. We conclude with considerations on how to use these new agents to treat NADCs, and discuss a future research agenda to better understand and predict potential HAART-targeted therapy interactions. PMID:19606034

  7. Assessing the impact of HAART on the incidence of defining and non-defining AIDS cancers among patients with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cobucci, Ricardo Ney Oliveira; Lima, Paulo Henrique; de Souza, Pollyana Carvalho; Costa, Vanessa Viana; Cornetta, Maria da Conceição de Mesquita; Fernandes, José Veríssimo; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine

    2015-01-01

    After highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) became widespread, several studies demonstrated changes in the incidence of defining and non-defining AIDS cancers among HIV/AIDS patients. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies evaluating the incidence of malignancies before and after the introduction of HAART in people with HIV/AIDS. Eligible studies were searched up to December 2012 in the following databases: Pubmed, Embase, Scielo, Cancerlit and Google Scholar. In this study, we determined the cancer risk ratio by comparing the pre- and post-HAART eras. Twenty-one relevant articles were found, involving more than 600,000 people with HIV/AIDS and 10,891 new cases of cancers. The risk for the development of an AIDS-defining cancer decreased after the introduction of HAART: Kaposi's sarcoma (RR=0.30, 95% CI: 0.28-0.33) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (RR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.48-0.56), in contrast to invasive cervical cancer (RR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.09-1.94). Among the non-AIDS-defining cancers, the overall risk increased after the introduction of HAART (RR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.79-2.23). The incidence of AIDS-defining cancers decreased and the incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers increased after the early use of HAART, probably due to better control of viral replication, increased immunity and increased survival provided by new drugs.

  8. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV-positive patients in Brazil: clinical features and predictors of treatment response in the HAART era.

    PubMed

    Vidal, José E; Hernandez, Adrian V; de Oliveira, Augusto C Penalva; Dauar, Rafi F; Barbosa, Silas Pereira; Focaccia, Roberto

    2005-10-01

    A prospective study of 55 confirmed or presumptive cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV positive patients in Brazil was performed to describe clinical characteristics and to identify predictive factors for clinical response to the anti-Toxoplasma treatment. Cerebral toxoplasmosis led to the diagnosis of HIV infection in 19 (35%) patients, whereas it was the AIDS defining disease in 41 (75%) patients. Of these, 22 (54%) patients were previously know to be HIV-positive. At diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis, only 4 (7%) patients were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and 6 (11%) were receiving primary cerebral toxoplasmosis prophylaxis. The mean CD4+ cell count was 64.2 (+/- 69.1) cells per microliter. Forty-nine patients (78%) showed alterations consistent with toxoplasmosis on brain computed tomography. At 6 weeks of treatment, 23 (42%) patients had complete clinical response, 25 (46%) partial response, and 7 (13%) died. Alteration of consciousness, Karnofsky score less than 70, psychomotor slowing, hemoglobin less than 12 mg/dL, mental confusion, Glasgow Coma Scale less than 12 were the main predictors of partial clinical response. All patients were placed on HAART within the first 4 weeks of diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis. One year after the diagnosis, all available patients were on HAART and toxoplasmosis prophylaxis, and only 2 patients had relapse of cerebral toxoplasmosis. In Brazilian patients with AIDS, cerebral toxoplasmosis mainly occurs as an AIDS-defining disease, and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Signs of neurologic deterioration predict an unfavorable response to the treatment. Early start of HAART seems to be related to better survival and less relapses.

  9. Regionally Specific Brain Volumetric and Cortical Thickness Changes in HIV-Infected Patients in the HAART Era.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Ryan; Fernandez Cruz, Ana Lucia; Scott, Susan C; Mayo, Nancy E; Fellows, Lesley K; Ances, Beau M; Collins, D Louis

    2017-04-15

    Cognitive impairment still occurs in a substantial subset of HIV-infected patients, despite effective viral suppression with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Structural brain changes may provide clues about the underlying pathophysiology. This study provides a detailed spatial characterization of the pattern and extent of brain volume changes associated with HIV and relates these brain measures to cognitive ability and clinical variables. Multiple novel neuroimaging techniques (deformation-based morphometry, voxel-based morphometry, and cortical modeling) were used to assess regional brain volumes in 125 HIV-infected patients and 62 HIV-uninfected individuals. Ninety percent of the HIV-infected patients were on stable HAART with most of them (75%) having plasma viral suppression. Brain volumetrics and cortical thickness estimates were compared between the HIV-infected and uninfected groups, and the relationships between these measures of brain volume and indices of current and past infection severity, central nervous system penetration of HAART, and cognitive performance were assessed. Regionally specific patterns of reduced thalamic and brainstem volumes and reduced cortical thickness in the orbitofrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus, primary motor and sensory cortex, temporal, and frontal lobes were seen in HIV-infected patients compared to HIV-uninfected participants. Observed white matter loss and subcortical atrophy were associated with lower nadir CD4 cell counts, while reduction in cortical thickness was related to worse cognitive performance. Our findings suggest that distinct mechanisms may underlie cortical and subcortical injury in people with HIV and argues for the potential importance of early initiation of HAART to protect long-term brain health.

  10. Impact of time to start treatment following infection with application to initiating HAART in HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Lok, Judith J; DeGruttola, Victor

    2012-09-01

    We estimate how the effect of antiretroviral treatment depends on the time from HIV-infection to initiation of treatment, using observational data. A major challenge in making inferences from such observational data arises from biases associated with the nonrandom assignment of treatment, for example bias induced by dependence of time of initiation on disease status. To address this concern, we develop a new class of Structural Nested Mean Models (SNMMs) to estimate the impact of time of initiation of treatment after infection on an outcome measured a fixed duration after initiation, compared to the effect of not initiating treatment. This leads to a SNMM that models the effect of multiple dosages of treatment on a time-dependent outcome, in contrast to most existing SNNMs, which focus on the effect of one dosage of treatment on an outcome measured at the end of the study. Our identifying assumption is that there are no unmeasured confounders. We illustrate our methods using the observational Acute Infection and Early Disease Research Program (AIEDRP) Core01 database on HIV. The current standard of care in HIV-infected patients is Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment (HAART); however, the optimal time to start HAART has not yet been identified. The new class of SNNMs allows estimation of the dependence of the effect of 1 year of HAART on the time between estimated date of infection and treatment initiation, and on patient characteristics. Results of fitting this model imply that early use of HAART substantially improves immune reconstitution in the early and acute phase of HIV-infection. © 2012, The International Biometric Society.

  11. Delayed diagnosis of HIV infection in a multicenter cohort: prevalence, risk factors, response to HAART and impact on mortality.

    PubMed

    Sobrino-Vegas, Paz; García-San Miguel, Lucía; Caro-Murillo, Ana M; Miró, José M; Viciana, Pompeyo; Tural, Cristina; Saumoy, Maria; Santos, Ignacio; Sola, Julio; del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago

    2009-03-01

    To study the prevalence of Delayed HIV Diagnosis (DHD) and its associated risk factors, to evaluate the effect of DHD on virological and immunological responses to HAART and to estimate the impact of DHD on all-causes mortality. Prospective cohort of 2, 564 HIV-positive HAART-naïve subjects attending 19 hospitals in Spain, 2004-2006. Estimations were made by logistic regression and survival analyses by Cox regression models. Prevalence of DHD was 37.3% (35.0-39.6). DHD was related to low educational level (OR:1.31, 95% CI:1.0-1.7). Compared to men who have sex with men (MSM), DHD was more frequent in heterosexuals (OR:1.9 95% CI:1.5-2.5) and injection drug users (IDUs) (OR:2.0 95% CI:1.5-2.8). An interaction between age and sex was found. Although risk of having DHD did not increase after age 30 in women, it increased linearly with age in men. No differences in virological (OR 1.2 95% CI: 0.8-1.8) and CD4 T cell (OR 1.1 95% CI: 0.7-1.8) responses to HAART were seen. The adjusted hazard ratio for death in patients with DHD was 5.2, (95% CI: 1.9-14.5). DHD is very common, especially in older men, heterosexuals and IDUs. Although we did not find differences in virological and immunological responses to HAART, we did observe higher mortality in people with DHD. Increased efforts to early diagnose HIV infection are urgently needed.

  12. Hypertension among HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hejazi, Nazisa; MSL, Huang; Lin, Khor Geok; Choong, Lee Christopher Kwok

    2014-01-01

    There are increasing researches about non-communicable disease such as elevated blood pressure among people living with HIV before and after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors among 340 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy at a Malaysian public hospital providing HIV-related treatment. Data on socioeconomic background, anthropometry, medical history and dietary intake of the patients were collected. Hypertension is defined as blood pressure ≥130/85 (mm Hg). Prevalence of hypertension was 45.60% (n=155) of which 86.5% of the hypertensive group were male (n=134). The results showed that increase in age (OR 1.051, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.024-1.078), higher body mass index (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.106-2.71), bigger waist circumference (OR 1.18, 95%CI 1.106-2.71), higher waist-hip ratio (OR 1.070, 95%CI 1.034-1.106), higher fasting plasma glucose (OR 1.332, 95% CI 0.845-2.100) and percentage energy intake from protein >15 (OR 2.519, 95%CI 1.391-4.561) were significant risk factors for hypertension (p<0.001). After adjusting for other variables, increasing age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.069 95%CI 1.016-1.124, p=0.010), being male (aOR 3.026, 95%CI 1.175-7.794, p=0.022) and higher body mass index (aOR 1.26, 95%CI 1.032-1.551, p=0.024) were independently associated with hypertension. None of the antiretroviral therapy and immunologic factors was linked to hypertension. In conclusion hypertension among PLHIV was linked to the well-known risk factors such as age, gender and body mass index. With HAART, people can live longer by making monitoring and control of some reversible factors, especially excessive weight gain for maintaining quality of life. PMID:24576366

  13. Hypertension among HIV-infected adults receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Nazisa; Huang, M S L; Lin, Khor Geok; Choong, Lee Christopher Kwok

    2013-12-01

    There are increasing researches about non-communicable disease such as elevated blood pressure among people living with HIV before and after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors among 340 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy at a Malaysian public hospital providing HIV-related treatment. Data on socioeconomic background, anthropometry, medical history and dietary intake of the patients were collected. Hypertension is defined as blood pressure >=130/85 (mm Hg). Prevalence of hypertension was 45.60% (n=155) of which 86.5% of the hypertensive group were male (n=134). The results showed that increase in age (OR 1.051, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.024-1.078), higher body mass index (OR 1.18, 95%CI 1.106-2.71), bigger waist circumference (OR 1.18, 95%CI 1.106-2.71), higher waist-hip ratio (OR 1.070, 95%CI 1.034-1.106), higher fasting plasma glucose (OR 1.332, 95%CI 0.845-2.100) and percentage energy intake from protein >15 (OR 2.519, 95%CI 1.391-4.561) were significant risk factors for hypertension (p<0.001). After adjusting for other variables, increasing age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.069 95%CI 1.016-1.124, p=0.010), being male (aOR 3.026, 95%CI 1.175-7.794, p=0.022) and higher body mass index (aOR 1.26, 95%CI 1.032-1.551, p=0.024) were independently associated with hypertension. None of the antiretroviral therapy and immunologic factors was linked to hypertension. In conclusion hypertension among PLHIV was linked to the well-known risk factors such as age, gender and body mass index. With HAART, people can live longer by making monitoring and control of some reversible factors, especially excessive weight gain for maintaining quality of life.

  14. Level of adherence and HIV RNA suppression in the current era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Shilpa; Detels, Roger; Mehta, Shruti H.; Macatangay, Bernard J.C.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Jacobson, Lisa P.

    2014-01-01

    The need to achieve ≥95% adherence to HAART for treatment effectiveness may be a barrier for universal initiation at early stages of HIV. Using longitudinal data collected from 2006-2011 from cohort studies of MSM (MACS) and IDUs (ALIVE study), we estimated the minimum adherence needed to achieve HIV RNA suppression (<50 copies/mL), defined as the level at which at least 80% were virally suppressed, and the odds of suppression was not significantly different than that observed with ≥95% adherence. In the MACS, ≥80% suppression was observed with 80-84% adherence and the odds ratio for suppression (vs.≥95% adherence) was 1.43 (0.61, 3.33). In the ALIVE study where <35% were on newer drugs, only 71.4% were suppressed among those who reported ≥95% adherence. Although IDUs on older HAART regimens may need to be ≥95% adherent, concerns related to non-adherence may be less of a barrier to initiation of modern HAART regimens. PMID:25342151

  15. Analysis of survival in HIV-infected subjects according to socio-economic resources in the HAART era.

    PubMed

    Liotta, G; Caleo, G M; Mancinelli, S

    2008-01-01

    Availability of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment (HAART) has modified the natural history of HIV infection, resulting in increase of seropositive subjects survival. The aim of the study was to assess patients' survival in relation to socio-economic status in HAART era using Functional Multidimensional Evaluation questionnaire. A three-level Socio-Economic Index (SEI) combining results from self-perception of unmet needs and objective data from the assessment of the two dimensions has been set up by the authors. Of the 382 subjects interviewed, 102 had been lost to follow-up. SEI showed that 66.4% of the sample faced unmet social or economic needs and 17.1% had unmet needs in both areas. There was a significant relationship between the self-sufficiency in performing Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Clinical Staging, CD4 cell count, SEI and risk of death. The lowest level of SEI was associated with a doubled risk of death compared to SEI upper level. Availability of social and economics support have a positive effect upon survival in patients with HIV infection, also in case of availability of HAART. The combination of subjective and objective assessment of socio-economic resources allows a better understanding of their impact on survival.

  16. Characteristics and prognosis of B-cell lymphoma in HIV-infected children in the HAART era.

    PubMed

    Godot, Cécile; Patte, Catherine; Blanche, Stéphane; Rohrlich, Pierre; Dollfus, Catherine; Tabone, Marie-Dominique

    2012-10-01

    Chronic HIV infection leads to increased risk of non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. However, only few recent data are available about their current management and prognosis in HIV-infected children since the advent highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This multicenter retrospective study describes the 12 cases of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosed in HIV-infected children in France between 1996 and 2009. All children had moderate to severe immunosuppression and high viral load at the time of diagnosis. Nine children had extracerebral primary sites and 3 had a primary central nervous system lymphoma. Eight patients had Burkitt lymphoma; 4 had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Concomitantly with HAART, all children with extracerebral lymphoma received intensive chemotherapy according to LMB protocol, those with primary central nervous system lymphoma received high-dose methotrexate. No toxicity-related deaths occurred. Ten patients entered complete remission (CR), 2 died of tumor progression despite a second line of therapy. No relapses occurred after CR (median follow-up, 72 mo). Thus, prognosis of patients unresponsive to first-line lymphoma treatment remains poor, but relapse seems to be rare when CR is achieved. Children without severe comorbidities can tolerate intensive chemotherapy with a mandatory HAART treatment, taking into account drug interactions.

  17. Renal Function Impairment and Associated Factors among HAART Naïve and Experienced Adult HIV Positive Individuals in Southwest Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Mekuria, Yewulsew; Yilma, Daniel; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Kassa, Tesfaye; Gedefaw, Lealem

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment cause renal diseases. Renal disease is associated with an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV positive individuals than in the general population. It has been also associated with adverse outcomes, such as complications of decreased renal functions and progression to renal failure. To determine the prevalence and factors associated with renal function impairment among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) naive and HAART experienced adult HIV positive individuals. A facility based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH) from June to September 2014. HIV positive individuals who visited JUSH during the study period were included in the study. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Blood specimen was analyzed for renal function tests. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regression analysis were done using SPSS version 16 software. A total of 446 HIV positive individuals, 223 HAART naïve and 223 HAART experienced, were recruited. The overall prevalence of renal function impairment was 18.2% [95%CI: 14.6-21.7]. The prevalence of renal impairment in HAART naive and HAART experienced persons was 28.7% [95%CI: 23.1-34.4] and 7.6% [95%CI: 4.6-11.6], respectively. Age ≥ 50 years (AOR = 3.6; 95% CI 1.4, 9.6), advanced WHO stage (AOR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.1, 4.7), and CD4 count <200 (AOR = 6.9; 95% CI 3.3, 14.2) were independent risk factors among HAART naive participants. Female gender (AOR = 6.6; 95 CI % 1.2, 34), age ≥ 50 years (AOR = 12.1; 95% CI 1.7, 84) and CD4 count <200 (AOR = 17; 95% CI 5.2, 58) were independent risk factors among HAART experienced participants. The prevalence of renal function impairment was higher among HAART naïve than HAART experienced HIV positive individuals. Renal function impairment was associated with disease advancement and old age.

  18. Rates and Reasons for Early Change of First HAART in HIV-1-Infected Patients in 7 Sites throughout the Caribbean and Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Cesar, Carina; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.; Fink, Valeria I.; Schechter, Mauro; Tuboi, Suely H.; Wolff, Marcelo; Pape, Jean W.; Leger, Paul; Padgett, Denis; Madero, Juan Sierra; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sued, Omar; McGowan, Catherine C.; Masys, Daniel R.; Cahn, Pedro E.

    2010-01-01

    Background HAART rollout in Latin America and the Caribbean has increased from approximately 210,000 in 2003 to 390,000 patients in 2007, covering 62% (51%–70%) of eligible patients, with considerable variation among countries. No multi-cohort study has examined rates of and reasons for change of initial HAART in this region. Methodology Antiretroviral-naïve patients > = 18 years who started HAART between 1996 and 2007 and had at least one follow-up visit from sites in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico and Peru were included. Time from HAART initiation to change (stopping or switching any antiretrovirals) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier techniques. Cox proportional hazards modeled the associations between change and demographics, initial regimen, baseline CD4 count, and clinical stage. Principal Findings Of 5026 HIV-infected patients, 35% were female, median age at HAART initiation was 37 years (interquartile range [IQR], 31–44), and median CD4 count was 105 cells/uL (IQR, 38–200). Estimated probabilities of changing within 3 months and one year of HAART initiation were 16% (95% confidence interval (CI) 15–17%) and 28% (95% CI 27–29%), respectively. Efavirenz-based regimens and no clinical AIDS at HAART initiation were associated with lower risk of change (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.7 (95% CI 1.1–2.6) and 2.1 (95% CI 1.7–2.5) comparing neverapine-based regimens and other regimens to efavirenz, respectively; HR = 1.3 (95% CI 1.1–1.5) for clinical AIDS at HAART initiation). The primary reason for change among HAART initiators were adverse events (14%), death (5.7%) and failure (1.3%) with specific toxicities varying among sites. After change, most patients remained in first line regimens. Conclusions Adverse events were the leading cause for changing initial HAART. Predictors for change due to any reason were AIDS at baseline and the use of a non-efavirenz containing regimen. Differences between participant sites were observed

  19. Monitoring of HAART regime antiretrovirals in serum of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients by micellar liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Casas-Breva, I; Peris-Vicente, J; Rambla-Alegre, M; Carda-Broch, S; Esteve-Romero, J

    2012-09-21

    A methodology based on micellar liquid chromatography to monitor five antiretroviral drugs (lamivudine, stavudine, tenofovir, zidovudine and efavirenz) was proposed. Antiretrovirals were studied in sets of three, corresponding to each highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regime, prescribed to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-infected patients. Four aqueous micellar mobile phases buffered at pH 7 were optimized to separate these compounds, using sodium dodecyl sulfate as the tensioactive, and 1-propanol or 1-pentanol as the organic modifier. The composition of each mobile phase was optimized for each antiretroviral. The common separation conditions were: C18 apolar column (125 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size), UV detection set at 214 nm, and mobile phase running at 1 mL min(-1) without controlling the temperature. The finally suggested method was validated for five analysed antiretroviral drugs following the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines in terms of: linearity between 0.5 and 50 ppm (r(2) > 0.9995), sensitivity (LOD lower than 0.25 ppm), intra- and inter-day precision (<7.1 and <5.2%, respectively) and accuracy (recovery 88.5-105.3% and 93.5-101.3%, respectively), as well as robustness (<6.5%). The proposed method was used to monitor the level of antiretrovirals in the serum of AIDS patients. The suggested methodology was found to be useful in the routine analysis of antiretrovirals in serum samples.

  20. Neurobehavioral Effects in HIV-Positive Individuals Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in Gaborone, Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, Kathy; Jeremiah, Kealeboga; Mosepele, Mosepele; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Cherry, Catherine; Seloilwe, Esther; Steenhoff, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence and features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDS) in Botswana, a sub-Saharan country at the center of the HIV epidemic. Design and Methods A cross sectional study of 60 HIV-positive individuals, all receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and 80 demographically matched HIV-seronegative control subjects. We administered a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and structured psychiatric interview. The lowest 10th percentile of results achieved by control subjects was used to define the lower limit of normal performance on cognitive measures. Subjects who scored abnormal on three or more measures were classified as cognitively impaired. To determine the clinical significance of any cognitive impairment, we assessed medication adherence, employment, and independence in activities of daily living (ADL). Results HIV+ subjects were impaired for all cognitive-motor ability areas compared with matched, uninfected control subjects. Thirty seven percent of HIV+ patients met criteria for cognitive impairment. Conclusion These findings indicate that neurocognitive impairment is likely to be an important feature of HIV infection in resource-limited countries; underscoring the need to develop effective treatments for subjects with, or at risk of developing, cognitive impairment. PMID:21365002

  1. Psychosocial aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a pre-HAART sample.

    PubMed

    Skydsbjerg, M; Lunn, S; Hutchings, B

    2001-09-01

    The psychosocial consequences of HLV-infection were studied using a semi-structured interview and the psychiatric questionnaire SCL-90-R, in 3 matched groups of homosexual men: 20 patients with Aids, 20 asymptomatic HIV-infected and 20 non-infected controls. The data was collected before the HAART (Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy) era. The results showed that the infected subjects more often concealed their homosexuality, engaged in more risky sexual behavior and were less inclined to regard AIDS as a serious problem. The infected subjects also revealed more psychopathology on 5 of the 9 indexes on the SCL-90. Across all 3 groups, contact ability was correlated to being open about homosexuality and to psychological well-being. These results indicate that HIV has considerable impact on psychological well-being among the infected and point to the need for health-care workers to be especially attentive to those HIV-infected who have difficulty in talking to others about their situation.

  2. Compatibility studies of nevirapine in physical mixtures with excipients for oral HAART.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, G G G; Ferraz, H G; Severino, P; Souto, E B

    2013-03-01

    Nevirapine is a hydrophobic non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, used in first line regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The drug has more than one crystalline form, which may have implications for its behaviour during production and also for its in vivo performance. This study was aimed at exploring the suitability of thermoanalytical methods for the solid-state characterization of commercial crystalline forms of nevirapine. The drug powder was characterized by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, stereoscopy, scanning electron microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, measurements of density, flowability, solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR), differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and photostability measurements. The results showed that nevirapine has high stability and is not susceptible to degradation under light exposure. The drug showed compatibility with the excipients tested (lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyvinyl acetate copolymer (PVP/PVA), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)). Nevirapine has low solubility, an acid medium being the most appropriate medium for assessing the release of the drug from dosage forms. However, the data obtained from IDR testing indicate that dissolution is the critical factor for the bioavailability of this drug.

  3. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of an oral once-a-day osmotic controlled-release OROS (methylphenidate HCl) formulation.

    PubMed

    Modi, N B; Lindemulder, B; Gupta, S K

    2000-04-01

    Methylphenidate is used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). OROS (methylphenidate HCl) is an osmotic controlled-release delivery system designed for once-daily oral dosing. The pharmacokinetics of OROS (methylphenidate HCl) 18 mg qd, sustained-release (SR) methylphenidate 20 mg qd, and the immediate-release (IR) formulation given as three 5 mg doses every 4 hours (tid) were compared in adults. In addition, the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of the OROS formulation were studied. Following OROS (methylphenidate HCl), there was a gradual increase in the mean methylphenidate plasma concentrations with peak concentrations noted at 6 to 8 hours. With the SR formulation, peak plasma concentrations were noted at approximately 4 hours. Following the IR regimen, methylphenidate plasma concentrations fluctuated in tandem with oral dosing; peak concentrations were noted at 6.5 hours. The terminal half-life of methylphenidate was similar for the three formulations. The dose-normalized methylphenidate Cmax for OROS (methylphenidate HCl) was significantly lower than for IR and SR methylphenidate. The bioavailability of methylphenidate and PPA from OROS (methylphenidate HCl) relative to the IR and SR formulations was complete. Mean methylphenidate AUC and terminal half-life were similar after single (32.9 ng.h/mL and 3.9 hours) and multiple doses (35.2 ng.h/mL and 3.9 hours) of OROS (methylphenidate HCl).

  4. A Protocolised Once a Day Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) Measurement Is an Appropriate Screening Tool for Major Adverse Events in a General Hospital Population.

    PubMed

    van Galen, Louise S; Dijkstra, Casper C; Ludikhuize, Jeroen; Kramer, Mark H H; Nanayakkara, Prabath W B

    2016-01-01

    The Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) was developed to timely recognise clinically deteriorating hospitalised patients. However, the ability of the MEWS in predicting serious adverse events (SAEs) in a general hospital population has not been examined prospectively. The aims were to (1) analyse protocol adherence to a MEWS protocol in a real-life setting and (2) to determine the predictive value of protocolised daily MEWS measurement on SAEs: death, cardiac arrests, ICU-admissions and readmissions. All adult patients admitted to 6 hospital wards in October and November 2015 were included. MEWS were checked each morning by the research team. For each critical score (MEWS ≥ 3), the clinical staff was inquired about the actions performed. 30-day follow-up for SAEs was performed to compare between patients with and without a critical score. 1053 patients with 3673 vital parameter measurements were included, 200 (19.0%) had a critical score. The protocol adherence was 89.0%. 18.2% of MEWS were calculated wrongly. Patients with critical scores had significant higher rates of unplanned ICU admissions [7.0% vs 1.3%, p < 0.001], in-hospital mortality [6.0% vs 0.8%, p < 0.001], 30-day readmission rates [18.6% vs 10.8%, p < 0.05], and a longer length of stay [15.65 (SD: 15.7 days) vs 6.09 (SD: 6.9), p < 0.001]. Specificity of MEWS related to composite adverse events was 83% with a negative predicting value of 98.1%. Protocol adherence was high, even though one-third of the critical scores were calculated wrongly. Patients with a MEWS ≥ 3 experienced significantly more adverse events. The negative predictive value of early morning MEWS < 3 was 98.1%, indicating the reliability of this score as a screening tool.

  5. A Protocolised Once a Day Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) Measurement Is an Appropriate Screening Tool for Major Adverse Events in a General Hospital Population

    PubMed Central

    Ludikhuize, Jeroen; Kramer, Mark H. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) was developed to timely recognise clinically deteriorating hospitalised patients. However, the ability of the MEWS in predicting serious adverse events (SAEs) in a general hospital population has not been examined prospectively. The aims were to (1) analyse protocol adherence to a MEWS protocol in a real-life setting and (2) to determine the predictive value of protocolised daily MEWS measurement on SAEs: death, cardiac arrests, ICU-admissions and readmissions. Methods All adult patients admitted to 6 hospital wards in October and November 2015 were included. MEWS were checked each morning by the research team. For each critical score (MEWS ≥ 3), the clinical staff was inquired about the actions performed. 30-day follow-up for SAEs was performed to compare between patients with and without a critical score. Results 1053 patients with 3673 vital parameter measurements were included, 200 (19.0%) had a critical score. The protocol adherence was 89.0%. 18.2% of MEWS were calculated wrongly. Patients with critical scores had significant higher rates of unplanned ICU admissions [7.0% vs 1.3%, p < 0.001], in-hospital mortality [6.0% vs 0.8%, p < 0.001], 30-day readmission rates [18.6% vs 10.8%, p < 0.05], and a longer length of stay [15.65 (SD: 15.7 days) vs 6.09 (SD: 6.9), p < 0.001]. Specificity of MEWS related to composite adverse events was 83% with a negative predicting value of 98.1%. Conclusions Protocol adherence was high, even though one-third of the critical scores were calculated wrongly. Patients with a MEWS ≥ 3 experienced significantly more adverse events. The negative predictive value of early morning MEWS < 3 was 98.1%, indicating the reliability of this score as a screening tool. PMID:27494719

  6. Oral lesions in HIV+/AIDS adolescents perinatally infected undergoing HAART.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis-Alberto; Domínguez-Sánchez, Anitza; Pavía-Ruz, Noris; Muñoz-Hernández, Rocío; Verdugo-Díaz, Roberto; Valles-Medina, Ana-María; Meráz-Acosta, Héctor

    2010-07-01

    To assess the prevalence of the oral lesions related to HIV-infection (HIV-OL) in HIV+/AIDS adolescents (=13 years old), and the differences with HIV+/AIDS children (=3 - <13 years old) perinatally infected. 25 HIV+/AIDS adolescents and 62 HIV+/AIDS children, undergoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, were orally examined. HIV-OL was diagnosed in accordance with EC-Clearinghouse-World Health Organization. The patients were classifies with respect to their immune status in relation with the CD4+ cell counts as moderately immunodeficient; mildly immunodeficient and severely immunodeficient in accordance to the revised surveillance case definitions for HIV infection among adults, adolescents, and children aged <18 months and for HIV infection and AIDS among children aged 18 months to <13 years (CDC-USA). The virological status was established in relation to the copies of RNA-HIV-1/mL as follows: with undetectable viral load (UDVL); with low viral load and with high viral load. A chi-square test was performed (p<0.05 IC95%). The prevalence of HIV-OL in HIV+/AIDS adolescents was 20% while in HIV/AIDS children was 30.6% (p>0.05). Oral candidiasis was the most prevalent oral lesion in both groups. Association (p<0.05) of a high prevalence of HIV-OL and oral candidiasis with a high viral load was observed in both study groups. Adolescents perinatally HIV-infected have a high prevalence of HIV-OL. Oral Candidiasis still is the most frequent oral opportunistic infection. Oral lesions could have association to viral failure in HIV+/AIDS adolescents undergoing HAART.

  7. Oral white patches in a national sample of medical HIV patients in the era of HAART.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Marvin; Maida, Carl A; Freed, James R; Younai, Fariba; Coulter, Ian D; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Liu, Honghu; Freed, Benjamin; Guzmán-Becerra, Norma; Shapiro, Martin

    2005-04-01

    Several types of HIV-related oral mucosal conditions have been reported to occur during the course of HIV disease progression. Of these, few may be manifested as 'white' lesions and many are noticeable to the patient. This paper examines the relationships between social, behavioral and medical aspects of HIV infection and reporting an occurrence of oral white patches (OWP) by HIV-infected patients. The subjects are participants in all three interviews in the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS). The subjects were selected using a three-stage probability sampling design. The multivariate analysis is based on 2109 subjects with nonmissing binary outcome variable for all three waves representing a national sample of 214 000 individuals. The multivariate model was fitted using generalized estimating equations (GEE) by implementing the XTGEE command in STATA. We estimate that 75 000 persons (35%) reported at least one incident of OWP, of these 14 000 reported having OWP during all three interviews, and that the rate of reporting declined over the three HCSUS waves. The multivariate analysis showed seven variables that were significant predictors of at least one report of OWP. Compared with persons on HAART therapy, patients on other regimens or taking no antiviral medications were 23-46% more likely to report an incident of OWP. Compared with whites, African Americans were 32% less likely to report OWP, while current smokers were 62% more likely than nonsmokers. Being diagnosed with AIDS and having CD4 counts less than 500 significantly increased the likelihood of reporting OWP.

  8. HIV-specific CD8+ T cells from HIV+ individuals receiving HAART can be expanded ex vivo to augment systemic and mucosal immunity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chapuis, Aude G; Casper, Corey; Kuntz, Steve; Zhu, Jia; Tjernlund, Annelie; Diem, Kurt; Turtle, Cameron J; Cigal, Melinda L; Velez, Roxanne; Riddell, Stanley; Corey, Lawrence; Greenberg, Philip D

    2011-05-19

    Most HIV+ individuals require lifelong highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to suppress HIV replication, but fail to eliminate the virus in part because of residual replication in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Naturally elicited HIV-specific CD8+ T cells generated in the acute and chronic infectious phases exhibit antiviral activity, but decrease in number after HAART. Therapeutic vaccines represent a potential strategy to expand cellular responses, although previous efforts have been largely unsuccessful, conceivably because of a lack of responding HIV-specific central-memory CD8+ T cells (Tcm). To determine whether patients receiving HAART possess CD8+ T cells with Tcm qualities that are amenable to augmentation, HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell clones were derived from HIV-reactive CD28+CD8+ T-cell lines isolated from 7 HIV+ HAART-treated patients, expanded ex vivo, and reinfused into their autologous host. Tracking of the cells in vivo revealed that clones could persist for ≥ 84 days, maintain expression and/or re-express CD28, up-regulate CD62L, secrete IL-2, proliferate on cognate Ag encounter and localize to the rectal mucosa. These results suggest some infused cells exhibited phenotypic and functional characteristics shared with Tcm in vivo, and imply that more effective therapeutic vaccination strategies targeting CD8+ Tcm in patients on HAART might provide hosts with expanded, long-lasting immune responses not only systemically but also in GALT.

  9. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and drugs of abuse in post-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Vishnudutt; Rapaka, Rao S; Shurtleff, David

    2010-12-01

    In the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, prenatal "vertical" mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV was about 25% and exposure of pregnant mothers to drugs of abuse (illicit drugs and tobacco smoking) was a significant contributory factor of MTCT. However, with the introduction of HAART, the rate of MTCT of HIV has decreased to less that 2%. But, it is estimated that currently about 5.1% of pregnant women use illicit drugs and 16.4% smoke tobacco. The residual prevalence of MTCT is of concern and may be related to this continued prevalence of substance use among pregnant mothers. In this report, we review and present evidence that supports the hypothesis that drugs of abuse do have the potential to increase MTCT of HIV in the presence of HAART. Exposure to drugs of abuse during pregnancy may increase MTCT of HIV through a variety of mechanisms that are addressed in detail including possible damage to the placenta, induction of preterm birth, and increasing maternal plasma viral load though a variety of putative mechanisms such as: (a) promoting HIV replication in monocyte/macrophages; (b) increasing the expression of CCR5 receptors; (c) decreasing the expression of CCR5 receptor ligands; (d) increasing the expression of CXCR4 receptors; (e) increasing the expression of DC-SIGN; (f) impairing the efficacy of HAART through drug-drug interaction; and (g) promoting HIV mutation and replication through non-adherence to HAART.

  10. Vets, denialists and rememberers: social typologies of patient adherence and non-adherence to HAART from the perspective of HIV care providers.

    PubMed

    Orchard, Treena; Salters, Kate; Palmer, Alexis; Michelow, Warren; Lepik, Katherine J; Hogg, Robert

    2015-01-01

    For many people living with HIV/AIDS taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is difficult due to various individual and social factors, including the side effects of these medications, HIV/AIDS stigma and poor patient-provider relationships. Most studies that examine barriers to and facilitators of adherence to HAART have been conducted with people on these medications, which is critical to improving adherence among various HIV-affected groups. Less attention has been paid to the experiences of HIV care providers, which is an important gap in the literature considering the key role they play in the delivery of HAART and the management of patient treatment plans. This paper presents findings from a qualitative pilot study that explored how HIV care providers assess adherence and non-adherence to HAART among their HIV-positive patients in Vancouver, British Columbia. Drawing upon individual interviews conducted with HIV physicians (n = 3), social service providers (n = 3) and pharmacists (n = 2), this discussion focuses on the social typologies our participants use to assess patient success and failure related to adherence. Eleven unique categories are featured and the diversity within and across these categories illustrate a broad spectrum of adherence-related behaviours among patients and the social meanings providers attribute to these behaviours. As one of the first explorations of the social typologies used by HIV care providers to assess patient performance on HAART, these data contribute valuable insights into the experiences of providers within the context of adherence-related care delivery.

  11. Cancer risk in HIV-infected individuals on HAART is largely attributed to oncogenic infections and state of immunocompetence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the cancer risk of HIV-infected patients in the HAART era with respect to a general reference population and to determine risk factors for malignancy. Methods Long term (1996-2009) cancer incidence of the Bonn single centre HIV cohort was compared to the incidence of the reference population of Saarland using standardized incidence ratios (SIR). Poisson regression analysis was used to identify predictors of cancer risk. Results 1,476 patients entered the cohort, enabling 8,772 person years of observation. 121 tumours in 114 patients, 7 in-situ and 114 invasive cancers, were identified. Malignancies associated with infectious agents such as Kaposi sarcoma (SIRs: male: 5,683; female: 277), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIRs male: 35; female: 18), anal cancer (SIRs male: 88; female: 115) as well a cervical carcinoma (SIR female: 4) and Hodgkin's disease (SIR male: 39) and liver cancer (SIR male: 18) were substantially more frequent in HIV-infected patients than in the general population (p < 0.001, each), whereas all other types of cancer were not increased. Poisson regression identified HAART (incidence rate ratio IRR (95% CI): 0.28 (0.19-0.41), p < 0.001), CD4 count (IRR per 100 cells/μl increase: 0.66 (0.57-0.76), p < 0.001), hepatitis B (IRR: 2.15 (1.10-4.20), p = 0.046) and age (IRR per 10 year increase: 1.23 (1.03 - 1.46), p = 0.023) as independent predictors for the occurrence of any type of cancer. Conclusions HAART and preserved CD4 cells preferentially reduce the risk of malignancies associated with oncogenic infections. PMID:21486722

  12. High prevalence of food insecurity among HIV-infected individuals receiving HAART in a resource-rich setting.

    PubMed

    Anema, A; Weiser, S D; Fernandes, K A; Ding, E; Brandson, E K; Palmer, A; Montaner, J S G; Hogg, R S

    2011-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of food insecurity in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Adults receiving HAART voluntarily enrolled into the Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive and Ancillary Health Services (LISA) cohort. Individual food insecurity was measured using a modified version of the Radimer/Cornell Questionnaire. We performed bivariate analyses to determine differences between explanatory variables for individuals who were food secure and food insecure. We performed logistic regression to determine independent predictors of food insecurity. Of the 457 individuals enrolled in the LISA cohort, 324 (71.0%) were found to be food insecure. Multivariate analysis indicated that individuals who had an annual incomes less than $15,000 (odds ratio [OR] 3.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.83, 5.44), used illicit drugs (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.03, 3.33), smoked tobacco (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.30, 4.07), had depressive symptoms (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.38, 3.96), and were younger (OR 0.95, 95% CI, 0.92, 0.98) were more likely to be food insecure. Our results demonstrated a high (71%) prevalence of food insecurity among HIV-infected individuals receiving HAART in this resource-rich setting, and that food insecurity is associated with a compendium of environmental and behavioral factors. More research is needed to understand the biological and social pathways linking food insecurity to these variables in order to identify program strategies that can effectively improve food security among HIV-infected populations.

  13. Experiences of stigma and access to HAART in children and adolescents living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto; Castro, Arachu

    2006-03-01

    This study describes and conceptualizes the experiences of stigma in a group of children living with HIV in São Paulo, Brazil, and evaluates the impact of access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) over the social course of AIDS and over the children's experiences of stigma. Through ethnographic research in São Paulo from 1999 to 2001, the life trajectories of 50 children ages 1-15 living with or affected by HIV were studied. Data were collected via participant observation and semi-structured informal interviews and analyzed using social theories on illness experience and social inequality. Our results demonstrate that AIDS-related stigma occurs within complex discrimination processes that change as children reach adolescence. We found that structural violence in the forms of poverty, racism, and inequalities in social status, gender, and age fuels children's experiences of stigma. We also describe how access to HAART changes the lived experience of children, reduces stigma, and brings new challenges in AIDS care such as adolescents' sexuality and treatment adherence. Based on these results, we propose structural violence as the framework to study stigma and argue that interventions to reduce stigma that solely target the perception and attitudes toward people living with HIV are limited. In contrast universal access to HAART in Brazil is a powerful intervention that reduces stigma, in that it transforms AIDS from a debilitating and fatal disease to a chronic and manageable one, belongs to a broader mechanism to assure citizens' rights, and reduces social inequalities in access to health care.

  14. Analysis of multiply spliced transcripts in lymphoid tissue reservoirs of rhesus macaques infected with RT-SHIV during HAART.

    PubMed

    Deere, Jesse D; Kauffman, Robert C; Cannavo, Elda; Higgins, Joanne; Villalobos, Andradi; Adamson, Lourdes; Schinazi, Raymond F; Luciw, Paul A; North, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can reduce levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to undetectable levels in infected individuals, but the virus is not eradicated. The mechanisms of viral persistence during HAART are poorly defined, but some reservoirs have been identified, such as latently infected resting memory CD4⁺ T cells. During latency, in addition to blocks at the initiation and elongation steps of viral transcription, there is a block in the export of viral RNA (vRNA), leading to the accumulation of multiply-spliced transcripts in the nucleus. Two of the genes encoded by the multiply-spliced transcripts are Tat and Rev, which are essential early in the viral replication cycle and might indicate the state of infection in a given population of cells. Here, the levels of multiply-spliced transcripts were compared to the levels of gag-containing RNA in tissue samples from RT-SHIV-infected rhesus macaques treated with HAART. Splice site sequence variation was identified during development of a TaqMan PCR assay. Multiply-spliced transcripts were detected in gastrointestinal and lymphatic tissues, but not the thymus. Levels of multiply-spliced transcripts were lower than levels of gag RNA, and both correlated with plasma virus loads. The ratio of multiply-spliced to gag RNA was greatest in the gastrointestinal samples from macaques with plasma virus loads <50 vRNA copies per mL at necropsy. Levels of gag RNA and multiply-spliced mRNA in tissues from RT-SHIV-infected macaques correlate with plasma virus load.

  15. Analysis of Multiply Spliced Transcripts in Lymphoid Tissue Reservoirs of Rhesus Macaques Infected with RT-SHIV during HAART

    PubMed Central

    Deere, Jesse D.; Kauffman, Robert C.; Cannavo, Elda; Higgins, Joanne; Villalobos, Andradi; Adamson, Lourdes; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Luciw, Paul A.; North, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can reduce levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to undetectable levels in infected individuals, but the virus is not eradicated. The mechanisms of viral persistence during HAART are poorly defined, but some reservoirs have been identified, such as latently infected resting memory CD4+ T cells. During latency, in addition to blocks at the initiation and elongation steps of viral transcription, there is a block in the export of viral RNA (vRNA), leading to the accumulation of multiply-spliced transcripts in the nucleus. Two of the genes encoded by the multiply-spliced transcripts are Tat and Rev, which are essential early in the viral replication cycle and might indicate the state of infection in a given population of cells. Here, the levels of multiply-spliced transcripts were compared to the levels of gag-containing RNA in tissue samples from RT-SHIV-infected rhesus macaques treated with HAART. Splice site sequence variation was identified during development of a TaqMan PCR assay. Multiply-spliced transcripts were detected in gastrointestinal and lymphatic tissues, but not the thymus. Levels of multiply-spliced transcripts were lower than levels of gag RNA, and both correlated with plasma virus loads. The ratio of multiply-spliced to gag RNA was greatest in the gastrointestinal samples from macaques with plasma virus loads <50 vRNA copies per mL at necropsy. Levels of gag RNA and multiply-spliced mRNA in tissues from RT-SHIV-infected macaques correlate with plasma virus load. PMID:24505331

  16. Hepatitis B virus in HIV-infected patients in northeastern South Africa: prevalence, exposure, protection and response to HAART.

    PubMed

    Ayuk, J; Mphahlele, J; Bessong, P

    2013-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV are endemic infections in many African countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of exposure to, and protection from, HBV, as well as the prevalence of HIV/HBV co-infection and the response of HBV to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in a cross-section of HIV-infected patients in north-eastern South Africa. This was a laboratory-based, unmatched study. Three hundred and eighty patients were screened by ELISA for HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs. Samples non-reactive for HBsAg but reactive for anti-HBc were examined for occult HBV infection. Response to HAART was assessed by measuring HBV viral loads, seroconversion from HBeAg to anti-HBe, and levels of aminotransferase. Of the study population of 380, 60% (95% CI 54.8 - 64.9) were exposed to HBV based on HBsAg, anti-HBs or anti-HBc; 20% (95% CI 16.1 - 24.4) had active HBV infection, based on HBsAg serology, and 30% (95% CI 25.2 - 35.2) were protected, based on anti-HBs levels > or = 10 IU/l. Of 181 HBsAg-negative individuals, 61 had HBV occult infection (33.7%, 95% CI 26.9 - 41.1). The differences in prevalence were not statistically significant when gender, marital status and CD4+ cell counts were considered. Of 21 patients analysed, 80% showed adequate response to the first-line HAART regimen (stavudine/lamivudine/efavirenz or nevirapine) after 12 months of use. The study confirms the higher level (60%) of exposure to HBV in HIV patients in Limpopo Province, as well as the high (20%) prevalence of HBsAg positivity and occult hepatitis B (33.7%). However, further studies are warranted to corroborate the benefit of lamivudine-containing HAART regimens, as HIV/HBV co-infected patients have a higher liver-related mortality if hepatitis B is not treated.

  17. A comparison of maternal anemia between HIV infected pregnant women receiving zidovudine-based and zidovudine-free highly active Antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

    PubMed

    Lertcheewakarn, Pattaramas; Tongprasert, Fuanglada

    2014-04-01

    To compare the prevalence of maternal anemia associated with usage of Zidovudine-free and Zidovudine-based HAART during pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in HIV-infected pregnant women receiving HAART between January 2006 and December 2012 in Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Changes in hemoglobin levels were compared between zidovudine-free and zidovudine-based HAARTgroups. Sixty-six pregnant women who received HAART pre-exposure hemoglobin levels showed no significant difference between the zidovudine-free (14 cases) and the zidovudine-based (52 cases) groups. In non-anemic pregnant women before HAART initiation, the prevalence of post-exposure anemia was 40.5%, and similar in both groups. Post-exposure, decreased hemoglobin levels were greater in the zidovudine-based group (-1.46 +/- 0.64 g/dL) than the zidovudine-free group (-1.29 +/- 1.26 g/dL), but the difference was not significant (p = 0.766). Duration of the lowest post-exposure hemoglobin levels was shorter in the zidovudine-based group than the zidovudine-free group, but the difference was not significant (71.5 days and 105.6 days, p = 0.123). In almost half of the cases, both zidovudine-based and zidovudine-free HAART exposure was associated with substantial risk of maternal anemia during pregnancy. Pregnant women receiving HAART regimens may be at significant risk of anemia two to three months after exposure and should be adequately monitored for this complication.

  18. A decade of HAART in Latin America: Long term outcomes among the first wave of HIV patients to receive combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marcelo J; Giganti, Mark J; Cortes, Claudia P; Cahn, Pedro; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Pape, Jean W; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Duda, Stephany N; McGowan, Catherine C; Shepherd, Bryan E

    2017-01-01

    In Latin America, the first wave of HIV-infected patients initiated highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) 10 or more years ago. Characterizing their treatment experience and corresponding outcomes across a decade of HAART may yield insights relevant to the ongoing care of such patients and those initiating HAART more recently in similar clinical settings. This retrospective study included adults initiating HAART before 2004 at 8 sites in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, and Mexico. Patient status (in care, dead, or lost to follow-up [LTFU]) was assessed at 6-month intervals for 10 years, along with CD4 count and HIV-1 viral load (VL) for patients in care. 4,975 patients (66% male) started HAART prior to 2004; 45% were not antiretroviral-naïve. At 1, 5, and 10 years, rates of mortality were 4.2%, 9.0%, and 13.6% respectively. LTFU rates for the same periods were 2.4%, 10.9%, and 24.2%. Among patients remaining in care at 10 years, 84.4% were estimated to have VL≤400 copies/mL (Haiti excluded) and median baseline CD4 increased from 158 to 525 cells/mm3. Only 11.4% of all patients remained on their first regimen, 12.6% were on their second, 11.5% were on their third, and 23.0% were on their fourth or subsequent regimen. Outcomes were generally better for patients who were not antiretroviral-naïve, except for viral suppression. Heterogeneity among sites was substantial. Despite advanced disease and predominant use of older antiretrovirals, a large percentage of early HAART initiators in this Latin American cohort were alive and in care with sustained virologic suppression and progressive immune recovery after 10 years.

  19. Abuse and resilience in relation to HAART medication adherence and HIV viral load among women with HIV in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dale, Sannisha; Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen; Cruise, Ruth; Kelso, Gwendolyn; Brody, Leslie

    2014-03-01

    Abuse is highly prevalent among HIV+ women, leading to behaviors, including lower adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) that result in poor health outcomes. Resilience (functioning competently despite adversity) may buffer the negative effects of abuse. This study investigated how resilience interacted with abuse history in relation to HAART adherence, HIV viral load (VL), and CD4+ cell count among a convenience sample of 138 HIV+ women from the Ruth M. Rothstein CORE Center/Cook County Health and Hospital Systems site of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Resilience was measured by the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). HAART adherence (≥95% vs. <95% self reported usage of prescribed medication) and current or prior sexual, physical, or emotional/domestic abuse, were reported during structured interviews. HIV viral load (≥20 vs. <20 copies/mL) and CD4+ count (200 vs. <200 cells/mm) were measured with blood specimens. Multiple logistic regressions, controlling for age, race, income, enrollment wave, substance use, and depressive symptoms, indicated that each unit increase in resilience was significantly associated with an increase in the odds of having ≥95% HAART adherence and a decrease in the odds of having a detectable viral load. Resilience-Abuse interactions showed that only among HIV+ women with sexual abuse or multiple abuses did resilience significantly relate to an increase in the odds of ≥95% HAART adherence. Interventions to improve coping strategies that promote resilience among HIV+ women may be beneficial for achieving higher HAART adherence and viral suppression.

  20. Abuse and Resilience in Relation to HAART Medication Adherence and HIV Viral Load Among Women with HIV in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen; Cruise, Ruth; Kelso, Gwendolyn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Abuse is highly prevalent among HIV+ women, leading to behaviors, including lower adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) that result in poor health outcomes. Resilience (functioning competently despite adversity) may buffer the negative effects of abuse. This study investigated how resilience interacted with abuse history in relation to HAART adherence, HIV viral load (VL), and CD4+ cell count among a convenience sample of 138 HIV+ women from the Ruth M. Rothstein CORE Center/Cook County Health and Hospital Systems site of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Resilience was measured by the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). HAART adherence (≥95% vs. <95% self reported usage of prescribed medication) and current or prior sexual, physical, or emotional/domestic abuse, were reported during structured interviews. HIV viral load (≥20 vs. <20 copies/mL) and CD4+ count (200 vs. <200 cells/mm) were measured with blood specimens. Multiple logistic regressions, controlling for age, race, income, enrollment wave, substance use, and depressive symptoms, indicated that each unit increase in resilience was significantly associated with an increase in the odds of having ≥95% HAART adherence and a decrease in the odds of having a detectable viral load. Resilience-Abuse interactions showed that only among HIV+ women with sexual abuse or multiple abuses did resilience significantly relate to an increase in the odds of ≥95% HAART adherence. Interventions to improve coping strategies that promote resilience among HIV+ women may be beneficial for achieving higher HAART adherence and viral suppression. PMID:24568654

  1. A decade of HAART in Latin America: Long term outcomes among the first wave of HIV patients to receive combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Marcelo J.; Giganti, Mark J.; Cortes, Claudia P.; Cahn, Pedro; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Pape, Jean W.; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Duda, Stephany N.; McGowan, Catherine C.; Shepherd, Bryan E.

    2017-01-01

    Background In Latin America, the first wave of HIV-infected patients initiated highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) 10 or more years ago. Characterizing their treatment experience and corresponding outcomes across a decade of HAART may yield insights relevant to the ongoing care of such patients and those initiating HAART more recently in similar clinical settings. Methods This retrospective study included adults initiating HAART before 2004 at 8 sites in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, and Mexico. Patient status (in care, dead, or lost to follow-up [LTFU]) was assessed at 6-month intervals for 10 years, along with CD4 count and HIV-1 viral load (VL) for patients in care. Results 4,975 patients (66% male) started HAART prior to 2004; 45% were not antiretroviral-naïve. At 1, 5, and 10 years, rates of mortality were 4.2%, 9.0%, and 13.6% respectively. LTFU rates for the same periods were 2.4%, 10.9%, and 24.2%. Among patients remaining in care at 10 years, 84.4% were estimated to have VL≤400 copies/mL (Haiti excluded) and median baseline CD4 increased from 158 to 525 cells/mm3. Only 11.4% of all patients remained on their first regimen, 12.6% were on their second, 11.5% were on their third, and 23.0% were on their fourth or subsequent regimen. Outcomes were generally better for patients who were not antiretroviral-naïve, except for viral suppression. Heterogeneity among sites was substantial. Conclusions Despite advanced disease and predominant use of older antiretrovirals, a large percentage of early HAART initiators in this Latin American cohort were alive and in care with sustained virologic suppression and progressive immune recovery after 10 years. PMID:28651014

  2. Oral manifestations of HIV infection in children and adults receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART] in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Omar JM; Matee, Mecky IN; Simon, Elison NM; Kikwilu, Emil; Moshi, Mainen J; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Mikx, Frans HM; Verweij, Paul E; van der Ven, André JAM

    2006-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and types of HIV-related oral lesions between children and adult Tanzanian patients on HAART with those not on HAART and to relate the occurrence of the lesions with anti-HIV drug regimen, clinical stage of HIV disease and CD4+ cell count. Methods Participants were 532 HIV infected patients, 51 children and 481 adults, 165 males and 367 females. Children were aged 2–17 years and adults 18 and 67 years. Participants were recruited consecutively at the Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) HIV clinic from October 2004 to September 2005. Investigations included; interviews, physical examinations, HIV testing and enumeration of CD4+ T cells. Results A total of 237 HIV-associated oral lesions were observed in 210 (39.5%) patients. Oral candidiasis was the commonest (23.5%), followed by mucosal hyperpigmentation (4.7%). There was a significant difference in the occurrence of oral candidiasis (χ2 = 4.31; df = 1; p = 0.03) and parotid enlargement (χ2 = 36.5; df = 1; p = 0.04) between children and adults. Adult patients who were on HAART had a significantly lower risk of; oral lesions (OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.22 – 0.47; p = 0.005), oral candidiasis (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.18 – 0.44; p = 0.003) and oral hairy leukoplakia (OR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.04 – 0.85; p = 0.03). There was no significant reduction in occurrence of oral lesions in children on HAART (OR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.11–1.14; p = 0.15). There was also a significant association between the presence of oral lesions and CD4+ cell count < 200 cell/mm3 (χ2 = 52.4; df = 2; p = 0.006) and with WHO clinical stage (χ2 = 121; df = 3; p = 0.008). Oral lesions were also associated with tobacco smoking (χ2 = 8.17; df = 2; p = 0.04). Conclusion Adult patients receiving HAART had a significantly lower prevalence of oral lesions, particularly oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia. There was no significant change in occurrence of oral lesions in children

  3. The burden of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in post-HAART era: a multidisciplinary review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Caruana, G; Vidili, G; Serra, P A; Bagella, P; Spanu, A; Fiore, V; Calvisi, D F; Manetti, R; Rocchitta, G; Nuvoli, S; Babudieri, S; Simile, M M; Madeddu, G

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the present multidisciplinary review is to give an updated insight into the most recent findings regarding the pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). We performed a comprehensive search, through electronic databases (Pubmed - MEDLINE) and search engines (Google Scholar), of peer-reviewed publications (articles and reviews) and conferences proceedings on HAND pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy, from 1999 to 2016. It seems to be increasingly clear that neurodegeneration in HIV-1 affected patients is a multi-faceted disease involving numerous factors, from chronic inflammation to central nervous system (CNS) compartmentalization of HIV. Diagnosis of HAND may benefit from both laboratory analysis and advanced specific neuroimaging techniques. As regards HAND therapy, modified HAART combinations and simplification strategies have been tested, while novel exciting frontiers seem to involve the use of nanoparticles with the ability to cross the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB). Albeit highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) allowed a major decrease in morbidity and mortality for AIDS patients, CNS involvement still represents a challenge in HIV patients even today, affecting up to 50% of patients with access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Future studies will have to focus on CNS compartmentalization, drugs' ability to penetrate and suppress viral replication in this compartment, and on new approaches to reduce HIV-associated neuroinflammation.

  4. Bone mineral density in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected men with hypogonadism prior to highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy (HAART)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Alterations of bone metabolism have been observed in numerous studies of HIV-infected patients. Sex steroids are known to profoundly influence bone mass and bone turnover. Hypogonadism is common in HIV-infection. Therefore, we performed a cross sectional study of 80 male HIV-infected patients without wasting syndrome, and 20 healthy male controls, in whom we analyzed urine and serum samples for both calciotropic hormones and markers of bone metabolism and of endocrine testicular function. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry both in the lumbar spine and Ward's triangle of the left hip. None of the patients received highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy (HAART). Compared to eugonadal HIV-infected patients, subjects with hypogonadism (n = 32; 40%) showed statistically significant decrease of serum osteocalcin (p < 0.05) and elevated urinary excretion of crosslinks (p < 0.05). However, we found 13 and 15, respectively, patients with osteopenia (t-score -1.0 to -2.5 SD below normal) of the lumbar spine. The dissociation between bone formation and resorption and the reduction of of BMD (p < 0.05) is stronger expressed in patients with hypogonadism. Habitual hypogonadism appears to be of additional relevance for bone metabolism of male HIV-positive patients prior to HAART. PMID:19258214

  5. Viral persistence, latent reservoir, and blips: a review on HIV-1 dynamics and modeling during HAART and related treatment implications

    SciTech Connect

    Rong, Libin; Perelson, Alan

    2008-01-01

    HIV-1 eradication from infected individuals has not been achieved with the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for a prolonged period of time. The cellular reservoir for HIV-1 in resting memory CD4{sup +} T cells remains a major obstacle to viral elimination. The reservoir does not decay significantly over long periods of time as is able to release replication competent HIV-1 upon cell activation. Residual ongoing viral replication may likely occur in many patients because low levels of virus can be detected in plasma by sensitive assays and transient episodes of viremia, or HIV-1 blips, are often observed in patients even with successful viral suppression for many years. Here we review our current knowledge of the factors contributing to viral persistence, the latent reservoir, and blips, and mathematical models developed to explore them and their relationships. We show how mathematical modeling can help improve our understanding of HIV-1 dynamics in patients on HAART and the quantitative events underlying HIV-1 latency, reservoir stability, low-level viremic persistence, and emergence of intermittent viral blips. We also discuss treatment implications related to these studies.

  6. Effect of co-administration of Hypoxis hemerocallidea extract and antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the histomorphology and seminal parameters in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Jegede, A I; Offor, U; Onanuga, I O; Naidu, E C S; Azu, O O

    2017-03-01

    Although the successful introduction and rollout of antiretroviral therapy has impacted positively on morbidity and mortality of HIV-positive patients, its interaction with plant-based adjuvants remain sparsely investigated. We report the interaction and effects of adjuvant treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and Hypoxis hemeocallidea (HH) extracts on testicular structure of rats. A total of 63 pathogen-free adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into nine groups and treated according to protocols. HAART cocktail predisposed to significant negative testicular parameters of sperm count, motility and seminiferous tubular epithelial height (quantitatively) (p < .03) and also altered the histomorphology of tubules with diffuse hypoplasia in seminiferous tubules. The higher dose of HH showed a better ability to mitigate the altered parameters and compares favourably with vitamin C in this protocol. While HH did not show any deleterious impact on morphometric data, its role as adjuvant did not significantly reduce the negative impact of HAART on morphometric indices especially with the lower dosage. Further investigations are warranted on the interactions between HAART and Hypoxis. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. HIV cause-specific deaths, mortality, risk factors, and the combined influence of HAART and late diagnosis in Zhejiang, China, 2006–2013

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Pan, Xiaohong; Ma, Qiaoqin; Yang, Jiezhe; Xu, Yun; Zheng, Jinlei; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Xin; Jiang, Tingting; Jiang, Jun; He, Lin; Jiang, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    To examine patterns of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cause-specific deaths, risk factors, and the effect of interactions on mortality, we conducted a retrospective cohort study in Zhejiang, China, from 2006 to 2013. All data were downloaded from the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Prevention and Control Information System. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess predictors of cause-specific death. The relative excess risk due to interaction and ratio of hazard ratios (RHR) were calculated for correlations between HAART, late diagnosis, and age. A total of 13,812 HIV/AIDS patients were enrolled with 31,553 person-years (PY) of follow-up. The leading causes of death of HIV patients were accidental death and suicide (21.5%), and the leading cause of death for those with AIDS was AIDS-defining disease (76.4%). Both additive and multiplicative scale correlations were found between receiving HAART and late diagnosis, with RERI of 5.624 (95% CI: 1.766–9.482) and RHR of 2.024 (95% CI: 1.167–2.882). The effects of HAART on AIDS-related mortalities were affected by late diagnosis. Early detection of HIV infection and increased uptake of HAART are important for greater benefits in terms of lives saved. PMID:28198390

  8. Early HAART Initiation May Not Reduce Actual Reproduction Number and Prevalence of MSM Infection: Perspectives from Coupled within- and between-Host Modelling Studies of Chinese MSM Populations

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaodan; Xiao, Yanni; Tang, Sanyi; Peng, Zhihang; Wu, Jianhong; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Having a thorough understanding of the infectivity of HIV, time of initiating treatment and emergence of drug resistant virus variants is crucial in mitigating HIV infection. There are many challenges to evaluating the long-term effect of the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on disease transmission at the population level. We proposed an individual based model by coupling within-host dynamics and between-host dynamics and conduct stochastic simulation in the group of men who have sex with men (MSM). The mean actual reproduction number is estimated to be 3.6320 (95% confidence interval: [3.46, 3.80]) for MSM group without treatment. Stochastic simulations show that given relatively high (low) level of drug efficacy after emergence of drug resistant variants, early initiation of treatment leads to a less (greater) actual reproduction number, lower (higher) prevalence and less (more) incidences, compared to late initiation of treatment. This implies early initiation of HAART may not always lower the actual reproduction number and prevalence of infection, depending on the level of treatment efficacy after emergence of drug resistant virus variants, frequency of high-risk behaviors and etc. This finding strongly suggests early initiation of HAART should be implemented with great care especially in the settings where the effective drugs are limited. Coupling within-host dynamics with between-host dynamics can provide critical information about impact of HAART on disease transmission and thus help to assist treatment strategy design and HIV/AIDS prevention and control. PMID:26930406

  9. Morphological changes in the digestive system of 322 necropsies of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome: comparison of findings pre- and post-HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy)

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Lucinda Calheiros; da Silva, Ana Cristina Araújo Lemos; Micheletti, Adilha Misson Rua; Moura, Everton Nunes Melo; Silva-Vergara, Mario Léon; Tostes, Sebastião; Adad, Sheila Jorge

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Involvement of the digestive system in AIDS pathologies or injuries is frequent. Aiming at comparing the frequency, the importance that these lesions have for death and the survival time in patients using or not using HAART, we studied 322 necropsies classified as follows: Group A - without antiretroviral drugs (185 cases); B - one or two antiretroviral drugs or HAART for less than six months (83 cases); C - HAART for six months or longer (54 cases). In the overall analysis of the digestive system, changes were present in 73.6% of cases. The most frequent was Candida infection (22.7%), followed by cytomegalovirus (19.2%), Histoplasma capsulatum (6.5%), mycobacteria (5.6%), and Toxoplasma gondii (4.3%). T. gondii infection was more frequent in group A compared with group C, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) was more frequent in group A compared with groups B and C (p < 0.05); 2.2% of the deaths were due to gastrointestinal bleeding. Regarding the segments, only in the large intestine, and only cytomegalovirus, were more frequent in group A compared with group C. We conclude that digestive system infections are still frequent, even with the use of HAART. However, the average survival time in group C was more than three times greater than the one in group A and nearly double that of group B, demonstrating the clear benefit of this therapy. PMID:28380114

  10. Morphological changes in the digestive system of 322 necropsies of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome: comparison of findings pre- and post-HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy).

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Lucinda Calheiros; Silva, Ana Cristina Araújo Lemos da; Micheletti, Adilha Misson Rua; Moura, Everton Nunes Melo; Silva-Vergara, Mario Léon; Tostes, Sebastião; Adad, Sheila Jorge

    2017-04-03

    Involvement of the digestive system in AIDS pathologies or injuries is frequent. Aiming at comparing the frequency, the importance that these lesions have for death and the survival time in patients using or not using HAART, we studied 322 necropsies classified as follows: Group A - without antiretroviral drugs (185 cases); B - one or two antiretroviral drugs or HAART for less than six months (83 cases); C - HAART for six months or longer (54 cases). In the overall analysis of the digestive system, changes were present in 73.6% of cases. The most frequent was Candida infection (22.7%), followed by cytomegalovirus (19.2%), Histoplasma capsulatum (6.5%), mycobacteria (5.6%), and Toxoplasma gondii (4.3%). T. gondii infection was more frequent in group A compared with group C, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) was more frequent in group A compared with groups B and C (p < 0.05); 2.2% of the deaths were due to gastrointestinal bleeding. Regarding the segments, only in the large intestine, and only cytomegalovirus, were more frequent in group A compared with group C. We conclude that digestive system infections are still frequent, even with the use of HAART. However, the average survival time in group C was more than three times greater than the one in group A and nearly double that of group B, demonstrating the clear benefit of this therapy.

  11. Addressing the fear and consequences of stigmatization - a necessary step towards making HAART accessible to women in Tanzania: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has been available free of charge in Tanga, Tanzania since 2005. However we have found that a high percentage of women referred from prevention of mother-to-child transmission services to the Care and Treatment Clinics (CTC) for HAART never registered at the CTCs. Few studies have focused on the motivating and deterring factors to presenting for HAART particularly in relation to women. This study seeks to remedy this gap in knowledge. Methodology A qualitative approach using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions was chosen to understand these issues as perceived and interpreted by HIV infected women themselves. Results The main deterrent to presenting for treatment appears to be fear of stigmatization including fear of ostracism from the community, divorce and financial distress. Participants indicated that individual counselling and interaction with other people living with HIV encourages women, who are disinclined to present for HAART, to do so, and that placing the entrance to the CTC so as to provide discrete access increases the accessibility of the clinic. Conclusion Combating stigma in the community, although it is essential, will take time. Therefore necessary steps towards encouraging HIV infected women to seek treatment include reducing self-stigma, assisting them to form empowering relationships and to gain financial independence and emphasis by example of the beneficial effect of treatment for themselves and for their children. Furthermore ensuring a discrete location of the CTC can increase its perceived accessibility. PMID:21810224

  12. Association of self-reported race with AIDS death in continuous HAART users in a cohort of HIV-infected women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Kerry; Hoover, Donald R.; Shi, Qiuhu; Cohen, Mardge; Gandhi, Monica; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Gustafson, Deborah R.; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Young, Mary; Anastos, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association of race with clinical outcomes in HIV-positive women on continuous HAART. Design: Prospective study that enrolled women from 1994 to 1995 and 2001 to 2002. Setting: Women's Interagency HIV Study, a community-based cohort in five US cities. Participants: One thousand, four hundred and seventy-one HIV-positive continuous HAART users. Main outcome measures: Times to AIDS and non-AIDS death and incident AIDS-defining illness (ADI) after HAART initiation. Results: In adjusted analyses, black vs. white women had higher rates of AIDS death [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 2.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30, 3.50; P = 0.003] and incident ADI (aHR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08, 2.32; P = 0.02), but not non-AIDS death (aHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.59, 1.39; P = 0.65). Cumulative AIDS death incidence at 10 years was 17.3 and 8.3% for black and white women, respectively. Other significant independent pre-HAART predictors of AIDS death included peak viral load (aHR 1.70 per log10, 95% CI 1.34, 2.16; P < 0.001), nadir CD4+ cell count (aHR 0.65 per 100 cells/μl, 95% CI 0.56, 0.76; P < 0.001), depressive symptoms by Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression score at least 16 (aHR 2.10, 95% CI 1.51, 2.92; P < 0.001), hepatitis C virus infection (aHR 1.57, 95% CI 1.02, 2.40; P = 0.04), and HIV acquisition via transfusion (aHR 2.33, 95% CI 1.21, 4.49; P = 0.01). In models with time-updated HAART adherence, association of race with AIDS death remained statistically significant (aHR 3.09, 95% CI 1.38, 6.93; P = 0.006). Conclusion: In continuous HAART-using women, black women more rapidly died from AIDS or experienced incident ADI than their white counterparts after adjusting for confounders. Future studies examining behavioral and biologic factors in these women may further the understanding of HAART prognosis. PMID:24037210

  13. Causes of Death among People Living with AIDS in the Pre- and Post-HAART Eras in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Carmen-Silvia Bruniera; Waldman, Eliseu Alves

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examine the trend in causes of death among people living with AIDS in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in the periods before and after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and we investigate potential disparities across districts of residence. Methods Descriptive study of three periods: pre-HAART (1991–1996); early post-HAART (1997–1999); and late post-HAART (2000–2006). The data source was the São Paulo State STD/AIDS Program and São Paulo State Data Analysis Foundation. Causes of death were classified by the ICD-9 (1991–1995) and ICD-10 (1996–2006). We estimated age-adjusted mortality rates for leading underlying causes of death and described underlying and associated causes of death according to sociodemographic characteristics and area of residence. We used Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test to compare categorical variables. Areas of residence were categorized using a socioeconomic index. To analyze trends we apply generalized linear model with Poisson regression. Results We evaluated 32,808 AIDS-related deaths. Between the pre- and late post-HAART periods, the proportion of deaths whose underlying causes were non-AIDS-related diseases increased from 0.2% to 9.6% (p<0.001): from 0.01% to 1.67% (p<0.001) for cardiovascular diseases; 0.01% to 1.62% (p<0.001) for bacterial/unspecified pneumonia; and 0.03% to 1.46% (p<0.001) for non-AIDS-defining cancers. In the late post-HAART period, the most common associated causes of death were bacterial/unspecified pneumonia (35.94%), septicemia (33.46%), cardiovascular diseases (10.11%) and liver diseases (8.0%); and common underlying causes, besides AIDS disease, included non-AIDS-defining cancers in high-income areas, cardiovascular diseases in middle-income areas and assault in low-income areas. Conclusions The introduction of HAART has shifted the mortality profile away from AIDS-related conditions, suggesting changes in the pattern of morbidity, but

  14. Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus serological responses and viral burdens in HIV-infected patients treated with HAART

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Sullivan, Cathal E.; Peng, RongSheng; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Montelaro, Ronald C.; Sturgeon, Timothy; Jenson, Hal B.; Ling, Paul D.; Butel, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma is recognized as a complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Little is known regarding the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the biology of EBV in this population. To characterize the EBV- and HIV-specific serological responses together with EBV DNA levels in a cohort of HIV-infected adults treated with HAART, a study was conducted to compare EBV and HIV serologies and EBV DNA copy number (DNAemia) over a 12-month period after the commencement of HAART. All patients were seropositive for EBV at baseline. Approximately 50% of patients had detectable EBV DNA at baseline, and 27/30 had detectable EBV DNA at some point over the follow-up period of 1 year. Changes in EBV DNA copy number over time for any individual were unpredictable. Significant increases in the levels of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) and Epstein-Barr early antigen (EA) antibodies were demonstrated in the 17 patients who had a good response to HAART. Of 29 patients with paired samples tested, four-fold or greater increases in titers were detected for EA in 12/29 (41%), for EBNA in 7/29 (24%), for VCA-IgG in 4/29 (14%); four-fold decreases in titers were detected in 2/29 (7%) for EA and 12/29 (41%) for EBNA. A significant decline in the titer of anti-HIV antibodies was also demonstrated. It was concluded that patients with advanced HIV infection who respond to HAART have an increase in their EBV specific antibodies and a decrease in their HIV-specific antibodies. For the cohort overall, there was a transient increase in EBV DNA levels that had declined by 12 months. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Elite suppressors harbor low levels of integrated HIV DNA and high levels of 2-LTR circular HIV DNA compared to HIV+ patients on and off HAART.

    PubMed

    Graf, Erin H; Mexas, Angela M; Yu, Jianqing J; Shaheen, Farida; Liszewski, Megan K; Di Mascio, Michele; Migueles, Stephen A; Connors, Mark; O'Doherty, Una

    2011-02-01

    Elite suppressors (ES) are a rare population of HIV-infected individuals that are capable of naturally controlling the infection without the use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Patients on HAART often achieve viral control to similar (undetectable) levels. Accurate and sensitive methods to measure viral burden are needed to elucidate important differences between these two patient populations in order to better understand their mechanisms of control. Viral burden quantification in ES patients has been limited to measurements of total DNA in PBMC, and estimates of Infectious Units per Million cells (IUPM). There appears to be no significant difference in the level of total HIV DNA between cells from ES patients and patients on HAART. However, recovering infectious virus from ES patient samples is much more difficult, suggesting their reservoir size should be much smaller than that in patients on HAART. Here we find that there is a significant difference in the level of integrated HIV DNA in ES patients compared to patients on HAART, providing an explanation for the previous results. When comparing the level of total to integrated HIV DNA in these samples we find ES patients have large excesses of unintegrated HIV DNA. To determine the composition of unintegrated HIV DNA in these samples, we measured circular 2-LTR HIV DNA forms and found ES patients frequently have high levels of 2-LTR circles in PBMC. We further show that these high levels of 2-LTR circles are not the result of inefficient integration in ES cells, since HIV integrates with similar efficiency in ES and normal donor cells. Our findings suggest that measuring integration provides a better surrogate of viral burden than total HIV DNA in ES patients. Moreover, they add significantly to our understanding of the mechanisms that allow viral control and reservoir maintenance in this unique patient population.

  16. Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus serological responses and viral burdens in HIV-infected patients treated with HAART

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Sullivan, Cathal E.; Peng, RongSheng; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Montelaro, Ronald C.; Sturgeon, Timothy; Jenson, Hal B.; Ling, Paul D.; Butel, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma is recognized as a complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Little is known regarding the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the biology of EBV in this population. To characterize the EBV- and HIV-specific serological responses together with EBV DNA levels in a cohort of HIV-infected adults treated with HAART, a study was conducted to compare EBV and HIV serologies and EBV DNA copy number (DNAemia) over a 12-month period after the commencement of HAART. All patients were seropositive for EBV at baseline. Approximately 50% of patients had detectable EBV DNA at baseline, and 27/30 had detectable EBV DNA at some point over the follow-up period of 1 year. Changes in EBV DNA copy number over time for any individual were unpredictable. Significant increases in the levels of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) and Epstein-Barr early antigen (EA) antibodies were demonstrated in the 17 patients who had a good response to HAART. Of 29 patients with paired samples tested, four-fold or greater increases in titers were detected for EA in 12/29 (41%), for EBNA in 7/29 (24%), for VCA-IgG in 4/29 (14%); four-fold decreases in titers were detected in 2/29 (7%) for EA and 12/29 (41%) for EBNA. A significant decline in the titer of anti-HIV antibodies was also demonstrated. It was concluded that patients with advanced HIV infection who respond to HAART have an increase in their EBV specific antibodies and a decrease in their HIV-specific antibodies. For the cohort overall, there was a transient increase in EBV DNA levels that had declined by 12 months. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. One pill makes you smaller: the demand for anti-obesity drugs.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John; Rizzo, John A

    2007-01-01

    The doubling of obesity in the U.S. over the last 25 years has led policymakers and physicians to encourage weight loss, but few methods of weight loss are effective. One promising avenue is pharmacotherapy. However, little is known about the use of anti-obesity drugs. This paper describes the market for anti-obesity drugs and studies the utilization of anti-obesity drugs using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey for 1996-2002, a period that is interesting because it covers the introduction of three, and the withdrawal of two, anti-obesity drugs from the market. Our results point to wide sociodemographic disparities in anti-obesity drug use. Women are almost 200% more likely than men to use anti-obesity drugs. Hispanics and African-Americans are only 39% as likely as Whites to use them. Those with prescription drug coverage are 46% more likely to use anti-obesity drugs. We also find that the vast majority of subjects who are approved to take these drugs are not taking them, and a significant number who are not approved to take the drugs are taking them. We find strong evidence that the well-publicized 1997 withdrawal of fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine had a chilling effect on the overall market for anti-obesity drugs. We find little difference in observed characteristics between those who took the withdrawn drugs and those who took the other anti-obesity drugs in the market.

  18. The impact of integrating food supplementation, nutritional education and HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) on the nutritional status of patients living with HIV/AIDS in Mozambique: results from the DREAM Programme.

    PubMed

    Scarcella, P; Buonomo, E; Zimba, I; Doro Altan, A M; Germano, P; Palombi, L; Marazzi, M C

    2011-01-01

    DREAM (Drug Resources Enhancement against AIDS and Malnutrition) is a multiregional health program active in Mozambique since 2002 and provides free of charge an integrating package of care consisting of peer to peer nutritional and health education, food supplementation, voluntary counseling and testing, immunological, virological, clinical assessment and HAART (Highly Active AntiRetroviral Treatment). The main goals of this paper are to describe the state of health and nutrition and the adequacy of the diet of a sample of HIV/AIDS patients in Mozambique on HAART and not. A single-arm retrospective cohort study was conducted. 106 HIV/AIDS adult patients (84 in HAART), all receiving food supplementation and peer-to-peer nutritional education, were randomly recruited in Mozambique in two public health centres where DREAM is running. The programme is characterized by: provision of HAART, clinical and laboratory monitoring, peer to peer health and nutritional education and food supplementation. We measured BMI, haemoglobin, viral load, CD4 count at baseline (T0) and after at least 1 year (T1). Dietary intake was estimated using 24h food recall and dietary diversity was assessed by using the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) at T1. Overall, the patients'diet appeared to be quite balanced in nutrients. In the cohort not in HAART the mean BMI values showed an increases but not significant (initial value: 21.9 ± 2.9; final value: 22.5 ± 3.3 ) and the mean haemoglobin values (g/dl) showed a significant increases (initial value: 10.5+ 2.1; final value: 11.5 ± 1.7 p< 0.024) . In the cohort in HAART, both the mean of BMI value (initial value: 20.7 ± 3.9; final value: 21.9 ± 3.3 p< 0.001) and of haemoglobin (initial value: 9.9 ± 2.2; final value: 10.8 ± 1.7 p< 0.001) showed a higher significant increase. The increase in BMI was statistically associated with the DDS in HAART patients. In conclusion nutritional status improvement was observed in both cohorts. The improvement

  19. Decreased CD95 expression on naive T cells from HIV-infected persons undergoing highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) and the influence of IL-2 low dose administration

    PubMed Central

    Amendola, A; Poccia, F; Martini, F; Gioia, C; Galati, V; Pierdominici, M; Marziali, M; Pandolfi, F; Colizzi, V; Piacentini, M; Girardi, E; D'Offizi, G

    2000-01-01

    The functional recovery of the immune system in HIV-infected persons receiving HAART and the role of adjuvant immune therapy are still matters of intensive investigation. We analysed the effects of HAART combined with cytokines in 22 naive asymptomatic individuals, randomized to receive HAART (n = 6), HAART plus a low dose (1000 000 U/daily) of rIL-2 (n = 8), and HAART plus rIL-2 after previous administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (n = 8). After 3 months of therapy, increased CD4+ T cell counts and diminished viral loads were observed in all patients, independently of cytokine addition. A decreased expression of CD95 (Apo 1/Fas) was evident in all groups when compared with values before therapy. The percentages of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) expressing CD95 after therapy decreased by 15%, 22% and 18% in the three treatment groups, respectively (P < 0·05). Analysis of PBMC subsets demonstrated that CD95 expression was significantly reduced on CD45RA+CD62L+ naive T cells (25·3%, 22·4%, and 18·6%, respectively; P < 0·05) in each group, after therapy. Accordingly, all patients showed a reduced rate of in vitro spontaneous apoptosis (P < 0·05). Another effect induced by HAART was a significant increase in IL-2Rα expression on total PBMC (P < 0·05), independently of cytokine addition. Altogether, our results suggest that very low dose administration of rIL-2 (1000 000 U/daily) may be not enough to induce a significant improvement in the immune system as regards HAART alone. The employment of higher doses of recombinant cytokines and/or different administration protocols in clinical trials might however contribute to ameliorate the immune reconstitution in patients undergoing HAART. PMID:10792383

  20. Selected micronutrient levels and response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among HIV/AIDS patients attending a teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Eshetu, Amare; Tsegaye, Aster; Petros, Beyene

    2014-12-01

    Poor micronutrient levels are associated with an increased risk of progression to AIDS and are also suggested to influence outcome of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), though existing data are inconclusive to support the latter. Few published data are available on micronutrient levels in Ethiopian HIV/AIDS patients taking HAART. The objective of the study was to determine the association of micronutrient levels and response to HAART (CD4(+) T cell count) among adult HIV/AIDS patients attending a teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa. CD4(+) T cell counts and micronutrient (retinol, zinc, and iron) levels for 171 subjects were determined using standard procedures. Some proportions of the study participants were found deficient for retinol (14.03 %), zinc (47.3 %), and iron (2.8 %). Patients who were deficient in retinol had a significantly lower median CD4(+) T cell counts (P = 0.002) compared to non-deficient subjects. Association of micronutrient quartiles with CD4+ T cell count was assessed using adjusted multivariate regression by taking quartile 4 as a reference category. Accordingly, patients who had retinol levels in quartile 4 had a significantly lower mean CD4(+) T cell count compared to quartile 3 (P = 0.02). The significantly higher CD4(+) T cell counts in patients who were non-deficient in retinol imply the role of retinol in improving the production of CD4(+) T cells. However, both lower and higher retinol levels were associated with suppressed immunity (CD4 < 200 cells/mm(3)), suggesting an adverse effect of higher retinol levels. Thus, retinol may be potentially harmful depending on the dose, emphasizing the need for optimized level of retinol in nutrient supplements in patients taking HAART.

  1. Risk factors, CD4 long-term evolution and mortality of HIV-infected patients who persistently maintain low CD4 counts, despite virological response to HAART.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Yolanda M; Jarrín, Inmaculada; Del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago; Iribarren, José A; Viciana, Pompeyo; Parra, Jorge; Gomez-Sirvent, Juan L; Gutierrez, Félix; Blanco, José R; Vidal, Francesc; Leal, Manuel

    2009-11-01

    A proportion of HIV-patients does not normally restore their CD4 counts despite virological response to HAART. Those whose CD4 counts persistently remain closed to the critical threshold for opportunistic infections deserve special interest. To study the risk factors, the long-term CD4 counts evolution, and the risk of death of patients who persistently maintain low CD4 counts, despite virological response to HAART, within a multicenter, hospital-based cohort study. A total of 147 patients were selected from CoRIS-MD and classified into a "Low-Group" or a "High-Group", depending on their CD4 counts after two-years of effective HAART (threshold 250 cells/microL). Associated risk factors were analysed by logistic regression, the CD4 dynamics were evaluated over a total period of 7.70 years (IQR, 6.70-9.00), and mortality was estimated by Cox proportional hazard. A total of 40 patients (27%) were classified into the "Low-Group". The odds ratio for this group increased with age, being 4.56 (2.23-9.33) for over 40, and was also higher among IDU, 3.63 (1.04-12.68). Six years thereafter, among these patients, only a 30% exceeded 350 CD4 cells/microL and a 12% exceeded 500 CD4 cells/microL. Furthermore, the "Low-Group" had a death rate of 2.42 per 100 persons/year (95%CI, 1.01-5.81), although once adjusted by age the estimates were no longer significant [4.14 (0.87-19.72)]. Our results suggest that those HIV patients who have not overcome the critical threshold of 250 CD4 cells/microL after a two years period of virologically effective HAART do persist with the aforementioned failure of CD4 restoration for a much longer time.

  2. Undernutrition and anaemia among HAART-naïve HIV infected children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: a case-controlled, hospital based study.

    PubMed

    Anyabolu, Henry Chineme; Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa Aderonke; Adeodu, Oluwagbemiga Oyewole

    2014-01-01

    Case control studies that assess the burden and factors associated with undernutrition and anaemia among HAART naïve HIV infected children in Nigeria is very sparse. This will help to formulate nutritional programs among these children. Seventy HAART naive HIV infected children aged 18 months and above were as well as seventy age and sex matched HIV negative children were recruited from August 2007 to January 2009 at Paediatric Clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Their bio data, WHO clinical stage, anthropometric measurements, haematocrit, serum albumin and CD4 counts were taken with other parameters according to a study proforma. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting among the HIV infected subjects were 48. 6%,58. 6% and 31. 4% respectively which as significantly higher than 28. 1%, 7. 1% and 28. 1% among the HIV negative controls. 20. 1% of the HIV infected children were marasmic compared to 2. 3% of the controls. Triple anthropometric failure was found in 7. 1% of the subjects as compared to none among the controls. Anaemia is significantly more prevalent among the subjects than the controls (70. 0% vs 31. 4%; p<0. 001). The prevalence of anaemia was higher in the HIV infected subjects with undernutrition. Low socioeconomic status, hypoalbuminemia and severe immunosuppression are significantly associated with higher undernutrition prevalence. Several years after availability of HAART, undernutrition and anaemia remain widely prevalent among newly presenting HAART naïve HIV infected Nigerian children. Nutritional supplementation and evaluation for anaemia still need close attention in the management of these children.

  3. Regulatory T cells generated during cytomegalovirus in vitro stimulation of mononuclear cells from HIV-infected individuals on HAART correlate with decreased lymphocyte proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Jesser, Renee D.; Li, Shaobing; Weinberg, Adriana . E-mail: Adriana.Weinberg@uchsc.edu

    2006-09-01

    HIV-infected patients fail to fully recover cell-mediated immunity despite HAART. To identify regulatory factors, we studied the phenotype and function of in vitro cytomegalovirus (CMV)-stimulated T cells from HAART recipients. CFSE-measured proliferation showed CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} cells dividing in CMV-stimulated cultures. Compared with healthy controls, CMV-stimulated lymphocytes from HAART recipients had lower {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation; lower IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} production; higher CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} and CD8{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} frequencies; lower CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}; and higher FoxP3 expression in CD8{sup +}CD25{sup hi} cells. CMV-specific proliferation correlated with higher IFN{gamma}, TNF{alpha} and IL10 levels and higher CD4{sup +}perforin{sup +} and CD8{sup +}perforin{sup +} frequencies. Decreased proliferation correlated with higher CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} frequencies and TGF{beta}1 production, which also correlated with each other. Anti-TGF{beta}1 neutralizing antibodies restored CMV-specific proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion. In HIV-infected subjects, decreased proliferation correlated with higher CMV-stimulated CD8{sup +}CD25{sup hi} frequencies and their FoxP3 expression. These data indicate that FoxP3- and TGF{beta}1-expressing regulatory T cells contribute to decreased immunity in HAART recipients.

  4. Non-AIDS definings malignancies among human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects: Epidemiology and outcome after two decades of HAART era

    PubMed Central

    Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Morelli, Erika; Cattelan, Francesca; Petrucci, Andrea; Panese, Sandro; Eseme, Franklyn; Cavinato, Francesca; Barelli, Andrea; Raise, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been widely available in industrialized countries since 1996; its widespread use determined a dramatic decline in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related mortality, and consequently, a significant decrease of AIDS-defining cancers. However the increased mean age of HIV-infected patients, prolonged exposure to environmental and lifestyle cancer risk factors, and coinfection with oncogenic viruses contributed to the emergence of other malignancies that are considered non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) as a relevant fraction of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected people twenty years after HAART introduction. The role of immunosuppression in the pathogenesis of NADCs is not well defined, and future researches should investigate the etiology of NADCs. In the last years there is a growing evidence that intensive chemotherapy regimens and radiotherapy could be safely administrated to HIV-positive patients while continuing HAART. This requires a multidisciplinary approach and a close co-operation of oncologists and HIV-physicians in order to best manage compliance of patients to treatment and to face drug-related side effects. Here we review the main epidemiological features, risk factors and clinical behavior of the more common NADCs, such as lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal cancer and anal cancer, Hodgkin’s lymphoma and some cutaneous malignancies, focusing also on the current therapeutic approaches and preventive screening strategies. PMID:26279983

  5. Specific prebiotics modulate gut microbiota and immune activation in HAART-naive HIV-infected adults: results of the "COPA" pilot randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Gori, A; Rizzardini, G; Van't Land, B; Amor, K B; van Schaik, J; Torti, C; Quirino, T; Tincati, C; Bandera, A; Knol, J; Benlhassan-Chahour, K; Trabattoni, D; Bray, D; Vriesema, A; Welling, G; Garssen, J; Clerici, M

    2011-09-01

    Intestinal mucosal immune system is an early target for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, resulting in CD4(+) T-cell depletion, deterioration of gut lining, and fecal microbiota composition. We evaluated the effects of a prebiotic oligosaccharide mixture in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-naive HIV-1-infected adults. In a pilot double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 57 HAART-naive HIV-1-infected patients received a unique oligosaccharide mixture (15 or 30 g short chain galactooligosaccharides/long chain fructooligosaccharides/pectin hydrolysate-derived acidic oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS) daily) or a placebo for 12 weeks. Microbiota composition improved significantly with increased bifidobacteria, decreased Clostridium coccoides/Eubacterium rectale cluster, and decreased pathogenic Clostridium lituseburense/Clostridium histolyticum group levels upon prebiotic supplementation. In addition, a reduction of soluble CD14 (sCD14), activated CD4(+)/CD25(+) T cells, and significantly increased natural killer (NK) cell activity when compared with control group were seen in the treatment group. The results of this pilot trial highly significantly show that dietary supplementation with a prebiotic oligosaccharide mixture results in improvement of the gut microbiota composition, reduction of sCD14, CD4(+) T-cell activation (CD25), and improved NK cell activity in HAART-naive HIV-infected individuals.

  6. Specific prebiotics modulate gut microbiota and immune activation in HAART-naive HIV-infected adults: results of the “COPA” pilot randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Gori, A; Rizzardini, G; van't Land, B; Amor, K B; van Schaik, J; Torti, C; Quirino, T; Tincati, C; Bandera, A; Knol, J; Benlhassan-Chahour, K; Trabattoni, D; Bray, D; Vriesema, A; Welling, G; Garssen, J; Clerici, M

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal mucosal immune system is an early target for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, resulting in CD4+ T-cell depletion, deterioration of gut lining, and fecal microbiota composition. We evaluated the effects of a prebiotic oligosaccharide mixture in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-naive HIV-1-infected adults. In a pilot double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 57 HAART-naive HIV-1-infected patients received a unique oligosaccharide mixture (15 or 30 g short chain galactooligosaccharides/long chain fructooligosaccharides/pectin hydrolysate-derived acidic oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS) daily) or a placebo for 12 weeks. Microbiota composition improved significantly with increased bifidobacteria, decreased Clostridium coccoides/Eubacterium rectale cluster, and decreased pathogenic Clostridium lituseburense/Clostridium histolyticum group levels upon prebiotic supplementation. In addition, a reduction of soluble CD14 (sCD14), activated CD4+/CD25+ T cells, and significantly increased natural killer (NK) cell activity when compared with control group were seen in the treatment group. The results of this pilot trial highly significantly show that dietary supplementation with a prebiotic oligosaccharide mixture results in improvement of the gut microbiota composition, reduction of sCD14, CD4+ T-cell activation (CD25), and improved NK cell activity in HAART-naive HIV-infected individuals. PMID:21525866

  7. Failure to restore the Vgamma2-Jgamma1.2 repertoire in HIV-infected men receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

    PubMed

    Hebbeler, Andrew M; Propp, Nadia; Cairo, Cristiana; Li, Haishan; Cummings, Jean Saville; Jacobson, Lisa P; Margolick, Joseph B; Pauza, C David

    2008-09-01

    Gammadelta (gammadelta) T cells expressing the Vgamma2-Jgamma1.2Vdelta2 (Vgamma9-JPVdelta2, alternate nomenclature) T cell receptor (TCR) constitute the major peripheral blood population of gammadelta T cells in adult humans and are specifically depleted during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Vgamma2-Jgamma1.2Vdelta2 T cells provide a convenient model for assessing the impact of antiretroviral therapy on cell populations that are not susceptible to direct infection because they do not express CD4 and depletion occurs by indirect mechanisms. We obtained longitudinal PBMC samples from 16 HIV-infected individuals who enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and were starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Vgamma2-Jgamma1.2Vdelta2 T cells were depleted in these individuals as a result of HIV infection. Despite evidence for clinical benefits of HAART, the Vgamma2-Jgamma1.2Vdelta2 T cell repertoire did not recover after HAART initiation irrespective of treatment duration. These studies highlight important defects among cell subsets lost due to indirect effects of HIV.

  8. Failure to Restore the Vγ2-Jγ1.2 Repertoire in HIV-infected Men Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)

    PubMed Central

    Hebbeler, Andrew M.; Propp, Nadia; Cairo, Cristiana; Li, Haishan; Cummings, Jean Saville; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Pauza, C. David

    2008-01-01

    Gammadelta (γδ) T cells expressing the Vγ2-Jγ1.2Vδ2 (Vγ9-JPVδ2, alternate nomenclature) T cell receptor (TCR) constitute the major peripheral blood population of γδ T cells in adult humans and are specifically depleted during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Vγ2-Jγ1.2Vδ2 T cells provide a convenient model for assessing the impact of antiretroviral therapy on cell populations that are not susceptible to direct infection because they do not express CD4 and depletion occurs by indirect mechanisms. We obtained longitudinal PBMC samples from 16 HIV-infected individuals who were enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Vγ2-Jγ1.2Vδ2 T cells were depleted in these individuals as a result of HIV infection. Despite evidence for clinical benefits of HAART, the Vγ2-Jγ1.2Vδ2 T cell repertoire did not recover after HAART initiation irrespective of treatment duration. These studies highlight important defects among cell subsets lost due to indirect effects of HIV. PMID:18606571

  9. Timing of HAART defines the integrity of memory B cells and the longevity of humoral responses in HIV-1 vertically-infected children

    PubMed Central

    Pensieroso, Simone; Cagigi, Alberto; Palma, Paolo; Nilsson, Anna; Capponi, Claudia; Freda, Elio; Bernardi, Stefania; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Chiodi, Francesca; Rossi, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 infection induces a progressive disruption of the B cell compartment impairing long-term immune responses to routine immunizations. Depletion of specific memory B cell pools occurs during the 1st stages of the infection and cannot be reestablished by antiretroviral treatment. We reasoned that an early control of viral replication through treatment could preserve the normal development of the memory B cell compartment and responses to routine childhood vaccines. Accordingly, we evaluated the effects of different highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) schedules in 70 HIV-1 vertically-infected pediatric subjects by B cell phenotypic analyses, antigen-specific B cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) and ELISA for common vaccination and HIV-1 antigens. Initiation of HAART within the 1st year of life permits the normal development and maintenance of the memory B cell compartment. On the contrary, memory B cells from patients treated later in time are remarkably reduced and their function is compromised regardless of viral control. A cause for concern is that both late-treated HIV-1 controllers and noncontrollers loose protective antibody titers against common vaccination antigens. Timing of HAART initiation is the major factor predicting the longevity of B cell responses in vaccinated HIV-1-infected children. PMID:19416836

  10. It's not just what you say: relationships of HIV dislosure and risk reduction among MSM in the post-HAART era.

    PubMed

    Klitzman, R; Exner, T; Correale, J; Kirshenbaum, S B; Remien, R; Ehrhardt, A A; Lightfoot, M; Catz, S L; Weinhardt, L S; Johnson, M O; Morin, S F; Rotheram-Borus, M J; Kelly, J A; Charlebois, E

    2007-07-01

    In the post-HAART era, critical questions arise as to what factors affect disclosure decisions and how these decisions are associated with factors such as high-risk behaviors and partner variables. We interviewed 1,828 HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), of whom 46% disclosed to all partners. Among men with casual partners, 41.8% disclosed to all of these partners and 21.5% to none. Disclosure was associated with relationship type, perceived partner HIV status and sexual behaviors. Overall, 36.5% of respondents had unprotected anal sex (UAS) with partners of negative/unknown HIV status. Of those with only casual partners, 80.4% had >1 act of UAS and 58% of these did not disclose to all partners. This 58% were more likely to self-identify as gay (versus bisexual), be aware of their status for <5 years and have more partners. Being on HAART, viral load and number of symptoms were not associated with disclosure. This study - the largest conducted to date of disclosure among MSM and one of the few conducted post-HAART - indicates that almost 1/5th reported UAS with casual partners without disclosure, highlighting a public health challenge. Disclosure needs to be addressed in the context of relationship type, partner status and broader risk-reduction strategies.

  11. Relationship between Younger Age, Autoimmunity, Cardiometabolic Risk, Oxidative Stress, HAART, and Ischemic Stroke in Africans with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Longokolo Mashi, Murielle; Lelo Tshikwela, Michel; Mokondjimobe, Etienne; Gombet, Thierry; Ellenga-Mbolla, Bertrand; Nge Okwe, Augustin; Kangola Kabangu, Nelly; Mbungu Fuele, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose. It now appears clear that both HIV/AIDS and antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease such as stroke. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence, the risk factors, and the cardiometabolic comorbidities of stroke in HIV/AIDS Central African patients. Methods. This hospital-based cross-sectional study collected clinical, laboratory, and imaging data of black Central African heterosexual, intravenous drug nonuser, and HIV/AIDS patients. Results. There were 54 men and 62 women, with a female to male ratio of 1.2 : 1. All were defined by hypercoagulability and oxidative stress. Hemorrhagic stroke was reported in 1 patient, ischemic stroke in 17 patients, and all stroke subtypes in 18 patients (15%). Younger age <45 years (P = .003), autoimmunity (P < .0001), and metabolic syndrome defined by IDF criteria (P < .0001) were associated with ischemic stroke. Conclusions. Clustering of several cardiometabolic factors, autoimmunity, oxidative stress, and lifestyle changes may explain accelerated atherosclerosis and high risk of stroke in these young black Africans with HIV/AIDS. Prevention and intervention programs are needed.

  12. Socio-economic impact of antiretroviral treatment in HIV patients. An economic review of cost savings after introduction of HAART.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, Teresa; García Goñi, Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, María Angeles

    2009-01-01

    Star celebrities such as Rock Hudson, Freddie Mercury, Magic Johnson, and Isaac Asimov have unfortunately something in common: they were all victims of the HIV global pandemic. Since then HIV infection has become considered a pandemic disease, and it is regarded as a priority in healthcare worldwide. It is ranked as the first cause of death among young people in industrialized countries, and it is recognized as a public healthcare problem due to its human, social, mass media, and economic impact. Incorporation of new and highly active antiretroviral treatment, available since 1996 for HIV/AIDS treatment, has provoked a radical change in the disease pattern, as well as in the impact on patient survival and quality of life. The pharmaceutical industry's contribution, based on the research for more active new drugs, has been pivotal. Mortality rates have decreased significantly in 20 years by 50% and now AIDS is considered a chronic and controlled disease. In this review we have studied the impact of HAART treatment on infected patients, allowing them to maintain their status as active workers and the decreased absenteeism from work derived from this, contributing ultimately to overall social wealth and, thus, to economic growth. Furthermore, an analysis of the impact on healthcare costs, quality of life per year, life per year gained, cost economic savings and cost opportunity among other parameters has shown that society and governments are gaining major benefits from the inclusion of antiretroviral therapies in HIV/AIDS patients.

  13. 18O proteomics reveal increased Human Apolipoprotein CIII in Hispanic HIV-1 positive women with HAART that use cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Zenón, Frances; Jorge, Inmaculada; Cruz, Ailed; Suarez, Erick; Segarra, Annabell C.; Vázquez, Jesús; Meléndez, Loyda M.; Serrano, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Drug abuse is a major risk factor in the development and progression of HIV-1. This study defines the alterations in the plasma proteome of HIV-1 infected women that use cocaine. Experimental Design Plasma samples from 12 HIV-seropositive Hispanic women under antiretroviral therapy were selected for this study. Six sample pairs were matched between non-drug users and cocaine users. After IgG and albumin depletion, SDS-PAGE, and in-gel digestion, peptides from non-drug users and cocaine users were labeled with 16O and 18O respectively and subjected to LC-MS/MS and quantitation using Proteome Discover and QuiXoT softwares and validated by ELISA. Results A total of 1,015 proteins were identified at 1% FDR. Statistical analyses revealed 13 proteins with significant changes between the two groups, cocaine and non-cocaine users (p<0.05). The great majority pertained to protection defense function and the rest pertained to transport, homeostatic, regulation, and binding of ligands. Apolipoprotein CIII was increased in plasma of HIV+ Hispanic women positive for cocaine compared to HIV+ non-drug users (p<0.05). Conclusions and clinical relevance Increased human Apolipoprotein CIII warrants that these patients be carefully monitored to avoid the increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with HIV, HAART and cocaine use. PMID:26255783

  14. 18O proteomics reveal increased human apolipoprotein CIII in Hispanic HIV-1+ women with HAART that use cocaine.

    PubMed

    Zenón, Frances; Jorge, Inmaculada; Cruz, Ailed; Suárez, Erick; Segarra, Annabell C; Vázquez, Jesús; Meléndez, Loyda M; Serrano, Horacio

    2016-02-01

    Drug abuse is a major risk factor in the development and progression of HIV-1. This study defines the alterations in the plasma proteome of HIV-1-infected women that use cocaine. Plasma samples from 12 HIV-seropositive Hispanic women under antiretroviral therapy were selected for this study. Six sample pairs were matched between nondrug users and cocaine users. After IgG and albumin depletion, SDS-PAGE, and in-gel digestion, peptides from nondrug users and cocaine users were labeled with (16) O and (18) O, respectively, and subjected to LC-MS/MS and quantitation using Proteome Discover and QuiXoT softwares and validated by ELISA. A total of 1015 proteins were identified at 1% false discovery rates (FDR). Statistical analyses revealed 13 proteins with significant changes between the two groups, cocaine and noncocaine users (p < 0.05). The great majority pertained to protection defense function and the rest pertained to transport, homeostatic, regulation, and binding of ligands. Apolipoprotein CIII was increased in plasma of HIV+ Hispanic women positive for cocaine compared to HIV+ nondrug users (p ≤ 0.05). Increased human apolipoprotein CIII warrants that these patients be carefully monitored to avoid the increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with HIV, HAART, and cocaine use. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. HIV-1/HAART-Related Lipodystrophy Syndrome (HALS) Is Associated with Decreased Circulating sTWEAK Levels

    PubMed Central

    López-Dupla, Miguel; Maymó-Masip, Elsa; Martínez, Esteban; Domingo, Pere; Leal, Manuel; Peraire, Joaquim; Viladés, Consuelo; Veloso, Sergi; Arnedo, Mireia; Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Alba, Verónica; Gatell, Josep Mª; Vendrell, Joan; Vidal, Francesc; Chacón, Matilde R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Obesity and HIV-1/HAART–associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) share clinical, pathological and mechanistic features. Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a multifunctional cytokine that plays an important role in obesity and related diseases. We sought to explore the relationship between HALS and circulating levels of soluble (s) TWEAK and its scavenger receptor sCD163. Methods This was a cross-sectional multicenter study of 120 HIV-1-infected patients treated with a stable HAART regimen; 56 with overt HALS and 64 without HALS. Epidemiological and clinical variables were determined. Serum levels of sTWEAK and sCD163 levels were measured by ELISA. Results were analyzed with Student’s t-test, Mann-Whitney U and χ2 test. Pearson and Spearman correlation were used to estimate the strength of association between variables. Results Circulating sTWEAK was significantly decreased in HALS patients compared with non-HALS patients (2.81±0.2 vs. 2.94±0.28 pg/mL, p = 0.018). No changes were observed in sCD163 levels in the studied cohorts. On multivariate analysis, a lower log sTWEAK concentration was independently associated with the presence of HALS (OR 0.027, 95% CI 0.001–0.521, p = 0.027). Conclusions HALS is associated with decreased sTWEAK levels. PMID:26658801

  16. Therapeutic Immunization with HIV-1 Tat Reduces Immune Activation and Loss of Regulatory T-Cells and Improves Immune Function in Subjects on HAART

    PubMed Central

    Ensoli, Barbara; Bellino, Stefania; Tripiciano, Antonella; Longo, Olimpia; Francavilla, Vittorio; Marcotullio, Simone; Cafaro, Aurelio; Picconi, Orietta; Paniccia, Giovanni; Scoglio, Arianna; Arancio, Angela; Ariola, Cristina; Ruiz Alvarez, Maria J.; Campagna, Massimo; Scaramuzzi, Donato; Iori, Cristina; Esposito, Roberto; Mussini, Cristina; Ghinelli, Florio; Sighinolfi, Laura; Palamara, Guido; Latini, Alessandra; Angarano, Gioacchino; Ladisa, Nicoletta; Soscia, Fabrizio; Mercurio, Vito S.; Lazzarin, Adriano; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Visintini, Raffaele; Mazzotta, Francesco; Di Pietro, Massimo; Galli, Massimo; Rusconi, Stefano; Carosi, Giampiero; Torti, Carlo; Di Perri, Giovanni; Bonora, Stefano; Ensoli, Fabrizio; Garaci, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Although HAART suppresses HIV replication, it is often unable to restore immune homeostasis. Consequently, non-AIDS-defining diseases are increasingly seen in treated individuals. This is attributed to persistent virus expression in reservoirs and to cell activation. Of note, in CD4+ T cells and monocyte-macrophages of virologically-suppressed individuals, there is continued expression of multi-spliced transcripts encoding HIV regulatory proteins. Among them, Tat is essential for virus gene expression and replication, either in primary infection or for virus reactivation during HAART, when Tat is expressed, released extracellularly and exerts, on both the virus and the immune system, effects that contribute to disease maintenance. Here we report results of an ad hoc exploratory interim analysis (up to 48 weeks) on 87 virologically-suppressed HAART-treated individuals enrolled in a phase II randomized open-label multicentric clinical trial of therapeutic immunization with Tat (ISS T-002). Eighty-eight virologically-suppressed HAART-treated individuals, enrolled in a parallel prospective observational study at the same sites (ISS OBS T-002), served for intergroup comparison. Immunization with Tat was safe, induced durable immune responses, and modified the pattern of CD4+ and CD8+ cellular activation (CD38 and HLA-DR) together with reduction of biochemical activation markers and persistent increases of regulatory T cells. This was accompanied by a progressive increment of CD4+ T cells and B cells with reduction of CD8+ T cells and NK cells, which were independent from the type of antiretroviral regimen. Increase in central and effector memory and reduction in terminally-differentiated effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were accompanied by increases of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses against Env and recall antigens. Of note, more immune-compromised individuals experienced greater therapeutic effects. In contrast, these changes were opposite, absent or partial in the

  17. Altered relationship of plasma triglycerides to HDL cholesterol in patients with HIV/HAART-associated dyslipidemia: further evidence for a unique form of metabolic syndrome in HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Vu, Catherine N; Ruiz-Esponda, Raul; Yang, Eric; Chang, Evelyn; Gillard, Baiba; Pownall, Henry J; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Coraza, Ivonne; Balasubramanyam, Ashok

    2013-07-01

    Plasma triglycerides (TG) and HDL-C are inversely related in Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), due to exchange of VLDL-TG for HDL-cholesteryl esters catalyzed by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). We investigated the relationship of TG to HDL-C in highly-active antiretroviral drug (HAART)-treated HIV patients. Fasting plasma TG and HDL-C levels were compared in 179 hypertriglyceridemic HIV/HAART patients and 71 HIV-negative persons (31 normotriglyceridemic (NL) and 40 hypertriglyceridemic due to type IV hyperlipidemia (HTG)). CETP mass and activity were compared in 19 NL and 87 HIV/HAART subjects. Among the three groups, a plot of HDL-C vs. TG gave similar slopes but significantly different y-intercepts (9.24±0.45, 8.16±0.54, 6.70±0.65, sqrt(HDL-C) for NL, HIV and HTG respectively; P<0.001); this difference persisted after adjusting HDL-C for TG, age, BMI, gender, glucose, CD4 count, viral load and HAART strata (7.18±0.20, 6.20±0.05 and 4.55±0.15 sqrt(HDL-C) for NL, HIV and HTG, respectively, P<0.001). CETP activity was not different between NL and HIV, but CETP mass was significantly higher in HIV (1.47±0.53 compared to 0.93±0.27μg/mL, P<0.0001), hence CETP specific activity was lower in HIV (22.67±13.46 compared to 28.46±8.24nmol/μg/h, P=0.001). Dyslipidemic HIV/HAART patients have a distinctive HDL-C plasma concentration adjusted for TG. The weak inverse relationship between HDL-C and TG is not explained by altered total CETP activity; it could result from a non-CETP-dependent mechanism or a decrease in CETP function due to inhibitors of CETP activity in HIV patients' plasma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Altered relationship of plasma triglycerides to HDL cholesterol in patients with HIV/HAART-associated dyslipidemia: further evidence for a unique form of Metabolic Syndrome in HIV patients

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Catherine N.; Ruiz-Esponda, Raul; Yang, Eric; Chang, Evelyn; Gillard, Baiba; Pownall, Henry J.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Coraza, Ivonne; Balasubramanyam, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Plasma triglycerides (TG) and HDL-C are inversely related in Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), due to exchange of VLDL-TG for HDL-cholesteryl esters catalyzed by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). We investigated the relationship of TG to HDL-C in highly-active antiretroviral drug (HAART)-treated HIV patients. Methods Fasting plasma TG and HDL-C levels were compared in 179 hypertriglyceridemic HIV/HAART patients and 71 HIV-negative persons (31 normotriglyceridemic (NL) and 40 hypertriglyceridemic due to type IV hyperlipidemia (HTG)). CETP mass and activity were compared in 19 NL and 87 HIV/HAART subjects. Results Among the three groups, a plot of HDL-C vs. TG gave similar slopes but significantly different y-intercepts (9.24 ± 0.45, 8.16 ± 0.54, 6.70 ± 0.65, sqrt(HDL-C) for NL, HIV and HTG respectively; P<0.001); this difference persisted after adjusting HDL-C for TG, age, BMI, gender, glucose, CD4 count, viral load and HAART strata (7.18 ± 0.20, 6.20 ± 0.05 and 4.55 ± 0.15 sqrt(HDL-C) for NL, HIV and HTG, respectively, P <0.001). CETP activity was not different between NL and HIV, but CETP mass was significantly higher in HIV (1.47 ± 0.53 compared to 0.93 ± 0.27 μg/mL, P<0.0001), hence CETP specific activity was lower in HIV (22.67 ± 13.46 compared to 28.46 ± 8.24 nmol/μg/h, P=0.001). Conclusions Dyslipidemic HIV/HAART patients have a distinctive HDL-C plasma concentration adjusted for TG. The weak inverse relationship between HDL-C and TG is not explained by altered total CETP activity; it could result from a non-CETP-dependent mechanism or a decrease in CETP function due to inhibitors of CETP activity in HIV patients’ plasma. PMID:23522788

  19. Evolution of Framingham cardiovascular risk score in HIV-infected patients initiating EFV- and LPV/r-based HAART in a Latin American cohort.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Diego; Mattioli, Maria Ines; Cassetti, Julia; Chan, Debora; Cassetti, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that some antiretroviral drugs may contribute to increase cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients. However, data from Latin American countries are limited, as impact of HAART on cardiovascular risk remains understudied. In this context, we aimed to evaluate if 10-year Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Score (FCRS) increases in patients following exposure to EFV- and LPV/r-based HAART in a Latin American cohort. Retrospective 48-week cohort study. We reviewed clinical charts of randomly selected samples of patients initiating (according to national guidelines) EFV first-line HAART and LPV/r first- or second-line (but first PI-based) HAART assisted at a reference HIV centre in Buenos Aires, Argentina (period 2004-2012). Each patient could only be included in one arm. FCRS was calculated according to National Institutes of Health risk assessment tool (http://cvdrisk.nhlbi.nih.gov/). A total of 357 patients were included: 249 in EFV arm and 108 in LPV/r arm (80 as first line and 28 as second line, but first PI-based HAART). Baseline characteristics (median, interquartile range): age, 38 (33-45) years; male, 247 (69%); viral load, 98200 (20550-306000) copies/mL; CD4 T-cell count, 115 (60-175) cel/µL; total cholesterol, 159 (135-194) mg/dL; HDL: 39 (31-41) mg/dL; LDL: 94 (72-123) mg/dL; current smoker, 29%; on antihypertensive drugs: 14 (4%), diabetic: 4 (1%). Most frequent accompanying nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) were 3TC (92%) and zidovudine (AZT; 76%). Baseline FCRS was low, moderate and high for 93%, 7% and 0% of patients on EFV arm and 96.7%, 1.7% and 1.7% on LPV/r arm. On EFV arm, an increase in FCRS category (low to moderate or moderate to high) was observed in 1 patient (0.9%) at 24 weeks and 6 (5,6%) at 48 weeks; 5 (4.7%) decreased category. On LPV/r arm no one varied FCRS category at 24 weeks and 2 (3.4%) increased from low to moderate at 48 weeks (no patient decreased FCRS category). Cumulative

  20. Evolution of Framingham cardiovascular risk score in HIV-infected patients initiating EFV- and LPV/r-based HAART in a Latin American cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cecchini, Diego; Ines Mattioli, Maria; Cassetti, Julia; Chan, Debora; Cassetti, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological studies suggest that some antiretroviral drugs may contribute to increase cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients. However, data from Latin American countries are limited, as impact of HAART on cardiovascular risk remains understudied. In this context, we aimed to evaluate if 10-year Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Score (FCRS) increases in patients following exposure to EFV- and LPV/r-based HAART in a Latin American cohort. Materials and Methods Retrospective 48-week cohort study. We reviewed clinical charts of randomly selected samples of patients initiating (according to national guidelines) EFV first-line HAART and LPV/r first- or second-line (but first PI-based) HAART assisted at a reference HIV centre in Buenos Aires, Argentina (period 2004–2012). Each patient could only be included in one arm. FCRS was calculated according to National Institutes of Health risk assessment tool (http://cvdrisk.nhlbi.nih.gov/). Results A total of 357 patients were included: 249 in EFV arm and 108 in LPV/r arm (80 as first line and 28 as second line, but first PI-based HAART). Baseline characteristics (median, interquartile range): age, 38 (33–45) years; male, 247 (69%); viral load, 98200 (20550–306000) copies/mL; CD4 T-cell count, 115 (60–175) cel/µL; total cholesterol, 159 (135–194) mg/dL; HDL: 39 (31–41) mg/dL; LDL: 94 (72–123) mg/dL; current smoker, 29%; on antihypertensive drugs: 14 (4%), diabetic: 4 (1%). Most frequent accompanying nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) were 3TC (92%) and zidovudine (AZT; 76%). Baseline FCRS was low, moderate and high for 93%, 7% and 0% of patients on EFV arm and 96.7%, 1.7% and 1.7% on LPV/r arm. On EFV arm, an increase in FCRS category (low to moderate or moderate to high) was observed in 1 patient (0.9%) at 24 weeks and 6 (5,6%) at 48 weeks; 5 (4.7%) decreased category. On LPV/r arm no one varied FCRS category at 24 weeks and 2 (3.4%) increased from low to moderate at 48 weeks

  1. Hypercholesterolemia Is Associated with the Apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3) Genotype in Children Receiving HAART: An Eight-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Carlos A.; Mecikovsky, Debora; Aulicino, Paula; Bologna, Rosa; Sen, Luisa; Mangano, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphisms in apolipoprotein genes have shown to be predictors of plasma lipid levels in adult cohorts receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Our objective was to confirm the association between the APOC3 genotype and plasma lipid levels in an HIV-1-infected pediatric cohort exposed to HAART. A total of 130 HIV-1-infected children/adolescents that attended a reference center in Argentina were selected for an 8-year longitudinal study with retrospective data collection. Longitudinal measurements of plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C were analyzed under linear or generalized linear mixed models. The contribution of the APOC3 genotype at sites −482, −455 and 3238 to plasma lipid levels prediction was tested after adjusting for potential confounders. Four major APOC3 haplotypes were observed for sites −482/−455/3238, with estimated frequencies of 0.60 (C/T/C), 0.14 (T/C/C), 0.11 (C/C/C), and 0.11 (T/C/G). The APOC3 genotype showed a significant effect only for the prediction of total cholesterol levels (p<0.0001). However, the magnitude of the differences observed was dependent on the drug combination (p = 0.0007) and the drug exposure duration at the time of the plasma lipid measurement (p = 0.0002). A lower risk of hypercholesterolemia was predicted for double and triple heterozygous individuals, mainly at the first few months after the initiation of Ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor-based regimens. We report for the first time a significant contribution of the genotype to total cholesterol levels in a pediatric cohort under HAART. The genetic determination of APOC3 might have an impact on a large portion of HIV-1-infected children at the time of choosing the treatment regimens or on the counter-measures against the adverse effects of drugs. PMID:22848358

  2. Prevalence of Hypertension and Its Associated Risk Factors among 34,111 HAART Naïve HIV-Infected Adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Aveika, Akum; Spiegelman, Donna; Hawkins, Claudia; Armstrong, Catharina; Liu, Enju; Okuma, James; Chalamila, Guerino; Kaaya, Sylvia; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Elevated blood pressure has been reported among treatment naïve HIV-infected patients. We investigated prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors in a HAART naïve HIV-infected population in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among HAART naïve HIV-infected patients. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg. Overweight and obesity were defined as body mass index (BMI) between 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. We used relative risks to examine factors associated with hypertension. Results. Prevalence of hypertension was found to be 12.5%. After adjusting for possible confounders, risk of hypertension was 10% more in male than female patients. Patients aged ≥50 years had more than 2-fold increased risk for hypertension compared to 30–39-years-old patients. Overweight and obesity were associated with 51% and 94% increased risk for hypertension compared to normal weight patients. Low CD4+ T-cell count, advanced WHO clinical disease stage, and history of TB were associated with 10%, 42%, and 14% decreased risk for hypertension. Conclusions. Older age, male gender, and overweight/obesity were associated with hypertension. Immune suppression and history of TB were associated with lower risk for hypertension. HIV treatment programs should screen and manage hypertension even in HAART naïve individuals. PMID:27872756

  3. Persistence of Pathological Distribution of NK Cells in HIV-Infected Patients with Prolonged Use of HAART and a Sustained Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Frias, Mario; Rivero-Juarez, Antonio; Gordon, Ana; Camacho, Angela; Cantisan, Sara; Cuenca-Lopez, Francisca; Torre-Cisneros, Julian; Peña, Jose; Rivero, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective A prospective analysis of the distribution of NK subsets and natural cytotoxicity receptors (NKp30/NKp46) in HIV patients with long-term HAART use and sustained virological and immunological response. Methods The main inclusion criteria were: at least 3 years’ receipt of HAART; current CD4+ count ≥ 500 cells/mm3; undetectable viral load for at least 24 months; no hepatotropic virus co-infection. Percentages of CD56dim, CD56bright NK cells and CD56neg CD16+ cells were obtained. Expression of the NCRs, NKp30 and NKp46 was analysed in CD56+ cells. Thirty-nine infected patients and sixteen healthy donors were included in the study. Results The percentages of total CD56+ and CD56dim NK cells were significantly lower in HIV-infected patients than in healthy donors (70.4 vs. 50.3 and 80.9 vs. 66.1 respectively). The percentage of total CD56+ NK cells expressing NCR receptors was lower in HIV patients than in healthy donors (NKp30: 25.20 vs. 58.63; NKp46: 24.8 vs. 50.59). This was also observed for CD56dim and CD56bright NK cells. Length of time with undetectable HIV viral load was identified as an independent factor associated with higher expression of NKp30 and NKp46. Conclusion Despite the prolonged and effective use of HAART, HIV-infected patients do not fully reconstitute the distribution of NK cells. Length of time with an undetectable viral load was related to greater recovery of NKp30/NKp46 receptors. PMID:25811634

  4. HIV/AIDS-Associated Cryptococcosis in Portugal Spanning the Pre- to Post-HAART Era: A Retrospective Assessment at the Genotypic Level Based on URA5-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Maduro, A P; Gonçalves, L; Inácio, J; Faria, N C G; Martins, M L; Teles, F R R

    2015-10-01

    Cryptococcosis caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic mycosis, infecting mainly immunodepressed individuals. Molecular epidemiology studies of cryptococcosis in Europe are limited. This paper presents a retrospective study of cryptococcosis in 105 cryptococcal isolates from two hospitals in Lisbon, Portugal, among HIV/AIDS patients, from 1991 to 2007. Among these patients, the number of cases of cryptococcosis increased from 5.1 to 6.9 cases per year from the pre- to post-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. As expected, the median age of the patients increased, from 32 (mean: 33 ± 8) to 39 (mean: 41 ± 10) years, and the ratio of male to female patients remained high (7.7 and 7.6, respectively). Strain genotyping based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of the orotidine monophosphate pyrophosphorylase (URA5-RFLP) gene showed that, in general, the relative frequencies of the genotypes VNI-IV are similar to those from other European countries. These frequencies were, respectively, for the pre- and post-HAART periods: 41.7 and 43.5 % for VNI; 2.8 and 17.4 % for VNII; 38.9 and 30.4 % for VNIII; 16.7 and 7.2 % for VNIV and 0 and 1.4 % for VGII. Some apparent although statistically insignificant differences among these values were observed between both periods. The genotypic frequencies were not also statistically different according to the patients' gender or age range. Of note are the high proportion of VNIII isolates (common in Europe) and the high increase in the frequency of the VNII genotype in the post-HAART. Ultimately, these results may have implications in disease therapy, management and control.

  5. Effect of Nadir CD4+ T Cell Count on Clinical Measures of Periodontal Disease in HIV+ Adults before and during Immune Reconstitution on HAART

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Lance T.; Demko, Catherine A.; Babineau, Denise C.; Wang, Xuelei; Toossi, Zahra; Weinberg, Aaron; Rodriguez, Benigno

    2013-01-01

    Background The contribution of HIV-infection to periodontal disease (PD) is poorly understood.  We proposed that immunological markers would be associated with improved clinical measures of PD. Methods We performed a longitudinal cohort study of HIV-infected adults who had started highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) <2 years. PD was characterized clinically as the percent of teeth with ≥1 site with periodontal probing depth (PPD) ≥5.0mm, recession (REC) >0mm, clinical attachment level (CAL) ≥4.0mm, and bleeding on probing (BOP) at ≥4 sites/tooth and microbiologically as specific periodontopathogen concentration. Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations between immune function and PD. Results Forty (40) subjects with median 2.7 months on HAART and median nadir CD4+ T-cell count of 212 cells/μl completed a median 3 visits. Over 24 months, CD4+ T-cell count increased by a mean 173 cells/µl (p<0.001) and HIV RNA decreased by 0.5 log10 copies/ml (p<0.001); concurrently, PPD, CAL and BOP decreased by a mean 11.7%, 12.1%, and 14.7% respectively (all p<0.001). Lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count was associated with worse baseline REC (-6.72%; p=0.04) and CAL (9.06%; p<0.001). Further, lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count was associated with a greater relative longitudinal improvement in PPD in subjects with higher baseline levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis (p=0.027), and BOP in subjects with higher baseline levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis or Treponema denticola (p=0.001 and p=0.006 respectively). Longitudinal changes from baseline in CD4+ T-cell count and level of HIV RNA were not independently associated with longitudinal changes in any clinical markers of PD. Conclusion Degree of immunosuppression was associated with baseline gingival recession. After HAART initiation, measures of active PD improved most in those with lower nadir CD4+ T-cell counts and higher baseline levels of specific periodontopathogens. Nadir CD4+ T-cell count

  6. Outcomes in the first year after initiation of first-line HAART among heterosexual men and women in the UK CHIC Study.

    PubMed

    Barber, Tristan J; Geretti, Anna Maria; Anderson, Jane; Schwenk, Achim; Phillips, Andrew N; Bansi, Loveleen; Gilson, Richard; Hill, Teresa; Walsh, John; Fisher, Martin; Johnson, Margaret; Post, Frank; Easterbrook, Philippa; Gazzard, Brian; Palfreeman, Adrian; Orkin, Chloe; Leen, Clifford; Gompels, Mark; Dunn, David; Delpech, Valerie; Pillay, Deenan; Sabin, Caroline A

    2011-01-01

    We analysed the influence of gender on use and outcomes of first-line HAART in a UK cohort. Analyses included heterosexuals starting HAART from 1998-2007 with pre-treatment CD4(+) T-cell count<350 cells/mm(3) and viral load (VL)>500 copies/ml. Virological suppression (<50 copies/ml), virological rebound (>500 copies/ml), CD4(+) T-cell counts at 6 and 12 months, clinical events and treatment discontinuation/switch in the first year of HAART were compared using linear, logistic and Cox regression. Compared with women (n=2,179), men (n=1,487) were older and had lower CD4(+) T-cell count and higher VL at start of HAART. Median follow-up was 3.8 years (IQR 2.0-6.2). At 6 and 12 months, 72.7% and 75.3% had VL≤50 copies/ml, with no large differences between genders at either time after adjustment for confounders (6 months, OR 0.92 [95% CI 0.76-1.13]; 12 months, OR 1.06 [95% CI 0.85-1.31]). Overall, 79.4% patients achieved virological suppression and 19.2% experienced virological rebound, without gender differences, although men had an increased risk of rebound after excluding pregnant women (adjusted relative hazard [RH] 1.33 [95% CI 1.04-1.71]). Mean CD4(+) T-cell count increases at 6 and 12 months were, respectively, 112 and 156 cells/mm(3) overall, with mean differences between men and women of -14.6 cells/mm(3) (95% CI -24.6--4.5) and -12.1 cells/mm(3) (95% CI -24.4-0.2) at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Clinical progression was similar in men and women, but men were less likely to experience treatment discontinuation/switch (adjusted RH 0.72 [95% CI 0.63-0.83]). Despite higher discontinuation rates among women, men had an increased risk of virological rebound and slightly poorer CD4(+) T-cell count responses. Identifying the reasons underlying treatment discontinuation/switch may help optimize treatment strategies for both genders. © 2011 International Medical Press

  7. Risk of Severe Non AIDS Events Is Increased among Patients Unable to Increase their CD4+ T-Cell Counts >200+/μl Despite Effective HAART.

    PubMed

    Lapadula, Giuseppe; Chatenoud, Liliane; Gori, Andrea; Castelli, Francesco; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Maggiolo, Franco; Focà, Emanuele; Ladisa, Nicoletta; Sighinolfi, Laura; Di Pietro, Massimo; Pan, Angelo; Torti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Immunological non-response (INR) despite virological suppression is associated with AIDS-defining events/death (ADE). Little is known about its association with serious non-AIDS-defining events (nADE). Patients highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with <200 CD4+/μl and achieving HIV-RNA <50 copies/ml within 12 (±3) months were categorized as INR if CD4+ T-cell count at year 1 was <200/μl. Predictors of nADE (malignancies, severe infections, renal failure--ie, estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 ml/min, cardiovascular events and liver decompensation) were assessed using multivariable Cox models. Follow-up was right-censored in case of HAART discontinuation or confirmed HIV-RNA>50. 1221 patients were observed for a median of 3 (IQR: 1.3-6.1) years. Pre-HAART CD4+ were 77/μl (IQR: 28-142) and 56% of patients had experienced an ADE. After 1 year, CD4+ increased to 286 (IQR: 197-387), but 26.1% of patients were INR. Thereafter, 86 nADE (30.2% malignancies, 27.9% infectious, 17.4% renal, 17.4% cardiovascular, 7% hepatic) were observed, accounting for an incidence of 1.83 events (95%CI: 1.73-2.61) per 100 PYFU. After adjusting for measurable confounders, INR had a significantly greater risk of nADE (HR 1.65; 95%CI: 1.06-2.56). Older age (per year, HR 1.03; 95%CI: 1.01-1.05), hepatitis C co-infection (HR 2.09; 95%CI: 1.19-3.7), a history of previous nADE (HR 2.16; 95%CI: 1.06-4.4) and the occurrence of ADE during the follow-up (HR 2.2; 95%CI: 1.15-4.21) were other independent predictors of newly diagnosed nADE. Patients failing to restore CD4+ to >200 cells/μl run a greater risk of serious nADE, which is intertwined or predicted by AIDS progression. Improved management of this fragile population and innovative therapy able to induce immune-reconstitution are urgently needed. Also, our results strengthen the importance of earlier diagnosis and HAART introduction.

  8. Association of T CD4 lymphocyte levels and subgingival microbiota of chronic periodontitis in HIV-infected Brazilians under HAART.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Lucio de Souza; Ferreira, Sônia Maria; Silva, Arley; Villoria, German Eduardo; Costinha, Lúcia Helena; Souto, Renata; Uzeda, Milton De; Colombo, Ana Paula

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the subgingival microbiota of HIV-infected patients with chronic periodontitis and different T CD4 lymphocyte levels under HAART. 64 HIV+ patients (mean age 34.5 +/- 7.3; 75% males) were distributed into Group I: chronic periodontitis (> or = 3 sites with probing pocket depth (PPD) and/or clinical attachment level (CAL) > or = 5 mm); and Group II: periodontal health (no sites with PPD > 3 mm and/or CAL > 4 mm). All subjects received conventional periodontal therapy. Periodontal clinical parameters were evaluated at 6 sites/tooth in all teeth at baseline and 4 months after therapy. The levels of T CD4 were obtained from the patient's medical record. Subgingival plaque samples were taken from the 6 sites with the largest pocket depth in each subject of Group I, and 6 randomly selected sites in subjects of Group II. The presence of 22 subgingival species was determined using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method. Significant microbiological differences within and among groups were sought using Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney tests, respectively. Relationships between T CD4 levels and microbiological parameters were determined using Kruskal-Wallis test. Sixty-one percent of the HIV-infected patients represented AIDS cases, although 69% of them were periodontally healthy. The T CD4 lymphocyte mean level was 333 cells/mm3 and viral load was 12,815 +/- 24,607 copies/mm3. Yet, the prevalence of chronic periodontitis was relatively low (36%). Several periodontal pathogens, in particular T. forsythensis (P < .05), were more prevalent in HIV-positive patients with periodontitis than in HIV-positive subjects with periodontal health. Most of the species decreased in frequency after therapy, particularly P. gingivalis (P < .05). E. faecalis and F. nucleatum were significantly more prevalent in the subgingival microbiota of patients with chronic periodontitis and lower levels of T CD4 (P < .05), while beneficial species tended

  9. Association between nutritional status and the immune response in HIV + patients under HAART: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    number: CRD42014005961). Conclusion Undernutrition and weight loss are prevalent amongst highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated patients in LMICs and contribute to excess early mortality. A possible intermediate pathway could be poor immune reconstitution secondary to deficient nutritional status. In the face of limited access to second line treatments, raising HIV resistance and cut backs to HIV programs, it is crucial to identify the factors associated with suboptimal response and therapeutic failure in order to better customize the care strategies employed in LMICs. PMID:24513015

  10. Neuropathology of AIDS: An Autopsy Review of 284 Cases from Brazil Comparing the Findings Pre- and Post-HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) and Pre- and Postmortem Correlation.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Cristina Araújo Lemos; Rodrigues, Blenda Sousa Carli; Micheletti, Adilha Misson Rua; Tostes, Sebastião; Meneses, Antonio Carlos Oliveira; Silva-Vergara, Mário Leon; Adad, Sheila Jorge

    2012-01-01

    A retrospective study of central nervous system (CNS) in 284 autopsy AIDS cases in Brazil (1989-2008) divided into 3 groups: A (without antiretroviral treatment: 163 cases); B (other antiretroviral therapies: 76 cases); C (HAART for 3 months or more: 45 cases). In 165 (58.1%) cases, relevant lesions were found, predominantly infections (54.2%); the most frequent was toxoplasmosis (29.9%) followed by cryptococcosis (15.8%), purulent bacterial infections (3.9%), and HIV encephalitis (2.8%); non-Hodgkin lymphomas occurred in 1.4% and vascular lesions in 1.1%. There was no difference when compared the frequency of lesion among the groups; however, toxoplasmosis was less common while HIV encephalitis was more frequent in group C related to A. CNS lesions remain a frequent cause of death in AIDS; however, the mean survival time was four times greater in group C than in A. In 91 (55.1%) of 165 cases with relevant brain lesions (or 32% of the total 284 cases), there was discordance between pre- and postmortem diagnosis; disagreement type 1 (important disease that if diagnosed in life could change the patient prognosis) occurred in 49 (53.8%) of 91 discordant cases (17.6% of the total 284) indicating the autopsy importance, even with HAART and advanced diagnostics technologies.

  11. Neuropathology of AIDS: An Autopsy Review of 284 Cases from Brazil Comparing the Findings Pre- and Post-HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) and Pre- and Postmortem Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana Cristina Araújo Lemos; Rodrigues, Blenda Sousa Carli; Micheletti, Adilha Misson Rua; Tostes, Sebastião; Meneses, Antonio Carlos Oliveira; Silva-Vergara, Mário Leon; Adad, Sheila Jorge

    2012-01-01

    A retrospective study of central nervous system (CNS) in 284 autopsy AIDS cases in Brazil (1989–2008) divided into 3 groups: A (without antiretroviral treatment: 163 cases); B (other antiretroviral therapies: 76 cases); C (HAART for 3 months or more: 45 cases). In 165 (58.1%) cases, relevant lesions were found, predominantly infections (54.2%); the most frequent was toxoplasmosis (29.9%) followed by cryptococcosis (15.8%), purulent bacterial infections (3.9%), and HIV encephalitis (2.8%); non-Hodgkin lymphomas occurred in 1.4% and vascular lesions in 1.1%. There was no difference when compared the frequency of lesion among the groups; however, toxoplasmosis was less common while HIV encephalitis was more frequent in group C related to A. CNS lesions remain a frequent cause of death in AIDS; however, the mean survival time was four times greater in group C than in A. In 91 (55.1%) of 165 cases with relevant brain lesions (or 32% of the total 284 cases), there was discordance between pre- and postmortem diagnosis; disagreement type 1 (important disease that if diagnosed in life could change the patient prognosis) occurred in 49 (53.8%) of 91 discordant cases (17.6% of the total 284) indicating the autopsy importance, even with HAART and advanced diagnostics technologies. PMID:22461978

  12. Prevalence of ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era: a different spectrum in Central South China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Jing, Deng; Kozak, Igor; Huiming, Zhang; Siying, Chen; Yezhen, Yang; Xin, Qi; Luosheng, Tang; Adelman, Ron A; Forster, Susan H

    2013-06-01

    To investigate ocular manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in a population in central south China during a time of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A cross-sectional study in central south China was performed between June 2009 and April 2010. Ocular examinations were performed on recruited patients with HIV/AIDS. Systemic information (including CD4+ T cell count) was also collected where possible. Among 1041 patients (2082 eyes) with HIV/AIDS enrolled in our study, we found a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations related to HIV/AIDS. The prevalence of HIV-associated ocular disease was 23.73% (247 patients). Of those with ocular complications, 87.85% had CD4 counts <200 cells/µL. HIV retinopathy (12.68%) was the most common HIV-associated ocular finding, followed by cytomegalovirus retinitis (6.72%). Prevalences of visual impairment and blindness were 7.59% and 0.77%, respectively. This epidemiologic study shows the spectrum of ocular lesions associated with HIV/AIDS in central south China. Our findings highlight the need for routine ophthalmic examinations in this population, even in patients who are asymptomatic, especially those at high risk, in the era of HAART.

  13. The clinical spectrum of neurological manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients on HAART at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oshinaike, Olajumoke O; Okubadejo, Njideka U; Ojini, Frank I; Danesi, Mustapha A

    2009-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is primarily neurotrophic and lymphotrophic. Diverse neurologic sequealae have been documented with variations based on disease severity, but geographic variation may determine the distribution of these neurological complications. This study was designed to evaluate the current status of neurologic manifestations of HIV/AIDS as seen at our tertiary referral centre in Lagos, Nigeria. Consecutively presenting persons with HIV/ AIDS receiving HAART, who were seen between August 2004 and March 2006 at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria, were recruited into the study. Two hundred and fifty consecutively presenting HIV sero-positive patients were seen. There were 102 males (40.8%) and 148 females (59.2%) with a mean age of 37.4 years. 86 (34.4%) had clinically evident neurological disease, including neurocognitive dysfunction in 65 (53%), distal sensory neuropathy in 41 (16.4%), meningitis in 16 (6.4%), myopathy in 13 (5.2%), myelopathy in 6 (2.4%) and cerebrovascular disease in 5 (2%). The mean CD4 count (cells/mm3) of patients with neurological disease, 201.1 +/- 124.8 was significantly lower than that of patients without neurological disease 253.5 +/-149.2 (P = 0.001). Clinically evident neurological disease occurs in about 1/3rd of patients with HIV/AIDS on HAART at our tertiary centre, and predominantly affects patients with more advanced disease stages evidenced by lower CD4 count.

  14. A Phase I Randomized Therapeutic MVA-B Vaccination Improves the Magnitude and Quality of the T Cell Immune Responses in HIV-1-Infected Subjects on HAART

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Carmen Elena; Perdiguero, Beatriz; García-Arriaza, Juan; Cepeda, Victoria; Sánchez-Sorzano, Carlos Óscar; Mothe, Beatriz; Jiménez, José Luis; Muñoz-Fernández, María Ángeles; Gatell, Jose M.; López Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Brander, Christian; García, Felipe; Esteban, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Trial Design Previous studies suggested that poxvirus-based vaccines might be instrumental in the therapeutic HIV field. A phase I clinical trial was conducted in HIV-1-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), with CD4 T cell counts above 450 cells/mm3 and undetectable viremia. Thirty participants were randomized (2:1) to receive either 3 intramuscular injections of MVA-B vaccine (coding for clade B HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol and Nef antigens) or placebo, followed by interruption of HAART. Methods The magnitude, breadth, quality and phenotype of the HIV-1-specific T cell response were assayed by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) in 22 volunteers pre- and post-vaccination. Results MVA-B vaccine induced newly detected HIV-1-specific CD4 T cell responses and expanded pre-existing responses (mostly against Gag, Pol and Nef antigens) that were high in magnitude, broadly directed and showed an enhanced polyfunctionality with a T effector memory (TEM) phenotype, while maintaining the magnitude and quality of the pre-existing HIV-1-specific CD8 T cell responses. In addition, vaccination also triggered preferential CD8+ T cell polyfunctional responses to the MVA vector antigens that increase in magnitude after two and three booster doses. Conclusion MVA-B vaccination represents a feasible strategy to improve T cell responses in individuals with pre-existing HIV-1-specific immunity. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01571466 PMID:26544853

  15. Distinctive in vitro effects of T-cell growth cytokines on cytomegalovirus-stimulated T-cell responses of HIV-infected HAART recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Julie; Jesser, Renee; Weinberg, Adriana

    2008-08-15

    Functional immune reconstitution is limited after HAART, maintaining the interest in adjunctive immune-modulators. We compared in vitro the effects of the {gamma}-chain T-cell growth cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-7 and IL-15 on cytomegalovirus-stimulated cell-mediated immunity. IL-2 and IL-15 increased cytomegalovirus-specific lymphocyte proliferation in HAART recipients, whereas IL-4 and IL-7 did not. The boosting effect of IL-2 and IL-15 on proliferation correlated with their ability to prevent late apoptosis. However, IL-2 increased the frequency of cells in early apoptosis, whereas IL-15 increased the frequency of fully viable cells. Both IL-2 and IL-15 increased cytomegalovirus-induced CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T-cell proliferation and the synthesis of Th1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. However, only IL-2 increased the frequency of regulatory T cells and Th2 cytokine production, both of which have the potential to attenuate antiviral immune responses. Overall, compared to other {gamma}-chain cytokines, IL-15 had the most favorable profile for boosting antiviral cell-mediated immunity.

  16. Mapping chemical structure-activity information of HAART-drug cocktails over complex networks of AIDS epidemiology and socioeconomic data of U.S. counties.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Ibatá, Diana María; Pazos, Alejandro; Orbegozo-Medina, Ricardo Alfredo; Romero-Durán, Francisco Javier; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2015-06-01

    Using computational algorithms to design tailored drug cocktails for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on specific populations is a goal of major importance for both pharmaceutical industry and public health policy institutions. New combinations of compounds need to be predicted in order to design HAART cocktails. On the one hand, there are the biomolecular factors related to the drugs in the cocktail (experimental measure, chemical structure, drug target, assay organisms, etc.); on the other hand, there are the socioeconomic factors of the specific population (income inequalities, employment levels, fiscal pressure, education, migration, population structure, etc.) to study the relationship between the socioeconomic status and the disease. In this context, machine learning algorithms, able to seek models for problems with multi-source data, have to be used. In this work, the first artificial neural network (ANN) model is proposed for the prediction of HAART cocktails, to halt AIDS on epidemic networks of U.S. counties using information indices that codify both biomolecular and several socioeconomic factors. The data was obtained from at least three major sources. The first dataset included assays of anti-HIV chemical compounds released to ChEMBL. The second dataset is the AIDSVu database of Emory University. AIDSVu compiled AIDS prevalence for >2300 U.S. counties. The third data set included socioeconomic data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Three scales or levels were employed to group the counties according to the location or population structure codes: state, rural urban continuum code (RUCC) and urban influence code (UIC). An analysis of >130,000 pairs (network links) was performed, corresponding to AIDS prevalence in 2310 counties in U.S. vs. drug cocktails made up of combinations of ChEMBL results for 21,582 unique drugs, 9 viral or human protein targets, 4856 protocols, and 10 possible experimental measures. The best model found with the original

  17. Aboriginal status is a prognostic factor for mortality among antiretroviral naïve HIV-positive individuals first initiating HAART

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Viviane D; Kretz, Patricia; Palepu, Anita; Bonner, Simon; Kerr, Thomas; Moore, David; Daniel, Mark; Montaner, Julio SG; Hogg, Robert S

    2006-01-01

    Background Although the impact of Aboriginal status on HIV incidence, HIV disease progression, and access to treatment has been investigated previously, little is known about the relationship between Aboriginal ethnicity and outcomes associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We undertook the present analysis to determine if Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal persons respond differently to HAART by measuring HIV plasma viral load response, CD4 cell response and time to all-cause mortality. Methods A population-based analysis of a cohort of antiretroviral therapy naïve HIV-positive Aboriginal men and women 18 years or older in British Columbia, Canada. Participants were antiretroviral therapy naïve, initiated triple combination therapy between August 1, 1996 and September 30, 1999. Participants had to complete a baseline questionnaire as well as have at least two follow-up CD4 and HIV plasma viral load measures. The primary endpoints were CD4 and HIV plasma viral load response and all cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association between Aboriginal status and CD4 cell response, HIV plasma viral load response and all-cause mortality while controlling for several confounder variables. Results A total of 622 participants met the study criteria. Aboriginal status was significantly associated with no AIDS diagnosis at baseline (p = 0.0296), having protease inhibitor in the first therapy (p = 0.0209), lower baseline HIV plasma viral load (p < 0.001), less experienced HIV physicians (P = 0.0133), history of IDU (p < 0.001), not completing high school (p = 0.0046), and an income of less than $10,000 per year (p = 0.0115). Cox proportional hazards models controlling for clinical characteristics found that Aboriginal status had an increased hazard of mortality (HR = 3.12, 95% CI: 1.77–5.48) but did not with HIV plasma viral load response (HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.89–1.48) or CD4 cell response (HR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.73

  18. [Socio-demographic factors associated with the progression of HIV infection and the impact of HAART in a seroconverter cohort in Madrid (1986-2009)].

    PubMed

    Monge, Susana; Del Romero, Jorge; Rodríguez, Carmen; de Mendoza, Carmen; de Górgolas, Miguel; Cosín, Jaime; Dronda, Fernando; Pérez-Cecilia, Elisa; Peña, José María; Santos, Ignacio; Rubio, Rafael; Del Amo, Julia

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this work is to study the impact of HAART at a population level and to identify socio-demographic factors that may affect it, which is essential for deciding interventions. An open, prospective cohort of HIV seroconverters recruited in the Centro Sanitario Sandoval (1986-2009), and followed up in collaboration with referral hospitals in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Cumulative incidence of AIDS and death was calculated by the multiple decrements method, and predictive Fine & Gray models were developed to identify associated factors. A calendar period (<1997; ≥ 1997) was introduced as a proxy of HAART availability. A total of 479 HIV seroconverters were identified. Hazard Ratio (HR) for progression to AIDS was 0.215 (95% CI: 0.11-0.519; P<.01) for the period ≥ 1997. Risk increased with age at the time of seroconversion (for each year older HR=1.071; 95% CI: 1.038-1.105; P<.01), but only prior to 1997. In the following period, only a high educational level showed to be a protective factor (HR=0.982; 95% CI: 0.936-1.031; P=.06). HR for progression to death was 0.134 (95% CI: 0.052-0.346; P<.01) for the period after 1997, 0.383 (95% CI: 0.168-0.875; P=.02) in people with high educational level and 1.048 (95% CI: 1.014-1.084; P<.01) for each year increase in age at seroconversion, both latter effects being homogeneous throughout the two periods. HAART has had a great impact on the risk of progression to AIDS and death, but this benefit appears to be influenced by age at HIV infection and educational level of the patient, which highlights the importance of a global approach to case management and of the implementation of policies that address social inequities in health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence of susceptibility to lamivudine-based HAART and genetic stability of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in HIV co-infected patients: A South African longitudinal HBV whole genome study.

    PubMed

    Amponsah-Dacosta, Edina; Rakgole, J Nare; Gededzha, Maemu P; Lukhwareni, Azwidowi; Blackard, Jason T; Selabe, Selokela G; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

    2016-09-01

    Reports on the concomitant impact of HIV co-infection and long term highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) on the genetic stability and molecular evolution of HBV are limited in sub-Saharan Africa. This retrospective study investigated the molecular evolution of chronic HBV in HIV co-infected patients on lamivudine (3TC)-based HAART over a 5year period. Four HIV co-infected patients, consecutively recruited and followed-up, were screened for hepatitis B serological markers, and their viral loads determined. The HBV genome was amplified from longitudinal samples and characterized by Bayesian inference, mutational analysis, and identification of immune selection pressure. All patients exhibited persistent chronic HBV infection at baseline, as well as over the course of follow-up despite exposure to 3TC-based HAART. The polymerase gene in all isolates was relatively variable prior to HAART initiation at baseline and during the course of follow-up, although primary drug resistance mutations were not detected. All but one patient were infected with HBV subgenotype A1. The divergence rates between baseline and the last follow-up sequences ranged from 0 to 2.0×10(-3) substitutions per site per year (s/s/y). Positive selection pressure was evident within the surface and core genes. Despite persistent HBV infection in the HIV co-infected patients exposed to long term 3TC-based HAART, the molecular evolution of HBV over a 5year period was unremarkable. In addition, HBV exhibited minimal genetic variability overtime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A phase I/pharmacokinetic study of sunitinib in combination with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-positive patients with cancer: AIDS Malignancy Consortium Trial AMC 061

    PubMed Central

    Rudek, Michelle A; Moore, Page C.; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T.; Dezube, Bruce J.; Aboulafia, David; Gerecitano, John; Sullivan, Ryan; Cianfrocca, Mary E.; Henry, David H.; Ratner, Lee; Haigentz, Missak; Dowlati, Afshin; Little, Richard F.; Ivy, S. Percy; Deeken, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment of non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs) may be complicated by drug interactions between highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and chemotherapy. This trial is the first by the AIDS Malignancy Consortium assessing targeted therapies and HAART in HIV+ cancer patients (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00890747). Methods Patients were stratified into two arms based on whether they were taking ritonavir, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, in a modified phase I study of sunitinib. Patients in arm 1 (non-ritonavir HAART) received standard sunitinib dosing (50mg/day). Arm 2 (ritonavir-based HAART) used a phase I, 3+3 dose escalation design (from 25 to 50mg/day). Cycles were with four weeks on treatment followed by a two week break (6 weeks total). Pharmacokinetics of sunitinib and its active metabolite (N-desethyl sunitinib) were assessed. Results Nineteen patients were enrolled and evaluable. Patients on Arm 1 tolerated treatment with one observed dose limiting toxicity (DLT). In Arm 2, a DLT was experienced at 37.5mg, and an additional 3 of 5 patients experienced grade 3 neutropenia, an uncommon toxicity of sunitinib. No patient had a response, but 10 had stable disease, including 8 with prolonged disease stability. Efavirenz, a potent inducer of CYP3A4, resulted in increased exposure of N-desethyl sunitinib, whereas ritonavir caused decreased exposure of the metabolite. Hand-foot syndrome was associated with higher steady-state trough concentrations of sunitinib. Conclusions Patients on non-ritonavir based HAART regimens tolerated standard dosing of sunitinib. Patients on ritonavir-based therapy treated with 37.5mg/day experienced higher toxicities. Dose reduction of sunitinib to 37.5mg may be warranted in patients on ritonavir. PMID:24474568

  1. The CCL3L1-CCR5 genotype influences the development of AIDS, but not HIV susceptibility or the response to HAART

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Stanton, Jennifer; Kim, Eun - Young; Kunstman, Kevin; Phair, John; Jacobson, Lisa P; Wolinsky, Steven M

    2008-01-01

    A selective advantage against infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS is associated with differences in the genes relevant to immunity and virus replication. The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), the principal coreceptor for HIV, and its chemokine ligands, including CCL3L1, influences the CD4+ target cells susceptibility to infection. The CCL3L1 gene is in a region of segmental duplication on the q-arm of human chromosome 17. Increased numbers of CCL3L1 gene copies that affect the gene expression phenotype might have substantial protective effects. Here we show that the population-specific CCL3L1 gene copy number and the CCR5 {Delta}32 protein-inactivating deletion that categorizes the CCL3L1-CCR5 genotype do not influence HIV/AIDS susceptibility or the robustness of immune recovery after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

  2. Vγ9Vδ2 T-Cell Polyfunctionality Is Differently Modulated in HAART-Treated HIV Patients according to CD4 T-Cell Count

    PubMed Central

    Casetti, Rita; De Simone, Gabriele; Sacchi, Alessandra; Rinaldi, Alessandra; Viola, Domenico; Agrati, Chiara; Bordoni, Veronica; Cimini, Eleonora; Tumino, Nicola; Besi, Francesca; Martini, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Alteration of γδ T-cell distribution and function in peripheral blood is among the earliest defects during HIV-infection. We asked whether the polyfunctional response could also be affected, and how this impairment could be associated to CD4 T-cell count. To this aim, we performed a cross-sectional study on HIV-infected individuals. In order to evaluate the polyfunctional-Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell response after phosphoantigen-stimulation, we assessed the cytokine/chemokine production and cytotoxicity by flow-cytometry in HAART-treated-HIV+ persons and healthy-donors. During HIV-infection Vγ9Vδ2-polyfunctional response quality is affected, since several Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell subsets resulted significantly lower in HIV+ patients in respect to healthy donors. Interestingly, we found a weak positive correlation between Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell-response and CD4 T-cell counts. By dividing the HIV+ patients according to CD4 T-cell count, we found that Low-CD4 patients expressed a lower number of two Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell subsets expressing MIP-1β in different combinations with other molecules (CD107a/IFNγ) in respect to High-CD4 individuals. Our results show that the Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell-response quality in Low-CD4 patients is specifically affected, suggesting a direct link between innate Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells and CD4 T-cell count. These findings suggest that Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell quality may be indirectly influenced by HAART therapy and could be included in a new therapeutical strategy which would perform an important role in fighting HIV infection. PMID:26161861

  3. Vγ9Vδ2 T-Cell Polyfunctionality Is Differently Modulated in HAART-Treated HIV Patients according to CD4 T-Cell Count.

    PubMed

    Casetti, Rita; De Simone, Gabriele; Sacchi, Alessandra; Rinaldi, Alessandra; Viola, Domenico; Agrati, Chiara; Bordoni, Veronica; Cimini, Eleonora; Tumino, Nicola; Besi, Francesca; Martini, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Alteration of γδ T-cell distribution and function in peripheral blood is among the earliest defects during HIV-infection. We asked whether the polyfunctional response could also be affected, and how this impairment could be associated to CD4 T-cell count. To this aim, we performed a cross-sectional study on HIV-infected individuals. In order to evaluate the polyfunctional-Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell response after phosphoantigen-stimulation, we assessed the cytokine/chemokine production and cytotoxicity by flow-cytometry in HAART-treated-HIV+ persons and healthy-donors. During HIV-infection Vγ9Vδ2-polyfunctional response quality is affected, since several Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell subsets resulted significantly lower in HIV+ patients in respect to healthy donors. Interestingly, we found a weak positive correlation between Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell-response and CD4 T-cell counts. By dividing the HIV+ patients according to CD4 T-cell count, we found that Low-CD4 patients expressed a lower number of two Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell subsets expressing MIP-1β in different combinations with other molecules (CD107a/IFNγ) in respect to High-CD4 individuals. Our results show that the Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell-response quality in Low-CD4 patients is specifically affected, suggesting a direct link between innate Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells and CD4 T-cell count. These findings suggest that Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell quality may be indirectly influenced by HAART therapy and could be included in a new therapeutical strategy which would perform an important role in fighting HIV infection.

  4. A Comparison of HAART Outcomes between the US Military HIV Natural History Study (NHS) and HIV Atlanta Veterans Affairs Cohort Study (HAVACS)

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Jodie L.; Weintrob, Amy C.; Rimland, David; Rentsch, Christopher; Bradley, William P.; Agan, Brian K.; Marconi, Vincent C.; Group, IDCRPHIV Working

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) provide comprehensive HIV treatment and care to their beneficiaries with open access and few costs to the patient. Individuals who receive HIV care in the VA have higher rates of substance abuse, homelessness and unemployment than individuals who receive HIV care in the DoD. A comparison between individuals receiving HIV treatment and care from the DoD and the VA provides an opportunity to explore the impact of individual-level characteristics on clinical outcomes within two healthcare systems that are optimized for clinic retention and medication adherence. Methods Data were collected on 1065 patients from the HIV Atlanta VA Cohort Study (HAVACS) and 1199 patients from the US Military HIV Natural History Study (NHS). Patients were eligible if they had an HIV diagnosis and began HAART between January 1, 1996 and June 30, 2010. The analysis examined the survival from HAART initiation to all-cause mortality or an AIDS event. Results Although there was substantial between-cohort heterogeneity and the 12-year survival of participants in NHS was significantly higher than in HAVACS in crude analyses, this survival disparity was reduced from 21.5% to 1.6% (mortality only) and 26.8% to 4.1% (combined mortality or AIDS) when controlling for clinical and demographic variables. Conclusion We assessed the clinical outcomes for individuals with HIV from two very similar government-sponsored healthcare systems that reduced or eliminated many barriers associated with accessing treatment and care. After controlling for clinical and demographic variables, both 12-year survival and AIDS-free survival rates were similar for the two study cohorts who have open access to care and medication despite dramatic differences in socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. PMID:23658717

  5. Incidence of Non-AIDS-Defining Malignancies in HIV-Infected Vs. Non-Infected Patients in the HAART Era: Impact of Immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Bedimo, Roger J.; McGinnis, Kathleen A.; Dunlap, Melinda; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Justice, Amy C.

    2009-01-01

    Background The incidence of non-AIDS-defining malignancies (non-ADM) is reported as unchanged or increasing in the HAART era. Whether incidence of non-ADM is significantly higher in HIV-infected than in HIV-uninfected patients remains unclear. Methods Incidence rates of malignancies were calculated in a cohort of veterans in care for HIV-infected and age, race, and gender-matched uninfected patients from 1997 to 2004. For HIV-infected patients CD4 counts closest to first observation date were compared between those with and without cancer. Results 33,420 HIV-infected and 66,840 HIV-uninfected patients were followed for a median of 5.1 and 6.4 years. The Incidence rate ratio [IRR] of HIV-infected to HIV-uninfected was 1.6 (1260 vs. 841/100,000 person-years; 95% CI: 1.5–1.7). IRR for individual cancers was highest for anal cancer (14.9; CI: 10.1–22.1). Among HIV-infected patients, median CD4 counts were lower for those with non-ADM (249 vs. 270, p=0.02), anal cancer (154 vs. 270; p<0.001), and Hodgkin’s (217 vs. 270; p=0.03). Prostate cancer was associated with a higher CD4 count (310 vs. 270; p<0.001). Conclusions In the HAART era, the incidence of non-ADMs is higher among HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected patients, adjusting for age, race, and gender. Some non-ADMs do not appear to be associated with significantly lower CD4 counts. PMID:19617846

  6. Pediatric fatality from gun bluing solution: the need for a chemical equivalent of the one-pill-can-kill list.

    PubMed

    Chomchai, Chulathida; Sirisamut, Thanakorn; Silpasupagornwong, Uraiwan

    2012-06-01

    Gun bluing solution is commonly used to polish guns and prevent rusting. The authors report a case of a 2-year-old boy who inadvertently ingested approximately 15 ml of his father's Fox Gun Blue solution. The patient subsequently developed acidosis, hypotension, and coma. He died within four hours after ingestion. His plasma selenium level was 857 ng/ml. A brief review of other reported ingestion of gun bluing liquid in both adults and children is also included.

  7. A Very Low Geno2pheno False Positive Rate Is Associated with Poor Viro-Immunological Response in Drug-Naïve Patients Starting a First-Line HAART

    PubMed Central

    Armenia, Daniele; Soulie, Cathia; Di Carlo, Domenico; Fabeni, Lavinia; Gori, Caterina; Forbici, Federica; Svicher, Valentina; Bertoli, Ada; Sarmati, Loredana; Giuliani, Massimo; Latini, Alessandra; Boumis, Evangelo; Zaccarelli, Mauro; Bellagamba, Rita; Andreoni, Massimo; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Calvez, Vincent; Antinori, Andrea; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Perno, Carlo-Federico; Santoro, Maria Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously found that a very low geno2pheno false positive rate (FPR ≤2%) defines a viral population associated with low CD4 cell count and the highest amount of X4-quasispecies. In this study, we aimed at evaluating whether FPR ≤2% might impact on the viro-immunological response in HIV-1 infected patients starting a first-line HAART. Methods The analysis was performed on 305 HIV-1 B subtype infected drug-naïve patients who started their first-line HAART. Baseline FPR (%) values were stratified according to the following ranges: ≤2; 2–5; 5–10; 10–20; 20–60; >60. The impact of genotypically-inferred tropism on the time to achieve immunological reconstitution (a CD4 cell count gain from HAART initiation ≥150 cells/mm3) and on the time to achieve virological success (the first HIV-RNA measurement <50 copies/mL from HAART initiation) was evaluated by survival analyses. Results Overall, at therapy start, 27% of patients had FPR ≤10 (6%, FPR ≤2; 7%, FPR 2–5; 14%, FPR 5–10). By 12 months of therapy the rate of immunological reconstitution was overall 75.5%, and it was significantly lower for FPR ≤2 (54.1%) in comparison to other FPR ranks (78.8%, FPR 2–5; 77.5%, FPR 5–10; 71.7%, FPR 10–20; 81.8%, FPR 20–60; 75.1%, FPR >60; p = 0.008). The overall proportion of patients achieving virological success was 95.5% by 12 months of therapy. Multivariable Cox analyses showed that patients having pre-HAART FPR ≤2% had a significant lower relative adjusted hazard [95% C.I.] both to achieve immunological reconstitution (0.37 [0.20–0.71], p = 0.003) and to achieve virological success (0.50 [0.26–0.94], p = 0.031) than those with pre-HAART FPR >60%. Conclusions Beyond the genotypically-inferred tropism determination, FPR ≤2% predicts both a poor immunological reconstitution and a lower virological response in drug-naïve patients who started their first-line therapy. This parameter could be useful to identify patients

  8. Factors Associated with Lack of Viral Suppression at Delivery among HAART-Naïve HIV-Positive Women in the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group (IMPAACT) P1025 Study

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Ingrid T.; Leister, Erin; Kacanek, Deborah; Hughes, Michael D.; Bardeguez, Arlene; Livingston, Elizabeth; Stek, Alice; Shapiro, David E.; Tuomala, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background High delivery maternal plasma HIV-1 RNA level (viral load, VL) is a risk factor for mother to child transmission and poor maternal health. Objective To identify factors associated with detectable VL at delivery despite initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during pregnancy. Design Multicenter observational study. Setting 67 US AIDS clinical research sites. Patients HIV-1-positive pregnant women who initiated HAART during pregnancy. Measurements Descriptive summaries and associations between socio-demographic, HIV disease, treatment and pregnancy-related risk factors and detectable VL (>400copies/mL) at delivery. Results Between October 2002 and December 2011, 671 women met inclusion criteria and 13% had detectable VL at delivery. Factors associated with detectable VL included multiparity (16.4% vs 8% nulliparous, p=0.002), black non-Hispanic ethnicity (17.6% vs 6.6% Hispanic and 6.6% white/non-Hispanic, p<0.001), 11th grade or less education (17.6% vs.12.1% high school graduate and 6.7% some college or higher, p=0.013), and initiation of HAART in third trimester (23.9% vs 12.3% second and 8.6% first, p=0.002), timing of HIV diagnosis prior to current pregnancy (16.1% vs 11% during current pregnancy, p=0.051), and timing of first prenatal visit in 3rd trimester (33.3% vs 14.3% second and 10.5% first, p=0.002). Women who experienced treatment interruptions or reported poor medication adherence during pregnancy were more likely to have detectable VL at delivery than women with no interruptions or who reported better adherence. Limitations Women entered the study at varying times during pregnancy and for this and other reasons there was incomplete data on many covariates. Conclusions In this large U.S.-based cohort of HIV-1 positive women, 13% of women who initiated HAART during pregnancy had detectable VL at delivery. The timing of HAART initiation and prenatal care along with medication adherence during pregnancy appear to be

  9. Lipid Peroxidation and Total Cholesterol in HAART-Naïve Patients Infected with Circulating Recombinant Forms of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Teto, Georges; Kanmogne, Georgette D.; Torimiro, Judith N.; Alemnji, George; Nguemaim, Flore N.; Takou, Désiré; Nanfack, Aubin; Tazoacha, Asonganyi

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV infection has commonly been found to affect lipid profile and antioxidant defense. Objectives To determine the effects of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and viral subtype on patient’s cholesterol and oxidative stress markers, and determine whether in the absence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), these biochemical parameters could be useful in patient’s management and monitoring disease progression in Cameroon. For this purpose, we measured total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDLC), HDL cholesterol (HDLC), total antioxidant ability (TAA), lipid peroxidation indices (LPI), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in HIV negative persons and HIV positive HAART-naïve patients infected with HIV-1 group M subtypes. Methods We measured serum TC, LDLC, HDLC, plasma MDA, and TAA concentrations, and calculated LPI indices in 151 HIV-positive HAART-naïve patients and 134 seronegative controls. We also performed gene sequence analysis on samples from 30 patients to determine the effect of viral genotypes on these biochemical parameters. We also determined the correlation between CD4 cell count and the above biochemical parameters. Results We obtained the following controls/patients values for TC (1.96±0.54/1. 12±0. 48 g/l), LDLC (0. 67±0. 46/0. 43±0. 36 g/l), HDLC (105. 51±28. 10/46. 54±23. 36 mg/dl) TAA (0. 63±0. 17/0. 16±0. 16 mM), MDA (0. 20±0. 07/0. 41±0. 10 µM) and LPI (0. 34±0. 14/26. 02±74. 40). In each case, the difference between the controls and patients was statistically significant (p<0.05). There was a positive and statistically significant Pearson correlation between CD4 cell count and HDLC (r = +0.272; p<0.01), TAA (r = +0.199; p<0.05) and a negative and statistically significant Pearson correlation between CD4 cell count and LPI (r = −0.166; p<0.05). Pearson correlation between CD4 cell count and TC, CD4cell count and LDLC was positive but not statistically significant while it was negative but

  10. Intestinal parasitic infections and its association with undernutrition and CD4 T cell levels among HIV/AIDS patients on HAART in Butajira, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gedle, Dereje; Kumera, Gemechu; Eshete, Tewodros; Ketema, Kasahun; Adugna, Haweni; Feyera, Fetuma

    2017-05-15

    Intestinal parasitic infections and HIV/AIDS have been the major public health problems and remain a vital cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Both problems are linked in a vicious cycle. The magnitude of intestinal parasites was prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS even in the HAART era. However, the pertinent risk factors associated with intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients were not well investigated in Ethiopia particularly at Butajira town. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors among HIV/AIDS patients on HAART in Butajira, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a total of 323 study subjects was involved in the study. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select each participant during data collection. Stool specimen was collected and processed using direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration technique, and modified Ziehl-Neelson staining techniques to identify both common and opportunistic intestinal parasites. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, environmental, clinical, and nutritional data. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of various explanatory factors on intestinal parasites. P value ≤0.05 at 95% CI was considered statistically significant. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 35.9% (95% CI 31.0-40.9%). Protozoa's (Entanmoeba histolytica/dispar trophozoite, E. histolytica/dispar cyst, Giardia lamblia trophozoite, and G. lamblia cyst), helminths (Tanea species, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloid stercoralis, Hookworm species and H. nana), and opportunistic intestinal parasites (Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli) were observed in 57 (17.1%), 46 (14.4%), and 28 (8.7%) study participants respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of animals (AOR 6. 14; 95% CI 3.13, 12

  11. Molecular diversity of HIV-1 and surveillance of transmitted drug resistance variants among treatment Naïve patients, 5 years after active introduction of HAART in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ong, Lai Yee; Razak, Siti Nur Humaira; Lee, Yeat Mei; Sri La Sri Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Syed Omar, Sharifah Faridah; Azwa, Raja Iskandar; Tee, Kok Keng; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2014-01-01

    Expansion of antiretroviral treatment programs have led to the growing concern for the development of antiretroviral drug resistance. The aims were to assess the prevalence of drug resistant HIV-1 variants and to identify circulating subtypes among HAART-naïve patients. Plasma specimens from N = 100 HIV+ HAART-naïve adult were collected between March 2008 and August 2010 and viral RNA were extracted for nested PCR and sequenced. PR-RT sequences were protein aligned and checked for transmitted drug resistance mutations. Phylogenetic reconstruction and recombination analysis were performed to determine the genotypes. Based on the WHO consensus guidelines, none of the recruited patients had any transmitted drug resistance mutations. When analyzed against the Stanford guidelines, 35% of patients had at least one reported mutation that may reduce drug susceptibility to PI (24%), NRTI (5%), and NNRTI (14%). The commonly detected mutation that may affect current first line therapy was V179D (3%), which may lead to reduced susceptibility to NNRTI. The predominant circulating HIV-1 genotypes were CRF01_AE (51%) and CRF33_01B (17%). The prevalence of unique recombinant forms (URF) was 7%; five distinct recombinant structures involving CRF01_AE and subtype B' were observed, among them a cluster of three isolates that could form a novel circulating recombinant form (CRF) candidate. Transmitted drug resistance prevalence among HAART-naïve patients was low in this cohort of patients in Kuala Lumpur despite introduction of HAART 5 years ago. Owing to the high genetic diversity, continued molecular surveillance can identify the persistent emergence of HIV-1 URF and novel CRF with significant epidemiological impact. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Incidences and risk factors of first-line HAART discontinuation: a limitation to the success of the "seek, test, treat, and retain" strategy?

    PubMed

    Keita, Momory; Perbost, Isabelle; Pugliese-Wehrlen, Sylvia; Abel, Sylvie; Pugliese, Pascal; Enel, Patricia; Cuzin, Lise; Lang, Thierry; Delpierre, Cyrille

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of first-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) modifications/interruptions and their causes in a cohort of newly-treated patients by using a competing risk model. In nine centers of the French cohort Dat'AIDS, in 1 year and 2 years of censorship, a competing risk analysis was implemented in HIV1 patients aged 18 years or older first-treated between September 2002 and March 2012. In 4669 patients, 3628 modifications (77.7%) were observed (median: 13.5 months). Cumulative incidence in 1 year: 46.8% [45.4-48.3]; in 2 years: 65.3% [63.8-66.8]. Intolerance (n = 1167; 32.3%): in 1 year, except first-treated from 2002 to 2005, modifications were not different: 2002-2003 (24.6%) 2004-2005 (26.1%), 2006-2007 (19.4%), 2008-2009 (18.8%) and 2010-2011 (15.7%). Women, AIDS patients, and those aged 50 years and older had an excess risk. Therapeutic simplification (n = 1037; 28.6%): in 1 year, except first-treated from 2002 to 2003, modifications were not different: 2002-2003 (9.0%), 2004-2005 (16.0%), 2006-2007 (11.0%), 2008-2009 (15.7%) and 2010-2011 (10.0%). Conversely to injecting-drug-users and AIDS patients, women and first-treated with non-nucleosides had an excess risk. Therapeutic failure (n = 189; 5.2%): contrary to first-treated between 2002 and 2003 or 2008 and 2009, in 1 year as in 2 years, modifications were not different. In 1 year, 1.9% for 2004-2005, 1.6% for 2006-2007 and 1.2% for 2010-2011. Maximum viral load ≥5.0 log10 copies/ml and CD4 <200 cells/mm(3) had a high probability. The study of first-HAART modifications suggests that in 1-year follow-up, intolerance incidence in the recent calendar year is still as frequent as the previous period which may constitute a limitation to the success of the seek, test, treat, and retain.

  13. Eruptive cheilitis: a new adverse effect in reactive HIV-positive patients subjected to high activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Presentation of six clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Casariego, Z; Pombo, T; Pérez, H; Patterson, P

    2001-01-01

    A variety of exfoliative cheilitis has been observed in reactive HIV-1 patients subjected to high activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The lesions exhibit exfoliation, crater formation, fissuring, erosions and/or the formation of papules, vesicles and blisters associated to erythema and edema. The condition is not included in the 1993 EEC Clearinghouse classification (1) of oral lesions associated with HIV infection. In an earlier series of 1899 patients (2), we failed to observe this pathology and have only found one similar case described in the literature to date (3). We present a series of 6 patients with HIV infection and morpho-histological alterations of the labial semimucosa, subjected to HAART. The 6 patients were selected from among 20 HIV-positive individuals treated in our Infectious Diseases Unit with a combination of nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors requiring stomatological care for painful lesions of the lips and oral cavity. The study was conducted over a 6-month period between May and October 1998. An analysis was made of the case histories, CD4-positive cell counts and viral load. The stomatological explorations were completed with biopsies, hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical studies involving AE1 and AE3 monoclonal antibodies, vimentin, protein S-100, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), laminin, CD8, HLA-DR, BM-1 and CD31 markers. At the time of detection of the oral lesions, the patients had received different combinations of the following antiretroviral treatments: stavudine (D4T), zalcitabine (DDC), didanosine (DDI), zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), nelfinavir (NFV), saquinavir (SQV), ritonavir (RTV), hydroxyurea (HU), indinavir (IDN) and efavirenz (EFV). There were four males and two females (age range 31-42 years). The CD4-positive and viral load ranges were 70-330 cells/mm3 and 200-500,200 copies, respectively. Stomatologic manifestations: The oral clinical

  14. Measures of site resourcing predict virologic suppression, immunologic response and HIV disease progression following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD)

    PubMed Central

    Oyomopito, R; Lee, MP; Phanuphak, P; Lim, PL; Ditangco, R; Zhou, J; Sirisanthana, T; Chen, YMA; Pujari, S; Kumarasamy, N; Sungkanuparph, S; Lee, CKC; Kamarulzaman, A; Oka, S; Zhang, FJ; Mean, CV; Merati, T; Tau, G; Smith, J; Li, PCK

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Surrogate markers of HIV disease progression are HIV RNA in plasma viral load (VL) and CD4 cell count (immune function). Despite improved international access to antiretrovirals, surrogate marker diagnostics are not routinely available in resource-limited settings. Therefore, the objective was to assess effects of economic and diagnostic resourcing on patient treatment outcomes. Methods Analyses were based on 2333 patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) from 2000 onwards. Sites were categorized by World Bank country income criteria (high/low) and annual frequency of VL (≥ 3, 1–2 or <1) or CD4 (≥ 3 or <3) testing. Endpoints were time to AIDS/death and change in CD4 cell count and VL suppression (<400 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) at 12 months. Demographics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classification, baseline VL/CD4 cell counts, hepatitis B/C coinfections and HAART regimen were covariates. Time to AIDS/death was analysed by proportional hazards models. CD4 and VL endpoints were analysed using linear and logistic regression, respectively. Results Increased disease progression was associated with site-reported VL testing less than once per year [hazard ratio (HR)=1.4; P=0.032], severely symptomatic HIV infection (HR=1.4; P=0.003) and hepatitis C virus coinfection (HR=1.8; P=0.011). A total of 1120 patients (48.2%) had change in CD4 cell count data. Smaller increases were associated with older age (P<0.001) and `Other' HIV source exposures, including injecting drug use and blood products (P=0.043). A total of 785 patients (33.7%) contributed to the VL suppression analyses. Patients from sites with VL testing less than once per year [odds ratio (OR)=0.30; P<0.001] and reporting `Other' HIV exposures experienced reduced suppression (OR=0.28; P<0.001). Conclusion Low measures of site resourcing were associated with less favourable patient outcomes, including a 35% increase in disease progression in patients from sites

  15. Predictors of HBeAg status and hepatitis B viraemia in HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis B in the HAART era in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Correa, Maria Cassia; Pinho, João R R; Gomes-Gouvea, Michele S; da Silva, Adriana C; Guastini, Cristina F; Martins, Luiz G; Leite, Andréa G; Silva, Mariliza H; Gianini, Reinaldo J; Uip, David E

    2011-09-20

    HBV-HIV co-infection is associated with an increased liver-related morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the natural history of chronic hepatitis B in HIV-infected individuals under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) receiving at least one of the two drugs that also affect HBV (TDF and LAM). Information about HBeAg status and HBV viremia in HIV/HBV co-infected patients is scarce. The objective of this study was to search for clinical and virological variables associated with HBeAg status and HBV viremia in patients of an HIV/HBV co-infected cohort. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed, of HBsAg-positive HIV-infected patients in treatment between 1994 and 2007 in two AIDS outpatient clinics located in the São Paulo metropolitan area, Brazil. The baseline data were age, sex, CD4 T+ cell count, ALT level, HIV and HBV viral load, HBV genotype, and duration of antiretroviral use. The variables associated to HBeAg status and HBV viremia were assessed using logistic regression. A total of 86 HBsAg patients were included in the study. Of these, 48 (56%) were using combination therapy that included lamivudine (LAM) and tenofovir (TDF), 31 (36%) were using LAM monotherapy, and 7 patients had no previous use of either one. Duration of use of TDF and LAM varied from 4 to 21 and 7 to 144 months, respectively. A total of 42 (48.9%) patients were HBeAg positive and 44 (51.1%) were HBeAg negative. The multivariate analysis revealed that the use of TDF for longer than 12 months was associated with undetectable HBV DNA viral load (serum HBV DNA level < 60 UI/ml) (p = 0.047). HBeAg positivity was associated with HBV DNA > 60 UI/ml (p = 0.001) and ALT levels above normality (p = 0.038). Prolonged use of TDF containing HAART is associated with undetectable HBV DNA viral load. HBeAg positivity is associated with HBV viremia and increased ALT levels.

  16. Predictors of HBeAg status and hepatitis B viraemia in HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis B in the HAART era in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HBV-HIV co-infection is associated with an increased liver-related morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the natural history of chronic hepatitis B in HIV-infected individuals under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) receiving at least one of the two drugs that also affect HBV (TDF and LAM). Information about HBeAg status and HBV viremia in HIV/HBV co-infected patients is scarce. The objective of this study was to search for clinical and virological variables associated with HBeAg status and HBV viremia in patients of an HIV/HBV co-infected cohort. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed, of HBsAg-positive HIV-infected patients in treatment between 1994 and 2007 in two AIDS outpatient clinics located in the São Paulo metropolitan area, Brazil. The baseline data were age, sex, CD4 T+ cell count, ALT level, HIV and HBV viral load, HBV genotype, and duration of antiretroviral use. The variables associated to HBeAg status and HBV viremia were assessed using logistic regression. Results A total of 86 HBsAg patients were included in the study. Of these, 48 (56%) were using combination therapy that included lamivudine (LAM) and tenofovir (TDF), 31 (36%) were using LAM monotherapy, and 7 patients had no previous use of either one. Duration of use of TDF and LAM varied from 4 to 21 and 7 to 144 months, respectively. A total of 42 (48. 9%) patients were HBeAg positive and 44 (51. 1%) were HBeAg negative. The multivariate analysis revealed that the use of TDF for longer than 12 months was associated with undetectable HBV DNA viral load (serum HBV DNA level < 60 UI/ml) (p = 0. 047). HBeAg positivity was associated with HBV DNA > 60 UI/ml (p = 0. 001) and ALT levels above normality (p = 0. 038). Conclusion Prolonged use of TDF containing HAART is associated with undetectable HBV DNA viral load. HBeAg positivity is associated with HBV viremia and increased ALT levels. PMID:21933423

  17. Responding to the HIV epidemic in the developing world. Capacity building and technology transfer for monitoring with HAART: a Caribbean experience.

    PubMed

    Abayomi, A; Adomakoh, N; Adomakoh, S

    2006-12-01

    This paper examines the concept of a developing nation that has a high HIV prevalence and lacks appropriate laboratory infrastructure necessary to cope with a treatment and care program. Several issues are discussed including personal experience in the context of project management for the creation and coordination of a facility aimed at providing the laboratory support required for the appropriate delivery and monitoring of HAART. Key issues about political will and prioritization are discussed in concert with current international guidelines and mechanisms of technology transfer and human resource development. The paper gives the benefit of the teams experience in coordinating the project, dealing specifically with issues such as the process of equipment procurement, staff recruitment, and capacity building. The need for the highest level of quality control and standard operating practices are discussed in the context of limited regional expertise and manpower support. Emphasis is placed on the long term objectives of operational research focusing on cheaper and simpler algorithms for monitoring and providing support for a comprehensive but affordable and sustainable program.

  18. Dynamic models for estimating the effect of HAART on CD4 in observational studies: application to the Aquitaine Cohort and the Swiss HIV Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    PRAGUE, M.; COMMENGES, D.; GRAN, J.M.; LEDERGERBER, B.; YOUNG, J.; FURRER, H.; THIEBAUT, R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has proved efficient in increasing CD4 counts in many randomized clinical trials. Because randomized trials have some limitations (e.g., short duration, highly selected subjects), it is interesting to assess the effect of treatments using observational studies. This is challenging because treatment is started preferentially in subjects with severe conditions. This general problem had been treated using Marginal Structural Models (MSM) relying on the counterfactual formulation. Another approach to causality is based on dynamical models. We present three discrete-time dynamic models based on linear increments models (LIM): the first one based on one difference equation for CD4 counts, the second with an equilibrium point, and the third based on a system of two difference equations, which allows jointly modeling CD4 counts and viral load. We also consider continuous-time models based on ordinary differential equations with non-linear mixed effects (ODE-NLME). These mechanistic models allow incorporating biological knowledge when available, which leads to increased statistical evidence for detecting treatment effect. Because inference in ODE-NLME is numerically challenging and requires specific methods and softwares, LIM are a valuable intermediary option in terms of consistency, precision and complexity. We compare the different approaches in simulation and in illustration on the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort and the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. PMID:27461460

  19. Dynamic models for estimating the effect of HAART on CD4 in observational studies: Application to the Aquitaine Cohort and the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Prague, Mélanie; Commenges, Daniel; Gran, Jon Michael; Ledergerber, Bruno; Young, Jim; Furrer, Hansjakob; Thiébaut, Rodolphe

    2017-03-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has proved efficient in increasing CD4 counts in many randomized clinical trials. Because randomized trials have some limitations (e.g., short duration, highly selected subjects), it is interesting to assess the effect of treatments using observational studies. This is challenging because treatment is started preferentially in subjects with severe conditions. This general problem had been treated using Marginal Structural Models (MSM) relying on the counterfactual formulation. Another approach to causality is based on dynamical models. We present three discrete-time dynamic models based on linear increments models (LIM): the first one based on one difference equation for CD4 counts, the second with an equilibrium point, and the third based on a system of two difference equations, which allows jointly modeling CD4 counts and viral load. We also consider continuous-time models based on ordinary differential equations with non-linear mixed effects (ODE-NLME). These mechanistic models allow incorporating biological knowledge when available, which leads to increased statistical evidence for detecting treatment effect. Because inference in ODE-NLME is numerically challenging and requires specific methods and softwares, LIM are a valuable intermediary option in terms of consistency, precision, and complexity. We compare the different approaches in simulation and in illustration on the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort and the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  20. The Therapeutic Potential of Adenosine Triphosphate as an Immune Modulator in the Treatment of HIV/AIDS: A Combination Approach with HAART

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Marc C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP) is a potent molecule that has the capacity to modulate various aspects of cell functions including gene expression. This element of modulation is essential to the role of ATP as a therapeutic agent. The hypothesis presented is that ATP can have an important impact on the treatment of HIV infection. This is supported in part by published research, although a much greater role for ATP is suggested than prior authors ever thought possible. ATP has the ability to enhance the immune system and could thus improve the host’s own defense mechanisms to eradicate the virus-infected cells and restore normal immune function. This could provide effective therapy when used in conjunction with highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) to eliminate the latently infected cells. The key lies in applying ATP through the methodology described. This article presents a strategy for using ATP therapeutically along with background evidence to substantiate the importance of using ATP in the treatment of HIV infection. PMID:21675943

  1. Low-level viremia is associated with non-B subtypes in patients infected with HIV with virological success following HAART introduction.

    PubMed

    Saison, Julien; Tardy, Jean-Claude; Scholtes, Caroline; Icard, Vinca; Trabaud, Mary-Anne; Perpoint, Thomas; Chidiac, Christian; Ecochard, René; André, Patrice; Ferry, Tristan

    2013-06-01

    This prospective study aimed to determine factors associated with detection of very low-level viremia in patients infected with HIV-1 with virological success following HAART introduction. Fifty-seven patients, mostly (n = 51, 89%) treated with a protease inhibitor-based regimen, were included and followed for 2 years. Viral loads were monitored by Abbott m2000 RealTime HIV-1. Patients were classified as (i) HIV-RNA-negative if viral loads remained strictly undetectable (0 copies/ml), or (ii) HIV-RNA-positive if at least one HIV-1 RNA could be detected in 1-49 copies/ml during follow-up. At month 24, 44 patients (77%) were in the HIV-RNA-positive group, whereas 13 (23%) remained without very low-level viremia. Univariate analysis, Kaplan-Meier curves and the Cox proportional hazard model revealed that B subtype was the only predictor of belonging to the HIV-RNA-negative group (HR 3.98; 95% CI 1.08-14.7). This association needs to be confirmed. Further study of the reservoir and the mechanisms of viral latency according to HIV-subtype will also be necessary to develop new therapeutic strategies and eradicate HIV infection. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Partial HIV C2V3 envelope sequence analysis reveals association of coreceptor tropism, envelope glycosylation and viral genotypic variability among Kenyan patients on HAART.

    PubMed

    Kitawi, Rose C; Hunja, Carol W; Aman, Rashid; Ogutu, Bernhards R; Muigai, Anne W T; Kokwaro, Gilbert O; Ochieng, Washingtone

    2017-02-14

    HIV-1 is highly variable genetically and at protein level, a property it uses to subvert antiviral immunity and treatment. The aim of this study was to assess if HIV subtype differences were associated with variations in glycosylation patterns and co-receptor tropism among HAART patients experiencing different virologic treatment outcomes. A total of 118 HIV env C2V3 sequence isolates generated previously from 59 Kenyan patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were examined for tropism and glycosylation patterns. For analysis of Potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGs), amino acid sequences generated by the NCBI's Translate tool were applied to the HIVAlign and the N-glycosite tool within the Los Alamos Database. Viral tropism was assessed using Geno2Pheno (G2P), WebPSSM and Phenoseq platforms as well as using Raymond's and Esbjörnsson's rules. Chi square test was used to determine independent variables association and ANOVA applied on scale variables. At respective False Positive Rate (FPR) cut-offs of 5% (p = 0.045), 10% (p = 0.016) and 20% (p = 0.005) for CXCR4 usage within the Geno2Pheno platform, HIV-1 subtype and viral tropism were significantly associated in a chi square test. Raymond's rule (p = 0.024) and WebPSSM (p = 0.05), but not Phenoseq or Esbjörnsson showed significant associations between subtype and tropism. Relative to other platforms used, Raymond's and Esbjörnsson's rules showed higher proportions of X4 variants, while WebPSSM resulted in lower proportions of X4 variants across subtypes. The mean glycosylation density differed significantly between subtypes at positions, N277 (p = 0.034), N296 (p = 0.036), N302 (p = 0.034) and N366 (p = 0.004), with HIV-1D most heavily glycosylated of the subtypes. R5 isolates had fewer PNGs than X4 isolates, but these differences were not significant except at position N262 (p = 0.040). Cell-associated isolates from virologic treatment

  3. Aerobic Fitness Levels and Validation of a Non-Exercise VO2max Prediction Equation for HIV-Infected Patients on HAART

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Katherine; Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Chow, Dominic; Cornelius, Elizabeth; Romine, Rebecca K.; Lindsey, Rachel A.; Stickley, Christopher D.; Kimura, Iris F.; Hetzler, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-exercise (N-EX) questionnaires have been developed to determine maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) in healthy populations. There are limited reliable and validated N-EX questionnaires for the HIV+ population that provide estimates of habitual physical activity and not VO2max. Objectives To determine how well regression equations developed previously on healthy populations, including N-EX prediction equations for VO2max and age-predicted maximal heart rates (APMHR), worked on an HIV+ population; and to develop a specific N-EX prediction equation for VO2max and APMHR for HIV+ individuals. Methods Sixty-six HIV+ participants on stable HAART completed 4 N-EX questionnaires and performed a maximal graded exercise test. Results Sixty males and 6 females were included; mean (SD) age was 49.2 (8.2) years; CD4 count was 516.0 ± 253.0 cells·mn−3; and 92% had undetectable HIV PCR. Mean VO2max was 29.2 ± 7.6 (range, 14.4–49.4) mL·kg−1·min−1. Despite positive correlations with VO2max, previously published N-EX VO2max equations produced results significantly different than actual VO2 scores (P < .0001). An HIV+ specific N-EX equation was developed and produced similar mean VO2max values, R = 0.71, when compared to achieved VO2max (P = .53). Conclusion HIV+ individuals tend to be sedentary and unfit, putting them at increased risk for the development of chronic diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Based on the level of error associated with utilizing APMHR and N-EX VO2max equations with HIV+ individuals, neither should be used in this population for exercise prescription. PMID:24710921

  4. Mutations Related to Antiretroviral Resistance Identified by Ultra-Deep Sequencing in HIV-1 Infected Children under Structured Interruptions of HAART

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Guillen, Jose Manuel; Palacios-Saucedo, Gerardo C.; Rivera-Morales, Lydia G.; Garcia-Campos, Jorge; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Noguera-Julian, Marc; Paredes, Roger; Vielma-Ramirez, Herlinda J.; Ramirez, Teresa J.; Chavez-Garcia, Marcelino; Lopez-Guillen, Paulo; Briones-Lara, Evangelina; Sanchez-Sanchez, Luz M.; Vazquez-Martinez, Carlos A.; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Although Structured Treatment Interruptions (STI) are currently not considered an alternative strategy for antiretroviral treatment, their true benefits and limitations have not been fully established. Some studies suggest the possibility of improving the quality of life of patients with this strategy; however, the information that has been obtained corresponds mostly to studies conducted in adults, with a lack of knowledge about its impact on children. Furthermore, mutations associated with antiretroviral resistance could be selected due to sub-therapeutic levels of HAART at each interruption period. Genotyping methods to determine the resistance profiles of the infecting viruses have become increasingly important for the management of patients under STI, thus low-abundance antiretroviral drug-resistant mutations (DRM’s) at levels under limit of detection of conventional genotyping (<20% of quasispecies) could increase the risk of virologic failure. In this work, we analyzed the protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the pol gene by ultra-deep sequencing in pediatric patients under STI with the aim of determining the presence of high- and low-abundance DRM’s in the viral rebounds generated by the STI. High-abundance mutations in protease and high- and low-abundance mutations in reverse transcriptase were detected but no one of these are directly associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs. The results could suggest that the evaluated STI program is virologically safe, but strict and carefully planned studies, with greater numbers of patients and interruption/restart cycles, are still needed to evaluate the selection of DRM’s during STI. PMID:26807922

  5. Cytokine networks are pre-activated in T cells from HIV-infected patients on HAART and are under the control of cAMP.

    PubMed

    Johansson, C Christian; Bryn, Tone; Yndestad, Arne; Eiken, Hans Geir; Bjerkeli, Vigdis; Frøland, Stig S; Aukrust, Pål; Taskén, Kjetil

    2004-01-23

    Cytokines seem to play a critical role in HIV infection. The cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) type I pathway is shown to be hyper-activated and contributes to T-cell immune dysfunction in HIV infection. Here, we analysed firstly the levels of cytokine gene expression in unstimulated CD3+T cells from HIV-infected patients on HAART, and secondly the regulation of cytokine and cytokine-related genes by cAMP agonist and antagonist in anti-CD3 activated T cells in order to understand their effects on cytokine networks. Cytokine Macro Array and real-time RT-PCR techniques were used to study cytokine gene expression in T cells of HIV-positive patients. Of the cytokine-related genes analysed 45% were expressed at twofold or higher levels in unstimulated T cells from HIV-infected patients as compared with healthy controls, and one-third of these genes were hypo-responsive upon activation as compared with controls. Furthermore, cAMP modulated levels of expression of a number of cytokine-related genes differently in patient and control T cells. CXCR4, CCR5 and amphiregulin were up-regulated by cAMP agonist, whereas other cytokine-related genes including macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and lymphotoxin-beta were markedly down-regulated by cAMP agonist in T cells from both HIV-infected patients and controls. Moreover, members of the chemokine/chemokine receptor family were over-represented among genes regulated by cAMP agonist/antagonist in patient T cells. Our data indicate that T cells from HIV-infected patients are in a pre-activated state and that a set of cytokine genes is hypo-responsive to activation and under tonic regulation by cAMP in these T cells.

  6. Isolation, identification, and carriage of candidal species in PHLAs and their correlation with immunological status in cases with and without HAART

    PubMed Central

    Kantheti, Lalith Prakash Chandra; Reddy, BVR; Ravikumar, Shamala; Anuradha, CH; Chandrasekhar, P; Rajeswari, M Raja

    2012-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To know the prevalence of Candidal colonization, and to isolate and know the Candidal species prevalent in the oral cavity from the oral rinse samples collected from the individuals attending to the Voluntary Counseling and Confidential Testing Center (VCCTC) and the antiretro-viral therapy (ART) Center at Government General Hospital, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, South India. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 50 HIV negative asymptomatic individuals (Group I); 50 HIV positive individuals (people living with HIV AIDS [PLWHA's]), who are naïve to antiretro-viral therapy (direct walk-in clients of VCCTC) (Group II); and 50 HIV positive individuals with CD4+ count less than 250 and who are started on highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART) (Group III). Routine mycological tests for the isolation of pure cultures of Candida and also the speciation procedures were done. Results: In the study group, 53 (Group I=11; Group II=23; Group III=19) were culture positive. The prevalence of Candida was comparatively high in the age range between 41–50 years in Group II; 51–60 years, in Group III. A male predominance was observed in the Group I (M:F=16:6) and Group III (M:F=20:18), with a slight female predominance in the Group II (F:M=24:22). The overall culture positivity was 35.3%. Candida albicans was the highest prevalent species (47.17% of the isolates). A comparison of the culture positivity with the CD4 counts of the study subjects was statistically highly significant. A pair wise comparison of the culture positivity with that of the colony forming units/mL from the subjects showed a high significance between Group I and Group II, and between Group I and Group III. Conclusion: Candidal infections in immuno compromised patients are often severe, rapidly progressive, and difficult to treat and such patients have a definitive risk of developing oral candidiasis wherein, even the members of the normal oral flora may become pathogenic

  7. Algae -- a poor man's HAART?

    PubMed

    Teas, Jane; Hebert, James R; Fitton, J Helen; Zimba, Paul V

    2004-01-01

    Drawing inferences from epidemiologic studies of HIV/AIDS and in vivo and in vitro HIV inhibition by algae, we propose algal consumption as one unifying characteristic of countries with anomalously low rates. HIV/AIDS incidence and prevalence in Eastern Asia ( approximately 1/10000 adults in Japan and Korea), compared to Africa ( approximately 1/10 adults), strongly suggest that differences in IV drug use and sexual behavior are insufficient to explain the 1000-fold variation. Even in Africa, AIDS/HIV rates vary. Chad has consistently reported low rates of HIV/AIDS (2-4/100). Possibly not coincidentally, most people in Japan and Korea eat seaweed daily and the Kanemba, one of the major tribal groups in Chad, eat a blue green alga (Spirulina) daily. Average daily algae consumption in Asia and Africa ranges between 1 and 2 tablespoons (3-13 g). Regular consumption of dietary algae might help prevent HIV infection and suppress viral load among those infected.

  8. Inhibition of CYP2B6 by Medicinal Plant Extracts: Implication for Use of Efavirenz and Nevirapine-Based Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) in Resource-Limited Settings.

    PubMed

    Thomford, Nicholas E; Awortwe, Charles; Dzobo, Kevin; Adu, Faustina; Chopera, Denis; Wonkam, Ambroise; Skelton, Michelle; Blackhurst, Dee; Dandara, Collet

    2016-02-16

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has greatly improved health parameters of HIV infected individuals. However, there are several challenges associated with the chronic nature of HAART administration. For populations in health transition, dual use of medicinal plant extracts and conventional medicine poses a significant challenge. There is need to evaluate interactions between commonly used medicinal plant extracts and antiretroviral drugs used against HIV/AIDS. Efavirenz (EFV) and nevirapine (NVP) are the major components of HAART both metabolized by CYP2B6, an enzyme that can potentially be inhibited or induced by compounds found in medicinal plant extracts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of extracts of selected commonly used medicinal plants on CYP2B6 enzyme activity. Recombinant human CYP2B6 was used to evaluate inhibition, allowing the assessment of herb-drug interactions (HDI) of medicinal plants Hyptis suaveolens, Myrothamnus flabellifolius, Launaea taraxacifolia, Boerhavia diffusa and Newbouldia laevis. The potential of these medicinal extracts to cause HDI was ranked accordingly for reversible inhibition and also classified as potential time-dependent inhibitor (TDI) candidates. The most potent inhibitor for CYP2B6 was Hyptis suaveolens extract (IC50 = 19.09 ± 1.16 µg/mL), followed by Myrothamnus flabellifolius extract (IC50 = 23.66 ± 4.86 µg/mL), Launaea taraxacifolia extract (IC50 = 33.87 ± 1.54 µg/mL), and Boerhavia diffusa extract (IC50 = 34.93 ± 1.06 µg/mL). Newbouldia laevis extract, however, exhibited weak inhibitory effects (IC50 = 100 ± 8.71 µg/mL) on CYP2B6. Launaea taraxacifolia exhibited a TDI (3.17) effect on CYP2B6 and showed a high concentration of known CYP450 inhibitory phenolic compounds, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid. The implication for these observations is that drugs that are metabolized by CYP2B6 when co-administered with these herbal medicines and when adequate amounts of the extracts

  9. Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Patients Differ Strongly in Frequencies and Spectra between Patients with Low CD4+ Cell Counts Examined Postmortem and Compensated Patients Examined Antemortem Irrespective of the HAART Era

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Marta K.; Benková, Kamila; Selinger, Pavel; Dogoši, Marek; Kinkorová Luňáčková, Iva; Koutníková, Hana; Laštíková, Jarmila; Roubíčková, Alena; Špůrková, Zuzana; Laclová, Lucie; Eis, Václav; Šach, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Objective AIDS-related mortality has changed dramatically with the onset of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which has even allowed compensated HIV-infected patients to withdraw from secondary therapy directed against opportunistic pathogens. However, in recently autopsied HIV-infected patients, we observed that associations with a broad spectrum of pathogens remain, although detailed analyses are lacking. Therefore, we focused on the possible frequency and spectrum shifts in pathogens associated with autopsied HIV-infected patients. Design We hypothesized that the pathogens frequency and spectrum changes found in HIV-infected patients examined postmortem did not recapitulate the changes found previously in HIV-infected patients examined antemortem in both the pre- and post-HAART eras. Because this is the first comprehensive study originating from Central and Eastern Europe, we also compared our data with those obtained in the West and Southwest Europe, USA and Latin America. Methods We performed autopsies on 124 HIV-infected patients who died from AIDS or other co-morbidities in the Czech Republic between 1985 and 2014. The pathological findings were retrieved from the full postmortem examinations and autopsy records. Results We collected a total of 502 host-pathogen records covering 82 pathogen species, a spectrum that did not change according to patients’ therapy or since the onset of the epidemics, which can probably be explained by the fact that even recently deceased patients were usually decompensated (in 95% of the cases, the last available CD4+ cell count was falling below 200 cells*μl-1) regardless of the treatment they received. The newly identified pathogen taxa in HIV-infected patients included Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aerococcus viridans and Escherichia hermannii. We observed a very limited overlap in both the spectra and frequencies of the pathogen species found postmortem in HIV-infected patients in Europe, the USA and Latin

  10. A Reduction Grade of Lipodystrophy and Limited Side Effects after HAART Regimen with Raltegravir, Lamivudine, Darunavir and Ritonavir in an HIV-1 Infected Patient after Six Years of Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Antoni, A Degli; Weimer, LE; Fragola, V; Giacometti, A; Sozio, F

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-associated lipodystrophy commonly presents with fat loss in the face, buttocks, arms and legs, hypocomplementaemia, glomerulonephritis and autoimmune disorders. The exact mechanism of HIV-associated lipodystrophy is not fully elucidated. There is evidence indicating that it can be caused by both antiretroviral medications and HIV infection in the absence of antiretroviral medication. Lipodystrophy seems to be mainly due to HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Interference with lipid metabolism is postulated as pathophysiology. Also, the development of lipodystrophy is associated with specific nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). Mitochondrial toxicity is postulated to be involved in the pathogenesis associated with NRTI. Here, we analyse the side effects and examine the impact of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen including raltegravir, lamivudine, darunavir and ritonavir in an HIV-1 infected patient with severe lipodystrophy after six years of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:26426188

  11. LTR real-time PCR for HIV-1 DNA quantitation in blood cells for early diagnosis in infants born to seropositive mothers treated in HAART area (ANRS CO 01).

    PubMed

    Avettand-Fènoël, Véronique; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Blanche, Stéphane; Burgard, Marianne; Floch, Corinne; Toure, Kadidia; Allemon, Marie-Christine; Warszawski, Josiane; Rouzioux, Christine

    2009-02-01

    HIV-1 diagnosis in babies born to seropositive mothers is one of the challenges of HIV epidemics in children. A simple, rapid protocol was developed for quantifying HIV-1 DNA in whole blood samples and was used in the ANRS French pediatric cohort in conditions of prevention of mother-to-child transmission. A quantitative HIV-1 DNA protocol (LTR real-time PCR) requiring small blood volumes was developed. First, analytical reproducibility was evaluated on 172 samples. Results obtained on blood cell pellets and Ficoll-Hypaque separated mononuclear cells were compared in 48 adult HIV-1 samples. Second, the protocol was applied to HIV-1 diagnosis in infants in parallel with plasma HIV-RNA quantitation. This prospective study was performed in children born between May 2005 and April 2007 included in the ANRS cohort. The assay showed good reproducibility. The 95% detection cut-off value was 6 copies/PCR, that is, 40 copies/10(6) leukocytes. HIV-DNA levels in whole blood were highly correlated with those obtained after Ficoll-Hypaque separation (r = 0.900, P < 0.0001). A total of 3,002 specimens from 1,135 infants were tested. The specificity of HIV-DNA and HIV-RNA assays was 100%. HIV-1 infection was diagnosed in nine infants before age 60 days. HIV-DNA levels were low, underlining the need for sensitive assays when highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been given. The performances of this HIV-DNA assay showed that it is adapted to early diagnosis in children. The results were equivalent to those of HIV-RNA assay. HIV-DNA may be used even in masked primary infection in newborns whose mothers have received HAART.

  12. NK cells of HIV-1-infected patients with poor CD4(+) T-cell reconstitution despite suppressive HAART show reduced IFN-γ production and high frequency of autoreactive CD56(bright) cells.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Erica; Vassena, Lia; Di Cesare, Silvia; Malagnino, Vincenzo; Desimio, Maria Giovanna; Andreoni, Massimo; Barnaba, Vincenzo; Doria, Margherita

    2017-10-01

    HIV-1-infected patients failing to recover CD4(+) T-cell count despite HAART (immunological non-responders, NRs), are at increased risk of disease progression and death. To better understand the NR status, we performed a comprehensive assessment of NK cells in NR patients as compared to immunologic responders. NRs exhibited an accumulation of CD56(bright) NK cells inversely correlated with CD4(+) counts. Both CD56(bright) and CD56(dim) NK cells of NRs displayed unimpaired degranulation ability, but poorly responded to cytokine stimulation in terms of NKp44 up-regulation and IFN-γ production that may explain the susceptibility of NRs to infections and tumors. Notably, CD56(bright) NK cells from NRs showed higher cytotoxicity against autologous activated CD4(+) T cells. Moreover, NRs had reduced Treg cell counts that showed an inverse correlation with autoreactive CD56(bright) cells. These data suggest that accumulation of CD56(bright) NK cells, possibly linked to decreased homeostatic control by Tregs, contributes to poor immune reconstitution in NRs. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Factors Related to CD4+ T-Cell Recovery and Viral Suppression in Patients Who Have Low CD4+ T Cell Counts at the Initiation of HAART: A Retrospective Study of the National HIV Treatment Sub-Database of Zhejiang Province, China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    He, Lin; Pan, Xiaohong; Dou, Zhihui; Huang, Peng; Zhou, Xin; Peng, Zhihang; Zheng, Jinlei; Zhang, Jiafeng; Yang, Jiezhe; Xu, Yun; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Lin; Jiang, Jianmin; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Background Since China has a unique system of delivering HIV care that includes all patients’ records. The factors related to CD4+ T-cell recovery and viral suppression in patients who have low CD4+ T cell counts at the initiation of HAART are understudied in the China despite subsequent virological suppression (viral load < 50 copies/mL) is unknown. Methods The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the national HIV treatment sub-database of Zhejiang province to identify records of HIV+ patients. Patient records were included if they were ≥ 16 years of age, had an initial CD4 count < 100 cells/μL, were on continuous HAART for at least one year by the end of December 31, 2014; and achieved and maintained continued maximum virological suppression (MVS) (< 50 copies/ml) by 9 months after starting HAART. The primary endpoint for analysis was time to first CD4+ T cell count recovery (≥ 200, 350, 500 cells/μL). Cox proportional hazard regression was used to identify the risk factors for CD4+ T cell count recovery to key thresholds (200–350, 350–500, ≥ 500 cells/μL) by the time of last clinical follow-up (whichever occurred first), key thresholds (follow-up date for analysis), with patients still unable to reach the endpoints being censored by the end December 31, 2014 (follow-up date for analysis). Results Of the 918 patients who were included in the study, and the median CD4+ T cell count was 39 cells/μL at the baseline. At the end of follow-up, 727 (79.2%), 363 (39.5%) and 149 (16.2%) patients had return to ≥ 200, 350, and 500 cells/μL, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the rate of patients with CD4+ count recovery to ≥ 200, 350, and 500 cells/μL after 1 year on HAART was 43.6, 8.6, and 2.5%, respectively, after 3 years on treatment was 90.8, 46.3, and 17.9%, respectively, and after 5 years on HAART was 97.1, 72.2, and 36.4%, respectively. The median time to return to 200–350, 350–500, ≥ 500cells

  14. Efficacy and safety of insulin degludec three times a week versus insulin glargine once a day in insulin-naive patients with type 2 diabetes: results of two phase 3, 26 week, randomised, open-label, treat-to-target, non-inferiority trials.

    PubMed

    Zinman, Bernard; DeVries, J Hans; Bode, Bruce; Russell-Jones, David; Leiter, Lawrence A; Moses, Alan; Johansen, Thue; Ratner, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Results of an exploratory phase 2 study showed that insulin degludec, a basal insulin with an action profile of longer than 42 h, provided similar glycaemic control when injected three times a week (IDeg 3TW) to once-daily insulin glargine (IGlar OD). To provide further evidence, we did two phase 3 trials to compare the efficacy and safety of IDeg 3TW with IGlar OD in insulin-naive patients with type 2 diabetes. In two 26 week, randomised, open-label, parallel group, non-inferiority trials IDeg was injected Monday, Wednesday, and Friday before breakfast (IDeg 3TW(AM)) in the AM trial (94 sites in seven countries) or with the evening meal (IDeg 3TW(PM)) in the PM trial (89 sites in seven countries), and compared with IGlar OD. Adults with type 2 diabetes (HbA(1c) 7.0-10.0%; body-mass index ≤45 kg/m(2)) were randomly allocated (1:1) without stratification by a central interactive response system to IDeg 3TW or IGlar OD. Both groups continued taking metformin with or without dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. Insulin was titrated to achieve a prebreakfast self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) concentration of between 3.9 and less than 5.0 mmol/L. The primary outcome was non-inferiority of IDeg 3TW compared with IGlar OD, as assessed by change in HbA(1c) from baseline to 26 weeks (non-inferiority limit of 0.4%) by ANOVA in an intent-to-treat analysis (full analysis set). These trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT01068678 and NCT01076647. We recruited 460 patients for the AM trial (IDeg 3TW(AM), n=230; IGlar OD, n=230) and 467 patients for the PM trial (IDeg 3TW(PM), n=233; IGlar OD, n=234). After 26 weeks, mean HbA decreased by 0.9% (IDeg 3TW(AM)) and 1.3% (IGlar OD) in the AM trial, and by 1.1% (IDeg 3TW(PM)) and 1.4% (IGlar OD) in the PM trial. Non-inferiority was not confirmed in either trial (estimated treatment difference [IDeg 3TW(AM)-IGlar OD] 0.34%, 95% CI 0.18-0.51; [IDeg 3TW(PM)-IGlar OD] 0.26%, 0.11-0.41). Across the two trials, rates of confirmed hypoglycaemia (SMBG <3.1 mmol/L or severe [needing assistance]) ranged from 1.0 to 1.6 episodes per patient-year and were similar for IDeg 3TW(AM) and IGlar OD (estimated rate ratio [ERR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.69-1.55), but higher for IDeg 3TW(PM) than for IGlar OD (ERR 1.58, 1.03-2.43). The rate of nocturnal confirmed hypoglycaemia was higher for IDeg 3TW(AM) than for IGlar OD (ERR 2.12, 1.08-4.16); we noted no significant difference between IDeg 3TW(PM) and IGlar OD (ERR 0.60, 0.21-1.69). The inferior glycaemic control and increased risk of hypoglycaemia with IDeg 3TW compared with IGlar OD do not support a three-times-weekly dosing regimen. Novo Nordisk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Arthrospira platensis Capsules on CD4 T-Cells and Antioxidative Capacity in a Randomized Pilot Study of Adult Women Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Not under HAART in Yaoundé, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Frank Stéphane; Emakam, Francois; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Hermann, Johannes; Azabji-Kenfack, Marcel; Krawinkel, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements are often used to improve the nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Arthrospira platensis (Asp), also known as Spirulina, is a cyanobacterium rich in proteins and micronutrients. Cell and animal trials described immune-modulating, antiretroviral and antioxidant activities. This pilot study describes the effects of the supplementation of 5 g/day of Asp on a pre-highly-active antiretroviral therapy (pre-HAART), HIV-infected, adult female population. It was conducted as a three-month randomized controlled trial (RCT) that compared a cup supplementation of five grams/day of Asp with a placebo of equal protein content and energy. The study included 73 HIV-infected women. The immediate outcome variables were CD4 T-cells, viral load and immune activation by CD8 T-cells expressing CD38. The antioxidant status was assessed by way of the total antioxidant capacity of the serum (TAOS). The renal function was documented by way of creatinine, urea and the calculated glomerular filtration rate. Statistical analyses were carried out with non-parametric tests, and the effect size of each interaction was calculated. No differences in the immunological and virological markers between the Asp and the placebo group could be observed. In the placebo group, 21 of 30 patients (70%) developed concomitant events, while in the Asp group, only 12 of 28 patients (43%) did. Both groups registered a significant weight increase; 0.5 kg (p < 0.05) in the Asp group and 0.65 kg (p < 0.05) in the placebo group. The antioxidant capacity increase of 56 (1–98) µM for Asp was significantly different from the decrease observed in the placebo group (p < 0.001). A slight increase in the creatinine level of 0.1 g/dL (p < 0.001) was observed in the Asp group, and no effect was observed in the urea levels. The improvement of the antioxidant capacity under Asp, shown for the first time on PLHIV, could become a focus for future research on the nutritional and health

  16. Impact of Age-related Comorbidities on Five-year Overall Mortality among Elderly HIV-Infected Patients in the Late HAART Era--Role of Chronic Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Hentzien, M; Dramé, M; Allavena, C; Jacomet, C; Valantin, M-A; Cabié, A; Cuzin, L; Rey, D; Pugliese, P; Bani-Sadr, F

    2016-04-01

    To identify main prognostic factors for 5-year mortality among age-related comorbidities (ARCs) in older people living with HIV (PLHIV). A prospective, multicentre cohort study with a 5-year follow-up period in the late HAART era (from January 2008 to December 2012). The Dat'AIDS cohort involving 12 French hospitals. All actively followed HIV-1 infected patients aged 60 or older. The study endpoint was all-cause five-year mortality. The following ARCs were considered: chronic renal disease, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic pulmonary disease, cirrhosis, diabetes and nutritional status. Hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV) co-infection and sociodemographic characteristics were also evaluated. Cox's Proportional Hazards model was used for multivariate analysis. Among 1415 PLHIV aged 60 or more patients included, mean age was 66±5.5 years; 154 died (mortality rate 2.47/100 patient-years). The most prevalent ARCs were chronic renal disease (20.1%), diabetes (14.2%) and cardiovascular diseases (12.2%). By multivariate analysis, chronic renal disease (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=2.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.58-2.21]; p<10-4), cardiovascular diseases (aHR=2.40; 95%CI[1.64-3.52]; p<10-4), non-HIV related cancer (aHR=1.91; 95%CI[1.20-3.05]; p=0.007), cirrhosis (aHR=2.99; 95%CI[1.68-5.33]; p<10-3), HCV co-infection (aHR=2.00; 95%CI[1.18-3.38]; p=0.009), low body mass index (aHR=2.42; 95%CI[1.46-4.01]; p<10-3) and CD4 cell count < 200 cells/µl (aHR=2.23; 95%CI[1.36-3.65]; p=0.002) were independently associated with 5 year mortality. Due to a high prevalence, chronic renal disease and cardiovascular disease are main prognostic factors for 5-year mortality among aged PLHIV.

  17. The effect of Arthrospira platensis capsules on CD4 T-cells and antioxidative capacity in a randomized pilot study of adult women infected with human immunodeficiency virus not under HAART in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Winter, Frank Stéphane; Emakam, Francois; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Hermann, Johannes; Azabji-Kenfack, Marcel; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2014-07-23

    Dietary supplements are often used to improve the nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Arthrospira platensis (Asp), also known as Spirulina, is a cyanobacterium rich in proteins and micronutrients. Cell and animal trials described immune-modulating, antiretroviral and antioxidant activities. This pilot study describes the effects of the supplementation of 5 g/day of Asp on a pre-highly-active antiretroviral therapy (pre-HAART), HIV-infected, adult female population. It was conducted as a three-month randomized controlled trial (RCT) that compared a cup supplementation of five grams/day of Asp with a placebo of equal protein content and energy. The study included 73 HIV-infected women. The immediate outcome variables were CD4 T-cells, viral load and immune activation by CD8 T-cells expressing CD38. The antioxidant status was assessed by way of the total antioxidant capacity of the serum (TAOS). The renal function was documented by way of creatinine, urea and the calculated glomerular filtration rate. Statistical analyses were carried out with non-parametric tests, and the effect size of each interaction was calculated. No differences in the immunological and virological markers between the Asp and the placebo group could be observed. In the placebo group, 21 of 30 patients (70%) developed concomitant events, while in the Asp group, only 12 of 28 patients (43%) did. Both groups registered a significant weight increase; 0.5 kg (p < 0.05) in the Asp group and 0.65 kg (p < 0.05) in the placebo group. The antioxidant capacity increase of 56 (1-98) µM for Asp was significantly different from the decrease observed in the placebo group (p < 0.001). A slight increase in the creatinine level of 0.1 g/dL (p < 0.001) was observed in the Asp group, and no effect was observed in the urea levels. The improvement of the antioxidant capacity under Asp, shown for the first time on PLHIV, could become a focus for future research on the nutritional and health

  18. Exemplification of HAART and HIV/AIDS: A News Experiment.

    PubMed

    Boyson, Aaron R; Zimmerman, Rick S; Shoemaker, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Recent data show that the number of deaths from HIV has declined but the disease continues to spread. An emerging line of research suggests that the apparent increase may be due to complacency, whereby faith in medicine encourages risk-taking behavior. This study examines the hypothesis that certain approaches in the news media could disproportionately influence perceptions of treatment success even when paired with statistics. College students and gay men, recruited in the community, were exposed to a fictional news story in which the ratio of four cases of people taking antiretroviral (ARV) medications was varied in two conditions. The story was either consistent with or inconsistent with the success-rate data presented by an alleged medical expert in the story. Participants' perceptions of ARV success were estimated following exposure to the story. As expected, the personal news stories influenced estimation of ARV success more than the presence of statistical success rate data. Consistent with previous exemplification research, the size of the effect suggests that the stories influenced judgments of the true success rate by roughly 10 to 20%. The effect was moderated by sexual orientation, but not by gender. Exemplification as a journalistic tendency may be one factor that contributes to unrealistic faith in medical advancements. These data suggest that future research should explore in detail the extent and context of HIV/AIDS reporting using exemplification theory with considerations for how reporting might be modified to have less of an effect on increased sexual risk-taking.

  19. HAART rollout in the new fiscal and economic environment

    PubMed Central

    Moatti, J

    2012-01-01

    The trend towards universal access for HIV prevention and treatment that was initiated at the beginning of the 21st century (international donor funding has been multiplied by 3 to reach 27 billion US$ in 2010) has been threatened by the 2008–9 economic crisis which currently translates in a fiscal crisis for most developed countries (including the US, France and the UK – the main donors for HIV/AIDS). Other advances such as the drastic drop in ARV drug prices are also threatened (generic first line drugs close to marginal cost, insufficient drop in second line drug prices, etc.). The presentation will discuss the negative consequences of slowing down and delaying universal access on macro-economic growth in the most affected countries and suggest alternative sources of funding such as the financial transaction tax recently introduced by the French Parliament.

  20. The development and application of a novel LC-MS/MS method for the measurement of Dolutegravir, Elvitegravir and Cobicistat in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Penchala, Sujan Dilly; Fawcett, Sandra; Else, Laura; Egan, Deirdre; Amara, Alieu; Elliot, Emilie; Challenger, Elizabeth; Back, David; Boffito, Marta; Khoo, Saye

    2016-08-01

    Dolutegravir and Elvitegravir belongs to a class of integrase inhibitors which has recently been approved by the FDA for the treatment of HIV-infection. Elvitegravir and its co-administered booster drug, Cobicistat, has shown the potential to be a candidate for a one pill once a day regimen and is currently a component of many clinical trials. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of these three drugs in human plasma. A liquid- liquid extraction was used as a sample preparation technique using 100μL of plasma. The method was validated from 10 to 4000ng/mL for Dolutegravir, Elvitegravir and Cobicistat. Chromatography was performed on XBridge C18 2.1mm×50mm column, using an 80:20 methanol/water mobile phase containing 0.1% formic acid on a gradient program. This method was successfully applied for ongoing clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Restoration of Toxoplasma gondii-specific immune responses in patients with AIDS starting HAART.

    PubMed

    Furco, André; Carmagnat, Maryvonnick; Chevret, Sylvie; Garin, Yves J-F; Pavie, Juliette; De Castro, Nathalie; Charron, Dominique; Derouin, Francis; Rabian, Claire; Molina, Jean-Michel

    2008-10-18

    To study the kinetics and identify factors associated with Toxoplasma-specific immune responses in patients with AIDS starting antiretroviral therapy. A prospective study of 38 HIV-infected patients seropositive for Toxoplasma who started antiretroviral therapy with CD4 T cells less than 200 cells/microl. T-cell and B-cell phenotypes, anti-Toxoplasma antibodies titers, Th-1 and Th-2 cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferative responses (LPRs) to Toxoplasma were assessed over 12 months. Median CD4 cell count increased from 122 cells/microl at baseline to 260 cells/microl at 12 months, and the incidence of a positive LPR from 18.4 to 70.5%. A Toxoplasma IgG titer more than 150 IU/ml was the only baseline variable associated with a positive LPR (hazard ratio: 4.6, P = 0.003). Among time-dependent covariates, the number of effector memory (CD45RA-CCR7-) CD4 T cells was associated with a positive LPR (P < 0.02) and the number of terminally differentiated (CD45RA+CCR7-) CD8 T cells was associated with in-vitro production of gamma-IFN (P < 0.008). Among patients with low CD4 cell counts, high anti-Toxoplasma IgG titers were associated with LPR to Toxoplasma antigen. After starting antiretroviral therapy, the number of effector memory CD4 T cells and terminally differentiated CD8 T cells were associated with the restoration of Toxoplasma LPR and gamma-IFN production, respectively.

  2. The association between food insecurity and mortality among HIV-infected individuals on HAART

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Sheri D.; Fernandes, Kimberly A.; Brandson, Eirikka K.; Lima, Viviane D.; Anema, Aranka; Bangsberg, David R.; Montaner, Julio S.; Hogg, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Food insecurity is increasingly recognized as a barrier to optimal treatment outcomes but there is little data on this issue. We assessed associations between food insecurity and mortality in HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated individuals in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), and whether body max index (BMI) modified associations. Methods Individuals were recruited from the BC HIV/AIDS drug treatment program in 1998 and 1999, and were followed until June 2007 for outcomes. Food insecurity was measured with the Radimer/Cornell questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine associations between food insecurity, BMI and non-accidental deaths when controlling for confounders. Results Among 1119 participants, 536 (48%) were categorized as food insecure and 160 (14%) were categorized as underweight (BMI <18.5). After a median follow-up time of 8.2 years, 153 individuals (14%) had died from non-accidental deaths. After controlling for adherence, CD4 counts, and socioeconomic variables, people who were food insecure and underweight were nearly two times more likely to die (Adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]=1.94, 95% Confidence interval [CI]=1.10-3.40) compared with people who were not food insecure or underweight. There was also a trend towards increased risk of mortality among people who were food insecure and not underweight (AHR= 1.40, 95% CI=0.91-2.05). In contrast, people who were underweight but food secure were not more likely to die. Conclusions Food insecurity is a risk factor for mortality among ART-treated individuals in BC, particularly among individuals who are underweight. Innovative approaches to address food insecurity should be incorporated into HIV treatment programs. PMID:19675463

  3. Limited Evolution of Inferred HIV-1 Tropism while Viremia Is Undetectable during Standard HAART Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Guinevere Q.; Dong, Winnie; Mo, Theresa; Knapp, David J. H. F.; Brumme, Chanson J.; Woods, Conan K.; Kanters, Steve; Yip, Benita; Harrigan, P. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy have undetectable viremia making it impossible to screen plasma HIV tropism if regimen change is required during suppression. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of tropism switch from CCR5-using (“R5”) to non-CCR5-using (“non-R5”) before and after viral suppression in the initially therapy-naïve HOMER cohort from British Columbia, Canada. Methods We compared pre-therapy and post-suppression viral genotypic tropism in patients who initiated on PI/NNRTI-based antiretroviral regimens between 1996-1999 (n = 462). Virologic suppression was defined as having two consecutive viral loads of <500 copies/mL, which was the sensitivity limit of most viral load assays at the time. Viral tropism was inferred by V3-loop-population-sequencing and geno2pheno[coreceptor] with cutoff at 5.75% false positive rate (FPR). Results When virologic suppression was defined as two-consecutive viral loads <500 copies/mL, 34 (9%) of the 397 patients with pre-therapy R5-virus switched to non-R5 at viral load rebound after a median of 19 months (IQR 8–41 months) of undetectable viremia. Duration of viral load suppression was not a predictor of switch, but lower CD4 count during suppression (median 400 versus 250 cells/mL) and an increased prevalence of pre-therapy non-R5 HIV by “deep” sequencing (median 0.2% versus 3.2%) were independently associated with switch (p = 0.03 and p<0.0001, respectively). Conclusion R5-to-non-R5 tropism switches in plasma virus after undetectable viremia were relatively rare events especially among patients with higher CD4 counts during virologic suppression. Our study supports the use of pre-suppression tropism results if maraviroc is being considered during virologic suppression in this subgroup of patients. PMID:24905411

  4. High prevalence of late diagnosis of HIV in Mexico during the HAART era.

    PubMed

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Francisco; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of late HIV diagnosis (CD4<200 cell/mm³) in an HIV clinic in Mexico City between 2001-2008, to assess changes in this prevalence across the study period, and to determine the risk factors associated to late testing (LT). Cross-sectional analysis including all patients recently diagnosed as HIV. We estimated the proportion of LT patients and compared demographic characteristics between those and all other. We determine the risk factors associated to LT using logistic regression methods. Sixty one percent of LT patients present when are diagnosed for the first time. The prevalence did not decrease between 2001 and 2008 (p=0.37). Older age (OR: 2.4; 95%CI 1.2-4.7), unemployment (OR: 1.75; 95%CI 1.12-2.75) and less than nine years of education (OR: 2.44; 95%CI 1.37-4.33) were independently associated to LT, in a multivariate analysis. LT has high prevalence in Mexico, this impact on antiretroviral effectiveness and perhaps on HIV transmission. Policies for HIV-prevention in Mexico need to be modified to reduce LT prevalence including more aggressive strategies of testing.

  5. Premature Decline of Serum Total Testosterone in HIV-Infected Men in the HAART-Era

    PubMed Central

    Rochira, Vincenzo; Zirilli, Lucia; Orlando, Gabriella; Santi, Daniele; Brigante, Giulia; Diazzi, Chiara; Carli, Federica; Carani, Cesare; Guaraldi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Background Testosterone (T) deficiency remains a poorly understood issue in men with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). We investigated the gonadal status in HIV-infected men in order to characterize T deficiency and to identify predictive factors for low serum T. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a cross-sectional, observational study on 1325 consecutive HIV male outpatients, most of them having lipodystrophy. Serum total T<300 ng/dL was used as the threshold for biochemical T deficiency. Morning serum total T, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, HIV parameters, and body composition parameters by CT-scan and Dual-Energy-X-ray-Absorptiometry were measured in each case. Sexual behavior was evaluated in a subset of 247 patients. T deficiency was found in 212 subjects, especially in the age range 40–59, but was frequent even in younger patients. T deficiency occurred mainly in association with low/normal serum LH. Adiposity was higher in subjects with T deficiency (p<0.0001) and both visceral adipose tissue and body mass index were the main negative predictors of serum total T. Osteoporosis and erectile dysfunction were present in a similar percentage in men with or without T deficiency. Conclusions/Significance Premature decline of serum T is common (16%) among young/middle-aged HIV-infected men and is associated with inappropriately low/normal LH and increased visceral fat. T deficiency occurs at a young age and may be considered an element of the process of premature or accelerated aging known to be associated with HIV infection. The role of HIV and/or HIV infection treatments, as well as the role of the general health state on the gonadal axis, remains, in fact, to be elucidated. Due to the low specificity of signs and symptoms of hypogonadism in the context of HIV, caution is needed in the diagnosis of hypogonadism in HIV-infected men with biochemical low serum T levels. PMID:22174826

  6. Formal reasoning on qualitative models of coinfection of HIV and Tuberculosis and HAART therapy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several diseases, many of which nowadays pandemic, consist of multifactorial pathologies. Paradigmatic examples come from the immune response to pathogens, in which cases the effects of different infections combine together, yielding complex mutual feedback, often a positive one that boosts infection progression in a scenario that can easily become lethal. HIV is one such infection, which weakens the immune system favouring the insurgence of opportunistic infections, amongst which Tuberculosis (TB). The treatment with antiretroviral therapies has shown effective in reducing mortality. An in-depth understanding of complex systems, like the one consisting of HIV, TB and related therapies, is an open great challenge, on the boundaries of bioinformatics, computational and systems biology. Results We present a simplified formalisation of the highly dynamic system consisting of HIV, TB and related therapies, at the cellular level. The progression of the disease (AIDS) depends hence on interactions between viruses, cells, chemokines, the high mutation rate of viruses, the immune response of individuals and the interaction between drugs and infection dynamics. We first discuss a deterministic model of dual infection (HIV and TB) which is able to capture the long-term dynamics of CD4 T cells, viruses and Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF). We contrast this model with a stochastic approach which captures intrinsic fluctuations of the biological processes. Furthermore, we also integrate automated reasoning techniques, i.e. probabilistic model checking, in our formal analysis. Beyond numerical simulations, model checking allows general properties (effectiveness of anti-HIV therapies) to be verified against the models by means of an automated procedure. Our work stresses the growing importance and flexibility of model checking techniques in bioinformatics. In this paper we i) describe HIV as a complex case of infectious diseases; ii) provide a number of different formal descriptions that suitably account for aspects of interests; iii) suggest that the integration of different models together with automated reasoning techniques can improve the understanding of infections and therapies through formal analysis methodologies. Conclusion We argue that the described methodology suitably supports the study of viral infections in a formal, automated and expressive manner. We envisage a long-term contribution of this kind of approaches to clinical Bioinformatics and Translational Medicine. PMID:20122243

  7. HIV-positive patients treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: clinical outcomes in the HAART era.

    PubMed

    Palacios, E; Franke, M; Muñoz, M; Hurtado, R; Dallman, R; Chalco, K; Guerra, D; Mestanza, L; Llaro, K; Bonilla, C; Sebastian, J; Bayona, J; Lygizos, M; Lyzigos, M; Anger, H; Shin, S

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pose two of the greatest threats to global tuberculosis (TB) control. Given expanding global access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and second-line TB drugs, more data are needed on experiences treating MDR-TB and HIV co-infection in resource-poor settings. To describe the clinical characteristics, management, outcomes, and factors associated with survival among HIV-positive individuals receiving treatment for MDR-TB. This was a retrospective case series of 52 HIV-positive individuals receiving treatment for MDR-TB in Lima, Peru. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to identify risk factors for mortality. A total of 31 (57%) of the cohort died on treatment, with the majority of deaths due to MDR-TB. Low baseline weight predicted a three-fold increased rate of death (aHR 3.1, 95%CI 1.5-6.7), while individuals receiving highly active ART experienced a significantly lower rate of death compared to those who were not (aHR 0.4, 95%CI 0.2-0.9). Early ART is likely a key component of effective MDR-TB management in co-infected individuals.

  8. Changing Patterns in the Neuropathogenesis of HIV During the HAART Era

    PubMed Central

    Langford, T. D.; Letendre, S. L.; Larrea, G. J.; Masliah, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid progress in the development of highly active antiretroviral therapy has changed the observed patterns in HIV encephalitis and AIDS-related CNS opportunistic infections. Early in the AIDS epidemic, autopsy studies pointed to a high prevalence of these conditions. With the advent of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the prevalence at autopsy of opportunistic infections, such as toxoplasmosis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, declined while that of HIV encephalitis increased. After the introduction of protease inhibitors, a decline in both HIV encephalitis and CNS opportunistic infections was observed. However, with the increasing resistance of HIV strains to anti-retrovirals, there has been a resurgence in the frequency of HIV encephalitis and HIV leukoencephalopathy. HIV leukoencephalopathy in AIDS patients failing highly active antiretroviral therapy is characterized by massive infiltration of HIV infected monocytes/macrophages into the brain and extensive white matter destruction. This condition may be attributable to interactions of anti-retrovirals with cerebrovascular endothelium, astroglial cells and white matter of the brain. These interactions may lead to cerebral ischemia, increased blood-brain barrier permeability and demyelination. Potential mechanisms of such interactions include alterations in host cell signaling that may result in trophic factor dysregulation and mitochondrial injury. We conclude that despite the initial success of combined anti-retroviral therapy, more severe forms of HIV encephalitis appear to be emerging as the epidemic matures. Factors that may contribute to this worsening include the prolonged survival of HIV-infected patients, thereby prolonging the brain’s exposure to HIV virions and proteins, the use of increasingly toxic combinations of poorly penetrating drugs in highly antiretroviral-experienced AIDS patients, and selection of more virulent HIV strains with higher replication rates and greater virulence in neural tissues. PMID:12744473

  9. Formative research for mhealth HIV adherence: the iHAART app

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Rochelle K.; Ranney, Megan L.; Boyer, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research was conducted to adapt and develop an mHealth app for HIV patients with histories of substance abuse. The app provides reactive, visual representations of adherence rates, viral load and CD4 counts. Two sets of focus groups were conducted with 22 participants. The first concentrated on use of reminder system and opinions about ideal adherence features. Results informed adaptation of an existing system, which was then presented to participants in the second set of focus groups. We describe participant responses to candidate app characteristics and their understanding of the HIV disease state based on these changing images. Qualitative results indicate that a balance of provided and requested information is important to maintain interest and support adherence. App characteristics and information can provoke positive and negative reactions and these emotional responses may affect adherence. Conclusion: User understanding of, and reaction to, app visual content was essential to adaptation and design. PMID:26644783

  10. Changes in the HIV-1 mutational profile before first-line HAART in the RESINA cohort.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Stefan; Oette, Mark; Sichtig, Nadine; Kaiser, Rolf; Balduin, Melanie; Jensen, Björn; Häussinger, Dieter

    2011-02-01

    Sporadic observations have shown changing patterns of transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRMs) in HIV infection even without selection pressure by antiretroviral treatment (ART). Repeated genotypic resistance analyses in treatment-naïve patients were performed, in order to analyze intraindividual variances of resistance patterns over time. Between the years 2001 and 2008 two genotypic resistance tests were performed at different time-points in 49 treatment-naïve HIV-positive patients aged >18 years. Wild-type virus was found at baseline and during follow-up in 31 patients (group A, median time between resistance tests 146 days), while resistance mutations were found either at baseline or during follow-up in 18 patients (group B, median time between resistance tests 297 days). In group B, the pattern of resistance changed in eight out of 18 patients over time, with three patients showing decreasing numbers and five patients showing increasing numbers of resistance mutations. The pattern of resistance mutations remained unchanged in 10 out of 18 patients. The mutational pattern in untreated HIV infection may change over time and a single resistance analysis may underestimate the true prevalence of preserved resistance mutations. If these findings can be confirmed in a larger number of patients, it would be prudent to perform genotypic resistance testing both at baseline and prior to the start of ART in order to capture a more complete picture of preserved mutations before initiating ART. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Anaemia in HIV-infected children: severity, types and effect on response to HAART.

    PubMed

    Nyesigire Ruhinda, Eunice; Bajunirwe, Francis; Kiwanuka, Julius

    2012-10-31

    HIV and anaemia are major health challenges in Africa. Anaemia in HIV-infected individuals is associated with more rapid disease progression and a poorer prognosis if not addressed appropriately. This study aimed at determining the severity and types of anaemia among HIV infected children and its effect on short term response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). At baseline, clinical and haematological parameters of 257 HIV-infected ART-naïve children aged 3 months to 18 years were assessed to determine the prevalence, severity and types of anaemia. ART eligible patients were started on therapy according to WHO criteria, enrolled (n=88) into an observational cohort and followed up for 6 months. Anaemia was present in 148/257 (57.6%) of children, including (93/148) 62.2% with mild anaemia, 47/148 (32.0%) moderate anaemia, and 7/148 (4.8%) with severe anaemia. The mean haemoglobin (hb) was lower among children with more advanced HIV disease (p<0.0001). Microcytic-hypochromic anaemia (44.9%) was the commonest type of anaemia. Anaemia was independently associated with young age (p <0.0001), advanced HIV WHO disease stage (p = 0.034) and low CD4 percentage (p = 0.048). The proportion of children who had attained viral suppression (viral load <400 copies/ml) at 3 months was significantly lower among the anaemic children, 31/58 (53.4%) compared to the non-anaemic children 26/30 (86.7%) (p=0.002). However, the difference in clinical and immunological response between the anaemic and non-anaemic patients did not reach statistical significance. Anaemia is highly prevalent among HIV-infected children in a rural Ugandan clinic and is associated with poorer virological suppression. However, the anaemia did not impact clinical and immunological response to ART among these children.

  12. Anaemia in HIV-infected children: severity, types and effect on response to HAART

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV and anaemia are major health challenges in Africa. Anaemia in HIV-infected individuals is associated with more rapid disease progression and a poorer prognosis if not addressed appropriately. This study aimed at determining the severity and types of anaemia among HIV infected children and its effect on short term response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods At baseline, clinical and haematological parameters of 257 HIV-infected ART-naïve children aged 3 months to 18 years were assessed to determine the prevalence, severity and types of anaemia. ART eligible patients were started on therapy according to WHO criteria, enrolled (n=88) into an observational cohort and followed up for 6 months. Results Anaemia was present in 148/257 (57.6%) of children, including (93/148) 62.2% with mild anaemia, 47/148 (32.0%) moderate anaemia, and 7/148 (4.8%) with severe anaemia. The mean haemoglobin (hb) was lower among children with more advanced HIV disease (p<0.0001). Microcytic-hypochromic anaemia (44.9%) was the commonest type of anaemia. Anaemia was independently associated with young age (p <0.0001), advanced HIV WHO disease stage (p = 0.034) and low CD4 percentage (p = 0.048). The proportion of children who had attained viral suppression (viral load <400 copies/ml) at 3 months was significantly lower among the anaemic children, 31/58 (53.4%) compared to the non-anaemic children 26/30 (86.7%) (p=0.002). However, the difference in clinical and immunological response between the anaemic and non-anaemic patients did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion Anaemia is highly prevalent among HIV-infected children in a rural Ugandan clinic and is associated with poorer virological suppression. However, the anaemia did not impact clinical and immunological response to ART among these children. PMID:23114115

  13. Premature decline of serum total testosterone in HIV-infected men in the HAART-era.

    PubMed

    Rochira, Vincenzo; Zirilli, Lucia; Orlando, Gabriella; Santi, Daniele; Brigante, Giulia; Diazzi, Chiara; Carli, Federica; Carani, Cesare; Guaraldi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone (T) deficiency remains a poorly understood issue in men with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). We investigated the gonadal status in HIV-infected men in order to characterize T deficiency and to identify predictive factors for low serum T. We performed a cross-sectional, observational study on 1325 consecutive HIV male outpatients, most of them having lipodystrophy. Serum total T<300 ng/dL was used as the threshold for biochemical T deficiency. Morning serum total T, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, HIV parameters, and body composition parameters by CT-scan and Dual-Energy-X-ray-Absorptiometry were measured in each case. Sexual behavior was evaluated in a subset of 247 patients. T deficiency was found in 212 subjects, especially in the age range 40-59, but was frequent even in younger patients. T deficiency occurred mainly in association with low/normal serum LH. Adiposity was higher in subjects with T deficiency (p<0.0001) and both visceral adipose tissue and body mass index were the main negative predictors of serum total T. Osteoporosis and erectile dysfunction were present in a similar percentage in men with or without T deficiency. Premature decline of serum T is common (16%) among young/middle-aged HIV-infected men and is associated with inappropriately low/normal LH and increased visceral fat. T deficiency occurs at a young age and may be considered an element of the process of premature or accelerated aging known to be associated with HIV infection. The role of HIV and/or HIV infection treatments, as well as the role of the general health state on the gonadal axis, remains, in fact, to be elucidated. Due to the low specificity of signs and symptoms of hypogonadism in the context of HIV, caution is needed in the diagnosis of hypogonadism in HIV-infected men with biochemical low serum T levels.

  14. Combinatorial anti-HIV gene therapy: using a multipronged approach to reach beyond HAART.

    PubMed

    Peterson, C W; Younan, P; Jerome, K R; Kiem, H-P

    2013-07-01

    The 'Berlin Patient', who maintains suppressed levels of HIV viremia in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, continues to be a standard bearer in HIV eradication research. However, the unique circumstances surrounding his functional cure are not applicable to most HIV(+) patients. To achieve a functional or sterilizing cure in a greater number of infected individuals worldwide, combinatorial treatments, targeting multiple stages of the viral life cycle, will be essential. Several anti-HIV gene therapy approaches have been explored recently, including disruption of the C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) coreceptor loci in CD4(+) T cells and CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells. However, less is known about the efficacy of these strategies in patients and more relevant HIV model systems such as non-human primates (NHPs). Combinatorial approaches, including genetic disruption of integrated provirus, functional enhancement of endogenous restriction factors and/or the use of pharmacological adjuvants, could amplify the anti-HIV effects of CCR5/CXCR4 gene disruption. Importantly, delivering gene disruption molecules to genetic sites of interest will likely require optimization on a cell type-by-cell type basis. In this review, we highlight the most promising gene therapy approaches to combat HIV infection, methods to deliver these therapies to hematopoietic cells and emphasize the need to target viral replication pre- and post-entry to mount a suitably robust defense against spreading infection.

  15. Late diagnosis in the HAART era: proposed common definitions and associations with mortality.

    PubMed

    Sabin, Caroline A; Schwenk, Achim; Johnson, Margaret A; Gazzard, Brian; Fisher, Martin; Walsh, John; Orkin, Chloe; Hill, Teresa; Gilson, Richard; Porter, Kholoud; Easterbrook, Philippa; Delpech, Valerie; Bansi, Loveleen; Leen, Clifford; Gompels, Mark; Anderson, Jane; Phillips, Andrew N

    2010-03-13

    To identify a definition of presentation after clinical or immunological disease progression that will reliably identify an individual at high risk of mortality over the first 3 months after HIV diagnosis and that can be adopted as a basis for comparing over time and regions. An observational cohort study. Individuals seen for the first time at a UK Collaborative HIV Cohort study clinic from 1996 to 2006 were identified. Two immunological (CD4 cell count < 200 cells/microl and CD4 cell count <50 cells/microl) and two clinical (AIDS and severe/moderate AIDS) criteria for presentation with advanced HIV disease were compared, as well as combinations of them. The predictive ability of each diagnosis for identifying individuals who died in the first 3 months after HIV diagnosis was assessed. Fifteen thousand seven hundred and seventy-four patients were included, of whom 1495 (9.5%), 4231 (26.8%), 1523 (9.7%) and 379 (2.4%) had a CD4 cell count below 50 cells/microl, CD4 cell count below 200 cells/microl, AIDS or severe/moderate AIDS at diagnosis; CD4 cell counts were unavailable for 2264 (14.4%) patients. Two hundred and six (1.3%) patients died within the first 3 months. Sensitivities of the individual criteria ranged from 18.0% (severe/moderate AIDS) to 50.5% (CD4 cell count < 200 cells/microl) with specificities ranging from 73.5% (CD4 < 200 cells/microl) to 97.8% (severe/moderate AIDS). Combinations of clinical and immunological criteria increased the sensitivity but decreased the specificity. We propose that presentation with 'advanced HIV disease' is presentation with a CD4 cell count below 200 cells/microl or AIDS, whereas 'late' presentation is defined as presentation when the CD4 cell count is below that when treatment should be initiated (currently CD4 cell count < 350 cells/microl or AIDS).

  16. Lipid Metabolism and Cardiovascular Risk in HIV-1 Infection and HAART: Present and Future Problems

    PubMed Central

    Melzi, Sara; Carenzi, Laura; Cossu, Maria Vittoria; Passerini, Simone; Capetti, Amedeo; Rizzardini, Giuliano

    2010-01-01

    Many infections favor or are directly implicated with lipid metabolism perturbations and/or increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). HIV itself has been shown to increase lipogenesis in the liver and to alter the lipid profile, while the presence of unsafe habits, addiction, comorbidities, and AIDS-related diseases increases substantially the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the HIV-infected population. Antiretroviral therapy reduces such stimuli but many drugs have intrinsic toxicity profiles impacting on metabolism or potential direct cardiotoxicity. In a moment when the main guidelines of HIV therapy are predating the point when to start treating, we mean to highlight the contribution of HIV-1 to lipid alteration and inflammation, the impact of antiretroviral therapy, the decisions on what drugs to use to reduce the probability of having a cardiovascular event, the increasing use of statins and fibrates in HIV-1 infected subjects, and finally the switch strategies, that balance effectiveness and toxicity to move the decision to change HIV drugs. Early treatment might reduce the negative effect of HIV on overall cardiovascular risk but may also evidence the impact of drugs, and the final balance (reduction or increase in CHD and lipid abnormalities) is not known up to date. PMID:21490912

  17. Gene therapy takes a cue from HAART: combinatorial antiviral therapeutics reach the clinic.

    PubMed

    Shah, Priya S; Schaffer, David V

    2010-06-16

    For the first time, scientists have tested a combination of three RNA-based gene therapies, delivered via a lentiviral vector, to target HIV in patients. This study not only demonstrates the safety and long-term viability of this approach, but also highlights areas in which focused improvements in gene therapy strategies may provide the most impact in increasingly translating promise in the laboratory to efficacy in the clinic.

  18. Changes in HIV-related hospitalizations during the HAART era in an inner-city hospital.

    PubMed

    Pulvirenti, Joseph; Muppidi, Uma; Glowacki, Robert; Cristofano, Michael; Baker, Laurie

    2007-08-01

    We evaluated admissions of HIV-positive persons to an inner-city hospital from 2000 to 2005. There was a decline in the number of substance abusers, homeless persons, injection drug abusers, and African Americans, and there was an increase in patients older than 50 years. There were no significant changes in CD4 counts or in utilization of highly active antiretroviral therapy,m but there were more admissions of persons with HIV RNA levels less than 1000 copies/mL, internal medicine problems, cancers, and skin infections. Changes in the demographics of this patient population may reflect external factors (eg, gentrification of low-income housing areas, opening of a new hospital). Lower viral loads suggest better response in those on a highly active antiretroviral regimen, and changes in diagnoses leading to hospitalization may reflect the aging of the HIV population.

  19. Emergency of Primary NNRTI Resistance Mutations without Antiretroviral Selective Pressure in a HAART-Treated Child

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Elizabeth S.; Afonso, Adriana O.; Nissley, Dwight V.; Lemey, Philippe; Cunha, Silvia M.; Oliveira, Ricardo H.; Soares, Marcelo A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The use of antiretrovirals (ARV) during pregnancy has drastically reduced the rate of the human immunodeficiency virus perinatal transmission (MTCT). As a consequence of widespread ARV use, transmission of drug resistant strains from mothers to their babies is increasing. Ultra-sensitive PCR techniques have permitted the quantification of minority viral populations, but little is known about the transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 minority population in the setting of MTCT. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe the case of a female child born to an HIV-infected mother, which had not taken any ARV during the pregnancy. The child's first genotype demonstrated a minor non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (K101E), and during her treatment with reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors full resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) emerged (G190A). Phenotypic/genotypic analysis of variant quasispecies through yeast TyHRT assay was conducted to characterize minority resistant viral strains circulating in both mother and child. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian MCMC phylogenetic analyses were performed with samples from the pair to assess genetic relatedness among minor viral strains. The analysis showed that the child received a minor NNRTI resistant variant, containing the mutation K101E that was present in less than 1% of the mother's quasispecies. Phylogenetic analyses have suggested common ancestry between the mother's virus strain carrying K101E with the viral sequences from the child. Conclusion This is the first documentation of MTCT of a minority resistant strain of HIV-1. The transmission of minor resistant variants carries the threat of emergence of multi-drug primary mutations without identified specific selective pressures. PMID:19277127

  20. The HAART cell phone adherence trial (WelTel Kenya1): a randomized controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Lester, Richard T; Mills, Edward J; Kariri, Antony; Ritvo, Paul; Chung, Michael; Jack, William; Habyarimana, James; Karanja, Sarah; Barasa, Samson; Nguti, Rosemary; Estambale, Benson; Ngugi, Elizabeth; Ball, T Blake; Thabane, Lehana; Kimani, Joshua; Gelmon, Lawrence; Ackers, Marta; Plummer, Francis A

    2009-09-22

    The objectives are to compare the effectiveness of cell phone-supported SMS messaging to standard care on adherence, quality of life, retention, and mortality in a population receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nairobi, Kenya. A multi-site randomized controlled open-label trial. A central randomization centre provided opaque envelopes to allocate treatments. Patients initiating ART at three comprehensive care clinics in Kenya will be randomized to receive either a structured weekly SMS ('short message system' or text message) slogan (the intervention) or current standard of care support mechanisms alone (the control). Our hypothesis is that using a structured mobile phone protocol to keep in touch with patients will improve adherence to ART and other patient outcomes. Participants are evaluated at baseline, and then at six and twelve months after initiating ART. The care providers keep a weekly study log of all phone based communications with study participants. Primary outcomes are self-reported adherence to ART and suppression of HIV viral load at twelve months scheduled follow-up. Secondary outcomes are improvements in health, quality of life, social and economic factors, and retention on ART. Primary analysis is by 'intention-to-treat'. Sensitivity analysis will be used to assess per-protocol effects. Analysis of covariates will be undertaken to determine factors that contribute or deter from expected and determined outcomes. This study protocol tests whether a novel structured mobile phone intervention can positively contribute to ART management in a resource-limited setting.

  1. Parental HIV disclosure in Burkina Faso: experiences and challenges in the era of HAART.

    PubMed

    Tiendrebeogo, Georges; Hejoaka, Fabienne; Belem, Edwige Mireille; Compaoré, Pascal Louis Germain; Wolmarans, Liezel; Soubeiga, André; Ouangraoua, Nathalie

    2013-07-01

    Increasingly parents living with HIV will have to confront the dilemmas of concealing their lifelong treatment or disclosing to their children exposed to their daily treatment practices. However, limited data are available regarding parental HIV disclosure to children in Burkina Faso. Do parents on antiretroviral therapy disclose their HIV status to their children? What drives them? How do they proceed and how do children respond? We conducted in-depth interviews with 63 parents of children aged seven and above where the parents had been in treatment for more than 3 years in two major cities of Burkina Faso. Interviews addressed parental disclosure and the children's role in their parents' treatment. The rate of parental HIV status disclosure is as high as that of non-disclosure. Factors associated with parental disclosure include female sex, parent's older age, parent's marital history and number of children. After adjustment, it appears that the only factor remaining associated with parental disclosure was the female gender of the parent. In most of the cases, children suspected, and among non-disclosers many believed their children already knew without formal disclosure. Age of the children and history of divorce or widowhood were associated with parental disclosure. Most parents believed children do not have the necessary emotional skills to understand or that they cannot keep a secret. However, parents who disclosed to their children did not experience blame nor was their secret revealed. Rather, children became treatment supporters. Challenges to parental HIV disclosure to children are neither essential nor specific since disclosure to adults is already difficult because of perceived risk of public disclosure and subsequent stigma. However, whether aware or not of their parents' HIV-positive status, children contribute positively to the care of parents living with HIV. Perceptions about children's vulnerability and will to protect them against stigma lead parents to delay disclosure and not to overwhelm them with their experience of living with HIV. Finally, without institutional counselling support, disclosure to children remains a challenge for both parents and children, which suggests a need for rethinking of current counselling practices.

  2. Evaluation of virulence factors of Candida albicans isolated from HIV-positive individuals using HAART.

    PubMed

    de Paula Menezes, Ralciane; de Melo Riceto, Érika Bezerra; Borges, Aércio Sebastião; de Brito Röder, Denise Von Dolingër; dos Santos Pedroso, Reginaldo

    2016-06-01

    The colonization by Candida species is one of the most important factors related to the development of oral candidiasis in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of the study was to evaluate and discuss the phospholipase, proteinase, DNAse and haemolytic activities of Candida albicans isolated from the oral cavity of HIV individuals with high efficiency antiretroviral therapy. Seventy-five isolates of C. albicans obtained from saliva samples of patients with HIV and 41 isolates from HIV-negative individuals were studied. Haemolytic activity was determined in Sabouraud dextrose agar plates containing 3% glucose and 7% sheep red cells. Culture medium containing DNA base-agar, egg yolk, and bovine albumin were used to determine DNase, phospholipase and proteinase activities, respectively. All isolates from the HIV patients group had haemolytic activity, 98% showed phospholipase activity, 92% were positive for proteinase and 32% DNAse activity. Regarding the group of indivídios HIV negative, all 41 isolates presented hemolytic activity, 90.2% showed phospholipase and proteinase activity and 12.2% were positive for DNAse. The phospholipase activity was more intense for the group of HIV positive individuals. DNase production was more frequently observed in the group of HIV-positive individuals. The percentage of isolates having DNAse activity was also significantly different between the groups of patients not using any antiretroviral therapy, those using transcriptase inhibitors and those using transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor in combination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Effect of highly active anti-retroviral therapy on prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV and on infant growth and development].

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Luo, Yan; Ding, Yi-ling; Zheng, Yu-huang; Li, Jing; Huang, Jian; Li, Jie-min

    2011-10-01

    To identify the effect of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) on prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV and on infant growth and development. A total of 16 HIV-infected women or pregnant women selected in this study received HAART before or 18 - 24 weeks after pregnancy. The treatment included taking Zidovudine (AZT) 0.3 g each time, twice a day, Lamivudine (3TC) 0.3 g each time, once a day and Nevirapine (NVP) 0.2 g each time, twice a day or Efavirenz (EFV) 0.6 g each time, once a day, as well as labor intervention and artificial feeding. The growth index for 17 infants from HIV-infected mothers (experimental group) and 16 normal infants (control group) were observed for 18 months. Neonatal hemoglobin (Hb), liver and kidney function, serum iron and calcium were detected at neonatal period and at 12(th) month, respectively. All the pregnant women were in good conditions and had tolerance with HAART. The birth weight, length and Apgar score of the newborns in the experimental group were (3.5 ± 0.9) kg, (54.2 ± 3.8) cm and 7 - 10 scores respectively, however those in the control group were (3.6 ± 0.8) kg, (55.6 ± 3.6) cm and 8 - 10 scores (t(weight) = 1.01, t(length) = 6.98, P > 0.05). Weight and length of infants in experimental group were (9.36 ± 1.8) kg and (76.3 ± 2.7) cm at 12(th) month, while those in control group were (9.86 ± 2.5) kg and (76.8 ± 2.9) cm (t(weight) = 0.83, t(length) = 1.00, P > 0.05). The level of Hb in experimental group was (126.2 ± 16.7) g/L, and was (148.6 ± 20.5) g/L in control group (t = -5.89, P = 0.11). At 12(th) month, the levels of Hb and the total bilirubin (TB) were (125.9 ± 19.8) g/L and (11.7 ± 3.5) µmol/L in experimental group; and those in the control group were (130.1 ± 18.7) g/L and (13.2 ± 3.7) µmol/L (t(Hb) = -3.82, t(TB) = -2.14, P > 0.05). Serum iron and calcium were (25.4 ± 5.7) µmol/L and (26.4 ± 7.2) µmol/L at neonatal period and were (2.3 ± 0.6) mol/L and (2.8 ± 0

  4. Candida species from oral cavity of HIV-infected children exhibit reduced virulence factors in the HAART era.

    PubMed

    Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Lima de Amorim, Elaine; Santos, Adrielle Mangabeira; Alexandre da Rocha Curvelo, José; de Oliveira Martins, Karol; Capillé, Cauli Lima; Maria de Araújo Soares, Rosangela; Barbosa de Araújo Castro, Gloria Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess, in vitro, the biofilm viability and the phospholipase and protease production of Candida spp. from the saliva of HIV infected children and healthy controls, and to correlate the results with the use of medical data. A total of 79 isolates were analyzed: 48 Candida albicans isolates (33/15) and 20 Candida parapsilosis sensu lato complex isolates (12/8) (from HIV/control patients, respectively), and 8 Candida krusei, 1 Candida tropicalis, 1 Candida dubliniensis and 1 Candida guilliermondii from HIV patients. The XTT (2, 3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide) reduction assay analyzed the biofilm viability. Phospholipase and protease assays were performed using the egg yolk and Bovine Serum Albumin agar plate methods, respectively. All isolates were able to form biofilm with cell viability. Quantitatively, Candida isolates from both groups presented a similar ability to form biofilm (p > 0.05). The biofilm viability activity was higher in C. albicans isolates than in non-albicans Candida isolates (p < 0.05) for both groups. Phospholipase activity was detected in 32 isolates (40.5%) and it was significantly higher in the HIV group (p = 0.006). Protease activity was detected in 66 isolates (84.8%) and most of them were relatively/very strong producers. No statistical association with medical data was found in the HIV group. Although Candida spp. isolates from HIV-positive children presented higher phospholipase production, in vitro they exhibited reduced virulence factors compared to isolates from healthy individuals. This finding may enlighten the role played by immunosuppression in the modulation of Candida virulence attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictive values of prurigo nodularis and herpes zoster for HIV infection and immunosuppression requiring HAART in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Magand, Florence; Nacher, Mathieu; Cazorla, Céline; Cambazard, Frederic; Marie, Dominique Sainte; Couppié, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Prurigo nodularis and herpes zoster frequently lead to the diagnosis of HIV in tropical areas. The WHO has established a clinical definition of AIDS for undeveloped countries. Prurigo and herpes zoster are both classified as stage 2. The main objective of this study was to compare the level of immunosuppression of patients diagnosed as HIV-positive after consulting for prurigo nodularis or herpes zoster in French Guiana. A retrospective study was conducted including patients consulting at the Department of Dermatology, Cayenne Hospital (French Guiana) for prurigo nodularis or herpes zoster between 1989 and 2007 for which the systematic HIV test was positive. Demographic data and CD4 counts of both groups were compared. Analysis of 346 patients consulting for herpes zoster (n=192) or prurigo nodularis (n=154) led to the discovery of 129 HIV infections. The positive predictive value (PPV) for HIV positivity was 38.5% for herpes zoster and 36% for prurigo nodularis. The median lymphocyte count was 302/mm(3) in herpes zoster and 87/mm(3) in prurigo nodularis (P<0.001). The PPV for having a CD4 lymphocyte count<200/mm(3) was 26.5% for herpes zoster and 72% for prurigo nodularis. Prurigo nodularis was predictive of advanced immunosuppression. This questions the pertinence of the WHO clinical classification of AIDS. In the absence of CD4 count, the present results suggest that for patients with prurigo nodularis, antiretrovirals should be initiated without delay.

  6. Women and vulnerability to HAART non-adherence: a literature review of treatment adherence by gender from 2000 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Puskas, Cathy M; Forrest, Jamie I; Parashar, Surita; Salters, Kate A; Cescon, Angela M; Kaida, Angela; Miller, Cari L; Bangsberg, David R; Hogg, Robert S

    2011-12-01

    A literature review of original research articles on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in developed countries, covering January 2000 to June 2011, was conducted to determine if gender differences exist in the prevalence of nonadherence to ART. Of the 1,255 articles reviewed, only 189 included data on the proportion of the study population that was adherent and only 57 (30.2%) of these reported proportional adherence values by gender. While comparing articles was challenging because of varied reporting strategies, women generally exhibit poorer adherence than men. Thirty of the 44 articles (68.2%) that reported comparative data on adherence by gender found women to be less adherent than men. Ten articles (17.5%) reported significant differences in proportional adherence by gender, nine of which showed women to be less adherent than men. These findings suggest that in multiple studies from developed countries, female gender often predicts lower adherence. The unique circumstances of HIV-positive women require specialized care to increase adherence to ART.

  7. Comparison of HBV-active HAART regimens in an HIV-HBV multinational cohort: outcomes through 144 weeks

    PubMed Central

    THIO, Chloe L.; SMEATON, Laura; HOLLABAUGH, Kimberly; SAULYNAS, Melissa; HWANG, Hyon; SARAVANAN, Shanmugam; KULKARNI, Smita; HAKIM, James; NYIRENDA, Mulinda; IQBAL, Hussain Syed; LALLOO, Umesh G.; CAMPBELL, Thomas B.; LOCKMAN, Shahin; CURRIER, Judith S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore factors associated with short and long-term HBV DNA suppression in a multinational cohort of HIV-HBV co-infected subjects receiving HBV-active antiretrovirals. Methods 115 HIV-HBV co-infected subjects participating in one of two global ACTG randomized clinical trials of different antiretroviral regimens received either HBV-monotherapy with either lamivudine or emtricitabine (N=56) or HBV-dual therapy with TDF plus lamivudine or emtricitabine (N=59). Associations of pre-treatment characteristics with the primary (HBV DNA <200 IU/ml at 24 weeks) and longitudinal outcomes through 144 weeks were explored using logistic regression. HBV drug-resistance mutations were determined by pol sequencing in those with viral rebound. Results The proportion with HBV DNA<200 IU/ml was 60% (95% CI 50%–69%) at 24 weeks and 79% (95% CI 69%–88%) at 144 weeks. Pre-treatment factors associated with the primary outcome were HBV DNA, CD4 T-cell count, and AST, but only pre-treatment HBV DNA remained associated with long-term suppression (P<0.0001). HBV therapy group was not significantly associated with the primary outcome at 24 weeks; however, longitudinally, a greater proportion in the dual therapy group achieved HBV DNA<200 IU/mL (P=0.007). A higher proportion of hepatitis B e antigen negative subjects (n=57) achieved HBV DNA <200 IU/ml at any point, regardless of therapy group. All 12 subjects with emergence of lamivudine-resistant mutants were in the monotherapy group. Conclusions TDF-based dual HBV-active antiretroviral therapy is preferred to treat HIV-HBV co-infected patients. In resource-limited settings where TDF may not be universally available, lamivudine or emtricitabine HBV-monotherapy is a reasonable option in patients with low HBV replication. PMID:26035319

  8. Cryptococcal Neuroradiological Lesions Correlate with Severity during Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis in HIV-Positive Patients in the HAART Era

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Caroline; Dromer, Françoise; Lévêque, Christophe; Chartier, Loïc; Cordoliani, Yves-Sébastien; Fontanet, Arnaud; Launay, Odile; Lortholary, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis has an overall global mortality rate of 20% in AIDS patients despite antifungals. There is a need for additional means of precise assessment of disease severity. We thus studied the radiological brain images available from 62 HIV-positive patients with cryptococcocal meningoencephalitis to analyse the brain lesions associated with cryptococcosis in relationship with disease severity, and the respective diagnostic contribution of magnetic resonance (MR) versus computed tomography (CT). In this retrospective multicenter analysis, two neuroradiologists blindly reviewed the brain imaging. Prospectively acquired clinical and mycological data were available at baseline and during follow-up. Baseline images were abnormal on 92% of the MR scans contrasting with 53% of the CT scans. MR/CT cryptococcosis-related lesions included mass(es) (21%/9%), dilated perivascular spaces (46%/5%) and pseudocysts (8%/4%). The presence compared to absence of cryptococcosis-related lesions was significantly associated with high serum (78% vs. 42%, p = 0.008) and CSF (81% vs. 50%, p = 0.024) antigen titers, independently of neurological abnormalities. MR detected significantly more cryptococcosis-related lesions than CT for 17 patients who had had both investigations (76% vs. 24%, p = 0.005). In conclusion, MR appears more effective than CT for the evaluation of AIDS-associated cerebral cryptococcosis. Furthermore, brain imaging is an effective tool to assess the initial disease severity in this setting. Given this, we suggest that investigation for cryptococcosis-related lesions is merited, even in the absence of neurological abnormality, if a high fungal burden is suspected on the basis of high serum and/or CSF antigen titers. PMID:18414656

  9. Prevalence of depressive and other central nervous system symptoms in HIV-infected patients treated with HAART in Spain.

    PubMed

    Bayón, Carmen; Ribera, Esteban; Cabrero, Esther; Griffa, Laura; Burgos, Ángel

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms, sleep disturbances, and subjective cognitive complaints in patients with HIV receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Participants completed the "Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale" (CES-D) and a questionnaire on sleep disturbances and subjective cognitive complaints. Mean age of the 799 participants was 43.7 years and 67% were men. Adjusted prevalence of CES-D was 35.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 32.0-38.7), with no significant differences between gender and age groups. Sleep disturbances were more prevalent in older versus younger participants (74.0% [95% CI: 70.4-77.7] versus 63.3% [95% CI: 56.8-69.8]). Cognitive complaints were more prevalent in women (52.3% [95% CI: 46.4-58.2]) when compared with men (48.2% [95% CI: 44.7-51.6]). Hepatitis C virus coinfection was a strong predictor of depressive symptoms. Male gender and detectable viral load were independent risk factors for sleep disturbance. A higher CES-D score was an independent risk factor for sleep disturbance and cognitive complaints.

  10. Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Management in HIV-1-Infected Subjects Treated with HAART in the Spanish VACH Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, Pere; Suarez-Lozano, Ignacio; Teira, Ramón; Lozano, Fernando; Terrón, Alberto; Viciana, Pompeyo; González, Juan; Galindo, Mª José; Geijo, Paloma; Vergara, Antonio; Cosín, Jaime; Ribera, Esteban; Roca, Bernardino; Garcia-Alcalde, Mª Luisa; Sánchez, Trinitario; Torres, Ferran; Lacalle, Juan Ramón; Garrido, Myriam

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that metabolic adverse effects associated with antiretroviral therapy may translate into an increased cardiovascular risk in HIV-1-infected patients. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among HIV-1-infected persons, and to investigate any association between them, stage of HIV-1 disease, and use of antiretroviral therapies. Methods: Multicentric, cross-sectional analysis of CVD risk factors of treated patients in the VACH cohort. The data collected includes: demographic variables, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, body mass index, stage of HIV-1 infection, and antiretroviral therapy. Results: The analysis included 2358 patients. More than 18% of the study population was at an age of appreciable risk of CVD. 1.7% had previous CVD and 59.2% were smokers. Increased prevalence of elevated total cholesterol was observed among subjects receiving an NNRTI but no PI [odds ratio (OR), 3.34; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.77–6.31], PI but no NNRTI (OR, 4.04; 95% CI, 2.12–7.71), or NNRTI + PI (OR, 17.77; 95% CI, 7.24–43.59) compared to patients treated only with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). Higher CD4 cell count, lower plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, clinical signs of lipodystrophy, longer exposure times to NNRTI and PI, and older age were all also associated with elevated cholesterol levels. The use of lipid lowering agents was very low among our patients. Conclusion: Patients in the VACH cohort present multiple known risk factors for CVD, and a very low rate of lipid lowering therapy use. NNRTI and/or PI-based antiretroviral therapies are associated with the worst lipid profile. This is more frequent in older subjects with greater CD4 counts and controlled HIV-1 replication. PMID:18923695

  11. Complementary and alternative therapy (CAT) use and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): current evidence in the literature, 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Hoogbruin, Amandah

    2011-04-01

    To determine current evidence about the use of complementary and alternative medicine in the context of highly active antiretroviral therapy. The following objectives included identifying the risks and benefits of using complementary and alternative medicine when living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and taking such medications. In Canada and the USA, HIV/AIDS service organisations recognise that people affected or infected by HIV are increasingly choosing to use complementary and alternative medicine to cope with this disease. These same organisations advocate for increased access to complementary and alternative medicine and more information about the safe use of complementary and alternative medicine to make informed decisions. Based on the increased integral use of complementary and alternative medicine and conventional medicine in Canada and the USA, the literature review was limited to these two countries. Systematic review. Available full-text abstracts published in English from 2000-2009 were retrieved by electronic searches of selected databases, including the websites of Health Canada and American National Center for Complementary and Alternate Medicine (NCCAM). Forty studies were examined and were categorised by referring to the NCCAM (2007) four types of complementary and alternative medicine. Insufficient evidence exists to support the use of a particular complementary and alternate therapy to enhance the management of HIV disease. Decisions about using complementary and alternative medicine in conjunction with highly active antiretroviral therapy are often poorly informed. Safety risks and potential drug interactions are frequently ignored as people who use highly active antiretroviral therapy prefer to focus on the physical and mental benefits of using selected complementary and alternate therapies to promote their quality of life. As life expectancy increases, from the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, it is important for health professionals like nurses to be knowledgeable about the prevention, assessment and treatment of HIV symptoms and treatment side effects. Given the increased trend of using complementary and alternative medicine by the general population, it is also important to understand the appropriate use of complementary and alternative medicine for symptom management in HIV/AIDS care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in the HIV population in Europe in the HAART era. Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Martin-Iguacel, R; Kurtzhals, J; Jouvion, G; Nielsen, S D; Llibre, J M

    2014-08-01

    In highly endemic areas, up to 20 % of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons will develop progressive disseminated histoplasmosis (PDH). Europe is not endemic to histoplasmosis, and the disease is mainly found in immigrants often co-infected with HIV. We present a case of a patient with HIV and PDH highlighting the possible diagnostic difficulties that may arise in a non-endemic area and review the literature of histoplasmosis in the context of HIV infection with special focus on Europe. When cellular immunity wanes (usually at CD4 T-lymphocyte counts <150 cells/μL) histoplasma infection, acquired earlier, can reactivate and disseminate. PDH is an acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS)-defining disease and a life-threatening infection, with a clinical spectrum ranging from an acute, fatal course with lung infiltrates and respiratory failure, shock, coagulopathy and multi-organ failure, to a more subacute disease with focal organ involvement, pancytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly. Mortality rates remain high for untreated patients, but early diagnosis, proper antifungal treatment and early initiation of antiretroviral therapy have improved the prognosis. European infectious diseases physicians, microbiologists and pathologists must be aware of histoplasmosis, particularly when facing HIV-infected immigrants from endemic areas. This is increasingly important due to migration and travel activities from these areas.

  13. Factors associated with utilization of HAART amongst hard-to-reach HIV-infected individuals in Atlanta, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Rebolledo, Paulina; Kourbatova, Ekaterina; Rothenberg, Richard; del Rio, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The study is aimed at identifying clinical, demographic and behavioral factors, including participation in HIV care, associated with the utilization of antiretroviral therapy (ART), among hard-to-reach HIV-positive individuals in Atlanta, GA. The study included 184 HIV-positive participants of the Infectious Disease Program (IDP) of the Grady Health System between February 1999 to March 2001. Individuals were categorized as regular attendees (those who consistently kept their outpatient appointments, n = 65), irregular (those who inconsistently kept their appointments, n = 60) or non-attendees (those who failed routinely to keep their appointments, n = 59). Univariate and multivariate analyses using log-binomial regression modeling were done. HIV-infected individuals who consistently kept their appointments at the IDP received ART at a frequency (86%) that is twice that of those who missed some appointments (42%) and four times that of those who routinely failed to keep appointments (20%). In multivariate analysis, category of clinic attendance (regular, irregular or non-attendee) was the only risk factor independently associated with utilization of ART: Regular attendees (RR = 3.59, 95% CI 2.12 to 6.08) and irregular attendees (RR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.28 to 4.01) compared to non-attendees. The positive association between routine clinic attendance and use of antiretroviral therapy observed in this study should encourage the development of strategies to retain patients in outpatient HIV care. PMID:21866279

  14. Prevalence of drug resistance mutations in HAART patients infected with HIV-1 CRF06_cpx in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Avi, Radko; Pauskar, Merit; Karki, Tõnis; Kallas, Eveli; Jõgeda, Ene-Ly; Margus, Tõnu; Huik, Kristi; Lutsar, Irja

    2016-03-01

    HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs) and substitutions were assessed after the failure of the first line non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) + 2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) treatment regimens (efavirenz [EFV] + lamivudine[3TC] + zidovudine [ZDV] vs. EFV + 3TC + ddI) among the HIV-1 CRF06_cpx infected subjects in Estonia. HIV-1 genomic RNA was sequenced; DRMs and amino acid substitutions were compared in 44 treatment naïve and 45 first-line NNRTI + 2 NRTI treatment failed patients consisting of EFV + 3TC + ZDV (n = 17) and EFV + 3TC + didanosine[ddI] (n = 21) therapy failed sub-populations. At least one DRM was found in 78% of treatment experienced patients. The most common NRTI mutations were M184V (80%), L74V (31%), L74I (17%), K219E (9%), and M184I (9%), NNRTI mutations were K103N (83%), P225H (14%), L100I (11%), and Y188L (11%), reflecting generally the similar pattern of DRMs to that seen in treatment failed subtype B viruses. Sub-population analysis revealed that EFV + 3TC + ddI failed patients had more DRMs compared to EFV + 3TC + ZDV failed patients, especially the ddI DRM L74IV and several additional NNRTI DRMs. Additionally, CRF06_cpx specific mutation E179V and substitutions R32K, K122E, and V200AE were also detected in treatment experienced population. After the failure of the first-line EFV + 3TC + ddI therapy HIV-1 CRF06_cpx viruses develop additional NRTI and NNRTI mutations compared to EFV + 3TC + ZDV regimen. Therefore the usage of EFV + 3TC + ddI in this subtype decreases the options for next regimens containing abacavir, and NNRTI class agents.

  15. Impaired cellular immune response to tetanus toxoid but not to cytomegalovirus in effectively HAART-treated HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Alsina, Laia; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Fortuny, Clàudia

    2013-05-07

    Despite of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the response to vaccines in HIV-infected children is poor and short-lived, probably due to a defect in cellular immune responses. We compared the cellular immune response (assessed in terms of IFN-γ production) to tetanus toxoid and to cytomegalovirus in a series of 13 HIV-perinatally-infected children and adolescents with optimal immunovirological response to first line antiretroviral therapy, implemented during chronic infection. A stronger cellular response to cytomegalovirus (11 out of 13 patients) was observed, as compared to tetanus toxoid (1 out of 13; p=0.003). These results suggest that the repeated exposition to CMV, as opposed to the past exposition to TT, is able to maintain an effective antigen-specific immune response in stable HIV-infected pediatric patients and strengthen current recommendations on immunization practices in these children.

  16. Sex differences in the clinical, immunological and virological parameters of HIV-infected patients treated with HAART.

    PubMed

    Collazos, Julio; Asensi, Víctor; Cartón, José A

    2007-04-23

    To compare the clinical, virological and immunological parameters of men and women at baseline and during antiretroviral treatment. Analysis over time of data collected prospectively from of 2620 patients in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients followed for 12 months after initiating a nelfinavir-based antiretroviral regimen. Women had higher CD4 cell counts (P < 0.001), lower viral load (P < 0.001) and more favourable clinical profile (P < 0.001) than men at baseline. Following treatment, antiretroviral drug-naive women had higher CD4 cell count (P = 0.01) over time than drug-naive men but similar virological responses (P = 0.6); among drug-experienced individuals, women had also better immunological (P = 0.06) and similar virological (P = 0.3) responses compared with men. Consequently, the viroimmunological profile was significantly more favourable in women at each time point. The rates of clinical progression or death were also lower in women (P = 0.008), although drug toxicity was observed more commonly in women (P = 0.09). The highest viroimmunological responses were observed during the first 3 months of therapy in both sexes, although virological responses were achieved up to the 6th month in drug-naive patients. Sex was significantly associated with clinical (P = 0.01), virological (P = 0.01) and immunological (P = 0.006) responses to antiretroviral treatment in multivariate analyses after adjustment for other variables. The differences between genders were not explained by different adherence to therapy. Women have more favourable clinical and viroimmunological patterns than men both at baseline and during antiretroviral treatment. Sex has a small but significant influence on the clinical and laboratory outcomes of HIV infection.

  17. A pre-HAART follow-up study of the hematologic manifestations in children with perinatal HIV-1 infection: suggestions for reclassification of clinical staging.

    PubMed

    Consolini, Rita; Bencivelli, Walter; Legitimo, Annalisa; Galli, Luisa; Tovo, Pierangelo; Gabiano, Clara; De Martino, Maurizio

    2007-06-01

    Hematologic manifestations in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected children have not been widely described in literature. Knowledge of the spontaneous evolution of this disease is essential for achieving optimum care of patients. We analyzed the main hematologic manifestations developed in the prehighly active antiretroviral therapy period of 1217 children, collected from the Italian Register for HIV infection. In 111 patients, the hematologic sign was the first clinical manifestation. Among anemic and neutropenic patients, the fraction of patients in clinical class C was significantly higher than the corresponding fraction in class B (76%, P<0.001 and 74%, P<0.01), and significantly lower in thrombocytopenic patients (42%, P<0.001). The overall progression from class B to C was overlapping to the control group; when separated, however, anemic patients progressed faster (P<0.0001), whereas thrombocytopenic patients had a slower progression, similar to the nonhematologic patients in class A. Anemic patients had a worse prognosis than the control group (P<0.0001), similar to the nonhematologic patients in class C. Finally, the negative prognostic value of anemia was independent from the immunologic condition. Anemia was associated with greater mortality risks. Thrombocytopenia appeared, paradoxically, to be a positive prognostic factor within class B. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention classification presently defines hematologic patients as a single entity; a finer distinction could improve its relevance for the rational design of prevention and therapy.

  18. Retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence and mortality by HIV status in a Georgia, USA, prisoner cohort during the HAART era

    PubMed Central

    Zlotorzynska, Maria; Spaulding, Anne C; Messina, Lauren C; Coker, Daniella; Ward, Kevin; Easley, Kirk; Baillargeon, Jacques; Mink, Pamela J; Simard, Edgar P

    2016-01-01

    Objective Non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) have emerged as significant contributors to cancer mortality and morbidity among persons living with HIV (PLWH). Because NADCs are also associated with many social and behavioural risk factors that underlie HIV, determining the extent to which each of these factors contributes to NADC risk is difficult. We examined cancer incidence and mortality among persons with a history of incarceration, because distributions of other cancer risk factors are likely similar between prisoners living with HIV and non-infected prisoners. Design Registry-based retrospective cohort study. Participants Cohort of 22 422 persons incarcerated in Georgia, USA, prisons on 30 June 1991, and still alive in 1998. Outcome measures Cancer incidence and mortality were assessed between 1998 and 2009, using cancer and death registry data matched to prison administrative records. Age, race and sex-adjusted standardised mortality and incidence ratios, relative to the general population, were calculated for AIDS-defining cancers, viral-associated NADCs and non-infection-associated NADCs, stratified by HIV status. Results There were no significant differences in cancer mortality relative to the general population in the cohort, regardless of HIV status. In contrast, cancer incidence was elevated among the PLWH. Furthermore, incidence of viral-associated NADCs was significantly higher among PLWH versus those without HIV infection (standardised incidence ratio=6.1, 95% CI 3.0 to 11.7, p<0.001). Conclusions Among PLWH with a history of incarceration, cancer incidence was elevated relative to the general population, likely related to increased prevalence of oncogenic viral co-infections. Cancer prevention and screening programmes within prisons may help to reduce the cancer burden in this high-risk population. PMID:27067888

  19. HAART Adherence Strategies for Methadone Clients Who Are HIV-Positive: A Treatment Manual for Implementing Contingency Management and Medication Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Nancy A.; Sorensen, James L.; Gruber, Valerie A.; Lollo, Nicole; Roth, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Research demonstrates that injection drug users with HIV and/or AIDS have difficulty adhering to complex regimens of HIV medications. Because of the risk of increased viral resistance associated with irregular medication adherence, there is considerable clinical need to assist clients who abuse substances in taking their antiretroviral medications…

  20. HAART Adherence Strategies for Methadone Clients Who Are HIV-Positive: A Treatment Manual for Implementing Contingency Management and Medication Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Nancy A.; Sorensen, James L.; Gruber, Valerie A.; Lollo, Nicole; Roth, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Research demonstrates that injection drug users with HIV and/or AIDS have difficulty adhering to complex regimens of HIV medications. Because of the risk of increased viral resistance associated with irregular medication adherence, there is considerable clinical need to assist clients who abuse substances in taking their antiretroviral medications…

  1. Assessment of Quality of Life in a Cohort of Newly Diagnosed Patients on HAART Regimen, in Resource Restricted Tribal Region of Chhattisgarh, India: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harminder; Kaur, Kamalpreet; Dulhani, Navin; Bansal, Akash; Kumar, Bithika N.; Chouhan, Vinod Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens have resulted in the systemic/clinical healing for human immune deficiency virus-infected patients but the consequence of antiretroviral therapy on the whole quality of life has become a major concern. The current study correlates the relationship of quality of life with successful highly active antiretroviral therapy. Aim: To determine the health-related quality of life in human immune deficiency virus-infected patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy regimen in tribal region of Chhattisgarh. Design: An open label prospective study. Materials and Methods: Health-related quality of life was assessed using a standardized questionnaire, the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36. Physical health summary scores and mental health summary scores were compared of pre-Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (at baseline) and post 12 months of therapy. Results: The increase in CD4 cell counts was extremely significant (P < 0.0001). The Physical Composite Summary (P value = 0.0003) improved significantly, whereas the Mental Composite Summary (with a baseline value of 40.7), post 12 months, was calculated as 42.8 (P value = 0.2371) and was statistically not significant. Conclusion: Efficacy measurement is the key ingredient of highly active anti-retroviral therapy, which must also include assessment of health-related quality of life to maximize the holistic approach towards disease. PMID:24049364

  2. Standard care quality determines treatment outcomes in control groups of HAART-adherence intervention studies: implications for the interpretation and comparison of intervention effects.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Marijn; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Hospers, Harm J; Schaalma, Herman P; Kok, Gerjo

    2009-11-01

    Clinical trials of behavioral interventions seek to enhance evidence-based health care. However, in case the quality of standard care provided to control conditions varies between studies and affects outcomes, intervention effects cannot be directly interpreted or compared. The objective of the present study was to examine whether standard care quality (SCQ) could be reliably assessed, varies between studies of highly active antiretroviral HIV-adherence interventions, and is related to the proportion of patients achieving an undetectable viral load ("success rate"). Databases were searched for relevant articles. Authors of selected studies retrospectively completed a checklist with standard care activities, which were coded to compute SCQ scores. The relationship between SCQ and the success rates was examined using meta-regression. Cronbach's alpha, variability in SCQ, and relation between SCQ and success rate. Reliability of the SCQ instrument was high (Cronbach's alpha = .91). SCQ scores ranged from 3.7 to 27.8 (total range = 0-30) and were highly predictive of success rate (p = .002). Variation in SCQ provided to control groups may substantially influence effect sizes of behavior change interventions. Future trials should therefore assess and report SCQ, and meta-analyses should control for variability in SCQ, thereby producing more accurate estimates of the effectiveness of behavior change interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. The Heart in Haart: Quality of Life of Patients Enrolled in the Public Sector Antiretroviral Treatment Programme in the Free State Province of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booysen, F. Le R.; Van Rensburg, H. C. J.; Bachmann, M.; Louwagie, G.; Fairall, L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the quality of life of patients enrolled in the public sector antiretroviral treatment programme in the Free State province of South Africa. Statistical analysis of cross-sectional data reveals that it is not access to treatment "per se" that enhances the quality of life of those who have come forward for ART.…

  4. A Comparison of HAART Outcomes between the US Military HIV Natural History Study (NHS) and HIV Atlanta Veterans Affairs Cohort Study (HAVACS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    MS, LTC Robert O9Connell, MD, Maj Jason Okulicz, MD, Sheila Peel, PhD, Michael Polis, MD, John Powers, MD, MAJ Roseanne Ressner, MD, COL(ret) Edmund...Tubes. Clinical Infectious Diseases 41: 1671–1674. 13. Bray RM, Pemberton MR, Lane ME, Hourani LL, Mattiko MJ, et al. (2010) Substance Use and Mental

  5. Benefit of therapeutic drug monitoring of protease inhibitors in HIV-infected patients depends on PI used in HAART regimen--ANRS 111 trial

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Xavier; Mentré, France; Rey, Elisabeth; Auleley, Solange; Peytavin, Gilles; Biour, Michel; Métro, Annie; Goujard, Cecile; Taburet, Anne-Marie; Lascoux, Cecile; Panhard, Xaviere; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Salmon-Céron, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Due to high inter-patient variability, and efficacy-concentration and toxicity-concentration relationships, optimization of HIV-protease inhibitor doses based on plasma concentrations could be beneficial. During a 48-week open prospective non-randomized interventional study of 115 protease inhibitor-naïve patients initiating an indinavir/ritonavir or lopinavir/ritonavir or nelfinavir containing therapy, protease inhibitor dose was modified when plasma trough concentrations (Ctrough) at week 2, 8, 16 and 24 were outside predefined optimal concentration ranges. Failure of the strategy was defined as the proportions of patients with HIV-RNA above 200 copies/ml from week 24 to 48 and/or experiencing grade 2, 3 or 4 PI-related adverse events during the study; proportion of patients with last Ctrough measurement outside the concentration range was determined at each visit. Virological failure and/or occurrence of adverse event were observed in 37/94 assessable patients (39% CI95%: 29.4–50.0). In the on-treatment analysis, failure of the strategy was noted in 16% of indinavir/r or lopinavir/r treated patients (8/51; CI95% 7.0–28.6; virological failure: 2; adverse event: 6) but in 44% of nelfinavir-treated patients (11/25; CI95%: 24.4–65.1; virological failure: 10; adverse event: 1); Ctrough concentrations outside the range were less frequent at the last measurement than at W2 (41% versus 66%; p < 0.05) with proportions of 35% for indinavir/r or lopinavir/r treated patients, but 57% for nelfinavir treated patients. The proposed strategy of therapeutic drug monitoring may be beneficial to indinavir/r and lopinavir/r-treated patients, but for nelfinavir failed to move concentrations into the predefined range and to produce the expected virological success. PMID:19709326

  6. The Heart in Haart: Quality of Life of Patients Enrolled in the Public Sector Antiretroviral Treatment Programme in the Free State Province of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booysen, F. Le R.; Van Rensburg, H. C. J.; Bachmann, M.; Louwagie, G.; Fairall, L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the quality of life of patients enrolled in the public sector antiretroviral treatment programme in the Free State province of South Africa. Statistical analysis of cross-sectional data reveals that it is not access to treatment "per se" that enhances the quality of life of those who have come forward for ART.…

  7. HIV Self-Testing, Self-Stigma and Haart Treatment at the University of Limpopo: Health Sciences Students’ Opinion and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Nkuna, Engetani; Nyazema, Norman Z.

    2016-01-01

    HIV self-testing (HIVST) is an empowering process in which an individual performs an HIV rapid diagnostic test and interprets the result in privacy. Policy makers have turned to it to facilitate greater uptake, earlier diagnosis, access to prevention, care and treatment services. The University of Limpopo now has an established HIV counselling and testing (HCT) service. Unfortunately, the uptake of this HCT service by the student body is not encouraging. It was against this background that a study was carried out among health sciences students, to assess the potential of HIVST to increase access to and uptake of HIV testing on campus. Information was gathered through focus group discussions and the social media Whatspp, among 300 health sciences students, to provide a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ response to an enquiry, about HIVST and the pregnancy test. One on one discussion on the same issues was also held with the staff at the student Health Centre which now stocks ARVs. About 51% of the students, the majority being females indicated that they would go for the HIVST. Students’ opinion and perspectives appeared to suggest that there was a potential for the HIVST to increase uptake for HIV testing. PMID:27347273

  8. Efficacy and safety of switching from boosted lopinavir to boosted atazanavir in patients with virological suppression receiving a LPV/r-containing HAART: the ATAZIP study.

    PubMed

    Mallolas, Josep; Podzamczer, Daniel; Milinkovic, Ana; Domingo, Pere; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ribera, Esteve; Gutiérrez, Félix; Knobel, Hernando; Cosin, Jaime; Ferrer, Elena; Arranz, José Alberto; Roca, Victor; Vidal, Francesc; Murillas, Javier; Pich, Judit; Pedrol, Enric; Llibre, Josep M; Dalmau, David; García, Isabel; Aranda, Miquel; Cruceta, Ana; Martínez, Esteban; Blanco, José L; Lazzari, Elisa de; Gatell, José M

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of switching from boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) to boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) in virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients versus continuing LPV/r. Forty-eight weeks analysis of a randomized, open-label, noninferiority trial including patients with virological suppression (< or = 200 copies/mL for > or = 6 months) on LPV/r-containing triple highly active antiretroviral therapy. Patients (n = 248) were randomized 1:1 either to continue LPV/r twice a day (n = 127) or to switch to ATV/r every day (ATV/r; n = 121), with no change in nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone. Those known to have >4 protease inhibitor (PI)-associated mutations and/or who had failed >2 PI-containing regimens were excluded. Baseline characteristics were balanced. 30% harboured > or = 1 PI-associated mutation (10% harboured > or = 1 major mutation). Treatment failure at 48 weeks (primary end point) occurred in 20% (25 of 127) of the LPV/r arm and in 17% (21 of 121) of the ATV/r arm (difference -2.3%; 95% confidence interval: -12.0 to 8.0; P = 0.0018). Virological failure occurred in 7% (9 of 127) of the LPV/r arm and in 5% (6 of 121) of the ATV/r arm (difference -2.1%; 95% confidence interval: -8.7% to 4.2%, P < 0.0001 for noninferiorating). CD4 changes from baseline were similar in each arm (approximately 40 cells/mm). Adverse event rate leading to study drug discontinuation was 5% in both arms. Median fasting triglycerides and total cholesterol decreased significantly in the ATV/r arm (-53 and -19 mg/dL, respectively versus -4 and -4 mg/dL in the LPV/r arm; P < 0.001 in both comparisons). Alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase hepatic abnormalities were similar in the 2 arms. Switching to ATV/r in virologically suppressed patients who were receiving a LPV/r-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy provided comparable (noninferior) efficacy and a safety profile with improved lipid parameters [ISRCTN24813210].

  9. Magnitude and correlates of moderate to severe anemia among adult HIV patients receiving first line HAART in Northwestern Tanzania: a cross sectional clinic based study

    PubMed Central

    Gunda, Daniel Wilfred; Kilonzo, Semvua Bukheti; Mpondo, Bonaventura Cornel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Moderate to severe anemia is an important clinical problem in HIV patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. The rate of progression and mortality in this sub group of patients is high compared to non anemic patients. In sub Saharan Africa with scale up of Anti retroviral therapy, the magnitude of this problem is not known especially in Tanzania. This study aimed at determining the magnitude and correlates of moderate to severe anemia in HIV patients receiving first line ART in northwestern Tanzania. Methods This was a cross sectional clinic based study, involving adult HIV patients on first line Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy at Bugando Medical Centre Care and Treatment Center. The patients’ data were analyzed using STATA version 11 to determine the prevalence of moderate to severe anemia and risk factors that could predict occurrence of anemia. Results In this study 346 patients on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy were enrolled, of whom 100(40.46%) had moderate to severe anemia. The odds of being anemic were strongly predicted by Zidovudine based regime, low baseline CD4 count (< 200 cells/μl) and HIV stage 3&4 at enrollment. Most of the anemic patients had mean corpuscular volume of >100fl. Conclusion The prevalence of moderate to severe anemia is significantly high in this cohort of HIV-infected patients on first line Anti Retroviral Therapy and it is strongly predicted by Zidovudine based regime, low baseline CD4 and HIV stage 3 and 4. On clinical grounds this suggests that patients who are initiated on Zidovudine based regimen and those in advanced HIV at enrollment should have regular haemoglobin follow up to identify anemia at its earliest stage to improve the clinical outcome of these patients. PMID:27200131

  10. Plasma micronutrient concentrations are altered by antiretroviral therapy and lipid-based nutrient supplements in lactating HIV-infected Malawian women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methods: Plasma micronutrient concentrations were measured in a subsample (n = 690) of Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study participants who were randomly assigned at delivery to receive HAART, LNS, HAART+LNS, or no HAART/no LNS (control). HAART consisted of protease inhibitor–b...

  11. Medical Care Quality Evaluation Using the Fleet Marine Force Medical Information System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-08

    ALIEGIESZ penicillin G-6-PD deficient MEDICjALmisTORY: Appendectomy, age 14. infectious hepatitis, age 19. malaria, age 21; positive ppd, age 25: angina ... pectoris . age 32; hypertension, age 32. peptic ulcer, age 32 PRESENT MEDICATIONS! Hydrochlorothiazide, 50 mg. once a day, propran- olol. 60 mg, once a day

  12. Liver ultrastructural morphology and mitochondrial DNA levels in HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfection: no evidence of mitochondrial damage with highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Matsukura, Motoi; Chu, Fanny F S; Au, May; Lu, Helen; Chen, Jennifer; Rietkerk, Sonja; Barrios, Rolando; Farley, John D; Montaner, Julio S; Montessori, Valentina C; Walker, David C; Côté, Hélène C F

    2008-06-19

    Liver mitochondrial toxicity is a concern, particularly in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection. Liver biopsies from HIV/HCV co-infected patients, 14 ON-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and nine OFF-HAART, were assessed by electron microscopy quantitative morphometric analyses. Hepatocytes tended to be larger ON-HAART than OFF-HAART (P = 0.05), but mitochondrial volume, cristae density, lipid volume, mitochondrial DNA and RNA levels were similar. We found no evidence of increased mitochondrial toxicity in individuals currently on HAART, suggesting that concomitant HAART should not delay HCV therapy.

  13. Early and late effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a 2 year follow-up of antiviral-treated and antiviral-naive chronically HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Clerici, Mario; Seminari, Elena; Maggiolo, Franco; Pan, Angelo; Migliorino, Marco; Trabattoni, Daria; Castelli, Francesco; Suter, Fredy; Fusi, Maria Luisa; Minoli, Lorenzo; Carosi, Giampiero; Maserati, Renato

    2002-09-06

    Control of HIV replication can be observed in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated and, occasionally, in HAART-naive patients. The immunological correlates of these situations were examined in a longitudinal study. A prospective study. Immunovirological analyses in 16 chronically HIV-infected, HAART-naive patients (time 0) who started HAART. Fifteen patients (short-term HAART) were re-evaluated after 24 months (time 1). Results were compared with those of 30 patients who received HAART for more than 12 months before the study period (long-term HAART) and were analysed at the same timepoints. Fifteen patients who were antiviral therapy naive (naive) at both timepoints were also studied. Over a 24-month period CD4 and CD8 cell counts and viraemia remained unchanged in naive and long-term HAART patients; CD4 cell counts increased and viraemia diminished in short-term HAART individuals. Antigen-stimulated proliferation was unmodified in naive and short-term HAART patients, but improved in long-term HAART individuals. Gp160-stimulated IL-2 and IFN-gamma production was augmented in long-term HAART patients and marginally modified in other patients. IL-7 production was unmodified in naive individuals, augmented in short-term HAART patients, and diminished in long-term HAART patients. Chemokine production was similar in all patients. Naive patients showed the highest CD8 cell counts at both timepoints. HAART has a major impact on the outcome of HIV infection, even if functional immune modulation in HAART-treated patients is evident only after long periods of therapy. Low but detectable HIV replication in HAART-naive patients with preserved immune functions might not be associated with CD4 cell reduction, functional immune defects, or changes in viraemia. Copyright 2002 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  14. Increased resting energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and food intake in patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Sutinen, Jussi; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2007-03-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with metabolic adverse events such as lipodystrophy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of HAART-associated lipodystrophy on resting energy expenditure and caloric intake. In this cross-sectional study we compared resting energy expenditure (REE) and energy intake in 30 HAART-treated patients with lipodystrophy (HAART+LD+) with 13 HAART-treated patients without lipodystrophy (HAART+LD-). REE was measured using indirect calorimetry, and energy intake was recorded as a 3-day diary of food intake. REE (5,180+/-160 vs. 4,260+/-150 J/min, P<0.01) and also REE expressed per fat-free mass (86+/-1 vs. 78+/-2 J.kg fat-free mass-1.min-1, P<0.01) were significantly higher in the HAART+LD+ than the HAART+LD- group. Rate of lipid oxidation was significantly higher in the HAART+LD+ than the HAART+LD- group. Total energy and fat intakes were significantly increased in the HAART+LD+ compared with the HAART+LD- group. These results imply that HAART-associated lipodystrophy is associated with increased REE and lipid oxidation and with increased caloric and fat intake.

  15. High plasma efavirenz level and CYP2B6*6 are associated with efavirenz-based HAART-induced liver injury in the treatment of naïve HIV patients from Ethiopia: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yimer, G; Amogne, W; Habtewold, A; Makonnen, E; Ueda, N; Suda, A; Worku, A; Haefeli, W E; Burhenne, J; Aderaye, G; Lindquist, L; Aklillu, E

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the incidence, timing and identify pharmacogenetic, efavirenz (EFV) pharmacokinetic and biochemical predictors of EFV-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) drug-induced liver injury (DILI). ART-naïve HIV patients (n = 285) were prospectively enrolled. Pretreatment laboratory evaluations included hepatitis B surface antigen and C antibody, CD4 count and viral load. Liver tests were done at baseline, 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, 24th and 48th weeks during ART. Plasma EFV and 8-hydroxyefvairenz concentration was determined at week 4 using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. CYP2B6, CYP3A5, ABCB1 3435C/T and UGT2B7*2 genotyping was done using Taqman genotyping assay. Data were analyzed using survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards model. The incidence of DILI was 15.7% or 27.9 per 100 person-years and that of severe injury was 3.4% or 6.13 per 100 person-years. The median time for the development of DILI and severe injury was 2 and 4 weeks after initiation of ART, respectively. There was significant association of DILI with lower baseline platelet, albumin, log plasma viral load and CD4 count (P = 0.031, 0.037, 0.06 and 0.019, respectively). Elevated baseline alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, plasma EFV level and CYP2B6*6 were good predictors for the development of DILI (P = 0.03, 0.01, 0.016, 0.017 and 0.04, respectively). We report for the first time CYP2B6*6 as a putative genetic marker and high plasma EFV concentration as intermediate biomarker for vulnerability to EFV-induced liver injury in HIV patients. CYP2B6 genotyping and/or regular monitoring of EFV and lever enzymes level during early therapy is advised for early diagnosis and management of DILI.

  16. Brief Report: A High Rate of β7+ Gut-Homing Lymphocytes in HIV-Infected Immunological Nonresponders is Associated With Poor CD4 T-Cell Recovery During Suppressive HAART

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Alexandre; Vergnon-Miszczycha, Delphine; Depincé-Berger, Anne-Emmanuelle; Roblin, Xavier; Lutch, Frederic; Lambert, Claude; Rochereau, Nicolas; Bourlet, Thomas; Genin, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Correlation between GALT homing markers on lymphocytes and the low blood CD4 T-cell reconstitution in immunological nonresponders (INRs) has been studied. Design: Thirty-one INRs, 19 immunological responders (IRs), and 12 noninfected controls were enrolled in this study. INRs were defined by an undetectable plasma viral load RNA less than 40 copies per milliliter and CD4+ T-cell count <500 cells per cubic milliliter in at least 3 years. Methods: A complete peripheral and mucosal lymphocyte immunophenotyping was performed on these patients with a focus on the CCR9, CCR6, and α4β7 gut-homing markers. Results: A highly significant upregulation of α4β7 on INRs peripheral lymphocytes compared with that of IRs has been observed. This upregulation impacts different lymphocyte subsets namely CD4+, CD8+, and B lymphocytes. The frequency of β7+ Th17 and Treg cells are increased compared with IRs and healthy controls. The frequency of β7+ CD8+ T cells in the blood is negatively correlated with integrated proviral DNA in rectal lymphoid cells in contrast to β7+ CD4+ T cells associated with HIV integration. Conclusions: Alteration of lymphocyte homing abilities would have deleterious effects on GALT reconstitution and could participate to HIV reservoir constitution. These results emphasize the great interest to consider α4β7-targeted therapy in INR patients to block homing of lymphocytes and/or to directly impair gp120-α4β7 interactions. PMID:27306505

  17. Prevalence of Anemia and Immunological Markers in HIV-Infected Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Northeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Denue, Ballah Akawu; Kida, Ibrahim Musa; Hammagabdo, Ahmed; Dayar, Ayuba; Sahabi, Mohammed Abubakar

    2013-01-01

    Background There are conflicting reports on the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in resolving hematological complications. Whereas some studies have reported improvements in hemoglobin and other hematological parameters resulting in reduction in morbidity and mortality of HIV patients, others have reported no improvement in hematocrit values of HAART-treated HIV patients compared with HAART-naïve patients. Objective This current study was designed to assess the impact of HAART in resolving immunological and hematological complications in HIV patients by comparatively analyzing the results (immunological and hematological) of HAART-naive patients and those on HAART in our environment. Methods A total of 500 patients participated, consisting of 315 HAART-naive (119 males and 196 females) patients and 185 HAART-experienced (67 males and 118 females) patients. Hemoglobin (Hb), CD4+ T-cell count, total white blood count (WBC), lymphocyte percentage, plateletes, and plasma HIV RNA were determined. Results HAART-experienced patients were older than their HAART-naive counterparts. In HAART-naive patients, the incidence of anemia (packed cell volume [PCV] <30%) was 57.5%, leukopenia (WBC < 2.5), 6.1%, and thrombocytopenia < 150, 9.6%; it was, significantly higher compared with their counterparts on HAART (24.3%, 1.7%, and 1.2%, respectively). The use of HAART was not associated with severe anemia. Of HAART-naive patients, 57.5% had a CD4 count < 200 cells/μL in comparison with 20.4% of HAART-experienced patients (P < 0.001). The mean viral load log10 was significantly higher in HAART-naive than in HAART-experienced patients (P < 0.001). Total lymphocyte count < 1.0 was a significant predictor of HAART-naïve patients, but this relationship was not observed in HAART-experienced patients. Conclusion HAART has the capability of reducing the incidence of anemia, other deranged hematological and immunological parameters

  18. Teens and Acne Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... those zits under control. Types of treatments Benzoyl peroxide Benzoyl peroxide wash, lotion, or gel—the most effective acne ... wash or lotion first. How to use benzoyl peroxide Start slowly—only once a day with a ...

  19. Bromfenac Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... redness (inflammation) and pain that can occur after cataract surgery. Bromfenac ophthalmic is in a class of ... eye(s) once a day beginning one day before cataract surgery, on the day of the surgery, and ...

  20. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  1. Blocking DNA Repair in Advanced BRCA-Mutated Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, patients with relapsed or refractory advanced cancer and confirmed BRCA mutations who have not previously been treated with a PARP inhibitor will be given BMN 673 by mouth once a day in 28-day cycles.

  2. Dacarbazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... used in combination with other medications to treat Hodgkin's lymphoma (Hodgkin's disease; a type of cancer that begins ... 3 weeks. When dacarbazine is used to treat Hodgkin's lymphoma is may be injected once a day for ...

  3. Plerixafor Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... used along with a granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) medication such as filgrastim (Neupogen) or pegfilgrastim ( ... injection will begin after you have received a G-CSF medication once a day for 4 days, ...

  4. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs where eggs are formed) and small cell lung cancer (a type of cancer that begins in the ... topotecan injection is used to treat ovarian or lung cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  5. Pyrantel

    MedlinePlus

    ... an antiworm medication, is used to treat roundworm, hookworm, pinworm, and other worm infections.This medication is ... repeated after 2 weeks for pinworm infections. For hookworm infections, pyrantel usually is taken once a day ...

  6. Maternal Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Child HIV-Free Survival in Malawi, 2004-2009.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Sheree R; Kumwenda, Newton; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Chen, Shu; Mofenson, Lynne M; Taylor, Allan W; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Taha, Taha E

    2016-03-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) provision to eligible HIV-infected pregnant and post-partum women is critical for optimizing maternal health. We assessed the impact of maternal HAART on HIV-free survival of breastfed infants in Malawi. The post-exposure prophylaxis of infants-Malawi trial (2004-2009) enrolled mothers/infants during labor or immediately post-partum to evaluate 14-week extended infant antiretroviral prophylaxis for preventing HIV transmission through breastfeeding. Mothers meeting national HAART guidelines were referred for therapy. Child HIV-free survival-survival without HIV infection-was compared by maternal HAART status. Overall, 3022 mother-infant pairs contributed 4214 infant/person-years (PY) at-risk for HIV infection or death, with 532 events (incidence 12.6/100 PY, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 11.6-13.7). During follow-up, 349 mothers were HAART initiated; 581 remained HAART naïve with CD4 cell counts <250 cells/mm(3), and 2092 were never HAART-eligible. By 3 months, 11 % of infants with HAART naïve mothers (CD4 < 250) were infected with HIV or died versus 7 % of infants of HAART-initiated mothers and 4 % of infants of HAART-ineligible mothers. Maternal HAART was associated with a 46 % reduction in infant HIV infection or death as compared to infants with HAART naïve mothers (CD4 < 250) (adjusted hazards ratio 0.54, 95 % CI 0.36-0.81). Among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants, breastfeeding, but not HAART, was significantly associated with decreased child mortality. HIV infection and mortality are high during the first 3 months post-partum in infants of mothers with advanced HIV, and rapid maternal HAART initiation can significantly improve HIV-related infant outcomes. Clinical Trials Registration This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov/ under trial number NCT00115648.

  7. Plasma Micronutrient Concentrations Are Altered by Antiretroviral Therapy and Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements in Lactating HIV-Infected Malawian Women.

    PubMed

    Flax, Valerie L; Adair, Linda S; Allen, Lindsay H; Shahab-Ferdows, Setarah; Hampel, Daniela; Chasela, Charles S; Tegha, Gerald; Daza, Eric J; Corbett, Amanda; Davis, Nicole L; Kamwendo, Deborah; Kourtis, Athena P; van der Horst, Charles M; Jamieson, Denise J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the influence of antiretroviral therapy with or without micronutrient supplementation on the micronutrient concentrations of HIV-infected lactating women in resource-constrained settings. We examined associations of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) with concentrations of selected micronutrients in HIV-infected Malawian women at 24 wk postpartum. Plasma micronutrient concentrations were measured in a subsample (n = 690) of Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study participants who were randomly assigned at delivery to receive HAART, LNS, HAART+LNS, or no HAART/no LNS (control). HAART consisted of protease inhibitor-based triple therapy. LNS (140 g/d) met energy and micronutrient requirements of lactation. Multivariable linear regression tested the association of HAART and LNS, plus their interaction, with micronutrient concentrations, controlling for season, baseline viral load, and baseline CD4 count. We found significant HAART by LNS interactions for folate (P = 0.051), vitamin B-12 (P < 0.001), and transferrin receptors (TfRs) (P = 0.085). HAART was associated with lower folate (with LNS: -27%, P < 0.001; without LNS: -12%, P = 0.040) and higher TfR concentrations (with LNS: +14%, P = 0.004; without LNS: +28%, P < 0.001), indicating iron deficiency. LNS increased folate (with HAART: +17%, P = 0.037; without HAART: +39%, P < 0.001) and decreased TfR concentrations (with HAART only: -12%, P = 0.023). HAART was associated with lower vitamin B-12 concentrations only when LNS was present (-18%, P = 0.001), whereas LNS increased vitamin B-12 only when no HAART was present (+27%, P < 0.001). HAART, but not LNS, was associated with higher retinol-binding protein (RBP; +10%, P = 0.007). We detected no association of HAART or LNS with selenium, ferritin, or hemoglobin. The association of HAART with lower folate, iron deficiency, and higher RBP plus the attenuation of LNS effects on

  8. Plasma Micronutrient Concentrations Are Altered by Antiretroviral Therapy and Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements in Lactating HIV-Infected Malawian Women123

    PubMed Central

    Flax, Valerie L; Adair, Linda S; Allen, Lindsay H; Shahab-Ferdows, Setarah; Hampel, Daniela; Chasela, Charles S; Tegha, Gerald; Daza, Eric J; Corbett, Amanda; Davis, Nicole L; Kamwendo, Deborah; Kourtis, Athena P; van der Horst, Charles M; Jamieson, Denise J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of antiretroviral therapy with or without micronutrient supplementation on the micronutrient concentrations of HIV-infected lactating women in resource-constrained settings. Objective: We examined associations of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) with concentrations of selected micronutrients in HIV-infected Malawian women at 24 wk postpartum. Methods: Plasma micronutrient concentrations were measured in a subsample (n = 690) of Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study participants who were randomly assigned at delivery to receive HAART, LNS, HAART+LNS, or no HAART/no LNS (control). HAART consisted of protease inhibitor–based triple therapy. LNS (140 g/d) met energy and micronutrient requirements of lactation. Multivariable linear regression tested the association of HAART and LNS, plus their interaction, with micronutrient concentrations, controlling for season, baseline viral load, and baseline CD4 count. Results: We found significant HAART by LNS interactions for folate (P = 0.051), vitamin B-12 (P < 0.001), and transferrin receptors (TfRs) (P = 0.085). HAART was associated with lower folate (with LNS: −27%, P < 0.001; without LNS: −12%, P = 0.040) and higher TfR concentrations (with LNS: +14%, P = 0.004; without LNS: +28%, P < 0.001), indicating iron deficiency. LNS increased folate (with HAART: +17%, P = 0.037; without HAART: +39%, P < 0.001) and decreased TfR concentrations (with HAART only: −12%, P = 0.023). HAART was associated with lower vitamin B-12 concentrations only when LNS was present (−18%, P = 0.001), whereas LNS increased vitamin B-12 only when no HAART was present (+27%, P < 0.001). HAART, but not LNS, was associated with higher retinol-binding protein (RBP; +10%, P = 0.007). We detected no association of HAART or LNS with selenium, ferritin, or hemoglobin. Conclusion: The association of HAART with lower folate, iron

  9. Antiretroviral drug costs and prescription patterns in British Columbia, Canada: 1996-2011.

    PubMed

    Nosyk, Bohdan; Montaner, Julio S G; Yip, Benita; Lima, Viviane D; Hogg, Robert S

    2014-04-01

    Treatment options and therapeutic guidelines have evolved substantially since highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) became the standard of HIV care in 1996. We conducted the present population-based analysis to characterize the determinants of direct costs of HAART over time in British Columbia, Canada. We considered individuals ever receiving HAART in British Columbia from 1996 to 2011. Linear mixed-effects regression models were constructed to determine the effects of demographic indicators, clinical stage, and treatment characteristics on quarterly costs of HAART (in 2010$CDN) among individuals initiating in different temporal periods. The least-square mean values were estimated by CD4 category and over time for each temporal cohort. Longitudinal data on HAART recipients (N = 9601, 17.6% female, mean age at initiation = 40.5) were analyzed. Multiple regression analyses identified demographics, treatment adherence, and pharmacological class to be independently associated with quarterly HAART costs. Higher CD4 cell counts were associated with modestly lower costs among pre-HAART initiators [least-square means (95% confidence interval), CD4 > 500: 4674 (4632-4716); CD4: 350-499: 4765 (4721-4809) CD4: 200-349: 4826 (4780-4871); CD4 <200: 4809 (4759-4859)]; however these differences were not significant among post-2003 HAART initiators. Population-level mean costs increased through 2006 and stabilized post-2003 HAART initiators incurred quarterly costs up to 23% lower than pre-2000 HAART initiators in 2010. Our results highlight the magnitude of the temporal changes in HAART costs, and disparities between recent and pre-HAART initiators. This methodology can improve the precision of economic modeling efforts by using detailed cost functions for annual, population-level medication costs according to the distribution of clients by clinical stage and era of treatment initiation.

  10. Imported Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome–Related Histoplasmosis in Metropolitan France: A Comparison of Pre–Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy and Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy Eras

    PubMed Central

    Peigne, Vincent; Dromer, Françoise; Elie, Caroline; Lidove, Olivier; Lortholary, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum infection is rare outside disease-endemic areas. Clinical presentation and outcome of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome–related histoplasmosis are unknown in non-endemic areas with wide access to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Retrospective analysis of cases recorded at the French National Reference Center for Mycoses and Antifungals during two decades: pre-HAART (1985–1994) and HAART (1997–2006). Clinical features and outcome of all adults with proven acquired immunodeficiency syndrome–related histoplasmosis were compared between the two periods. One hundred four patients were included (40 during the pre-HAART era and 64 during the HAART era). Diagnosis was established a mean of 62 days after onset of symptoms. One-year overall mortality rates decreased from 53% (pre-HAART era) to 22% (HAART era). Diagnosis during the pre-HAART era and an older age were the only independent factors associated with death. Histoplasmosis is a rare invasive fungal infection outside disease-endemic areas. Its prognosis improved significantly during the HAART era. PMID:22049053

  11. Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on oral manifestations of patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome in South India

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K. V. S. Eswara; Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Kattappagari, Kiran Kumar; Kantheti, Lalith Prakash Chandra; Poosarla, Chandrasekhar; Baddam, Venkat Ramana Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a global health problem, although the development of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly modified the course of HIV disease into a manageable disease with improved quality-of-life mainly in the developed countries. Very few studies are available regarding effect of HAART on oral lesions in developing countries like India. Aims and Objectives: The aim was to document and compare oral lesions in HIV-seropositive patients before and after HAART. Materials and Methods: Oral manifestations were recorded in 320 HIV seropositive patients attending to the Voluntary Counseling and Confidential Testing Centre at the Government General Hospital, Guntur, before and after treating with HAART and the results were statistically analyzed using Student's t-test and Chi-square test. Results: Oral Candidiasis was significantly reduced in patients under HAART after 3 months. Furthermore, there was decreased incidence of periodontal diseases, but increased hyperpigmentation in patients undergoing HAART. Conclusion: The oral manifestations of HIV infection have changed due to the advent of HAART. Many opportunistic infections have resolved as a result of an improved immune system. Though the risk of hyperpigmentation in those with HAART has increased the prevalence of oral candidiasis and periodontal diseases were less in patients who had access to HAART. PMID:26392652

  12. Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on oral manifestations of patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome in South India.

    PubMed

    Rao, K V S Eswara; Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Kattappagari, Kiran Kumar; Kantheti, Lalith Prakash Chandra; Poosarla, Chandrasekhar; Baddam, Venkat Ramana Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a global health problem, although the development of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly modified the course of HIV disease into a manageable disease with improved quality-of-life mainly in the developed countries. Very few studies are available regarding effect of HAART on oral lesions in developing countries like India. The aim was to document and compare oral lesions in HIV-seropositive patients before and after HAART. Oral manifestations were recorded in 320 HIV seropositive patients attending to the Voluntary Counseling and Confidential Testing Centre at the Government General Hospital, Guntur, before and after treating with HAART and the results were statistically analyzed using Student's t-test and Chi-square test. Oral Candidiasis was significantly reduced in patients under HAART after 3 months. Furthermore, there was decreased incidence of periodontal diseases, but increased hyperpigmentation in patients undergoing HAART. The oral manifestations of HIV infection have changed due to the advent of HAART. Many opportunistic infections have resolved as a result of an improved immune system. Though the risk of hyperpigmentation in those with HAART has increased the prevalence of oral candidiasis and periodontal diseases were less in patients who had access to HAART.

  13. Imported acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related histoplasmosis in metropolitan France: a comparison of pre-highly active anti-retroviral therapy and highly active anti-retroviral therapy eras.

    PubMed

    Peigne, Vincent; Dromer, Françoise; Elie, Caroline; Lidove, Olivier; Lortholary, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum infection is rare outside disease-endemic areas. Clinical presentation and outcome of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related histoplasmosis are unknown in non-endemic areas with wide access to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Retrospective analysis of cases recorded at the French National Reference Center for Mycoses and Antifungals during two decades: pre-HAART (1985-1994) and HAART (1997-2006). Clinical features and outcome of all adults with proven acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related histoplasmosis were compared between the two periods. One hundred four patients were included (40 during the pre-HAART era and 64 during the HAART era). Diagnosis was established a mean of 62 days after onset of symptoms. One-year overall mortality rates decreased from 53% (pre-HAART era) to 22% (HAART era). Diagnosis during the pre-HAART era and an older age were the only independent factors associated with death. Histoplasmosis is a rare invasive fungal infection outside disease-endemic areas. Its prognosis improved significantly during the HAART era.

  14. “Risk factors associated with virologic failure in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy at a public hospital in Peru”

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Alave R; Jorge, Paz B; Elsa, Gonzalez L; Miguel, Campos S; Rodriguez, Martin; Willig, James; Juan, Echevarría Z

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe clinical and biological characteristics of subjects with virologic failure who participated in the sexually transmitted diseases HIV/AIDS National Program from a Peruvian public hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS An exploratory descriptive study was performed with data from subjects older than 18 who started high activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between May 2004 and December 2009 and who had a viral load control after 24 weeks of HAART. Virologic failure was defined as a viral load value above 1000 copies/mL on follow up after 24 weeks on HAART. RESULTS Of 1 478 records of patients on HAART analized, the median age was 35 years [IQR, 29-41] and 69.6% were male. Also, virologic failure occurred in 24% and 3.7% died. Of subjects with virologic failure, 9.5% died. On multivariate analysis, age, history of antiretroviral use before starting HAART, change of antiretroviral therapy due to toxicity, opportunistic infections during HAART, level of CD4 + lymphocytes below 100 cells/ml at start of HAART, adherence and clinical stage were independently associated with virologic failure. In the group of patient with no history of antiretroviral use before starting HAART, age, opportunistic infections during HAART were associated with virologic failure. CONCLUSION This study identified factors associated with virologic failure. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether the use of these factors can help to identify prospectively patients at high risk of failure, and to design interventions aimed to reduce this risk. PMID:23450408

  15. Non-structured treatment interruptions (NTIs) among injection drug users in Baltimore, MD

    PubMed Central

    Kavasery, Ravi; Galai, Noya; Astemborski, Jacquie; Lucas, Gregory M; Celentano, David D; Kirk, Gregory D; Mehta, Shruti H.

    2009-01-01

    Background We characterized patterns of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use and predictors of non-structured treatment interruptions (NTIs) among injection drug users (IDUs) in Baltimore, MD. Methods 335 IDUs who initiated HAART from 1996-2006 were studied. NTIs were defined as any subsequent six-month interval where HAART was not reported. Predictors of the first NTI and subsequent restart of HAART were examined using Cox regression. Results 260 (78%) reported ≥1 NTI. Of 215 with ≥1 follow-up visit after the NTI, 44 (20%) never restarted HAART, 62 (29%) restarted and remained on HAART and 109 (51%) reported multiple NTIs. NTIs were less likely among those who initiated HAART in later calendar years and hada recent outpatient visit and more likely among women, persons with detectable HIV RNA at the prior visit and those who reported injecting daily. Among those with NTIs, interuptions occurred earlier in persons who were younger, did not have a prior AIDS diagnosis and were actively injecting; NTIs lasted longer in persons who had higher HIV RNA levels, were incarcerated and drinking alcohol. A recent outpatient visit and not actively injecting were associated with restarting HAART. Conclusions NTIs were common in this population and occurred most frequently in the setting of active drug use and disruption of health care. Effective linkages between primary care for HIV and substance abuse treatment may improve HAART outcomes in this population. PMID:19214124

  16. Nonstructured treatment interruptions among injection drug users in Baltimore, MD.

    PubMed

    Kavasery, Ravi; Galai, Noya; Astemborski, Jacquie; Lucas, Gregory M; Celentano, David D; Kirk, Gregory D; Mehta, Shruti H

    2009-04-01

    We characterized patterns of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use and predictors of nonstructured treatment interruptions (NTIs) among injection drug users (IDUs) in Baltimore, MD. Three hundred thirty-five IDUs who initiated HAART from 1996 to 2006 were studied. NTIs were defined as any subsequent 6-month interval where HAART was not reported. Predictors of the first NTI and subsequent restart of HAART were examined using Cox regression. Two hundred sixty (78%) reported > or =1 NTI. Of 215 with > or =1 follow-up visit after the NTI, 44 (20%) never restarted HAART, 62 (29%) restarted and remained on HAART, and 109 (51%) reported multiple NTIs. NTIs were less likely among those who initiated HAART in later calendar years and had a recent outpatient visit and more likely among women, persons with detectable HIV RNA at the prior visit, and those who reported injecting daily. Among those with NTIs, interuptions occurred earlier in persons who were younger, who did not have a prior AIDS diagnosis, and who were actively injecting; NTIs lasted longer in persons who had higher HIV RNA levels, in persons who were incarcerated, and in persons drinking alcohol. A recent outpatient visit and not actively injecting were associated with restarting HAART. NTIs were common in this population and occurred most frequently in the setting of active drug use and disruption of health care. Effective linkages between primary care for HIV and substance abuse treatment may improve HAART outcomes in this population.

  17. Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus in a patient co-infected with hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kaung, Aung; Sundaram, Vinay; Tran, Tram T

    2014-09-01

    The effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains unclear. Spontaneous HCV clearance with initiation of HAART in non-cirrhotic HCV patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been reported. We describe an HIV/HCV patient with decompensated cirrhosis, who had spontaneous HCV clearance after an episode of elevated liver enzymes and a change in HAART regimen. His HCV RNA level remained undetectable for six months by quantitative and qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. The disappearance of HCV RNA may be due to a combination of host immune recovery, genetic polymorphism and direct effect of HAART against HCV.

  18. Early Postseroconversion CD4 Cell Counts Independently Predict CD4 Cell Count Recovery in HIV-1–Postive Subjects Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Hemant; Okulicz, Jason F.; Grandits, Greg; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.; Landrum, Michael L.; Hale, Braden; Wortmann, Glenn; Tramont, Edmund; Polis, Michael; Dolan, Matthew; Lifson, Alan R.; Agan, Brian K.; Ahuja, Sunil K.; Marconi, Vincent C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between CD4+ T-cell counts determined soon after seroconversion with HIV-1 (baseline CD4), nadir CD4, and CD4 levels attained during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is unknown. Methods Longitudinal, including baseline (at or soon after HIV diagnosis), intermediate (nadir), and distal (post-HAART) CD4+ T-cell counts were assessed in 1085 seroconverting subjects who achieved viral load suppression from a large well-characterized cohort. The association of baseline with post-HAART CD4+ T-cell count was determined after adjustment for other relevant covariates. Results A higher baseline CD4+ T-cell count predicted a greater post- HAART CD4+ T-cell count, independent of the nadir and other explanatory variables. Together, baseline and nadir strongly predicted the post-HAART CD4+ count such that a high baseline and lower nadir were associated with a maximal immune recovery after HAART. Likelihood of recovery of the baseline count after HAART was significantly higher when the nadir/baseline count ratio was consistently ≥0.6. Conclusions Among viral load suppressing seroconverters, the absolute CD4+ T-cell count attained post-HAART is highly dependent on both baseline and nadir CD4+ T-cell counts. These associations further support the early diagnosis and initiation of HAART among HIV-infected persons. PMID:21546844

  19. [Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia characteristics in adults with AIDS with or without antiretroviral therapy].

    PubMed

    Bahamondes M, Laura; Villar Z, M José; Orellana C, Carolina; González R, Jimena; Montenegro U, Cristian

    2006-09-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has changed the epidemiology of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) in AIDS patients. Global incidence of PCP has decreased and now it is prevalent in AIDS patients who do not receive HAART or are unsuccessfully treated with persistent immune depression. Moreover, the immunologic response to HAART has caused a PCP form which is included in the immune restoration inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). As of late 2004, 75.5% of patients cared for at Dr. Lucio Córdova Infectious Diseases Hospital were receiving HAART. This study compares PCP clinical characteristics in patients under the effect of HAART (n: 6) with those without antiretroviral therapy (n: 12). Among those with HAART, 83.3% (5/6) were without immunologic responses and 16.7% with virologic response. The median CD4 counts were low in both groups: 20 cells/mm(3) without HAART and 51 cells/mm(3) with HAART. There were no differences in most of PCP characteristics, and no IRIS cases were observed. HAART-receiving group had less severe disease and lower frequency of both, complications and steroidal therapy prescription (P 0.023).

  20. Adverse reaction of Parasika Yavani (Hyoscyamus niger Linn): Two case study reports

    PubMed Central

    Aparna, K.; Joshi, Abhishek J.; Vyas, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an unpleasant reaction related to the use of medicine at its therapeutic dose. Ayurveda is well aware of such adverse reactions. Parasika Yavani (Hyoscyamus niger Linn.) is an Ayurvedic drug effectively used in many psychological disorders, if not used judiciously it causes adverse reactions. In present study two cases of ADR on the usage of Parasika Yavani are reported. Churna in capsule form given in different dosage forms (500 mg once a day, 250 mg twice a day, 250 mg once a day) in Chittodwega (generalised anxiety disorder). 500mg capsule was given to many patients in the study, but no adverse reactions were noticed except in above given two cases. So, in these two cases, the dose was tapered down to 250 mg twice a day, and then to 250 mg once a day to avert the adverse reactions and to fix the therapeutic dose in such individuals (250 mg once a day). On analysis, these two individuals were found to be of Pitta Prakriti. Parasika Yavani is found to increase Pitta and triggers the establishment of ADRs. So, while administering therapeutic dosage, a physician should be vigilant. In the current study, it is observed that 500 mg of Parasika Yavani powder in Pitta Prakriti individuals triggered ADRs while 250 mg once a day was safe. It was also observed that Kapha and Vata Prakriti, patients did not develop any adverse reactions. PMID:27011719

  1. Medication errors in HIV-infected hospitalized patients: a pharmacist's impact.

    PubMed

    Eginger, Kristin H; Yarborough, Laura L; Inge, Lisa DeVito; Basile, Sharon A; Floresca, Donald; Aaronson, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) decreases morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection. Unfortunately, HAART medication errors are prevalent in hospitalized patients with HIV infection. Appropriate regimen administration and adherence are essential for treatment success. To assess the impact of pharmacist interventions on the rate of medication errors in HIV-infected hospitalized patients who had been prescribed HAART in the outpatient setting. Hospitalized patients aged 18 years or older receiving HAART and/or opportunistic infection (OI) prophylaxis were screened for inclusion. Data collection for each enrolled patient included demographic information, pertinent laboratory results, and inpatient and outpatient medication regimens. Patient medication profiles were reviewed within 72 hours of admission. HAART and/or OI prophylaxis errors were classified by type and frequency. Following the pharmacist intervention, prescribers' responses to each recommendation and the estimated time per intervention were recorded. Eighty-six patients were included in this investigation and 210 HAART and OI prophylaxis errors were documented. Of patients receiving HAART and/or OI prophylaxis, 54.7% had at least 1 medication error on admission. An average of 2.4 errors per patient was identified. Dose omission (45.5%) was the most common error type among combined HAART and OI prophylaxis regimens, followed by incorrect regimen (17.1%) and incorrect dose (15.1%). Prescribers accepted 90% of pharmacist recommendations. A pharmacist was able to amend 94.7% of correctable HAART errors, as well as 89.9% of correctable combined HAART and OI prophylaxis errors. An estimated 18.5 minutes of pharmacist time were spent per patient requiring an intervention. A clinical pharmacist's targeted review of outpatient-prescribed HAART and/or OI primary prophylaxis regimens of hospitalized HIV-infected patients can reduce most medication errors during hospitalization.

  2. Use of third line antiretroviral therapy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Carina; Shepherd, Bryan E; Jenkins, Cathy A; Ghidinelli, Massimo; Castro, Jose Luis; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Cortes, Claudia P; Padgett, Denis; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Fink, Valeria; Duran, Adriana; Sued, Omar; McGowan, Catherine C; Cahn, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is expanding in Latin America. Many patients require second and third line therapy due to toxicity, tolerability, failure, or a combination of factors. The need for third line HAART, essential for program planning, is not known. Antiretroviral-naïve patients ≥18 years who started first HAART after January 1, 2000 in Caribbean, Central and South America Network (CCASAnet) sites in Argentina, Brazil, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru were included. Clinical trials participants were excluded. Third line HAART was defined as use of darunavir, tipranavir, etravirine, enfuvirtide, maraviroc or raltegravir. Need for third line HAART was defined as virologic failure while on second line HAART. Of 5853 HAART initiators followed for a median of 3.5 years, 310 (5.3%) failed a second line regimen and 44 (0.8%) received a third line regimen. Cumulative incidence of failing a 2nd or starting a 3rd line regimen was 2.7% and 6.0% three and five years after HAART initiation, respectively. Predictors at HAART initiation for failing a second or starting a third line included female sex (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.00, p = 0.001), younger age (HR = 2.76 for 20 vs. 40 years, 95% CI 1.86-4.10, p<0.001), and prior AIDS (HR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.62-2.90, p<0.001). Third line regimens may be needed for at least 6% of patients in Latin America within 5 years of starting HAART, a substantial proportion given the large numbers of patients on HAART in the region. Improved accessibility to third line regimens is warranted.

  3. Drug use and receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons in two U.S. clinic cohorts.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Catherine C; Weinstein, David D; Samenow, Charles P; Stinnette, Samuel E; Barkanic, Gema; Rebeiro, Peter F; Sterling, Timothy R; Moore, Richard D; Hulgan, Todd

    2011-04-25

    Drug use and receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were assessed in HIV-infected persons from the Comprehensive Care Center (CCC; Nashville, TN) and Johns Hopkins University HIV Clinic (JHU; Baltimore, MD) between 1999 and 2005. Participants with and without injection drug use (IDU) history in the CCC and JHU cohorts were evaluated. Additional analysis of persons with history of IDU, non-injection drug use (NIDU), and no drug use from CCC were performed. Activity of IDU and NIDU also was assessed for the CCC cohort. HAART use and time on HAART were analyzed according to drug use category and site of care. 1745 persons were included from CCC: 268 (15%) with IDU history and 796 (46%) with NIDU history. 1977 persons were included from JHU: 731 (35%) with IDU history. Overall, the cohorts differed in IDU risk factor rates, age, race, sex, and time in follow-up. In multivariate analyses, IDU was associated with decreased HAART receipt overall (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: [0.45-0.84] and OR = 0.58, 95% CI: [0.46-0.73], respectively for CCC and JHU) and less time on HAART at JHU (0.70, [0.55-0.88]), but not statistically associated with time on HAART at CCC (0.78, [0.56-1.09]). NIDU was independently associated with decreased HAART receipt (0.62, [0.47-0.81]) and less time on HAART (0.66, [0.52-0.85]) at CCC. These associations were not altered significantly whether patients at CCC were categorized according to historical drug use or drug use during the study period. Persons with IDU history from both clinic populations were less likely to receive HAART and tended to have less cumulative time on HAART. Effects of NIDU were similar to IDU at CCC. NIDU without IDU is an important contributor to HAART utilization.

  4. Ultradeep sequencing of B and non-B HIV-1 subtypes: Viral diversity and drug resistance mutations before and after one month of antiretroviral therapy in naive patients.

    PubMed

    Epaulard, Olivier; Signori-Schmuck, Anne; Larrat, Sylvie; Kulkarni, Om; Blum, Michael G; Fusillier, Katia; Blanc, Myriam; Leclercq, Pascale; François, Olivier; Morand, Patrice

    2017-10-01

    Ultradeep pyrosequencing technologies permit an assessment of the genetic diversity and the presence and frequency of minority variants in a viral population. The effect of these parameters on the outcome of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected patients is poorly understood. The present study used the pyrosequencing Roche 454 prototype assay to determine whether antiretroviral efficacy is correlated with viral diversity and minority drug resistance mutations in HIV-infected treatment-naive patients and to compare assay performance in B and non-B subtypes. The study included 30 HIV-1 infected naive patients (20 with subtype non-B and 10 with subtype B). Ultradeep pyrosequencing of protease and reverse transcriptase genes was performed at baseline and 1 month after HAART initiation. Plasma HIV VL was measured at 0 and after 1, 3, and 6 months of HAART. Pre-HAART minority drug resistance mutations were observed to NRTI in 4 patients, to NNRTI in 6 patients, and to PI in 1 patient; there was no difference in HAART-induced VL decay between patients. Pre-HAART diversity was significantly correlated with the time elapsed since HIV-1 infection diagnosis, but not with the subtype, VL, or CD4 count. Patients with an undetectable VL after 3 months of HAART had a higher pre-HAART diversity. Pre- and post-HAART diversities were not statistically different. There was no difference in assay performance between subtype B and non-B. A high pre-HAART viral diversity might have a positive effect on the outcome of HAART. Pre-therapeutic minority drug resistance mutations are uncommon in naive patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Is use of antiretroviral therapy among homosexual men associated with increased risk of transmission of HIV infection?

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, J; Imrie, J; Davis, M; Mercer, C; Black, S; Copas, A; Hart, G; Davidson, O; Williams, I

    2003-01-01

    Background/objective: There is concern that use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may be linked to increased sexual risk behaviour among homosexual men. We investigated sexual risk behaviour in HIV positive homosexual men and the relation between use of HAART and risk of HIV transmission. Methods: A cross sectional study of 420 HIV positive homosexual men attending a London outpatient clinic. Individual data were collected from computer assisted self interview, STI screening, and clinical and laboratory databases. Results: Among all men, sexual behaviour associated with a high risk of HIV transmission was commonly reported. The most frequently reported type of partnership was casual partners only, and 22% reported unprotected anal intercourse with one or more new partners in the past month. Analysis of crude data showed that men on HAART had fewer sexual partners (median 9 versus 20, p=0.28), less unprotected anal intercourse (for example, 36% versus 27% had insertive unprotected anal intercourse with a new partner in the past year, p=0.03) and fewer acute sexually transmitted infections (33% versus 19%, p=0.004 in the past 12 months) than men not on HAART. Self assessed health status was similar between the two groups: 72% on HAART and 75% not on HAART rated their health as very or fairly good, (p=0.55). In multivariate analysis, differences in sexual risk behaviour between men on HAART and men not on HAART were attenuated by adjustment for age, time since HIV infection. CD4 count and self assessed health status. Conclusion: HIV positive homosexual men attending a London outpatient clinic commonly reported sexual behaviour with a high risk of HIV transmission. However, behavioural and clinical risk factors for HIV transmission were consistently lower in men on HAART than men not on HAART. Although use of HAART by homosexual men with generally good health is not associated with higher risk behaviours, effective risk reduction interventions targeting

  6. Use of Third Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Cesar, Carina; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Ghidinelli, Massimo; Castro, Jose Luis; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Cortes, Claudia P.; Padgett, Denis; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Fink, Valeria; Duran, Adriana; Sued, Omar; McGowan, Catherine C.; Cahn, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is expanding in Latin America. Many patients require second and third line therapy due to toxicity, tolerability, failure, or a combination of factors. The need for third line HAART, essential for program planning, is not known. Methods Antiretroviral-naïve patients ≥18 years who started first HAART after January 1, 2000 in Caribbean, Central and South America Network (CCASAnet) sites in Argentina, Brazil, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru were included. Clinical trials participants were excluded. Third line HAART was defined as use of darunavir, tipranavir, etravirine, enfuvirtide, maraviroc or raltegravir. Need for third line HAART was defined as virologic failure while on second line HAART. Results Of 5853 HAART initiators followed for a median of 3.5 years, 310 (5.3%) failed a second line regimen and 44 (0.8%) received a third line regimen. Cumulative incidence of failing a 2nd or starting a 3rd line regimen was 2.7% and 6.0% three and five years after HAART initiation, respectively. Predictors at HAART initiation for failing a second or starting a third line included female sex (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18–2.00, p = 0.001), younger age (HR = 2.76 for 20 vs. 40 years, 95% CI 1.86–4.10, p<0.001), and prior AIDS (HR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.62–2.90, p<0.001). Conclusions Third line regimens may be needed for at least 6% of patients in Latin America within 5 years of starting HAART, a substantial proportion given the large numbers of patients on HAART in the region. Improved accessibility to third line regimens is warranted. PMID:25221931

  7. Oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus in children: An institutional study at highly active antiretroviral therapy centre in India.

    PubMed

    Ponnam, Srinivas Rao; Srivastava, Gautam; Theruru, Kotaih

    2012-05-01

    More than 1000 children are newly infected with Human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV) every day, and of these more than half will die as a result of AIDS due to lack of access to HIV treatment. HIV disease varies considerably in children. Among those infected prenatally, some experience few or no symptoms for years, whereas in others the disease progresses rapidly. The risk factors that influence the development of such oral manifestations include, low CD4+ T cell count, xerostomia and lack of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To identify the oral manifestations of HIV in children receiving HAART. The study comprised 95 children receiving HAART. 95 HIV +ve children not receiving HAART and 95 HIV -ve children were also included for comparing the manifestations of HIV. Statistical analysis was done using Fisher's Chi-square test. Probability value (P value) was obtained for the three groups. The manifestations of HIV that were observed in children receiving HAART include dental caries (26%), periodontal diseases (23%), candidiasis (19%), hyperpigmentation (17%), ulcerative stomatitis (9%) and one case of mucocele. These manifestations were compared with HIV +ve children not receiving HAART and HIV -ve children to find manifestations with statistical significance. We conclude that HAART had increased the disease-free states in HIV +ve children on HAART promising them better life span. The incidence of oral lesions can further come down with adequate oral hygiene measures in HIV-infected children.

  8. Treatment of severe or progressive Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-infected adults

    PubMed Central

    Gbabe, Oluwatoyin F; Okwundu, Charles I; Dedicoat, Martin; Freeman, Esther E

    2014-01-01

    Background Kaposi's sarcoma remains the most common cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa and the second most common cancer in HIV-infected patients worldwide. Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), there has been a decline in its incidence. However, Kaposi's sarcoma continues to be diagnosed in HIV-infected patients. Objectives To assess the added advantage of chemotherapy plusHAART compared toHAART alone; and the advantages of different chemotherapy regimens in HAART and HAART naive HIV infected adults with severe or progressive Kaposi's sarcoma. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and GATEWAY, the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform and the US National Institutes of Health's Clinical Trials.gov for ongoing trials and the Aegis archive of HIV/AIDS for conference abstracts. An updated search was conducted in July 2014. Selection criteria Randomised trials and observational studies evaluating the effects of any chemotherapeutic regimen in combination with HAART compared to HAART alone, chemotherapy versus HAART, and comparisons between different chemotherapy regimens. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed the studies independently and extracted outcome data. We used the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) as the measure of effect. We did not conduct meta-analysis as none of the included trials assessed identical chemotherapy regimens. PMID:25221796

  9. Roles of family dynamics on adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS at a tertiary hospital in Osogbo, south-west Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, B A; Afolabi, M O; Afolabi, A A; Odewale, M A; Olowookere, S A

    2013-12-01

    Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been proven to be the only effective treatment for HIV/AIDS worldwide. Good adherence to HAART might require good family support. To determine the family dynamics and social support of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and its roles on HAART adherence at an ARV treatment clinic in Osogbo, Nigeria. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Consenting PLWHA on HAART were interviewed using pre-tested semistructured questionnaire incorporating Perceived Social Support- Family Scale and Family APGAR. HAART adherence was measured using patient self report. A total of 379 PLWHA were interviewed. Their mean age was 40.8 (SD=9.9) years. Most (60.7%) were females. More than half (55.7%) were currently married and the majority (72.1%) had secondary education and were Yoruba (86.3%). Most respondents (95.5%) were adherent to HAART. Over 90% were satisfied with support received from their family while 82.3% were treated like other family members. Most attributed their HAART adherence to the care and support received from their family. Most PLWHA had good social support and were adherent to HAART.

  10. Biology and management of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gates, Amy E; Kaplan, Lawrence D

    2003-06-01

    The treatment of HIV-related lymphomas is evolving in the era of HAART. Standard-dose chemotherapy and dose-intensive therapies appear to be feasible. Whether outcomes are improved with combination chemotherapy and HAART remains unclear. Efforts aimed at developing pathogenic-based therapies will continue as the mechanisms of HIV lymphomagenesis are elucidated.

  11. Adherence to Medical Regimens: Understanding the Effects of Cognitive Appraisal, Quality of Life, and Perceived Family Resiliency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frain, Michael P.; Bishop, Malachy; Tschopp, Molly K.; Ferrin, Micheal J.; Frain, Judy

    2009-01-01

    Adherence studies have taken center stage due to the life-threatening risks associated with nonadherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens for people with HIV/AIDS. This study examines adherence through self-report of individuals on HAART regimens in a manner to account for demand characteristic bias, while still attempting…

  12. Adherence to Medical Regimens: Understanding the Effects of Cognitive Appraisal, Quality of Life, and Perceived Family Resiliency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frain, Michael P.; Bishop, Malachy; Tschopp, Molly K.; Ferrin, Micheal J.; Frain, Judy

    2009-01-01

    Adherence studies have taken center stage due to the life-threatening risks associated with nonadherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens for people with HIV/AIDS. This study examines adherence through self-report of individuals on HAART regimens in a manner to account for demand characteristic bias, while still attempting…

  13. Detection of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus in Semen, Urethra, and Male Reproductive Organs during Efficient Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Matusali, G.; Dereuddre-Bosquet, N.; Le Tortorec, A.; Moreau, M.; Satie, A.-P.; Mahé, D.; Roumaud, P.; Bourry, O.; Sylla, N.; Bernard-Stoecklin, S.; Pruvost, A.; Le Grand, R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A number of men receiving prolonged suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) still shed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in semen. To investigate whether this seminal shedding may be due to poor drug penetration and/or viral production by long-lived cells within male genital tissues, we analyzed semen and reproductive tissues from macaques chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus mac251 (SIVmac251) who were treated for 4 months with HAART, which was intensified over the last 7 weeks with an integrase inhibitor. We showed that a subset of treated animals continued shedding SIV in semen despite efficient HAART. This shedding was not associated with low antiretroviral drug concentrations in semen or in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate. HAART had no significant impact on SIV RNA in the urethra, whereas it drastically reduced SIV RNA levels in the prostate and vas deferens and to a lesser extent in the epididymis and seminal vesicle. The only detectable SIV RNA-positive cells within the male genital tract after HAART were urethral macrophages. SIV DNA levels in genital tissues were not decreased by HAART, suggesting the presence throughout the male genital tract of nonproductively infected cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that 4 months of HAART induced variable and limited control of viral infection in the male reproductive organs, particularly in the urethra, and suggest that infected long-lived cells in the male genital tract may be involved in persistent seminal shedding during HAART. These results pave the way for further investigations of male genital organ infection in long-term-treated infected individuals. IMPORTANCE A substantial subset of men receiving prolonged HAART suppressing viral loads in the blood still harbor HIV in semen, and cases of sexual transmission have been reported. To understand the origin of this persistence, we analyzed the semen and male reproductive tissues from SIV

  14. Etiology and pharmacologic management of noninfectious diarrhea in HIV-infected individuals in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era.

    PubMed

    MacArthur, Rodger D; DuPont, Herbert L

    2012-09-01

    Diarrhea remains a common problem for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection despite highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) and can negatively affect patient quality of life and lead to discontinuation or switching of HAART regimens. In the era of HAART, diarrhea from opportunistic infections is uncommon, and HIV-associated diarrhea often has noninfectious causes, including HAART-related adverse events and HIV enteropathy. Diarrhea associated with HAART is typically caused by protease inhibitors (eg, ritonavir), which may damage the intestinal epithelial barrier (leaky-flux diarrhea) and/or alter chloride ion secretion (secretory diarrhea). HIV enteropathy may result from direct effects of HIV on gastrointestinal tract cells and on the gastrointestinal immune system and gut-associated lymphoid tissue, which may be active sites of HIV infection and ongoing inflammation and mucosal damage. New therapies targeting the pathogenic mechanisms of noninfectious diarrheas are needed.

  15. The potential impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the treatment and epidemiology of ranula in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Syebele, Kabunda; Munzhelele, Thifhelimbilu I

    2013-07-01

    The study's aim was to assess the potential therapeutic effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on ranulas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. The study includes a retrospective observation of 3 patients who were initially part of a prospective study on the comparative effect of HAART on ranulas in 14 HIV-positive patients. These patients were clinically monitored while pursuing the medical treatment with HAART. Neither a fine needle aspiration nor a surgical procedure was performed. Clinical photographs were used for monitoring of any reduction in the ranula size. The effect of HAART on ranula was assessed at 3, 6 and 12 month. A complete resolution of the ranula lesion was noticed in the 3 HIV-positive selected patients. These results were observed between 6 and 12 months period. This study suggests that HAART might present a potential therapeutic effect on ranula in HIV-positive patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Costing of scaling up HIV/AIDS treatment in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Dmytraczenko, Tania; Kombe, Gilbert; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2008-01-01

    To determine the net effect of introducing highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) in Mexico on total annual per-patient costs for HIV/AIDS care, taking into account potential savings from treatment of opportunistic infections and hospitalizations. A multi-center, retrospective patient chart review and collection of unit cost data were performed to describe the utilization of services and estimate costs of care for 1003 adult HIV+ patients in the public sector. HAART is not cost-saving and the average annual cost per patient increases after initiation of HAART due to antiretrovirals, accounting for 90% of total costs. Hospitalizations do decrease post-HAART, but not enough to offset the increased cost. Scaling up access to HAART is feasible in middle income settings. Since antiretrovirals are so costly, optimizing efficiency in procurement and prescribing is paramount. The observed adherence was low, suggesting that a proportion of these high drug costs translated into limited health benefits.

  17. The Immune Pathogenesis of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Associated with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huaying; He, Yan; Chen, Zi; He, Bo; He, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study investigated the immunological pathogenesis of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A total of 238 patients with AIDS who received initial HAART were included in this prospective cohort study. Blood samples were collected immediately, at baseline, at week 12, and at week 24 after initial HAART and at the onset of IRIS. Lymphocyte subsets, Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and interleukin (IL)-7 levels were measured by flow cytometry or ELISA. Among the 238 patients with AIDS who received HAART, 47 patients developed IRIS. The percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ naive, memory, and activated cells exhibited no significant differences between AIDS patients with and without IRIS 24 weeks after initial HAART. The percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells was lower in IRIS patients than in non-IRIS patients before HAART, 12 weeks after HAART, 24 weeks after HAART, and at the onset of IRIS. IL-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ levels were significantly higher at week 4 and at the onset of IRIS in IRIS patients than in non-IRIS patients. In contrast, IL-4 and IL-10 levels were significantly lower at week 4 and at the onset of IRIS in IRIS patients than in non-IRIS patients. Plasma IL-7 decreased gradually with the progression of HAART. The level of IL-7 was higher in IRIS patients than in non-IRIS patients at all follow-up time points. An imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokines, a consistently low CD+CD25+Fox3+ percentage, and a high IL-7 level may be crucial in the pathogenesis of IRIS in AIDS patients who had received HAART. PMID:25131160

  18. Serum protein electrophoresis under effective control of HIV-1 disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Adedeji, Adebayo Lawrence; Adenikinju, Rufus Omotayo; Ajele, Joshua Olufemi; Olawoye, Theophilus Ladapo

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we compared the serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) patterns in a subset of HIV-1-infected subjects who did not progress to AIDS without antiretroviral treatment with those in whose control of disease progression was achieved by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). SPE and immunofixation electrophoresis were performed on Helena Electrophoresis System according to manufacturer’s instructions. The percentage of SPE abnormalities, resembling chronic inflammation, was significantly higher in HIV-1-infected subject without HAART compared with those under HAART (p = 0.001). The majority of individuals under HAART showed evidence of oligoclonal bands on the γ-band against a polyclonal background compared with those without HAART but ß-γ-band bridging was more evident. Immunofixation pattern was consistent with oligoclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia of IgG kappa type, which was found to be more intense in group without HAART. HIV clinical status did not show appreciable effect on the SPE pattern in subjects without HAART. However, under effective HAART, subjects with better CD4 T-cell count were associated with higher γ-globulin band. In group without HAART, acute infection was found to be associated the higher γ-globulin fraction compared with chronic infection. The opposite was the case under effective HAART. HIV infected subjects that did not progress to AIDS were associated with markedly abnormal SPE pattern. Overall results reflect the host ability compensate defective cellular immunity in HIV-1 infection with humoral immune responses. These findings underscore the usefulness of SPE monitoring HIV disease management and identifying individuals that may not progress to full-blown AIDS in the absence of treatment. PMID:26417299

  19. AIDS defining neoplasms prevalence in a cohort of HIV infected patients, before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Angel M.; Gómez, María A.; Ríos-Olivares, Eddy; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Malignant disorders have been linked to HIV epidemic from its onset. Implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality. The present study evaluates the neoplasm prevalence before and after the implementation of HAART. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 171 adults HIV infected persons followed in Puerto Rico, between May 1992 and December 2005. Neoplasm prevalence was measured and the difference in AIDS and non-AIDS defining neoplasms was analyzed before and after the HAART era. Chi-square, Fisher exact test, ANOVA and student t test were used to explore differences between groups. Results Malignant neoplasms were detected in 171 patients (4.8%). Of these, 51.5% were AIDS defining neoplasms and 68% were established before HAART. AIDS defining neoplasms accounted for 62.4% of the neoplasms before the availability of HAART and 25.9% after HAART. Except for cervical carcinoma, the prevalence of AIDS defining neoplasms was decreased after HAART. Non-AIDS lymphomas and prostate neoplasms were more frequent after HAART. Discussion: Our study finds a significant reduction of Kaposi's sarcoma and AIDS related lymphoma in the HAART era of the epidemic. A higher prevalence of non-AIDS defining lymphomas, prostate and cervical carcinoma were seen in the HAART era. These findings suggest that factors other than severe immunosuppression are involved in the neoplasms' pathogenesis. Preventive strategies that include screening tests, vaccination and life style modification should be routinely applied in the HIV infected patients. PMID:18646347

  20. The effect of depressive symptoms and CD4 count on adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Memiah, Peter; Shumba, Constance; Etienne-Mesubi, Martine; Agbor, Solomon; Hossain, Mian B; Komba, Patience; Niyang, Mercy; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2014-01-01

    Studies have identified several programmatic and nonprogrammatic indicators that affect adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Depression has been shown to impact adherence to HAART. This cross-sectional analysis of data collected from Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, and Tanzania in 2008 examined the relationship between levels of depressive symptoms, clinical progression, and adherence to HAART. A multinational, multicenter, observational, retrospective cross-sectional evaluation of a population of focus comprised randomly selected patients on HAART. The dependent variable was adherence to HAART. The primary variable of interest to be assessed was patients' level of depressive symptom score. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between explanatory variables and adherence to HAART. A total of 2344 patients were recruited for adherence survey. About 70% of the study sample reported having some level of depression. Logistic regression results show that patients who reported, respectively, low, moderate, and high levels of depressive symptoms are 35% (P < .001), 56% (P < .001), and 64% (P < .001) less likely to adhere to HAART than those who reported having no depressive symptoms. At multivariate analysis, adherence to HAART was independently associated with the levels of depressive symptoms, older age, CD4 count >200 cells/mm3, Truvada (tenofovir [TDF]/emtricitabine [FTC])-based regimens, good knowledge about HAART, and longer period on therapy. These results indicate that mental health and clinical parameters are significant factors in determining patients' adherence to their HAART, which need to be more aggressively addressed as a critical component of care and treatment support.

  1. Correlation analysis on total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in HIV-infected patients: a retrospective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuming; Liang, Shuying; Yu, Erman; Guo, Jinling; Li, Zizhao; Wang, Zhe; Du, Yukai

    2011-10-01

    CD4 count is the standard method for determining eligibility for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and monitoring HIV/AIDS disease progression, but it is not widely available in resource-limited settings. This study examined the correlation between total lymphocyte count (TLC) and CD4 count of HIV-infected patients before and after HAART, and assessed the thresholds of TLC for making decisions about the initiation and for monitoring HAART. A retrospective study was performed, and 665 HIV-infected patients with TLC and CD4 count from four counties (Shangcai, Queshan, Shenqiu and Weishi) were included in the study. Pearson correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were used. TLC and CD4 count after HAART was significantly increased as compared with pre-HAART (P<0.01). An overall positive correlation was noted between TLC and CD4 count (pre-HAART, r=0.73, P=0.0001; follow-up HAART, r=0.56, P=0.0001). The ROC curve between TLC and CD4 count showed that TLC ≤ 1200 cells/mm(3) could predict CD4 < 200 cells/mm(3) with a sensitivity of 71.12%, specificity of 66.35% at pre-HAART. After 12-month HAART, the optimum prediction for CD4 count < 200 cells/mm3 was a TLC ≤ 1300 cells/mm(3), with a sensitivity of 63.27%, and a specificity of 74.84%. Further finding indicated that TLC change was positively correlated to CD4 change (r=0.77, P=0.0001) at the time point of 12-month treatment, and the best prediction point of TLC change for CD4 increasing was 135 cells/mm(3). TLC and its change can be used as a surrogate marker for CD4 count and its change of HIV-infected individuals for making decisions about the initiation and for monitoring HAART in resource-limited settings.

  2. Clinical presentation and outcome of Tuberculosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infected children on anti-retroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Elisabetta; Cotton, Mark F; Rabie, Helena; Schaaf, H Simon; Walters, Lourens O; Marais, Ben J

    2008-01-01

    Background The tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics are poorly controlled in sub-Saharan Africa, where highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) has become more freely available. Little is known about the clinical presentation and outcome of TB in HIV-infected children on HAART. Methods We performed a comprehensive file review of all children who commenced HAART at Tygerberg Children's Hospital from January 2003 through December 2005. Results Data from 290 children were analyzed; 137 TB episodes were recorded in 136 children; 116 episodes occurred before and 21 after HAART initiation; 10 episodes were probably related to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). The number of TB cases per 100 patient years were 53.3 during the 9 months prior to HAART initiation, and 6.4 during post HAART follow-up [odds ratio (OR) 16.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 12.5–22.4]. A positive outcome was achieved in 97/137 (71%) episodes, 6 (4%) cases experienced no improvement, 16 (12%) died and the outcome could not be established in 18 (13%). Mortality was less in children on HAART (1/21; 4.8%) compared to those not on HAART (15/116; 12.9%). Conclusion We recorded an extremely high incidence of TB among HIV-infected children, especially prior to HAART initiation. Starting HAART at an earlier stage is likely to reduce morbidity and mortality related to TB, particularly in TB-endemic areas. Management frequently deviated from standard guidelines, but outcomes in general were good. PMID:18186944

  3. The associations between age and the development of laboratory abnormalities and treatment discontinuation for reasons other than virological failure in the first year of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Sabin, C A; Smith, C J; Delpech, V; Anderson, J; Bansi, L; Gilson, R; Schwenk, A; Leen, C; Gazzard, B; Porter, K; Mackie, N; Fisher, M; Orkin, C; Johnson, M; Easterbrook, P; Hill, T; Phillips, A N

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between age and the time to treatment discontinuation in the absence of virological failure as well as the development of specific laboratory abnormalities, in patients starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the first time. Analyses included 8708 antiretroviral-naïve patients from the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) study who started HAART from 1998 onwards. We considered time to the first discontinuation of any drug in the initial HAART regimen for reasons other than virological failure; the association between this and age at the start of HAART was determined using proportional hazards regression after adjustment for potential confounders. The incidence of specific laboratory abnormalities in the first year after starting HAART was compared in those of different ages using multiple logistic regression. A total of 2650 patients discontinued at least one drug in their HAART regimen in the first year for reasons other than virological failure; after controlling for confounders, those aged < 30 years at the time of starting HAART were more likely to discontinue than those aged 30-39 years [relative hazard (RH) 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01, 1.24] as were those aged > or = 50 years (RH 1.14; 95% CI 1.00, 1.31). There were strong associations between greater age and raised total cholesterol, decreased haemoglobin and raised triglycerides over the first year, although the latter disappeared after adjustment for pre-HAART levels, suggesting that this finding reflected higher pre-HAART triglyceride levels in older individuals. Continued attempts to improve the tolerability of HAART regimens may help to sustain the good outcomes in all age groups over the longer term.

  4. Cancer in HIV-infected Persons from the Caribbean, Central and South America

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Valeria I.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Cesar, Carina; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Wehbe, Firas; Cortés, Claudia P.; Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Padgett, Denis; Shafaee, Maryam; Schechter, Mauro; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Bacon, Melanie; McGowan, Catherine; Cahn, Pedro; Masys, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV infected individuals have heightened cancer risk. With the advent of HAART, the frequency of some AIDS defining cancers (ADC) has decreased while certain non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC) are becoming more frequent. Cancers among HIV-infected individuals in Latin American and the Caribbean have not yet been carefully studied. Methods Cancer cases among the Caribbean, Central and South American network for HIV Research (CCASAnet) cohort were identified reviewing clinical records and preexisting databases. Results There were 406 cancers reported: 331 ADC (224 Kaposi´s sarcomas and 98 non Hodgkin lymphomas). Most frequent NADC (n=75) were Hodgkin lymphoma and skin cancers. Seventy-three percent of NADC and 45% of ADC were diagnosed >1 year after HIV diagnosis. 56% of ADC occurred before HAART start. Median time from HAART start until cancer diagnosis was 2.5 years for NADC and 0.5 years for ADC (p=<0.001). Within 3372 HAART starters, 158 were diagnosed with 165 cancers (82.4% ADC); 85 cases were previous to or concomitant with HAART initiation. Incidence of cancer after HAART initiation in 8080 person-years of follow-up was 7.2 per 1000 person-years (95%CI= 5.5–9.3) for ADC and 2.7 (95%CI= 1.8–4.1) for NADC; incidence was higher in the first two months, particularly for ADC (47.6). A pre-HAART ADC was a predictor of mortality after adjusting for age, sex, and CD4 at HAART initiation. Conclusions ADC were the most frequent cancers in this region and were often diagnosed close to HIV diagnosis and HAART start. Incidence of cancer was highest around HAART initiation. PMID:21239992

  5. Latanoprost Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    Latanoprost comes as eye drops. Usually, one drop is applied to the affected eye(s) once a day in the evening. If latanoprost is used ... without talking to your doctor.To apply the eye drops, follow these steps: Wash your hands thoroughly with ...

  6. Skin lesion removal-aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wound to be exposed to the open air. Keep the site clean and dry by washing it 1 to 2 ... provider may suggest leaving the wound open to air. Keep the site clean and dry by washing it once a day. ...

  7. Yellow Tongue

    MedlinePlus

    ... related to another medical condition. Medical treatment for yellow tongue usually isn't necessary. If tongue discoloration bothers you, try gently brushing your tongue with a solution that is 1 part hydrogen peroxide and 5 parts water once a day. Rinse your mouth ...

  8. Nutritional Practices of Selected Homemakers in Weakley County, Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Grace S.; And Others

    Nutritional practices of home demonstration club members in Weakley County, Tennessee, are compared with those of nonmembers in this master's thesis. Marked differences appeared in the adequacy of breakfast; cooking vegetables only until tender; inclusion of Vitamin C once a day; following recommended principles of planning meals; buying…

  9. Frequency of streamflow measurements required to determine forest treatment effects

    Treesearch

    Kenneth G. Reinhart

    1964-01-01

    Most of the stream-discharge records for our experimental watersheds are taken by continuous measurements. But the question arises: are continuous measurements necessary to determine effects of forest treatments? Or could treatment effects be determined by measurement of discharge at intervals, say, once a day or once a week?

  10. [The smoothness index of betaxolol hydrochloride in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension].

    PubMed

    Rihácek, I; Soucek, M; Frána, P

    2007-01-01

    24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has a higher predictive value for cardiovascular diseases than occasional blood pressure (BP) measurement with sphygmomanometer. ABPM allows for the assessment of 24-hour effect of drugs administered once a day using the smoothness index (SI) method. OBJECTIVE OF WORK: Find out the 24-hour effect of betaxolol hydrochloride administered once a day by determining the smoothness index. Cohort and methodology: Examination of 30 newly diagnosed hypertonics prior to and after 3-month treatment with betaxolol hydrochloride at an average dose of 15 mg once a day. BP measurement using sphygmomanometer and ABPM (SpaceLabs 90207) according to European Society for Hypertension criteria. Determining the smoothness index from individual average hourly changes in BP after treatment by dividing the hourly values average by standard deviation. Calculation of average SI from individual patient data with standard deviation and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The calculated SI value of betaxolol hydrochloride was 1.03 +/- 0.65 (95% CI, 0.80 to 1.26) and 1.27 +/- 0.89 (95% CI, 0.95 to 1.59) for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. Average SI of betaxolol hydrochloride is higher than 1 when both systolic and diastolic BP is measured. Based on the above parameter, the monitored drug has a sufficient 24-hour effect and can be administered once a day.

  11. 9 CFR 3.105 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... practical or feasible to maintain, the daily food consumption should be estimated as precisely as possible... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.105 Feeding. (a) The food for marine mammals must be... offered food at least once a day, except as directed by the attending veterinarian. (b) Food...

  12. Two Field Studies on Cross-Age Tutoring in the School. Technical Report No. 361.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.; And Others

    Two studies explored the effects of peer teaching on the attitudes and behavior of tutors and tutees. In the first study, fourth graders tutored third graders in reading once a day for two weeks. Another group befriended a third grader over the same period of time, supervising play activities. A control group participated in neither special…

  13. Effects of changing milk replacer feedings from twice to once daily on Holstein calf innate immune responses before and after weaning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of switching Holstein calves to once-a-day feeding during the 4th week of life (24 ± 2.3 d of age; once-fed n = 22; twice-fed n = 22) on innate immune responses, and also evaluate whether there were any carry-over effects when the calves wer...

  14. Luliconazole Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Luliconazole comes as a cream to apply to the skin. To treat jock itch and ringworm, luliconazole is usually applied once a day for 1 ... than prescribed by your doctor.To use the cream, apply enough cream to cover the affected area ...

  15. Rasagiline

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually taken once a day with or without food. Take rasagiline at around the same time every ... You will need to avoid eating foods that contain very high amounts of tyramine, such as aged cheeses (e.g., Stilton or blue cheese) during your treatment with rasagiline. ...

  16. Perris Valley Junior High School's Language Processing for Grades 7-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemmels, Elizabeth

    An ongoing, interdisciplinary reading program for students in grades 7-10 in Perris Union High School District (California) is described. Initiated in 1979 as a result of low reading scores, the program divides all incoming seventh grade students into homogeneous groups. In the first 6 weeks of school these new groups meet once a day for 50…

  17. Development and Evaluation of Self-Applied Plaque Indices for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Harold G.; And Others

    This paper reports on one of the main goals of preventive dentistry, that is, encouraging children to remove plaque at least once a day. Two self-scoring systems were combined with two disclosants for a total of four experimental systems administered to 128 children. In the count method, the child counts the number of stained teeth; in the rating…

  18. Effect of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on Incident AIDS Using Calendar Period as an Instrumental Variable

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Stephen R.; Greenland, Sander; Brown, Todd T.; Chmiel, Joan S.; Kingsley, Lawrence; Detels, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) researchers often use calendar periods as an imperfect proxy for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) when estimating the effect of HAART on HIV disease progression. The authors report on 614 HIV-positive homosexual men followed from 1984 to 2007 in 4 US cities. During 5,321 person-years, 268 of 614 men incurred acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, 49 died, and 90 were lost to follow-up. Comparing the pre-HAART calendar period (<1996) with the HAART calendar period (≥1996) resulted in a naive rate ratio of 3.62 (95% confidence limits: 2.67, 4.92). However, this estimate is likely biased because of misclassification of HAART use by calendar period. Simple calendar period approaches may circumvent confounding by indication at the cost of inducing exposure misclassification. To correct this misclassification, the authors propose an instrumental-variable estimator analogous to ones previously used for noncompliance corrections in randomized clinical trials. When the pre-HAART calendar period was compared with the HAART calendar period, the instrumental-variable rate ratio was 5.02 (95% confidence limits: 3.45, 7.31), 39% higher than the naive result. Weighting by the inverse probability of calendar period given age at seroconversion, race/ethnicity, and time since seroconversion did not appreciably alter the results. These methods may help resolve discrepancies between observational and randomized evidence. PMID:19318615

  19. Virologic response differences between African Americans and European Americans initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy with equal access to care.

    PubMed

    Weintrob, Amy C; Grandits, Greg A; Agan, Brian K; Ganesan, Anuradha; Landrum, Michael L; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Johnson, Erica N; Ordóñez, Claudia E; Wortmann, Glenn W; Marconi, Vincent C

    2009-12-01

    Studies comparing virologic response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA) have been confounded by differences in duration of HIV infection and access to health care. We evaluated virologic response to HAART between ethnicities in a large cohort with fewer confounders. The odds of attaining viral suppression at 6- and 12-months post-HAART were determined by multivariate logistic regression for HIV-infected AA and EA prospectively followed in a large US military cohort. Time-to-event methods were used to compare maintenance of suppression. A total of 1363 subjects (51% AA, 92% men) with viral load results available 6 months after HAART initiation were included. There was no difference between ethnicities in time from seroconversion to HIV diagnosis or HAART initiation or in HAART regimens. Adjusted for multiple demographic and HIV-related factors, AA had significantly lower odds of obtaining undetectable viral loads after 6 (odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.4-0.8, P < 0.001) and 12 months (odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.4-0.8, P = 0.002) of HAART. Once undetectable, there was no difference in time to virologic failure between AA and EA. Despite similar durations of HIV infection and equal access to health care, AAs were significantly less likely to achieve viral suppression compared with EA.

  20. Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on incident AIDS using calendar period as an instrumental variable.

    PubMed

    Cain, Lauren E; Cole, Stephen R; Greenland, Sander; Brown, Todd T; Chmiel, Joan S; Kingsley, Lawrence; Detels, Roger

    2009-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) researchers often use calendar periods as an imperfect proxy for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) when estimating the effect of HAART on HIV disease progression. The authors report on 614 HIV-positive homosexual men followed from 1984 to 2007 in 4 US cities. During 5,321 person-years, 268 of 614 men incurred acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, 49 died, and 90 were lost to follow-up. Comparing the pre-HAART calendar period (<1996) with the HAART calendar period (>or=1996) resulted in a naive rate ratio of 3.62 (95% confidence limits: 2.67, 4.92). However, this estimate is likely biased because of misclassification of HAART use by calendar period. Simple calendar period approaches may circumvent confounding by indication at the cost of inducing exposure misclassification. To correct this misclassification, the authors propose an instrumental-variable estimator analogous to ones previously used for noncompliance corrections in randomized clinical trials. When the pre-HAART calendar period was compared with the HAART calendar period, the instrumental-variable rate ratio was 5.02 (95% confidence limits: 3.45, 7.31), 39% higher than the naive result. Weighting by the inverse probability of calendar period given age at seroconversion, race/ethnicity, and time since seroconversion did not appreciably alter the results. These methods may help resolve discrepancies between observational and randomized evidence.

  1. Immunological response to hepatitis B vaccination in patients with AIDS and virological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Paitoonpong, Leilani; Suankratay, Chusana

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies showed that an immunological response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in patients with AIDS was lower than in the normal population. However, those with virological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may have a normal immunological response to HBV vaccination. In our study, patients with AIDS who had a virological response to HAART and no immunity to HBV received 3 doses of HBV vaccine (20 microg of Engerix-B(R)) on d 0, 30, and 180. Anti-HBs level was measured 1 month after complete vaccination. Of 28 patients, overall response rate to vaccination was 71.4%. The responder group had a significantly higher CD4 count at 1 month after complete vaccination than the non-responder group (466.95+/-146.94 and 335+/-112.62 cells/microl, p =0.035). The patients receiving efavirenz-containing HAART had better response than those without efavirenz-containing HAART (p =0.030). The responder group had received a longer duration of HAART. In conclusion , to our knowledge, ours is the first prospective study to determine the immunological response to HBV vaccination in all patients with AIDS who had maintained the virological response after receiving HAART throughout the study period. Patients with AIDS and virological response to HAART have a good immunological response to HBV vaccination.

  2. Black–White Mortality From HIV in the United States Before and After Introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in 1996

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert S.; Briggs, Nathaniel C.; Kilbourne, Barbara S.; King, William D.; Fry-Johnson, Yvonne; Baltrus, Peter T.; Husaini, Baqar A.; Rust, George S.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to describe Black–White differences in HIV disease mortality before and after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Methods. Black–White mortality from HIV is described for the nation as a whole. We performed regression analyses to predict county-level mortality for Black men aged 25–84 years and the corresponding Black:White male mortality ratios (disparities) in 140 counties with reliable Black mortality for 1999–2002. Results. National Black–White disparities widened significantly after the introduction of HAART, especially among women and the elderly. In county regression analyses, contextual socioeconomic status (SES) was not a significant predictor of Black:White mortality rate ratio after we controlled for percentage of the population who were Black and percentage of the population who were Hispanic, and neither contextual SES nor race/ethnicity were significant predictors after we controlled for pre-HAART mortality. Contextual SES, race, and pre-HAART mortality were all significant and independent predictors of mortality among Black men. Conclusions. Although nearly all segments of the Black population experienced widened post-HAART disparities, disparities were not inevitable and tended to reflect pre-HAART levels. Public health policymakers should consider the hypothesis of unequal diffusion of the HAART innovation, with place effects rendering some communities more vulnerable than others to this potential problem. PMID:17761583

  3. CCL3L1-CCR5 genotype influences durability of immune recovery during antiretroviral therapy of HIV-1–infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Sunil K; Kulkarni, Hemant; Catano, Gabriel; Agan, Brian K; Camargo, Jose F; He, Weijing; O'Connell, Robert J; Marconi, Vincent C; Delmar, Judith; Eron, Joseph; Clark, Robert A; Frost, Simon; Martin, Jeffrey; Ahuja, Seema S; Deeks, Steven G; Little, Susan; Richman, Douglas; Hecht, Frederick M; Dolan, Matthew J

    2008-01-01

    The basis for the extensive variability seen in the reconstitution of CD4+ T cell counts in HIV-infected individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is not fully known. Here, we show that variations in CCL3L1 gene dose and CCR5 genotype, but not major histocompatibility complex HLA alleles, influence immune reconstitution, especially when HAART is initiated at <350 CD4+ T cells/mm3. The CCL3L1-CCR5 genotypes favoring CD4+ T cell recovery are similar to those that blunted CD4+ T cell depletion during the time before HAART became available (pre-HAART era), suggesting that a common CCL3L1-CCR5 genetic pathway regulates the balance between pathogenic and reparative processes from early in the disease course. Hence, CCL3L1-CCR5 variations influence HIV pathogenesis even in the presence of HAART and, therefore, may prospectively identify subjects in whom earlier initiation of therapy is more likely to mitigate immunologic failure despite viral suppression by HAART. Furthermore, as reconstitution of CD4+ cells during HAART is more sensitive to CCL3L1 dose than to CCR5 genotypes, CCL3L1 analogs might be efficacious in supporting immunological reconstitution. PMID:18376407

  4. The effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the prevalence of oral manifestation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Neelkant; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Babaji, Prashant; Ramesh, Dnsv; Jhamb, Kshitij; Sharma, Akanksha Manmohan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a highly lethal, progressively epidemic viral infection characterized by profound impairment of the immune system. Oral manifestations are common in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected AIDS patients, and are usually the first indicator of symptom and disease progression. The main objective of the current study was to compare the prevalence of oral manifestations in HIV patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) with those, not on HAART therapies. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 100 patients diagnosed as human immune virus sero-positive. These patients were divided equally into two groups (50 each); Group I patients on HAART and Group II patients who were not on HAART. Information regarding age, sex and cluster of differentiation 4 cell count was obtained from the medical records. Oral examination was done, and findings were recorded by using internationally accepted presumptive clinical criteria. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square statistical test. Results: The presence of oral manifestations was significantly decreased in subjects on HAART (32%) compared to those who are not on HAART (56%). The most common oral lesions detected in patients on HAART were increased oral hyper-pigmentation (14%), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (8%), non-specific ulcerations (4%), pseudo-membranous candidiasis (2%), periodontitis (2%) and xerostomia (2%), whereas in non HAART oral hyperpigmentation (10%), pseudo-membranous candidiasis (8%), angular cheilitis (4%), and erythematous candidiasis (4%) and Periodontitis (14%) were more prevalent. Conclusion: The number and severity of oral manifestation decreased, and even there was a change in the type of oral manifestations on HAART, which may be because of the improvement in immunity gained by the therapy. PMID:25713484

  5. Electrocardiographic findings in a cross-sectional study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in Enugu, south-east Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Njoku, PO; Ejim, EC; Anisiuba, BC; Ike, SO; Onwubere, BJC

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities are prevalent in subjects with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study, three groups of subjects were investigated and the prevalence of ECG abnormalities was analysed. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on adults between November 2010 and November 2011 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. One hundred HIV-infected patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), 100 HIV-infected HAART-naïve patients and 100 HIV-negative controls were recruited. Twelve-lead electrocardiograms were done on all subjects. Data were analysed using the chi-squared, Student’s t-, one-way ANOVA and Duncan post hoc tests. Results Left-axis deviation was seen in 15 (16%) of the HIV-positive subjects on HAART, 10 (13.7%) of the HAART-naïve subjects and eight (21%) of the controls (p = 0.265). Eight (11%) subjects with left ventricular hypertrophy (p <0.001) and two (2.7%) with ST-segment elevation were found among the HIV-positive HAART-naïve subjects (p = 0.134). Prolonged QTc interval was seen in 17 (18.2%) of the HIV-positive patients on HAART, 12 (16.4%) of the HIV-positive HAART-naïve patients and four (10.5%) of the controls (p = 0.012). Conclusion The prevalence of ECG abnormalities was higher in the HIV-positive patients on HAART (93%) and the HIV-positive HAART-naïve patients (73%) compared to the controls. PMID:27841913

  6. The clinical characteristics of 80 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated Kaposi’s sarcoma in Xinjiang Autonomous Region and the effect of different treatments on the prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tongtong; He, Li; Wan, Xuefeng; Maimaitiaili, Wubuli; Song, Yuxia; Zhang, Yuexin; Lu, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the clinical features of AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma (AIDS-KS) patients in Xinjiang Autonomous Region and the impact of CD4 +T lymphocyte count, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and systemic chemotherapy on the prognosis. The clinical information of 80 AIDS-KS patients admitted in Sixth People’s Hospital of Xinjiang Autonomous Region from January 2008 to August 2014 was retrospectively reviewed. Population characteristics, extent of lesions, KS progress, CD4 +T lymphocyte count, combined opportunistic infections, treatment and prognosis of these patients were analyzed. The 80 patients were divided into five groups according to treatment methods, including HAART, HAART + chemotherapy, chemotherapy + HAART, chemotherapy, and untreated groups. The efficacy and prognosis of the five groups were compared. Among the 80 patients, 74 (92.50%) patients were Uygur. The average age was 39.5±9.9 years and male-to-female ratio was 3:1. The median of baseline CD4 +T lymphocyte count was 152.5 cells/μL and the interquartile was 233.25 cells/μL. CD4 +T lymphocyte counts were significantly increased after treatment in HAART, HAART + chemotherapy, and chemotherapy + HAART groups (P < 0.05). CD4 +T lymphocyte count in chemotherapy groups was significantly reduced after treatment (P < 0.05). The untreated group had the highest mortality rate (33.3%). In HAART group, KS-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory response syndrome (KS-IRIS) appeared in 45.5% cases and 2 death cases were caused by KS-IRIS. In Xinjiang Autonomous Region, the incidence of AIDS-KS is high in young Uygur male people. HAART followed by chemotherapy has ideal efficacy, reduces the incidence of KS-IRIS and improves the prognosis. PMID:26770484

  7. Long-term effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on CD4+ cell evolution among children and adolescents infected with HIV: 5 years and counting.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kunjal; Hernán, Miguel A; Williams, Paige L; Seeger, John D; McIntosh, Kenneth; Dyke, Russell B Van; Seage, George R

    2008-06-01

    Lower percentages of CD4(+) T lymphocytes are associated with adverse clinical outcomes among children and adolescents infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). CD4(+) lymphocyte percentage generally increases with receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), but long-term follow-up is required to assess whether these increases in CD4(+) cell percentage are maintained and whether they lead to normal CD4(+) cell percentages in children with severe immunosuppression. The study population included 1236 children and adolescents perinatally infected with HIV who were enrolled in a US-based multicenter prospective cohort study (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219/219C) and who were not receiving HAART at study initiation. We estimated the effects of HAART, HAART with protease inhibitors, and HAART with nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors on CD4(+) cell percentage, using marginal structural models to account for confounding by severity. Initiation of any type of HAART increased CD4(+) cell percentage by 2.34% (95% confidence interval, 1.35%-3.33%) in the first year, relative to noninitiation of HAART. The substantial increases in CD4(+) cell percentage observed after the first year of experience with these combination therapies were followed by relatively smaller increases that continued for 5 years after initiation. Although larger increases in CD4(+) cell percentage were observed among children with a greater degree of immunosuppression at baseline, the mean CD4(+) cell percentage after 5 years of HAART did not reach normal levels. Our study supports the initiation of HAART in children before severe immunosuppression occurs for long-term maintenance of normal CD4(+) cell percentages. This beneficial result must be weighed against the evidence of potential adverse events associated with the prolonged use of such therapy.

  8. The clinical characteristics of 80 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Xinjiang Autonomous Region and the effect of different treatments on the prognosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tongtong; He, Li; Wan, Xuefeng; Maimaitiaili, Wubuli; Song, Yuxia; Zhang, Yuexin; Lu, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the clinical features of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) patients in Xinjiang Autonomous Region and the impact of CD4 (+)T lymphocyte count, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and systemic chemotherapy on the prognosis. The clinical information of 80 AIDS-KS patients admitted in Sixth People's Hospital of Xinjiang Autonomous Region from January 2008 to August 2014 was retrospectively reviewed. Population characteristics, extent of lesions, KS progress, CD4 (+)T lymphocyte count, combined opportunistic infections, treatment and prognosis of these patients were analyzed. The 80 patients were divided into five groups according to treatment methods, including HAART, HAART + chemotherapy, chemotherapy + HAART, chemotherapy, and untreated groups. The efficacy and prognosis of the five groups were compared. Among the 80 patients, 74 (92.50%) patients were Uygur. The average age was 39.5±9.9 years and male-to-female ratio was 3:1. The median of baseline CD4 (+)T lymphocyte count was 152.5 cells/μL and the interquartile was 233.25 cells/μL. CD4 (+)T lymphocyte counts were significantly increased after treatment in HAART, HAART + chemotherapy, and chemotherapy + HAART groups (P < 0.05). CD4 (+)T lymphocyte count in chemotherapy groups was significantly reduced after treatment (P < 0.05). The untreated group had the highest mortality rate (33.3%). In HAART group, KS-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory response syndrome (KS-IRIS) appeared in 45.5% cases and 2 death cases were caused by KS-IRIS. In Xinjiang Autonomous Region, the incidence of AIDS-KS is high in young Uygur male people. HAART followed by chemotherapy has ideal efficacy, reduces the incidence of KS-IRIS and improves the prognosis.

  9. Potential Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy and Screening on Cervical Cancer Mortality in HIV-Positive Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Atashili, Julius; Smith, Jennifer S.; Adimora, Adaora A.; Eron, Joseph; Miller, William C.; Myers, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite having high cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, screening for cervical precancerous lesions remains infrequent in sub-Saharan Africa. The need to screen HIV-positive women because of the higher prevalence and faster progression of cervical precancerous lesions may be heightened by the increased access to highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Policymakers need quantitative data on the effect of HAART and screening to better allocate limited resources. Our aim was to quantify the potential effect of these interventions on cervical cancer mortality. Methods and Findings We constructed a Markov state-transition model of a cohort of HIV-positive women in Cameroon. Published data on the prevalence, progression and regression of lesions as well as mortality rates from HIV, cervical cancer and other causes were incorporated into the model. We examined the potential impact, on cumulative cervical cancer mortality, of four possible scenarios: no HAART and no screening (NHNS), HAART and no screening (HNS), HAART and screening once on HAART initiation (HSHI), and HAART and screening once at age 35 (HS35). Our model projected that, compared to NHNS, lifetime cumulative cervical cancer mortality approximately doubled with HNS. It will require 262 women being screened at HAART initiation to prevent one cervical cancer death amongst women on HAART. The magnitudes of these effects were most sensitive to the rate of progression of precancerous lesions. Conclusions Screening, even when done once, has the potential of reducing cervical cancer mortality among HIV-positive women in Africa. The most feasible and cost-effective screening strategy needs to be determined in each setting. PMID:21483701

  10. Toxoplasmic encephalitis relapse rates with pyrimethamine-based therapy: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Mark P; Goodwin, Elizabeth; Schey, Carina; Zummo, Jacqueline

    2017-02-01

    Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection and can be a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. This study evaluated the rate of relapse associated with pyrimethamine-based maintenance therapy (i.e. secondary prophylaxis) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or AIDs treated prior to and after the common use (i.e. 1996) of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (pre-HAART and post-HAART, respectively). PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were searched to 6 June 2016 using search terms: pyrimethamine, Daraprim, Fansidar, Metakelfin, Fansimef, 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-ethyl-2,4-pyrimidinediamine, encephalitis, cerebral, toxoplasmosis, toxoplasmic, and gondii. Single-arm cohort, retrospective, and randomized studies were included. Twenty-six studies with 1,596 patients were included in the analysis; twenty pre-HAART (n = 1,228) studies and six post-HAART (n = 368) were performed. Pooled proportions test for pyrimethamine-based therapy from pre-HAART studies indicated a relapse rate of 19.2% and 18.9% from the fixed-effects and random-effects models, respectively. The relapse rate in the post-HAART studies was 11.1% (fixed and random effects). Continuous therapy was suggestive of lower incidence of relapse compared with intermittent therapy in the pre-HAART era (range, 18.7 to 17.3% vs. 20.9 to 25.6%, respectively). These findings indicate that the likelihood of relapse associated with pyrimethamine-based therepy in patients with HIV and TE decreased after the introduction of HAART to approximately 11%. The findings have important implications as relapse may affect a patient's disease severity and prognosis, increase utilization of health care resources, and result in additional health care expenditure.

  11. Rapid and Slow Progressors Show Increased IL-6 and IL-10 Levels in the Pre-AIDS Stage of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Rúbia M.; Valverde-Villegas, Jacqueline M.; Junqueira, Dennis M.; Gräf, Tiago; Lindenau, Juliana D.; de Mello, Marineide G.; Vianna, Priscila; Almeida, Sabrina E. M.; Chies, Jose Artur B.

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines are intrinsically related to disease progression in HIV infection. We evaluated the plasma levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in extreme progressors, including slow (SPs) and rapid (RPs) progressors, who were thus classified based on clinical and laboratory follow-up covering a period of time before the initiation of HAART, ranging from 93–136.5 months for SPs and 7.5–16.5 months for RPs. Analyses were also performed based on the different stages of HIV infection (chronic, pre-HAART individuals—subjects sampled before initiating HAART but who initiated therapy from 12 to 24 months—and those receiving HAART). The plasma cytokine levels of 16 HIV-infected rapid progressors and 25 slow progressors were measured using a Human Th1/Th2/Th17 CBA kit. The IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels differed significantly between the stages of HIV infection. The IL-6 levels were higher in slow progressors pre-HAART than in chronically infected SPs and HIV-seronegative individuals. The IL-10 levels were higher in slow progressors pre-HAART than in slow progressors receiving HAART and HIV-seronegative controls, and in rapid progressors, the IL-10 levels were higher in pre-HAART subjects than in HIV-seronegative controls. The results reflect the changes in the cytokine profile occurring during different clinical stages in HIV+ subjects. Our results suggest an association between increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels and pre-HAART stages independent of the slow or rapid progression status of the subjects. Thus, increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels could indicate a global inflammatory status and could be used as markers of the disease course in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:27214135

  12. Determinants of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Duration in HIV-1-Infected Children and Adolescents in Madrid, Spain, from 1996 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Palladino, Claudia; Briz, Verónica; Bellón, José María; Climent, Francisco J.; de Ory, Santiago J.; Mellado, María José; Navarro, María Luisa; Ramos, José T.; Taveira, Nuno; de José, María Isabel; Muñoz-Fernández, María Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the duration of sequential HAART regimens and predictors of first-line regimen discontinuation among HIV-1 vertically infected children and adolescents. Design Multicentre survey of antiretroviral-naïve patients enrolled in the HIV-Paediatric Cohor,t CoRISpeS-Madrid Cohort, Spain. Methods Patients with a follow-up of ≥1 month spent on HAART, with available baseline CD4 count and HIV-viral load (VL) were included. Time spent on sequential HAART regimens was estimated and multivariable regression was used to identify predictors of time to first-line regimen discontinuation. Results 104 patients were followed for a median 8 years after starting HAART among 1996–2012; baseline %CD4 was 21.5 (12.3–34.0)and viral load was 5.1 (4.6–5.6) log10 copies/mL. Patients received a mean of 1.9 regimens. Median time on first-line HAART (n = 104) was 64.5 months; second HAART (n = 56) 69.8 months; and third HAART (n = 21) 66.5 months. Eleven (11%) patients were lost to follow-up while on first-line HAART and 54% discontinued (cumulative incidence of 16% and 38% by 1 and 3-year, respectively). The main predictor of first-line regimen discontinuation was suboptimal adherence to antiretrovirals (AHR: 2.60; 95% CI: 1.44–4.70). Conclusions Adherence to therapy was the main determinant of the duration of the first-line HAART regimen in children. It is important to identify patients at high risk for non-adherence, such as very young children and adolescents, in provide special care and support to those patients. PMID:24788034

  13. Initiation of antiretroviral treatment in women after delivery can induce multiclass drug resistance in breastfeeding HIV-infected infants.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Jessica; Li, Qing; Taha, Taha E; Hoover, Donald R; Kumwenda, Newton I; Mofenson, Lynne M; Kumwenda, Johnstone J; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Thigpen, Michael C; Eshleman, Susan H

    2011-04-15

    The World Health Organization currently recommends initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected lactating women with CD4+ cell counts <350 cells/μL or stage 3 or 4 disease. We analyzed antiretroviral drug resistance in HIV-infected infants in the Post Exposure Prophylaxis of Infants trial whose mothers initiated HAART postpartum (with a regimen of nevirapine [NVP], stavudine, and lamivudine). Infants in the trial received single-dose NVP and a week of zidovudine (ZDV) at birth; some infants also received extended daily NVP prophylaxis, with or without extended ZDV prophylaxis. We analyzed drug resistance in plasma samples collected from all HIV-infected infants whose mothers started HAART in the first postpartum year. Resistance testing was performed using the first plasma sample collected within 6 months after maternal HAART initiation. Categorical variables were compared by exact or trend tests; continuous variables were compared using rank-sum tests. Multiclass resistance (MCR) was detected in HIV from 11 (29.7%) of 37 infants. Infants were more likely to develop MCR infection if their mothers initiated HAART earlier in the postpartum period (by 14 weeks vs after 14 weeks and up to 6 months vs after 6 months, P = .0009), or if the mother was exclusively breastfeeding at the time of HAART initiation (exclusive breastfeeding vs mixed feeding vs no breastfeeding, P = .003). Postpartum maternal HAART initiation was associated with acquisition of MCR in HIV-infected breastfeeding infants. The risk was higher among infants whose mothers initiated HAART closer to the time of delivery or were still exclusively breastfeeding when they first reported HAART use.

  14. Inflammatory biomarkers and abacavir use in the Women's Interagency HIV Study and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Palella, Frank J; Gange, Stephen J; Benning, Lorie; Jacobson, Lisa; Kaplan, Robert C; Landay, Alan L; Tracy, Russell P; Elion, Richard

    2010-07-17

    To assess associations between abacavir (ABC) use and systemic inflammation. Nested case-control study. The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) cohort participants who initiated ABC were matched, using propensity score methods, to ABC-unexposed persons. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (microg/ml), interleukin-6 (IL-6) (pg/ml), and D-dimer (microg/ml) were measured from pre-HAART and on-HAART plasma. Random-effects models compared markers by ABC exposure and by changes from pre-HAART levels. Biomarkers were measured in N = 508 matched pairs (328 women; 180 men). Pre-HAART levels did not differ by exposure group except that hsCRP levels were higher among WIHS women who subsequently used ABC (P = 0.04). Regardless of ABC use, mean hsCRP increases and D-dimer reductions were seen when comparing pre-HAART to on-HAART levels, in the overall group (28 and -27%), for MACS men (28 and -31%) and for WIHS women [29 and -24%, P < 0.01 for all]; IL-6 levels declined in MACS men (P = 0.02). No adjusted biomarker level differences existed by ABC exposure at the on-HAART visit. HIV RNA reductions correlated with D-dimer (r = 0.14, P < 0.01) and IL-6 (r = 0.12, P < 0.01) reductions. Associations between ABC use and mean biomarker levels were modified by pre-HAART antiretroviral therapy experience. Renal dysfunction was equally likely among non-ABC and ABC recipients. ABC use was not associated with plasma elevations in hsCRP, IL-6, and D-dimer. Mechanisms other than increased systemic inflammation may account for ABC's reported association with increased cardiovascular disease. HAART-associated reductions in D-dimer and IL-6 were apparent regardless of ABC use and were correlated with HIV RNA reductions.

  15. Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus antibody response and viremia following highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Swiss HIV Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Sheena G; Hirsch, Hans H; Franceschi, Silvia; Steffen, Ingrid; Amari, Emmanuelle Boffi El; Mueller, Nicolas J; Magkouras, Ioannis; Biggar, Robert J; Rickenbach, Martin; Clifford, Gary M

    2010-09-10

    To describe the effect of HAART on Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV) antibody response and viremia among HIV-positive MSM. A follow-up study of 272 HIV-positive MSM (including 22 with Kaposi sarcoma) who first initiated HAART between January 1996 and July 2004 in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. For each individual, two serum samples, one at HAART initiation and another 24 months later, were tested for latent and lytic KSHV antibodies using immunofluorescence assays, and for KSHV viremia using PCR. Factors associated with changes in KSHV antibody titers and viremia were evaluated. At HAART initiation, 69.1 and 75.0% of patients were seropositive to latent and lytic KSHV antibodies, respectively. Seropositivity was associated with the presence of Kaposi sarcoma, older age, lower CD8 cell count and higher CD4/CD8 ratio. Prevalence of KSHV viremia at HAART initiation was 6.4%, being significantly higher among patients with Kaposi sarcoma (35.0%), and those with HIV viral loads 100 000 copies/ml (11.7%) or higher. At 24-month follow-up, geometric mean titers (GMTs) among KSHV seropositive patients increased and antibody seroprevalence was higher. Having Kaposi sarcoma and/or CD4 cell counts less than 50 cells/microl at HAART initiation was associated both with higher probability for antibody titers to increase (including seroconversion) and larger increases in GMTs. Only one of 17 viremic patients at HAART initiation had viremia at 24-month follow-up. HAART increases KSHV-specific humoral immune response and clearance of viremia among HIV-infected MSM, consistent with the dramatic protection offered by HAART against Kaposi sarcoma.

  16. Long-Term Effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on CD4+ Cell Evolution among Children and Adolescents Infected with HIV: 5 Years and Counting

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kunjal; Hernán, Miguel A.; Williams, Paige L.; Seeger, John D.; McIntosh, Kenneth; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Seage, George R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lower percentages of CD4+ T lymphocytes are associated with adverse clinical outcomes among children and adolescents infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). CD4+ lymphocyte percentage generally increases with receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), but long-term follow-up is required to assess whether these increases in CD4+ cell percentage are maintained and whether they lead to normal CD4+ cell percentages in children with severe immunosuppression. Methods The study population included 1236 children and adolescents perinatally infected with HIV who were enrolled in a US-based multicenter prospective cohort study (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219/219C) and who were not receiving HAART at study initiation. We estimated the effects of HAART, HAART with protease inhibitors, and HAART with nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors on CD4+ cell percentage, using marginal structural models to account for confounding by severity. Results Initiation of any type of HAART increased CD4+ cell percentage by 2.34% (95% confidence interval, 1.35%–3.33%) in the first year, relative to noninitiation of HAART. The substantial increases in CD4+ cell percentage observed after the first year of experience with these combination therapies were followed by relatively smaller increases that continued for 5 years after initiation. Although larger increases in CD4+ cell percentage were observed among children with a greater degree of immunosuppression at baseline, the mean CD4+ cell percentage after 5 years of HAART did not reach normal levels. Conclusions Our study supports the initiation of HAART in children before severe immunosuppression occurs for long-term maintenance of normal CD4+ cell percentages. This beneficial result must be weighed against the evidence of potential adverse events associated with the prolonged use of such therapy. PMID:18426371

  17. Assessing the effectiveness of antiretroviral regimens in cohort studies involving HIV-positive injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Viviane Dias; Nosyk, Bohdan; Wood, Evan; Kozai, Tsubasa; Zhang, Wendy; Chan, Keith; Montaner, Julio S.G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We compared the effectiveness of different highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens considering, separately, history of injection drug use (IDU) (yes/no). Design, methods A total of 1163 HIV-infected patients initiated HAART between 1 January 2000 and 28 February 2009 in British Columbia, Canada, and were followed until 28 February 2010. HAART effectiveness was measured by the ability to achieve viral suppression below 50 copies/ml at 6 months. We compared HAART regimens containing efavirenz and boosted atazanavir. We developed logistic regression models using different techniques to control for potential confounders. Results Among the 1163 patients, 796 (68%) achieved viral suppression at 6 months (32% reporting a history of IDU). Different confounding models yielded very similar odds ratios for achieving viral suppression. Boosted atazanavir-based HAART demonstrated to be the most effective regimen, showing a surprisingly higher benefit for patients with a history of IDU (odds ratios from different models ranged from 1.74–1.95 to 1.45–1.51). Conclusions The literature has conflicting results regarding the effectiveness of HAART to treat HIV infection among those with a history of IDU. We have shown that most patients, with and without a history of IDU, were able to achieve viral suppression at 6 months. Boosted atazanavir-based HAART was the most resilient regimen and it was more effective than efavirenz-based HAART among IDUs. Given the limited inclusion of IDU in clinical trials of HAART’s efficacy, a randomized clinical trial comparing different first-line HAART regimens among IDU is warranted based on these results. PMID:22555161

  18. Smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Bwana, Veneranda; Tenu, Filemoni; Magesa, Stephen M; Mfinanga, Sayoki G

    2011-01-01

    Globally, tuberculosis-HIV co-infections are on the increase. In 2007, 15% (1.37 million) of the tuberculosis cases were HIV-positive tuberculosis (TB). This cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2009 to assess the effect of the level of CD4 lymphocyte counts on the development of smear positive pulmonary TB (PTB) among HIV patients before and after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A total of 155 HIV patients who were on HAART programme were enrolled and out of these 42 (27.1%) were smear positive PTB. Of the 42 PTB patients, 38 (90.5%) were also infected with HIV and were already at initiation of HAART. There was no association between the development of smear positive PTB and socio-demographic characteristics among HIV patients before and after HAART initiation (P>0.05). A larger proportion of HIV+PTB patients diagnosed before and after HAART initiation was found with CD4 lymphocyte count <200cells/microl. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P =0.092). Among HIV patients who were diagnosed to be smear positive PTB after HAART initiation, their CD4 lymphocyte counts at time of TB diagnosis was lower than their CD4 lymphocyte counts at time of HAART initiation. The four patients diagnosed with PTB after HAART initiation had mean CD4 lymphocyte counts at HAART initiation not statistically different from that at TB diagnosis (t=0.715, P=0.526). The median time period within which the diagnosis of smear positive PTB was made after HAART initiation was 22 weeks and the mean time was 66.75 weeks. These findings provide evidence that development of smear positive PTB after HAART initiation may occur at any level of CD4 lymphocyte count (P<0.05). This study was limited by the relatively small sample size, we therefore recommend more studies involving a larger sample size in order to estimate more accurately the effect of both level of CD4 lymphocyte count and HAART on the development of smear positive PTB among

  19. Care of the HIV-positive patient in the emergency department in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Venkat, Arvind; Piontkowsky, David M; Cooney, Robert R; Srivastava, Adarsh K; Suares, Gregory A; Heidelberger, Cory P

    2008-09-01

    More than 1 million individuals in the United States are HIV positive, with greater than 40,000 new patients being diagnosed per year. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-infected patients in the United States are living longer. HIV-infected patients receiving HAART now more commonly have noninfectious and nonopportunistic complications of their disease. This review article will discuss the assessment and treatment of HIV-positive patients in the era of HAART, with an emphasis on the noninfectious and changing infectious complications that require emergency care.

  20. Low immunologic response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in naive vertically human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children with severe immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Resino, Salvador; Alvaro-Meca, Alejandro; de José, Maria Isabel; Martin-Fontelos, Pablo; Gutiérrez, Maria Dolores Gurbindo; Léon, Juan Antonio; Ramos, José Tomás; Ciria, Luis; Muñoz-Fernández, Maria Angeles

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to analyze the CD4 recovery of naive vertically human immunodeficiency virus-infected children with severe immunodeficiency who were followed up during at least 4 years of receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Children with baseline CD4 of <15% did not reach a mean CD4 of > or =25% after the 4th year on HAART. We conclude that starting HAART after severe immunosuppression of naive HIV-infected children may not be effective for recovery of normal %CD4.

  1. Brief Communication: Economic Comparison of Opportunistic Infection Management With Antiretroviral Treatment in People Living With HIV/AIDS Presenting at an NGO Clinic in Bangalore, India

    PubMed Central

    John, K.R.; Rajagopalan, Nirmala; Madhuri, K.V.

    2006-01-01

    Context Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) usage in India is escalating. With the government of India launching the free HAART rollout as part of the “3 by 5” initiative, many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) have been able to gain access to HAART medications. Currently, the national HAART centers are located in a few district hospitals (in the high- and medium-prevalence states) and have very stringent criteria for enrolling PLHA. Patients who do not fit these criteria or patients who are too ill to undergo the prolonged wait at the government hospitals avail themselves of nongovernment organization (NGO) services in order to take HAART medications. In addition, the government program has not yet started providing second-line HAART (protease inhibitors). Hence, even with the free HAART rollout, NGOs with the expertise to provide HAART continue to look for funding opportunities and other innovative ways of making HAART available to PLHA. Currently, no study from Indian NGOs has compared the direct and indirect costs of solely managing opportunistic infections (OIs) vs HAART. Objective Compare direct medical costs (DMC) and nonmedical costs (NMC) with 2005 values accrued by the NGO and PLHA, respectively, for either HAART or exclusive OI management. Study design Retrospective case study comparison. Setting Low-cost community care and support center – Freedom Foundation (NGO, Bangalore, south India). Patients Retrospective analysis data on PLHA accessing treatment at Freedom Foundation between January 1, 2003 and January 1, 2005. The HAART arm included case records of PLHA who initiated HAART at the center, had frequent follow-up, and were between 18 and 55 years of age. The OI arm included records of PLHA who were also frequently followed up, who were in the same age range, who had CD4+ cell counts < 200/microliter (mcL) or an AIDS-defining illness, and who were not on HAART (solely for socioeconomic reasons). A total of 50 records were analyzed

  2. The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on obstetric conditions: A review.

    PubMed

    Sebitloane, Hannah M; Moodley, Dhayendre

    2017-03-01

    HIV is the leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in resource constrained countries. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) initiated in pregnancy has now almost eliminated mother to child transmission of the virus, and is beginning to show the desired effect of reducing HIV related maternal mortality. By modulating host immunological responses HAART has the potential to alter infections during pregnancy, in addition to modifying clinical conditions such as preeclampsia. There is increasing evidence of the benefits of HAART given to pregnant women, however there is paucity of data that distinguishes HIV or HAART as the cause or exacerbation of pre-existing medical conditions or conditions specific to pregnancy. Anaemia is the commonest haematological disorder seen in HIV infected women and is more pronounced during pregnancy. The use of HAART has the potential to reduce the incidence and severity of the disease. Tuberculosis (TB) is the commonest chest infection amongst HIV infected people, being more common amongst pregnant than non-pregnant women. It is the leading cause of death from infectious diseases amongst women of reproductive age, and accounts for at least a quarter of all cases of maternal deaths associated with non-pregnancy related infections (NPRI). TB can manifest at any stage of the HIV infection, including during treatment with HAART. The latter (ie TB manifestation during HAART treatment) is thought to be the commonest manifestation of what is now known as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In a South African report on maternal deaths, 55% of women who died of TB were on HAART, and a further 35% of women in the NPRI category died from other pneumoniae, notably pneumocystis jorevicci, which is also related to HIV infection. With regards to puerperal sepsis, studies are yet to show the impact of HAART independent of antibiotics in reducing infectious morbidity in HIV infected women. Preeclampsia has

  3. Stage IV advanced diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in human immunodeficiency virus infection with achieving cure by using highly active antiretroviral therapy alone: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lim, Do Hyoung; Rhee, Ji-Young; Park, Keon Woo

    2017-08-01

    After the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), there has been a decrease in the incidence of lymphoma among the HIV-infected population and also significantly improved survival rates. We describe a remarkable case of an HIV-infected patient with advanced stage IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), completely regressed with the use of HAART alone. He remained disease-free for 6 years and he achieved cure without chemotherapy. Although several cases of low-grade lymphoma with complete regression were reported, we could not find any case of stage IV high-grade malignant lymphoma with HAART alone in complete remission for over 5 years from our review of the literature. This unique case shows the importance of HAART in improving survival and achieving cure in HIV-high-grade malignant lymphoma.

  4. Successful administration of aggressive chemotherapy concomitant to tuberculostatic and highly active antiretroviral therapy in a patient with AIDS-related Burkitt's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, C; Wyen, C; Hoffmann, C; Fätkenheuer, G

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of AIDS-related malignant lymphoma (ARL) remains a therapeutic challenge. There are concerns not only about infectious and haematological complications in HIV-infected patients during intensive chemotherapy, but also about potential interactions between chemotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Current data on patients treated concomitantly with intensive chemotherapy and HAART are limited, and no data exist on patients with ARL suffering from active opportunistic infections. We report the case of a 38-year-old man with advanced HIV-1 infection, pulmonary tuberculosis and Burkitt's lymphoma. Intensive chemotherapy was administered in parallel with tuberculostatic therapy and HAART. Six months later, the patient achieved not only a complete remission of Burkitt's lymphoma and sustained viral suppression, but also a full recovery from tuberculosis. This case report provides some useful observations on the successful application of intensive chemotherapy in addition to tuberculostatic therapy and HAART in HIV-infected patients.

  5. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy versus Zidovudine for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission in a Programmatic Setting, Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Dryden-Peterson, Scott; Jayeoba, Oluwemimo; Hughes, Michael D.; Jibril, Haruna; Keapoletswe, Koona; Tlale, Josephine; Modise, Taolo A.; Asmelash, Aida; Moyo, Sikhulile; van Widenfelt, Erik; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Max; Shapiro, Roger L.; Lockman, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have compared the programmatic effectiveness of the recommended strategies of antenatal highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). We prospectively followed infants (93% formula-fed) whose mothers who took either HAART (258 infants) or zidovudine (170 infants) during pregnancy in the Botswana national program. Overall, 10 infants (2.5%) acquired HIV— 9 infants in the zidovudine group (5.5%, 95%CI 2.6-10.2%) and 1 infant in the HAART group (0.4%, 95%CI 0.0-2.2%). Maternal HAART was associated with decreased MTCT (P=0.001) and improved HIV-free survival (P=0.040) compared with zidovudine (with or without single-dose nevirapine) in a programmatic setting. PMID:21792062

  6. Cutaneous HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma: a potential setting for management by clinical observation.

    PubMed

    Beatrous, Surget V; Grisoli, Stratton B; Riahi, Ryan R; Cohen, Philip R

    2017-06-15

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a malignancy of viral etiology whose course ranges from cutaneous limited lesions to fulminant disease with multi-organ involvement. Four clinical variants of the disease exist: classic, endemic, iatrogenic, and epidemic. Iatrogenic and epidemic variants of Kaposi sarcoma develop in the setting of immune suppression. Transplant recipients who develop iatrogenic KS typically demonstrate improvement of lesions following de-escalation of immunosuppressive therapy. Similarly, HIV-infected patients who begin highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) experience immune reconstitution, which can induce KS regression. We describe two patients with varying clinical outcomes of cutaneous-limited HIV-associated KS after immune reconstitution with HAART. We propose that immune reconstitution with HAART, followed by clinical and radiographic surveillance for disease progression, may be an appropriate initial management strategy for limited cutaneous HIV-associated KS. In patients with more extensive disease at presentation or failure of HAART alone, antineoplastic therapy should be instituted.

  7. Blood vessel growth blocker may treat AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with an AIDS-associated cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), showed improvement after receiving the combination of bevacizumab, a cancer drug that blocks the growth of new blood vessels, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

  8. Impact of antiretroviral therapy on lipid metabolism of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: Old and new drugs

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Joel; Maselli, Luciana Morganti Ferreira; Stern, Ana Carolina Bassi; Spada, Celso; Bydlowski, Sérgio Paulo

    2015-01-01

    For human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, the 1990s were marked by the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) representing a new perspective of life for these patients. The use of HAART was shown to effectively suppress the replication of HIV-1 and dramatically reduce mortality and morbidity, which led to a better and longer quality of life for HIV-1-infected patients. Apart from the substantial benefits that result from the use of various HAART regimens, laboratory and clinical experience has shown that HAART can induce severe and considerable adverse effects related to metabolic complications of lipid metabolism, characterized by signs of lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, central adiposity, dyslipidemia, increased risk of cardiovascular disease and even an increased risk of atherosclerosis. New drugs are being studied, new therapeutic strategies are being implemented, and the use of statins, fibrates, and inhibitors of intestinal cholesterol absorption have been effective alternatives. Changes in diet and lifestyle have also shown satisfactory results. PMID:25964872

  9. Impact of antiretroviral therapy on lipid metabolism of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: Old and new drugs.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Joel; Maselli, Luciana Morganti Ferreira; Stern, Ana Carolina Bassi; Spada, Celso; Bydlowski, Sérgio Paulo

    2015-05-12

    For human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, the 1990s were marked by the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) representing a new perspective of life for these patients. The use of HAART was shown to effectively suppress the replication of HIV-1 and dramatically reduce mortality and morbidity, which led to a better and longer quality of life for HIV-1-infected patients. Apart from the substantial benefits that result from the use of various HAART regimens, laboratory and clinical experience has shown that HAART can induce severe and considerable adverse effects related to metabolic complications of lipid metabolism, characterized by signs of lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, central adiposity, dyslipidemia, increased risk of cardiovascular disease and even an increased risk of atherosclerosis. New drugs are being studied, new therapeutic strategies are being implemented, and the use of statins, fibrates, and inhibitors of intestinal cholesterol absorption have been effective alternatives. Changes in diet and lifestyle have also shown satisfactory results.

  10. [Treatment of HIV infection from the neurologic viewpoint. Therapy must reach the brain].

    PubMed

    von Giesen, H J; Köller, H; Arendt, G

    2002-04-09

    An effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can prevent the manifestation of HIV-1-associated encephalopathy. Also, HIV-1-associated minor cognitive/motor deficits--an early form of HIV-1-associated dementia--are improved. Clinically manifest HIV-1-associated encephalopathy is an indication for HAART treatment, irrespective of immune status. To date, minor cognitive and/or motor deficits in the presence of good immune status have not been identified as an indication for HAART treatment. Any CNS-effective treatment should be based on either zidovudine or stavudine, since these substances readily enter the CSF; however, NNRTI can also be applied. Side effects of HAART on the central and peripheral nervous system, as well as interactions with known neurological medicaments must be taken into account.

  11. Current developments in anti-HIV/AIDS gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Tsygankov, Alexander Y

    2009-02-01

    Since the introduction of highly active retroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996, dramatic improvements in therapeutic treatment modalities for HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infection have occurred. Potent drug combinations in HAART regimens efficiently block HIV-1 replication in most patients; however, multiple shortcomings of HAART are apparent and require novel treatments that can be utilized in combination with HAART or as stand-alone therapies. Gene therapy of HIV-1 represents one such treatment and several strategies are currently under development. This review focuses on advancements in the gene therapy of HIV/AIDS by highlighting the progress made in selecting new therapeutic targets and developing novel tools to exert an effect on these targets. In addition, new trends emerging from this progress are summarized. This review is based primarily on literature published between 2006 and 2008.

  12. Contraceptive Use and Method Preference among Women in Soweto, South Africa: The Influence of Expanding Access to HIV Care and Treatment Services

    PubMed Central

    Kaida, Angela; Laher, Fatima; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Money, Deborah; Janssen, Patricia A.; Hogg, Robert S.; Gray, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    Objective Preventing unintended pregnancy among HIV-positive women constitutes a critical and cost-effective approach to primary prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and is a global public health priority for addressing the desperate state of maternal and child health in HIV hyper-endemic settings. We sought to investigate whether the prevalence of contraceptive use and method preferences varied by HIV status and receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among women in Soweto, South Africa. Methods We used survey data from 563 sexually active, non-pregnant women (18–44 years) recruited from the Perinatal HIV Research Unit in Soweto (May–December, 2007); 171 women were HIV-positive and receiving HAART (median duration of use = 31 months; IQR = 28, 33), 178 were HIV-positive and HAART-naïve, and 214 were HIV-negative. Medical record review was conducted to confirm HIV status and clinical variables. Logistic regression models estimated adjusted associations between HIV status, receipt of HAART, and contraceptive use. Results Overall, 78% of women reported using contraception, with significant variation by HIV status: 86% of HAART users, 82% of HAART-naïve women, and 69% of HIV-negative women (p<0.0001). In adjusted models, compared with HIV-negative women, women receiving HAART were significantly more likely to use contraception while HAART-naïve women were non-significantly more likely (AOR: 2.40; 95% CI: 1.25, 4.62 and AOR: 1.59; 95% CI: 0.88, 2.85; respectively). Among HIV-positive women, HAART users were non-significantly more likely to use contraception compared with HAART-naïve women (AOR: 1.55; 95% CI: 0.84, 2.88). Similar patterns held for specific use of barrier (primarily male condoms), permanent, and dual protection contraceptive methods. Conclusion Among HIV-positive women receiving HAART, the observed higher prevalence of contraceptive use overall and condoms in particular promises to yield fewer unintended

  13. Impact of gender on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected patients: a nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Impact of gender on time to initiation, response to and risk of modification of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1 infected individuals is still controversial. Methods From a nationwide cohort of Danish HIV infected individuals we identified all heterosexually infected women (N=587) and heterosexually infected men (N=583) with no record of Hepatitis C infection diagnosed with HIV after 1 January 1997. Among these subjects, 473 women (81%) and 435 men (75%) initiated HAART from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2009. We used Cox regression to calculate hazard ratio (HR) for time to initiation of HAART, Poisson regression to assess incidence rate ratios (IRR) of risk of treatment modification the first year, logistic regression to estimate differences in the proportion with an undetectable viral load, and linear regression to detect differences in CD4 count at year 1, 3 and 6 after start of HAART. Results At initiation of HAART, women were younger, predominantly of Black ethnicity and had a higher CD4 count (adjusted p=0.026) and lower viral load (adjusted p=0.0003). When repeating the analysis excluding pregnant women no difference was seen in CD4 counts (adjusted p=0.21). We observed no delay in time to initiation of HAART in women compared to men (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.79-1.06). There were no gender differences in risk of treatment modification of the original HAART regimen during the first year of therapy for either toxicity (IRR 0.97 95% CI 0.66-1.44) or other/unknown reasons (IRR 1.18 95% CI 0.76-1.82). Finally, CD4 counts and the risk of having a detectable viral load at 1, 3 and 6 years did not differ between genders. Conclusions In a setting with free access to healthcare and HAART, gender does neither affect time from eligibility to HAART, modification of therapy nor virological and immunological response to HAART. Differences observed between genders are mainly attributable to initiation of HAART in pregnant women. PMID:23140254

  14. Drug Use and Receipt of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV-Infected Persons in Two U.S. Clinic Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Catherine C.; Weinstein, David D.; Samenow, Charles P.; Stinnette, Samuel E.; Barkanic, Gema; Rebeiro, Peter F.; Sterling, Timothy R.; Moore, Richard D.; Hulgan, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Objective Drug use and receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were assessed in HIV-infected persons from the Comprehensive Care Center (CCC; Nashville, TN) and Johns Hopkins University HIV Clinic (JHU; Baltimore, MD) between 1999 and 2005. Methods Participants with and without injection drug use (IDU) history in the CCC and JHU cohorts were evaluated. Additional analysis of persons with history of IDU, non-injection drug use (NIDU), and no drug use from CCC were performed. Activity of IDU and NIDU also was assessed for the CCC cohort. HAART use and time on HAART were analyzed according to drug use category and site of care. Results 1745 persons were included from CCC: 268 (15%) with IDU history and 796 (46%) with NIDU history. 1977 persons were included from JHU: 731 (35%) with IDU history. Overall, the cohorts differed in IDU risk factor rates, age, race, sex, and time in follow-up. In multivariate analyses, IDU was associated with decreased HAART receipt overall (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: [0.45–0.84] and OR = 0.58, 95% CI: [0.46–0.73], respectively for CCC and JHU) and less time on HAART at JHU (0.70, [0.55–0.88]), but not statistically associated with time on HAART at CCC (0.78, [0.56–1.09]). NIDU was independently associated with decreased HAART receipt (0.62, [0.47–0.81]) and less time on HAART (0.66, [0.52–0.85]) at CCC. These associations were not altered significantly whether patients at CCC were categorized according to historical drug use or drug use during the study period. Conclusions Persons with IDU history from both clinic populations were less likely to receive HAART and tended to have less cumulative time on HAART. Effects of NIDU were similar to IDU at CCC. NIDU without IDU is an important contributor to