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Sample records for ongoing brain activity

  1. The Relation of Ongoing Brain Activity, Evoked Neural Responses, and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Sadaghiani, Sepideh; Hesselmann, Guido; Friston, Karl J.; Kleinschmidt, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing brain activity has been observed since the earliest neurophysiological recordings and is found over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. It is characterized by remarkably large spontaneous modulations. Here, we review evidence for the functional role of these ongoing activity fluctuations and argue that they constitute an essential property of the neural architecture underlying cognition. The role of spontaneous activity fluctuations is probably best understood when considering both their spatiotemporal structure and their functional impact on cognition. We first briefly argue against a “segregationist” view on ongoing activity, both in time and space, which would selectively associate certain frequency bands or levels of spatial organization with specific functional roles. Instead, we emphasize the functional importance of the full range, from differentiation to integration, of intrinsic activity within a hierarchical spatiotemporal structure. We then highlight the flexibility and context-sensitivity of intrinsic functional connectivity that suggest its involvement in functionally relevant information processing. This role in information processing is pursued by reviewing how ongoing brain activity interacts with afferent and efferent information exchange of the brain with its environment. We focus on the relationship between the variability of ongoing and evoked brain activity, and review recent reports that tie ongoing brain activity fluctuations to variability in human perception and behavior. Finally, these observations are discussed within the framework of the free-energy principle which – applied to human brain function – provides a theoretical account for a non-random, coordinated interaction of ongoing and evoked activity in perception and behavior. PMID:20631840

  2. A Principle for Describing and Verifying Brain Mechanisms Using Ongoing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, David

    2017-01-01

    Not even the most informed scientist can setup a theory that takes all brain signals into account. A neuron not only receives neuronal short range and long range input from all over the brain but a neuron also receives input from the extracellular space, astrocytes and vasculature. Given this complexity, how does one describe and verify a typical brain mechanism in vivo? Common to most described mechanisms is that one focuses on how one specific input signal gives rise to the activity in a population of neurons. This can be an input from a brain area, a population of neurons or a specific cell type. All remaining inputs originating from all over the brain are lumped together into one background input. The division into two inputs is attractive since it can be used to quantify the relative importance of either input. Here we have chosen to extract the specific and the background input by means of recording and inhibiting the specific input. We summarize what it takes to estimate the two inputs on a single trial level. The inhibition should not only be strong but also fast and the specific input measurement has to be tailor-made to the inhibition. In essence, we suggest ways to control electrophysiological experiments in vivo. By applying those controls it may become possible to describe and verify many brain mechanisms, and it may also allow the study of the integration of spontaneous and ongoing activity, which in turn governs cognition and behavior. PMID:28174523

  3. Guiding transcranial brain stimulation by EEG/MEG to interact with ongoing brain activity and associated functions: A position paper.

    PubMed

    Thut, Gregor; Bergmann, Til Ole; Fröhlich, Flavio; Soekadar, Surjo R; Brittain, John-Stuart; Valero-Cabré, Antoni; Sack, Alexander; Miniussi, Carlo; Antal, Andrea; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Ziemann, Ulf; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2017-01-29

    Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques have a wide range of applications but also suffer from a number of limitations mainly related to poor specificity of intervention and variable effect size. These limitations motivated recent efforts to focus on the temporal dimension of NTBS with respect to the ongoing brain activity. Temporal patterns of ongoing neuronal activity, in particular brain oscillations and their fluctuations, can be traced with electro- or magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), to guide the timing as well as the stimulation settings of NTBS. These novel, online and offline EEG/MEG-guided NTBS-approaches are tailored to specifically interact with the underlying brain activity. Online EEG/MEG has been used to guide the timing of NTBS (i.e., when to stimulate): by taking into account instantaneous phase or power of oscillatory brain activity, NTBS can be aligned to fluctuations in excitability states. Moreover, offline EEG/MEG recordings prior to interventions can inform researchers and clinicians how to stimulate: by frequency-tuning NTBS to the oscillation of interest, intrinsic brain oscillations can be up- or down-regulated. In this paper, we provide an overview of existing approaches and ideas of EEG/MEG-guided interventions, and their promises and caveats. We point out potential future lines of research to address challenges.

  4. Ongoing Space Nuclear Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    Most ongoing US activities related to space nuclear power and propulsion are sponsored by NASA. NASA-spons0red space nuclear work is currently focused on evaluating potential fission surface power (FSP) systems and on radioisotope power systems (RPS). In addition, significant efforts related to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been completed and will provide a starting point for potential future NTP work.

  5. Single or multiple frequency generators in on-going brain activity: A mechanistic whole-brain model of empirical MEG data.

    PubMed

    Deco, Gustavo; Cabral, Joana; Woolrich, Mark W; Stevner, Angus B A; van Hartevelt, Tim J; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2017-05-15

    During rest, envelopes of band-limited on-going MEG signals co-vary across the brain in consistent patterns, which have been related to resting-state networks measured with fMRI. To investigate the genesis of such envelope correlations, we consider a whole-brain network model assuming two distinct fundamental scenarios: one where each brain area generates oscillations in a single frequency, and a novel one where each brain area can generate oscillations in multiple frequency bands. The models share, as a common generator of damped oscillations, the normal form of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation operating at the critical border between the steady state and the oscillatory regime. The envelopes of the simulated signals are compared with empirical MEG data using new methods to analyse the envelope dynamics in terms of their phase coherence and stability across the spectrum of carrier frequencies. Considering the whole-brain model with a single frequency generator in each brain area, we obtain the best fit with the empirical MEG data when the fundamental frequency is tuned at 12Hz. However, when multiple frequency generators are placed at each local brain area, we obtain an improved fit of the spatio-temporal structure of on-going MEG data across all frequency bands. Our results indicate that the brain is likely to operate on multiple frequency channels during rest, introducing a novel dimension for future models of large-scale brain activity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ongoing hydrothermal activities within Enceladus.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsiang-Wen; Postberg, Frank; Sekine, Yasuhito; Shibuya, Takazo; Kempf, Sascha; Horányi, Mihály; Juhász, Antal; Altobelli, Nicolas; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Masaki, Yuka; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Tachibana, Shogo; Sirono, Sin-iti; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Srama, Ralf

    2015-03-12

    Detection of sodium-salt-rich ice grains emitted from the plume of the Saturnian moon Enceladus suggests that the grains formed as frozen droplets from a liquid water reservoir that is, or has been, in contact with rock. Gravitational field measurements suggest a regional south polar subsurface ocean of about 10 kilometres thickness located beneath an ice crust 30 to 40 kilometres thick. These findings imply rock-water interactions in regions surrounding the core of Enceladus. The resulting chemical 'footprints' are expected to be preserved in the liquid and subsequently transported upwards to the near-surface plume sources, where they eventually would be ejected and could be measured by a spacecraft. Here we report an analysis of silicon-rich, nanometre-sized dust particles (so-called stream particles) that stand out from the water-ice-dominated objects characteristic of Saturn. We interpret these grains as nanometre-sized SiO2 (silica) particles, initially embedded in icy grains emitted from Enceladus' subsurface waters and released by sputter erosion in Saturn's E ring. The composition and the limited size range (2 to 8 nanometres in radius) of stream particles indicate ongoing high-temperature (>90 °C) hydrothermal reactions associated with global-scale geothermal activity that quickly transports hydrothermal products from the ocean floor at a depth of at least 40 kilometres up to the plume of Enceladus.

  7. Ongoing compound field potentials from octopus brain are labile and vertebrate-like.

    PubMed

    Bullock, T H

    1984-05-01

    Ongoing electrical activity was recorded from the brain of the virtually intact, semirestrained, unanesthetized octopus by semimicroelectrodes thrust through the cartilage into the optic, vertical or basal lobe. With flexible lead-in wires such electrodes were carried by and moved with the head without causing movement artifacts. Controls suggest that the activity reported comes from the brain; it is reversibly flattened by doses of urethane that do not embarrass respiration. Muscle potentials are only troublesome on occasion. Seen through a wideband filter, neuronal spikes are usually small or below noise level under these conditions; slow waves (1-70 Hz) dominate, with a maximum less than 25 Hz, usually less than 10 Hz and no consistent sharp peaks. The fall in power above ca. 25 Hz is usually slower than in the typical vertebrate EEG but the average power spectrum is much more like those of vertebrate brains than of cerebral ganglia of other invertebrates (insect, crustacean, gastropod). Variance among sample epochs is large, e.g. short spells may have relatively much more low frequency (less than 25 Hz) or more 'hashy' high frequency (greater than 50 Hz) energy; there may be runs of spikes. Fluctuation in the composition of ongoing activity is graphically shown by writing out in parallel the outputs of several narrow band (one octave) filters; this shows irregular low frequency waxing and waning of the amplitude in each band. The envelopes were computed and their peak power is around 1 Hz or lower; the waxing and waning in the several bands is sometimes strongly correlated, especially when the envelope amplitude is large and slow. Optic lobe activity tends usually to be faster, with more small spikey hash than in the vertical lobe. The described electrical activity of the brain is strikingly episodic; it is recorded during seconds or minutes separated by long intervals of nearly electrical silence (10-40 dB lower power; the difference larger at frequencies

  8. Dynamics of Multistable States during Ongoing and Evoked Cortical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mazzucato, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Single-trial analyses of ensemble activity in alert animals demonstrate that cortical circuits dynamics evolve through temporal sequences of metastable states. Metastability has been studied for its potential role in sensory coding, memory, and decision-making. Yet, very little is known about the network mechanisms responsible for its genesis. It is often assumed that the onset of state sequences is triggered by an external stimulus. Here we show that state sequences can be observed also in the absence of overt sensory stimulation. Analysis of multielectrode recordings from the gustatory cortex of alert rats revealed ongoing sequences of states, where single neurons spontaneously attain several firing rates across different states. This single-neuron multistability represents a challenge to existing spiking network models, where typically each neuron is at most bistable. We present a recurrent spiking network model that accounts for both the spontaneous generation of state sequences and the multistability in single-neuron firing rates. Each state results from the activation of neural clusters with potentiated intracluster connections, with the firing rate in each cluster depending on the number of active clusters. Simulations show that the model's ensemble activity hops among the different states, reproducing the ongoing dynamics observed in the data. When probed with external stimuli, the model predicts the quenching of single-neuron multistability into bistability and the reduction of trial-by-trial variability. Both predictions were confirmed in the data. Together, these results provide a theoretical framework that captures both ongoing and evoked network dynamics in a single mechanistic model. PMID:26019337

  9. Evidence for ongoing brain injury in human immunodeficiency virus–positive patients treated with antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, VA; Meyerhoff, DJ; Studholme, C; Kornak, J; Rothlind, J; Lampiris, H; Neuhaus, J; Grant, RM; Chao, LL; Truran, D; Weiner, MW

    2009-01-01

    Treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has greatly reduced the incidence of dementia. The goal of this longitudinal study was to determine if there are ongoing macrostructural brain changes in human immunodeficiency virus–positive (HIV+) individuals treated with ART. To quantify brain structure, three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed at baseline and again after 24 months in 39 HIV+ patients on ART and 30 HIV− controls. Longitudinal changes in brain volume were measured using tissue segmentation within regions of interest and deformation morphometry. Measured by tissue segmentation, HIV+ patients on ART had significantly (all P < .05) greater rates of white matter volume loss than HIV− control individuals. Compared with controls, the subgroup of HIV+ individuals on ART with viral suppression also had significantly greater rates of white matter volume loss. Deformation morphometry confirmed these results with more specific spatial localization. Deformation morphometry also detected greater rates of gray matter and white matter loss in the subgroup of HIV+ individuals with detectable viral loads. These results provide evidence of ongoing brain volume loss in HIV+ individuals on stable ART, possibly suggesting ongoing cerebral injury. The presence of continuing injury raises the possibility that HIV+ individuals—even in the presence of viral suppression in the periphery—are at greater risk for future cognitive impairments and dementia and possibly faster cognitive decline. Therefore, HIV+ individuals on ART should be monitored for cognitive decline, and treatments that reduce ongoing neurological injury should be considered. PMID:19499454

  10. Milieu matters: Evidence that ongoing lifestyle activities influence health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rob; Norman, Paul; Sheeran, Paschal

    2017-01-01

    Health behaviors occur within a milieu of lifestyle activities that could conflict with health actions. We examined whether cognitions about, and performance of, other lifestyle activities augment the prediction of health behaviors, and whether these lifestyle factors are especially influential among individuals with low health behavior engagement. Participants (N = 211) completed measures of past behavior and cognitions relating to five health behaviors (e.g., smoking, getting drunk) and 23 lifestyle activities (e.g., reading, socializing), as well as personality variables. All behaviors were measured again at two weeks. Data were analyzed using neural network and cluster analyses. The neural network accurately predicted health behaviors at follow-up (R2 = .71). As hypothesized, lifestyle cognitions and activities independently predicted health behaviors over and above behavior-specific cognitions and previous behavior. Additionally, lifestyle activities and poor self-regulatory capability were more influential among people exhibiting unhealthy behaviors. Considering ongoing lifestyle activities can enhance prediction and understanding of health behaviors and offer new targets for health behavior interventions.

  11. Milieu matters: Evidence that ongoing lifestyle activities influence health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Rob; Norman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Health behaviors occur within a milieu of lifestyle activities that could conflict with health actions. We examined whether cognitions about, and performance of, other lifestyle activities augment the prediction of health behaviors, and whether these lifestyle factors are especially influential among individuals with low health behavior engagement. Participants (N = 211) completed measures of past behavior and cognitions relating to five health behaviors (e.g., smoking, getting drunk) and 23 lifestyle activities (e.g., reading, socializing), as well as personality variables. All behaviors were measured again at two weeks. Data were analyzed using neural network and cluster analyses. The neural network accurately predicted health behaviors at follow-up (R2 = .71). As hypothesized, lifestyle cognitions and activities independently predicted health behaviors over and above behavior-specific cognitions and previous behavior. Additionally, lifestyle activities and poor self-regulatory capability were more influential among people exhibiting unhealthy behaviors. Considering ongoing lifestyle activities can enhance prediction and understanding of health behaviors and offer new targets for health behavior interventions. PMID:28662120

  12. Ongoing Contact Activation in Patients with Hereditary Angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Konings, Joke; Cugno, Massimo; Suffritti, Chiara; ten Cate, Hugo; Cicardi, Marco; Govers-Riemslag, José W. P.

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is predominantly caused by a deficiency in C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) (HAE-C1INH). C1INH inhibits activated factor XII (FXIIa), activated factor XI (FXIa), and kallikrein. In HAE-C1INH patients the thrombotic risk is not increased even though activation of the contact system is poorly regulated. Therefore, we hypothesized that contact activation preferentially leads to kallikrein formation and less to activation of the coagulation cascade in HAE-C1INH patients. We measured the levels of C1INH in complex with activated contact factors in plasma samples of HAE-C1INH patients (N=30, 17 during remission and 13 during acute attack) and healthy controls (N=10). We did not detect differences in enzyme-inhibitor complexes between samples of controls, patients during remission and patients during an acute attack. Reconstitution with C1INH did not change this result. Next, we determined the potential to form enzyme-inhibitory complexes after complete in vitro activation of the plasma samples with a FXII trigger. In all samples, enzyme-C1INH levels increased after activation even in patients during an acute attack. However, the levels of FXIIa-C1INH, FXIa-C1INH and kallikrein-C1INH were at least 52% lower in samples taken during remission and 70% lower in samples taken during attack compared to samples from controls (p<0.05). Addition of C1INH after activation led to an increase in levels of FXIIa-C1INH and FXIa-C1INH (p<0.05), which were still lower than in controls (p<0.05), while the levels of kallikrein-C1INH did not change. These results are consistent with constitutive activation and attenuated depletion of the contact system and show that the ongoing activation of the contact system, which is present in HAE-C1INH patients both during remission and during acute attacks, is not associated with preferential generation of kallikrein over FXIa. PMID:24013493

  13. Comparison of ongoing compound field potentials in the brains of invertebrates and vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bullock, T H; Basar, E

    1988-01-01

    (1) Ongoing compound field potential fluctuations of higher brain centers (the micro-EEG of some authors) are considered as a biological phenomenon, a sign of the activity in the organized assemblage of cells. Such activity has been compared in several taxa with quite different brain structure to look for possible evolution in the form of the field potentials and for possible explanations of differences and similarities. (2) Recordings were made with semimicroelectrodes in the neuropile of the cerebral ganglion of the mollusc, Aplysia, with comparative observations on Helix, and the arthropods Limulus, Melanoplus, and Cambarus, and in or on the cerebral cortex and optic tectum of rays, cats and rabbits, with comparative observations on sharks, bony fish, turtles and geckos in unstimulated resting or generalized arousal states. Manipulations of state did not alter the main findings. (3) Power spectra in the cerebral ganglia of various higher invertebrates are similar; activity is fast and spikey (with the exception of Octopus). Integrated energy above 50 Hz exceeds that from 2-50 Hz and falls slowly with frequency; in Aplysia the power spectrum falls less than 10 dB between 10 and 300 Hz. In vertebrates from fish to mammals activity is similar in being mainly slow (less than 40 Hz); it commonly falls greater than 20 dB between 10 and 50 Hz. (4) Amplitude is low in invertebrates and lower vertebrates. RMS voltage in Aplysia (3-300 Hz, reference electrode remote) is typically less than 10 microV; in the ray optic tectum less than 25 microV (2-50 Hz); in the dorsal cortex of the gecko less than 30 microV, in the cat cortex greater than 85 microV. In the vertebrates amplitude does not change greatly with small shifts in electrode position, as it does in invertebrates. (5) Coherence decline with distance, measured tangentially at different electrode separations in the millimeter range, is used as an estimator of synchrony. Averaged coherence between loci 1 mm apart is

  14. The Minority Aging Research Study: ongoing efforts to obtain brain donation in African Americans without dementia.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Lisa L; Shah, Raj C; Aggarwal, Neelum T; Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A

    2012-07-01

    The Minority Aging Research Study (MARS) is a longitudinal, epidemiologic cohort study of decline in cognitive function and risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older African Americans, with brain donation after death added as an optional component for those willing to consider organ donation. In this manuscript, we first summarize the study design and methods of MARS. We then provide details of ongoing efforts to achieve neuropathologic data on over 100 African Americans participating in MARS and in three other clinical-pathologic cohort studies at Rush University Medical Center. The results examine strategies for recruiting and consenting African Americans without dementia; (2) efforts to maintain high rates of follow-up participation; (3) strategies for achieving high rates of agreement to brain donation; and (4) the methodology of obtaining rapid brain autopsy at death. The implications of these efforts are discussed.

  15. Robustness of traveling waves in ongoing activity of visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Nauhaus, Ian; Busse, Laura; Ringach, Dario L; Carandini, Matteo

    2012-02-29

    Numerous studies have revealed traveling waves of activity in sensory cortex, both following sensory stimulation and during ongoing activity. We contributed to this body of work by measuring the spike-triggered average of the local field potential (stLFP) at multiple concurrent locations (Nauhaus et al., 2009) in the visual cortex of anesthetized cats and macaques. We found the stLFP to be progressively delayed at increasing distances from the site of the triggering spikes, and interpreted this as a traveling wave of depolarization originating from that site. Our results were criticized, however, on two grounds. First, a study using the same recording techniques in the visual cortex of awake macaques reported an apparent lack of traveling waves, and proposed that traveling waves could arise artifactually from excessive filtering of the field potentials (Ray and Maunsell, 2011). Second, the interpretability of the stLFP was questioned (Kenneth Miller, personal communication), as the stLFP must reflect not only interactions between spike trains and field potentials, but also correlations within and across the spike trains. Here, we show that our data and interpretation are not imperiled by these criticisms. We reanalyzed our field potentials to remove any possible artifact due to filtering and to discount the effects of correlations within and across the triggering spike trains. In both cases, we found that the traveling waves were still present. In fact, closer inspection of Ray and Maunsell's (2011) data from awake cortex shows that they do agree with ours, as they contain clear evidence for traveling waves.

  16. 7T MRI in natalizumab-associated PML and ongoing MS disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Sinnecker, Tim; Othman, Jalal; Kühl, Marc; Mekle, Ralf; Selbig, Inga; Niendorf, Thoralf; Kunkel, Annett; Wienecke, Peter; Kern, Peter; Faiss, Juergen; Wuerfel, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the ability of ultra-high-field MRI to distinguish early progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) from multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in a rare case of simultaneous presentation of natalizumab–associated PML and ongoing MS activity. Methods: Advanced neuroimaging including 1.5T, 3T, and 7T MRI with a spatial resolution of up to 0.08 mm3 was performed. Results: 7T MRI differentiated between PML-related and MS-related brain damage in vivo. Ring-enhancing MS plaques displayed a central vein, whereas confluent PML lesions were preceded by punctate or milky way–like T2 lesions. Conclusions: Given the importance of early diagnosis of treatment-associated PML, future systematic studies are warranted to assess the value of highly resolving MRI in differentiating between early PML- and MS-induced brain parenchymal lesions. PMID:26568970

  17. Investigating ongoing brain oscillations and their influence on conscious perception - network states and the window to consciousness.

    PubMed

    Ruhnau, Philipp; Hauswald, Anne; Weisz, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    In cognitive neuroscience, prerequisites of consciousness are of high interest. Within recent years it has become more commonly understood that ongoing brain activity, mainly measured with electrophysiology, can predict whether an upcoming stimulus is consciously perceived. One approach to investigate the relationship between ongoing brain activity and conscious perception is to conduct near-threshold (NT) experiments and focus on the pre-stimulus period. The current review will, in the first part, summarize main findings of pre-stimulus research from NT experiments, mainly focusing on the alpha band (8-14 Hz). It is probable that the most prominent finding is that local (mostly sensory) areas show enhanced excitatory states prior to detection of upcoming NT stimuli, as putatively reflected by decreased alpha band power. However, the view of a solely local excitability change seems to be too narrow. In a recent paper, using a somatosensory NT task, Weisz et al. (2014) replicated the common alpha finding and, furthermore, conceptually embedded this finding into a more global framework called "Windows to Consciousness" (Win2Con). In this review, we want to further elaborate on the crucial assumption of "open windows" to conscious perception, determined by pre-established pathways connecting sensory and higher order areas. Methodologically, connectivity and graph theoretical analyses are applied to source-imaging magnetoencephalographic data to uncover brain regions with strong network integration as well as their connection patterns. Sensory regions with stronger network integration will more likely distribute information when confronted with weak NT stimuli, favoring its subsequent conscious perception. First experimental evidence confirms our aforementioned "open window" hypothesis. We therefore emphasize that future research on prerequisites of consciousness needs to move on from investigating solely local excitability to a more global view of network connectivity.

  18. Acute lymphoid changes and ongoing immune activation in SIV infection.

    PubMed

    Popov, J; McGraw, T; Hofmann, B; Vowels, B; Shum, A; Nishanian, P; Fahey, J L

    1992-01-01

    Two features of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection are emphasized: a transitory decrease in CD4 T cells in the first 2 weeks of infection followed by CD8 T-cell rise, and immune cell activation occurring by 4 weeks and persisting throughout the illness. The short-term changes included a fall in CD4 T cells by 2 weeks with partial recovery by 4 weeks and a CD8 rise that starts at 2 weeks. Subsequent characterization of CD4 T cells showed reduced expression of HLA-DR and CD25 (IL-2 receptor alpha chain) antigens later in SIV infection. Immune cell activation is evident in increased serum levels of neopterin and soluble CD8 antigen. Serum beta 2-microglobulin changes are less marked. Activation of CD8 T cells is reflected by increased percentages of cells expressing HLA-DR antigen. The B-cell numbers increased late in the course of SIV infection. Increased expression of the CD78 (Leu 21) activation phenotype was also seen in some monkeys. The immune activation changes (serum neopterin levels) induced by SIV infection in rhesus macaques appear to be associated with duration of illness, although the number of monkeys observed until death were too few for conclusive data. Thus, immune activation as well as T-cell deficiency may reflect significant immunopathogenic processes in SIV-induced disease.

  19. International Social Indicators: An Overview of On-Going Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dusen, Roxann A.

    International social indicators, focusing on assessment of the quality of life, measurement of social changes, and program evaluation, are the subject of this paper. Beginning with a look at various national reports which are currently being produced, it is felt that these documents and the data gathering activities upon which they are based form…

  20. 24 CFR 35.935 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ongoing lead-based paint..., Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Rehabilitation § 35.935 Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities. In the case of a rental...

  1. 24 CFR 35.1220 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ongoing lead-based paint..., Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Tenant-Based Rental Assistance § 35.1220 Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities...

  2. 24 CFR 35.935 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Rehabilitation § 35.935 Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities. In the case of a rental... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ongoing lead-based...

  3. 24 CFR 35.935 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Rehabilitation § 35.935 Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities. In the case of a rental... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ongoing lead-based...

  4. 24 CFR 35.935 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Rehabilitation § 35.935 Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities. In the case of a rental... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ongoing lead-based...

  5. 24 CFR 35.935 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Rehabilitation § 35.935 Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities. In the case of a rental... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ongoing lead-based...

  6. The restless brain: how intrinsic activity organizes brain function

    PubMed Central

    Raichle, Marcus E.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally studies of brain function have focused on task-evoked responses. By their very nature such experiments tacitly encourage a reflexive view of brain function. While such an approach has been remarkably productive at all levels of neuroscience, it ignores the alternative possibility that brain functions are mainly intrinsic and ongoing, involving information processing for interpreting, responding to and predicting environmental demands. I suggest that the latter view best captures the essence of brain function, a position that accords well with the allocation of the brain's energy resources, its limited access to sensory information and a dynamic, intrinsic functional organization. The nature of this intrinsic activity, which exhibits a surprising level of organization with dimensions of both space and time, is revealed in the ongoing activity of the brain and its metabolism. As we look to the future, understanding the nature of this intrinsic activity will require integrating knowledge from cognitive and systems neuroscience with cellular and molecular neuroscience where ion channels, receptors, components of signal transduction and metabolic pathways are all in a constant state of flux. The reward for doing so will be a much better understanding of human behaviour in health and disease. PMID:25823869

  7. The restless brain: how intrinsic activity organizes brain function.

    PubMed

    Raichle, Marcus E

    2015-05-19

    Traditionally studies of brain function have focused on task-evoked responses. By their very nature such experiments tacitly encourage a reflexive view of brain function. While such an approach has been remarkably productive at all levels of neuroscience, it ignores the alternative possibility that brain functions are mainly intrinsic and ongoing, involving information processing for interpreting, responding to and predicting environmental demands. I suggest that the latter view best captures the essence of brain function, a position that accords well with the allocation of the brain's energy resources, its limited access to sensory information and a dynamic, intrinsic functional organization. The nature of this intrinsic activity, which exhibits a surprising level of organization with dimensions of both space and time, is revealed in the ongoing activity of the brain and its metabolism. As we look to the future, understanding the nature of this intrinsic activity will require integrating knowledge from cognitive and systems neuroscience with cellular and molecular neuroscience where ion channels, receptors, components of signal transduction and metabolic pathways are all in a constant state of flux. The reward for doing so will be a much better understanding of human behaviour in health and disease.

  8. Ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM, a brain size determinant in Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Mekel-Bobrov, Nitzan; Gilbert, Sandra L; Evans, Patrick D; Vallender, Eric J; Anderson, Jeffrey R; Hudson, Richard R; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Lahn, Bruce T

    2005-09-09

    The gene ASPM (abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated) is a specific regulator of brain size, and its evolution in the lineage leading to Homo sapiens was driven by strong positive selection. Here, we show that one genetic variant of ASPM in humans arose merely about 5800 years ago and has since swept to high frequency under strong positive selection. These findings, especially the remarkably young age of the positively selected variant, suggest that the human brain is still undergoing rapid adaptive evolution.

  9. 24 CFR 35.1355 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ongoing lead-based...

  10. 24 CFR 35.1355 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ongoing lead-based...

  11. 24 CFR 35.1355 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ongoing lead-based...

  12. 24 CFR 35.1355 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ongoing lead-based...

  13. 24 CFR 35.1355 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ongoing lead-based...

  14. Tracking ongoing cognition in individuals using brief, whole-brain functional connectivity patterns

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Hoy, Colin W.; Handwerker, Daniel A.; Robinson, Meghan E.; Buchanan, Laura C.; Saad, Ziad S.; Bandettini, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Functional connectivity (FC) patterns in functional MRI exhibit dynamic behavior on the scale of seconds, with rich spatiotemporal structure and limited sets of whole-brain, quasi-stable FC configurations (FC states) recurring across time and subjects. Based on previous evidence linking various aspects of cognition to group-level, minute-to-minute FC changes in localized connections, we hypothesized that whole-brain FC states may reflect the global, orchestrated dynamics of cognitive processing on the scale of seconds. To test this hypothesis, subjects were continuously scanned as they engaged in and transitioned between mental states dictated by tasks. FC states computed within windows as short as 22.5 s permitted robust tracking of cognition in single subjects with near perfect accuracy. Accuracy dropped markedly for subjects with the lowest task performance. Spatially restricting FC information decreased accuracy at short time scales, emphasizing the distributed nature of whole-brain FC dynamics, beyond univariate magnitude changes, as valuable markers of cognition. PMID:26124112

  15. ONGOING ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC ACTIVITY ASSOCIATED WITH CORTICAL AROUSAL IN TRANSGENIC PDAPP MICE (hAPP V717F).

    PubMed

    Del Percio, Claudio; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus; Lopez, Susanna; Limatola, Cristina; Bastlund, Jesper F; Christensen, Ditte Zerlang; Pedersen, Jan T; Forloni, Gianluigi; Frasca, Angelisa; Noè, Francesco M; Bentivoglio, Marina; Fabene, Paolo F; Bertini, Giuseppe; Colavito, Valeria; Dix, Sophie; Ferri, Raffaele; Bordet, Regis; Richardso, Jill C; Babiloni, Claudio

    2017-07-04

    It has been shown that theta (6-10 Hz) and delta (1-6 Hz) ongoing electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms revealed variations in the cortical arousal in C57 Wild Type (WT) mice during cage exploration (active condition) compared to awake quiet behavior (passive condition; IMI PharmaCog project, www.pharmacog.eu). Test if these EEG rhythms might be abnormal in old PDAPP mice modeling Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a hAPP Indiana V717F mutation (They show abnormal neural transmission, cognitive deficits, and brain accumulation of Aβ1-42). Ongoing EEG rhythms were recorded by a frontoparietal bipolar channel in 15 PDAPP and 23 WT C57 male mice (mean age of 22.8 months ±0.4 and 0.3 standard error, respectively). EEG absolute power (density) was calculated. Frequency and amplitude of individual delta and theta frequency (IDF and ITF) peaks were considered during passive and active states in the wakefulness. Compared with the WT group, the PDAPP group showed higher frequency of the IDF during the passive condition and lower frequency of the ITF during the active state. Furthermore, the WT but not PDAPP group showed significant changes in the frontoparietal EEG power (IDF, ITF) during active over passive state. PDAPP mice were characterized by less changes in the brain arousal during an active state as revealed by frontoparietal EEG rhythms. Future studies will have to cross-validate the present results on large animal groups, clarify the neurophysiological underpinning of the effect, and test if the disease modifying drugs against AD amyloidosis normalize those candiate EEG biomarkers in PDAPP mice. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Ongoing transitions: the impact of a malignant brain tumour on patient and family.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Yasmin

    2007-01-01

    Although primary malignant brain tumours represent only 1.4% of all cancers, it is considered one of the most devastating types of cancers in adults. From the time of diagnosis, the patient and family embark on a "roller coaster" ride of uncertainty, fear and hope. Despite improved medical outcomes, patients often experience severe functional impairment, as well as behavioural and cognitive dysfunction. Subsequently, they suffer from greater dependency and hopelessness than other cancer patients. The family caregivers are faced with multiple demands such as taking on new roles within the family and caring for their loved one while grieving the loss of the person they knew. The role of the nurse is to support the patient and the family throughout the illness trajectory, identify and promote their strengths and mobilize the necessary resources to facilitate patient and family coping. The purpose of this paper is to present, via a detailed case study, the impact of a malignant brain tumour on the patient and the family. The nursing strategies used to help them make the necessary transitions throughout the illness trajectory are discussed.

  17. Dynamic synchronization of ongoing neuronal activity across spinal segments regulates sensory information flow

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Hernández, E; Chávez, D; Rudomin, P

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the correlation between spontaneous cord dorsum potentials recorded in the lumbar spinal segments of anaesthetized cats suggested the operation of a population of dorsal horn neurones that modulates, in a differential manner, transmission along pathways mediating Ib non-reciprocal postsynaptic inhibition and pathways mediating primary afferent depolarization and presynaptic inhibition. In order to gain further insight into the possible neuronal mechanisms that underlie this process, we have measured changes in the correlation between the spontaneous activity of individual dorsal horn neurones and the cord dorsum potentials associated with intermittent activation of these inhibitory pathways. We found that high levels of neuronal synchronization within the dorsal horn are associated with states of incremented activity along the pathways mediating presynaptic inhibition relative to pathways mediating Ib postsynaptic inhibition. It is suggested that ongoing changes in the patterns of functional connectivity within a distributed ensemble of dorsal horn neurones play a relevant role in the state-dependent modulation of impulse transmission along inhibitory pathways, among them those involved in the central control of sensory information. This feature would allow the same neuronal network to be involved in different functional tasks. Key points We have examined, in the spinal cord of the anaesthetized cat, the relationship between ongoing correlated fluctuations of dorsal horn neuronal activity and state-dependent activation of inhibitory reflex pathways. We found that high levels of synchronization between the spontaneous activity of dorsal horn neurones occur in association with the preferential activation of spinal pathways leading to primary afferent depolarization and presynaptic inhibition relative to activation of pathways mediating Ib postsynaptic inhibition. It is suggested that changes in synchronization of ongoing activity within a

  18. Magnetoencephalography Slow-Wave Detection in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Ongoing Symptoms Correlated with Long-Term Neuropsychological Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Robb Swan, Ashley; Nichols, Sharon; Drake, Angela; Angeles, AnneMarie; Diwakar, Mithun; Song, Tao; Lee, Roland R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is common in the United States, accounting for as many as 75–80% of all TBIs. It is recognized as a significant public health concern, but there are ongoing controversies regarding the etiology of persistent symptoms post-mTBI. This constellation of nonspecific symptoms is referred to as postconcussive syndrome (PCS). The present study combined results from magnetoencephalography (MEG) and cognitive assessment to examine group differences and relationships between brain activity and cognitive performance in 31 military and civilian individuals with a history of mTBI+PCS and 33 matched healthy control subjects. An operator-free analysis was used for MEG data to increase reliability of the technique. Subjects completed a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, and measures of abnormal slow-wave activity from MEG were collected. Results demonstrated significant group differences on measures of executive functioning and processing speed. In addition, significant correlations between slow-wave activity on MEG and patterns of cognitive functioning were found in cortical areas, consistent with cognitive impairments on exams. Results provide more objective evidence that there may be subtle changes to the neurobiological integrity of the brain that can be detected by MEG. Further, these findings suggest that these abnormalities are associated with cognitive outcomes and may account, at least in part, for long-term PCS in those who have sustained an mTBI. PMID:25808909

  19. Memory retrieval requires ongoing protein synthesis and NMDA receptor activity-mediated AMPA receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Joëlle; Gamache, Karine; Schneider, Rilla; Nader, Karim

    2015-02-11

    Whereas consolidation and reconsolidation are considered dynamic processes requiring protein synthesis, memory retrieval has long been considered a passive readout of previously established plasticity. However, previous findings suggest that memory retrieval may be more dynamic than previously thought. This study therefore aimed at investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying memory retrieval in the rat. Infusion of protein synthesis inhibitors (rapamycin or anisomycin) in the amygdala 10 min before memory retrieval transiently impaired auditory fear memory expression, suggesting ongoing protein synthesis is required to enable memory retrieval. We then investigated the role of protein synthesis in NMDA receptor activity-mediated AMPA receptor trafficking. Coinfusion of an NMDA receptor antagonist (ifenprodil) or infusion of an AMPA receptor endocytosis inhibitor (GluA23Y) before rapamycin prevented this memory impairment. Furthermore, rapamycin transiently decreased GluA1 levels at the postsynaptic density (PSD), but did not affect extrasynaptic sites. This effect at the PSD was prevented by an infusion of GluA23Y before rapamycin. Together, these data show that ongoing protein synthesis is required before memory retrieval is engaged, and suggest that this protein synthesis may be involved in the NMDAR activity-mediated trafficking of AMPA receptors that takes place during memory retrieval.

  20. Ongoing Spontaneous Activity Controls Access to Consciousness: A Neuronal Model for Inattentional Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Changeux, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Even in the absence of sensory inputs, cortical and thalamic neurons can show structured patterns of ongoing spontaneous activity, whose origins and functional significance are not well understood. We use computer simulations to explore the conditions under which spontaneous activity emerges from a simplified model of multiple interconnected thalamocortical columns linked by long-range, top-down excitatory axons, and to examine its interactions with stimulus-induced activation. Simulations help characterize two main states of activity. First, spontaneous gamma-band oscillations emerge at a precise threshold controlled by ascending neuromodulator systems. Second, within a spontaneously active network, we observe the sudden “ignition” of one out of many possible coherent states of high-level activity amidst cortical neurons with long-distance projections. During such an ignited state, spontaneous activity can block external sensory processing. We relate those properties to experimental observations on the neural bases of endogenous states of consciousness, and particularly the blocking of access to consciousness that occurs in the psychophysical phenomenon of “inattentional blindness,” in which normal subjects intensely engaged in mental activity fail to notice salient but irrelevant sensory stimuli. Although highly simplified, the generic properties of a minimal network may help clarify some of the basic cerebral phenomena underlying the autonomy of consciousness. PMID:15819609

  1. Ongoing spontaneous activity controls access to consciousness: a neuronal model for inattentional blindness.

    PubMed

    Dehaene, Stanislas; Changeux, Jean-Pierre

    2005-05-01

    Even in the absence of sensory inputs, cortical and thalamic neurons can show structured patterns of ongoing spontaneous activity, whose origins and functional significance are not well understood. We use computer simulations to explore the conditions under which spontaneous activity emerges from a simplified model of multiple interconnected thalamocortical columns linked by long-range, top-down excitatory axons, and to examine its interactions with stimulus-induced activation. Simulations help characterize two main states of activity. First, spontaneous gamma-band oscillations emerge at a precise threshold controlled by ascending neuromodulator systems. Second, within a spontaneously active network, we observe the sudden "ignition" of one out of many possible coherent states of high-level activity amidst cortical neurons with long-distance projections. During such an ignited state, spontaneous activity can block external sensory processing. We relate those properties to experimental observations on the neural bases of endogenous states of consciousness, and particularly the blocking of access to consciousness that occurs in the psychophysical phenomenon of "inattentional blindness," in which normal subjects intensely engaged in mental activity fail to notice salient but irrelevant sensory stimuli. Although highly simplified, the generic properties of a minimal network may help clarify some of the basic cerebral phenomena underlying the autonomy of consciousness.

  2. Thermal Filters for the ATHENA X-IFU: Ongoing Activities Toward the Conceptual Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Marco; Argan, A.; Bozzo, E.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Ciaravella, A.; Collura, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Gatti, F.; Jimenez Escobar, A.; Lo Cicero, U.; Lotti, S.; Macculi, C.; Mineo, T.; Nuzzo, F.; Paltani, S.; Parodi, G.; Piro, L.; Rauw, G.; Sciortino, L.; Sciortino, S.; Villa, F.

    2016-08-01

    ATHENA is the L2 mission selected by ESA to pursue the science theme "Hot and Energetic Universe." One of the two focal plane instruments is the X-ray Integral Field Unit, an array of TES microcalorimeters operated at T < 100 mK. To allow the X-ray photons focused by the telescope to reach the detector, windows have to be opened on the cryostat thermal shields. X-ray transparent filters need to be mounted on these open windows to attenuate the IR radiation from warm surfaces, to attenuate RF electromagnetic interferences on TES sensors and SQUID electronics, and to protect the detector from contamination. This paper reviews the ongoing activities driving the design of the X-IFU thermal filters.

  3. Glomerular C3c localization indicates ongoing immune deposit formation and complement activation in experimental glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, M.; Pruchno, C. J.; Burns, M.; Baker, P. J.; Johnson, R. J.; Couser, W. G.

    1993-01-01

    In antibody-mediated glomerular disease, deposits of C3 (C3b) are common and are degraded by factor I to C3c and C3d. However, the kinetics of C3b degradation in glomerulonephritis have not been defined. To do this, we studied three models of complement-dependent glomerulonephritis with established C3 deposits (passive Heymann nephritis, cationized immunoglobulin G membranous nephropathy, and concanavalin A-anticoncanavalin A glomerulonephritis). C3b deposition was halted by administration of cobra venom factor, and the disappearance of C3c and C3d from glomeruli was measured with specific antibodies and quantitative fluorescence densitometry. Results showed that C3c deposits were reduced by over 85% within 24 hours in all three models. C3c clearance was unaffected by site or mechanism of deposit formation. C3d deposits persisted despite lack of ongoing complement activation. In passive Heymann nephritis when disease activity was monitored by urinary C5b-9 excretion, C3c was cleared in parallel with return of urine C5b-9 excretion to normal values. We conclude that glomerular deposits of C3c are cleared within 24 hours of cessation of complement activation. Positive staining for C3 utilizing antibody specific for the C3c portion documents recent complement activation usually reflecting new immune deposit formation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7678717

  4. Attenuation of activity in an endogenous analgesia circuit by ongoing pain in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Luiz F; Gear, Robert W; Levine, Jon D

    2010-10-13

    Analgesic efficacy varies depending on the pain syndrome being treated. One reason for this may be a differential effect of individual pain syndromes on the function of the endogenous pain control circuits at which these drugs act to produce analgesia. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of diverse (i.e., ongoing inflammatory, neuropathic, or chronic widespread) pain syndromes on analgesia induced by activation of an opioid-mediated, noxious stimulus-induced endogenous pain control circuit. This circuit was activated by subdermal capsaicin injection at a site remote from the site of nociceptive testing. Analgesia was not affected by carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain or the early phase of oxaliplatin neuropathy (a complication of cancer chemotherapy). However, the duration of analgesia was markedly shorter in the late phase of oxaliplatin neuropathy and in alcoholic neuropathy. A model of fibromyalgia syndrome produced by chronic unpredictable stress and proinflammatory cytokines also shortened analgesia duration, but so did the same stress alone. Therefore, since chronic pain can activate neuroendocrine stress axes, we tested whether they are involved in the attenuation of analgesic duration induced by these pain syndromes. Rats in which the sympathoadrenal axis was ablated by adrenal medullectomy showed normal duration pain-induced analgesia in groups with either late-phase oxaliplatin neuropathy, alcoholic neuropathy, or exposure to sound stress. These results support the suggestion that pain syndromes can modulate activity in endogenous pain control circuits and that this effect is sympathoadrenal dependent.

  5. Attenuation of Activity in an Endogenous Analgesia Circuit by Ongoing Pain in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Luiz F.; Gear, Robert W.; Levine, Jon D.

    2010-01-01

    Analgesic efficacy varies depending on the pain syndrome being treated. One reason for this may be a differential effect of individual pain syndromes on the function of endogenous pain control circuits at which these drugs act to produce analgesia. To test this hypothesis we examined the effects of diverse (i.e., ongoing inflammatory, neuropathic, or chronic widespread) pain syndromes on analgesia induced by activation of an opioid-mediated noxious stimulus-induced endogenous pain control circuit. This circuit was activated by subdermal capsaicin injection at a site remote from the site of nociceptive testing. Analgesia was not affected by carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain nor the early-phase of oxaliplatin neuropathy (a complication of cancer chemotherapy). However, the duration of analgesia was markedly shorter in the late-phase of oxaliplatin neuropathy and in alcoholic neuropathy. A model of fibromyalgia syndrome produced by chronic unpredictable stress and proinflammatory cytokines also shortened analgesia duration, but so did the same stress alone. Therefore, since chronic pain can activate neuroendocrine stress axes, we tested whether they are involved in the attenuation of analgesic duration induced by these pain syndromes. Rats in which the sympathoadrenal axis was ablated by adrenal medullectomy showed normal duration pain-induced analgesia in groups with either late-phase oxaliplatin neuropathy, alcoholic neuropathy, or exposure to sound stress. These results support the suggestion that pain syndromes can modulate activity in endogenous pain control circuits, and this effect is sympathoadrenal dependent. PMID:20943910

  6. Early postoperative serum S100β levels predict ongoing brain damage after meningioma surgery: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Sharon; Shoshan, Yigal; Ovadia, Haim; Matot, Idit; Hersch, Moshe; Itshayek, Eyal

    2006-01-01

    associated with higher serum S100β levels immediately (p = 0.022, 95% CI -0.092 to -0.007) and at 48 hours after surgery (p = 0.017, 95% CI -0.142 to -0.026). The degree of elevation in S100β levels at 24 and 48 hours after surgery also correlated with the severity of midline shift and edema. Conclusion In patients with meningioma, serum S100β levels perform poorly as an indicator of tumour characteristics but may suggest ongoing postcraniotomy injury. Serum S100β levels may serve as a potentially useful early marker of postcraniotomy brain damage in patients undergoing elective meningioma resection. PMID:17020600

  7. No effect of mercury exposure on kidney function during ongoing artisanal gold mining activities in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Luz Helena Sánchez; Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura Andrea; Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Fiallo, Yolanda Vargas; Ordoñez, Álvaro; Gutiérrez, Myriam Del Carmen

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined whether people who are exposed to mercury (Hg) vapours in ongoing artisanal gold mining activities have alteration in kidney function monitoring parameters. The study enrolled 164 miners and 127 participant controls. The Hg concentrations for miners and control participants were measured in blood (B-Hg; median 7.0 vs. 2.5 µg/L), urine (U-Hg; median 3.9 vs. 1.5 µg/g creatinine) and hair (H-Hg; median 0.8 vs. 0.4 µg/g hair). The biomarkers of renal function were creatinine, albumin and excretion of β-2 microglobulin. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration equation. Significant statistical differences were found in Hg concentrations and eGFR levels between the two study groups ( p < 0.01) but not with the other biomarkers of renal function. A multiple regression model was applied to explore the relationship of eGFR levels and Hg concentrations. However, no association was found between the prevalence of reduced eGFR (<71.96 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and the B-Hg or U-Hg levels after adjustment for covariates. Nevertheless, it was observed that having B-Hg levels above 10 µg Hg/L decreased the eGFR by 1.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (confidence interval 95% -5.1 to 1.7) compared to having levels below 2.0 µg Hg/L. Our results found no support for kidney damage associated with Hg vapour exposure in ongoing artisanal gold mining, whose population has a level of Hg exposure from low to moderate (B-Hg from 3.4 to 11.0 µg/L and U-Hg from 1.3 to 9.6 µg/g creatinine).

  8. Dynamic synchronization of ongoing neuronal activity across spinal segments regulates sensory information flow.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Hernández, E; Chávez, D; Rudomin, P

    2015-05-15

    Previous studies on the correlation between spontaneous cord dorsum potentials recorded in the lumbar spinal segments of anaesthetized cats suggested the operation of a population of dorsal horn neurones that modulates, in a differential manner, transmission along pathways mediating Ib non-reciprocal postsynaptic inhibition and pathways mediating primary afferent depolarization and presynaptic inhibition. In order to gain further insight into the possible neuronal mechanisms that underlie this process, we have measured changes in the correlation between the spontaneous activity of individual dorsal horn neurones and the cord dorsum potentials associated with intermittent activation of these inhibitory pathways. We found that high levels of neuronal synchronization within the dorsal horn are associated with states of incremented activity along the pathways mediating presynaptic inhibition relative to pathways mediating Ib postsynaptic inhibition. It is suggested that ongoing changes in the patterns of functional connectivity within a distributed ensemble of dorsal horn neurones play a relevant role in the state-dependent modulation of impulse transmission along inhibitory pathways, among them those involved in the central control of sensory information. This feature would allow the same neuronal network to be involved in different functional tasks.

  9. 24 CFR 35.1220 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ongoing lead-based paint..., Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Tenant-Based Rental Assistance § 35.1220 Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance...

  10. 24 CFR 35.1220 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ongoing lead-based paint..., Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Tenant-Based Rental Assistance § 35.1220 Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance...

  11. 24 CFR 35.1220 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ongoing lead-based paint..., Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Tenant-Based Rental Assistance § 35.1220 Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance...

  12. 24 CFR 35.1220 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ongoing lead-based paint..., Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Tenant-Based Rental Assistance § 35.1220 Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance...

  13. Brain Activities and Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riza, Emel

    2002-01-01

    There are close relationships between brain activities and educational technology. Brain is very important and so complicated part in our bodies. From long time scientists pay attention to that part and did many experiments, but they just reached little information like a drop in the sea. However from time to time they gave us some light to…

  14. Ongoing Network State Controls the Length of Sleep Spindles via Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Barthó, Péter; Slézia, Andrea; Mátyás, Ferenc; Faradzs-Zade, Lejla; Ulbert, István; Harris, Kenneth D.; Acsády, László

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sleep spindles are major transient oscillations of the mammalian brain. Spindles are generated in the thalamus; however, what determines their duration is presently unclear. Here, we measured somatic activity of excitatory thalamocortical (TC) cells together with axonal activity of reciprocally coupled inhibitory reticular thalamic cells (nRTs) and quantified cycle-by-cycle alterations in their firing in vivo. We found that spindles with different durations were paralleled by distinct nRT activity, and nRT firing sharply dropped before the termination of all spindles. Both initial nRT and TC activity was correlated with spindle length, but nRT correlation was more robust. Analysis of spindles evoked by optogenetic activation of nRT showed that spindle probability, but not spindle length, was determined by the strength of the light stimulus. Our data indicate that during natural sleep a dynamically fluctuating thalamocortical network controls the duration of sleep spindles via the major inhibitory element of the circuits, the nRT. PMID:24945776

  15. Ongoing network state controls the length of sleep spindles via inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Barthó, Péter; Slézia, Andrea; Mátyás, Ferenc; Faradzs-Zade, Lejla; Ulbert, István; Harris, Kenneth D; Acsády, László

    2014-06-18

    Sleep spindles are major transient oscillations of the mammalian brain. Spindles are generated in the thalamus; however, what determines their duration is presently unclear. Here, we measured somatic activity of excitatory thalamocortical (TC) cells together with axonal activity of reciprocally coupled inhibitory reticular thalamic cells (nRTs) and quantified cycle-by-cycle alterations in their firing in vivo. We found that spindles with different durations were paralleled by distinct nRT activity, and nRT firing sharply dropped before the termination of all spindles. Both initial nRT and TC activity was correlated with spindle length, but nRT correlation was more robust. Analysis of spindles evoked by optogenetic activation of nRT showed that spindle probability, but not spindle length, was determined by the strength of the light stimulus. Our data indicate that during natural sleep a dynamically fluctuating thalamocortical network controls the duration of sleep spindles via the major inhibitory element of the circuits, the nRT.

  16. Balancing emotional processing with ongoing cognitive activity: the effects of task modality on intrusions and rumination

    PubMed Central

    Curci, Antonietta; Soleti, Emanuela; Lanciano, Tiziana; Doria, Valentina; Rimé, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we aimed to show that competition for resources between post-emotional processes and the execution of a cognitive task will result in two possible effects: (1) an impairment of the cognitive task in the short run and (2) an elongation of intrusions and rumination in the long run. The outcome of this competition is influenced by the interaction of the modality (verbal vs. visuospatial) of cognitive tasks run in the aftermath of an emotional experience and the nature (verbal vs. visuospatial) of the same experience. Non-clinical participants were given a working memory task (OSPAN vs. an analog Visual task) before and after the presentation of negative vs. neutral material (a novel excerpt in Experiment 1 and a video clip in Experiment 2). Intrusions and rumination were measured after a 24-h delay. Rumination was also assessed immediately after the experimental induction. Results showed that exposure to verbal negative material impaired verbal performance (Experiment 1); by contrast, exposure to visual negative material impaired both verbal and visuospatial performance (Experiment 2). Intrusions were only affected by the emotional valence of the original experience, while performing a visuospatial task resulted in enhanced rumination only after exposure to verbal emotional material. The findings of both experiments suggest that emotional processing spreads over time in balance with ongoing cognitive activities, and, in such a balance, the visuospatial processing mode tends to prevail over verbal engagements. PMID:26379598

  17. Ongoing Coxsackievirus Myocarditis Is Associated with Increased Formation and Activity of Myocardial Immunoproteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Szalay, Gudrun; Meiners, Silke; Voigt, Antje; Lauber, Jörg; Spieth, Christian; Speer, Nora; Sauter, Martina; Kuckelkorn, Ulrike; Zell, Andreas; Klingel, Karin; Stangl, Karl; Kandolf, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that viral infections of the heart contribute to ongoing myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Murine models of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis mimic the human disease and allow identification of susceptibility factors that modulate the course of viral myocarditis. Susceptible mouse strains develop chronic myocarditis on the basis of restricted viral replication, whereas resistant strains recover after successful virus elimination. In comparative whole-genome microarray analyses of infected hearts, several genes involved in the processing and presentation of viral epitopes were found to be uniformly up-regulated in acutely CVB3-infected susceptible mice compared with resistant animals. In particular, expression of the catalytic subunits LMP2, LMP7, and MECL-1, immunoproteasome proteins important in the generation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted peptides, was clearly enhanced in the susceptible host. Increased expression resulted in enhanced formation of immunoproteasomes and altered proteolytic activities of proteasomes in the heart. This was accompanied by a concerted up-regulation of the antigen-presenting machinery in susceptible mice. Thus, we propose that increased formation of immunoproteasomes in susceptible mice affects the generation of antigenic peptides and the subsequent T-cell-mediated immune responses. PMID:16651621

  18. [Physical activity and brain function].

    PubMed

    Kempermann, G

    2012-06-01

    Physical activity has direct and indirect effects on brain function in health and disease. Findings demonstrating that physical activity improves cognitive and non-cognitive functions and is preventive for several neuropsychiatric disorders have attracted particular interest. This short review focuses on sports and physical exercise in normal brain function and summarizes which mechanisms might underlie the observed effects, which methodological problems exist, which relationships exist to concepts of plasticity and neural reserves and what evolutionary relevance the initially surprising finding that physical exercise is good for the brain has.

  19. Brain Gym. Simple Activities for Whole Brain Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Paul E.; Dennison, Gail E.

    This booklet contains simple movements and activities that are used with students in Educational Kinesiology to enhance their experience of whole brain learning. Whole brain learning through movement repatterning and Brain Gym activities enable students to access those parts of the brain previously unavailable to them. These movements of body and…

  20. Brain Gym. Simple Activities for Whole Brain Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Paul E.; Dennison, Gail E.

    This booklet contains simple movements and activities that are used with students in Educational Kinesiology to enhance their experience of whole brain learning. Whole brain learning through movement repatterning and Brain Gym activities enable students to access those parts of the brain previously unavailable to them. These movements of body and…

  1. Searches for Plumes and Ongoing Geologic Activity on Europa from Galileo and Other Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    The recent discovery of an apparent plume erupting from Europa's surface using data from the Hubble Space Telescope (Roth et al. 2014) has prompted renewed interest in the possibility of recent or ongoing geologic activity on Europa. Here we summarize previous searches for plumes and changes on Europa's surface, and make recommendations for future efforts. During the period of time in which the Galileo spacecraft was in orbit in the Jupiter system, we made a number of comparisons with observations taken 20 years earlier by the Voyager spacecraft to look for surface changes (Phillips et al. 2000). We found no changes which were visible on Europa's surface. These comparisons, however, were necessarily limited by the low resolution of the Voyager images, which had a maximum resolution of about 2 km/pixel. We also used Galileo spacecraft data to search for plumes of material being ejected from Europa's surface. A 30-image observation was taken in 1999 to observe the limb and the dark sky just off the limb in a search for active plumes, but no plumes were observed (Phillips et al. 2000). However, Hoppa et al (1999) suggested that this image sequence occurred under unfavorable tidal stress conditions. Plume searches were also performed in eclipse images, but again no plumes were detected. More recently, we compared global-scale images of Europa taken in 2007 by the New Horizons spacecraft during its Jupiter flyby en route to Pluto (Bramson et al. 2011). After a careful search that included the iterative coregistration and ratioing techniques developed by Phillips et al. (2000), again, no changes were found on Europa's surface. If the recent Roth et al. (2014) suggestions of an active plume on Europa prove to be correct, we infer that one of two possibilities must be the case. Either 1) the plume is a recent event and was not active before the 2007 New Horizons flyby; or 2) the plume is intermittent and low-density, consisting primarily of gas and not dust, and therefore

  2. Ongoing Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    An in-depth science inquiry is an ongoing investigation in which children are introduced to materials through hands-on experiences and, with teacher guidance, begin to investigate a question that they can answer through their own actions, observations, and with teacher-assisted research. Qualities that make an experience appropriate to include in…

  3. Ongoing Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    An in-depth science inquiry is an ongoing investigation in which children are introduced to materials through hands-on experiences and, with teacher guidance, begin to investigate a question that they can answer through their own actions, observations, and with teacher-assisted research. Qualities that make an experience appropriate to include in…

  4. Fueling and imaging brain activation

    PubMed Central

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models. PMID:22612861

  5. Anatomical brain atlas for NIRS measurements of brain activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffini, Matteo; Zucchelli, Lucia; Contini, Davide; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Boas, David; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2011-07-01

    Anatomical brain atlases have been introduced in the analysis NIRS data of brain activation and good spatial activation localization has been proved. We applied this method to visualize NIRS data from different protocols.

  6. A Sample of Ongoing Career Education Curriculum Development Activities of Federal Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towne, Douglas C.

    The report surveys curriculum development projects ongoing in 1972 in seven Federal agencies relating to vocational/technical, manpower, adult, and career education. It describes a variety of ways (ranging from personal visitation to utilization of existing publications) in which data can be obtained without undue requests for assistance from the…

  7. Recent updates in the "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" code, on-going developments, simulation activities, and plans for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubar, Oleg

    2014-09-01

    Recent updates in the "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" physical optics computer code, including the transition to the Open Source development format, the results of the on-going collaborative development efforts in the area of X-ray optics, in particular grazing incidence mirrors, gratings and crystal monochromators, and in other areas, as well as some simulation activities for storage ring and X-ray free-electron laser sources are reported. Future development plans are discussed.

  8. Studies of the Northern Alaskan Coastal System: Ongoing project work and synthesis activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, T. A.; Sturm, M.; Ashjian, C. J.; Jorgensen, T.; Oechel, W. C.; Ping, C.; Rhew, R. C.; Stieglitz, M.

    2006-12-01

    Six ongoing projects focus on a better understanding of processes occurring along the Arctic Alaskan Coast. These projects, grouped as "Studies of the Northern Alaskan Coastal System", or SNACS, combine field, laboratory, modeling and human dimensions research. They include: 1) an investigation of climate variability, ocean processes, sea ice, bowhead whales, and Inupiat subsistence whaling, 2) research on the impact of variability within the ocean and atmosphere on terrestrial fluxes of carbon dioxide, dissolved organic matter and energy, 3) an inventory and description of soil organic carbon fluxes and ground ice in the coastal environment, 4) a determination of whether arctic coastal terrestrial ecosystems are significant sources or sinks of atmospheric methyl halides, chloroform and methane, 5) development of generalized discharge- constituent relationships for arctic basins, and 6) an investigation of the processes controlling mercury deposition to the coastal system. Three broad themes unite the projects: 1) nutrient fluxes from rivers and shoreline erosion in the Arctic coastal zone, 2) impacts of cryospheric changes on the Alaskan Arctic Coast, and 3) potential rapid regime shifts controlled by atmospheric and meteorological processes that could affect the Alaskan Arctic Coast. Warming of the Arctic, particularly its impact on sea ice and nutrient transport in arctic rivers is already affecting fundamental coastal system processes. The six SNACS projects are helping to understand how these impacts will evolve and what their ramifications will be both within and outside of the Arctic.

  9. [Summary of ongoing activities on environmental noise and health at the WHO regional office for Europe].

    PubMed

    Héroux, M E; Braubach, M; Dramac, D; Korol, N; Paunovic, E; Zastenskaya, I

    2014-01-01

    The environmental noise is an important public health issue, according to recent assessment of the burden of diseases among environmental health risk factors in order of importance the environmental noise occupies the second place after air pollution. The World Health Organization (WHO) for the first time published its public health recommendations for the environmental noise in 1999 in the "WHO Guidelines for Community Noise (1999)". These recommendations found their development in WHO Night Noise Guidelines for Europe" (2009). From then onward there have been published new important data on the impact of the environmental noise on the health, that stipulated the revision of existing guidelines. Furthermore, both in the European Union (EU) Directive 2002/49/ EC and the Parma Declaration from 2010 there was pointed out the importance of renewal environmental noise recommendations. Responding to appearing interrogation, WHO Regional Office for Europe has recently initiated the process of the elaboration of new guiding principles known as "WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region". The Guidelines will include a systematic review of most critical or important health consequences and also concentrate on health benefits of measures for the reducing noise levels. The Guidelines will consider noise coming from various noise sources such as aircraft, railroad, personal electronic devices and wind turbines. The Guidelines will also consider the particularity of such accommodations as residences, hospitals, and educational facilities. The work in the mentioned spheres is ongoing and the revised Guidelines are expected to be published in mid-2015. The Guidelines will provide up-to-date information on the health risks related to the environmental noise and evidence-based recommendations in order to support for WHO Member States in their efforts to prevent of the excessive noise and the struggle with their negative impact.

  10. Local and thalamic origins of correlated ongoing and sensory-evoked cortical activities

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Kashi Malina, Katayun; Mohar, Boaz; Rappaport, Akiva N.; Lampl, Ilan

    2016-01-01

    Thalamic inputs of cells in sensory cortices are outnumbered by local connections. Thus, it was suggested that robust sensory response in layer 4 emerges due to synchronized thalamic activity. To investigate the role of both inputs in the generation of correlated cortical activities, we isolated the thalamic excitatory inputs of cortical cells by optogenetically silencing cortical firing. In anaesthetized mice, we measured the correlation between isolated thalamic synaptic inputs of simultaneously patched nearby layer 4 cells of the barrel cortex. Here we report that in contrast to correlated activity of excitatory synaptic inputs in the intact cortex, isolated thalamic inputs exhibit lower variability and asynchronous spontaneous and sensory-evoked inputs. These results are further supported in awake mice when we recorded the excitatory inputs of individual cortical cells simultaneously with the local field potential in a nearby site. Our results therefore indicate that cortical synchronization emerges by intracortical coupling. PMID:27615520

  11. Hematopoietic cell transplantation activity of Turkey in 2014: Ongoing increase in HCT rates.

    PubMed

    Tekgündüz, Emre; Şencan, İrfan; Kapuağası, Arif; Ünal, Doğan; Öztürk, Murat; Gümüş, Eyüp; Göker, Hakan; Tavil, Emine Betül; Ertem, Mehmet; Çetin, Mustafa; Arat, Mutlu; Soysal, Teoman; Karakaşlı, Osman; Sur, Halil Yılmaz; Yeşilipek, Akif; Ferhanoğlu, Burhan; Uçkan, Duygu; İlhan, Osman; Altuntaş, Fevzi

    2016-02-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation is an established treatment option with curative potential for a variety of clinical conditions. The last decade especially witnessed a remarkable increase in HCT activity in Turkey. In 2014, 696 pediatric and 2631 adult (total 3327) HCT were performed in Turkey. Corresponding transplant rates per 10 million inhabitants for autologous-HCT and allogeneic-HCT were 226 and 202, respectively. Total HCT procedures in Turkey increased 177% in the last 5 years and 791% in the last 14 years. This report focuses mainly on HCT activity of Turkey in 2014 based on the national HCT registry and presents a general picture of national HCT activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Right Brain Activities to Improve Analytical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Marion E.

    Schools tend to have a built-in bias toward left brain activities (tasks that are linear and sequential in nature), so the introduction of right brain activities (functions related to music, rhythm, images, color, imagination, daydreaming, dimensions) brings a balance into the classroom and helps those students who may be right brain oriented. To…

  13. Ongoing slow oscillatory phase modulates speech intelligibility in cooperation with motor cortical activity.

    PubMed

    Onojima, Takayuki; Kitajo, Keiichi; Mizuhara, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Neural oscillation is attracting attention as an underlying mechanism for speech recognition. Speech intelligibility is enhanced by the synchronization of speech rhythms and slow neural oscillation, which is typically observed as human scalp electroencephalography (EEG). In addition to the effect of neural oscillation, it has been proposed that speech recognition is enhanced by the identification of a speaker's motor signals, which are used for speech production. To verify the relationship between the effect of neural oscillation and motor cortical activity, we measured scalp EEG, and simultaneous EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a speech recognition task in which participants were required to recognize spoken words embedded in noise sound. We proposed an index to quantitatively evaluate the EEG phase effect on behavioral performance. The results showed that the delta and theta EEG phase before speech inputs modulated the participant's response time when conducting speech recognition tasks. The simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment showed that slow EEG activity was correlated with motor cortical activity. These results suggested that the effect of the slow oscillatory phase was associated with the activity of the motor cortex during speech recognition.

  14. Ongoing activation of autoantigen-specific B cells in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Weici; Leung, Patrick S C; Bowlus, Christopher L; Dhaliwal, Sandeep; Coppel, Ross L; Ansari, Aftab A; Yang, Guo-Xiang; Wang, Jinjun; Kenny, Thomas P; He, Xiao-Song; Mackay, Ian R; Gershwin, M Eric

    2014-11-01

    The serologic hallmark of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), the antimitochondrial response to the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2), has unique features, including continuous high titers of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG reactivity throughout all stages of disease, capable not only of target enzyme inhibition, but also crossreactive with chemical xenobiotics that share molecular homology with the inner lipoyl domain of PDC-E2; such chemicals have been proposed as potential etiological agents. We used flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) to examine B-cell subsets in 59 subjects, including 28 with PBC, 13 with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), and 18 healthy controls. Strikingly, in PBC, although there were no significant differences in B-cell phenotype subpopulations, 10% of the total IgG and IgA plasmablast population and 23% of the IgM plasmablast population were uniquely reactive with PDC-E2, detected in the CXCR7+ CCR10low plasmablast population. In contrast, plasmablast reactivity to a control antigen, tetanus toxoid, was minimal and similar in all groups. Additionally, we isolated plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibodies and compared reactivity with plasma-derived antibodies and noted a distinct noncirculating tissue source of xenobiotic crossreacting antibodies. The high levels of autoantigen specific peripheral plasmablasts indicate recent activation of naive or memory B cells and a continuous and robust activation. The presence of CXCR7+ CCR10low PDC-E2-specific ASCs suggests a mechanistic basis for the migration of circulating antigen specific plasmablasts to the mucosal epithelial ligands CXCL12 and CCL28. Our findings suggest a sustained rigorous B-cell response in PBC, likely activated and perpetuated by cognate autoantigen. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  15. OECD/NEA Ongoing activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Cornet, S.M.; McCarthy, K.; Chauvin, N.

    2013-07-01

    As part of its role in encouraging international collaboration, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency is coordinating a series of projects related to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) Working Party on Scientific Issues of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (WPFC) comprises five different expert groups covering all aspects of the fuel cycle from front to back-end. Activities related to fuels, materials, physics, separation chemistry, and fuel cycles scenarios are being undertaken. By publishing state-of-the-art reports and organizing workshops, the groups are able to disseminate recent research advancements to the international community. Current activities mainly focus on advanced nuclear systems, and experts are working on analyzing results and establishing challenges associated to the adoption of new materials and fuels. By comparing different codes, the Expert Group on Advanced Fuel Cycle Scenarios is aiming at gaining further understanding of the scientific issues and specific national needs associated with the implementation of advanced fuel cycles. At the back end of the fuel cycle, separation technologies (aqueous and pyrochemical processing) are being assessed. Current and future activities comprise studies on minor actinides separation and post Fukushima studies. Regular workshops are also organized to discuss recent developments on Partitioning and Transmutation. In addition, the Nuclear Development Committee (NDC) focuses on the analysis of the economics of nuclear power across the fuel cycle in the context of changes of electricity markets, social acceptance and technological advances and assesses the availability of the nuclear fuel and infrastructure required for the deployment of existing and future nuclear power. The Expert Group on the Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (EBENFC), in particular, is looking at assessing economic and financial issues related to the long term management of spent nuclear fuel. (authors)

  16. The optical blocking filter for the ATHENA wide field imager: ongoing activities towards the conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, M.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Collura, A.; Comastri, A.; Eder, J.; Kamisiński, T.; Lo Cicero, U.; Meidinger, N.; Mineo, T.; Molendi, S.; Parodi, G.; Pilch, A.; Piro, L.; Rataj, M.; Rauw, G.; Sciortino, L.; Sciortino, S.; Wawer, P.

    2015-08-01

    ATHENA is the L2 mission selected by ESA to pursue the science theme "Hot and Energetic Universe" (launch scheduled in 2028). One of the key instruments of ATHENA is the Wide Field Imager (WFI) which will provide imaging in the 0.1-15 keV band over a 40'x40' large field of view, together with spectrally and time-resolved photon counting. The WFI camera, based on arrays of DEPFET active pixel sensors, is also sensitive to UV/Vis photons. Optically generated electron-hole pairs may degrade the spectral resolution as well as change the energy scale by introducing a signal offset. For this reason, the use of an X-ray transparent optical blocking filter is needed to allow the observation of all type of X-ray sources that present a UV/Visible bright counterpart. In this paper, we describe the main activities that we are carrying on for the conceptual design of the optical blocking filter, that will be mounted on the filter wheel, in order to satisfy the scientific requirements on optical load from bright UV/Vis astrophysical source, to maximize the X-ray transmission, and to withstand the severe acoustic and vibration loads foreseen during launch.

  17. Effect of type of cue, type of response, time delay and two different ongoing tasks on prospective memory functioning after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Raskin, Sarah A; Buckheit, Carol A; Waxman, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Failures of prospective memory (PM) are one of the most frequent, and least studied, sequelae of brain injury. PM, also referred to as memory for intentions, is the ability to remember to carry out a future task. Successful completion of a PM task requires the ability to monitor time, keep the action to be performed periodically in awareness, remember the task to be performed, and initiate the action. Although PM has been shown to be a common difficulty after brain injury, it remains unknown which aspects of performance are impaired. In this study, the performance of 25 individuals with brain injury and that of 25 healthy participants were measured separately on the following variables: time until completion of the task, difficulty of the ongoing task being performed while waiting, whether the task to be performed is an action or is verbal, and whether the cue to perform the task is the passing of a particular amount of time (e.g., 10 minutes) or is an external cue (e.g., an alarm sounding). Individuals with brain injury demonstrated impairment compared to healthy adults on virtually all variables. PM performance was also compared to a battery of standard neuropsychological measures of attention, memory, and executive functions, and to self-report measures of PM functioning, in order to determine the underlying cognitive deficits responsible for poor PM performance, if any. PM performance was correlated with measures of executive functioning but not to self-report measures of PM functioning. Implications are discussed in terms of cognitive rehabilitation recommendations.

  18. How spontaneous brain activity and narcissistic features shape social interaction.

    PubMed

    Scalabrini, Andrea; Huang, Zirui; Mucci, Clara; Perrucci, Mauro Gianni; Ferretti, Antonio; Fossati, Andrea; Romani, Gian Luca; Northoff, Georg; Ebisch, Sjoerd J H

    2017-08-30

    There is an increasing interest in how ongoing spontaneous brain activity and personality provide a predisposition for the processing of environmental demands. It further has been suggested that the brain has an inherent sensitivity to the social environment. Here we tested in healthy volunteers if spontaneous brain activity contributes to a predisposition for social behavior and how this is modulated by narcissistic personality features associated with poor interpersonal functioning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging included a resting state and an experimental paradigm focusing on the anticipation of actively touching an animate (human hand) versus an inanimate target (mannequin hand). The experimental task induced a significant modulation of neural activity in left postcentral gyrus (PostCG), right culmen and, co-varying with narcissistic features, in right anterior insula (AI). Neural activity in anticipation of the animate target significantly correlated with spontaneous activity during the resting state indexed by the Power Law Exponent (PLE) in PostCG and AI. Finally, the correlation between spontaneous and task-induced activity in AI was mediated by narcissistic features. These findings provide novel evidence for a relationship between intrinsic brain activity and social behavior and show how personality could contribute to individual differences in our predisposition to approach the animate world.

  19. Photometry of Pluto 2008–2014: Evidence of Ongoing Seasonal Volatile Transport and Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buratti, B. J.; Hicks, M. D.; Dalba, P. A.; Chu, Devin; O’Neill, Ariel; Hillier, J. K.; Masiero, J.; Banholzer, Sophianna; Rhoades, H.

    2015-05-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft will encounter Pluto in 2015 July. As this fast flyby will yield a picture of Pluto frozen in time, ground-based observations are key to understanding this dwarf ice planet, especially with regard to the seasonal transport of surface volatiles. This paper reports on changes in Pluto's rotational light curve as evidence for this transport. Historical observations are consistent with a stable frost pattern, but since 2002, changes began to appear in both light curves and Hubble Space Telescope maps. Our BVR observations at Table Mountain Observatory from 2008 to 2014 show evidence for sustained and continued albedo and color changes on Pluto. The B and V albedos are stable, but Pluto is becoming redder in color, particularly on its low-albedo side. This view is consistent with the transport of a bright volatile (nitrogen) with the uncovering of a substrate of red material such as photolyzed methane. As Buie et al. reported a B – V of 0.96 in 2002–2003, and our B – V was higher in 2008–2012, Pluto may have experienced a transient reddening in the 1999–2012 period. We also discovered an opposition supersurge in all three colors at very small solar phase angles (∼0.°10). Explosive geysers have been observed on Triton and Mars, the two other celestial bodies with receding polar caps. Because the physical conditions existing on Pluto are similar to those on Triton, we predict that plume deposits and possibly active plumes will be found on its surface.

  20. Brain Activity and Human Unilateral Chewing

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, A.; Ichesco, E.; Myers, C.; Schutt, R.; Gerstner, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    Brain mechanisms underlying mastication have been studied in non-human mammals but less so in humans. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate brain activity in humans during gum chewing. Chewing was associated with activations in the cerebellum, motor cortex and caudate, cingulate, and brainstem. We also divided the 25-second chew-blocks into 5 segments of equal 5-second durations and evaluated activations within and between each of the 5 segments. This analysis revealed activation clusters unique to the initial segment, which may indicate brain regions involved with initiating chewing. Several clusters were uniquely activated during the last segment as well, which may represent brain regions involved with anticipatory or motor events associated with the end of the chew-block. In conclusion, this study provided evidence for specific brain areas associated with chewing in humans and demonstrated that brain activation patterns may dynamically change over the course of chewing sequences. PMID:23103631

  1. Activation of mesocorticolimbic reward circuits for assessment of relief of ongoing pain: a potential biomarker of efficacy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jennifer Y; Qu, Chaoling; Patwardhan, Amol; Ossipov, Michael H; Navratilova, Edita; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David; Porreca, Frank

    2014-08-01

    Preclinical assessment of pain has increasingly explored operant methods that may allow behavioral assessment of ongoing pain. In animals with incisional injury, peripheral nerve block produces conditioned place preference (CPP) and activates the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward pathway. We hypothesized that activation of this circuit could serve as a neurochemical output measure of relief of ongoing pain. Medications commonly used clinically, including gabapentin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), were evaluated in models of post-surgical (1 day after incision) or neuropathic (14 days after spinal nerve ligation [SNL]) pain to determine whether the clinical efficacy profile of these drugs in these pain conditions was reflected by extracellular dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. Microdialysis was performed in awake rats. Basal DA levels were not significantly different between experimental groups, and no significant treatment effects were seen in sham-operated animals. Consistent with clinical observation, spinal clonidine produced CPP and produced a dose-related increase in net NAc DA release in SNL rats. Gabapentin, commonly used to treat neuropathic pain, produced increased NAc DA in rats with SNL but not in animals with incisional, injury. In contrast, ketorolac or naproxen produced increased NAc DA in animals with incisional but not neuropathic pain. Increased extracellular NAc DA release was consistent with CPP and was observed selectively with treatments commonly used clinically for post-surgical or neuropathic pain. Evaluation of NAc DA efflux in animal pain models may represent an objective neurochemical assay that may serve as a biomarker of efficacy for novel pain-relieving mechanisms.

  2. Deep X-ray Observations of an Ongoing Merger and 400 Myr of AGN Activity in Cygnus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Michael W.; De Vries, Martijn; Nulsen, Paul; Snios, Bradford; Birkinshaw, Mark; Worrall, Diana; Duffy, Ryan; Halbesma, Timo; Donnert, Julius; Hardcastle, Martin

    2017-08-01

    We present a detailed spatial and spectral analysis of the large-scale X-ray emission associated with the merging cluster of galaxies containing the powerful Cygnus A radio galaxy. Using a new 1 Msec exposure from the ongoing Chandra XVP project, we have mapped the large-scale structure, temperature and abundance of the ICM in a 1 Mpc x 1 Mpc region surrounding Cygnus A. This new, deep exposure resolves unprecedented detail in the jets, lobes, and cocoon shock associated with Cygnus A, and provides new insights into the emission mechanisms that produce these features as well as implications for the ongoing activity of the central AGN. On larger scales, these new data reveal complex and dramatic temperature, pressure, entropy and metallicity structure in the ICM surrounding Cygnus A. We confirm the presence of large-scale X-ray emission associated with the two merging cluster components seen previously in lower resolution data. The temperature structure on the scale of the merger exhibits an asymmetric enhancement to the NW consistent with projected hotter gas from the merger shock. Using the derived density and temperature profiles in the two merging sub-cluster components as inputs, we have constructed a grid of hydro-dynamical simulations to constrain the geometry of the merger system. These models imply a pre-merger system with a 1:1 mass ratio at the virial radius with an inclination toward the line of sight of 35-45 deg. In addition to the merger-induced temperature asymmetry, we find evidence for additional surface brightness and temperature features indicative of previous outburst activity in Cygnus A over the past 400 Myr. Based on the location and strength of these features, we derive the energy associated with these previous outbursts and place constraints on the growth of the black hole in Cygnus A over that timescale.

  3. Activation of mesocorticolimbic reward circuits for assessment of relief of ongoing pain: a potential biomarker of efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jennifer Y.; Qu, Chaoling; Patwardhan, Amol; Ossipov, Michael H.; Navratilova, Edita; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David; Porreca, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical assessment of pain has increasingly explored operant methods that may allow behavioral assessment of ongoing pain. In animals with incisional injury, peripheral nerve block produces conditioned place preference (CPP) and activates the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward pathway. We hypothesized that activation of this circuit could serve as a neurochemical output measure of relief of ongoing pain. Medications commonly used clinically including gabapentin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were evaluated in models of post-surgical (one day following incision) or neuropathic (14 days following spinal nerve ligation, SNL) pain to determine if the clinical efficacy profile of these drugs in these pain conditions was reflected by extracellular dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. Microdialysis was performed in awake rats. Basal DA levels were not significantly different between experimental groups and no significant treatment effects were seen in sham-operated animals. Consistent with clinical observation, spinal clonidine produced CPP and produced a dose-related increase in net NAc DA release in SNL rats. Gabapentin, commonly used to treat neuropathic pain produced increased NAc DA in rats with SNL, but not in animals with incisional, injury. In contrast, ketorolac or naproxen produced increased NAc DA in animals with incisional, but not neuropathic, pain. Increased extracellular NAc DA release was consistent with CPP and observed selectively with treatments commonly used clinically for post-surgical or neuropathic pain. Evaluation of NAc DA efflux in animal pain models may represent an objective neurochemical assay that may serve as a biomarker of efficacy for novel pain-relieving mechanisms. PMID:24861580

  4. Alterations of brain activity in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Sawaddiruk, Passakorn; Paiboonworachat, Sahattaya; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-04-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain with diffuse tenderness at multiple tender points. Despite intense investigations, the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia remains elusive. Evidence shows that it could be due to changes in either the peripheral or central nervous system (CNS). For the CNS changes, alterations in the high brain area of fibromyalgia patients have been investigated but the definite mechanisms are still unclear. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI) have been used to gather evidence regarding the changes of brain morphologies and activities in fibromyalgia patients. Nevertheless, due to few studies, limited knowledge for alterations in brain activities in fibromyalgia is currently available. In this review, the changes in brain activity in various brain areas obtained from reports in fibromyalgia patients are comprehensively summarized. Changes of the grey matter in multiple regions such as the superior temporal gyrus, posterior thalamus, amygdala, basal ganglia, cerebellum, cingulate cortex, SII, caudate and putamen from the MRI as well as the increase of brain activities in the cerebellum, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, somatosensory cortex, insula in fMRI studies are presented and discussed. Moreover, evidence from pharmacological interventions offering benefits for fibromyalgia patients by reducing brain activity is presented. Because of limited knowledge regarding the roles of brain activity alterations in fibromyalgia, this summarized review will encourage more future studies to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in the brains of these patients.

  5. Ongoing intrinsic synchronous activity is required for the functional maturation of CA3-CA1 glutamatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Huupponen, Johanna; Molchanova, Svetlana M; Lauri, Sari E; Taira, Tomi

    2013-11-01

    Fine-tuning of synaptic connectivity during development is guided by intrinsic activity of the immature networks characteristically consisting of intermittent bursts of synchronous activity. However, the role of synchronous versus asynchronous activity in synapse maturation in the brain is unclear. Here, we have pharmacologically prevented generation of synchronous activity in the immature rat CA3-CA1 circuitry in a manner that preserves unitary activity. Long-term desynchronization of the network resulted in weakening of AMPA-receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission in CA1 pyramidal cells. This weakening was dependent on protein phosphatases and mGluR activity, associated with an increase in the proportion of silent synapses and a decrease in the protein levels of GluA4 suggesting postsynaptic mechanisms of expression. The findings demonstrate that synchronous activity in the immature CA3-CA1 circuitry is critical for the induction and maintenance of glutamatergic synapses and underscores the importance of temporal activity patterns in shaping the synaptic circuitry during development.

  6. Emergency preparedness activities during an ongoing seismic swarm: the experience of the 2011-2012 Pollino (Southern Italy) sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, A.; Mucciarelli, M.; Chiauzzi, L.; De Costanzo, G.; Loperte, G.

    2012-04-01

    Facing natural disasters effects can be a very difficult task lacking suitable activities and tools to preventively prepare the involved community (people, authorities, professionals, …) to the expected events. Therefore, a suite of preventive actions should be carried out to mitigate natural risks, in particular working to reduce the territorial vulnerability with respect to the specific natural hazard at hand, and to increase people response capacity. In fact, building social capacity helps to increase the risk perception and the people capacity to adapt to and cope with natural hazards. Since October 2011 a seismic swarm is affecting the Pollino mountain range, Southern Italy. At present the sequence is still ongoing, with more than 500 events with M>1, at least 40 well perceived by the population and a maximum magnitude at 3.6. The area mainly affected by the seismic sequence includes 12 villages, with a total population of about 50.000 inhabitants and, according to the current seismic hazard map it has high seismicity level. Such area was hit by a magnitude Ml=5.7 event in 1998 that produced macroseismic intensity not higher that VII-VIII degree of MCS scale and caused one dead, some injured and widespread damage in at least six municipalities. During the sequence, the National Department of Civil Protection (DPC) and the Civil Protection of Basilicata Region decided to put in action some measures aimed at verifying and enhancing emergency preparedness. These actions have been carried out with a constant and fruitful collaboration among the main stakeholders involved (scientific community, local and national governmental agencies, civil protection volunteers, etc) trough the following main activities: 1. collaboration between scientific community and the local and national offices of Civil Protection especially in the relationship with local authorities (e.g. mayors, which are civil protection authorities in their municipality); 2. interaction between DPC

  7. Active tactile exploration using a brain-machine-brain interface.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, Joseph E; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Ifft, Peter J; Zhuang, Katie Z; Shokur, Solaiman; Bleuler, Hannes; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2011-10-05

    Brain-machine interfaces use neuronal activity recorded from the brain to establish direct communication with external actuators, such as prosthetic arms. It is hoped that brain-machine interfaces can be used to restore the normal sensorimotor functions of the limbs, but so far they have lacked tactile sensation. Here we report the operation of a brain-machine-brain interface (BMBI) that both controls the exploratory reaching movements of an actuator and allows signalling of artificial tactile feedback through intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of the primary somatosensory cortex. Monkeys performed an active exploration task in which an actuator (a computer cursor or a virtual-reality arm) was moved using a BMBI that derived motor commands from neuronal ensemble activity recorded in the primary motor cortex. ICMS feedback occurred whenever the actuator touched virtual objects. Temporal patterns of ICMS encoded the artificial tactile properties of each object. Neuronal recordings and ICMS epochs were temporally multiplexed to avoid interference. Two monkeys operated this BMBI to search for and distinguish one of three visually identical objects, using the virtual-reality arm to identify the unique artificial texture associated with each. These results suggest that clinical motor neuroprostheses might benefit from the addition of ICMS feedback to generate artificial somatic perceptions associated with mechanical, robotic or even virtual prostheses.

  8. Role of Ongoing, Intrinsic Activity of Neuronal Populations for Quantitative Neuroimaging of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging–Based Networks

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Coman, Daniel; Blumenfeld, Hal; Rothman, Douglas L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A primary objective in neuroscience is to determine how neuronal populations process information within networks. In humans and animal models, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is gaining increasing popularity for network mapping. Although neuroimaging with fMRI—conducted with or without tasks—is actively discovering new brain networks, current fMRI data analysis schemes disregard the importance of the total neuronal activity in a region. In task fMRI experiments, the baseline is differenced away to disclose areas of small evoked changes in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal. In resting-state fMRI experiments, the spotlight is on regions revealed by correlations of tiny fluctuations in the baseline (or spontaneous) BOLD signal. Interpretation of fMRI-based networks is obscured further, because the BOLD signal indirectly reflects neuronal activity, and difference/correlation maps are thresholded. Since the small changes of BOLD signal typically observed in cognitive fMRI experiments represent a minimal fraction of the total energy/activity in a given area, the relevance of fMRI-based networks is uncertain, because the majority of neuronal energy/activity is ignored. Thus, another alternative for quantitative neuroimaging of fMRI-based networks is a perspective in which the activity of a neuronal population is accounted for by the demanded oxidative energy (CMRO2). In this article, we argue that network mapping can be improved by including neuronal energy/activity of both the information about baseline and small differences/fluctuations of BOLD signal. Thus, total energy/activity information can be obtained through use of calibrated fMRI to quantify differences of ΔCMRO2 and through resting-state positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements for average CMRO2. PMID:22433047

  9. Activities That Build the Young Child's Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellens, Suzanne R.

    This book presents 350 classroom-tested activities for use with children to create an environment that will stimulate young children's brains. Designed to be used by families, classroom teachers, family childcare providers, or others caring for young children, the book includes information on current brain research and describes interest areas in…

  10. Understanding the brain by controlling neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Kristine; Salzman, C. Daniel; Waddell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Causal methods to interrogate brain function have been employed since the advent of modern neuroscience in the nineteenth century. Initially, randomly placed electrodes and stimulation of parts of the living brain were used to localize specific functions to these areas. Recent technical developments have rejuvenated this approach by providing more precise tools to dissect the neural circuits underlying behaviour, perception and cognition. Carefully controlled behavioural experiments have been combined with electrical devices, targeted genetically encoded tools and neurochemical approaches to manipulate information processing in the brain. The ability to control brain activity in these ways not only deepens our understanding of brain function but also provides new avenues for clinical intervention, particularly in conditions where brain processing has gone awry. PMID:26240417

  11. Blue Light Stimulates Cognitive Brain Activity in Visually Blind Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Vandewalle, Gilles; Collignon, Olivier; Hull, Joseph T.; Daneault, Véronique; Albouy, Geneviève; Lepore, Franco; Phillips, Christophe; Doyon, Julien; Czeisler, Charles A.; Dumont, Marie; Lockley, Steven W.; Carrier, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Light regulates multiple non-image-forming (or non-visual) circadian, neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral functions, via outputs from intrinsically-photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Exposure to light directly enhances alertness and performance, so that light is an important regulator of wakefulness and cognition. The roles of rods, cones and ipRGCs in the impact of light on cognitive brain functions remain unclear, however. A small percentage of blind individuals retain non-image-forming photoreception and offer a unique opportunity to investigate light impacts in the absence of conscious vision, presumably through ipRGCs. Here, we show that three such patients were able to choose non-randomly about the presence of light despite their complete lack of sight. Furthermore, 2s of blue light modified EEG activity when administered simultaneously to auditory stimulations. FMRI further showed that, during an auditory working memory task, less than a minute of blue light triggered the recruitment of supplemental prefrontal and thalamic brain regions involved in alertness and cognition regulation, as well as key areas of the default mode network. These results, which have to be considered as a proof of concept, show that non-image-forming photoreception triggers some awareness for light and can have a more rapid impact on human cognition than previously understood, if brain processing is actively engaged. Furthermore, light stimulates higher cognitive brain activity, independently of vision, and engages supplemental brain areas to perform an ongoing cognitive process. To our knowledge, our results constitute the first indication that ipRGC signaling may rapidly affect fundamental cerebral organization, so that it could potentially participate to the regulation of numerous aspects of human brain function. PMID:23859643

  12. [Use of propanidid in bioelectrical brain activation].

    PubMed

    Korwin-Protrowska, T

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the study was evaluation of propanidid as an agent activating the bioelectric activity of the brain. Examinations were carried out in 200 patients. In patients with generalized epileptic seizures a positive result of activation trial was obtained in 92,8% of the cases. In cases of focal epilepsy, temporal or not temporal, administration of propanidid revealed or increased pathological focal activity all. Activation permitted also brain tumours to be localized more precisely. In patients with cerebraal circulatory disturbances the activating effect of propanidid was observed in 82,8% of the cases. The drug is suitable for outpatient practice and for follow-up examinations.

  13. Staying Socially Active Nourishes the Aging Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163679.html Staying Socially Active Nourishes the Aging Brain Researchers suggest making friends of all ages ... and Human Services. More Health News on: Healthy Aging Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Healthy ...

  14. Brain extraction using geodesic active contours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Albert; Abugharbieh, Rafeef; Tam, Roger; Traboulsee, Anthony

    2006-03-01

    Extracting the brain cortex from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) head scans is an essential preprocessing step of which the accuracy greatly affects subsequent image analysis. The currently popular Brain Extraction Tool (BET) produces a brain mask which may be too smooth for practical use. This paper presents a novel brain extraction tool based on three-dimensional geodesic active contours, connected component analysis and mathematical morphology. Based on user-specified intensity and contrast levels, the proposed algorithm allows an active contour to evolve naturally and extract the brain cortex. Experiments on synthetic MRI data and scanned coronal and axial MRI image volumes indicate successful extraction of tight perimeters surrounding the brain cortex. Quantitative evaluations on both synthetic phantoms and manually labeled data resulted in better accuracy than BET in terms of true and false voxel assignment. Based on these results, we illustrate that our brain extraction tool is a robust and accurate approach for the challenging task of automatically extracting the brain cortex in MRI data.

  15. Neural Correlates of Ongoing Conscious Experience: Both Task-Unrelatedness and Stimulus-Independence Are Related to Default Network Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stawarczyk, David; Majerus, Steve; Maquet, Pierre; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is a set of brain regions that consistently shows higher activity at rest compared to tasks requiring sustained focused attention toward externally presented stimuli. The cognitive processes that the DMN possibly underlies remain a matter of debate. It has alternately been proposed that DMN activity reflects unfocused attention toward external stimuli or the occurrence of internally generated thoughts. The present study aimed at clarifying this issue by investigating the neural correlates of the various kinds of conscious experiences that can occur during task performance. Four classes of conscious experiences (i.e., being fully focused on the task, distractions by irrelevant sensations/perceptions, interfering thoughts related to the appraisal of the task, and mind-wandering) that varied along two dimensions (“task-relatedness” and “stimulus-dependency”) were sampled using thought-probes while the participants performed a go/no-go task. Analyses performed on the intervals preceding each probe according to the reported subjective experience revealed that both dimensions are relevant to explain activity in several regions of the DMN, namely the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, and posterior inferior parietal lobe. Notably, an additive effect of the two dimensions was demonstrated for midline DMN regions. On the other hand, lateral temporal regions (also part of the DMN) were specifically related to stimulus-independent reports. These results suggest that midline DMN regions underlie cognitive processes that are active during both internal thoughts and external unfocused attention. They also strengthen the view that the DMN can be fractionated into different subcomponents and reveal the necessity to consider both the stimulus-dependent and the task-related dimensions of conscious experiences when studying the possible functional roles of the DMN. PMID:21347270

  16. Diffusion and extrusion shape standing calcium gradients during ongoing parallel fiber activity in dendrites of Purkinje neurons.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Hartmut; Arendt, Oliver; Eilers, Jens

    2012-09-01

    Synaptically induced calcium transients in dendrites of Purkinje neurons (PNs) play a key role in the induction of plasticity in the cerebellar cortex (Ito, Physiol Rev 81:1143-1195, 2001). Long-term depression at parallel fiber-PN synapses can be induced by stimulation paradigms that are associated with long-lasting (>1 min) calcium signals. These signals remain strictly localized (Eilers et al., Learn Mem 3:159-168, 1997), an observation that was rather unexpected, given the high concentration of the mobile endogenous calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin and calbindin in PNs (Fierro and Llano, J Physiol (Lond) 496:617-625, 1996; Kosaka et al., Exp Brain Res 93:483-491, 1993). By combining two-photon calcium imaging experiments in acute slices with numerical computer simulations, we found that significant calcium diffusion out of active branches indeed takes places. It is outweighed, however, by rapid and powerful calcium extrusion along the dendritic shaft. The close interplay of diffusion and extrusion defines the spread of calcium between active and inactive dendritic branches, forming a steep gradient in calcium with drop ranges of ~13 μm (interquartile range, 10-18 μm).

  17. [Brain activity during face processing in infants].

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroko; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2012-07-01

    It has been shown that infants prefer looking at faces to looking at equally complex, non-facial visual stimuli. Many behavioral studies have illustrated that infants process faces differently from other objects. In agreement with these findings, recent neuropsychological studies provide evidence indicating face-specific brain activity in infants. The present paper reviews the psychological studies investigating the infant's brain activity for faces, using brain-imaging techniques, such as near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a new and increasingly used brain imaging technique, which is particularly suitable for use with young infants. Studies using NIRS have reported face-specific brain activation in the temporal area. When 5- to 8-month-old infants view upright faces, a significant increase in oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) was observed in the right temporal area. Such face-specific brain activity in infants becomes view-invariant at the age of 8 months, but not at 5 months. More recently, an NIRS study employing the adaptation paradigm revealed that the identity of faces was processed in the bilateral temporal area. Additionally, face-specific brain activity was observed for not only static face images, but also for dynamic facial point-light displays. We found that concentrations of oxy-Hb increased in the right temporal area during the presentation of an upright facial point-light display compared to that during the baseline period. Finally, we discuss the possibility of developmental changes in brain activity from infancy to childhood and adolescence as well as in atypical development.

  18. Whole-brain activity mapping onto a zebrafish brain atlas

    PubMed Central

    Randlett, Owen; Wee, Caroline L.; Naumann, Eva A.; Nnaemeka, Onyeka; Schoppik, David; Fitzgerald, James E.; Portugues, Ruben; Lacoste, Alix M.B.; Riegler, Clemens; Engert, Florian; Schier, Alexander F.

    2015-01-01

    In order to localize the neural circuits involved in generating behaviors, it is necessary to assign activity onto anatomical maps of the nervous system. Using brain registration across hundreds of larval zebrafish, we have built an expandable open source atlas containing molecular labels and anatomical region definitions, the Z-Brain. Using this platform and immunohistochemical detection of phosphorylated-Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK/MAPK) as a readout of neural activity, we have developed a system to create and contextualize whole brain maps of stimulus- and behavior-dependent neural activity. This MAP-Mapping (Mitogen Activated Protein kinase – Mapping) assay is technically simple, fast, inexpensive, and data analysis is completely automated. Since MAP-Mapping is performed on fish that are freely swimming, it is applicable to nearly any stimulus or behavior. We demonstrate the utility of our high-throughput approach using hunting/feeding, pharmacological, visual and noxious stimuli. The resultant maps outline hundreds of areas associated with behaviors. PMID:26778924

  19. Whole-brain activity mapping onto a zebrafish brain atlas.

    PubMed

    Randlett, Owen; Wee, Caroline L; Naumann, Eva A; Nnaemeka, Onyeka; Schoppik, David; Fitzgerald, James E; Portugues, Ruben; Lacoste, Alix M B; Riegler, Clemens; Engert, Florian; Schier, Alexander F

    2015-11-01

    In order to localize the neural circuits involved in generating behaviors, it is necessary to assign activity onto anatomical maps of the nervous system. Using brain registration across hundreds of larval zebrafish, we have built an expandable open-source atlas containing molecular labels and definitions of anatomical regions, the Z-Brain. Using this platform and immunohistochemical detection of phosphorylated extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) as a readout of neural activity, we have developed a system to create and contextualize whole-brain maps of stimulus- and behavior-dependent neural activity. This mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP)-mapping assay is technically simple, and data analysis is completely automated. Because MAP-mapping is performed on freely swimming fish, it is applicable to studies of nearly any stimulus or behavior. Here we demonstrate our high-throughput approach using pharmacological, visual and noxious stimuli, as well as hunting and feeding. The resultant maps outline hundreds of areas associated with behaviors.

  20. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar": ongoing research activities and third-year results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    This work aims at disseminating the ongoing research activities and third-year results of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar." About 350 experts are participating to the Action, from 28 COST Countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Macedonia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom), and from Albania, Armenia, Australia, Colombia, Egypt, Hong Kong, Jordan, Israel, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Ukraine, and United States of America. In September 2014, TU1208 has been recognised among the running Actions as "COST Success Story" ("The Cities of Tomorrow: The Challenges of Horizon 2020," September 17-19, 2014, Torino, IT - A COST strategic workshop on the development and needs of the European cities). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of

  1. Physical activity, brain plasticity, and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Weinstein, Andrea M; Lopez, Oscar L

    2012-11-01

    In this review we summarize the epidemiological, cross-sectional, and interventional studies examining the association between physical activity and brain volume, function, and risk for Alzheimer's disease. The epidemiological literature provides compelling evidence that greater amounts of physical activity are associated with a reduced risk of dementia in late life. In addition, randomized interventions using neuroimaging tools have reported that participation in physical activity increases the size of prefrontal and hippocampal brain areas, which may lead to a reduction in memory impairments. Consistent with these findings, longitudinal studies using neuroimaging tools also find that the volume of prefrontal and hippocampal brain areas are larger in individuals who engaged in more physical activity earlier in life. We conclude from this review that there is convincing evidence that physical activity has a consistent and robust association with brain regions implicated in age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. In addition to summarizing this literature we provide recommendations for future research on physical activity and brain health. Copyright © 2012 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nanotools for Neuroscience and Brain Activity Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Andrews, Anne M.; Boyden, Edward S.; Chun, Miyoung; Church, George M.; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P.; Fraser, Scott E.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Looger, Loren L.; Masmanidis, Sotiris; McEuen, Paul L.; Nurmikko, Arto V.; Park, Hongkun; Peterka, Darcy S.; Reid, Clay; Roukes, Michael L.; Scherer, Axel; Schnitzer, Mark; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Shepard, Kenneth L.; Tsao, Doris; Turrigiano, Gina; Weiss, Paul S.; Xu, Chris; Yuste, Rafael; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience is at a crossroads. Great effort is being invested into deciphering specific neural interactions and circuits. At the same time, there exist few general theories or principles that explain brain function. We attribute this disparity, in part, to limitations in current methodologies. Traditional neurophysiological approaches record the activities of one neuron or a few neurons at a time. Neurochemical approaches focus on single neurotransmitters. Yet, there is an increasing realization that neural circuits operate at emergent levels, where the interactions between hundreds or thousands of neurons, utilizing multiple chemical transmitters, generate functional states. Brains function at the nanoscale, so tools to study brains must ultimately operate at this scale, as well. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are poised to provide a rich toolkit of novel methods to explore brain function by enabling simultaneous measurement and manipulation of activity of thousands or even millions of neurons. We and others refer to this goal as the Brain Activity Mapping Project. In this Nano Focus, we discuss how recent developments in nanoscale analysis tools and in the design and synthesis of nanomaterials have generated optical, electrical, and chemical methods that can readily be adapted for use in neuroscience. These approaches represent exciting areas of technical development and research. Moreover, unique opportunities exist for nanoscientists, nanotechnologists, and other physical scientists and engineers to contribute to tackling the challenging problems involved in understanding the fundamentals of brain function. PMID:23514423

  3. Thinking Patterns, Brain Activity and Strategy Choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Kazuo; Okada, Akira; Inagawa, Michiyo; Tobinaga, Yoshikazu

    2012-03-01

    In this study we analyzed the relationship between thinking patterns, behavior and associated brain activity. Subjects completed a self-report assessing whether they could voluntarily stop thinking or not, and were then divided into two groups: those with the ability to stop thinking and those without. We measured subjects' brain activity using magnetoencephalography while giving them a series of tasks intended to encourage or discourage spontaneous thinking. Our findings revealed differences between the two groups in terms of which portions of the brain were active during the two types of task. A second questionnaire confirmed a relationship between the ability to stop thinking and strategy choices in a dilemma game. We found that subjects without the ability to stop thinking had a tendency to choose cooperative behavior.

  4. Brain activation in uremic anorexia.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Abelardo; Sánchez-Tomero, José Antonio; Selgas, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about mechanisms responsible for uremic events, especially those that involve the central nervous system (CNS). Anorexia is a frequent complication of the uremic syndrome that contributes to malnutrition in patients on dialysis. Uremic anorexia has been associated with many factors. Traditionally, anorexia in dialysis patients has been regarded as a sign of uremic toxicity; therefore, 2 hypotheses have been proposed: the "middle molecule" and "peak concentration" hypotheses; both of these remain unproved. Recently, our group has proposed the tryptophan-serotonin hypothesis, which is based on a disorder in the amino acid profile that may be acquired when the patient is in uremic status. It is characterized by low concentrations of large neutral and branched chain amino acids in the cerebrospinal fluid. This situation permits a high level of tryptophan transport across the blood-brain barrier and enhances the synthesis of serotonin (the final target responsible for inhibiting appetite). The role of inflammation in the genesis of anorexia-malnutrition is also emphasized. In summary, in the CNS, factors associated with uremic anorexia include high levels within the cerebrospinal fluid of proinflammatory cytokines, leptin, and free tryptophan and serotonin (hyperserotoninergic-like syndrome), along with deficiency of neural nitric oxide (nNO) and disorders in various receptors such as melanocortin receptor-4 (MC4-R). Uremic anorexia is a complex complication associated with malnutrition and high levels of morbidity and mortality. Several uremia-acquired disorders in the CNS such as high cerebrospinal fluid levels of anorexigen substances and disorders in appetite regulator receptors may explain the lack of appetite.

  5. [Glial activation and brain aging].

    PubMed

    Sugaya, K

    2001-10-01

    While basal forebrain cholinergic neurons degenerate in aging and Alzheimer's disease, the cholinergic groups of the upper brainstem are preserved. Since the brainstem reticular-like cholinergic neurons differ from the rostral cholinergic phenotype by their high expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) mRNA, we hypothesized that they contain biochemical mechanisms to protect themselves against self-induced damage by nitric oxide (NO). Our initial question was a source of the NO during the aging process. We found a significant correlation between cognitive function and markers for glial activation and oxidative stress using aged rats. This result indicates that oxidative stress accompanied by glial activation may be occurred in the cognitively impaired animals. We also found mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) was significantly damaged in these animals, while accumulation of oxidative damage was not evident in other molecules. Therefore, oxidative damage to the mDNA by glial activation may occur in the cells having poor protection against oxidative stress during aging. Then the dysfunction of mitochondria, induced by the mDNA damage, may induce cell death as well as produce another oxidative stress to cause neuronal damage. The damaged neurons induce further glial activation and such self-accelerated immune-like response results in progressive neurodegeneration.

  6. Microglial Activation in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Donat, Cornelius K.; Scott, Gregory; Gentleman, Steve M.; Sastre, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Microglia have a variety of functions in the brain, including synaptic pruning, CNS repair and mediating the immune response against peripheral infection. Microglia rapidly become activated in response to CNS damage. Depending on the nature of the stimulus, microglia can take a number of activation states, which correspond to altered microglia morphology, gene expression and function. It has been reported that early microglia activation following traumatic brain injury (TBI) may contribute to the restoration of homeostasis in the brain. On the other hand, if they remain chronically activated, such cells display a classically activated phenotype, releasing pro-inflammatory molecules, resulting in further tissue damage and contributing potentially to neurodegeneration. However, new evidence suggests that this classification is over-simplistic and the balance of activation states can vary at different points. In this article, we review the role of microglia in TBI, analyzing their distribution, morphology and functional phenotype over time in animal models and in humans. Animal studies have allowed genetic and pharmacological manipulations of microglia activation, in order to define their role. In addition, we describe investigations on the in vivo imaging of microglia using translocator protein (TSPO) PET and autoradiography, showing that microglial activation can occur in regions far remote from sites of focal injuries, in humans and animal models of TBI. Finally, we outline some novel potential therapeutic approaches that prime microglia/macrophages toward the beneficial restorative microglial phenotype after TBI. PMID:28701948

  7. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar:" ongoing research activities and mid-term results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing activities and mid-term results of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar.' Almost three hundreds experts are participating to the Action, from 28 COST Countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Macedonia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom), and from Albania, Armenia, Australia, Egypt, Hong Kong, Jordan, Israel, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Ukraine, and United States of America. In September 2014, TU1208 has been praised among the running Actions as 'COST Success Story' ('The Cities of Tomorrow: The Challenges of Horizon 2020,' September 17-19, 2014, Torino, IT - A COST strategic workshop on the development and needs of the European cities). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of buried objects

  8. Brain Activity on Navigation in Virtual Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikropoulos, Tassos A.

    2001-01-01

    Assessed the cognitive processing that takes place in virtual environments by measuring electrical brain activity using Fast Fourier Transform analysis. University students performed the same task in a real and a virtual environment, and eye movement measurements showed that all subjects were more attentive when navigating in the virtual world.…

  9. Electromagnetic imaging of dynamic brain activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.; Leahy, R. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Lewis, P.; Lewine, J.; George, J. ); Singh, M. . Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-01-01

    Neural activity in the brain produces weak dynamic electromagnetic fields that can be measured by an array of sensors. Using a spatio-temporal modeling framework, we have developed a new approach to localization of multiple neural sources. This approach is based on the MUSIC algorithm originally developed for estimating the direction of arrival of signals impinging on a sensor array. We present applications of this technique to magnetic field measurements of a phantom and of a human evoked somatosensory response. The results of the somatosensory localization are mapped onto the brain anatomy obtained from magnetic resonance images.

  10. Electromagnetic imaging of dynamic brain activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.; Leahy, R.; Lewis, P.; Lewine, J.; George, J.; Singh, M.

    1991-12-31

    Neural activity in the brain produces weak dynamic electromagnetic fields that can be measured by an array of sensors. Using a spatio-temporal modeling framework, we have developed a new approach to localization of multiple neural sources. This approach is based on the MUSIC algorithm originally developed for estimating the direction of arrival of signals impinging on a sensor array. We present applications of this technique to magnetic field measurements of a phantom and of a human evoked somatosensory response. The results of the somatosensory localization are mapped onto the brain anatomy obtained from magnetic resonance images.

  11. Physical activity, air pollution and the brain.

    PubMed

    Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem. During exercise, the intake of air pollution increases considerably due to an increased ventilation rate and particle deposition fraction. Recently, air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse effects on the brain such as cognitive decline and neuropathology. Inflammation and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in inducing these health effects. We believe that there is a need to investigate whether the well-known benefits of regular physical activity on the brain also apply when physical activity is performed in polluted air. We also report our findings about exercising in an environment with ambient levels of air pollutants. Based on the latter results, we hypothesize that traffic-related air pollution exposure during exercise may inhibit the positive effect of exercise on cognition.

  12. Using Brain Electrical Activity Mapping to Diagnose Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torello, Michael, W.; Duffy, Frank H.

    1985-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience assumes that measurement of brain electrical activity should relate to cognition. Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM), a non-invasive technique, is used to record changes in activity from one brain area to another and is 80 to 90 percent successful in classifying subjects as dyslexic or normal. (MT)

  13. Using Brain Electrical Activity Mapping to Diagnose Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torello, Michael, W.; Duffy, Frank H.

    1985-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience assumes that measurement of brain electrical activity should relate to cognition. Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM), a non-invasive technique, is used to record changes in activity from one brain area to another and is 80 to 90 percent successful in classifying subjects as dyslexic or normal. (MT)

  14. Brain Activation During Singing: "Clef de Sol Activation" Is the "Concert" of the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Mavridis, Ioannis N; Pyrgelis, Efstratios-Stylianos

    2016-03-01

    Humans are the most complex singers in nature, and the human voice is thought by many to be the most beautiful musical instrument. Aside from spoken language, singing represents a second mode of acoustic communication in humans. The purpose of this review article is to explore the functional anatomy of the "singing" brain. Methodologically, the existing literature regarding activation of the human brain during singing was carefully reviewed, with emphasis on the anatomic localization of such activation. Relevant human studies are mainly neuroimaging studies, namely functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies. Singing necessitates activation of several cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, and brainstem areas, served and coordinated by multiple neural networks. Functionally vital cortical areas of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes bilaterally participate in the brain's activation process during singing, confirming the latter's role in human communication. Perisylvian cortical activity of the right hemisphere seems to be the most crucial component of this activation. This also explains why aphasic patients due to left hemispheric lesions are able to sing but not speak the same words. The term clef de sol activation is proposed for this crucial perisylvian cortical activation due to the clef de sol shape of the topographical distribution of these cortical areas around the sylvian fissure. Further research is needed to explore the connectivity and sequence of how the human brain activates to sing.

  15. Scale-free brain activity: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    He, Biyu J.

    2014-01-01

    Brain activity observed at many spatiotemporal scales exhibits a 1/f-like power spectrum, including neuronal membrane potentials, neural field potentials, noninvasive electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. A 1/f-like power spectrum is indicative of arrhythmic brain activity that does not contain a predominant temporal scale (hence, “scale-free”). This characteristic of scale-free brain activity distinguishes it from brain oscillations. While scale-free brain activity and brain oscillations coexist, our understanding of the former remains very limited. Recent research has shed light on the spatiotemporal organization, functional significance and potential generative mechanisms of scale-free brain activity, as well as its developmental and clinical relevance. A deeper understanding of this prevalent brain signal should provide new insights and analytical tools for cognitive neuroscience. PMID:24788139

  16. Regulation of brain aromatase activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Roselli, C.E.; Ellinwood, W.E.; Resko, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and regulation of aromatase activity in the adult rat brain with a sensitive in vitro assay that measures the amount of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O formed during the conversion of (1 beta-/sup 3/H)androstenedione to estrone. The rate of aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA) was linear with time up to 1 h, and with tissue concentrations up to 5 mgeq/200 microliters incubation mixture. The enzyme demonstrated a pH optimum of 7.4 and an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 0.04 microns. The greatest amount of aromatase activity was found in amygdala and HPOA from intact male rats. The hippocampus, midbrain tegmentum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and anterior pituitary all contained negligible enzymatic activity. Castration produced a significant decrease in aromatase activity in the HPOA, but not in the amygdala or cerebral cortex. The HPOAs of male rats contained significantly greater aromatase activity than the HPOAs of female rats. In females, this enzyme activity did not change during the estrous cycle or after ovariectomy. Administration of testosterone to gonadectomized male and female rats significantly enhanced HPOA aromatase activities to levels approximating those found in HPOA from intact males. Therefore, the results suggest that testosterone, or one of its metabolites, is a major steroidal regulator of HPOA aromatase activity in rats.

  17. Active interoceptive inference and the emotional brain

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl J.

    2016-01-01

    We review a recent shift in conceptions of interoception and its relationship to hierarchical inference in the brain. The notion of interoceptive inference means that bodily states are regulated by autonomic reflexes that are enslaved by descending predictions from deep generative models of our internal and external milieu. This re-conceptualization illuminates several issues in cognitive and clinical neuroscience with implications for experiences of selfhood and emotion. We first contextualize interoception in terms of active (Bayesian) inference in the brain, highlighting its enactivist (embodied) aspects. We then consider the key role of uncertainty or precision and how this might translate into neuromodulation. We next examine the implications for understanding the functional anatomy of the emotional brain, surveying recent observations on agranular cortex. Finally, we turn to theoretical issues, namely, the role of interoception in shaping a sense of embodied self and feelings. We will draw links between physiological homoeostasis and allostasis, early cybernetic ideas of predictive control and hierarchical generative models in predictive processing. The explanatory scope of interoceptive inference ranges from explanations for autism and depression, through to consciousness. We offer a brief survey of these exciting developments. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interoception beyond homeostasis: affect, cognition and mental health’. PMID:28080966

  18. Spread of epileptic activity in human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, John

    1997-03-01

    For many patients with medically refractory epilepsy surgical resection of the site of seizure onset (epileptic focus) offers the best hope for cure. Determination of the nature of seizure propagation should lead to improved methods for locating the epileptic focus (and hence reduce patient morbidity) and possibly to new treatment modalities directed at blocking seizure spread. Theoretical studies of neural networks emphasize the role of traveling waves for the propagation of activity. However, the nature of seizure propagation in human brain remains poorly characterized. The spread of epileptic activity in patients undergoing presurgical evaluation for epilepsy surgery was measured by placing subdural grids of electrodes (interelectrode spacings of 3-10 mm) over the frontal and temporal lobes. The exact location of each electrode relative to the surface of the brain was determined using 3--D MRI imaging techniques. Thus it is possible to monitor the spread of epileptic activity in both space and time. The observations are discussed in light of models for seizure propagation.

  19. Approaches to Modelling the Dynamical Activity of Brain Function Based on the Electroencephalogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liley, David T. J.; Frascoli, Federico

    The brain is arguably the quintessential complex system as indicated by the patterns of behaviour it produces. Despite many decades of concentrated research efforts, we remain largely ignorant regarding the essential processes that regulate and define its function. While advances in functional neuroimaging have provided welcome windows into the coarse organisation of the neuronal networks that underlie a range of cognitive functions, they have largely ignored the fact that behaviour, and by inference brain function, unfolds dynamically. Modelling the brain's dynamics is therefore a critical step towards understanding the underlying mechanisms of its functioning. To date, models have concentrated on describing the sequential organisation of either abstract mental states (functionalism, hard AI) or the objectively measurable manifestations of the brain's ongoing activity (rCBF, EEG, MEG). While the former types of modelling approach may seem to better characterise brain function, they do so at the expense of not making a definite connection with the actual physical brain. Of the latter, only models of the EEG (or MEG) offer a temporal resolution well matched to the anticipated temporal scales of brain (mental processes) function. This chapter will outline the most pertinent of these modelling approaches, and illustrate, using the electrocortical model of Liley et al, how the detailed application of the methods of nonlinear dynamics and bifurcation theory is central to exploring and characterising their various dynamical features. The rich repertoire of dynamics revealed by such dynamical systems approaches arguably represents a critical step towards an understanding of the complexity of brain function.

  20. On-going palliative care enhances perceived control and patient activation and reduces symptom distress in patients with symptomatic heart failure: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Lorraine S; Liao, Solomon; Motie, Marjan; De Michelis, Nathalie; Lombardo, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is a paucity of research about the impact of palliative care (PC) on perceived control (i.e. one’s perceived influence over outcomes or events in the environment) and activation (i.e. ability to self-manage) in patients with symptomatic heart failure (HF). Likewise, little is known about the association between perceived control, activation, and symptom distress in this patient population. We hypothesized that patients with advanced HF who received ongoing PC services (i.e. ≥2 PC consultations) vs no access or a single PC consultation would have greater improvements in perceived control and activation and greater reductions in symptom distress three months post-discharge for HF exacerbation. Methods Forty-two patients (average age 53.9±8.0 years; predominantly male (72%), White (61%) and married (69%)) participated in the study. However, only 36 (85.7%) patients completed an outpatient PC consultation of which 29 (69%) patients returned for additional follow-up visits with the PC team. Data on perceived control, activation, and symptom distress were collected at baseline and three months. Parametric statistical models were applied to draw conclusions. Results Findings showed that the patients who received ≥2 PC consultations had greater improvements in perceived control and activation than their counterparts; these increases were associated with greater reductions in symptom distress. Conclusion Our findings suggest that on-going PC interventions enhance perceived control and activation in patients with advanced HF and open up the possibility of planning larger studies to assess the effect of PC on these variables as possible mediators to improvements in self-management and clinical outcomes. PMID:24443421

  1. Neurocognitive decline in HIV patients is associated with ongoing T-cell activation in the cerebrospinal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Grauer, Oliver M; Reichelt, Doris; Grüneberg, Ute; Lohmann, Hubertus; Schneider-Hohendorf, Tilman; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Andreas; Gross, Catharina C; Meuth, Sven G; Wiendl, Heinz; Husstedt, Ingo W

    2015-01-01

    Objective HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain a challenge despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Immune cell activation has been implicated to play a major role in the development of HAND. Methods In this study, we used multicolor flow cytometry on peripheral blood (PB) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples to determine the expression of HLA-DR and programmed death-1 (PD-1) on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in patients with chronic HIV infection. Expression levels were correlated with HI virus load in PB and CSF, classification of HAND and severity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal abnormalities. Results In a cohort of 86 HIV patients we found that the grade of neurocognitive impairment and the severity of MRI signal abnormalities correlated with decreasing CD4/CD8-ratios and increased frequencies of HLA-DR expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells reaching the highest values in the CSF samples. Importantly, HLA-DR upregulation was still detectable in virologically suppressed HIV patients. Further, T-cell subpopulation analysis of 40 HIV patients showed a significant shift from naïve to effector memory (EM) T cells that was negatively correlated with the grade of neurocognitive impairment in the PB samples. Moreover, PD-1 was significantly increased on CD4+ memory T cells with highest levels on EM T cells in HIV patients with mild or severe neurocognitive alterations. Interpretation The CD4/CD8 ratio, the proportion of EM to naïve T cells and the immune activation profile of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in PB and CSF might be useful parameters to monitor the efficacy of cART and to identify HIV patients at risk of further neurocognitive deterioration. PMID:26401512

  2. Correspondence of the brain's functional architecture during activation and rest.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen M; Fox, Peter T; Miller, Karla L; Glahn, David C; Fox, P Mickle; Mackay, Clare E; Filippini, Nicola; Watkins, Kate E; Toro, Roberto; Laird, Angela R; Beckmann, Christian F

    2009-08-04

    Neural connections, providing the substrate for functional networks, exist whether or not they are functionally active at any given moment. However, it is not known to what extent brain regions are continuously interacting when the brain is "at rest." In this work, we identify the major explicit activation networks by carrying out an image-based activation network analysis of thousands of separate activation maps derived from the BrainMap database of functional imaging studies, involving nearly 30,000 human subjects. Independently, we extract the major covarying networks in the resting brain, as imaged with functional magnetic resonance imaging in 36 subjects at rest. The sets of major brain networks, and their decompositions into subnetworks, show close correspondence between the independent analyses of resting and activation brain dynamics. We conclude that the full repertoire of functional networks utilized by the brain in action is continuously and dynamically "active" even when at "rest."

  3. Multiple source genes of HAmo SINE actively expanded and ongoing retroposition in cyprinid genomes relying on its partner LINE.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chaobo; Gan, Xiaoni; He, Shunping

    2010-04-29

    We recently characterized HAmo SINE and its partner LINE in silver carp and bighead carp based on hybridization capture of repetitive elements from digested genomic DNA in solution using a bead-probe 1. To reveal the distribution and evolutionary history of SINEs and LINEs in cyprinid genomes, we performed a multi-species search for HAmo SINE and its partner LINE using the bead-probe capture and internal-primer-SINE polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Sixty-seven full-size and 125 internal-SINE sequences (as well as 34 full-size and 9 internal sequences previously reported in bighead carp and silver carp) from 17 species of the family Cyprinidae were aligned as well as 14 new isolated HAmoL2 sequences. Four subfamilies (type I, II, III and IV), which were divided based on diagnostic nucleotides in the tRNA-unrelated region, expanded preferentially within a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae as multiple active source genes. The copy numbers of HAmo SINEs were estimated to vary from 104 to 106 in cyprinid genomes by quantitative RT-PCR. Over one hundred type IV members were identified and characterized in the primitive cyprinid Danio rerio genome but only tens of sequences were found to be similar with type I, II and III since the type IV was the oldest subfamily and its members dispersed in almost all investigated cyprinid fishes. For determining the taxonomic distribution of HAmo SINE, inter-primer SINE PCR was conducted in other non-cyprinid fishes, the results shows that HAmo SINE- related sequences may disperse in other families of order Cypriniforms but absent in other orders of bony fishes: Siluriformes, Polypteriformes, Lepidosteiformes, Acipenseriformes and Osteoglossiforms. Depending on HAmo LINE2, multiple source genes (subfamilies) of HAmo SINE actively expanded and underwent retroposition in a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae. From this perspective, HAmo SINE should provide useful phylogenetic makers

  4. The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Ongoing activities and selected key tasks for the coming years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Lamoureux, Scott F.; Decaulne, Armelle

    2012-09-01

    Projected climate change in cold environments is expected to alter melt-season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. In addition, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. The combined effects of these changes will alter surface environments in cold climate regions and change the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of data, coordinated process monitoring and coordinated quantitative analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment are acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G./A.I.G.) SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme has been formed to address this key knowledge gap and builds on the earlier European Science Foundation (ESF) SEDIFLUX (Sedimentary Source-to-Sink-Fluxes in Cold Environments) Network. Coordinated efforts are carried out to monitor, quantify, compare and model sedimentary fluxes and possible effects of predicted climate change in currently 44 selected SEDIBUD Key Test Sites (cold climate environment catchments) worldwide.

  5. Single low-threshold afferents innervating the skin of the human foot modulate ongoing muscle activity in the upper limbs.

    PubMed

    Bent, Leah R; Lowrey, Catherine R

    2013-03-01

    We have shown for the first time that single cutaneous afferents in the foot dorsum have significant reflex coupling to motoneurons supplying muscles in the upper limb, particularly posterior deltoid and triceps brachii. These observations strengthen what we know from whole nerve stimulation, that skin on the foot and ankle can contribute to the modulation of interlimb muscles in distant innervation territories. The current work provides evidence of the mechanism behind the reflex, where one single skin afferent can evoke a reflex response, rather than a population. Nineteen of forty-one (46%) single cutaneous afferents isolated in the dorsum or plantar surface of the foot elicited a significant modulation of muscle activity in the upper limb. Identification of single afferents in this reflex indicates the strength of the connection and, ultimately, the importance of foot skin in interlimb coordination. The median response magnitude was 2.29% of background EMG, and the size of the evoked response did not significantly differ among the four mechanoreceptor classes (P > 0.1). Interestingly, although the distribution of afferents types did not differ across the foot dorsum, there was a significantly greater coupling response from receptors located on the medial aspect of the foot dorsum (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the most consistent coupling with upper limb muscles was demonstrated by type I afferents (fast and slowly adapting). This work contributes to the current literature on receptor specificity, supporting the view that individual classes of cutaneous afferents may subserve specific roles in kinesthesia, reflexes, and tactile perception.

  6. Order/disorder in brain electrical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, O. A.; Figliola, Y. A.

    2004-04-01

    The processing of information by the brain is reflected in dynamical changes of the electrical activity in time, frequency, and space. Therefore, the concomitant studies require methods capable of describing the quantitative variation of the signal in both time and frequency. Here we present a quantitative EEG (qEEG) analysis, based on the Orthogonal Discrete Wavelet Transform (ODWT), of generalized epileptic tonic-clonic EEG signals. Two quantifiers: the Relative Wavelet Energy (RWE) and the Normalized Total Wavelet Entropy (NTWS) have been used. The RWE gives information about the relative energy associated with the different frequency bands present in the EEG and their corresponding degree of importance. The NTWS is a measure of the order/disorder degree in the EEG signal. These two quantifiers were computing in EEG signals as provided by scalp electrodes of epileptic patients. We showed that the epileptic recruitment rhythm observed for generalized epileptic tonic-clonic seizures is accurately described by the RWE quantifier. In addition, a significant decrease in the NTWS was observed in the recruitment epoch, indicating a more rhythmic and ordered behavior in the brain electrical activity.

  7. Decoding Subjective Intensity of Nociceptive Pain from Pre-stimulus and Post-stimulus Brain Activities

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yiheng; Tan, Ao; Bai, Yanru; Hung, Yeung Sam; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a highly subjective experience. Self-report is the gold standard for pain assessment in clinical practice, but it may not be available or reliable in some populations. Neuroimaging data, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have the potential to be used to provide physiology-based and quantitative nociceptive pain assessment tools that complements self-report. However, existing neuroimaging-based nociceptive pain assessments only rely on the information in pain-evoked brain activities, but neglect the fact that the perceived intensity of pain is also encoded by ongoing brain activities prior to painful stimulation. Here, we proposed to use machine learning algorithms to decode pain intensity from both pre-stimulus ongoing and post-stimulus evoked brain activities. Neural features that were correlated with intensity of laser-evoked nociceptive pain were extracted from high-dimensional pre- and post-stimulus EEG and fMRI activities using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). Further, we used support vector machine (SVM) to predict the intensity of pain from pain-related time-frequency EEG patterns and BOLD-fMRI patterns. Results showed that combining predictive information in pre- and post-stimulus brain activities can achieve significantly better performance in classifying high-pain and low-pain and in predicting the rating of perceived pain than only using post-stimulus brain activities. Therefore, the proposed pain prediction method holds great potential in basic research and clinical applications. PMID:27148029

  8. Brain Activity with Reading Sentences and Emoticons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe a person's brain activity when he/she sees an emoticon at the end of a sentence. An emoticon consists of some characters that resemble the human face and expresses a sender's emotion. With the help of a computer network, we use e-mail, messenger, avatars and so on, in order to convey what we wish to, to a receiver. Moreover, we send an emotional expression by using an emoticon at the end of a sentence. In this research, we investigate the effect of an emoticon as nonverbal information, using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that the right and left inferior frontal gyrus were activated and we detect a sentence with an emoticon as the verbal and nonverval information.

  9. Ongoing Slow Fluctuations in V1 Impact on Visual Perception

    PubMed Central

    Wohlschläger, Afra M.; Glim, Sarah; Shao, Junming; Draheim, Johanna; Köhler, Lina; Lourenço, Susana; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human brain’s ongoing activity is characterized by intrinsic networks of coherent fluctuations, measured for example with correlated functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. So far, however, the brain processes underlying this ongoing blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal orchestration and their direct relevance for human behavior are not sufficiently understood. In this study, we address the question of whether and how ongoing BOLD activity within intrinsic occipital networks impacts on conscious visual perception. To this end, backwardly masked targets were presented in participants’ left visual field only, leaving the ipsi-lateral occipital areas entirely free from direct effects of task throughout the experiment. Signal time courses of ipsi-lateral BOLD fluctuations in visual areas V1 and V2 were then used as proxies for the ongoing contra-lateral BOLD activity within the bilateral networks. Magnitude and phase of these fluctuations were compared in trials with and without conscious visual perception, operationalized by means of subjective confidence ratings. Our results show that ipsi-lateral BOLD magnitudes in V1 were significantly higher at times of peak response when the target was perceived consciously. A significant difference between conscious and non-conscious perception with regard to the pre-target phase of an intrinsic-frequency regime suggests that ongoing V1 fluctuations exert a decisive impact on the access to consciousness already before stimulation. Both effects were absent in V2. These results thus support the notion that ongoing slow BOLD activity within intrinsic networks covering V1 represents localized processes that modulate the degree of readiness for the emergence of visual consciousness. PMID:27601986

  10. Learning Activities for the Right Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigsby, Donald; Wilson, Charles

    The paper discusses curriculum materials and learning strategies suitable to the right hemisphere of the brain. Two limiting factors are noted--the difficulty in identifying non-pathological Ss who show right brain tendency, and asymmetry of the brain which makes empirical evaluation of the validity of these materials problematic. The paper…

  11. On a Quantum Model of Brain Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, K.-H.; Fichtner, L.; Freudenberg, W.; Ohya, M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main activities of the brain is the recognition of signals. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given in [6]. Subsequently, details of the mathematical model were presented in a (still incomplete) series of papers (cf. [7, 2, 5, 10]). In the present note we want to give a general view of the principal ideas of this approach. We will introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces and operations. Further, we bring the model face to face with basic postulates any statistical model of the recognition process should fulfill. These postulates are in accordance with the opinion widely accepted in psychology and neurology.

  12. Is time-based prospective remembering mediated by self-initiated rehearsals? Role of incidental cues, ongoing activity, age, and motivation.

    PubMed

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Fisher, Laura

    2007-02-01

    The present research examined self-reported rehearsal processes in naturalistic time-based prospective memory tasks (Study 1 and 2) and compared them with the processes in event-based tasks (Study 3). Participants had to remember to phone the experimenter either at a prearranged time (a time-based task) or after receiving a certain text message (an event-based task) and record the details of occasions when they thought about this intention during a 7-day delay interval. The rehearsal and retrieval of time-based tasks was mediated by more automatic than deliberate self-initiated processes. Moreover, the number of reported rehearsals without any apparent triggers was reliably higher in time- than in event-based tasks. Additional findings concern the effects of age, motivation, and ongoing activities on rehearsal and prospective memory performance. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Physical activity and brain plasticity in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Gildengers, Ariel G; Butters, Meryl A

    2013-03-01

    The human brain shrinks with advancing age, but recent research suggests that it is also capable of remarkable plasticity, even in late life. In this review we summarize the research linking greater amounts of physical activity to less cortical atrophy, better brain function, and enhanced cognitive function, and argue that physical activity takes advantage of the brain's natural capacity for plasticity. Further, although the effects of physical activity on the brain are relatively widespread, there is also some specificity, such that prefrontal and hippocampal areas appear to be more influenced than other areas of the brain. The specificity of these effects, we argue, provides a biological basis for understanding the capacity for physical activity to influence neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. We conclude that physical activity is a promising intervention that can influence the endogenous pharmacology of the brain to enhance cognitive and emotional function in late adulthood.

  14. Supervised learning for neural manifold using spatiotemporal brain activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Po-Chih; Chen, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Li-Fen

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Determining the means by which perceived stimuli are compactly represented in the human brain is a difficult task. This study aimed to develop techniques for the construction of the neural manifold as a representation of visual stimuli. Approach. We propose a supervised locally linear embedding method to construct the embedded manifold from brain activity, taking into account similarities between corresponding stimuli. In our experiments, photographic portraits were used as visual stimuli and brain activity was calculated from magnetoencephalographic data using a source localization method. Main results. The results of 10 × 10-fold cross-validation revealed a strong correlation between manifolds of brain activity and the orientation of faces in the presented images, suggesting that high-level information related to image content can be revealed in the brain responses represented in the manifold. Significance. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is applicable to investigation into the inherent patterns of brain activity.

  15. Depletion of AADC activity in caudate nucleus and putamen of Parkinson’s disease patients; implications for ongoing AAV2-AADC gene therapy trial

    PubMed Central

    Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Samaranch, Lluis; San Sebastian, Waldy; Dickson, Dennis W.; Goldman, Samuel; Forsayeth, John; Bankiewicz, Krystof S.

    2017-01-01

    In Parkinson’s disease (PD), aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of L-DOPA (Sinemet) to dopamine (DA). Previous studies in PD animal models demonstrated that lesion of dopaminergic neurons is associated with profound loss of AADC activity in the striatum, blocking efficient conversion of L-DOPA to DA. Relatively few studies have directly analyzed AADC in PD brains. Thus, the aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of regional changes in AADC activity, DA, serotonin and their monoamine metabolites in the striatum of PD patients and experimentally lesioned animals (rat and MPTP-treated nonhuman primate, NHP). Striatal AADC activity was determined post mortem in neuropathologically confirmed PD subjects, animal models and controls. A regional analysis was performed for striatal AADC activity and monoamine levels in NHP tissue. Interestingly, analysis of putaminal AADC activity revealed that control human striatum contained much less AADC activity than rat and NHP striata. Moreover, a dramatic loss of AADC activity in PD striatum compared to controls was detected. In MPTP-treated NHP, caudate nucleus was almost as greatly affected as putamen, although mean DA turnover was higher in caudate nucleus. Similarly, DA and DA metabolites were dramatically reduced in different regions of PD brains, including caudate nucleus, whereas serotonin was relatively spared. After L-DOPA administration in MPTP-treated NHP, very poor conversion to DA was detected, suggesting that AADC in NHP nigrostriatal fibers is mainly responsible for L-DOPA to DA conversion. These data support further the rationale behind viral gene therapy with AAV2-hAADC to restore AADC levels in putamen and suggest further the advisability of expanding vector delivery to include coverage of anterior putamen and the caudate nucleus. PMID:28166239

  16. Cerebral blood volume changes during brain activation

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Steffen Norbert; Streicher, Markus Nikolar; Trampel, Robert; Turner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes significantly with brain activation, whether measured using positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), or optical microscopy. If cerebral vessels are considered to be impermeable, the contents of the skull incompressible, and the skull itself inextensible, task- and hypercapnia-related changes of CBV could produce intolerable changes of intracranial pressure. Because it is becoming clear that CBV may be useful as a well-localized marker of neural activity changes, a resolution of this apparent paradox is needed. We have explored the idea that much of the change in CBV is facilitated by exchange of water between capillaries and surrounding tissue. To this end, we developed a novel hemodynamic boundary-value model and found approximate solutions using a numerical algorithm. We also constructed a macroscopic experimental model of a single capillary to provide biophysical insight. Both experiment and theory model capillary membranes as elastic and permeable. For a realistic change of input pressure, a relative pipe volume change of 21±5% was observed when using the experimental setup, compared with the value of approximately 17±1% when this quantity was calculated from the mathematical model. Volume, axial flow, and pressure changes are in the expected range. PMID:22569192

  17. Brain activation associated with active and passive lower limb stepping

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Lukas; Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Wolf, Peter; Riener, Robert; Michels, Lars; Kollias, Spyros

    2014-01-01

    Reports about standardized and repeatable experimental procedures investigating supraspinal activation in patients with gait disorders are scarce in current neuro-imaging literature. Well-designed and executed tasks are important to gain insight into the effects of gait-rehabilitation on sensorimotor centers of the brain. The present study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel imaging paradigm, combining the magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible stepping robot (MARCOS) with sparse sampling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure task-related BOLD signal changes and to delineate the supraspinal contribution specific to active and passive stepping. Twenty-four healthy participants underwent fMRI during active and passive, periodic, bilateral, multi-joint, lower limb flexion and extension akin to human gait. Active and passive stepping engaged several cortical and subcortical areas of the sensorimotor network, with higher relative activation of those areas during active movement. Our results indicate that the combination of MARCOS and sparse sampling fMRI is feasible for the detection of lower limb motor related supraspinal activation. Activation of the anterior cingulate and medial frontal areas suggests motor response inhibition during passive movement in healthy participants. Our results are of relevance for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying gait in the healthy. PMID:25389396

  18. Brain State Is a Major Factor in Preseizure Hippocampal Network Activity and Influences Success of Seizure Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ewell, Laura A.; Liang, Liang; Armstrong, Caren; Soltész, Ivan; Leutgeb, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Neural dynamics preceding seizures are of interest because they may shed light on mechanisms of seizure generation and could be predictive. In healthy animals, hippocampal network activity is shaped by behavioral brain state and, in epilepsy, seizures selectively emerge during specific brain states. To determine the degree to which changes in network dynamics before seizure are pathological or reflect ongoing fluctuations in brain state, dorsal hippocampal neurons were recorded during spontaneous seizures in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Seizures emerged from all brain states, but with a greater likelihood after REM sleep, potentially due to an observed increase in baseline excitability during periods of REM compared with other brains states also characterized by sustained theta oscillations. When comparing the firing patterns of the same neurons across brain states associated with and without seizures, activity dynamics before seizures followed patterns typical of the ongoing brain state, or brain state transitions, and did not differ until the onset of the electrographic seizure. Next, we tested whether disparate activity patterns during distinct brain states would influence the effectiveness of optogenetic curtailment of hippocampal seizures in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Optogenetic curtailment was significantly more effective for seizures preceded by non-theta states compared with seizures that emerged from theta states. Our results indicate that consideration of behavioral brain state preceding a seizure is important for the appropriate interpretation of network dynamics leading up to a seizure and for designing effective seizure intervention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Hippocampal single-unit activity is strongly shaped by behavioral brain state, yet this relationship has been largely ignored when studying activity dynamics before spontaneous seizures in medial temporal lobe epilepsy. In light of the increased attention on using single

  19. Invisible Brain: Knowledge in Research Works and Neuron Activity

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Aviv; Curtis, Dorothy; Jung, Sukhwan; Chae, Suhyun

    2016-01-01

    If the market has an invisible hand, does knowledge creation and representation have an “invisible brain”? While knowledge is viewed as a product of neuron activity in the brain, can we identify knowledge that is outside the brain but reflects the activity of neurons in the brain? This work suggests that the patterns of neuron activity in the brain can be seen in the representation of knowledge-related activity. Here we show that the neuron activity mechanism seems to represent much of the knowledge learned in the past decades based on published articles, in what can be viewed as an “invisible brain” or collective hidden neural networks. Similar results appear when analyzing knowledge activity in patents. Our work also tries to characterize knowledge increase as neuron network activity growth. The results propose that knowledge-related activity can be seen outside of the neuron activity mechanism. Consequently, knowledge might exist as an independent mechanism. PMID:27439199

  20. Real-time fMRI links subjective experience with brain activity during focused attention

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Kathleen A.; Scheinost, Dustin; Worhunsky, Patrick D.; Elwafi, Hani M.; Thornhill, Thomas A.; Thompson, Evan; Saron, Clifford; Desbordes, Gaëlle; Kober, Hedy; Hampson, Michelle; Gray, Jeremy R.; Constable, R. Todd; Papademetris, Xenophon; Brewer, Judson A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in brain imaging have improved the measure of neural processes related to perceptual, cognitive and affective functions, yet the relation between brain activity and subjective experience remains poorly characterized. In part, it is a challenge to obtain reliable accounts of participant’s experience in such studies. Here we addressed this limitation by utilizing experienced meditators who are expert in introspection. We tested a novel method to link objective and subjective data, using real-time fMRI (rt-fMRI) to provide participants with feedback of their own brain activity during an ongoing task. We provided real-time feedback during a focused attention task from the posterior cingulate cortex, a hub of the default mode network shown to be activated during mind-wandering and deactivated during meditation. In a first experiment, both meditators and non-meditators reported significant correspondence between the feedback graph and their subjective experience of focused attention and mind-wandering. When instructed to volitionally decrease the feedback graph, meditators, but not non-meditators, showed significant deactivation of the posterior cingulate cortex. We were able to replicate these results in a separate group of meditators using a novel step-wise rt-fMRI discovery protocol in which participants were not provided with prior knowledge of the expected relationship between their experience and the feedback graph (i.e., focused attention versus mind-wandering). These findings support the feasibility of using rt-fMRI to link objective measures of brain activity with reports of ongoing subjective experience in cognitive neuroscience research, and demonstrate the generalization of expertise in introspective awareness to novel contexts. PMID:23684866

  1. Real-time fMRI links subjective experience with brain activity during focused attention.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Scheinost, Dustin; Worhunsky, Patrick D; Elwafi, Hani M; Thornhill, Thomas A; Thompson, Evan; Saron, Clifford; Desbordes, Gaëlle; Kober, Hedy; Hampson, Michelle; Gray, Jeremy R; Constable, R Todd; Papademetris, Xenophon; Brewer, Judson A

    2013-11-01

    Recent advances in brain imaging have improved the measure of neural processes related to perceptual, cognitive and affective functions, yet the relation between brain activity and subjective experience remains poorly characterized. In part, it is a challenge to obtain reliable accounts of participant's experience in such studies. Here we addressed this limitation by utilizing experienced meditators who are expert in introspection. We tested a novel method to link objective and subjective data, using real-time fMRI (rt-fMRI) to provide participants with feedback of their own brain activity during an ongoing task. We provided real-time feedback during a focused attention task from the posterior cingulate cortex, a hub of the default mode network shown to be activated during mind-wandering and deactivated during meditation. In a first experiment, both meditators and non-meditators reported significant correspondence between the feedback graph and their subjective experience of focused attention and mind-wandering. When instructed to volitionally decrease the feedback graph, meditators, but not non-meditators, showed significant deactivation of the posterior cingulate cortex. We were able to replicate these results in a separate group of meditators using a novel step-wise rt-fMRI discovery protocol in which participants were not provided with prior knowledge of the expected relationship between their experience and the feedback graph (i.e., focused attention versus mind-wandering). These findings support the feasibility of using rt-fMRI to link objective measures of brain activity with reports of ongoing subjective experience in cognitive neuroscience research, and demonstrate the generalization of expertise in introspective awareness to novel contexts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Network-dependent modulation of brain activity during sleep.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Kan, Shigeyuki; Koike, Takahiko; Misaki, Masaya; Konishi, Seiki; Miyauchi, Satoru; Miyahsita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-09-01

    Brain activity dynamically changes even during sleep. A line of neuroimaging studies has reported changes in functional connectivity and regional activity across different sleep stages such as slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. However, it remains unclear whether and how the large-scale network activity of human brains changes within a given sleep stage. Here, we investigated modulation of network activity within sleep stages by applying the pairwise maximum entropy model to brain activity obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging from sleeping healthy subjects. We found that the brain activity of individual brain regions and functional interactions between pairs of regions significantly increased in the default-mode network during SWS and decreased during REM sleep. In contrast, the network activity of the fronto-parietal and sensory-motor networks showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, in the three networks, the amount of the activity changes throughout REM sleep was negatively correlated with that throughout SWS. The present findings suggest that the brain activity is dynamically modulated even in a sleep stage and that the pattern of modulation depends on the type of the large-scale brain networks.

  3. Cancer Immunology Miniatures: Immune activation and a 9-year ongoing complete remission following CD40 antibody therapy and metastasectomy in a patient with metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Bajor, David L.; Xu, Xiaowei; Torigian, Drew A.; Mick, Rosemarie; Garcia, Laura R.; Richman, Lee P.; Desmarais, Cindy; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Schuchter, Lynn M.; Kalos, Michael; Vonderheide, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Direct immune activation via agonistic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) is a potentially complementary approach to therapeutic blockade of inhibitory immune receptors in cancer. Here, we provide genetic analysis of the immunological consequences associated with the use of an agonistic CD40 mAb in a patient with metastatic melanoma who responded, underwent a single metastasectomy, and then achieved a complete remission ongoing for more than 9 years after starting therapy. Tumor microenvironment after immunotherapy was associated with pro-inflammatory modulations and emergence of a de novo T-cell repertoire as detected by next-generation sequencing of T-cell receptors (TCR) in the tumor and blood. The de-novo T-cell repertoire identified in the post-treatment metastasectomy sample was also present – and in some cases expanded – in the circulation years after completion of therapy. Comprehensive study of this “exceptional responder” highlights the emerging potential of direct immune agonists in the next wave of cancer immunotherapies and a potential role for TCR deep sequencing in cancer immune assessment. PMID:25252722

  4. Control over brain activation and pain learned by using real-time functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    deCharms, R. Christopher; Maeda, Fumiko; Glover, Gary H.; Ludlow, David; Pauly, John M.; Soneji, Deepak; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Mackey, Sean C.

    2005-01-01

    If an individual can learn to directly control activation of localized regions within the brain, this approach might provide control over the neurophysiological mechanisms that mediate behavior and cognition and could potentially provide a different route for treating disease. Control over the endogenous pain modulatory system is a particularly important target because it could enable a unique mechanism for clinical control over pain. Here, we found that by using real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI) to guide training, subjects were able to learn to control activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), a region putatively involved in pain perception and regulation. When subjects deliberately induced increases or decreases in rACC fMRI activation, there was a corresponding change in the perception of pain caused by an applied noxious thermal stimulus. Control experiments demonstrated that this effect was not observed after similar training conducted without rtfMRI information, or using rtfMRI information derived from a different brain region, or sham rtfMRI information derived previously from a different subject. Chronic pain patients were also trained to control activation in rACC and reported decreases in the ongoing level of chronic pain after training. These findings show that individuals can gain voluntary control over activation in a specific brain region given appropriate training, that voluntary control over activation in rACC leads to control over pain perception, and that these effects were powerful enough to impact severe, chronic clinical pain. PMID:16352728

  5. Dissection of perceptual, motor and autonomic components of brain activity evoked by noxious stimulation.

    PubMed

    Piché, M; Arsenault, M; Rainville, P

    2010-06-01

    In the past two decades, functional brain imaging has considerably advanced our knowledge of cerebral pain processing. However, many important links are still missing in our understanding of brain activity in relation to the regulation of pain-related physiological responses. This fMRI study investigates the cerebral correlates of pain (rating), motor responses (RIII-reflex) and autonomic activity (skin conductance response; SCR) evoked by noxious electrical stimulation. Stimulus intensity was adjusted individually based on the RIII threshold to control for differences in peripheral processes and baseline spinal activation. Covariance analyses were used to reveal individual differences in brain activity uniquely associated with individual differences in pain, RIII and SCR. Shock-evoked activity in cingulate, medial orbitofrontal and parahippocampal regions predicted pain sensitivity. Moreover, lateral orbitofrontal and cingulate areas showed strong positive associations with individual differences in motor reactivity but negative associations with autonomic reactivity. Notably, individual differences in OFC activation was almost fully accounted by the combination of individual measures of autonomic and motor reactivity (R(2)=0.93). Additionally, trial-to-trial fluctuations of RIII-reflex and SCR (within-subjects) were proportional to shock-evoked responses in subgenual cingulate cortex (RIII), anterior insula (SCR) and midcingulate cortex (SCR and RIII). Together, these results confirm that individual differences in perceptual, motor, and autonomic components of pain reflect robust individual differences in brain activity. Furthermore, the brain correlates of trial-to-trial fluctuations in pain responses provide additional evidence for a partial segregation of sub-systems involved more specifically in the ongoing monitoring, and possibly the regulation, of pain-related motor and autonomic responses.

  6. Correspondence between resting state activity and brain gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guang-Zhong; Belgard, T. Grant; Mao, Deng; Chen, Leslie; Berto, Stefano; Preuss, Todd M.; Lu, Hanzhang; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Konopka, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The relationship between functional brain activity and gene expression has not been fully explored in the human brain. Here, we identify significant correlations between gene expression in the brain and functional activity by comparing fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuations (fALFF) from two independent human fMRI resting state datasets to regional cortical gene expression from a newly generated RNA-seq dataset and two additional gene expression datasets to obtain robust and reproducible correlations. We find significantly more genes correlated with fALFF than expected by chance, and identify specific genes correlated with the imaging signals in multiple expression datasets in the default mode network. Together, these data support a population-level relationship between regional steady state brain gene expression and resting state brain activity. PMID:26590343

  7. Active invasion of Porphyromonas gingivalis and infection-induced complement activation in ApoE-/- mice brains.

    PubMed

    Poole, Sophie; Singhrao, Sim K; Chukkapalli, Sasanka; Rivera, Mercedes; Velsko, Irina; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya; Crean, StJohn

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a polymicrobial inflammatory disease that leads to chronic systemic inflammation and direct infiltration of bacteria/bacterial components, which may contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease. ApoE-/- mice were orally infected (n = 12) with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum as mono- and polymicrobial infections. ApoE-/- mice were sacrificed following 12 and 24 weeks of chronic infection. Bacterial genomic DNA was isolated from all brain tissues except for the F. nucleatum mono-infected group. Polymerase chain reaction was performed using universal 16 s rDNA primers and species-specific primer sets for each organism to determine whether the infecting pathogens accessed the brain. Sequencing amplification products confirmed the invasion of bacteria into the brain during infection. The innate immune responses were detected using antibodies against complement activation products of C3 convertase stage and the membrane attack complex. Molecular methods demonstrated that 6 out of 12 ApoE-/- mice brains contained P. gingivalis genomic DNA at 12 weeks (p = 0.006), and 9 out of 12 at 24 weeks of infection (p = 0.0001). Microglia in both infected and control groups demonstrated strong intracellular labeling with C3 and C9, due to on-going biosynthesis. The pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus in 4 out of 12 infected mice brains demonstrated characteristic opsonization with C3 activation fragments (p = 0.032). These results show that the oral pathogen P. gingivalis was able to access the ApoE-/- mice brain and thereby contributed to complement activation with bystander neuronal injury.

  8. Metabolic brain activity suggestive of persistent pain in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Scott J; Millecamps, Magali; Aliaga, Antonio; Seminowicz, David A; Low, Lucie A; Bedell, Barry J; Stone, Laura S; Schweinhardt, Petra; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Persistent pain is a central characteristic of neuropathic pain conditions in humans. Knowing whether rodent models of neuropathic pain produce persistent pain is therefore crucial to their translational applicability. We investigated the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain and the formalin pain model in rats using positron emission tomography (PET) with the metabolic tracer [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to determine if there is ongoing brain activity suggestive of persistent pain. For the formalin model, under brief anesthesia we injected one hindpaw with 5% formalin and the FDG tracer into a tail vein. We then allowed the animals to awaken and observed pain behavior for 30min during the FDG uptake period. The rat was then anesthetized and placed in the scanner for static image acquisition, which took place between minutes 45 and 75 post-tracer injection. A single reference rat brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) was used to align the PET images with the Paxinos and Watson rat brain atlas. Increased glucose metabolism was observed in the somatosensory region associated with the injection site (S1 hindlimb contralateral), S1 jaw/upper lip and cingulate cortex. Decreases were observed in the prelimbic cortex and hippocampus. Second, SNI rats were scanned 3weeks post-surgery using the same scanning paradigm, and region-of-interest analyses revealed increased metabolic activity in the contralateral S1 hindlimb. Finally, a second cohort of SNI rats was scanned while anesthetized during the tracer uptake period, and the S1 hindlimb increase was not observed. Increased brain activity in the somatosensory cortex of SNI rats resembled the activity produced with the injection of formalin, suggesting that the SNI model may produce persistent pain. The lack of increased activity in S1 hindlimb with general anesthetic demonstrates that this effect can be blocked, as well as highlights the importance of investigating brain activity in awake and behaving rodents.

  9. Metabolic brain activity suggestive of persistent pain in a rat model of neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Scott J; Millecamps, Magali; Aliaga, Antonio; Seminowicz, David A; Low, Lucie A; Bedell, Barry J; Stone, Laura S; Schweinhardt, Petra; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Persistent pain is a central characteristic of neuropathic pain conditions in humans. Knowing whether rodent models of neuropathic pain produce persistent pain is therefore crucial to their translational applicability. We investigated the Spared Nerve Injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain and the formalin pain model in rats using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with the metabolic tracer [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to determine if there is ongoing brain activity suggestive of persistent pain. For the formalin model, under brief anesthesia we injected one hindpaw with 5% formalin and the FDG tracer into a tail vein. We then allowed the animals to awaken and observed pain behavior for 30 min during the FDG uptake period. The rat was then anesthetized and placed in the scanner for static image acquisition, which took place between minutes 45 and 75 post-tracer injection. A single reference rat brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) was used to align the PET images with the Paxinos and Watson rat brain atlas. Increased glucose metabolism was observed in the somatosensory region associated with the injection site (S1 hindlimb contralateral), S1 jaw/upper lip and cingulate cortex. Decreases were observed in the prelimbic cortex and hippocampus. Second, SNI rats were scanned 3 weeks post-surgery using the same scanning paradigm, and region-of-interest analyses revealed increased metabolic activity in the contralateral S1 hindlimb. Finally, a second cohort of SNI rats were scanned while anesthetized during the tracer uptake period, and the S1 hindlimb increase was not observed. Increased brain activity in the somatosensory cortex of SNI rats resembled the activity produced with the injection of formalin, suggesting that the SNI model may produce persistent pain. The lack of increased activity in S1 hindlimb with general anesthetic demonstrates that this effect can be blocked, as well as highlights the importance of investigating brain activity in awake and behaving

  10. Physical activity, inflammation, and volume of the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Braskie, M N; Boyle, C P; Rajagopalan, P; Gutman, B A; Toga, A W; Raji, C A; Tracy, R P; Kuller, L H; Becker, J T; Lopez, O L; Thompson, P M

    2014-07-25

    Physical activity influences inflammation, and both affect brain structure and Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. We hypothesized that older adults with greater reported physical activity intensity and lower serum levels of the inflammatory marker tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) would have larger regional brain volumes on subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. In 43 cognitively intact older adults (79.3±4.8 years) and 39 patients with AD (81.9±5.1 years at the time of MRI) participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study, we examined year-1 reported physical activity intensity, year-5 blood serum TNFα measures, and year-9 volumetric brain MRI scans. We examined how prior physical activity intensity and TNFα related to subsequent total and regional brain volumes. Physical activity intensity was measured using the modified Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activities questionnaire at year 1 of the study, when all subjects included here were cognitively intact. Stability of measures was established for exercise intensity over 9 years and TNFα over 3 years in a subset of subjects who had these measurements at multiple time points. When considered together, more intense physical activity intensity and lower serum TNFα were both associated with greater total brain volume on follow-up MRI scans. TNFα, but not physical activity, was associated with regional volumes of the inferior parietal lobule, a region previously associated with inflammation in AD patients. Physical activity and TNFα may independently influence brain structure in older adults. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Nasal airflow and brain activity: is there a link?

    PubMed

    Price, A; Eccles, R

    2016-09-01

    Over the past few decades, evidence has emerged suggesting that nasal airflow asymmetry and brain asymmetry are linked. The nose exhibits asymmetrical airflow, with the dominant airflow alternating from one nasal passage to the other over a period of hours. Some authors have suggested a correlation between cerebral hemisphere dominance and nostril dominance. Others have proposed an association between rhythmic fluctuations in nasal airflow and corresponding fluctuations in cerebral hemisphere activity. Based on ancient yoga breathing techniques, newer evidence suggests that altering nasal airflow can influence brain activity, with reports of improved cognitive function caused by unilateral forced nostril breathing. It seems that a nasal airflow stimulus may have an activating effect on the brain, as it has also been shown to trigger seizure activity in epileptic patients. This article explores these theories in detail, reviews the evidence, and presents new models linking nasal airflow and brain activity.

  12. Focused ultrasound modulates region-specific brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung-Schik; Bystritsky, Alexander; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Fischer, Krisztina; Min, Byoung-Kyong; McDannold, Nathan J.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated the in vivo feasibility of using focused ultrasound (FUS) to transiently modulate (through either stimulation or suppression) the function of regional brain tissue in rabbits. FUS was delivered in a train of pulses at low acoustic energy, far below the cavitation threshold, to the animal's somatomotor and visual areas, as guided by anatomical and functional information from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The temporary alterations in the brain function affected by the sonication were characterized by both electrophysiological recordings and functional brain mapping achieved through the use of functional MRI (fMRI). The modulatory effects were bimodal, whereby the brain activity could either be stimulated or selectively suppressed. Histological analysis of the excised brain tissue after the sonication demonstrated that the FUS did not elicit any tissue damages. Unlike transcranial magnetic stimulation, FUS can be applied to deep structures in the brain with greater spatial precision. Transient modulation of brain function using image-guided and anatomically-targeted FUS would enable the investigation of functional connectivity between brain regions and will eventually lead to a better understanding of localized brain functions. It is anticipated that the use of this technology will have an impact on brain research and may offer novel therapeutic interventions in various neurological conditions and psychiatric disorders. PMID:21354315

  13. Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Lalit; Besseling, René M.H.; Overvliet, Geke M.; Hofman, Paul A.M.; de Louw, Anton; Vaessen, Maarten J.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Ulman, Shrutin; Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Backes, Walter H.

    2014-01-01

    In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps appear more (diffusively) distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness), complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix), and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity). To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic) epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70%) and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients. PMID:25161893

  14. Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Lalit; Besseling, René M H; Overvliet, Geke M; Hofman, Paul A M; de Louw, Anton; Vaessen, Maarten J; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Ulman, Shrutin; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Backes, Walter H

    2014-01-01

    In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps appear more (diffusively) distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness), complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix), and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity). To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic) epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70%) and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients.

  15. Correspondence of the brain's functional architecture during activation and rest

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen M.; Fox, Peter T.; Miller, Karla L.; Glahn, David C.; Fox, P. Mickle; Mackay, Clare E.; Filippini, Nicola; Watkins, Kate E.; Toro, Roberto; Laird, Angela R.; Beckmann, Christian F.

    2009-01-01

    Neural connections, providing the substrate for functional networks, exist whether or not they are functionally active at any given moment. However, it is not known to what extent brain regions are continuously interacting when the brain is “at rest.” In this work, we identify the major explicit activation networks by carrying out an image-based activation network analysis of thousands of separate activation maps derived from the BrainMap database of functional imaging studies, involving nearly 30,000 human subjects. Independently, we extract the major covarying networks in the resting brain, as imaged with functional magnetic resonance imaging in 36 subjects at rest. The sets of major brain networks, and their decompositions into subnetworks, show close correspondence between the independent analyses of resting and activation brain dynamics. We conclude that the full repertoire of functional networks utilized by the brain in action is continuously and dynamically “active” even when at “rest.” PMID:19620724

  16. Spectral factorization-based current source density analysis of ongoing neural oscillations.

    PubMed

    Chand, Ganesh B; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2014-03-15

    Current source density (CSD) analysis is widely used in neurophysiological investigations intended to reveal the patterns of localized neuronal activity in terms of current sources and sinks. CSD is based on the second spatial derivatives of multi-electrode electrophysiological recordings, and can be applied to brain activity related to repeated external stimulations (evoked brain activity) or ongoing (spontaneous) brain activity. In evoked brain activity, event-related time-series averages of ensembles are used to compute CSD patterns. However, for ongoing neural activity, the lack of external events requires a different approach other than ensemble averaging. Here, we propose a new spectral factorization-based current source density (SF-CSD) analysis method for ongoing neural oscillations. We validated this new SF-CSD analysis method using simulated data and demonstrated its effectiveness by applying to experimental intra-cortical local field potentials recorded on multi-contact depth electrodes from monkeys performing selective visual attention tasks. The proposed method gives space-unbiased estimates since it does not rely on a reference for CSD calculation in the frequency-domain. The proposed SF-CSD method is expected to be a useful tool for systematic analysis of neural sources and oscillations from multi-site electrophysiological recordings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The phase of ongoing EEG oscillations predicts visual perception.

    PubMed

    Busch, Niko A; Dubois, Julien; VanRullen, Rufin

    2009-06-17

    Oscillations are ubiquitous in electrical recordings of brain activity. While the amplitude of ongoing oscillatory activity is known to correlate with various aspects of perception, the influence of oscillatory phase on perception remains unknown. In particular, since phase varies on a much faster timescale than the more sluggish amplitude fluctuations, phase effects could reveal the fine-grained neural mechanisms underlying perception. We presented brief flashes of light at the individual luminance threshold while EEG was recorded. Although the stimulus on each trial was identical, subjects detected approximately half of the flashes (hits) and entirely missed the other half (misses). Phase distributions across trials were compared between hits and misses. We found that shortly before stimulus onset, each of the two distributions exhibited significant phase concentration, but at different phase angles. This effect was strongest in the theta and alpha frequency bands. In this time-frequency range, oscillatory phase accounted for at least 16% of variability in detection performance and allowed the prediction of performance on the single-trial level. This finding indicates that the visual detection threshold fluctuates over time along with the phase of ongoing EEG activity. The results support the notion that ongoing oscillations shape our perception, possibly by providing a temporal reference frame for neural codes that rely on precise spike timing.

  18. Phylogenetic investigation of a statewide HIV-1 epidemic reveals ongoing and active transmission networks among men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Philip A.; Hogan, Joseph W.; Huang, Austin; DeLong, Allison; Salemi, Marco; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Kantor, Rami

    2015-01-01

    Background Molecular epidemiologic evaluation of HIV-1 transmission networks can elucidate behavioral components of transmission that can be targets for intervention. Methods We combined phylogenetic and statistical approaches using pol sequences from patients diagnosed 2004-2011 at a large HIV center in Rhode Island, following 75% of the state’s HIV population. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using maximum likelihood and putative transmission clusters were evaluated using latent class analyses (LCA) to determine association of cluster size with underlying demographic/behavioral characteristics. A logistic growth model was used to assess intra-cluster dynamics over time and predict “active” clusters that were more likely to harbor undiagnosed infections. Results Of 1,166 HIV-1 subtype B sequences, 31% were distributed among 114 statistically-supported, monophyletic clusters (range: 2-15 sequences/cluster). Sequences from men who have sex with men (MSM) formed 52% of clusters. LCA demonstrated that sequences from recently diagnosed (2008-2011) MSM with primary HIV infection (PHI) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were more likely to form larger clusters (Odds Ratio 1.62-11.25, p<0.01). MSM in clusters were more likely to have anonymous partners and meet partners at sex clubs and pornographic stores. Four large clusters with 38 sequences (100% male, 89% MSM) had a high-probability of harboring undiagnosed infections and included younger MSM with PHI and STIs. Conclusions In this first large-scale molecular epidemiologic investigation of HIV-1 transmission in New England, sexual networks among recently diagnosed MSM with PHI and concomitant STIs contributed to ongoing transmission. Characterization of transmission dynamics revealed actively growing clusters which may be targets for intervention. PMID:26258569

  19. Multiple Past Concussions Are Associated with Ongoing Post-Concussive Symptoms but Not Cognitive Impairment in Active-Duty Army Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Dretsch, Michael N; Silverberg, Noah D; Iverson, Grant L

    2015-09-01

    The extent to which multiple past concussions are associated with lingering symptoms or mental health problems in military service members is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between lifetime concussion history, cognitive functioning, general health, and psychological health in a large sample of fit-for-duty U.S. Army soldiers preparing for deployment. Data on 458 active-duty soldiers were collected and analyzed. A computerized cognitive screening battery (CNS-Vital Signs(®)) was used to assess complex attention (CA), reaction time (RT), processing speed (PS), cognitive flexibility (CF), and memory. Health questionnaires included the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI), PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M), Zung Depression and Anxiety Scales (ZDS; ZAS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Alcohol Use and Dependency Identification Test (AUDIT). Soldiers with a history of multiple concussions (i.e., three or more concussions) had significantly greater post-concussive symptom scores compared with those with zero (d=1.83, large effect), one (d=0.64, medium effect), and two (d=0.64, medium effect) prior concussions. Although the group with three or more concussions also reported more traumatic stress symptoms, the results revealed that traumatic stress was a mediator between concussions and post-concussive symptom severity. There were no significant differences on neurocognitive testing between the number of concussions. These results add to the accumulating evidence suggesting that most individuals recover from one or two prior concussions, but there is a greater risk for ongoing symptoms if one exceeds this number of injuries.

  20. IMAGING BRAIN ACTIVATION: SIMPLE PICTURES OF COMPLEX BIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Dienel, Gerald A.; Cruz, Nancy F.

    2009-01-01

    Elucidation of biochemical, physiological, and cellular contributions to metabolic images of brain is important for interpretation of images of brain activation and disease. Discordant brain images obtained with [14C]deoxyglucose (DG) and [1- or 6-14C]glucose were previously ascribed to increased glycolysis and rapid [14C]lactate release from tissue, but direct proof of [14C]lactate release from activated brain structures is lacking. Analysis of factors contributing to images of focal metabolic activity evoked by monotonic acoustic stimulation of conscious rats reveals that labeled metabolites of [1- or 6-14C]glucose are quickly released from activated cells due to decarboxylation reactions, spreading via gap junctions, and efflux via lactate transporters. Label release from activated tissue accounts for most of the additional [14C]glucose consumed during activation compared to rest. Metabolism of [3,4-14C]glucose generates about four times more [14C]lactate compared to 14CO2 in extracellular fluid suggesting that most lactate is not locally oxidized. In brain slices, direct assays of lactate uptake from extracellular fluid demonstrate that astrocytes have faster influx and higher transport capacity than neurons. Also, lactate transfer from a single astrocyte to other gap junction-coupled astrocytes exceeds astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttling. Astrocytes and neurons have excess capacities for glycolysis, and oxidative metabolism in both cell types rises during sensory stimulation. The energetics of brain activation is quite complex and the proportion of glucose consumed by astrocytes and neurons, lactate generation by either cell type, and the contributions of both cell types to brain images during brain activation are likely to vary with the stimulus paradigm and activated pathways. PMID:19076439

  1. Variance and Autocorrelation of the Spontaneous Slow Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kaneoke, Yoshiki; Donishi, Tomohiro; Iwatani, Jun; Ukai, Satoshi; Shinosaki, Kazuhiro; Terada, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Slow (<0.1 Hz) oscillatory activity in the human brain, as measured by functional magnetic imaging, has been used to identify neural networks and their dysfunction in specific brain diseases. Its intrinsic properties may also be useful to investigate brain functions. We investigated the two functional maps: variance and first order autocorrelation coefficient (r1). These two maps had distinct spatial distributions and the values were significantly different among the subdivisions of the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex that were identified in functional connectivity (FC) studies. The results reinforce the functional segregation of these subdivisions and indicate that the intrinsic properties of the slow brain activity have physiological relevance. Further, we propose a sample size (degree of freedom) correction when assessing the statistical significance of FC strength with r1 values, which enables a better understanding of the network changes related to various brain diseases. PMID:22666461

  2. Abrogation of IL-4 receptor-α-dependent alternatively activated macrophages is sufficient to confer resistance against pulmonary cryptococcosis despite an ongoing T(h)2 response.

    PubMed

    Müller, Uwe; Stenzel, Werner; Piehler, Daniel; Grahnert, Andreas; Protschka, Martina; Köhler, Gabriele; Frey, Oliver; Held, Josephin; Richter, Tina; Eschke, Maria; Kamradt, Thomas; Brombacher, Frank; Alber, Gottfried

    2013-08-01

    In the murine model of pulmonary infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα)-dependent polyfunctional T(h)2 cells induce disease progression associated with alternative activation of lung macrophages. To characterize the effector role of IL-4Rα-dependent alternatively activated macrophages (aaMph), we intra-nasally infected mice with genetically ablated IL-4Rα expression on macrophages (LysM(Cre)IL-4Rα(-/lox) mice) and IL-4Rα(-/lox) littermates. LysM(Cre)IL-4Rα(-/lox) mice were significantly more resistant to pulmonary cryptococcosis with higher survival rates and lower lung burden than non-deficient heterozygous littermates. Infected LysM(Cre)IL-4Rα(-/lox) mice had reduced but detectable numbers of aaMph expressing arginase-1, chitinase-like enzyme (YM1) and CD206. Similar pulmonary expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was found in LysM(Cre)IL-4Rα(-/lox) and IL-4Rα(-/lox) control mice, but macrophages from LysM(Cre)IL-4Rα(-/lox) mice showed a higher potential to produce nitric oxide. In contrast to the differences in the macrophage phenotype, pulmonary T(h)2 responses were similar in infected LysM(Cre)IL-4Rα(-/lox) and IL-4Rα(-/lox) mice with each mouse strain harboring polyfunctional T(h)2 cells. Consistently, type 2 pulmonary allergic inflammation associated with eosinophil recruitment and epithelial mucus production was present in lungs of both LysM(Cre)IL-4Rα(-/lox) and IL-4Rα(-/lox) mice. Our results demonstrate that, despite residual IL-4Rα-independent alternative macrophage activation and ongoing T(h)2-dependent allergic inflammation, abrogation of IL-4Rα-dependent aaMph is sufficient to confer resistance in pulmonary cryptococcosis. This is even evident on a relatively resistant heterozygous IL-4Rα(+/-) background indicating a key contribution of macrophage IL-4Rα expression to susceptibility in allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis.

  3. Measurements of brain activity complexity for varying mental loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhamala, Mukeshwar; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Wiesenfeld, Kurt; Berns, Gregory S.

    2002-04-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigate the variation in dynamical complexity of human brain activity for different mental loads. Our experiments measured the activity of ten subjects under three experimental conditions: a rest condition, a periodic task of finger opposition, and a task of finger opposition alternated with mathematical serial calculation. We used the correlation dimension to gauge the spatiotemporal complexity of brain activity. The experiments show a direct relationship between this complexity and the difficulty of the task. A natural interpretation is that higher levels of mental load recruit a larger number of independent neural processes that contribute to complex brain dynamics. These results suggest the possibility that the relative change in correlation dimension can be a useful global measure of brain dynamics, e.g., in determining the levels of mental activity, even if little is known about the underlying neurological processes.

  4. Evoked Brain Activity and Personnel Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    correlation suggests variability. Early papers by Travis and Gottlober (1936, 1937), Davis and Davis (1936), Rubin (1938) and Williams (1939... Gottlober , A. (1936). Do brain waves have individuality? Science, 8^, 532-533. Travis, L.E., &: Gottlober , A. (1937). How consistent are an individual’s

  5. BRAIN NETWORKS. Correlated gene expression supports synchronous activity in brain networks.

    PubMed

    Richiardi, Jonas; Altmann, Andre; Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Chang, Catie; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Lemaître, Hervé; Mann, Karl F; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Spanagel, Rainer; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Hawrylycz, Mike; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Greicius, Michael D

    2015-06-12

    During rest, brain activity is synchronized between different regions widely distributed throughout the brain, forming functional networks. However, the molecular mechanisms supporting functional connectivity remain undefined. We show that functional brain networks defined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging can be recapitulated by using measures of correlated gene expression in a post mortem brain tissue data set. The set of 136 genes we identify is significantly enriched for ion channels. Polymorphisms in this set of genes significantly affect resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of healthy adolescents. Expression levels of these genes are also significantly associated with axonal connectivity in the mouse. The results provide convergent, multimodal evidence that resting-state functional networks correlate with the orchestrated activity of dozens of genes linked to ion channel activity and synaptic function.

  6. The neurobiology of brain and cognitive reserve: mental and physical activity as modulators of brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Nithianantharajah, Jess; Hannan, Anthony J

    2009-12-01

    The concept of 'cognitive reserve', and a broader theory of 'brain reserve', were originally proposed to help explain epidemiological data indicating that individuals who engaged in higher levels of mental and physical activity via education, occupation and recreation, were at lower risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. Subsequently, behavioral, cellular and molecular studies in animals (predominantly mice and rats) have revealed dramatic effects of environmental enrichment, which involves enhanced levels of sensory, cognitive and motor stimulation via housing in novel, complex environments. Furthermore, increasing levels of voluntary physical exercise, via ad libitum access to running wheels, can have significant effects on brain and behavior, thus informing the relative effects of mental and physical activity. More recently, animal models of brain disorders have been compared under environmentally stimulating and standard housing conditions, and this has provided new insights into environmental modulators and gene-environment interactions involved in pathogenesis. Here, we review animal studies that have investigated the effects of modifying mental and physical activity via experimental manipulations, and discuss their relevance to brain and cognitive reserve (BCR). Recent evidence suggests that the concept of BCR is not only relevant to brain aging, neurodegenerative diseases and dementia, but also to other neurological and psychiatric disorders. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating BCR may not only facilitate future strategies aimed at optimising healthy brain aging, but could also identify molecular targets for novel pharmacological approaches aimed at boosting BCR in 'at risk' and symptomatic individuals with various brain disorders.

  7. Periodicity in the levels of serum plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is a robust prognostic factor for embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy in ongoing IVF cycles

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bindu N.; Nath, Nirmalendu; Chimote, Natachandra

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been inversely correlated to proteolytic extracellular-matrix degradation exerted by urokinase-type (u-PA) and tissue-type plasminogen activators (t-PA). Any pathological disturbance in PAI-1 levels may lead to several pregnancy complications. AIMS: To assess the influence of periodicity in serum PAI-1 levels on embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy outcome in IVF cycles SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective study of 120 IVF cycles at private infertility centre. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Endometrial response (ER) assessment by measuring Endometrial thickness (cm) and echopattern (grade). Serum PAI-1(ng/ml) measurement by ELISA method on day of hCG, day of ET and days 7 and 14 of ET. Main outcome measure was clinical pregnancy. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Student “t” test, ANOVA, Post-test for linear trend, Pearson Correlation. RESULTS: PAI-1 levels declined from dhCG to dET (318.8 ± 36.1 to 176.1 ± 28.4) whereas they increased steadily from dET to d7 to d14ET (176.1 ± 28.4 to 285.2 ± 30.4 to 353.5 ± 150.4; P = 0.0004) in pregnant group (n = 31). Conversely, dhCG to dET levels increased in both nonpregnant (n = 75; 173.8 ± 18.3 to 280.8 ± 26.1) and biochemical pregnancy BCP (n = 14; 172.7 ± 31.1 to 216 ± 30.1) groups. The rising pattern from dET to d7 to d14ET was not observed in non-pregnant and BCP groups. ER thickness and grade shared significant correlation with serum PAI-1 on dET (Pearson r: ER = 0.28, Grade = 0.29) and d7ET (Pearson r: ER = 0.40, Grade = 0.23). CONCLUSIONS: Periodicity in serum PAI-1 levels offers a robust prognostic factor for predicting clinical pregnancy outcome. The dhCG to dET PAI-1 transition is a decisive factor for either transferring embryos in same/ongoing cycle or cryopreserving them and postponing ET to subsequent natural cycle. PMID:25395746

  8. Linking neuronal brain activity to the glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy homeostasis ensures the functionality of the entire organism. The human brain as a missing link in the global regulation of the complex whole body energy metabolism is subject to recent investigation. The goal of this study is to gain insight into the influence of neuronal brain activity on cerebral and peripheral energy metabolism. In particular, the tight link between brain energy supply and metabolic responses of the organism is of interest. We aim to identifying regulatory elements of the human brain in the whole body energy homeostasis. Methods First, we introduce a general mathematical model describing the human whole body energy metabolism. It takes into account the two central roles of the brain in terms of energy metabolism. The brain is considered as energy consumer as well as regulatory instance. Secondly, we validate our mathematical model by experimental data. Cerebral high-energy phosphate content and peripheral glucose metabolism are measured in healthy men upon neuronal activation induced by transcranial direct current stimulation versus sham stimulation. By parameter estimation we identify model parameters that provide insight into underlying neurophysiological processes. Identified parameters reveal effects of neuronal activity on regulatory mechanisms of systemic glucose metabolism. Results Our examinations support the view that the brain increases its glucose supply upon neuronal activation. The results indicate that the brain supplies itself with energy according to its needs, and preeminence of cerebral energy supply is reflected. This mechanism ensures balanced cerebral energy homeostasis. Conclusions The hypothesis of the central role of the brain in whole body energy homeostasis as active controller is supported. PMID:23988084

  9. Correlated gene expression supports synchronous activity in brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Richiardi, Jonas; Altmann, Andre; Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Chang, Catie; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J.; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Lemaître, Hervé; Mann, Karl F.; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W.; Smolka, Michael N.; Spanagel, Rainer; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Hawrylycz, Mike; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Greicius, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    During rest, brain activity is synchronized between different regions widely distributed throughout the brain, forming functional networks. However, the molecular mechanisms supporting functional connectivity remain undefined. We show that functional brain networks defined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging can be recapitulated by using measures of correlated gene expression in a post mortem brain tissue data set. The set of 136 genes we identify is significantly enriched for ion channels. Polymorphisms in this set of genes significantly affect resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of healthy adolescents. Expression levels of these genes are also significantly associated with axonal connectivity in the mouse. The results provide convergent, multimodal evidence that resting-state functional networks correlate with the orchestrated activity of dozens of genes linked to ion channel activity and synaptic function. PMID:26068849

  10. From abstract topology to real thermodynamic brain activity.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F

    2017-06-01

    Recent approaches to brain phase spaces reinforce the foremost role of symmetries and energy requirements in the assessment of nervous activity. Changes in thermodynamic parameters and dimensions occur in the brain during symmetry breakings and transitions from one functional state to another. Based on topological results and string-like trajectories into nervous energy landscapes, we provide a novel method for the evaluation of energetic features and constraints in different brain functional activities. We show how abstract approaches, namely the Borsuk-Ulam theorem and its variants, may display real, energetic physical counterparts. When topology meets the physics of the brain, we arrive at a general model of neuronal activity, in terms of multidimensional manifolds and computational geometry, that has the potential to be operationalized.

  11. Early Risk, Attention, and Brain Activation in Adolescents Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Dennis P.; Bendersky, Margaret; Dunn, Stanley M.; DeMarco, J. Kevin; Hegyi, Thomas; Hiatt, Mark; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The relations among early cumulative medical risk, cumulative environmental risk, attentional control, and brain activation were assessed in 15-16-year-old adolescents who were born preterm. Functional magnetic resonance imaging found frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex activation during an attention task with greater activation of the left…

  12. Improving students' understanding by using on-going education research to refine active learning activities in a first-year electronics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter Mazzolini, Alexander; Arthur Daniel, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) have been used across introductory university physics as a successful active learning (AL) strategy to improve students' conceptual understanding. We have developed ILDs for more complex topics in our first-year electronics course. In 2006 we began developing ILDs to improve students' conceptual understanding of Operational Amplifiers (OAs) and negative feedback in amplification circuits. The ILDs were used after traditional lecture instruction to help students consolidate their understanding. We developed a diagnostic test, to be administered to students both before and after the ILDs, as a measure of how effective the ILDs were in improving students' understanding.

  13. Can Inner Experience Be Apprehended in High Fidelity? Examining Brain Activation and Experience from Multiple Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hurlburt, Russell T.; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; Kühn, Simone

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the historical context for explorations of “pristine inner experience,” attempts to apprehend and describe the inner experiences that directly present themselves in natural environments. There is no generally accepted method for determining whether such apprehensions/descriptions should be considered high fidelity. By analogy from musical recording, we present and discuss one strategy for establishing experiential fidelity: the examining of brain activation associated with a variety of experiential perspectives that had not been specified at the time of data collection. We beeped participants in an fMRI scanner at randomly-determined times and recorded time-locked brain activations. We used Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES) to apprehend and describe the participant's experience that was ongoing at each beep. These apprehensions/descriptions were obtained with no specific theoretical perspective or experimental intention when originally collected. If these apprehensions/descriptions were of high fidelity, then these pairings of moments of experience and brain activations should be able to be productively examined and re-examined in multiple ways and from multiple theoretical perspectives. We discuss a small set of such re-examinations and conclude that this strategy is worthy of further examination. PMID:28191000

  14. Can Inner Experience Be Apprehended in High Fidelity? Examining Brain Activation and Experience from Multiple Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hurlburt, Russell T; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; Kühn, Simone

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the historical context for explorations of "pristine inner experience," attempts to apprehend and describe the inner experiences that directly present themselves in natural environments. There is no generally accepted method for determining whether such apprehensions/descriptions should be considered high fidelity. By analogy from musical recording, we present and discuss one strategy for establishing experiential fidelity: the examining of brain activation associated with a variety of experiential perspectives that had not been specified at the time of data collection. We beeped participants in an fMRI scanner at randomly-determined times and recorded time-locked brain activations. We used Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES) to apprehend and describe the participant's experience that was ongoing at each beep. These apprehensions/descriptions were obtained with no specific theoretical perspective or experimental intention when originally collected. If these apprehensions/descriptions were of high fidelity, then these pairings of moments of experience and brain activations should be able to be productively examined and re-examined in multiple ways and from multiple theoretical perspectives. We discuss a small set of such re-examinations and conclude that this strategy is worthy of further examination.

  15. The impact of microglial activation on blood-brain barrier in brain diseases

    PubMed Central

    da Fonseca, Anna Carolina Carvalho; Matias, Diana; Garcia, Celina; Amaral, Rackele; Geraldo, Luiz Henrique; Freitas, Catarina; Lima, Flavia Regina Souza

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), constituted by an extensive network of endothelial cells (ECs) together with neurons and glial cells, including microglia, forms the neurovascular unit (NVU). The crosstalk between these cells guarantees a proper environment for brain function. In this context, changes in the endothelium-microglia interactions are associated with a variety of inflammation-related diseases in brain, where BBB permeability is compromised. Increasing evidences indicate that activated microglia modulate expression of tight junctions, which are essential for BBB integrity and function. On the other hand, the endothelium can regulate the state of microglial activation. Here, we review recent advances that provide insights into interactions between the microglia and the vascular system in brain diseases such as infectious/inflammatory diseases, epilepsy, ischemic stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25404894

  16. Personality traits and its association with resting regional brain activity.

    PubMed

    Tran, Yvonne; Craig, Ashley; Boord, Peter; Connell, Kathy; Cooper, Nicholas; Gordon, Evian

    2006-06-01

    The association between personality and resting brain activity was investigated. Personality was assessed using the NEO-Five-factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and resting brain activity was indexed by eyes closed EEG spectral magnitude from four frequency bands over the entire cortex. Results suggest that there are differences between males and females in the NEO-FFI personality traits. The NEO FFI traits were associated with lower frequency brain activity in both males and females. Mild significant and consistent associations were found between delta and theta activity across all cortical regions with Extraversion and Conscientiousness. There were few associations between personality traits and alpha and beta activity, this was shown in males only. Fewer associations between personality and faster frequency bands such as alpha may be due to the methodological problem of using fixed alpha bands. Multiple regression analyses showed that individual alpha frequencies had a greater contribution to personality traits than fixed band alpha waves.

  17. Microglial activation and progressive brain changes in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Laskaris, L E; Di Biase, M A; Everall, I; Chana, G; Christopoulos, A; Skafidas, E; Cropley, V L; Pantelis, C

    2016-02-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder that typically begins in adolescence and is characterized by perceptual abnormalities, delusions, cognitive and behavioural disturbances and functional impairments. While current treatments can be effective, they are often insufficient to alleviate the full range of symptoms. Schizophrenia is associated with structural brain abnormalities including grey and white matter volume loss and impaired connectivity. Recent findings suggest these abnormalities follow a neuroprogressive course in the earliest stages of the illness, which may be associated with episodes of acute relapse. Neuroinflammation has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying these brain changes, with evidence of increased density and activation of microglia, immune cells resident in the brain, at various stages of the illness. We review evidence for microglial dysfunction in schizophrenia from both neuroimaging and neuropathological data, with a specific focus on studies examining microglial activation in relation to the pathology of grey and white matter. The studies available indicate that the link between microglial dysfunction and brain change in schizophrenia remains an intriguing hypothesis worthy of further examination. Future studies in schizophrenia should: (i) use multimodal imaging to clarify this association by mapping brain changes longitudinally across illness stages in relation to microglial activation; (ii) clarify the nature of microglial dysfunction with markers specific to activation states and phenotypes; (iii) examine the role of microglia and neurons with reference to their overlapping roles in neuroinflammatory pathways; and (iv) examine the impact of novel immunomodulatory treatments on brain structure in schizophrenia. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Astrocyte activation in working brain: energy supplied by minor substrates.

    PubMed

    Dienel, Gerald A; Cruz, Nancy F

    2006-01-01

    Glucose delivered to brain by the cerebral circulation is the major and obligatory fuel for all brain cells, and assays of functional activity in working brain routinely focus on glucose utilization. However, these assays do not take into account the contributions of minor substrates or endogenous fuel consumed by astrocytes during brain activation, and emerging evidence suggests that glycogen, acetate, and, perhaps, glutamate, are metabolized by working astrocytes in vivo to provide physiologically significant amounts of energy in addition to that derived from glucose. Rates of glycogenolysis during sensory stimulation of normal, conscious rats are high enough to support the notion that glycogen can contribute substantially to astrocytic glucose utilization during activation. Oxidative metabolism of glucose provides most of the ATP for cultured astrocytes, and a substantial contribution of respiration to astrocyte energetics is supported by recent in vivo studies. Astrocytes preferentially oxidize acetate taken up into brain from blood, and calculated local rates of acetate utilization in vivo are within the range of calculated rates of glucose oxidation in astrocytes. Glutamate may also serve as an energy source for activated astrocytes in vivo because astrocytes in tissue culture and in adult brain tissue readily oxidize glutamate. Taken together, contributions of minor metabolites derived from endogenous and exogenous sources add substantially to the energy obtained by astrocytes from blood-borne glucose. Because energy-generating reactions from minor substrates are not taken into account by routine assays of functional metabolism, they reflect a "hidden cost" of astrocyte work in vivo.

  19. Pacing and awareness: brain regulation of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Edwards, A M; Polman, R C J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this current opinion article is to provide a contemporary perspective on the role of brain regulatory control of paced performances in response to exercise challenges. There has been considerable recent conjecture as to the role of the brain during exercise, and it is now broadly accepted that fatigue does not occur without brain involvement and that all voluntary activity is likely to be paced at some level by the brain according to individualised priorities and knowledge of personal capabilities. This article examines the role of pacing in managing and distributing effort to successfully accomplish physical tasks, while extending existing theories on the role of the brain as a central controller of performance. The opinion proposed in this article is that a central regulator operates to control exercise performance but achieves this without the requirement of an intelligent central governor located in the subconscious brain. It seems likely that brain regulation operates at different levels of awareness, such that minor homeostatic challenges are addressed automatically without conscious awareness, while larger metabolic disturbances attract conscious awareness and evoke a behavioural response. This supports the view that the brain regulates exercise performance but that the interpretation of the mechanisms underlying this effect have not yet been fully elucidated.

  20. Telomerase activity in human brain tumors: astrocytoma and meningioma.

    PubMed

    Kheirollahi, Majid; Mehrazin, Masoud; Kamalian, Naser; Mohammadi-asl, Javad; Mehdipour, Parvin

    2013-05-01

    Somatic cells do not have telomerase activity but immortalized cell lines and more than 85 % of the cancer cells show telomerase activation to prevent the telomere from progressive shortening. The activation of this enzyme has been found in a variety of human tumors and tumor-derived cell lines, but only few studies on telomerase activity in human brain tumors have been reported. Here, we evaluated telomerase activity in different grades of human astrocytoma and meningioma brain tumors. In this study, assay for telomerase activity performed on 50 eligible cases consisted of 26 meningioma, 24 astrocytoma according to the standard protocols. In the brain tissues, telomerase activity was positive in 39 (65 %) of 50 patients. One sample t test showed that the telomerase activity in meningioma and astrocytoma tumors was significantly positive entirely (P < 0.001). Also, grade I of meningioma and low grades of astrocytoma (grades I and II) significantly showed telomerase activity. According to our results, we suggest that activation of telomerase is an event that starts mostly at low grades of brain including meningioma and astrocytoma tumors.

  1. Brain activity: connectivity, sparsity, and mutual information.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Ben; Rae, Caroline; Solo, Victor

    2015-04-01

    We develop a new approach to functional brain connectivity analysis, which deals with four fundamental aspects of connectivity not previously jointly treated. These are: temporal correlation, spurious spatial correlation, sparsity, and network construction using trajectory (as opposed to marginal) Mutual Information. We call the new method Sparse Conditional Trajectory Mutual Information (SCoTMI). We demonstrate SCoTMI on simulated and real fMRI data, showing that SCoTMI gives more accurate and more repeatable detection of network links than competing network estimation methods.

  2. Physical Activity Affects Brain Integrity in HIV+ Individuals.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Mario; Baker, Laurie M; Vaida, Florin; Paul, Robert; Basco, Brian; Ances, Beau M

    2015-11-01

    Prior research has suggested benefits of aerobic physical activity (PA) on cognition and brain volumes in HIV uninfected (HIV-) individuals, however, few studies have explored the relationships between PA and brain integrity (cognition and structural brain volumes) in HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals. Seventy HIV+ individuals underwent neuropsychological testing, structural neuroimaging, laboratory tests, and completed a PA questionnaire, recalling participation in walking, running, and jogging activities over the last year. A PA engagement score of weekly metabolic equivalent (MET) hr of activity was calculated using a compendium of PAs. HIV+ individuals were classified as physically active (any energy expended above resting expenditure, n=22) or sedentary (n=48). Comparisons of neuropsychological performance, grouped by executive and motor domains, and brain volumes were completed between groups. Physically active and sedentary HIV+ individuals had similar demographic and laboratory values, but the active group had higher education (14.0 vs. 12.6 years, p=.034). Physically active HIV+ individuals performed better on executive (p=.040, unadjusted; p=.043, adjusted) but not motor function (p=.17). In addition, among the physically active group the amount of physical activity (METs) positively correlated with executive (Pearson's r=0.45, p=0.035) but not motor (r=0.21; p=.35) performance. In adjusted analyses the physically active HIV+ individuals had larger putamen volumes (p=.019). A positive relationship exists between PA and brain integrity in HIV+ individuals. Results from the present study emphasize the importance to conduct longitudinal interventional investigation to determine if PA improves brain integrity in HIV+ individuals.

  3. Physical Activity Affects Brain Integrity in HIV + Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Mario; Baker, Laurie M.; Vaida, Florin; Paul, Robert; Basco, Brian; Ances, Beau M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has suggested benefits of aerobic physical activity (PA) on cognition and brain volumes in HIV uninfected (HIV−) individuals, however, few studies have explored the relationships between PA and brain integrity (cognition and structural brain volumes) in HIV-infected (HIV +) individuals. Seventy HIV + individuals underwent neuropsychological testing, structural neuroimaging, laboratory tests, and completed a PA questionnaire, recalling participation in walking, running, and jogging activities over the last year. A PA engagement score of weekly metabolic equivalent (MET) hr of activity was calculated using a compendium of PAs. HIV + individuals were classified as physically active (any energy expended above resting expenditure, n = 22) or sedentary (n = 48). Comparisons of neuropsychological performance, grouped by executive and motor domains, and brain volumes were completed between groups. Physically active and sedentary HIV + individuals had similar demographic and laboratory values, but the active group had higher education (14.0 vs. 12.6 years, p = .034). Physically active HIV + individuals performed better on executive (p = .040, unadjusted; p = .043, adjusted) but not motor function (p = .17). In addition, among the physically active group the amount of physical activity (METs) positively correlated with executive (Pearson’s r = 0.45, p = 0.035) but not motor (r = 0.21; p = .35) performance. In adjusted analyses the physically active HIV + individuals had larger putamen volumes (p = .019). A positive relationship exists between PA and brain integrity in HIV + individuals. Results from the present study emphasize the importance to conduct longitudinal interventional investigation to determine if PA improves brain integrity in HIV + individuals. PMID:26581799

  4. Regional Blood-Brain Barrier Responses to Central Cholinergic Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-30

    regions were of particular interest because they show the largest decreases in glucose metabolism following limbic seizures ( Ben - Ari et al., 1981). It is...following seizures ( Ben - Ari et. al., 1981). The piriform cortex-amygdala also appears to be a generator of epileptiform activity in a variety of seizure...produced by PTZ. Such studies are ongoing and the results will be given in subsequent reports. 11 REFERENCES Ben - Ari , Y., D. Richie, E. Tremblay and G

  5. GPR surveying of transport infrastructures and buildings; underground utility and void sensing - ongoing activities in Working Group 2 of COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Plati, Christina; Derobert, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing research activities carried out in Working Group 2 'GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing' of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (www.GPRadar.eu). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Four Working Groups (WGs) carry out the research activities. WG1 focuses on the development of innovative GPR equipment dedicated for civil engineering applications. WG2 deals with the development of guidelines and protocols for the surveying, through the use of a GPR system, of transport infrastructure and buildings, as well as for the sensing of utilities and voids. WG3 deals with the development of electromagnetic forward and inverse scattering methods, for the characterization of GPR scenarios, as well as with data- processing algorithms for the elaboration of the data collected during GPR surveys. WG4 is concerned with the use of GPR in fields different from the civil engineering, as well as with the integration of GPR with other non-destructive testing techniques. Each WG includes several Projects. WG2 includes five Projects. Project 2.1 focuses on outlining 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR surveying of critical transport infrastructures (pavements, bridges and tunnels).' Project 2.2 is concerned with the development of 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR surveying of buildings.' Project 2.3 deals with identifying 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids, with a focus to urban

  6. Human brain activity with functional NIR optical imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingming

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we reviewed the applications of functional near infrared optical imager in human brain activity. Optical imaging results of brain activity, including memory for new association, emotional thinking, mental arithmetic, pattern recognition ' where's Waldo?, occipital cortex in visual stimulation, and motor cortex in finger tapping, are demonstrated. It is shown that the NIR optical method opens up new fields of study of the human population, in adults under conditions of simulated or real stress that may have important effects upon functional performance. It makes practical and affordable for large populations the complex technology of measuring brain function. It is portable and low cost. In cognitive tasks subjects could report orally. The temporal resolution could be millisecond or less in theory. NIR method will have good prospects in exploring human brain secret.

  7. In vivo recordings of brain activity using organic transistors

    PubMed Central

    Khodagholy, Dion; Doublet, Thomas; Quilichini, Pascale; Gurfinkel, Moshe; Leleux, Pierre; Ghestem, Antoine; Ismailova, Esma; Hervé, Thierry; Sanaur, Sébastien; Bernard, Christophe; Malliaras, George G.

    2013-01-01

    In vivo electrophysiological recordings of neuronal circuits are necessary for diagnostic purposes and for brain-machine interfaces. Organic electronic devices constitute a promising candidate because of their mechanical flexibility and biocompatibility. Here we demonstrate the engineering of an organic electrochemical transistor embedded in an ultrathin organic film designed to record electrophysiological signals on the surface of the brain. The device, tested in vivo on epileptiform discharges, displayed superior signal-to-noise ratio due to local amplification compared with surface electrodes. The organic transistor was able to record on the surface low-amplitude brain activities, which were poorly resolved with surface electrodes. This study introduces a new class of biocompatible, highly flexible devices for recording brain activity with superior signal-to-noise ratio that hold great promise for medical applications. PMID:23481383

  8. Telomerase Activity is Downregulated Early During Human Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Ishaq, Abbas; Hanson, Peter S.; Morris, Christopher M.; Saretzki, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Changes in hTERT splice variant expression have been proposed to facilitate the decrease of telomerase activity during fetal development in various human tissues. Here, we analyzed the expression of telomerase RNA (hTR), wild type and α-spliced hTERT in developing human fetal brain (post conception weeks, pcw, 6–19) and in young and old cortices using qPCR and correlated it to telomerase activity measured by TRAP assay. Decrease of telomerase activity occurred early during brain development and correlated strongest to decreased hTR expression. The expression of α-spliced hTERT increased between pcw 10 and 19, while that of wild type hTERT remained unchanged. Lack of expression differences between young and old cortices suggests that most changes seem to occur early during human brain development. Using in vitro differentiation of neural precursor stem cells (NPSCs) derived at pcw 6 we found a decrease in telomerase activity but no major expression changes in telomerase associated genes. Thus, they do not seem to model the mechanisms for the decrease in telomerase activity in fetal brains. Our results suggest that decreased hTR levels, as well as transient increase in α-spliced hTERT, might both contribute to downregulation of telomerase activity during early human brain development between 6 and 17 pcw. PMID:27322326

  9. Brain activity following esophageal acid infusion using positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shigeyuki; Abe, Yasuhiko; Tashiro, Manabu; Koike, Tomoyuki; Iijima, Katsunori; Imatani, Akira; Ohara, Shuichi; Watanabe, Satoshi; Fukudo, Shin; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate symptoms and brain activity following esophageal acid infusion. METHODS: Fifteen healthy volunteers were recruited for the study. Hydrochloric acid (pH 1 and 2) and distilled water (pH 7) were randomly and repeatedly infused into the esophagus. The brain activity was evaluated by positron emission tomography. The severity of heartburn elicited by the infusion was rated on an auditory analog scale of 0-10. RESULTS: The severity of heartburn following each infusion showed a step-wise increase with increasing acidity of the perfusate. The heartburn scores were significantly higher in the second pH 1 infusion compared with the first infusion. Acid and distilled water infusion induced activation of various brain areas such as the anterior insula, temporal gyrus, and anterior/posterior cingulate cortex. At pH 1 or 2, in particular, activation was observed in some emotion-related brain areas such as the more anterior part of the anterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, or the temporal pole. Strong activation of the orbitofrontal cortex was found by subtraction analysis of the two second pH 1 infusions, with a significant increase of heartburn symptoms. CONCLUSION: Emotion-related brain areas were activated by esophageal acid stimulation. The orbitofrontal area might be involved in symptom processing, with esophageal sensitization induced by repeated acid stimulation. PMID:21086568

  10. Visual short term memory related brain activity predicts mathematical abilities.

    PubMed

    Boulet-Craig, Aubrée; Robaey, Philippe; Lacourse, Karine; Jerbi, Karim; Oswald, Victor; Krajinovic, Maja; Laverdière, Caroline; Sinnett, Daniel; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Lippé, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Previous research suggests visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity and mathematical abilities are significantly related. Moreover, both processes activate similar brain regions within the parietal cortex, in particular, the intraparietal sulcus; however, it is still unclear whether the neuronal underpinnings of VSTM directly correlate with mathematical operation and reasoning abilities. The main objective was to investigate the association between parieto-occipital brain activity during the retention period of a VSTM task and performance in mathematics. The authors measured mathematical abilities and VSTM capacity as well as brain activity during memory maintenance using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 19 healthy adult participants. Event-related magnetic fields (ERFs) were computed on the MEG data. Linear regressions were used to estimate the strength of the relation between VSTM related brain activity and mathematical abilities. The amplitude of parieto-occipital cerebral activity during the retention of visual information was related to performance in 2 standardized mathematical tasks: mathematical reasoning and calculation fluency. The findings show that brain activity during retention period of a VSTM task is associated with mathematical abilities. Contributions of VSTM processes to numerical cognition should be considered in cognitive interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Exploiting Complexity Information for Brain Activation Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Liang, Jiali; Lin, Qiang; Hu, Zhenghui

    2016-01-01

    We present a complexity-based approach for the analysis of fMRI time series, in which sample entropy (SampEn) is introduced as a quantification of the voxel complexity. Under this hypothesis the voxel complexity could be modulated in pertinent cognitive tasks, and it changes through experimental paradigms. We calculate the complexity of sequential fMRI data for each voxel in two distinct experimental paradigms and use a nonparametric statistical strategy, the Wilcoxon signed rank test, to evaluate the difference in complexity between them. The results are compared with the well known general linear model based Statistical Parametric Mapping package (SPM12), where a decided difference has been observed. This is because SampEn method detects brain complexity changes in two experiments of different conditions and the data-driven method SampEn evaluates just the complexity of specific sequential fMRI data. Also, the larger and smaller SampEn values correspond to different meanings, and the neutral-blank design produces higher predictability than threat-neutral. Complexity information can be considered as a complementary method to the existing fMRI analysis strategies, and it may help improving the understanding of human brain functions from a different perspective. PMID:27045838

  12. Exploiting Complexity Information for Brain Activation Detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Liang, Jiali; Lin, Qiang; Hu, Zhenghui

    2016-01-01

    We present a complexity-based approach for the analysis of fMRI time series, in which sample entropy (SampEn) is introduced as a quantification of the voxel complexity. Under this hypothesis the voxel complexity could be modulated in pertinent cognitive tasks, and it changes through experimental paradigms. We calculate the complexity of sequential fMRI data for each voxel in two distinct experimental paradigms and use a nonparametric statistical strategy, the Wilcoxon signed rank test, to evaluate the difference in complexity between them. The results are compared with the well known general linear model based Statistical Parametric Mapping package (SPM12), where a decided difference has been observed. This is because SampEn method detects brain complexity changes in two experiments of different conditions and the data-driven method SampEn evaluates just the complexity of specific sequential fMRI data. Also, the larger and smaller SampEn values correspond to different meanings, and the neutral-blank design produces higher predictability than threat-neutral. Complexity information can be considered as a complementary method to the existing fMRI analysis strategies, and it may help improving the understanding of human brain functions from a different perspective.

  13. The slowed brain: cortical oscillatory activity in hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Butz, Markus; May, Elisabeth S; Häussinger, Dieter; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2013-08-15

    Oscillatory activity of the human brain has received growing interest as a key mechanism of large-scale integration across different brain regions. Besides a crucial role of oscillatory activity in the emergence of other neurological and psychiatric diseases, recent evidence indicates a key role in the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This review summarizes the current knowledge on pathological alterations of oscillatory brain activity in association with liver dysfunction and HE in the context of spontaneous brain activity, motor symptoms, sensory processing, and attention. The existing literature demonstrates a prominent slowing of the frequency of oscillatory activity as shown for spontaneous brain activity at rest, with respect to deficits of motor behavior and motor symptoms, and in the context of visual attention processes. The observed slowing extends across different subsystems of the brain and has been confirmed across different frequency bands, providing evidence for ubiquitous changes of oscillatory activity in HE. For example, the frequency of cortico-muscular coherence in HE patients appears at the frequency of the mini-asterixis (⩽12Hz), while cirrhotics without overt signs of HE show coherence similar to healthy subjects, i.e. at 13-30Hz. Interestingly, the so-called critical flicker frequency (CFF) as a measure of the processing of an oscillating visual stimulus has emerged as a useful tool to quantify HE disease severity, correlating with behavioral and neurophysiological alterations. Moreover, the CFF reliably distinguishes patients with manifest HE from cirrhotics without any signs of HE and healthy controls using a cut-off frequency of 39Hz. In conclusion, oscillatory activity is globally slowed in HE in close association with HE symptoms and disease severity. Although the underlying causal mechanisms are not yet understood, these results indicate that pathological changes of oscillatory activity play an important role in the

  14. Reduced cerebellar brain activity during reward processing in adolescent binge drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Cservenka, Anita; Jonesb, Scott A.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2015-01-01

    Due to ongoing development, adolescence may be a period of heightened vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. Binge drinking may alter reward-driven behavior and neurocircuitry, thereby increasing risk for escalating alcohol use. Therefore, we compared reward processing in adolescents with and without a history of recent binge drinking. At their baseline study visit, all participants (age = 14.86 ± 0.88) were free of heavy alcohol use and completed a modified version of the Wheel of Fortune (WOF) functional magnetic resonance imaging task. Following this visit, 17 youth reported binge drinking on ≥3 occasions within a 90 day period and were matched to 17 youth who remained alcohol and substance-naïve. All participants repeated the WOF task during a second visit (age = 16.83 ± 1.22). No significant effects were found in a region of interest analysis of the ventral striatum, but whole-brain analyses showed significant group differences in reward response at the second study visit in the left cerebellum, controlling for baseline visit brain activity (p/α<0.05), which was negatively correlated with mean number of drinks consumed/drinking day in the last 90 days. These findings suggest that binge drinking during adolescence may alter brain activity during reward processing in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26190276

  15. Fluctuations in Neuronal Activity: Clues to Brain Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Velazquez, José L.; Guevara, Ramón; Belkas, Jason; Wennberg, Richard; Senjanoviè, Goran; García Dominguez, Luis

    2005-08-01

    Recordings from neuronal preparations, either in vitro or in the intact brain, are characterized by fluctuations, what is commonly considered as "noise". Due to the current recording and analysis methods, it is not feasible to separate what we term noise, from the "meaningful" neuronal activity. We propose that fluctuations serve to maintain brain activity in an optimal state for cognitive processing, not allowing it to fall into long-term periodic behaviour. We have studied fluctuations in magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from normal subjects and epileptic patients, in electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from children with impact injury, as well as in intracerebral electrophysiological recordings in freely moving rats. Specifically, we have determined phase locking patterns between brain areas from these recordings, which display fluctuations at different scales. We submit the idea that the variability in phase synchronization affords a more complete search of all possible phase differences in a hypothetical phase-locking state space that contributes to brain information processing. In brain pathologies, like epileptiform activity here studied, different levels of fluctuations in phase synchrony may favour the generation of stable synchronized states that characterize epileptic seizures. While the border between noise and high-dimensional dynamics is fuzzy, the scrutiny of neuronal fluctuations at different levels will provide important insights to the unravelling of the relation between brain and behaviour.

  16. Synchronous brain activity across individuals underlies shared psychological perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lahnakoski, Juha M.; Glerean, Enrico; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Hyönä, Jukka; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    For successful communication, we need to understand the external world consistently with others. This task requires sufficiently similar cognitive schemas or psychological perspectives that act as filters to guide the selection, interpretation and storage of sensory information, perceptual objects and events. Here we show that when individuals adopt a similar psychological perspective during natural viewing, their brain activity becomes synchronized in specific brain regions. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 33 healthy participants who viewed a 10-min movie twice, assuming once a ‘social’ (detective) and once a ‘non-social’ (interior decorator) perspective to the movie events. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity measures (inter-subject correlations; ISCs) of functional MRI data. We used k-nearest-neighbor and support vector machine classifiers as well as a Mantel test on the ISC matrices to reveal brain areas wherein ISC predicted the participants' current perspective. ISC was stronger in several brain regions—most robustly in the parahippocampal gyrus, posterior parietal cortex and lateral occipital cortex—when the participants viewed the movie with similar rather than different perspectives. Synchronization was not explained by differences in visual sampling of the movies, as estimated by eye gaze. We propose that synchronous brain activity across individuals adopting similar psychological perspectives could be an important neural mechanism supporting shared understanding of the environment. PMID:24936687

  17. Altered Resting-State Brain Activity in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan; Wang, Dawei; Qin, Wen; Li, Qiong; Chen, Baoyuan; Zhang, Yunting; Yu, Chunshui

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Structural and functional brain changes may contribute to neural dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the effect of OSA on resting-state brain activity has not been established. The objective of this study was to investigate alterations in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the common brain networks in patients with OSA and their relationships with changes in gray matter volume (GMV) in the corresponding brain regions. Designs: Resting-state functional and structural MRI data were acquired from patients with OSA and healthy controls. Seven brain networks were identified by independent component analysis. The rsFC in each network was compared between groups and the GMV of brain regions with significant differences in rsFC was also compared. Setting: University hospital. Patients and Participants: Twenty-four male patients with untreated OSA and 21 matched healthy controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: OSA specifically affected the cognitive and sensorimotor-related brain networks but not the visual and auditory networks. The medial prefrontal cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed decreased rsFC and GMV in patients with OSA, suggesting structural and functional deficits. The right DLPFC and left precentral gyrus showed decreased rsFC and unchanged GMV, suggesting a functional deficit. The right posterior cingulate cortex demonstrated increased rsFC and unchanged GMV, suggesting functional compensation. In patients with OSA, the rsFC of the right DLPFC was negatively correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index. Conclusions: OSA specifically affects resting-state functional connectivity in cognitive and sensorimotor-related brain networks, which may be related to the impaired cognitive and motor functions in these patients. Citation: Zhang Q; Wang D; Qin W; Li Q; Chen B; Zhang Y; Yu C. Altered resting-state brain activity in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2013

  18. Brain activity and medical diagnosis: an EEG study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite new brain imaging techniques that have improved the study of the underlying processes of human decision-making, to the best of our knowledge, there have been very few studies that have attempted to investigate brain activity during medical diagnostic processing. We investigated brain electroencephalography (EEG) activity associated with diagnostic decision-making in the realm of veterinary medicine using X-rays as a fundamental auxiliary test. EEG signals were analysed using Principal Components (PCA) and Logistic Regression Analysis Results The principal component analysis revealed three patterns that accounted for 85% of the total variance in the EEG activity recorded while veterinary doctors read a clinical history, examined an X-ray image pertinent to a medical case, and selected among alternative diagnostic hypotheses. Two of these patterns are proposed to be associated with visual processing and the executive control of the task. The other two patterns are proposed to be related to the reasoning process that occurs during diagnostic decision-making. Conclusions PCA analysis was successful in disclosing the different patterns of brain activity associated with hypothesis triggering and handling (pattern P1); identification uncertainty and prevalence assessment (pattern P3), and hypothesis plausibility calculation (pattern P2); Logistic regression analysis was successful in disclosing the brain activity associated with clinical reasoning success, and together with regression analysis showed that clinical practice reorganizes the neural circuits supporting clinical reasoning. PMID:24083668

  19. Using perturbations to identify the brain circuits underlying active vision.

    PubMed

    Wurtz, Robert H

    2015-09-19

    The visual and oculomotor systems in the brain have been studied extensively in the primate. Together, they can be regarded as a single brain system that underlies active vision--the normal vision that begins with visual processing in the retina and extends through the brain to the generation of eye movement by the brainstem. The system is probably one of the most thoroughly studied brain systems in the primate, and it offers an ideal opportunity to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the series of perturbation techniques that have been used to study it. The perturbations have been critical in moving from correlations between neuronal activity and behaviour closer to a causal relation between neuronal activity and behaviour. The same perturbation techniques have also been used to tease out neuronal circuits that are related to active vision that in turn are driving behaviour. The evolution of perturbation techniques includes ablation of both cortical and subcortical targets, punctate chemical lesions, reversible inactivations, electrical stimulation, and finally the expanding optogenetic techniques. The evolution of perturbation techniques has supported progressively stronger conclusions about what neuronal circuits in the brain underlie active vision and how the circuits themselves might be organized.

  20. Brain acetycholinesterase activity in botulism-intoxicated mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Samuel, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in captive-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) that died of botulism was compared with euthanized controls. AChE levels for both groups were within the range reported for normal mallards, and there was no significant difference in mean AChE activity between birds that ingested botulism toxin and died and those that did not.

  1. Waves of consciousness: ongoing cortical patterns during binocular rivalry.

    PubMed

    Cosmelli, Diego; David, Olivier; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Martinerie, Jacques; Garnero, Line; Renault, Bernard; Varela, Francisco

    2004-09-01

    We present here ongoing patterns of distributed brain synchronous activity that correlate with the spontaneous flow of perceptual dominance during binocular rivalry. Specific modulation of the magnetoencephalographic (MEG) response evoked during conscious perception of a frequency-tagged stimulus was evidenced throughout rivalry. Estimation of the underlying cortical sources revealed, in addition to strong bilateral striate and extrastriate visual cortex activation, parietal, temporal pole and frontal contributions. Cortical activity was significantly modulated concomitantly to perceptual alternations in visual cortex, medial parietal and left frontal regions. Upon dominance, coactivation of occipital and frontal regions, including anterior cingulate and medial frontal areas, was established. This distributed cortical network, as measured by phase synchrony in the frequency tag band, was dynamically modulated in concert with the perceptual dominance of the tagged stimulus. While the anteroposterior pattern was recurrent through subjects, individual variations in the extension of the network were apparent.

  2. Electromagnetic modelling, inversion and data-processing techniques for GPR: ongoing activities in Working Group 3 of COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Giannopoulos, Antonis; van der Kruk, Jan

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing research activities carried out in Working Group 3 (WG3) 'EM methods for near-field scattering problems by buried structures; data processing techniques' of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (www.GPRadar.eu). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. WG3 is structured in four Projects. Project 3.1 deals with 'Electromagnetic modelling for GPR applications.' Project 3.2 is concerned with 'Inversion and imaging techniques for GPR applications.' The topic of Project 3.3 is the 'Development of intrinsic models for describing near-field antenna effects, including antenna-medium coupling, for improved radar data processing using full-wave inversion.' Project 3.4 focuses on 'Advanced GPR data-processing algorithms.' Electromagnetic modeling tools that are being developed and improved include the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) technique and the spectral domain Cylindrical-Wave Approach (CWA). One of the well-known freeware and versatile FDTD simulators is GprMax that enables an improved realistic representation of the soil/material hosting the sought structures and of the GPR antennas. Here, input/output tools are being developed to ease the definition of scenarios and the visualisation of numerical results. The CWA expresses the field scattered by subsurface two-dimensional targets with arbitrary cross-section as a sum of cylindrical waves. In this way, the interaction is taken into account of multiple scattered fields within the medium hosting the sought targets. Recently, the method has been extended to deal with through-the-wall scenarios. One of the

  3. Disparate effects of training on brain activation in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Maidan, Inbal; Rosenberg-Katz, Keren; Jacob, Yael; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Mirelman, Anat

    2017-09-27

    To compare the effects of 2 forms of exercise, i.e., a 6-week trial of treadmill training with virtual reality (TT + VR) that targets motor and cognitive aspects of safe ambulation and a 6-week trial of treadmill training alone (TT), on brain activation in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). As part of a randomized controlled trial, patients were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of TT (n = 17, mean age 71.5 ± 1.5 years, disease duration 11.6 ± 1.6 years; 70% men) or TT + VR (n = 17, mean age 71.2 ± 1.7 years, disease duration 7.9 ± 1.4 years; 65% men). A previously validated fMRI imagery paradigm assessed changes in neural activation pretraining and post-training. Participants imagined themselves walking in 2 virtual scenes projected in the fMRI: (1) a clear path and (2) a path with virtual obstacles. Whole brain and region of interest analyses were performed. Brain activation patterns were similar between training arms before the interventions. After training, participants in the TT + VR arm had lower activation than the TT arm in Brodmann area 10 and the inferior frontal gyrus (cluster level familywise error-corrected [FWEcorr] p < 0.012), while the TT arm had lower activation than TT + VR in the cerebellum and middle temporal gyrus (cluster level FWEcorr p < 0.001). Changes in fall frequency and brain activation were correlated in the TT + VR arm. Exercise modifies brain activation patterns in patients with PD in a mode-specific manner. Motor-cognitive training decreased the reliance on frontal regions, which apparently resulted in improved function, perhaps reflecting increased brain efficiency. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Brain network activity in monolingual and bilingual older adults.

    PubMed

    Grady, Cheryl L; Luk, Gigi; Craik, Fergus I M; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Bilingual older adults typically have better performance on tasks of executive control (EC) than do their monolingual peers, but differences in brain activity due to language experience are not well understood. Based on studies showing a relation between the dynamic range of brain network activity and performance on EC tasks, we hypothesized that life-long bilingual older adults would show increased functional connectivity relative to monolinguals in networks related to EC. We assessed intrinsic functional connectivity and modulation of activity in task vs. fixation periods in two brain networks that are active when EC is engaged, the frontoparietal control network (FPC) and the salience network (SLN). We also examined the default mode network (DMN), which influences behavior through reduced activity during tasks. We found stronger intrinsic functional connectivity in the FPC and DMN in bilinguals than in monolinguals. Although there were no group differences in the modulation of activity across tasks and fixation, bilinguals showed stronger correlations than monolinguals between intrinsic connectivity in the FPC and task-related increases of activity in prefrontal and parietal regions. This bilingual difference in network connectivity suggests that language experience begun in childhood and continued throughout adulthood influences brain networks in ways that may provide benefits in later life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Brain Network Activity in Monolingual and Bilingual Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Cheryl L.; Luk, Gigi; Craik, Fergus I.M.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Bilingual older adults typically have better performance on tasks of executive control (EC) than do their monolingual peers, but differences in brain activity due to language experience are not well understood. Based on studies showing a relation between the dynamic range of brain network activity and performance on EC tasks, we hypothesized that life-long bilingual older adults would show increased functional connectivity relative to monolinguals in networks related to EC. We assessed intrinsic functional connectivity and modulation of activity in task vs. fixation periods in two brain networks that are active when EC is engaged, the frontoparietal control network (FPC) and the salience network (SLN). We also examined the default mode network (DMN), which influences behavior through reduced activity during tasks. We found stronger intrinsic functional connectivity in the FPC and DMN in bilinguals than in monolinguals. Although there were no group differences in the modulation of activity across tasks and fixation, bilinguals showed stronger correlations than monolinguals between intrinsic connectivity in the FPC and task-related increases of activity in prefrontal and parietal regions. This bilingual difference in network connectivity suggests that language experience begun in childhood and continued throughout adulthood influences brain networks in ways that may provide benefits in later life. PMID:25445783

  6. Brain feminization requires active repression of masculinization via DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Bridget M.; Wright, Christopher L.; Shetty, Amol C.; Hodes, Georgia E.; Lenz, Kathryn M.; Mahurkar, Anup; Russo, Scott J.; Devine, Scott E.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    The developing mammalian brain is destined for a female phenotype unless exposed to gonadal hormones during a perinatal sensitive period. It has been assumed that the undifferentiated brain is masculinized by direct induction of transcription by ligand-activated nuclear steroid receptors. We found that a primary effect of gonadal steroids in the highly sexually-dimorphic preoptic area (POA) is to reduce activity of DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) enzymes, thereby decreasing DNA methylation and releasing masculinizing genes from epigenetic repression. Pharmacological inhibition of Dnmts mimicked gonadal steroids, resulting in masculinized neuronal markers and male sexual behavior in females. Conditional knockout of the de novo Dnmt isoform, Dnmt3a, also masculinized sexual behavior in female mice. RNA sequencing revealed gene and isoform variants modulated by methylation that may underlie the divergent reproductive behaviors of males versus females. Our data show that brain feminization is maintained by the active suppression of masculinization via DNA methylation. PMID:25821913

  7. Developmental changes in infant brain activity during naturalistic social experiences.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emily J H; Venema, Kaitlin; Lowy, Rachel; Earl, Rachel K; Webb, Sara Jane

    2015-11-01

    Between 6 and 12 months, typically developing infants undergo a socio-cognitive "revolution." The Interactive Specialization (IS) theory of brain development predicts that these behavioral changes will be underpinned by developmental increases in the power and topographic extent of socially selective cortical responses. To test this hypothesis, we used EEG to examine developmental changes in cortical selectivity for ecologically valid dynamic social versus non-social stimuli in a large cohort of 6- and 12-month-old infants. Consistent with the Interactive Specialization model, results showed that differences in EEG Θ activity between social and non-social stimuli became more pronounced and widespread with age. Differences in EEG activity were most clearly elicited by a live naturalistic interaction, suggesting that measuring brain activity in ecologically valid contexts is central to mapping social brain development in infancy.

  8. Individual Variability in Brain Activity: A Nuisance or an Opportunity?

    PubMed

    Van Horn, John Darrell; Grafton, Scott T; Miller, Michael B

    2008-12-01

    Functional imaging research has been heavily influenced by results based on population-level inference. However, group average results may belie the unique patterns of activity present in the individual that ordinarily are considered random noise. Recent advances in the evolution of MRI hardware have led to significant improvements in the stability and reproducibility of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) measurements. These enhancements provide a unique opportunity for closer examination of individual patterns of brain activity. Three objectives can be accomplished by considering brain scans at the individual level; (1) Mapping functional anatomy at a fine grained analysis; (2) Determining if an individual scan is normative with respect to a reference population; and (3) Understanding the sources of intersubject variability in brain activity. In this review, we detail these objectives, briefly discuss their histories and present recent trends in the analyses of individual variability. Finally, we emphasize the unique opportunities and challenges for understanding individual differences through international collaboration among Pacific Rim investigators.

  9. Listening to humans walking together activates the social brain circuitry.

    PubMed

    Saarela, Miiamaaria V; Hari, Riitta

    2008-01-01

    Human footsteps carry a vast amount of social information, which is often unconsciously noted. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we analyzed brain networks activated by footstep sounds of one or two persons walking. Listening to two persons walking together activated brain areas previously associated with affective states and social interaction, such as the subcallosal gyrus bilaterally, the right temporal pole, and the right amygdala. These areas seem to be involved in the analysis of persons' identity and complex social stimuli on the basis of auditory cues. Single footsteps activated only the biological motion area in the posterior STS region. Thus, hearing two persons walking together involved a more widespread brain network than did hearing footsteps from a single person.

  10. Spontaneous brain activity predicts learning ability of foreign sounds.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán, Ana; González, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Deco, Gustavo; Ávila, César

    2013-05-29

    Can learning capacity of the human brain be predicted from initial spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) between brain areas involved in a task? We combined task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) before and after training with a Hindi dental-retroflex nonnative contrast. Previous fMRI results were replicated, demonstrating that this learning recruited the left insula/frontal operculum and the left superior parietal lobe, among other areas of the brain. Crucially, resting-state FC (rs-FC) between these two areas at pretraining predicted individual differences in learning outcomes after distributed (Experiment 1) and intensive training (Experiment 2). Furthermore, this rs-FC was reduced at posttraining, a change that may also account for learning. Finally, resting-state network analyses showed that the mechanism underlying this reduction of rs-FC was mainly a transfer in intrinsic activity of the left frontal operculum/anterior insula from the left frontoparietal network to the salience network. Thus, rs-FC may contribute to predict learning ability and to understand how learning modifies the functioning of the brain. The discovery of this correspondence between initial spontaneous brain activity in task-related areas and posttraining performance opens new avenues to find predictors of learning capacities in the brain using task-related fMRI and rs-fMRI combined.

  11. Brain Hyperglycemia Induced by Heroin: Association with Metabolic Neural Activation.

    PubMed

    Solis, Ernesto; Bola, R Aaron; Fasulo, Bradley J; Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2017-02-15

    Glucose enters the brain extracellular space from arterial blood, and its proper delivery is essential for metabolic activity of brain cells. By using enzyme-based biosensors coupled with high-speed amperometry in freely moving rats, we previously showed that glucose levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) display high variability, increasing rapidly following exposure to various arousing stimuli. In this study, the same technology was used to assess NAc glucose fluctuations induced by intravenous heroin. Heroin passively injected at a low dose optimal for maintaining self-administration behavior (100 μg/kg) induces a rapid but moderate glucose rise (∼150-200 μM or ∼15-25% over resting baseline). When the heroin dose was doubled and tripled, the increase became progressively larger in magnitude and longer in duration. Heroin-induced glucose increases also occurred in other brain structures (medial thalamus, lateral striatum, hippocampus), suggesting that brain hyperglycemia is a whole-brain phenomenon but changes were notably distinct in each structure. While local vasodilation appears to be the possible mechanism underlying the rapid rise in extracellular glucose levels, the driving factor for this vasodilation (central vs peripheral) remains to be clarified. The heroin-induced NAc glucose increases positively correlated with increases in intracerebral heat production determined in separate experiments using multisite temperature recordings (NAc, temporal muscle and skin). However, glucose levels rise very rapidly, preceding much slower increases in brain heat production, a measure of metabolic activation associated with glucose consumption.

  12. Impaired Brain Creatine Kinase Activity in Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S.F.; Hennessey, T.; Yang, L.; Starkova, N.N.; Beal, M.F.; Starkov, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with impaired energy metabolism in the brain. Creatine kinase (CK) catalyzes ATP-dependent phosphorylation of creatine (Cr) into phosphocreatine (PCr), thereby serving as readily available high-capacity spatial and temporal ATP buffering. Objective: Substantial evidence supports a specific role of the Cr/PCr system in neurodegenerative diseases. In the brain, the Cr/PCr ATP-buffering system is established by a concerted operation of the brain-specific cytosolic enzyme BB-CK and ubiquitous mitochondrial uMt-CK. It is not yet established whether the activity of these CK isoenzymes is impaired in HD. Methods We measured PCr, Cr, ATP and ADP in brain extracts of 3 mouse models of HD – R6/2 mice, N171-82Q and HdhQ111 mice – and the activity of CK in cytosolic and mitochondrial brain fractions from the same mice. Results The PCr was significantly increased in mouse HD brain extracts as compared to nontransgenic littermates. We also found an approximately 27% decrease in CK activity in both cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions of R6/2 and N171-82Q mice, and an approximately 25% decrease in the mitochondria from HdhQ111 mice. Moreover, uMt-CK and BB-CK activities were approximately 63% lower in HD human brain samples as compared to nondiseased controls. Conclusion Our findings lend strong support to the role of impaired energy metabolism in HD, and point out the potential importance of impairment of the CK-catalyzed ATP-buffering system in the etiology of HD. PMID:21124007

  13. Impaired brain creatine kinase activity in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S F; Hennessey, T; Yang, L; Starkova, N N; Beal, M F; Starkov, A A

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with impaired energy metabolism in the brain. Creatine kinase (CK) catalyzes ATP-dependent phosphorylation of creatine (Cr) into phosphocreatine (PCr), thereby serving as readily available high-capacity spatial and temporal ATP buffering. Substantial evidence supports a specific role of the Cr/PCr system in neurodegenerative diseases. In the brain, the Cr/PCr ATP-buffering system is established by a concerted operation of the brain-specific cytosolic enzyme BB-CK and ubiquitous mitochondrial uMt-CK. It is not yet established whether the activity of these CK isoenzymes is impaired in HD. We measured PCr, Cr, ATP and ADP in brain extracts of 3 mouse models of HD - R6/2 mice, N171-82Q and HdhQ(111) mice - and the activity of CK in cytosolic and mitochondrial brain fractions from the same mice. The PCr was significantly increased in mouse HD brain extracts as compared to nontransgenic littermates. We also found an approximately 27% decrease in CK activity in both cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions of R6/2 and N171-82Q mice, and an approximately 25% decrease in the mitochondria from HdhQ(111) mice. Moreover, uMt-CK and BB-CK activities were approximately 63% lower in HD human brain samples as compared to nondiseased controls. Our findings lend strong support to the role of impaired energy metabolism in HD, and point out the potential importance of impairment of the CK-catalyzed ATP-buffering system in the etiology of HD. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Expression and activity of the urokinase plasminogen activator system in canine primary brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rossmeisl, John H; Hall-Manning, Kelli; Robertson, John L; King, Jamie N; Davalos, Rafael V; Debinski, Waldemar; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2017-01-01

    Background The expression of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein family member, and the activity of its ligand, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), have been associated with the invasive and metastatic potentials of a variety of human brain tumors through their regulation of extracellular matrix degradation. Domesticated dogs develop naturally occurring brain tumors that share many clinical, phenotypic, molecular, and genetic features with their human counterparts, which has prompted the use of the dogs with spontaneous brain tumors as models to expedite the translation of novel brain tumor therapeutics to humans. There is currently little known regarding the role of the uPA system in canine brain tumorigenesis. The objective of this study was to characterize the expression of uPAR and the activity of uPA in canine brain tumors as justification for the development of uPAR-targeted brain tumor therapeutics in dogs. Methods We investigated the expression of uPAR in 37 primary canine brain tumors using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses, and by the assay of the activity of uPA using casein–plasminogen zymography. Results Expression of uPAR was observed in multiple tumoral microenvironmental niches, including neoplastic cells, stroma, and the vasculature of canine brain tumors. Relative to normal brain tissues, uPAR protein and mRNA expression were significantly greater in canine meningiomas, gliomas, and choroid plexus tumors. Increased activity of uPA was documented in all tumor types. Conclusions uPAR is overexpressed and uPA activity increased in canine meningiomas, gliomas, and choroid plexus tumors. This study illustrates the potential of uPAR/uPA molecularly targeted approaches for canine brain tumor therapeutics and reinforces the translational significance of canines with spontaneous brain tumors as models for human disease

  15. Inferring brain-computational mechanisms with models of activity measurements

    PubMed Central

    Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e.g. local averaging in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voxels or sparse sampling in array recordings). The resulting generative model (BCM-MM) produces simulated measurements. To avoid having to fit the MM to predict each individual measurement channel of the brain-activity data, we compare the measured and predicted data at the level of summary statistics. We describe a novel particular implementation of this approach, called probabilistic representational similarity analysis (pRSA) with MMs, which uses representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) as the summary statistics. We validate this method by simulations of fMRI measurements (locally averaging voxels) based on a deep convolutional neural network for visual object recognition. Results indicate that the way the measurements sample the activity patterns strongly affects the apparent representational dissimilarities. However, modelling of the measurement process can account for these effects, and different BCMs remain distinguishable even under substantial noise. The pRSA method enables us to perform Bayesian inference on the set of BCMs and to recognize the data-generating model in each case. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574316

  16. On a Mathematical Model of Brain Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Fichtner, K.-H.; Fichtner, L.; Freudenberg, W.; Ohya, M.

    2007-12-03

    The procedure of recognition can be described as follows: There is a set of complex signals stored in the memory. Choosing one of these signals may be interpreted as generating a hypothesis concerning an 'expexted view of the world'. Then the brain compares a signal arising from our senses with the signal chosen from the memory leading to a change of the state of both signals. Furthermore, measurements of that procedure like EEG or MEG are based on the fact that recognition of signals causes a certain loss of excited neurons, i.e. the neurons change their state from 'excited' to 'nonexcited'. For that reason a statistical model of the recognition process should reflect both--the change of the signals and the loss of excited neurons. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given. In the present note it is not possible to present this approach in detail. In lieu we will sketch roughly a few of the basic ideas and structures of the proposed model of the recognition process (Section). Further, we introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces used in this approach. A more elaborate presentation including all proofs will be given in a series of some forthcoming papers. In this series also the procedures of creation of signals from the memory, amplification, accumulation and transformation of input signals, and measurements like EEG and MEG will be treated in detail.

  17. Design and testing of Ground Penetrating Radar equipment dedicated for civil engineering applications: ongoing activities in Working Group 1 of COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Manacorda, Guido; Persico, Raffaele

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing research activities carried out in Working Group 1 'Novel GPR instrumentation' of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (www.GPRadar.eu). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Working Group 1 (WG1) of the Action focuses on the development of innovative GPR equipment dedicated for civil engineering applications. It includes three Projects. Project 1.1 is focused on the 'Design, realisation and optimisation of innovative GPR equipment for the monitoring of critical transport infrastructures and buildings, and for the sensing of underground utilities and voids.' Project 1.2 is concerned with the 'Development and definition of advanced testing, calibration and stability procedures and protocols, for GPR equipment.' Project 1.3 deals with the 'Design, modelling and optimisation of GPR antennas.' During the first year of the Action, WG1 Members coordinated between themselves to address the state of the art and open problems in the scientific fields identified by the above-mentioned Projects [1, 2]. In carrying our this work, the WG1 strongly benefited from the participation of IDS Ingegneria dei Sistemi, one of the biggest GPR manufacturers, as well as from the contribution of external experts as David J. Daniels and Erica Utsi, sharing with the Action Members their wide experience on GPR technology and methodology (First General Meeting, July 2013). The synergy with WG2 and WG4 of the Action was useful for a deep understanding of the problems, merits and limits of available GPR equipment, as well as to discuss how to quantify the reliability of GPR results. An

  18. Characteristics of an acid active thiamine diphosphatase from beef brain.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J V; Frerman, F E; Hodach, A

    1980-02-01

    That thiamine has a role in nerve conduction as well as synaptic transmission is suggested by the following observations. (1) Thiamine phosphate esters are hydrolyzed and released from nerve membranes during nerve conduction. (2) Ultraviolet radiation of single nerve fibers at the wavelength specific for thiamine destroys the ability of that nerve to conduct an impulse. (3) Thiamine diphosphatase (TDPase) is present on synaptosomes. Previous articles have characterized an alkaline active TDPase in brain; this report characterizes a PH 5 active TDPase and compares it properties to the pH 9 enzyme. Both enzymes require a divalent cation for optimal activity. The pH 5 enzyme is more sensitive to ATP. Myelin fractions of brain have the highest specific activity for the acid TDPase, and the nerve ending particles the highest total activity. No PO4 3-inhibition was observed. Kinetic constants of this enzyme activity are reported.

  19. Adolescent brain activation: dependence on sex, dietary satiation, and restraint.

    PubMed

    Varley-Campbell, Joanna L; Fulford, Jonathan; Moore, Melanie S; Williams, Craig A

    2017-03-30

    The study aimed to explore how both sex and dietary restraint impacts brain activation in response to visual food stimuli in young adolescents (12-13 years) under fed and fasted conditions. Food and non-food images were viewed by 15 boys and 14 girls, while functional magnetic resonance images were acquired. The adolescents were either fasted or in a satiated (fed) state following a randomized crossover study design. When satiation state was not considered, girls showed significantly greater brain activity than boys in regions associated with executive function and decision making, working memory, and self-awareness. In contrast, when either fasted or fed states were considered separately, boys showed significantly increased brain activity in regions linked to executive function, self-awareness, and decision making than the girls. When fasted, compared to unrestrained eaters, restrained individuals showed heightened activation in regions connected to executive function and decision making, with areas associated with self-assessment showing increased activity for unrestrained eaters relative to restrained under fed conditions. These findings highlight important differences in adolescent brain activity and support further investigations to gain greater insight into how these differences might evolve with age.

  20. Modulation of the inter-hemispheric asymmetry of motor-related brain activity using brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Michael; Sobolewski, Aleksander; Millan, Jose Del R

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation has shown promising results in neurorehabilitation for motor-impaired stroke patients, by rebalancing the relative involvement of each hemisphere in movement generation. Similarly, brain-computer interfaces have been used to successfully facilitate movement-related brain activity spared by the infarct. We propose to merge both approaches by using BCI to train stroke patients to rebalance their motor-related brain activity during motor tasks, through the use of online feedback. In this pilot study, we report results showing that some healthy subjects were able to learn to spontaneously up- and/or down-regulate their ipsilateral brain activity during a single session.

  1. Healthy brain aging: role of exercise and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Yves; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Vellas, Bruno

    2010-02-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that physical activity has a protective effect on brain functioning in older people. To date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has shown that regular physical activity prevents dementia, but recent RCTs suggests an improvement of cognitive functioning in persons involved in aerobic programs, and evidence is accumulating from basic research. Future prevention of Alzheimer disease may depend on lifestyle habits such as physical activity.

  2. Methamphetamine Causes Microglial Activation in the Brains of Human Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Yoshimoto; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Sugihara, Genichi; Takei, Nori; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Suda, Shiro; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kawai, Masayoshi; Takebayashi, Kiyokazu; Yamamoto, Shigeyuki; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Ueki, Takatoshi; Mori, Norio; Gold, Mark S.; Cadet, Jean L.

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a popular addictive drug whose use is associated with multiple neuropsychiatric adverse events and toxic to the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems of the brain. Methamphetamine-induced neuropathology is associated with increased expression of microglial cells that are thought to participate in either pro-toxic or protective mechanisms in the brain. Although reactive microgliosis has been observed in animal models of methamphetamine neurotoxicity, no study has reported on the status of microglial activation in human methamphetamine abusers. The present study reports on 12 abstinent methamphetamine abusers and 12 age-, gender-, education-matched control subjects who underwent positron emission tomography using a radiotracer for activated microglia, [11C](R)-(1-[2-chlorophenyl]-N-methyl-N-[1-methylpropyl]-3-isoquinoline carboxamide) ([11C](R)-PK11195). Compartment analysis was used to estimate quantitative levels of binding potentials of [11C](R)-PK11195 in brain regions with dopaminergic and/or serotonergic innervation. The mean levels of [11C](R)-PK11195 binding were higher in methamphetamine abusers than those in control subjects in all brain regions (> 250% higher, p < 0.01 for all). In addition, the binding levels in the midbrain, striatum, thalamus, and orbitofrontal and insular cortices (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the duration of methamphetamine abstinence. These results suggest that chronic self-administration of methamphetamine can cause reactive microgliosis in the brains of human methamphetamine abusers, a level of activation that appears to subside over longer periods of abstinence. PMID:18509037

  3. Interactions between occlusion and human brain function activities.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, C; Morokuma, M; Yoneyama, Y; Matsuda, R; Lee, J S

    2013-02-01

    There are few review articles in the area of human research that focus on the interactions between occlusion and brain function. This systematic review discusses the effect of occlusion on the health of the entire body with a focus on brain function. Available relevant articles in English from 1999 to 2011 were assessed in an online database and as hard copies in libraries. The selected 19 articles were classified into the following five categories: chewing and tongue movements, clenching and grinding, occlusal splints and occlusal interference, prosthetic rehabilitation, and pain and stimulation. The relationships between the brain activity observed in the motor and sensory cortices and movements of the oral and maxillofacial area, such as those produced by gum chewing, tapping and clenching, were investigated. It was found that the sensorimotor cortex was also affected by the placement of the occlusal interference devices, splints and implant prostheses. Brain activity may change depending on the strength of the movements in the oral and maxillofacial area. Therefore, mastication and other movements stimulate the activity in the cerebral cortex and may be helpful in preventing degradation of a brain function. However, these findings must be verified by evidence gathered from more subjects.

  4. Hyperbaric Oxygen Environment Can Enhance Brain Activity and Multitasking Performance.

    PubMed

    Vadas, Dor; Kalichman, Leonid; Hadanny, Amir; Efrati, Shai

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Brain uses 20% of the total oxygen supply consumed by the entire body. Even though, <10% of the brain is active at any given time, it utilizes almost all the oxygen delivered. In order to perform complex tasks or more than one task (multitasking), the oxygen supply is shifted from one brain region to another, via blood perfusion modulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) environment, with increased oxygen supply to the brain, will enhance the performance of complex and/or multiple activities. Methods: A prospective, double-blind randomized control, crossover trial including 22 healthy volunteers. Participants were asked to perform a cognitive task, a motor task and a simultaneous cognitive-motor task (multitasking). Participants were randomized to perform the tasks in two environments: (a) normobaric air (1 ATA 21% oxygen) (b) HBO (2 ATA 100% oxygen). Two weeks later participants were crossed to the alternative environment. Blinding of the normobaric environment was achieved in the same chamber with masks on while hyperbaric sensation was simulated by increasing pressure in the first minute and gradually decreasing to normobaric environment prior to tasks performance. Results: Compared to the performance at normobaric conditions, both cognitive and motor single tasks scores were significantly enhanced by HBO environment (p < 0.001 for both). Multitasking performance was also significantly enhanced in HBO environment (p = 0.006 for the cognitive part and p = 0.02 for the motor part). Conclusions: The improvement in performance of both single and multi-tasking while in an HBO environment supports the hypothesis which according to, oxygen is indeed a rate limiting factor for brain activity. Hyperbaric oxygenation can serve as an environment for brain performance. Further studies are needed to evaluate the optimal oxygen levels for maximal brain performance.

  5. Simulated driving and brain imaging: combining behavior, brain activity, and virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Kara N; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Astur, Robert S; Calhoun, Vince D

    2006-01-01

    Virtual reality in the form of simulated driving is a useful tool for studying the brain. Various clinical questions can be addressed, including both the role of alcohol as a modulator of brain function and regional brain activation related to elements of driving. We reviewed a study of the neural correlates of alcohol intoxication through the use of a simulated-driving paradigm and wished to demonstrate the utility of recording continuous-driving behavior through a new study using a programmable driving simulator developed at our center. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data was collected from subjects while operating a driving simulator. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to analyze the data. Specific brain regions modulated by alcohol, and relationships between behavior, brain function, and alcohol blood levels were examined with aggregate behavioral measures. Fifteen driving epochs taken from two subjects while also recording continuously recorded driving variables were analyzed with ICA. Preliminary findings reveal that four independent components correlate with various aspects of behavior. An increase in braking while driving was found to increase activation in motor areas, while cerebellar areas showed signal increases during steering maintenance, yet signal decreases during steering changes. Additional components and significant findings are further outlined. In summary, continuous behavioral variables conjoined with ICA may offer new insight into the neural correlates of complex human behavior.

  6. What kind of noise is brain noise: anomalous scaling behavior of the resting brain activity fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Fraiman, Daniel; Chialvo, Dante R.

    2012-01-01

    The study of spontaneous fluctuations of brain activity, often referred as brain noise, is getting increasing attention in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Despite important efforts, much of the statistical properties of such fluctuations remain largely unknown. This work scrutinizes these fluctuations looking at specific statistical properties which are relevant to clarify its dynamical origins. Here, three statistical features which clearly differentiate brain data from naive expectations for random processes are uncovered: First, the variance of the fMRI mean signal as a function of the number of averaged voxels remains constant across a wide range of observed clusters sizes. Second, the anomalous behavior of the variance is originated by bursts of synchronized activity across regions, regardless of their widely different sizes. Finally, the correlation length (i.e., the length at which the correlation strength between two regions vanishes) as well as mutual information diverges with the cluster's size considered, such that arbitrarily large clusters exhibit the same collective dynamics than smaller ones. These three properties are known to be exclusive of complex systems exhibiting critical dynamics, where the spatio-temporal dynamics show these peculiar type of fluctuations. Thus, these findings are fully consistent with previous reports of brain critical dynamics, and are relevant for the interpretation of the role of fluctuations and variability in brain function in health and disease. PMID:22934058

  7. Language modulates brain activity underlying representation of kinship terms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiyan; Ge, Yue; Tang, Honghong; Luo, Yue-Jia; Mai, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chao

    2015-12-21

    Kinship terms have been found to be highly diverse across languages. Here we investigated the brain representation of kinship terms in two distinct populations, native Chinese and Caucasian English speakers, with a five-element kinship identification (FEKI) task. The neuroimaging results showed a common extensive frontal and parietal lobe brain activation pattern for different kinship levels for both Chinese and Caucasian English speakers. Furthermore, Chinese speakers had longer reaction times and elicited more fronto-parietal brain networks activation compared to English speakers in level three (e.g., uncle and nephew) and four (e.g., cousin), including an association between the middle frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobe, which might be associated with higher working memory, attention control, and social distance representation load in Chinese kinship system processing. These results contribute to our understanding of the representation of kinship terms in the two languages.

  8. Language modulates brain activity underlying representation of kinship terms

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haiyan; Ge, Yue; Tang, Honghong; Luo, Yue-Jia; Mai, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Kinship terms have been found to be highly diverse across languages. Here we investigated the brain representation of kinship terms in two distinct populations, native Chinese and Caucasian English speakers, with a five-element kinship identification (FEKI) task. The neuroimaging results showed a common extensive frontal and parietal lobe brain activation pattern for different kinship levels for both Chinese and Caucasian English speakers. Furthermore, Chinese speakers had longer reaction times and elicited more fronto-parietal brain networks activation compared to English speakers in level three (e.g., uncle and nephew) and four (e.g., cousin), including an association between the middle frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobe, which might be associated with higher working memory, attention control, and social distance representation load in Chinese kinship system processing. These results contribute to our understanding of the representation of kinship terms in the two languages. PMID:26685907

  9. Inferring deep-brain activity from cortical activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Cui, Xu; Bryant, Daniel M; Glover, Gary H; Reiss, Allan L

    2015-03-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an increasingly popular technology for studying brain function because it is non-invasive, non-irradiating and relatively inexpensive. Further, fNIRS potentially allows measurement of hemodynamic activity with high temporal resolution (milliseconds) and in naturalistic settings. However, in comparison with other imaging modalities, namely fMRI, fNIRS has a significant drawback: limited sensitivity to hemodynamic changes in deep-brain regions. To overcome this limitation, we developed a computational method to infer deep-brain activity using fNIRS measurements of cortical activity. Using simultaneous fNIRS and fMRI, we measured brain activity in 17 participants as they completed three cognitive tasks. A support vector regression (SVR) learning algorithm was used to predict activity in twelve deep-brain regions using information from surface fNIRS measurements. We compared these predictions against actual fMRI-measured activity using Pearson's correlation to quantify prediction performance. To provide a benchmark for comparison, we also used fMRI measurements of cortical activity to infer deep-brain activity. When using fMRI-measured activity from the entire cortex, we were able to predict deep-brain activity in the fusiform cortex with an average correlation coefficient of 0.80 and in all deep-brain regions with an average correlation coefficient of 0.67. The top 15% of predictions using fNIRS signal achieved an accuracy of 0.7. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the feasibility of using cortical activity to infer deep-brain activity. This new method has the potential to extend fNIRS applications in cognitive and clinical neuroscience research.

  10. Brain activation during mental maze solving.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Peter; Lis, Stefanie; Esslinger, Christine; Gruppe, Harald; Danos, Peter; Broll, Jochen; Wiltink, Jorg; Gallhofer, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    So-called Porteus mazes are used to investigate prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning in normal subjects and patients with different neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we present data confirming the involvement of the PFC for the first time by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To minimize motor-related activation, mental mazes were used. Mazes as well as pseudo-mazes without any bifurcations were presented to 49 healthy participants during fMRI scans. Both, mazes as well as pseudo-mazes, activated a large network from visual to parietal regions, reflecting the dorsal stream of visual information processing. Mazes but not pseudo-mazes also activated bilateral areas of the PFC indicating their special role in decision processes. In addition, although no motor response was required during maze performance, both tasks activated subcortical and cortical motor areas. These tasks are suitable for investigating and specifying PFC functioning and its impairment in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. In addition, mental mazes might be a suitable task for the investigation of patients with motor disturbances.

  11. Identification of hematomas in mild traumatic brain injury using an index of quantitative brain electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Prichep, Leslie S; Naunheim, Rosanne; Bazarian, Jeffrey; Mould, W Andrew; Hanley, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Rapid identification of traumatic intracranial hematomas following closed head injury represents a significant health care need because of the potentially life-threatening risk they present. This study demonstrates the clinical utility of an index of brain electrical activity used to identify intracranial hematomas in traumatic brain injury (TBI) presenting to the emergency department (ED). Brain electrical activity was recorded from a limited montage located on the forehead of 394 closed head injured patients who were referred for CT scans as part of their standard ED assessment. A total of 116 of these patients were found to be CT positive (CT+), of which 46 patients with traumatic intracranial hematomas (CT+) were identified for study. A total of 278 patients were found to be CT negative (CT-) and were used as controls. CT scans were subjected to quantitative measurements of volume of blood and distance of bleed from recording electrodes by blinded independent experts, implementing a validated method for hematoma measurement. Using an algorithm based on brain electrical activity developed on a large independent cohort of TBI patients and controls (TBI-Index), patients were classified as either positive or negative for structural brain injury. Sensitivity to hematomas was found to be 95.7% (95% CI = 85.2, 99.5), specificity was 43.9% (95% CI = 38.0, 49.9). There was no significant relationship between the TBI-Index and distance of the bleed from recording sites (F = 0.044, p = 0.833), or volume of blood measured F = 0.179, p = 0.674). Results of this study are a validation and extension of previously published retrospective findings in an independent population, and provide evidence that a TBI-Index for structural brain injury is a highly sensitive measure for the detection of potentially life-threatening traumatic intracranial hematomas, and could contribute to the rapid, quantitative evaluation and treatment of such patients.

  12. Early recurrence and ongoing parietal driving during elementary visual processing

    PubMed Central

    Plomp, Gijs; Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Astolfi, Laura; Michel, Christoph M.

    2015-01-01

    Visual stimuli quickly activate a broad network of brain areas that often show reciprocal structural connections between them. Activity at short latencies (<100 ms) is thought to represent a feed-forward activation of widespread cortical areas, but fast activation combined with reciprocal connectivity between areas in principle allows for two-way, recurrent interactions to occur at short latencies after stimulus onset. Here we combined EEG source-imaging and Granger-causal modeling with high temporal resolution to investigate whether recurrent and top-down interactions between visual and attentional brain areas can be identified and distinguished at short latencies in humans. We investigated the directed interactions between widespread occipital, parietal and frontal areas that we localized within participants using fMRI. The connectivity results showed two-way interactions between area MT and V1 already at short latencies. In addition, the results suggested a large role for lateral parietal cortex in coordinating visual activity that may be understood as an ongoing top-down allocation of attentional resources. Our results support the notion that indirect pathways allow early, evoked driving from MT to V1 to highlight spatial locations of motion transients, while influence from parietal areas is continuously exerted around stimulus onset, presumably reflecting task-related attentional processes. PMID:26692466

  13. Reading cinnamon activates olfactory brain regions.

    PubMed

    González, Julio; Barros-Loscertales, Alfonso; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Meseguer, Vanessa; Sanjuán, Ana; Belloch, Vicente; Avila, César

    2006-08-15

    Some words immediately and automatically remind us of odours, smells and scents, whereas other language items do not evoke such associations. This study investigated, for the first time, the abstract linking of linguistic and odour information using modern neuroimaging techniques (functional MRI). Subjects passively read odour-related words ('garlic', 'cinnamon', 'jasmine') and neutral language items. The odour-related terms elicited activation in the primary olfactory cortex, which include the piriform cortex and the amygdala. Our results suggest the activation of widely distributed cortical cell assemblies in the processing of olfactory words. These distributed neuron populations extend into language areas but also reach some parts of the olfactory system. These distributed neural systems may be the basis of the processing of language elements, their related conceptual and semantic information and the associated sensory information.

  14. Brain activation during facial emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Gur, Ruben C; Schroeder, Lee; Turner, Travis; McGrath, Claire; Chan, Robin M; Turetsky, Bruce I; Alsop, David; Maldjian, Joseph; Gur, Raquel E

    2002-07-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have helped identify neural systems involved in cognitive processing and more recently have indicated limbic activation to emotional stimuli. Some functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have reported increased amygdala response during exposure to emotional stimuli while others have not shown such activation. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that activation of the amygdala is related to the relevance of the emotional valence of stimuli. Healthy young participants (7 men, 7 women) were studied in a high-field (4 tesla) scanner using blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal changes in a blocked "box car" design. They viewed facial displays of happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust as well as neutral faces obtained from professional actors and actresses of diverse ethnicity and age. Their task alternated between emotion discrimination (indicating whether the emotion was positive or negative) and age discrimination (indicating whether the poser was older or younger than 30). Blocks contained the same proportion of emotional and neutral faces. Limbic response was greater during the emotion than during the age discrimination conditions. The response was most pronounced in the amygdala, but was also present in the hippocampus and circumscribed voxels in other limbic regions. These results support the central role of the amygdala in emotion processing, and indicate its sensitivity to the task relevance of the emotional display.

  15. Brain activation for consonants and vowels.

    PubMed

    Carreiras, Manuel; Price, Cathy J

    2008-07-01

    Previous behavioral and electrophysiological studies have shown dissociation between consonants and vowels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether vowel and consonant processing differences are expressed in the neuronal activation pattern and whether they are modulated by task. The experimental design involved reading aloud and lexical decision on visually presented pseudowords created by transposing or replacing consonants or vowels in words. During reading aloud, changing vowels relative to consonants increased activation in a right middle temporal area previously associated with prosodic processing of speech input. In contrast, during lexical decision, changing consonants relative to vowels increased activation in a right middle frontal area associated with inhibiting go-responses. The task-sensitive nature of these effects demonstrates that consonants and vowels differ at a processing, rather than stimulus, level. We argue that prosodic processing of vowel changes arise during self-monitoring of speech output, whereas greater inhibition of go-responses to consonant changes follows insufficient lexico-semantic processing when nonwords looking particularly like words must be rejected. Our results are consistent with claims that vowels and consonants place differential demands on prosodic and lexico-semantic processing, respectively. They also highlight the different types of information that can be drawn from functional imaging and neuropsychological studies.

  16. Alteration of spontaneous brain activity in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaxing; Chen, Ji; Yu, Qian; Fan, Cunxiu; Zhang, Ran; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in a decrease in oxygen transport to the brain. The aim of the present study was to explore the alteration of spontaneous brain activity induced by hypoxia in patients with COPD. Twenty-five stable patients with COPD and 25 matching healthy volunteers were investigated. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of blood oxygenation level-dependent signal at resting state in the brain was analyzed using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Whole-brain analysis using functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant decreases in ALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and right lingual gyrus and an increase in ALFF in the left postcentral gyrus of patients with COPD. After controlling for SaO2, patients with COPD only showed an increase in ALFF in the left postcentral gyrus. Region of interest analysis showed a decrease in ALFF in the left precentral gyrus and an increase in ALFF in the left caudate nucleus of patients with COPD. In all subjects, ALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and right lingual gyrus showed positive correlations with visual reproduction. We demonstrated abnormal spontaneous brain activity of patients with COPD, which may have a pathophysiologic meaning.

  17. Brain Monoamine Oxidase-A Activity Predicts Trait Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Kriplani, Aarti; Logan, Jean; Tomasi, Dardo; Williams, Benjamin; Telang, Frank; Shumay, Elena; Biegon, Anat; Craig, Ian W.; Henn, Fritz; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2008-01-01

    The genetic deletion of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A, an enzyme which breaks down the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine) produces aggressive phenotypes across species. Therefore, a common polymorphism in the MAO A gene (MAOA, MIM 309850, referred to as high or low based on transcription in non-neuronal cells) has been investigated in a number of externalizing behavioral and clinical phenotypes. These studies provide evidence linking the low MAOA genotype and violent behavior but only through interaction with severe environmental stressors during childhood. Here, we hypothesized that in healthy adult males the gene product of MAO A in the brain, rather than the gene per se, would be associated with regulating the concentration of brain amines involved in trait aggression. Brain MAO A activity was measured in-vivo in healthy non-smoking men with positron emission tomography using a radioligand specific for MAO A (clorgyline labeled with carbon 11). Trait aggression was measured with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Here we report for the first time that brain MAO A correlates inversely with the MPQ trait measure of aggression (but not with other personality traits) such that the lower the MAO A activity in cortical and subcortical brain regions the higher the self-reported aggression (in both MAOA genotype groups) contributing to more than a third of the variability. Since trait aggression is a measure used to predict antisocial behavior, these results underscore the relevance of MAO A as a neurochemical substrate of aberrant aggression. PMID:18463263

  18. Alteration of spontaneous brain activity in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaxing; Chen, Ji; Yu, Qian; Fan, Cunxiu; Zhang, Ran; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in a decrease in oxygen transport to the brain. The aim of the present study was to explore the alteration of spontaneous brain activity induced by hypoxia in patients with COPD. Patients and methods Twenty-five stable patients with COPD and 25 matching healthy volunteers were investigated. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of blood oxygenation level-dependent signal at resting state in the brain was analyzed using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results Whole-brain analysis using functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant decreases in ALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and right lingual gyrus and an increase in ALFF in the left postcentral gyrus of patients with COPD. After controlling for SaO2, patients with COPD only showed an increase in ALFF in the left postcentral gyrus. Region of interest analysis showed a decrease in ALFF in the left precentral gyrus and an increase in ALFF in the left caudate nucleus of patients with COPD. In all subjects, ALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and right lingual gyrus showed positive correlations with visual reproduction. Conclusion We demonstrated abnormal spontaneous brain activity of patients with COPD, which may have a pathophysiologic meaning. PMID:27555761

  19. Task-Driven Activity Reduces the Cortical Activity Space of the Brain: Experiment and Whole-Brain Modeling.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Alvarez, Adrián; He, Biyu J; Hagmann, Patric; Deco, Gustavo

    2015-08-01

    How a stimulus or a task alters the spontaneous dynamics of the brain remains a fundamental open question in neuroscience. One of the most robust hallmarks of task/stimulus-driven brain dynamics is the decrease of variability with respect to the spontaneous level, an effect seen across multiple experimental conditions and in brain signals observed at different spatiotemporal scales. Recently, it was observed that the trial-to-trial variability and temporal variance of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals decrease in the task-driven activity. Here we examined the dynamics of a large-scale model of the human cortex to provide a mechanistic understanding of these observations. The model allows computing the statistics of synaptic activity in the spontaneous condition and in putative tasks determined by external inputs to a given subset of brain regions. We demonstrated that external inputs decrease the variance, increase the covariances, and decrease the autocovariance of synaptic activity as a consequence of single node and large-scale network dynamics. Altogether, these changes in network statistics imply a reduction of entropy, meaning that the spontaneous synaptic activity outlines a larger multidimensional activity space than does the task-driven activity. We tested this model's prediction on fMRI signals from healthy humans acquired during rest and task conditions and found a significant decrease of entropy in the stimulus-driven activity. Altogether, our study proposes a mechanism for increasing the information capacity of brain networks by enlarging the volume of possible activity configurations at rest and reliably settling into a confined stimulus-driven state to allow better transmission of stimulus-related information.

  20. Reward anticipation enhances brain activation during response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Costumero, Víctor; Benabarre, Sergio; Barros-Loscertales, Alfonso

    2014-06-01

    The chance to achieve a reward starts up the required neurobehavioral mechanisms to adapt our thoughts and actions in order to accomplish our objective. However, reward does not equally reinforce everybody but depends on interindividual motivational dispositions. Thus, immediate reward contingencies can modulate the cognitive process required for goal achievement, while individual differences in personality can affect this modulation. We aimed to test the interaction between inhibition-related brain response and motivational processing in a stop signal task by reward anticipation and whether individual differences in sensitivity to reward (SR) modulate such interaction. We analyzed the cognitive-motivational interaction between the brain pattern activation of the regions involved in correct and incorrect response inhibition and the association between such brain activations and SR scores. We also analyzed the behavioral effects of reward on both reaction times for the "go" trials before and after correct and incorrect inhibition in order to test error prediction performance and postinhibition adjustment. Our results show enhanced activation during response inhibition under reward contingencies in frontal, parietal, and subcortical areas. Moreover, activation of the right insula and the left putamen positively correlates with the SR scores. Finally, the possibility of reward outcome affects not only response inhibition performance (e.g., reducing stop signal reaction time), but also error prediction performance and postinhibition adjustment. Therefore, reward contingencies improve behavioral performance and enhance brain activation during response inhibition, and SR is related to brain activation. Our results suggest the conditions and factors that subserve cognitive control strategies in cognitive motivational interactions during response inhibition.

  1. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  2. Brain Activation during the Course of Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikuta, Naho; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Watanabe, Jobu; Akitsuki, Yuko; Iwata, Kazuki; Miura, Naoki; Okamoto, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Sato, Shigeru; Horie, Kaoru; Matsue, Yoshihiko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine, by functional magnetic resonance imaging, how the activated regions of the brain change as a Japanese sentence is presented in a grammatically correct order. In this study, we presented constituents of a sentence to Japanese participants one by one at regular intervals. The results showed that the left…

  3. Smart Moves: Powering up the Brain with Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyers, Marcus; Wilson, Donna

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards emphasize higher-order thinking, problem solving, and the creation, retention, and application of knowledge. Achieving these standards creates greater cognitive demands on students. Recent research suggests that active play and regular exercise have a positive effect on brain regions associated with executive…

  4. Working Memory Training: Improving Intelligence--Changing Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    The main objectives of the study were: to investigate whether training on working memory (WM) could improve fluid intelligence, and to investigate the effects WM training had on neuroelectric (electroencephalography--EEG) and hemodynamic (near-infrared spectroscopy--NIRS) patterns of brain activity. In a parallel group experimental design,…

  5. Towards a fourth spatial dimension of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F

    2016-06-01

    Current advances in neurosciences deal with the functional architecture of the central nervous system, paving the way for general theories that improve our understanding of brain activity. From topology, a strong concept comes into play in understanding brain functions, namely, the 4D space of a "hypersphere's torus", undetectable by observers living in a 3D world. The torus may be compared with a video game with biplanes in aerial combat: when a biplane flies off one edge of gaming display, it does not crash but rather it comes back from the opposite edge of the screen. Our thoughts exhibit similar behaviour, i.e. the unique ability to connect past, present and future events in a single, coherent picture as if we were allowed to watch the three screens of past-present-future "glued" together in a mental kaleidoscope. Here we hypothesize that brain functions are embedded in a imperceptible fourth spatial dimension and propose a method to empirically assess its presence. Neuroimaging fMRI series can be evaluated, looking for the topological hallmark of the presence of a fourth dimension. Indeed, there is a typical feature which reveal the existence of a functional hypersphere: the simultaneous activation of areas opposite each other on the 3D cortical surface. Our suggestion-substantiated by recent findings-that brain activity takes place on a closed, donut-like trajectory helps to solve long-standing mysteries concerning our psychological activities, such as mind-wandering, memory retrieval, consciousness and dreaming state.

  6. Prefrontal Brain Activity Predicts Temporally Extended Decision-Making Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarkoni, Tal; Braver, Todd S.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Green, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    Although functional neuroimaging studies of human decision-making processes are increasingly common, most of the research in this area has relied on passive tasks that generate little individual variability. Relatively little attention has been paid to the ability of brain activity to predict overt behavior. Using functional magnetic resonance…

  7. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression.

    PubMed

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-05-03

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients.

  8. Smart Moves: Powering up the Brain with Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyers, Marcus; Wilson, Donna

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards emphasize higher-order thinking, problem solving, and the creation, retention, and application of knowledge. Achieving these standards creates greater cognitive demands on students. Recent research suggests that active play and regular exercise have a positive effect on brain regions associated with executive…

  9. Working Memory Training: Improving Intelligence--Changing Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    The main objectives of the study were: to investigate whether training on working memory (WM) could improve fluid intelligence, and to investigate the effects WM training had on neuroelectric (electroencephalography--EEG) and hemodynamic (near-infrared spectroscopy--NIRS) patterns of brain activity. In a parallel group experimental design,…

  10. Brain Distribution of Cediranib Is Limited by Active Efflux at the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianli; Agarwal, Sagar

    2012-01-01

    Cediranib is an orally active tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor family. Because of its potent antiangiogenic and antitumor activities, cediranib has been evaluated for therapy in glioma, a primary brain tumor. This study investigated the influence of two important efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), on the delivery of cediranib to the central nervous system. In vitro studies indicated that cediranib is a dual substrate for both P-gp and Bcrp. It is noteworthy that in spite of the in vitro data the in vivo mouse disposition studies conclusively showed that P-gp was the dominant transporter restricting the brain distribution of cediranib. The brain-to-plasma partitioning (AUCbrain/AUCplasma, where AUC is area under the curve) and the steady-state brain-to-plasma concentration ratio of cediranib were approximately 20-fold higher in Mdr1a/b(−/−) and Mdr1a/b(−/−)Bcrp1(−/−) mice compared with wild-type and Bcrp1(−/−) mice. Moreover, there was no significant difference in brain distribution of cediranib between wild-type and Bcrp1(−/−) mice and between Mdr1a/b(−/−) and Mdr1a/b(−/−)Bcrp1(−/−) mice. These results show that, unlike other tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are dual substrates for P-gp and Bcrp, Bcrp does not restrict the distribution of cediranib across the blood-brain barrier. We also show that inhibition of P-gp using specific or nonspecific inhibitors resulted in significantly enhanced delivery of cediranib to the brain. Concurrent administration of cediranib with chemical modulators of efflux transporters can be used as a strategy to enhance delivery and thus efficacy of cediranib in the brain. These findings are clinically relevant to the efficacy of cediranib chemotherapy in glioma. PMID:22323823

  11. Rapid changes in brain aromatase activity in the female quail brain following expression of sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    de Bournonville, Catherine; Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques; Cornil, Charlotte A

    2017-10-09

    In male quail, estrogens produced in the brain (neuroestrogens) exert a dual action on male sexual behavior: they increase sexual motivation within minutes via mechanisms activated at the membrane but facilitate sexual performance by slower, presumably nuclear-initiated, mechanisms. Recent work indicates that neuroestrogens are also implicated in the control of female sexual motivation despite the presence of high circulating concentrations of estrogens of ovarian origin. Interestingly aromatase activity (AA) in the male brain is regulated in time domains corresponding to the slow "genomic" and faster "non-genomic" modes of action of estrogens. Furthermore, rapid changes in brain AA are observed in males after sexual interactions with a female. In this study, we investigated whether similar rapid changes in brain AA are observed in females allowed to interact sexually with males. A significant decrease in AA was observed in the medial preoptic nucleus after interactions that lasted 2, 5 or 10 min but this decrease was no longer significant after 15 min of interaction. In the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, a progressive decline of average AA was observed between 2 and 15 min but it never reached statistical significance. AA in this nucleus was however negatively correlated with the sexual receptivity of the female. These data indicate that sexual interactions affect brain AA in females as in males in an anatomically specific manner and suggest that rapid changes in brain estrogens production could also modulate female sexual behavior. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic variation in pleasure in children predicts nonlinear change in lateral frontal brain electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Light, Sharee N; Coan, James A; Frye, Corrina; Goldsmith, H Hill; Davidson, Richard J

    2009-03-01

    Individual variation in the experience and expression of pleasure may relate to differential patterns of lateral frontal activity. Brain electrical measures have been used to study the asymmetric involvement of lateral frontal cortex in positive emotion, but the excellent time resolution of these measures has not been used to capture second-by-second changes in ongoing emotion until now. The relationship between pleasure and second-by-second lateral frontal activity was examined with the use of hierarchical linear modeling in a sample of 128 children ages 6-10 years. Electroencephalographic activity was recorded during "pop-out toy," a standardized task that elicits pleasure. The task consisted of 3 epochs: an anticipation period sandwiched between 2 play periods. The amount of pleasure expressed during the task predicted the pattern of nonlinear change in lateral frontal activity. Children who expressed increasing amounts of pleasure during the task exhibited increasing left lateral frontal activity during the task, whereas children who expressed contentment exhibited increasing right/decreasing left activity. These findings indicate that task-dependent changes in pleasure relate to dynamic, nonlinear changes in lateral frontal activity as the task unfolds.

  13. Spatio-temporal analysis of electric brain activity during semantic and phonological word processing.

    PubMed

    Khateb, A; Annoni, J M; Landis, T; Pegna, A J; Custodi, M C; Fonteneau, E; Morand, S M; Michel, C M

    1999-06-01

    There is an ongoing debate in cognitive neuroscience about the time course and the functional independence of the different processes involved in encoding written language material. New data indicate very fast and highly parallel language analysis networks in the brain. Here we demonstrate a methodological approach to study the temporal dynamics of this network by searching for time periods where different task demands emphasize different aspects of the network. Multi-channel event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a semantic and a phonological reading task from 14 healthy subjects. Signals were analyzed exclusively on the basis of the spatial configuration of the electric potential distributions (ERP maps), since differences in these spatial patterns directly reflect changes in the configuration of the active sources in the brain. This analysis did not reveal any differences of the evoked brain electric fields between the two tasks up to 280 ms post-stimulus. The ERP maps then differed for a brief period between 280 and 380 ms, before they were similar again. The analysis of the maps using a global linear localization procedure revealed a network of areas, active in both tasks, that mainly involved the left postero-temporal and left antero-temporal regions. The left posterior activation was found already around 100 ms post-stimulus, indicating that language-specific functions appear early in time. We therefore conclude that phonological and semantic processing are essentially performed in both tasks and that only late decision-related processes influence the relative strength of activity of the different modules in the complex language network.

  14. Delayed and disorganised brain activation detected with magnetoencephalography after mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Leodante; Robertson, Amanda; Bethune, Allison; MacDonald, Matt J; Shek, Pang N; Taylor, Margot J; Pang, Elizabeth W

    2015-01-01

    Background Awareness to neurocognitive issues after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is increasing, but currently no imaging markers are available for mTBI. Advanced structural imaging recently showed microstructural tissue changes and axonal injury, mild but likely sufficient to lead to functional deficits. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has high temporal and spatial resolution, combining structural and electrophysiological information, and can be used to examine brain activation patterns of regions involved with specific tasks. Methods 16 adults with mTBI and 16 matched controls were submitted to neuropsychological testing (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI); Conners; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT); Generalised Anxiety Disorder Seven-item Scale (GAD-7); Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9); Symptom Checklist and Symptom Severity Score (SCAT2)) and MEG while tested for mental flexibility (Intra-Extra Dimensional set-shifting tasks). Three-dimensional maps were generated using synthetic aperture magnetometry beamforming analyses to identify differences in regional activation and activation times. Reaction times and accuracy between groups were compared using 2×2 mixed analysis of variance. Findings While accuracy was similar, patients with mTBI reaction time was delayed and sequence of activation of brain regions disorganised, with involvement of extra regions such as the occipital lobes, not used by controls. Examination of activation time showed significant delays in the right insula and left posterior parietal cortex in patients with mTBI. Conclusions Patients with mTBI showed significant delays in the activation of important areas involved in executive function. Also, more regions of the brain are involved in an apparent compensatory effort. Our study suggests that MEG can detect subtle neural changes associated with cognitive dysfunction and thus, may eventually be useful for capturing and tracking the onset and course of

  15. Brain activation during sight gags and language-dependent humor.

    PubMed

    Watson, Karli K; Matthews, Benjamin J; Allman, John M

    2007-02-01

    Humor is a hallmark of human discourse. People use it to relieve stress and to facilitate social bonding, as well as for pure enjoyment in the absence of any apparent adaptive value. Although recent studies have revealed that humor acts as an intrinsic reward, which explains why people actively seek to experience and create humor, few have addressed the cognitive aspects of humor. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate brain activity induced by the hedonic similarities and cognitive differences inherent in 2 kinds of humor: visual humor (sight gags) and language-based humor. Our findings indicate that the brain networks recruited during a humorous experience differ according to the type of humor being processed, with high-level visual areas activated during visual humor and classic language areas activated during language-dependent humor. Our results additionally highlight a common network activated by both types of humor that includes the amygdalar and midbrain regions, which presumably reflect the euphoric component of humor. Furthermore, we found that humor activates anterior cingulate cortex and frontoinsular cortex, 2 regions in the brain that are known to have phylogenetically recent neuronal circuitry. These results suggest that humor may have coevolved with another cognitive specialization of the great apes and humans: the ability to navigate through a shifting and complex social space.

  16. Premovement brain activity in a bimanual load-lifting task.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tommy H B; Sowman, Paul F; Brock, Jon; Johnson, Blake W

    2011-01-01

    Even the simplest volitional movements must be precisely coordinated with anticipatory postural adjustments. Little is currently known about the neural networks that coordinate these adjustments in healthy adults. We measured brain activity prior to movement during a bimanual load-lifting task, designed to elicit anticipatory adjustments in a restricted and well-defined set of musculature in the arm. Electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography brain measurements were obtained from eleven participants while they performed a bimanual load-lifting task that required precise inter-limb coordination. Anticipatory biceps brachii inhibition in the loaded arm was associated with a robust desynchronization of the beta rhythm. Beamforming analyses localized beta band responses to the parietal lobules, pre- and post-central gyri, middle and medial frontal gyri, basal ganglia and thalamus. The current study shows that premovement brain activity in a bimanual load-lifting task can be imaged with magnetoencephalography. Future experiments will partition out brain activity associated with anticipatory postural adjustments and volitional movements. The experimental paradigm will also be useful in the study of motor function in patients with developmental or degenerative disorders.

  17. Baseline Brain Activity Predicts Response to Neuromodulatory Pain Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mark P.; Sherlin, Leslie H.; Fregni, Felipe; Gianas, Ann; Howe, Jon D.; Hakimian, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the associations between baseline electroencephalogram (EEG)-assessed brain oscillations and subsequent response to four neuromodulatory treatments. Based on available research, we hypothesized that baseline theta oscillations would prospectively predict response to hypnotic analgesia. Analyses involving other oscillations and the other treatments (meditation, neurofeedback, and both active and sham transcranial direct current stimulation) were viewed as exploratory, given the lack of previous research examining brain oscillations as predictors of response to these other treatments. Design Randomized controlled study of single sessions of four neuromodulatory pain treatments and a control procedure. Methods Thirty individuals with spinal cord injury and chronic pain had their EEG recorded before each session of four active treatments (hypnosis, meditation, EEG biofeedback, transcranial direct current stimulation) and a control procedure (sham transcranial direct stimulation). Results As hypothesized, more presession theta power was associated with greater response to hypnotic analgesia. In exploratory analyses, we found that less baseline alpha power predicted pain reduction with meditation. Conclusions The findings support the idea that different patients respond to different pain treatments and that between-person treatment response differences are related to brain states as measured by EEG. The results have implications for the possibility of enhancing pain treatment response by either 1) better patient/treatment matching or 2) influencing brain activity before treatment is initiated in order to prepare patients to respond. Research is needed to replicate and confirm the findings in additional samples of individuals with chronic pain. PMID:25287554

  18. A subspace approach to learning recurrent features from brain activity.

    PubMed

    Gowreesunker, B Vikrham; Tewfik, Ahmed H; Tadipatri, Vijay A; Ashe, James; Pellize, Giuseppe; Gupta, Rahul

    2011-06-01

    This paper introduces a novel technique to address the instability and time variability challenges associated with brain activity recorded on different days. A critical challenge when working with brain signal activity is the variability in their characteristics when the signals are collected in different sessions separated by a day or more. Such variability is due to the acute and chronic responses of the brain tissue after implantation, variations as the subject learns to optimize performance, physiological changes in a subject due to prior activity or rest periods and environmental conditions. We propose a novel approach to tackle signal variability by focusing on learning subspaces which are recurrent over time. Furthermore, we illustrate how we can use projections on those subspaces to improve classification for an application such as brain-machine interface (BMI). In this paper, we illustrate the merits of finding recurrent subspaces in the context of movement direction decoding using local field potential (LFP). We introduce two methods for using the learned subspaces in movement direction decoding and show a decoding power improvement from 76% to 88% for a particularly unstable subject and consistent decoding across subjects.

  19. Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Kita, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-12-01

    Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children.

  20. Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-01-01

    Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613

  1. Baseline brain activity predicts response to neuromodulatory pain treatment.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mark P; Sherlin, Leslie H; Fregni, Felipe; Gianas, Ann; Howe, Jon D; Hakimian, Shahin

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between baseline electroencephalogram (EEG)-assessed brain oscillations and subsequent response to four neuromodulatory treatments. Based on available research, we hypothesized that baseline theta oscillations would prospectively predict response to hypnotic analgesia. Analyses involving other oscillations and the other treatments (meditation, neurofeedback, and both active and sham transcranial direct current stimulation) were viewed as exploratory, given the lack of previous research examining brain oscillations as predictors of response to these other treatments. Randomized controlled study of single sessions of four neuromodulatory pain treatments and a control procedure. Thirty individuals with spinal cord injury and chronic pain had their EEG recorded before each session of four active treatments (hypnosis, meditation, EEG biofeedback, transcranial direct current stimulation) and a control procedure (sham transcranial direct stimulation). As hypothesized, more presession theta power was associated with greater response to hypnotic analgesia. In exploratory analyses, we found that less baseline alpha power predicted pain reduction with meditation. The findings support the idea that different patients respond to different pain treatments and that between-person treatment response differences are related to brain states as measured by EEG. The results have implications for the possibility of enhancing pain treatment response by either 1) better patient/treatment matching or 2) influencing brain activity before treatment is initiated in order to prepare patients to respond. Research is needed to replicate and confirm the findings in additional samples of individuals with chronic pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Trying to trust: Brain activity during interpersonal social attitude change.

    PubMed

    Filkowski, Megan M; Anderson, Ian W; Haas, Brian W

    2016-04-01

    Interpersonal trust and distrust are important components of human social interaction. Although several studies have shown that brain function is associated with either trusting or distrusting others, very little is known regarding brain function during the control of social attitudes, including trust and distrust. This study was designed to investigate the neural mechanisms involved when people attempt to control their attitudes of trust or distrust toward another person. We used a novel control-of-attitudes fMRI task, which involved explicit instructions to control attitudes of interpersonal trust and distrust. Control of trust or distrust was operationally defined as changes in trustworthiness evaluations of neutral faces before and after the control-of-attitudes fMRI task. Overall, participants (n = 60) evaluated faces paired with the distrust instruction as being less trustworthy than faces paired with the trust instruction following the control-of-distrust task. Within the brain, both the control-of-trust and control-of-distrust conditions were associated with increased temporoparietal junction, precuneus (PrC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and medial prefrontal cortex activity. Individual differences in the control of trust were associated with PrC activity, and individual differences in the control of distrust were associated with IFG activity. Together, these findings identify a brain network involved in the explicit control of distrust and trust and indicate that the PrC and IFG may serve to consolidate interpersonal social attitudes.

  3. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

    1998-12-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive therapy. Our result shows that rTMS applied in conditions effective in animal models of depression induces different patterns of immediate-early gene expression than does electroconvulsive stimulation. In particular, rTMS evokes strong neural responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and in other regions involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The response in PVT is independent of the orientation of the stimulation probe relative to the head. Part of this response is likely because of direct activation, as repetitive magnetic stimulation also activates PVT neurons in brain slices.

  4. Ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Individual cases of adult incestuous abuse have surfaced repeatedly in the lay and professional literature of the past 1.5 centuries without it occasioning systematic investigation, such as the reporting of a case series of individuals subjected to such extreme abuse. Yet substantial numbers of patients with dissociative identity disorder at the time of presentation report incestuous abuse continuing into the adult years, and for many the abuse is ongoing. Data relating to a series of 10 such incestuously abused women are presented. These patients were sexually abused from a very early age (typically from before age 3), with the manipulation of their sexual response a key component in conditioning an enduring sexualized attachment. Shame and fear were also used to ensure compliance and silence. The women, when able to speak of it, describe the induction by their paternal abuser of orgasm at an early age, typically around the age of 6. The women have high indices of self-harm and suicidality and are prone to placing themselves in dangerous reenactment scenarios. The average duration of incestuous abuse for this group of women was 31 years, and the average estimate of total episodes of sexual abuse was 3,320. Most women do not feel that they own their body and experience being "fused" to their father. Their mother was reported as an active participant in the sexual abuse or as having done nothing to protect their daughter despite seeing obvious evidence of incest. The fathers, despite a propensity to use or threaten violence, were generally outwardly productively employed, financially comfortable, and stably married and half had close church involvement. However, suicide and murder occurred within the 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives of these women at a high frequency. All 10 had been sexually abused by various groupings of individuals connected to their fathers.

  5. Active Lessons for Active Brains: Teaching Boys and Other Experiential Learners, Grades 3-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Abigail Norfleet; Allison, Sandra Boyd; McKenzie, Caitlin Zimmerman

    2011-01-01

    If you're tired of repeating yourself to students who aren't listening, try a little less talk and a lot more action. The authors follow the best-selling "Teaching the Male Brain and Teaching the Female Brain" with this ready-to-use collection of mathematics, language arts, science, and classroom management strategies. Designed for active,…

  6. Active Lessons for Active Brains: Teaching Boys and Other Experiential Learners, Grades 3-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Abigail Norfleet; Allison, Sandra Boyd; McKenzie, Caitlin Zimmerman

    2011-01-01

    If you're tired of repeating yourself to students who aren't listening, try a little less talk and a lot more action. The authors follow the best-selling "Teaching the Male Brain and Teaching the Female Brain" with this ready-to-use collection of mathematics, language arts, science, and classroom management strategies. Designed for active,…

  7. Anomalous Light Phenomena vs. Bioelectric Brain Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.; Nobili, G.

    We present a research proposal concerning the instrumented investigation of anomalous light phenomena that are apparently correlated with particular mind states, such as prayer, meditation or psi. Previous research by these authors demonstrate that such light phenomena can be monitored and measured quite efficiently in areas of the world where they are reported in a recurrent way. Instruments such as optical equipment for photography and spectroscopy, VLF spectrometers, magnetometers, radar and IR viewers were deployed and used massively in several areas of the world. Results allowed us to develop physical models concerning the structural and time-variable behaviour of light phenomena, and their kinematics. Recent insights and witnesses have suggested to us that a sort of "synchronous connection" seems to exist between plasma-like phenomena and particular mind states of experiencers who seem to trigger a light manifestation which is very similar to the one previously investigated. The main goal of these authors is now aimed at the search for a concrete "entanglement-like effect" between the experiencer's mind and the light phenomena, in such a way that both aspects are intended to be monitored and measured simultaneously using appropriate instrumentation. The goal of this research project is twofold: a) to verify quantitatively the existence of one very particular kind of mind-matter interaction and to study in real time its physical and biophysical manifestations; b) to repeat the same kind of experiment using the same test-subject in different locations and under various conditions of geomagnetic activity.

  8. Implications of the Dependence of Neuronal Activity on Neural Network States for the Design of Brain-Machine Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Panzeri, Stefano; Safaai, Houman; De Feo, Vito; Vato, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) can improve the quality of life of patients with sensory and motor disabilities by both decoding motor intentions expressed by neural activity, and by encoding artificially sensed information into patterns of neural activity elicited by causal interventions on the neural tissue. Yet, current BMIs can exchange relatively small amounts of information with the brain. This problem has proved difficult to overcome by simply increasing the number of recording or stimulating electrodes, because trial-to-trial variability of neural activity partly arises from intrinsic factors (collectively known as the network state) that include ongoing spontaneous activity and neuromodulation, and so is shared among neurons. Here we review recent progress in characterizing the state dependence of neural responses, and in particular of how neural responses depend on endogenous slow fluctuations of network excitability. We then elaborate on how this knowledge may be used to increase the amount of information that BMIs exchange with brain. Knowledge of network state can be used to fine-tune the stimulation pattern that should reliably elicit a target neural response used to encode information in the brain, and to discount part of the trial-by-trial variability of neural responses, so that they can be decoded more accurately. PMID:27147955

  9. Implications of the Dependence of Neuronal Activity on Neural Network States for the Design of Brain-Machine Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Panzeri, Stefano; Safaai, Houman; De Feo, Vito; Vato, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) can improve the quality of life of patients with sensory and motor disabilities by both decoding motor intentions expressed by neural activity, and by encoding artificially sensed information into patterns of neural activity elicited by causal interventions on the neural tissue. Yet, current BMIs can exchange relatively small amounts of information with the brain. This problem has proved difficult to overcome by simply increasing the number of recording or stimulating electrodes, because trial-to-trial variability of neural activity partly arises from intrinsic factors (collectively known as the network state) that include ongoing spontaneous activity and neuromodulation, and so is shared among neurons. Here we review recent progress in characterizing the state dependence of neural responses, and in particular of how neural responses depend on endogenous slow fluctuations of network excitability. We then elaborate on how this knowledge may be used to increase the amount of information that BMIs exchange with brain. Knowledge of network state can be used to fine-tune the stimulation pattern that should reliably elicit a target neural response used to encode information in the brain, and to discount part of the trial-by-trial variability of neural responses, so that they can be decoded more accurately.

  10. Breastfeeding, Brain Activation to Own Infant Cry, and Maternal Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pilyoung; Feldman, Ruth; Mayes, Linda C.; Eicher, Virginia; Thompson, Nancy; Leckman, James F.; Swain, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Research points to the importance of breastfeeding for promoting close mother-infant contact and social-emotional development. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified brain regions related to maternal behaviors. However, little research has addressed the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between breastfeeding and maternal behavior in human mothers. We investigated the associations between breastfeeding, maternal brain response to own infant stimuli, and maternal sensitivity in the early postpartum. Methods Seventeen biological mothers of healthy infants participated in two matched groups according to feeding method – exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive formula-feeding at 2-4 weeks postpartum. fMRI scanning was conducted in the first postpartum month to examine maternal brain activation in response to her own baby's cry versus control baby-cry. Dyadic interactions between mothers and infants at 3-4 months postpartum were videotaped in the home and blindly coded for maternal sensitivity. Results In the first postpartum month, breastfeeding mothers showed greater activations in the superior frontal gyrus, insula, precuneus, striatum, and amygdala while listening to their own baby-cry as compared to formula-feeding mothers. For both breastfeeding and formula-feeding mothers, greater activations in the right superior frontal gyrus and amygdala were associated with higher maternal sensitivity at 3-4 months postpartum. Conclusions Results suggest links between breastfeeding and greater response to infant cues in brain regions implicated in maternal-infant bonding and empathy during the early postpartum. Such brain activations may facilitate greater maternal sensitivity as infants enter their social world. PMID:21501165

  11. 3β-HSD ACTIVATES DHEA IN THE SONGBIRD BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Barney A.; Pradhan, Devaleena S.; Soma, Kiran K.

    2008-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an abundant circulating prohormone in humans, with a variety of reported actions on central and peripheral tissues. Despite its abundance, the functions of DHEA are relatively unknown because common animal models (laboratory rats and mice) have very low DHEA levels in the blood. Over the past decade, we have obtained considerable evidence from avian studies demonstrating that (1) DHEA is an important circulating prohormone in songbirds and (2) the enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase (3β-HSD), responsible for converting DHEA into a more active androgen, is expressed at high levels in the songbird brain. Here, we first review biochemical and molecular studies demonstrating the widespread activity and expression of 3β-HSD in the adult and developing songbird brain. Studies examining neural 3β-HSD activity show effects of sex, stress, and season that are region-specific. Second, we review studies showing seasonal and stress-related changes in circulating DHEA in captive and wild songbird species. Third, we describe evidence that DHEA treatment can stimulate song behavior and the growth of neural circuits controlling song behavior. Importantly, brain 3β-HSD and aromatase can work in concert to locally metabolize DHEA into active androgens and estrogens, which are critical for controlling behavior and robust adult neuroplasticity in songbirds. DHEA is likely secreted by the avian gonads and/or adrenals, as is the case in humans, but DHEA may also be synthesized de novo in the songbird brain from cholesterol or other precursors. Irrespective of its source, DHEA seems to be an important neurohormone in songbirds, and 3β-HSD is a key enzyme in the songbird brain. PMID:17643555

  12. Brain temperature fluctuation: a reflection of functional neural activation.

    PubMed

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Brown, P Leon; Wise, Roy A

    2002-07-01

    Although it is known that relatively large increases in local brain temperature can occur during behaviour and in response to various novel, stressful and emotionally arousing environmental stimuli, the source of this heat is not clearly established. To clarify this issue, we monitored the temperature in three brain structures (dorsal and ventral striatum, cerebellum) and in arterial blood at the level of the abdominal aorta in freely moving rats exposed to several environmental challenges ranging from traditional stressors to simple sensory stimuli (cage change, tail pinch, exposure to another male rat, a female rat, a mouse or an unexpected sound). We found that brain temperature was consistently higher than arterial blood temperature, and that brain temperature increased prior to, and to a greater extent than, the increase in blood temperature evoked by each test challenge. Thus, the local metabolic consequences of widely correlated neural activity appear to be the primary source of increases in brain temperature and a driving force behind the associated changes in body temperature.

  13. Somatic Activation of AKT3 Causes Hemispheric Developmental Brain Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Poduri, Annapurna; Evrony, Gilad D.; Cai, Xuyu; Elhosary, Princess Christina; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lehtinen, Maria K.; Hills, L. Benjamin; Heinzen, Erin L.; Hill, Anthony; Hill, R. Sean; Barry, Brenda J.; Bourgeois, Blaise F.D.; Riviello, James J.; Barkovich, A. James; Black, Peter M.; Ligon, Keith L.; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Hemimegalencephaly (HMG) is a developmental brain disorder characterized by an enlarged, malformed cerebral hemisphere, typically causing epilepsy that requires surgical resection. We studied resected HMG tissue to test whether the condition might reflect somatic mutations affecting genes critical to brain development. We found that 2/8 HMG samples showed trisomy of chromosome 1q, encompassing many genes, including AKT3, which is known to regulate brain size. A third case showed a known activating mutation in AKT3 (c.49G→A, creating p.E17K) that was not present in the patient’s blood cells. Remarkably, the E17K mutation in AKT3 is exactly paralogous to E17K mutations in AKT1 and AKT2 recently discovered in somatic overgrowth syndromes. We show that AKT3 is the most abundant AKT paralogue in brain during neurogenesis and that phosphorylated AKT is abundant in cortical progenitor cells. Our data suggest that somatic mutations limited to brain could represent an important cause of complex neurogenetic disease. PMID:22500628

  14. Mapping brain activity with flexible graphene micro-transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, Benno M.; Tort-Colet, Núria; Guimerà-Brunet, Anton; Weinert, Julia; Rousseau, Lionel; Heimann, Axel; Drieschner, Simon; Kempski, Oliver; Villa, Rosa; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V.; Garrido, Jose A.

    2017-06-01

    Establishing a reliable communication interface between the brain and electronic devices is of paramount importance for exploiting the full potential of neural prostheses. Current microelectrode technologies for recording electrical activity, however, evidence important shortcomings, e.g. challenging high density integration. Solution-gated field-effect transistors (SGFETs), on the other hand, could overcome these shortcomings if a suitable transistor material were available. Graphene is particularly attractive due to its biocompatibility, chemical stability, flexibility, low intrinsic electronic noise and high charge carrier mobilities. Here, we report on the use of an array of flexible graphene SGFETs for recording spontaneous slow waves, as well as visually evoked and also pre-epileptic activity in vivo in rats. The flexible array of graphene SGFETs allows mapping brain electrical activity with excellent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), suggesting that this technology could lay the foundation for a future generation of in vivo recording implants.

  15. Interindividual synchronization of brain activity during live verbal communication.

    PubMed

    Spiegelhalder, Kai; Ohlendorf, Sabine; Regen, Wolfram; Feige, Bernd; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Weiller, Cornelius; Hennig, Jürgen; Berger, Mathias; Tüscher, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Verbal social interaction plays an important role both in the etiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, the neural basis of social interaction has primarily been studied in the individual brain, neglecting the inter-individual perspective. Here, we show inter-individual neuronal coupling of brain activity during live verbal interaction, by investigating 11 pairs of good female friends who were instructed to speak about autobiographical life events during simultaneous fMRI acquisition. The analysis revealed that the time course of neural activity in areas associated with speech production was coupled with the time course of neural activity in the interlocutor's auditory cortex. This shows the feasibility of the new methodology, which may help elucidate basic reciprocal mechanisms of social interaction and the underpinnings of disordered communication. In particular, it may serve to study the process of psychotherapy on a neuronal level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Predicting human brain activity associated with the meanings of nouns.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Tom M; Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Carlson, Andrew; Chang, Kai-Min; Malave, Vicente L; Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2008-05-30

    The question of how the human brain represents conceptual knowledge has been debated in many scientific fields. Brain imaging studies have shown that different spatial patterns of neural activation are associated with thinking about different semantic categories of pictures and words (for example, tools, buildings, and animals). We present a computational model that predicts the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neural activation associated with words for which fMRI data are not yet available. This model is trained with a combination of data from a trillion-word text corpus and observed fMRI data associated with viewing several dozen concrete nouns. Once trained, the model predicts fMRI activation for thousands of other concrete nouns in the text corpus, with highly significant accuracies over the 60 nouns for which we currently have fMRI data.

  17. Motor Cortex Microcircuit Simulation Based on Brain Activity Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Chadderdon, George L.; Mohan, Ashutosh; Suter, Benjamin A.; Neymotin, Samuel A.; Kerr, Cliff C.; Francis, Joseph T.; Shepherd, Gordon M. G.; Lytton, William W.

    2016-01-01

    The deceptively simple laminar structure of neocortex belies the complexity of intra- and interlaminar connectivity. We developed a computational model based primarily on a unified set of brain activity mapping studies of mouse M1. The simulation consisted of 775 spiking neurons of 10 cell types with detailed population-to-population connectivity. Static analysis of connectivity with graph-theoretic tools revealed that the corticostriatal population showed strong centrality, suggesting that would provide a network hub. Subsequent dynamical analysis confirmed this observation, in addition to revealing network dynamics that cannot be readily predicted through analysis of the wiring diagram alone. Activation thresholds depended on the stimulated layer. Low stimulation produced transient activation, while stronger activation produced sustained oscillations where the threshold for sustained responses varied by layer: 13% in layer 2/3, 54% in layer 5A, 25% in layer 5B, and 17% in layer 6. The frequency and phase of the resulting oscillation also depended on stimulation layer. By demonstrating the effectiveness of combined static and dynamic analysis, our results show how static brain maps can be related to the results of brain activity mapping. PMID:24708371

  18. Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation to joint attention experience.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Banghe; Yadav, Nitin; Rey, Gustavo; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2009-08-24

    In the early development of social cognition and language, infants tend to participate in face-to-face interactions engaging in joint attention exchanges. Joint attention is vital to social competence at all ages, lacking which is a primary feature to distinguish autistic from non-autistic population. In this study, diffuse optical imaging is used for the first time to investigate the joint attention experience in normal adults. Imaging studies were performed in the frontal regions of the brain (BA9 and BA10) in order to study the differences in the brain activation in response to video clips corresponding to joint attention based skills. The frontal regions of the brain were non-invasively imaged using a novel optical cap coupled to a frequency-domain optical imaging system. The statistical analysis from 11 normal adult subjects, with three repetitions from each subject, indicated that the averaged changes in the cerebral blood oxygenation levels were different under the joint and non-joint attention based stimulus. The preliminary studies demonstrate the feasibility of implementing diffuse optical imaging towards autism-related research to study the brain activation in response to socio-communication skills.

  19. Fast transient networks in spontaneous human brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Adam P; Brookes, Matthew J; Rezek, Iead A; Smith, Stephen M; Behrens, Timothy; Probert Smith, Penny J; Woolrich, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To provide an effective substrate for cognitive processes, functional brain networks should be able to reorganize and coordinate on a sub-second temporal scale. We used magnetoencephalography recordings of spontaneous activity to characterize whole-brain functional connectivity dynamics at high temporal resolution. Using a novel approach that identifies the points in time at which unique patterns of activity recur, we reveal transient (100–200 ms) brain states with spatial topographies similar to those of well-known resting state networks. By assessing temporal changes in the occurrence of these states, we demonstrate that within-network functional connectivity is underpinned by coordinated neuronal dynamics that fluctuate much more rapidly than has previously been shown. We further evaluate cross-network interactions, and show that anticorrelation between the default mode network and parietal regions of the dorsal attention network is consistent with an inability of the system to transition directly between two transient brain states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01867.001 PMID:24668169

  20. Contributions of Glycogen to Astrocytic Energetics during Brain Activation

    PubMed Central

    Dienel, Gerald A.; Cruz, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen is the major store of glucose in brain and is mainly in astrocytes. Brain glycogen levels in unstimulated, carefully-handled rats are 10-12 mol/g, and assuming that astrocytes account for half the brain mass, astrocytic glycogen content is twice as high. Glycogen turnover is slow under basal conditions, but it is mobilized during activation. There is no net increase in incorporation of label from glucose during activation, whereas label release from pre-labeled glycogen exceeds net glycogen consumption, which increases during stronger stimuli. Because glycogen level is restored by non-oxidative metabolism, astrocytes can influence the global ratio of oxygen to glucose utilization. Compensatory increases in utilization of blood glucose during inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase are large and approximate glycogenolysis rates during sensory stimulation. In contrast, glycogenolysis rates during hypoglycemia are low due to continued glucose delivery and oxidation of endogenous substrates; rates that preserve neuronal function in the absence of glucose are also low, probably due to metabolite oxidation. Modeling studies predict that glycogenolysis maintains a high level of glucose-6-phosphate in astrocytes to maintain feedback inhibition of hexokinase, thereby diverting glucose for use by neurons. The fate of glycogen carbon in vivo is not known, but lactate efflux from brain best accounts for the major metabolic characteristics during activation of living brain. Substantial shuttling coupled with oxidation of glycogen-derived lactate is inconsistent with available evidence. Glycogen has important roles in astrocytic energetics, including glucose sparing, control of extracellular K+ level, oxidative stress management, and memory consolidation; it is a multi-functional compound. PMID:24515302

  1. Emotions promote social interaction by synchronizing brain activity across individuals

    PubMed Central

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Viinikainen, Mikko; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Sharing others’ emotional states may facilitate understanding their intentions and actions. Here we show that networks of brain areas “tick together” in participants who are viewing similar emotional events in a movie. Participants’ brain activity was measured with functional MRI while they watched movies depicting unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant emotions. After scanning, participants watched the movies again and continuously rated their experience of pleasantness–unpleasantness (i.e., valence) and of arousal–calmness. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity measures [intersubject correlations (ISCs)] of functional MRI data. Valence and arousal time series were used to predict the moment-to-moment ISCs computed using a 17-s moving average. During movie viewing, participants' brain activity was synchronized in lower- and higher-order sensory areas and in corticolimbic emotion circuits. Negative valence was associated with increased ISC in the emotion-processing network (thalamus, ventral striatum, insula) and in the default-mode network (precuneus, temporoparietal junction, medial prefrontal cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus). High arousal was associated with increased ISC in the somatosensory cortices and visual and dorsal attention networks comprising the visual cortex, bilateral intraparietal sulci, and frontal eye fields. Seed-voxel–based correlation analysis confirmed that these sets of regions constitute dissociable, functional networks. We propose that negative valence synchronizes individuals’ brain areas supporting emotional sensations and understanding of another’s actions, whereas high arousal directs individuals’ attention to similar features of the environment. By enhancing the synchrony of brain activity across individuals, emotions may promote social interaction and facilitate interpersonal understanding. PMID:22623534

  2. Physical Activity, Brain Volume, and Dementia Risk: The Framingham Study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zaldy S; Spartano, Nicole L; Beiser, Alexa S; DeCarli, Charles; Auerbach, Sanford H; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Seshadri, Sudha

    2017-06-01

    Several longitudinal studies found an inverse relationship between levels of physical activity and cognitive decline, dementia, and/or Alzheimer's disease (AD), but results have been inconsistent. We followed an older, community-based cohort for over a decade to examine the association of physical activity with the risk of incident dementia and subclinical brain MRI markers of dementia. The physical activity index (PAI) was assessed in the Framingham Study Original and Offspring cohorts, aged 60 years or older. We examined the association between PAI and risk of incident all-cause dementia and AD in participants of both cohorts who were cognitively intact and had available PAI (n = 3,714; 54% women; mean age = 70±7 years). We additionally examined the association between PAI and brain MRI in the Offspring cohort (n = 1,987). Over a decade of follow-up, 236 participants developed dementia (188 AD). Participants in the lowest quintile of PAI had an increased risk of incident dementia compared with those in higher quintiles (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.97, p = .028) in a multivariable-adjusted model. Secondary analysis revealed that this relation was limited to participants who were apolipoprotein (APO)E ε4 allele noncarriers (HR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.08-2.32; p = .018) and strongest in participants aged 75 years or older. PAI was also linearly related to total brain and hippocampal volumes (β ± SE = 0.24±0.06; p < .01 and 0.004±0.001; p = .003, respectively). Low physical activity is associated with a higher risk for dementia in older individuals, suggesting that a reduced risk of dementia and higher brain volumes may be additional health benefits of maintaining physical activity into old age.

  3. Brain cholinesterase activity of apparently normal wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are potent anticholinesterase substances that have killed large numbers of wild birds of various species. Cause of death is diagnosed by demonstration of depressed brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in combination with chemical detection of anticholinesterase residue in the affected specimen. ChE depression is determined by comparison of the affected specimen to normal ChE activity for a sample of control specimens of the same species, but timely procurement of controls is not always possible. Therefore, a reference file of normal whole brain ChE activity is provided for 48 species of wild birds from North America representing 11 orders and 23 families for use as emergency substitutes in diagnosis of anticholinesterase poisoning. The ChE values, based on 83 sets of wild control specimens from across the United States, are reproducible provided the described procedures are duplicated. Overall, whole brain ChE activity varied nearly three-fold among the 48 species represented, but it was usually similar for closely related species. However, some species were statistically separable in most families and some species of the same genus differed as much as 50%.

  4. Brain activity associated with selective attention, divided attention and distraction.

    PubMed

    Salo, Emma; Salmela, Viljami; Salmi, Juha; Numminen, Jussi; Alho, Kimmo

    2017-03-28

    Top-down controlled selective or divided attention to sounds and visual objects, as well as bottom-up triggered attention to auditory and visual distractors, has been widely investigated. However, no study has systematically compared brain activations related to all these types of attention. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity in participants performing a tone pitch or a foveal grating orientation discrimination task, or both, distracted by novel sounds not sharing frequencies with the tones or by extrafoveal visual textures. To force focusing of attention to tones or gratings, or both, task difficulty was kept constantly high with an adaptive staircase method. A whole brain analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed fronto-parietal attention networks for both selective auditory and visual attention. A subsequent conjunction analysis indicated partial overlaps of these networks. However, like some previous studies, the present results also suggest segregation of prefrontal areas involved in the control of auditory and visual attention. The ANOVA also suggested, and another conjunction analysis confirmed, an additional activity enhancement in the left middle frontal gyrus related to divided attention supporting the role of this area in top-down integration of dual task performance. Distractors expectedly disrupted task performance. However, contrary to our expectations, activations specifically related to the distractors were found only in the auditory and visual cortices. This suggests gating of the distractors from further processing perhaps due to strictly focused attention in the current demanding discrimination tasks.

  5. Sleep after spatial learning promotes covert reorganization of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Orban, Pierre; Rauchs, Géraldine; Balteau, Evelyne; Degueldre, Christian; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Peigneux, Philippe

    2006-05-02

    Sleep promotes the integration of recently acquired spatial memories into cerebral networks for the long term. In this study, we examined how sleep deprivation hinders this consolidation process. Using functional MRI, we mapped regional cerebral activity during place-finding navigation in a virtual town, immediately after learning and 3 days later, in subjects either allowed regular sleep (RS) or totally sleep-deprived (TSD) on the first posttraining night. At immediate and delayed retrieval, place-finding navigation elicited increased brain activity in an extended hippocampo-neocortical network in both RS and TSD subjects. Behavioral performance was equivalent between groups. However, striatal navigation-related activity increased more at delayed retrieval in RS than in TSD subjects. Furthermore, correlations between striatal response and behavioral performance, as well as functional connectivity between the striatum and the hippocampus, were modulated by posttraining sleep. These data suggest that brain activity is restructured during sleep in such a way that navigation in the virtual environment, initially related to a hippocampus-dependent spatial strategy, becomes progressively contingent in part on a response-based strategy mediated by the striatum. Both neural strategies eventually relate to equivalent performance levels, indicating that covert reorganization of brain patterns underlying navigation after sleep is not necessarily accompanied by overt changes in behavior.

  6. Musicians differ from nonmusicians in brain activation despite performance matching.

    PubMed

    Gaab, Nadine; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2003-11-01

    Brain activation patterns in a group of musicians and a group of nonmusicians (matched in performance score to the musician group) were compared during a pitch memory task using a sparse-temporal sampling functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Both groups showed bilateral activaton (left more than right) of the superior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, posterior middle and inferior frontal gyrus, and superior parietal lobe. Musicians showed greater right posterior temporal and supramarginal activation, whereas nonmusicians had greater activation of the left secondary auditory cortex.

  7. Dopa decarboxylase activity of the living human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Gjedde, A.; Reith, J.; Dyve, S.; Leger, G.; Guttman, M.; Diksic, M.; Evans, A.; Kuwabara, H. )

    1991-04-01

    Monoaminergic neurons use dopa decarboxylase to form dopamine from L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa). We measured regional dopa decarboxylase activity in brains of six healthy volunteers with 6-({sup 18}F)fluoro-L-dopa and positron emission tomography. We calculated the enzyme activity, relative to its Km, with a kinetic model that yielded the relative rate of conversion of 6-({sup 18}F)fluoro-L-dopa to ({sup 18}F)fluorodopamine. Regional values of relative dopa decarboxylase activity ranged from nil in occipital cortex to 1.9 h-1 in caudate nucleus and putamen, in agreement with values obtained in vitro.

  8. Brain activation during a social attribution task in adolescents with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Scheibel, Randall S; Newsome, Mary R; Wilde, Elisabeth A; McClelland, Michelle M; Hanten, Gerri; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Cook, Lori G; Chu, Zili D; Vásquez, Ana C; Yallampalli, Ragini; Lin, Xiaodi; Hunter, Jill V; Levin, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    The ability to make accurate judgments about the mental states of others, sometimes referred to as theory of mind (ToM), is often impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and this deficit may contribute to problems with interpersonal relationships. The present study used an animated social attribution task (SAT) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine structures mediating ToM in adolescents with moderate to severe TBI. The study design also included a comparison group of matched, typically developing (TD) adolescents. The TD group exhibited activation within a number of areas that are thought to be relevant to ToM, including the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, fusiform gyrus, and posterior temporal and parietal areas. The TBI subjects had significant activation within many of these same areas, but their activation was generally more intense and excluded the medial prefrontal cortex. Exploratory regression analyses indicated a negative relation between ToM-related activation and measures of white matter integrity derived from diffusion tensor imaging, while there was also a positive relation between activation and lesion volume. These findings are consistent with alterations in the level and pattern of brain activation that may be due to the combined influence of diffuse axonal injury and focal lesions.

  9. Brain activation during a social attribution task in adolescents with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Scheibel, Randall S.; Newsome, Mary R.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; McClelland, Michelle M.; Hanten, Gerri; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Cook, Lori G.; Chu, Zili D.; Vásquez, Ana C.; Yallampalli, Ragini; Lin, Xiaodi; Hunter, Jill V.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to make accurate judgments about the mental states of others, sometimes referred to as theory of mind (ToM), is often impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and this deficit may contribute to problems with interpersonal relationships. The present study used an animated social attribution task (SAT) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine structures mediating ToM in adolescents with moderate to severe TBI. The study design also included a comparison group of matched, typically developing (TD) adolescents. The TD group exhibited activation within a number of areas that are thought to be relevant to ToM, including the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, fusiform gyrus, and posterior temporal and parietal areas. The TBI subjects had significant activation within many of these same areas, but their activation was generally more intense and excluded the medial prefrontal cortex. Exploratory regression analyses indicated a negative relation between ToM-related activation and measures of white matter integrity derived from diffusion tensor imaging, while there was also a positive relation between activation and lesion volume. These findings are consistent with alterations in the level and pattern of brain activation that may be due to the combined influence of diffuse axonal injury and focal lesions. PMID:21777109

  10. [Correlation of brain electrical activity and motivation in healthy people].

    PubMed

    Bogovin, L V; Nakhamchen, D L; Kolosov, V P; Perel'man, Iu M

    2014-01-01

    Motivation dominates in the structure of the personality and is one of the basic notions which explains the dynamics of the behavior. The literature has little data about neurophysiology of motivation. The aim of the research was to study the correlation between the motivational sphere and electrical activity of the brain at the influence of different provocations. 24 healthy people at the age of 26-36 years were examined. The results of motivation tests turned out to be uniform (the motivation to success was of a moderate or high level, there were mean values of readiness to risk and low motivation to achievement and approval). Multiple correlations between different types of motivation and electrical activity of the brain at rest, at hyperventilation with room temperature air and at isocapnic cold air hyperventilation were revealed.

  11. Time delay between cardiac and brain activity during sleep transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Xi; Arends, Johan B.; Aarts, Ronald M.; Haakma, Reinder; Fonseca, Pedro; Rolink, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    Human sleep consists of wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep that includes light and deep sleep stages. This work investigated the time delay between changes of cardiac and brain activity for sleep transitions. Here, the brain activity was quantified by electroencephalographic (EEG) mean frequency and the cardiac parameters included heart rate, standard deviation of heartbeat intervals, and their low- and high-frequency spectral powers. Using a cross-correlation analysis, we found that the cardiac variations during wake-sleep and NREM sleep transitions preceded the EEG changes by 1-3 min but this was not the case for REM sleep transitions. These important findings can be further used to predict the onset and ending of some sleep stages in an early manner.

  12. Noise in brain activity engenders perception and influences discrimination sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, Fosco; De Lucia, Marzia; Tzovara, Athina; Manuel, Aurelie L; Murray, Micah M; Spierer, Lucas

    2011-12-07

    Behavioral and brain responses to identical stimuli can vary with experimental and task parameters, including the context of stimulus presentation or attention. More surprisingly, computational models suggest that noise-related random fluctuations in brain responses to stimuli would alone be sufficient to engender perceptual differences between physically identical stimuli. In two experiments combining psychophysics and EEG in healthy humans, we investigated brain mechanisms whereby identical stimuli are (erroneously) perceived as different (higher vs lower in pitch or longer vs shorter in duration) in the absence of any change in the experimental context. Even though, as expected, participants' percepts to identical stimuli varied randomly, a classification algorithm based on a mixture of Gaussians model (GMM) showed that there was sufficient information in single-trial EEG to reliably predict participants' judgments of the stimulus dimension. By contrasting electrical neuroimaging analyses of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) to the identical stimuli as a function of participants' percepts, we identified the precise timing and neural correlates (strength vs topographic modulations) as well as intracranial sources of these erroneous perceptions. In both experiments, AEP differences first occurred ~100 ms after stimulus onset and were the result of topographic modulations following from changes in the configuration of active brain networks. Source estimations localized the origin of variations in perceived pitch of identical stimuli within right temporal and left frontal areas and of variations in perceived duration within right temporoparietal areas. We discuss our results in terms of providing neurophysiologic evidence for the contribution of random fluctuations in brain activity to conscious perception.

  13. Brain activity correlates with emotional perception induced by dynamic avatars.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Hagar; Christensen, Andrea; Flash, Tamar; Giese, Martin A; Malach, Rafael

    2015-11-15

    An accurate judgment of the emotional state of others is a prerequisite for successful social interaction and hence survival. Thus, it is not surprising that we are highly skilled at recognizing the emotions of others. Here we aimed to examine the neuronal correlates of emotion recognition from gait. To this end we created highly controlled dynamic body-movement stimuli based on real human motion-capture data (Roether et al., 2009). These animated avatars displayed gait in four emotional (happy, angry, fearful, and sad) and speed-matched neutral styles. For each emotional gait and its equivalent neutral gait, avatars were displayed at five morphing levels between the two. Subjects underwent fMRI scanning while classifying the emotions and the emotional intensity levels expressed by the avatars. Our results revealed robust brain selectivity to emotional compared to neutral gait stimuli in brain regions which are involved in emotion and biological motion processing, such as the extrastriate body area (EBA), fusiform body area (FBA), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the amygdala (AMG). Brain activity in the amygdala reflected emotional awareness: for visually identical stimuli it showed amplified stronger response when the stimulus was perceived as emotional. Notably, in avatars gradually morphed along an emotional expression axis there was a parametric correlation between amygdala activity and emotional intensity. This study extends the mapping of emotional decoding in the human brain to the domain of highly controlled dynamic biological motion. Our results highlight an extensive level of brain processing of emotional information related to body language, which relies mostly on body kinematics.

  14. Human brain activity with near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingming; Chance, Britton

    1999-09-01

    Human brain activity was studied with a real time functional Near-InfraRed Imager (fNIRI). The imager has 16 measurement channels and covers 4 cm by 9 cm detection area. Brain activities in occipital, motor and prefrontal area were studied with the fNIRI. In prefrontal stimulation, language cognition, analogies, forming memory for new associations, emotional thinking, and mental arithmetic were carried out. Experimental results measured with fNIRI are demonstrated in this paper. It was shown that fNIRI technique is able to reveal the occipital activity during visual stimulation, and co-register well with results of fMRI in the motor cortex activity during finger tapping. In the studies of the effects of left prefrontal lobe on forming memory for new associations, it is shown that left prefrontal lobe activated more under deep conditions than that under shallow encoding, especially the dorsal part. In the studies of emotional thinking, it was shown that the responses were different between positive- negative emotional thinking and negative-positive emotional thinking. In mental arithmetic studies, higher activation was found in the first task than in the second, regardless of the difficulty, and higher activation was measured in subtraction of 17 than in subtraction of 3.

  15. Changes in spontaneous brain activity in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Zhang, Min-Ming; Zheng, Xu-Ning; Zhao, Yi-Lei; Wang, Jue

    2013-08-09

    Resting state brain activity can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of the present study was (a) to investigate abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity in early PD patients using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) with a regional homogeneity (ReHo) method and (b) to demonstrate the potential of using changes in abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity for monitoring the progression of PD during its early stages. Seventeen early PD patients were assessed with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Hoehn and Yahr disability scale and the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) were compared with seventeen gender- and age-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent MRI scans using a 1.5T General Electric Signa Excite II scanner. The MRI scan protocol included whole-brain volumetric imaging using a 3D inversion recovery prepared (IR-Prep) fast spoiled gradient-echo pulse sequence and 2D multi-slice (22 axial slices covering the whole brain) resting-state fMRI using an echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence. Images were analyzed in SPM5 together with a ReHo algorithm using the in-house software program REST. A corrected threshold of p<0.05 was determined by AlphaSim and used in statistical analysis. Compared with the healthy controls, the early PD group showed significantly increased ReHo in a number of brain regions, including the left cerebellum, left parietal lobe, right middle temporal lobe, right sub-thalamic nucleus areas, right superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), right inferior parietal lobe (IPL), right precuneus lobe, left MFG and left IPL. Additionally, significantly reduced ReHo was also observed in the early PD patients in the following brain regions: the left putamen, left inferior frontal gyrus, right hippocampus, right anterior cingulum, and bilateral lingual gyrus. Moreover, in PD patients, ReHo in the left putamen was negatively correlated with the UPDRS scores (r=-0

  16. Physical activity, fitness, glucose homeostasis, and brain morphology in twins.

    PubMed

    Rottensteiner, Mirva; Leskinen, Tuija; Niskanen, Eini; Aaltonen, Sari; Mutikainen, Sara; Wikgren, Jan; Heikkilä, Kauko; Kovanen, Vuokko; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kaprio, Jaakko; Tarkka, Ina M; Kujala, Urho M

    2015-03-01

    The main aim of the present study (FITFATTWIN) was to investigate how physical activity level is associated with body composition, glucose homeostasis, and brain morphology in young adult male monozygotic twin pairs discordant for physical activity. From a population-based twin cohort, we systematically selected 10 young adult male monozygotic twin pairs (age range, 32-36 yr) discordant for leisure time physical activity during the past 3 yr. On the basis of interviews, we calculated a mean sum index for leisure time and commuting activity during the past 3 yr (3-yr LTMET index expressed as MET-hours per day). We conducted extensive measurements on body composition (including fat percentage measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), glucose homeostasis including homeostatic model assessment index and insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda index, calculated from glucose and insulin values from an oral glucose tolerance test), and whole brain magnetic resonance imaging for regional volumetric analyses. According to pairwise analysis, the active twins had lower body fat percentage (P = 0.029) and homeostatic model assessment index (P = 0.031) and higher Matsuda index (P = 0.021) compared with their inactive co-twins. Striatal and prefrontal cortex (subgyral and inferior frontal gyrus) brain gray matter volumes were larger in the nondominant hemisphere in active twins compared with those in inactive co-twins, with a statistical threshold of P < 0.001. Among healthy adult male twins in their mid-30s, a greater level of physical activity is associated with improved glucose homeostasis and modulation of striatum and prefrontal cortex gray matter volume, independent of genetic background. The findings may contribute to later reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and mobility limitations.

  17. Brain activation to cocaine cues and motivation/treatment status

    PubMed Central

    Prisciandaro, James J.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation to change is believed to be a key factor in therapeutic success in substance use disorders; however, the neurobiological mechanisms through which motivation to change impacts decreased substance use remain unclear. Existing research is conflicting, with some investigations supporting decreased and others reporting increased frontal activation to drug cues in individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. The present study investigated the relationship between motivation to change cocaine use and cue-elicited brain activity in cocaine-dependent individuals using two conceptualizations of “motivation to change:” 1) current treatment status (i.e., currently receiving vs. not receiving outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence) and 2) self-reported motivation to change substance use, using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES; Miller and Tonigan, 1996). Thirty-eight cocaine-dependent individuals (14 currently in treatment) completed a diagnostic assessment and an fMRI cocaine cue-reactivity task. Whole-brain analyses demonstrated that both treatment-seeking and motivated participants had lower activation to cocaine cues in a wide variety of brain regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal, and cingulate cortices relative to non-treatment-seeking and less motivated participants. Future research is needed to explain the mechanism by which treatment and/or motivation impacts neural cue-reactivity, as such work could potentially aid in the development of more effective therapeutic techniques for substance-dependent patients. PMID:22458561

  18. Chlorpromazine confers neuroprotection against brain ischemia by activating BKCa channel.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Juan; Zhang, Yu-Jiao; Zhou, Li; Han, Feng; Wang, Ming-Yan; Xue, Mao-Qiang; Qi, Zhi

    2014-07-15

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is a well-known antipsychotic drug, still widely being used to treat symptoms of schizophrenia, psychotic depression and organic psychoses. We have previously reported that CPZ activates the BKCa (KCa1.1) channel at whole cell level. In the present study, we demonstrated that CPZ increased the single channel open probability of the BKCa channels without changing its single channel amplitude. As BKCa channel is one of the molecular targets of brain ischemia, we explored a possible new use of this old drug on ischemic brain injury. In middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) focal cerebral ischemia, a single intraperitoneal injection of CPZ at several dosages (5mg/kg, 10mg/kg and 20mg/kg) could exert a significant neuroprotective effect on the brain damage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, blockade of BKCa channels abolished the neuroprotective effect of CPZ on MCAO, suggesting that the effect of CPZ is mediated by activation of the BKCa channel. These results demonstrate that CPZ could reduce focal cerebral ischemic damage through activating BKCa channels and merits exploration as a potential therapeutic agent for treating ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain activation to cocaine cues and motivation/treatment status.

    PubMed

    Prisciandaro, James J; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T

    2014-03-01

    Motivation to change is believed to be a key factor in therapeutic success in substance use disorders; however, the neurobiological mechanisms through which motivation to change impacts decreased substance use remain unclear. Existing research is conflicting, with some investigations supporting decreased and others reporting increased frontal activation to drug cues in individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. The present study investigated the relationship between motivation to change cocaine use and cue-elicited brain activity in cocaine-dependent individuals using two conceptualizations of 'motivation to change': (1) current treatment status (i.e. currently receiving versus not receiving outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence) and (2) self-reported motivation to change substance use, using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale. Thirty-eight cocaine-dependent individuals (14 currently in treatment) completed a diagnostic assessment and an fMRI cocaine cue-reactivity task. Whole-brain analyses demonstrated that both treatment-seeking and motivated participants had lower activation to cocaine cues in a wide variety of brain regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal and cingulate cortices relative to non-treatment-seeking and less motivated participants. Future research is needed to explain the mechanism by which treatment and/or motivation impacts neural cue reactivity, as such work could potentially aid in the development of more effective therapeutic techniques for substance-dependent patients.

  20. Early Oxygen-Utilization and Brain Activity in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Linda S.; Groenendaal, Floris; Toet, Mona C.; Lemmers, Petra M. A.; Vosse van de, Renè E.; van Bel, Frank; Benders, Manon J. N. L.

    2015-01-01

    The combined monitoring of oxygen supply and delivery using Near-InfraRed spectroscopy (NIRS) and cerebral activity using amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) could yield new insights into brain metabolism and detect potentially vulnerable conditions soon after birth. The relationship between NIRS and quantitative aEEG/EEG parameters has not yet been investigated. Our aim was to study the association between oxygen utilization during the first 6 h after birth and simultaneously continuously monitored brain activity measured by aEEG/EEG. Forty-four hemodynamically stable babies with a GA < 28 weeks, with good quality NIRS and aEEG/EEG data available and who did not receive morphine were included in the study. aEEG and NIRS monitoring started at NICU admission. The relation between regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) and cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction (cFTOE), and quantitative measurements of brain activity such as number of spontaneous activity transients (SAT) per minute (SAT rate), the interval in seconds (i.e. time) between SATs (ISI) and the minimum amplitude of the EEG in μV (min aEEG) were evaluated. rScO2 was negatively associated with SAT rate (β=-3.45 [CI=-5.76- -1.15], p=0.004) and positively associated with ISI (β=1.45 [CI=0.44-2.45], p=0.006). cFTOE was positively associated with SAT rate (β=0.034 [CI=0.009-0.059], p=0.008) and negatively associated with ISI (β=-0.015 [CI=-0.026- -0.004], p=0.007). Oxygen delivery and utilization, as indicated by rScO2 and cFTOE, are directly related to functional brain activity, expressed by SAT rate and ISI during the first hours after birth, showing an increase in oxygen extraction in preterm infants with increased early electro-cerebral activity. NIRS monitored oxygenation may be a useful biomarker of brain vulnerability in high-risk infants. PMID:25965343

  1. The brain in micro- and hypergravity: the effects of changing gravity on the brain electrocortical activity.

    PubMed

    Marušič, Uroš; Meeusen, Romain; Pišot, Rado; Kavcic, Voyko

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of increased and decreased gravity on central nervous system is essential for developing proper physical and cognitive countermeasures to assure safe and effective space missions and human survival in space. This short review covers the available literature on the brain electrocortical activity effects of decreased and increased gravitational force comparing to the 1g Earth conditions. Among all neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron-emission tomography (PET), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), the electroencephalography (EEG) was found to be suitable method to monitor brain electrocortical activity in the extreme environments. Due to complexity and high cost of space flight missions, ground-based models have been employed to simulate microgravity effects on human body. Surprisingly, there is very limited number of publications reporting gravity-dependent EEG spectral changes. With increased gravity there are initially increased EEG activity in higher frequencies and at around 4 g appears loss of consciousness with accompanying slowing of EEG due to hypoxia. In microgravity, the most prevalent changes in EEG are faster frequencies such as alpha and beta. The results from simulated microgravity (bed rest) are pointing to changes in theta and alpha, representing signs of cortical inhibition. The changes in EEG activity in space flight are attributed to a decreased sensorimotor input while in parabolic flights short and fast transitions from hyper to microgravity presumably reflect lower arousal levels and emotional processes in microgravity. Thus, based on limited research about gravity-related changes in EEG from different environments it is difficult to draw any unequivocal conclusions. Additional systematic studies about electrocortical activity in space and parabolic flights, as well as longer bed rest studies are needed in order to advance knowledge about brain functioning in extreme conditions

  2. Effects of cannabinoids on the activities of mouse brain lipases.

    PubMed

    Hunter, S A; Burstein, S; Renzulli, L

    1986-09-01

    Cannabinoids were found to augment phospholipase activities and modify lipid levels of mouse brain synaptosomes, myelin and mitochondria. Delta-1-tetra-hydrocannabinol (delta 1-THC) and several of its metabolites induced a dose-dependent (0.32-16 microM) stimulation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity resulting in the increased release of free arachidonic acid from exogenous [1-14C]phosphatidylcholine (PC). The potencies of the cannabinoids in modulating PLA2 activity were approximately of the order: 7-OH-delta 1-THC greater than delta 1-THC greater than 7-oxo-delta 1-THC greater than delta 1-THC-7-oic acid = 6 alpha OH-delta 1-THC much greater than 6 beta-OH-delta 1-THC. The hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol (PI) by synaptosomal phospholipase C (PLC) was enhanced significantly by delta 1-THC and promoted diacylglyceride levels by greater than 100 percent compared to control values. In contrast, arachidonate was the major product resulting from phospholipase activities of a 20,000 g pellet. Synaptosomal diacylglyceride lipase activity was inhibited by delta 1-THC. [1-14C]Arachidonic acid was readily incorporated into subcellular membrane phospholipids and after exposure to cannabinoids led to diminished phosphoglyceride levels and concomitant increases in released neutral lipid products. These data suggest that cannabinoids control phospholipid turnover and metabolism in mouse brain preparations by the activation of phospholipases and, through this mechanism, may exert some of their effects.

  3. Neuroimaging and Neuroenergetics: Brain Activations as Information-Driven Reorganization of Energy Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strelnikov, Kuzma

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing focus on the neurophysiological underpinnings of brain activations, giving birth to an emerging branch of neuroscience--neuroenergetics. However, no common definition of "brain activation" exists thus far. In this article, we define brain activation as the information-driven reorganization of energy flows in a population of…

  4. Neuroimaging and Neuroenergetics: Brain Activations as Information-Driven Reorganization of Energy Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strelnikov, Kuzma

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing focus on the neurophysiological underpinnings of brain activations, giving birth to an emerging branch of neuroscience--neuroenergetics. However, no common definition of "brain activation" exists thus far. In this article, we define brain activation as the information-driven reorganization of energy flows in a population of…

  5. Laterality of Brain Activation for Risk Factors of Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Harold W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Laterality of brain activation is reported for tests of risk factors of addiction - impulsivity and craving - but authors rarely address the potential significance of those asymmetries. Objective: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate this laterality and discuss its relevance to cognitive and neurophysiological asymmetries associated with drug abuse vulnerability in order to provide new insights for future research in drug abuse. Method: From published reports, brain areas of activation for two tests of response inhibition or craving for drugs of abuse were compiled from fMRI activation peaks and were tabulated for eight sections (octants) in each hemisphere. Percent asymmetries were calculated (R-L/R+L) across studies for each area. Results: For impulsivity, most activation peaks favored the right hemisphere. Overall, the percent difference was 32% (Χ2 = 16.026; p < 0.0001) with the greater asymmetry for anterior peaks (46.8%; Χ2 = 17.329; p < 0.0001). The asymmetries for cue-induced craving were opposite, favoring the left hemisphere by 6.7% (Χ2 = 4.028; p < 0.05). The consistency of left asymmetry was found for almost all drugs. For nicotine, studies where subjects were not allowed to smoke (deprived) prior to measurement had the same left hemisphere activation but those who smoked (satiated) before the fMRI measure showed right asymmetry. Conclusion: Brain activation studies demonstrate different left/right hemispheric contributions for impulsivity versus craving - factors related to addiction. Failure to take laterality into consideration is a missed opportunity in designing studies and gaining insight into the etiology of drug abuse and pathways for treatment. PMID:26674074

  6. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Betel Quid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Li, Jian-jun; Zhao, Zhong-yan; Yang, Guo-shuai; Pan, Meng-jie; Li, Chang-qing; Pan, Su-yue; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It has been suggested by the first voxel-based morphometry investigation that betel quid dependence (BQD) individuals are presented with brain structural changes in previous reports, and there may be a neurobiological basis for BQD individuals related to an increased risk of executive dysfunction and disinhibition, subjected to the reward system, cognitive system, and emotion system. However, the effects of BQD on neural activity remain largely unknown. Individuals with impaired cognitive control of behavior often reveal altered spontaneous cerebral activity in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and those changes are usually earlier than structural alteration. Here, we examined BQD individuals (n = 33) and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy control participants (n = 32) in an resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study to observe brain function alterations associated with the severity of BQD. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) values were both evaluated to stand for spontaneous cerebral activity. Gray matter volumes of these participants were also calculated for covariate. In comparison with healthy controls, BQD individuals demonstrated dramatically decreased ALFF and ReHo values in the prefrontal gurus along with left fusiform, and increased ALFF and ReHo values in the primary motor cortex area, temporal lobe as well as some regions of occipital lobe. The betel quid dependence scores (BQDS) were negatively related to decreased activity in the right anterior cingulate. The abnormal spontaneous cerebral activity revealed by ALFF and ReHo calculation excluding the structural differences in patients with BQD may help us probe into the neurological pathophysiology underlying BQD-related executive dysfunction and disinhibition. Diminished spontaneous brain activity in the right anterior cingulate cortex may, therefore, represent a biomarker of BQD individuals. PMID

  7. Laterality of Brain Activation for Risk Factors of Addiction.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Harold W

    2016-01-01

    Laterality of brain activation is reported for tests of risk factors of addiction- impulsivity and craving-but authors rarely address the potential significance of those asymmetries. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate this laterality and discuss its relevance to cognitive and neurophysiological asymmetries associated with drug abuse vulnerability in order to provide new insights for future research in drug abuse. From published reports, brain areas of activation for two tests of response inhibition or craving for drugs of abuse were compiled from fMRI activation peaks and were tabulated for eight sections (octants) in each hemisphere. Percent asymmetries were calculated (R-L/R+L) across studies for each area. For impulsivity, most activation peaks favored the right hemisphere. Overall, the percent difference was 32% (Χ2 = 16.026; p < 0.0001) with the greater asymmetry for anterior peaks (46.8%; Χ(2) = 17.329; p < 0.0001). The asymmetries for cue-induced craving were opposite, favoring the left hemisphere by 6.7% (Χ(2) = 4.028; p < 0.05). The consistency of left asymmetry was found for almost all drugs. For nicotine, studies where subjects were not allowed to smoke (deprived) prior to measurement had the same left hemisphere activation but those who smoked (satiated) before the fMRI measure showed right asymmetry. Brain activation studies demonstrate different left/right hemispheric contributions for impulsivity versus craving-factors related to addiction. Failure to take laterality into consideration is a missed opportunity in designing studies and gaining insight into the etiology of drug abuse and pathways for treatment.

  8. Spatiotemporal dynamics of large-scale brain activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuman, Jeremy

    Understanding the dynamics of large-scale brain activity is a tough challenge. One reason for this is the presence of an incredible amount of complexity arising from having roughly 100 billion neurons connected via 100 trillion synapses. Because of the extremely high number of degrees of freedom in the nervous system, the question of how the brain manages to properly function and remain stable, yet also be adaptable, must be posed. Neuroscientists have identified many ways the nervous system makes this possible, of which synaptic plasticity is possibly the most notable one. On the other hand, it is vital to understand how the nervous system also loses stability, resulting in neuropathological diseases such as epilepsy, a disease which affects 1% of the population. In the following work, we seek to answer some of these questions from two different perspectives. The first uses mean-field theory applied to neuronal populations, where the variables of interest are the percentages of active excitatory and inhibitory neurons in a network, to consider how the nervous system responds to external stimuli, self-organizes and generates epileptiform activity. The second method uses statistical field theory, in the framework of single neurons on a lattice, to study the concept of criticality, an idea borrowed from physics which posits that in some regime the brain operates in a collectively stable or marginally stable manner. This will be examined in two different neuronal networks with self-organized criticality serving as the overarching theme for the union of both perspectives. One of the biggest problems in neuroscience is the question of to what extent certain details are significant to the functioning of the brain. These details give rise to various spatiotemporal properties that at the smallest of scales explain the interaction of single neurons and synapses and at the largest of scales describe, for example, behaviors and sensations. In what follows, we will shed some

  9. Ongoing Progress in Spacecraft Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Dave (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is a collection of papers presented at the Mars Mission Research Center workshop on Ongoing Progress in Spacecraft Controls. The technical program addressed additional Mars mission control problems that currently exist in robotic missions in addition to human missions. Topics include control systems design in the presence of large time delays, fuel-optimal propulsive control, and adaptive control to handle a variety of unknown conditions.

  10. Late effects of enriched environment (EE) plus multimodal early onset stimulation (MEOS) after traumatic brain injury in rats: Ongoing improvement of neuromotor function despite sustained volume of the CNS lesion.

    PubMed

    Lippert-Gruener, Marcela; Maegele, Marc; Garbe, Janika; Angelov, Doychin N

    2007-01-01

    Recently we showed that the combination between MEOS and EE applied to rats for 7-15 days after traumatic brain injury (TBI) was associated with reduced CNS lesion volume and enhanced reversal of neuromotor dysfunction. In a continuation of this work, we tested whether these effects persisted for longer post-operative periods, e.g. 30 days post-injury (dpi). Rats were subjected to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) or to sham injury. After LFP, one third of the animals (injured and sham) was placed under conditions of standard housing (SH), one third was kept in EE-only, and one third received EE+MEOS. Standardized composite neuroscore (NS) for neurological functions and computerized analysis of the vibrissal motor performance were used to assess post-traumatic neuromotor deficits. These were followed by evaluation of the cortical lesion volume (CLV) after immunostaining for neuron-specific enolase, caspase 3 active, and GFAP. Finally, the volume of cortical lesion containing regeneration-associated proteins (CLV-RAP) was determined in sections stained for GAP-43, MAP2, and neuronal class III beta-tubulin. We found (i) no differences in the vibrissal motor performance; (ii) EE+MEOS rats performed significantly better than SH rats in NS; (iii) EE-only and EE+MEOS animals, but not SH rats, showed better recovery at 30 dpi than at 15 dpi; (iv) no differences among all groups in CLV (larger than that at 15 dpi) and CLV-RAP, despite a clear tendency to reduction in the EE-only and EE+MEOS rats. We conclude that EE+MEOS retards, but cannot prevent the increase of lesion volume. This retardation is sufficient for a continuous restoration of neurological functions.

  11. Brain catalase activity is highly correlated with ethanol-induced locomotor activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Correa, M; Sanchis-Segura, C; Aragon, C M

    2001-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that acute administration of lead to mice enhances brain catalase activity and ethanol-induced locomotion. These effects of lead seem to be related, since they show similar time courses and occur at similar doses. In the present study, in an attempt to further evaluate the relation between brain catalase activity and lead-induced changes in ethanol-stimulated locomotion, the interaction between lead acetate and 3-amino-1H,2,4-triazole (AT), a well-known catalase inhibitor, was assessed. In this study, lead acetate or saline was acutely injected intraperitoneally to Swiss mice at doses of 50 or 100 mg/kg 7 days before testing. On the test day, animals received an intraperitoneal injection of AT (0, 10, or 500 mg/kg). Five hours following AT treatment, ethanol (0.0 or 2.5 g/kg, ip) was injected and the animals were placed in open-field chambers, in which locomotion was measured for 10 min. Neither lead exposure nor AT administration, either alone or in combination, had any effect on spontaneous locomotor activity. AT treatment reduced ethanol-induced locomotion as well as brain catalase activity. On the other hand, ambulation and brain catalase activity were significantly increased by both doses of lead. Furthermore, AT significantly reduced the potentiation produced by lead acetate on brain catalase and on ethanol-induced locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner. A significant correlation was found between locomotion and catalase activity across all test conditions. The results show that brain catalase activity is involved in the effects of lead acetate on ethanol-induced locomotion in mice. Thus, this study confirms the notion that brain catalase provides the molecular basis for understanding some of the mechanisms of the action of ethanol in the central nervous system.

  12. Activated and deactivated functional brain areas in the Deqi state

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Zeng, Tongjun; Zhang, Guifeng; Li, Ganlong; Lu, Na; Lai, Xinsheng; Lu, Yangjia; Chen, Jiarong

    2012-01-01

    We compared the activities of functional regions of the brain in the Deqi versus non-Deqi state, as reported by physicians and subjects during acupuncture. Twelve healthy volunteers received sham and true needling at the Waiguan (TE5) acupoint. Real-time cerebral functional MRI showed that compared with non-sensation after sham needling, true needling activated Brodmann areas 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 37, 39, 40, 43, and 47, the head of the caudate nucleus, the parahippocampal gyrus, thalamus and red nucleus. True needling also deactivated Brodmann areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 18, 24, 31, 40 and 46. PMID:25538761

  13. On-Going Frontal Alpha Rhythms Are Dominant in Passive State and Desynchronize in Active State in Adult Gray Mouse Lemurs

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Anisur; Lamberty, Yves; Bordet, Regis; Richardson, Jill C.; Forloni, Gianluigi; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus; Lopez, Susanna; Aujard, Fabienne; Babiloni, Claudio; Pifferi, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    The gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is considered a useful primate model for translational research. In the framework of IMI PharmaCog project (Grant Agreement n°115009, www.pharmacog.org), we tested the hypothesis that spectral electroencephalographic (EEG) markers of motor and locomotor activity in gray mouse lemurs reflect typical movement-related desynchronization of alpha rhythms (about 8–12 Hz) in humans. To this aim, EEG (bipolar electrodes in frontal cortex) and electromyographic (EMG; bipolar electrodes sutured in neck muscles) data were recorded in 13 male adult (about 3 years) lemurs. Artifact-free EEG segments during active state (gross movements, exploratory movements or locomotor activity) and awake passive state (no sleep) were selected on the basis of instrumental measures of animal behavior, and were used as an input for EEG power density analysis. Results showed a clear peak of EEG power density at alpha range (7–9 Hz) during passive state. During active state, there was a reduction in alpha power density (8–12 Hz) and an increase of power density at slow frequencies (1–4 Hz). Relative EMG activity was related to EEG power density at 2–4 Hz (positive correlation) and at 8–12 Hz (negative correlation). These results suggest for the first time that the primate gray mouse lemurs and humans may share basic neurophysiologic mechanisms of synchronization of frontal alpha rhythms in awake passive state and their desynchronization during motor and locomotor activity. These EEG markers may be an ideal experimental model for translational basic (motor science) and applied (pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions) research in Neurophysiology. PMID:26618512

  14. Enhancing Hebbian Learning to Control Brain Oscillatory Activity.

    PubMed

    Soekadar, Surjo R; Witkowski, Matthias; Birbaumer, Niels; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2015-09-01

    Sensorimotor rhythms (SMR, 8-15 Hz) are brain oscillations associated with successful motor performance, imagery, and imitation. Voluntary modulation of SMR can be used to control brain-machine interfaces (BMI) in the absence of any physical movements. The mechanisms underlying acquisition of such skill are unknown. Here, we provide evidence for a causal link between function of the primary motor cortex (M1), active during motor skill learning and retention, and successful acquisition of abstract skills such as control over SMR. Thirty healthy participants were trained on 5 consecutive days to control SMR oscillations. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of 3 groups that received either 20 min of anodal, cathodal, or sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over M1. Learning SMR control across training days was superior in the anodal tDCS group relative to the other 2. Cathodal tDCS blocked the beneficial effects of training, as evidenced with sham tDCS. One month later, the newly acquired skill remained superior in the anodal tDCS group. Thus, application of weak electric currents of opposite polarities over M1 differentially modulates learning SMR control, pointing to this primary cortical region as a common substrate for acquisition of physical motor skills and learning to control brain oscillatory activity. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Three-dimensional electrical impedance tomography of human brain activity.

    PubMed

    Tidswell, T; Gibson, A; Bayford, R H; Holder, D S

    2001-02-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow and blood volume changes that occur during human brain activity will change the local impedance of that cortical area, as blood has a lower impedance than that of brain. Theoretically, such impedance changes could be measured from scalp electrodes and reconstructed into images of the internal impedance of the head. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a newly developed technique by which impedance measurements from the surface of an object are reconstructed into impedance images. It is fast, portable, inexpensive, and noninvasive, but has a relatively low spatial resolution. EIT images were recorded with scalp electrodes and an EIT system, specially optimized for recording brain function, in 39 adult human subjects during visual, somatosensory, or motor activity. Reproducible impedance changes of about 0.5% occurred in 51/52 recordings, which lasted from 6 s after the stimulus onset to 41 s after stimulus cessation. When these changes were reconstructed into impedance images, using a novel 3-D reconstruction algorithm, 19 data sets demonstrated significant impedance changes in the appropriate cortical region. This demonstrates, for the first time, that significant impedance changes, which could form the basis for a novel neuroimaging technology, may be recorded in human subjects with scalp electrodes. The final images contained spatial noise and strategies to reduce this in future work are presented.

  16. Mapping brain activity at scale with cluster computing.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Jeremy; Vladimirov, Nikita; Kawashima, Takashi; Mu, Yu; Sofroniew, Nicholas J; Bennett, Davis V; Rosen, Joshua; Yang, Chao-Tsung; Looger, Loren L; Ahrens, Misha B

    2014-09-01

    Understanding brain function requires monitoring and interpreting the activity of large networks of neurons during behavior. Advances in recording technology are greatly increasing the size and complexity of neural data. Analyzing such data will pose a fundamental bottleneck for neuroscience. We present a library of analytical tools called Thunder built on the open-source Apache Spark platform for large-scale distributed computing. The library implements a variety of univariate and multivariate analyses with a modular, extendable structure well-suited to interactive exploration and analysis development. We demonstrate how these analyses find structure in large-scale neural data, including whole-brain light-sheet imaging data from fictively behaving larval zebrafish, and two-photon imaging data from behaving mouse. The analyses relate neuronal responses to sensory input and behavior, run in minutes or less and can be used on a private cluster or in the cloud. Our open-source framework thus holds promise for turning brain activity mapping efforts into biological insights.

  17. Neurofeedback Tunes Scale-Free Dynamics in Spontaneous Brain Activity.

    PubMed

    Ros, T; Frewen, P; Théberge, J; Michela, A; Kluetsch, R; Mueller, A; Candrian, G; Jetly, R; Vuilleumier, P; Lanius, R A

    2017-10-01

    Brain oscillations exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs), which reflect the regularity of their fluctuations: low values representing more random (decorrelated) while high values more persistent (correlated) dynamics. LRTCs constitute supporting evidence that the brain operates near criticality, a state where neuronal activities are balanced between order and randomness. Here, healthy adults used closed-loop brain training (neurofeedback, NFB) to reduce the amplitude of alpha oscillations, producing a significant increase in spontaneous LRTCs post-training. This effect was reproduced in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder, where abnormally random dynamics were reversed by NFB, correlating with significant improvements in hyperarousal. Notably, regions manifesting abnormally low LRTCs (i.e., excessive randomness) normalized toward healthy population levels, consistent with theoretical predictions about self-organized criticality. Hence, when exposed to appropriate training, spontaneous cortical activity reveals a residual capacity for "self-tuning" its own temporal complexity, despite manifesting the abnormal dynamics seen in individuals with psychiatric disorder. Lastly, we observed an inverse-U relationship between strength of LRTC and oscillation amplitude, suggesting a breakdown of long-range dependence at high/low synchronization extremes, in line with recent computational models. Together, our findings offer a broader mechanistic framework for motivating research and clinical applications of NFB, encompassing disorders with perturbed LRTCs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Fermi-LAT detection of ongoing gamma-ray activity from the new gamma-ray source Fermi J1654-1055 (PMN J1632-1052)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocevski, D.; Ajello, M.; Buson, S.; Buehler, R.; Giomi, M.

    2016-02-01

    During the week between February 8 and 15, 2016, the Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, observed gamma-ray activity from a new transient source, Fermi J1654-1055.

  19. Reduced brain activation in violent adolescents during response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yi; Mei, Yi; Du, XiaoXia; Xie, Bin; Shao, Yang

    2016-02-18

    Deficits in inhibitory control have been linked to aggression and violent behaviour. This study aimed to observe whether violent adolescents show different brain activation patterns during response inhibition and to ascertain the roles these brain regions play. A self-report method and modified overt aggression scale (MOAS) were used to evaluate violent behaviour. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 22 violent adolescents and 17 matched healthy subjects aged 12 to 18 years. While scanning, a go/no-go task was performed. Between-group comparisons revealed that activation in the bilateral middle and superior temporal gyrus, hippocampus, and right orbitofrontal area (BA11) regions were significantly reduced in the violent group compared with the control group. Meanwhile, the violent group had more widespread activation in the prefrontal cortex than that observed in the control group. Activation of the prefrontal cortex in the violent group was widespread but lacking in focus, failing to produce intensive activation in some functionally related regions during response inhibition.

  20. Cytokine-induced activation of glial cells in the mouse brain is enhanced at an advanced age.

    PubMed

    Deng, X-H; Bertini, G; Xu, Y-Z; Yan, Z; Bentivoglio, M

    2006-08-25

    Numerous neurological diseases which include neuroinflammatory components exhibit an age-related prevalence. The aging process is characterized by an increase of inflammatory mediators both systemically and in the brain, which may prime glial cells. However, little information is available on age-related changes in the glial response of the healthy aging brain to an inflammatory challenge. This problem was here examined using a mixture of the proinflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which was injected intracerebroventricularly in young (2-3.5 months), middle-aged (10-11 months) and aged (18-21 months) mice. Vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) was used as control. After a survival of 1 or 2 days (all age groups) or 4 days (young and middle-aged animals), immunohistochemically labeled astrocytes and microglia were investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively. In all age groups, astrocytes were markedly activated in periventricular as well as in deeper brain regions 2 days following cytokine treatment, whereas microglia activation was already evident at 24 h. Interestingly, cytokine-induced activation of both astrocytes and microglia was significantly more marked in the brain of aged animals, in which it included numerous ameboid microglia, than of younger age groups. Moderate astrocytic activation was also seen in the hippocampal CA1 field of vehicle-treated aged mice. FluoroJade B histochemistry and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated UTP nick-end labeling technique, performed at 2 days after cytokine administration, did not reveal ongoing cell death phenomena in young or aged animals. This indicated that glial cell changes were not secondary to neuronal death. Altogether, the findings demonstrate for the first time enhanced activation of glial cells in the old brain, compared with young and middle-aged subjects, in response to cytokine exposure. Interestingly, the results also suggest that such enhancement

  1. Tracking of EEG activity using motion estimation to understand brain wiring.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Humaira; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Ullah, Rafi; Shim, Seong-O; Bawakid, Abdullah; Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Subhani, Ahmad Rauf

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental step in brain research deals with recording electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and then investigating the recorded signals quantitatively. Topographic EEG (visual spatial representation of EEG signal) is commonly referred to as brain topomaps or brain EEG maps. In this chapter, full search full search block motion estimation algorithm has been employed to track the brain activity in brain topomaps to understand the mechanism of brain wiring. The behavior of EEG topomaps is examined throughout a particular brain activation with respect to time. Motion vectors are used to track the brain activation over the scalp during the activation period. Using motion estimation it is possible to track the path from the starting point of activation to the final point of activation. Thus it is possible to track the path of a signal across various lobes.

  2. Source localization of brain activity using helium-free interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammers, Jürgen; Chocholacs, Harald; Eich, Eberhard; Boers, Frank; Faley, Michael; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Jon Shah, N.

    2014-05-01

    To detect extremely small magnetic fields generated by the human brain, currently all commercial magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems are equipped with low-temperature (low-Tc) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors that use liquid helium for cooling. The limited and increasingly expensive supply of helium, which has seen dramatic price increases recently, has become a real problem for such systems and the situation shows no signs of abating. MEG research in the long run is now endangered. In this study, we report a MEG source localization utilizing a single, highly sensitive SQUID cooled with liquid nitrogen only. Our findings confirm that localization of neuromagnetic activity is indeed possible using high-Tc SQUIDs. We believe that our findings secure the future of this exquisitely sensitive technique and have major implications for brain research and the developments of cost-effective multi-channel, high-Tc SQUID-based MEG systems.

  3. Source localization of brain activity using helium-free interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dammers, Jürgen Chocholacs, Harald; Eich, Eberhard; Boers, Frank; Faley, Michael; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Jon Shah, N.

    2014-05-26

    To detect extremely small magnetic fields generated by the human brain, currently all commercial magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems are equipped with low-temperature (low-T{sub c}) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors that use liquid helium for cooling. The limited and increasingly expensive supply of helium, which has seen dramatic price increases recently, has become a real problem for such systems and the situation shows no signs of abating. MEG research in the long run is now endangered. In this study, we report a MEG source localization utilizing a single, highly sensitive SQUID cooled with liquid nitrogen only. Our findings confirm that localization of neuromagnetic activity is indeed possible using high-T{sub c} SQUIDs. We believe that our findings secure the future of this exquisitely sensitive technique and have major implications for brain research and the developments of cost-effective multi-channel, high-T{sub c} SQUID-based MEG systems.

  4. Brain Mechanical Property Measurement Using MRE with Intrinsic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, Adam J.; McGarry, Matthew D.; Perreard, Irina M.; Swienckowski, Jessica G.; Eskey, Clifford J.; Lollis, S. Scott; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    the MRE procedures were repeated on the same day. Cardiac pulsation, termed intrinsic activation, produces sufficient motion to allow mechanical properties to be recovered. The poroelastic model is more consistent with the measured data from brain at low frequencies than the linear elastic model. Intrinsic activation allows MR elastography to be performed without a device shaking the head so the patient notices no differences between it and the other sequences in an MR examination. PMID:23079508

  5. Measuring emotion in advertising research: prefrontal brain activity.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Richard B; Nield, Geoffrey E

    2012-01-01

    With the current interest in the role of emotion in advertising and advertising research, there has been an increasing interest in the use of various brain activity measures to access nonverbal emotional responses. One such approach relies on measuring the difference between left and right hemisphere prefrontal cortical activity to assess like and dislike. This approach is based on electroencephalography (EEG) and neuroimaging work, suggesting that the approach/withdrawal (frequently but not always associated with like/dislike) dimension of emotion is indicated by the balance of activity between the left and right prefrontal cortex. Much of this work was initiated by Richard Davidson in the early 1990s. An early study by Davidson et al. measured brain electrical activity to assess patterns of activation during the experience of happiness and disgust. The authors reported that disgust was found to be associated with increased right-sided activation in the frontal and anterior temporal regions compared with happiness. In contrast, happiness was found to be accompanied by left-sided activation in the anterior temporal region compared with disgust. Early reports suggested that frontal laterality indexes motivational valence with positive emotions (happy, like) associated with left greater than the right frontal activity and vice versa. Although these findings appear to be consistent with personality traits (e.g., optimism pessimism), state changes in frontal laterality appears to index approach withdraw rather than emotional valence. Interestingly, the behavioral and motivational correlates of prefrontal asymmetric activity are not restricted to humans or even primates but have been observed in numerous species such as birds and fish (see [4]). Henceforth, we use the term motivational valence (MV) rather than the more cumbersome term approach withdraw.

  6. KEY COMPARISON: Activity measurements of the radionuclide 153Sm for the ANSTO, Australia in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sm-153

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Reinhard, M.; Alexiev, D.; Mo, L.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) submitted two samples of known activity of 153Sm to the International Reference System (SIR). The value of the activity submitted was about 920 MBq. This key comparison result has been added to the matrix of degrees of equivalence in the key comparison database that now contains five results, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sm-153. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  7. Stress-induced brain activity, brain atrophy, and clinical disability in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Weygandt, Martin; Meyer-Arndt, Lil; Behrens, Janina Ruth; Wakonig, Katharina; Bellmann-Strobl, Judith; Ritter, Kerstin; Scheel, Michael; Brandt, Alexander U.; Labadie, Christian; Hetzer, Stefan; Gold, Stefan M.; Paul, Friedemann; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2016-01-01

    Prospective clinical studies support a link between psychological stress and multiple sclerosis (MS) disease severity, and peripheral stress systems are frequently dysregulated in MS patients. However, the exact link between neurobiological stress systems and MS symptoms is unknown. To evaluate the link between neural stress responses and disease parameters, we used an arterial-spin–labeling functional MRI stress paradigm in 36 MS patients and 21 healthy controls. Specifically, we measured brain activity during a mental arithmetic paradigm with performance-adaptive task frequency and performance feedback and related this activity to disease parameters. Across all participants, stress increased heart rate, perceived stress, and neural activity in the visual, cerebellar and insular cortex areas compared with a resting condition. None of these responses was related to cognitive load (task frequency). Consistently, although performance and cognitive load were lower in patients than in controls, stress responses did not differ between groups. Insula activity elevated during stress compared with rest was negatively linked to impairment of pyramidal and cerebral functions in patients. Cerebellar activation was related negatively to gray matter (GM) atrophy (i.e., positively to GM volume) in patients. Interestingly, this link was also observed in overlapping areas in controls. Cognitive load did not contribute to these associations. The results show that our task induced psychological stress independent of cognitive load. Moreover, stress-induced brain activity reflects clinical disability in MS. Finally, the link between stress-induced activity and GM volume in patients and controls in overlapping areas suggests that this link cannot be caused by the disease alone. PMID:27821732

  8. Stress-induced brain activity, brain atrophy, and clinical disability in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Weygandt, Martin; Meyer-Arndt, Lil; Behrens, Janina Ruth; Wakonig, Katharina; Bellmann-Strobl, Judith; Ritter, Kerstin; Scheel, Michael; Brandt, Alexander U; Labadie, Christian; Hetzer, Stefan; Gold, Stefan M; Paul, Friedemann; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2016-11-22

    Prospective clinical studies support a link between psychological stress and multiple sclerosis (MS) disease severity, and peripheral stress systems are frequently dysregulated in MS patients. However, the exact link between neurobiological stress systems and MS symptoms is unknown. To evaluate the link between neural stress responses and disease parameters, we used an arterial-spin-labeling functional MRI stress paradigm in 36 MS patients and 21 healthy controls. Specifically, we measured brain activity during a mental arithmetic paradigm with performance-adaptive task frequency and performance feedback and related this activity to disease parameters. Across all participants, stress increased heart rate, perceived stress, and neural activity in the visual, cerebellar and insular cortex areas compared with a resting condition. None of these responses was related to cognitive load (task frequency). Consistently, although performance and cognitive load were lower in patients than in controls, stress responses did not differ between groups. Insula activity elevated during stress compared with rest was negatively linked to impairment of pyramidal and cerebral functions in patients. Cerebellar activation was related negatively to gray matter (GM) atrophy (i.e., positively to GM volume) in patients. Interestingly, this link was also observed in overlapping areas in controls. Cognitive load did not contribute to these associations. The results show that our task induced psychological stress independent of cognitive load. Moreover, stress-induced brain activity reflects clinical disability in MS. Finally, the link between stress-induced activity and GM volume in patients and controls in overlapping areas suggests that this link cannot be caused by the disease alone.

  9. Effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on resting state brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Feusner, Jamie D; Madsen, Sarah; Moody, Teena D; Bohon, Cara; Hembacher, Emily; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Bystritsky, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for insomnia, depression, and anxiety consisting of pulsed, low-intensity current applied to the earlobes or scalp. Despite empirical evidence of clinical efficacy, its mechanism of action is largely unknown. The goal was to characterize the acute effects of CES on resting state brain activity. Our primary hypothesis was that CES would result in deactivation in cortical and subcortical regions. Eleven healthy controls were administered CES applied to the earlobes at subsensory thresholds while being scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging in the resting state. We tested 0.5- and 100-Hz stimulation, using blocks of 22 sec “on” alternating with 22 sec of baseline (device was “off”). The primary outcome measure was differences in blood oxygen level dependent data associated with the device being on versus baseline. The secondary outcome measures were the effects of stimulation on connectivity within the default mode, sensorimotor, and fronto-parietal networks. Both 0.5- and 100-Hz stimulation resulted in significant deactivation in midline frontal and parietal regions. 100-Hz stimulation was associated with both increases and decreases in connectivity within the default mode network (DMN). Results suggest that CES causes cortical brain deactivation, with a similar pattern for high- and low-frequency stimulation, and alters connectivity in the DMN. These effects may result from interference from high- or low-frequency noise. Small perturbations of brain oscillations may therefore have significant effects on normal resting state brain activity. These results provide insight into the mechanism of action of CES, and may assist in the future development of optimal parameters for effective treatment. PMID:22741094

  10. Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chaozhe; Wang, Liang; Yan, Qian; Lin, Chunlan; Yu, Chunshui

    2012-01-01

    Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN) in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN) and in the connections between them. PMID:22276215

  11. Evidence for brain glial activation in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Loggia, Marco L; Chonde, Daniel B; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Arabasz, Grae; Catana, Ciprian; Edwards, Robert R; Hill, Elena; Hsu, Shirley; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ji, Ru-Rong; Riley, Misha; Wasan, Ajay D; Zürcher, Nicole R; Albrecht, Daniel S; Vangel, Mark G; Rosen, Bruce R; Napadow, Vitaly; Hooker, Jacob M

    2015-03-01

    Although substantial evidence has established that microglia and astrocytes play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of persistent pain in animal models, the role of glial cells in human pain disorders remains unknown. Here, using the novel technology of integrated positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging and the recently developed radioligand (11)C-PBR28, we show increased brain levels of the translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of glial activation, in patients with chronic low back pain. As the Ala147Thr polymorphism in the TSPO gene affects binding affinity for (11)C-PBR28, nine patient-control pairs were identified from a larger sample of subjects screened and genotyped, and compared in a matched-pairs design, in which each patient was matched to a TSPO polymorphism-, age- and sex-matched control subject (seven Ala/Ala and two Ala/Thr, five males and four females in each group; median age difference: 1 year; age range: 29-63 for patients and 28-65 for controls). Standardized uptake values normalized to whole brain were significantly higher in patients than controls in multiple brain regions, including thalamus and the putative somatosensory representations of the lumbar spine and leg. The thalamic levels of TSPO were negatively correlated with clinical pain and circulating levels of the proinflammatory citokine interleukin-6, suggesting that TSPO expression exerts pain-protective/anti-inflammatory effects in humans, as predicted by animal studies. Given the putative role of activated glia in the establishment and or maintenance of persistent pain, the present findings offer clinical implications that may serve to guide future studies of the pathophysiology and management of a variety of persistent pain conditions. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Amplitude-modulated stimuli reveal auditory-visual interactions in brain activity and brain connectivity.

    PubMed

    Laing, Mark; Rees, Adrian; Vuong, Quoc C

    2015-01-01

    The temporal congruence between auditory and visual signals coming from the same source can be a powerful means by which the brain integrates information from different senses. To investigate how the brain uses temporal information to integrate auditory and visual information from continuous yet unfamiliar stimuli, we used amplitude-modulated tones and size-modulated shapes with which we could manipulate the temporal congruence between the sensory signals. These signals were independently modulated at a slow or a fast rate. Participants were presented with auditory-only, visual-only, or auditory-visual (AV) trials in the fMRI scanner. On AV trials, the auditory and visual signal could have the same (AV congruent) or different modulation rates (AV incongruent). Using psychophysiological interaction analyses, we found that auditory regions showed increased functional connectivity predominantly with frontal regions for AV incongruent relative to AV congruent stimuli. We further found that superior temporal regions, shown previously to integrate auditory and visual signals, showed increased connectivity with frontal and parietal regions for the same contrast. Our findings provide evidence that both activity in a network of brain regions and their connectivity are important for AV integration, and help to bridge the gap between transient and familiar AV stimuli used in previous studies.

  13. Amplitude-modulated stimuli reveal auditory-visual interactions in brain activity and brain connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Mark; Rees, Adrian; Vuong, Quoc C.

    2015-01-01

    The temporal congruence between auditory and visual signals coming from the same source can be a powerful means by which the brain integrates information from different senses. To investigate how the brain uses temporal information to integrate auditory and visual information from continuous yet unfamiliar stimuli, we used amplitude-modulated tones and size-modulated shapes with which we could manipulate the temporal congruence between the sensory signals. These signals were independently modulated at a slow or a fast rate. Participants were presented with auditory-only, visual-only, or auditory-visual (AV) trials in the fMRI scanner. On AV trials, the auditory and visual signal could have the same (AV congruent) or different modulation rates (AV incongruent). Using psychophysiological interaction analyses, we found that auditory regions showed increased functional connectivity predominantly with frontal regions for AV incongruent relative to AV congruent stimuli. We further found that superior temporal regions, shown previously to integrate auditory and visual signals, showed increased connectivity with frontal and parietal regions for the same contrast. Our findings provide evidence that both activity in a network of brain regions and their connectivity are important for AV integration, and help to bridge the gap between transient and familiar AV stimuli used in previous studies. PMID:26483710

  14. Anencephaly: An Ongoing Investigation in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Barron, Sara

    2016-03-01

    : In the spring of 2012, a nurse in Washington State detected a cluster of babies born with anencephaly-a fatal condition in which infants are born without parts of the brain or skull. The resulting investigation initially confirmed a rate of anencephaly between January 2010 and January 2013 of 8.4 per 10,000 live births-more than four times the national average. As of November 2015, cases of anencephaly in Washington State have continued to increase, with the current rate estimated at 9.5 per 10,000 live births. While no distinct cause has yet been determined, neural tube defects-including anencephaly-are known to have multiple causes, including folic acid deficit, genetic variants in the folate pathway, and exposure to a variety of environmental and occupational toxins. This article describes many of these risk factors and explores the findings of Washington's ongoing investigation.

  15. Seizures, refractory status epilepticus, and depolarization block as endogenous brain activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Houssaini, Kenza; Ivanov, Anton I.; Bernard, Christophe; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy, refractory status epilepticus, and depolarization block are pathological brain activities whose mechanisms are poorly understood. Using a generic mathematical model of seizure activity, we show that these activities coexist under certain conditions spanning the range of possible brain activities. We perform a detailed bifurcation analysis and predict strategies to escape from some of the pathological states. Experimental results using rodent data provide support of the model, highlighting the concept that these pathological activities belong to the endogenous repertoire of brain activities.

  16. Memory for performed and observed activities following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wright, Matthew J; Wong, Andrew L; Obermeit, Lisa C; Woo, Ellen; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Fuster, Joaquín M

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with deficits in memory for the content of completed activities. However, TBI groups have shown variable memory for the temporal order of activities. We sought to clarify the conditions under which temporal order memory for activities is intact following TBI. Additionally, we evaluated activity source memory and the relationship between activity memory and functional outcome in TBI participants. Thus, we completed a study of activity memory with 18 severe TBI survivors and 18 healthy age- and education-matched comparison participants. Both groups performed eight activities and observed eight activities that were fashioned after routine daily tasks. Incidental encoding conditions for activities were utilized. The activities were drawn from two counterbalanced lists, and both performance and observation were randomly determined and interspersed. After all of the activities were completed, content memory (recall and recognition), source memory (conditional source identification), and temporal order memory (correlation between order reconstruction and actual order) for the activities were assessed. Functional ability was assessed via the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ). In terms of content memory, TBI participants recalled and recognized fewer activities than comparison participants. Recognition of performed and observed activities was strongly associated with social integration on the CIQ. There were no between- or within-group differences in temporal order or source memory, although source memory performances were near ceiling. The findings were interpreted as suggesting that temporal order memory following TBI is intact under conditions of both purposeful activity completion and incidental encoding, and that activity memory is related to functional outcomes following TBI.

  17. Memory for performed and observed activities following traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Matthew J.; Wong, Andrew L.; Obermeit, Lisa C.; Woo, Ellen; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Fuster, Joaquín M.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with deficits in memory for the content of completed activities. However, TBI groups have shown variable memory for the temporal order of activities. We sought to clarify the conditions under which temporal order memory for activities is intact following TBI. Additionally, we evaluated activity source memory and the relationship between activity memory and functional outcome in TBI participants. Thus, we completed a study of activity memory with 18 severe TBI survivors and 18 healthy age- and education-matched comparison participants. Both groups performed eight activities and observed eight activities that were fashioned after routine daily tasks. Incidental encoding conditions for activities were utilized. The activities were drawn from two counterbalanced lists, and both performance and observation were randomly determined and interspersed. After all of the activities were completed, content memory (recall and recognition), source memory (conditional source identification), and temporal order memory (correlation between order reconstruction and actual order) for the activities were assessed. Functional ability was assessed via the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ). In terms of content memory, TBI participants recalled and recognized fewer activities than comparison participants. Recognition of performed and observed activities was strongly associated with social integration on the CIQ. There were no between- or within-group differences in temporal order or source memory, although source memory performances were near ceiling. The findings were interpreted as suggesting that temporal order memory following TBI is intact under conditions of both purposeful activity completion and incidental encoding, and that activity memory is related to functional outcomes following TBI. PMID:24524393

  18. Brain activation during the spot the differences game.

    PubMed

    Fukuba, Eiji; Kitagaki, Hajime; Wada, Akihiko; Uchida, Kouji; Hara, Shinji; Hayashi, Takafumi; Oda, Kazushige; Uchida, Nobue

    2009-01-01

    Spot the Differences is a simple and popular game in which an observer compares a pair of similar pictures to detect the differences between them. Functional activation of the brain while playing this game has not been investigated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the main cortical regions involved in playing this game and compared the sites of cortical activation between a session of playing the game and a session of viewing 2 identical pictures. The right posterior parietal cortex showed more activation during game playing, and cortical activation volume correlated with game-playing accuracy. This cortical region may play an important role in awareness of differences between 2 similar pictures.

  19. Classification of types of stuttering symptoms based on brain activity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing; Lu, Chunming; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Howell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Among the non-fluencies seen in speech, some are more typical (MT) of stuttering speakers, whereas others are less typical (LT) and are common to both stuttering and fluent speakers. No neuroimaging work has evaluated the neural basis for grouping these symptom types. Another long-debated issue is which type (LT, MT) whole-word repetitions (WWR) should be placed in. In this study, a sentence completion task was performed by twenty stuttering patients who were scanned using an event-related design. This task elicited stuttering in these patients. Each stuttered trial from each patient was sorted into the MT or LT types with WWR put aside. Pattern classification was employed to train a patient-specific single trial model to automatically classify each trial as MT or LT using the corresponding fMRI data. This model was then validated by using test data that were independent of the training data. In a subsequent analysis, the classification model, just established, was used to determine which type the WWR should be placed in. The results showed that the LT and the MT could be separated with high accuracy based on their brain activity. The brain regions that made most contribution to the separation of the types were: the left inferior frontal cortex and bilateral precuneus, both of which showed higher activity in the MT than in the LT; and the left putamen and right cerebellum which showed the opposite activity pattern. The results also showed that the brain activity for WWR was more similar to that of the LT and fluent speech than to that of the MT. These findings provide a neurological basis for separating the MT and the LT types, and support the widely-used MT/LT symptom grouping scheme. In addition, WWR play a similar role as the LT, and thus should be placed in the LT type.

  20. Altered brain activity during emotional empathy in somatoform disorder.

    PubMed

    de Greck, Moritz; Scheidt, Lisa; Bölter, Annette F; Frommer, Jörg; Ulrich, Cornelia; Stockum, Eva; Enzi, Björn; Tempelmann, Claus; Hoffmann, Thilo; Han, Shihui; Northoff, Georg

    2012-11-01

    Somatoform disorder patients suffer from impaired emotion recognition and other emotional deficits. Emotional empathy refers to the understanding and sharing of emotions of others in social contexts. It is likely that the emotional deficits of somatoform disorder patients are linked to disturbed empathic abilities; however, little is known so far about empathic deficits of somatoform patients and the underlying neural mechanisms. We used fMRI and an empathy paradigm to investigate 20 somatoform disorder patients and 20 healthy controls. The empathy paradigm contained facial pictures expressing anger, joy, disgust, and a neutral emotional state; a control condition contained unrecognizable stimuli. In addition, questionnaires testing for somatization, alexithymia, depression, empathy, and emotion recognition were applied. Behavioral results confirmed impaired emotion recognition in somatoform disorder and indicated a rather distinct pattern of empathic deficits of somatoform patients with specific difficulties in "empathic distress." In addition, somatoform patients revealed brain areas with diminished activity in the contrasts "all emotions"-"control," "anger"-"control," and "joy"-"control," whereas we did not find brain areas with altered activity in the contrasts "disgust"-"control" and "neutral"-"control." Significant clusters with less activity in somatoform patients included the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, the left amygdala, the left postcentral gyrus, the left superior temporal gyrus, the left posterior insula, and the bilateral cerebellum. These findings indicate that disturbed emotional empathy of somatoform disorder patients is linked to impaired emotion recognition and abnormal activity of brain regions responsible for emotional evaluation, emotional memory, and emotion generation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Classification of Types of Stuttering Symptoms Based on Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jing; Lu, Chunming; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Howell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Among the non-fluencies seen in speech, some are more typical (MT) of stuttering speakers, whereas others are less typical (LT) and are common to both stuttering and fluent speakers. No neuroimaging work has evaluated the neural basis for grouping these symptom types. Another long-debated issue is which type (LT, MT) whole-word repetitions (WWR) should be placed in. In this study, a sentence completion task was performed by twenty stuttering patients who were scanned using an event-related design. This task elicited stuttering in these patients. Each stuttered trial from each patient was sorted into the MT or LT types with WWR put aside. Pattern classification was employed to train a patient-specific single trial model to automatically classify each trial as MT or LT using the corresponding fMRI data. This model was then validated by using test data that were independent of the training data. In a subsequent analysis, the classification model, just established, was used to determine which type the WWR should be placed in. The results showed that the LT and the MT could be separated with high accuracy based on their brain activity. The brain regions that made most contribution to the separation of the types were: the left inferior frontal cortex and bilateral precuneus, both of which showed higher activity in the MT than in the LT; and the left putamen and right cerebellum which showed the opposite activity pattern. The results also showed that the brain activity for WWR was more similar to that of the LT and fluent speech than to that of the MT. These findings provide a neurological basis for separating the MT and the LT types, and support the widely-used MT/LT symptom grouping scheme. In addition, WWR play a similar role as the LT, and thus should be placed in the LT type. PMID:22761887

  2. The sequential structure of brain activation predicts skill.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John R; Bothell, Daniel; Fincham, Jon M; Moon, Jungaa

    2016-01-29

    In an fMRI study, participants were trained to play a complex video game. They were scanned early and then again after substantial practice. While better players showed greater activation in one region (right dorsal striatum) their relative skill was better diagnosed by considering the sequential structure of whole brain activation. Using a cognitive model that played this game, we extracted a characterization of the mental states that are involved in playing a game and the statistical structure of the transitions among these states. There was a strong correspondence between this measure of sequential structure and the skill of different players. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis, it was possible to recognize, with relatively high accuracy, the cognitive states participants were in during particular scans. We used the sequential structure of these activation-recognized states to predict the skill of individual players. These findings indicate that important features about information-processing strategies can be identified from a model-based analysis of the sequential structure of brain activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synchronization-based approach for detecting functional activation of brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Lei; Cai, Shi-Min; Zhang, Jie; Zhuo, Zhao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Zhou, Pei-Ling

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate a synchronization-based, data-driven clustering approach for the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, and specifically for detecting functional activation from fMRI data. We first define a new measure of similarity between all pairs of data points (i.e., time series of voxels) integrating both complete phase synchronization and amplitude correlation. These pairwise similarities are taken as the coupling between a set of Kuramoto oscillators, which in turn evolve according to a nearest-neighbor rule. As the network evolves, similar data points naturally synchronize with each other, and distinct clusters will emerge. The clustering behavior of the interaction network of the coupled oscillators, therefore, mirrors the clustering property of the original multiple time series. The clustered regions whose cross-correlation coefficients are much greater than other regions are considered as the functionally activated brain regions. The analysis of fMRI data in auditory and visual areas shows that the recognized brain functional activations are in complete correspondence with those from the general linear model of statistical parametric mapping, but with a significantly lower time complexity. We further compare our results with those from traditional K-means approach, and find that our new clustering approach can distinguish between different response patterns more accurately and efficiently than the K-means approach, and therefore more suitable in detecting functional activation from event-related experimental fMRI data.

  4. Changes in music tempo entrain movement related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ian; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Roesch, Etienne; Weaver, James; Williams, Duncan; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanisms of music listening and appreciation are not yet completely understood. Based on the apparent relationship between the beats per minute (tempo) of music and the desire to move (for example feet tapping) induced while listening to that music it is hypothesised that musical tempo may evoke movement related activity in the brain. Participants are instructed to listen, without moving, to a large range of musical pieces spanning a range of styles and tempos during an electroencephalogram (EEG) experiment. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) in the EEG is observed to correlate significantly with the variance of the tempo of the musical stimuli. This suggests that the dynamics of the beat of the music may induce movement related brain activity in the motor cortex. Furthermore, significant correlations are observed between EEG activity in the alpha band over the motor cortex and the bandpower of the music in the same frequency band over time. This relationship is observed to correlate with the strength of the ERD, suggesting entrainment of motor cortical activity relates to increased ERD strength.

  5. Brain Activity Associated with Emoticons: An fMRI Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe that brain activities associated with emoticons by using fMRI. In communication over a computer network, we use abstract faces such as computer graphics (CG) avatars and emoticons. These faces convey users' emotions and enrich their communications. However, the manner in which these faces influence the mental process is as yet unknown. The human brain may perceive the abstract face in an entirely different manner, depending on its level of reality. We conducted an experiment using fMRI in order to investigate the effects of emoticons. The results show that right inferior frontal gyrus, which associated with nonverbal communication, is activated by emoticons. Since the emoticons were created to reflect the real human facial expressions as accurately as possible, we believed that they would activate the right fusiform gyrus. However, this region was not found to be activated during the experiment. This finding is useful in understanding how abstract faces affect our behaviors and decision-making in communication over a computer network.

  6. Intrinsic resting-state activity predicts working memory brain activation and behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Zou, Qihong; Ross, Thomas J; Gu, Hong; Geng, Xiujuan; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Hong, L Elliot; Gao, Jia-Hong; Stein, Elliot A; Zang, Yu-Feng; Yang, Yihong

    2013-12-01

    Although resting-state brain activity has been demonstrated to correspond with task-evoked brain activation, the relationship between intrinsic and evoked brain activity has not been fully characterized. For example, it is unclear whether intrinsic activity can also predict task-evoked deactivation and whether the rest-task relationship is dependent on task load. In this study, we addressed these issues on 40 healthy control subjects using resting-state and task-driven [N-back working memory (WM) task] functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in the same session. Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as an index of intrinsic resting-state activity, we found that ALFF in the middle frontal gyrus and inferior/superior parietal lobules was positively correlated with WM task-evoked activation, while ALFF in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, superior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and fusiform gyrus was negatively correlated with WM task-evoked deactivation. Further, the relationship between the intrinsic resting-state activity and task-evoked activation in lateral/superior frontal gyri, inferior/superior parietal lobules, superior temporal gyrus, and midline regions was stronger at higher WM task loads. In addition, both resting-state activity and the task-evoked activation in the superior parietal lobule/precuneus were significantly correlated with the WM task behavioral performance, explaining similar portions of intersubject performance variance. Together, these findings suggest that intrinsic resting-state activity facilitates or is permissive of specific brain circuit engagement to perform a cognitive task, and that resting activity can predict subsequent task-evoked brain responses and behavioral performance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Neurogenetics and clinical evidence for the putative activation of the brain reward circuitry by a neuroadaptagen: proposing an addiction candidate gene panel map.

    PubMed

    Chen, Thomas J H; Blum, Kenneth; Chen, Amanda L C; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Downs, William B; Madigan, Margret A; Waite, Roger L; Bailey, John A; Kerner, Mallory; Yeldandi, Swetha; Majmundar, Neil; Giordano, John; Morse, Siohban; Miller, David; Fornari, Frank; Braverman, Eric R

    2011-01-01

    This document presents evidence supporting the role of the KB220/KB220Z neuroadaptagens consisting of amino-acid neurotransmitter precursors and enkephalinase-catecholamine-methyl-transferase (COMT) inhibition therapy called Neuroadaptagen Amino Acid Therapy (NAAT) in brain reward function. It is becoming increasingly clear that this novel formulation is the first neuroadaptagen known to activate the brain reward circuitry. Ongoing research repeatedly confirms the numerous clinical effects that ultimately result in significant benefits for victims having genetic antecedents for all addictive, compulsive and impulsive behaviors. These behaviors are correctly classified under the rubric of"Reward Deficiency Syndrome" (RDS). We are proposing a novel addiction candidate gene map. We present preliminary findings in the United States using qEGG and in China using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) regarding the effects of oral NAAT on the activation of brain reward circuitry in victims of SUD. In unpublished data utilizing an fMRI 2X2 design at resting state, NAAT in comparison to placebo shows activation of the caudate brain region and potentially a smoothing out of heroin-induced putamen (a site for emotionality) abnormal connectivity. Although awaiting final analysis, if confirmed by ongoing studies in China coupled with published qEEG results in America, showing an increase in alpha and low beta, NAAT may be shown to impact treatment outcomes.

  8. Age-related differences in brain network activation and co-activation during multiple object tracking.

    PubMed

    Dørum, Erlend S; Alnæs, Dag; Kaufmann, Tobias; Richard, Geneviève; Lund, Martina J; Tønnesen, Siren; Sneve, Markus H; Mathiesen, Nina C; Rustan, Øyvind G; Gjertsen, Øivind; Vatn, Sigurd; Fure, Brynjar; Andreassen, Ole A; Nordvik, Jan Egil; Westlye, Lars T

    2016-11-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is a powerful paradigm for measuring sustained attention. Although previous fMRI studies have delineated the brain activation patterns associated with tracking and documented reduced tracking performance in aging, age-related effects on brain activation during MOT have not been characterized. In particular, it is unclear if the task-related activation of different brain networks is correlated, and also if this coordination between activations within brain networks shows differential effects of age. We obtained fMRI data during MOT at two load conditions from a group of younger (n = 25, mean age = 24.4 ± 5.1 years) and older (n = 21, mean age = 64.7 ± 7.4 years) healthy adults. Using a combination of voxel-wise and independent component analysis, we investigated age-related differences in the brain network activation. In order to explore to which degree activation of the various brain networks reflect unique and common mechanisms, we assessed the correlations between the brain networks' activations. Behavioral performance revealed an age-related reduction in MOT accuracy. Voxel and brain network level analyses converged on decreased load-dependent activations of the dorsal attention network (DAN) and decreased load-dependent deactivations of the default mode networks (DMN) in the old group. Lastly, we found stronger correlations in the task-related activations within DAN and within DMN components for younger adults, and stronger correlations between DAN and DMN components for older adults. Using MOT as means for measuring attentional performance, we have demonstrated an age-related attentional decline. Network-level analysis revealed age-related alterations in network recruitment consisting of diminished activations of DAN and diminished deactivations of DMN in older relative to younger adults. We found stronger correlations within DMN and within DAN components for younger adults and stronger correlations between DAN

  9. Brain activation inhomogeneity highlighted by the Isotropic Anomalous Diffusion filter.

    PubMed

    Senra Filho, Antonio Carlos da S; Rondinoni, Carlo; dos Santos, Antonio Carlos; Murta, Luiz O

    2014-01-01

    The visual appealing nature of the now popular BOLD fMRI may give the false impression of extreme simplicity, as if the the functional maps could be generated with the press of a single button. However, one can only get plausible maps after long and cautious processing, considering that time and noise come into play during acquisition. One of the most popular ways to account for noise and individual variability in fMRI is the use of a Gaussian spatial filter. Although very robust, this filter may introduce excessive blurring, given the strong dependence of results on the central voxel value. Here, we propose the use of the Isotropic Anomalous Diffusion (IAD) approach, aiming to reduce excessive homogeneity while retaining the natural variability of signal across brain space. We found differences between Gaussian and IAD filters in two parameters gathered from Independent Component maps (ICA), identified on brain areas responsible for auditory processing during rest. Analysis of data gathered from 7 control subjects shows that the IAD filter rendered more localized active areas and higher contrast-to-noise ratios, when compared to equivalent Gaussian filtered data (Student t-test, p<0.05). The results seem promising, since the anomalous filter performs satisfactorily in filtering noise with less distortion of individual localized brain responses.

  10. Genome-wide association study of working memory brain activation.

    PubMed

    Blokland, Gabriëlla A M; Wallace, Angus K; Hansell, Narelle K; Thompson, Paul M; Hickie, Ian B; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Wright, Margaret J

    2017-05-01

    In a population-based genome-wide association (GWA) study of n-back working memory task-related brain activation, we extracted the average percent BOLD signal change (2-back minus 0-back) from 46 regions-of-interest (ROIs) in functional MRI scans from 863 healthy twins and siblings. ROIs were obtained by creating spheres around group random effects analysis local maxima, and by thresholding a voxel-based heritability map of working memory brain activation at 50%. Quality control for test-retest reliability and heritability of ROI measures yielded 20 reliable (r>0.7) and heritable (h(2)>20%) ROIs. For GWA analysis, the cohort was divided into a discovery (n=679) and replication (n=97) sample. No variants survived the stringent multiple-testing-corrected genome-wide significance threshold (p<4.5×10(-9)), or were replicated (p<0.0016), but several genes were identified that are worthy of further investigation. A search of 529,379 genomic markers resulted in discovery of 31 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BOLD signal change at a discovery level of p<1×10(-5). Two SNPs (rs7917410 and rs7672408) were associated at a significance level of p<1×10(-7). Only one, most strongly affecting BOLD signal change in the left supramarginal gyrus (R(2)=5.5%), had multiple SNPs associated at p<1×10(-5) in linkage disequilibrium with it, all located in and around the BANK1 gene. BANK1 encodes a B-cell-specific scaffold protein and has been shown to negatively regulate CD40-mediated AKT activation. AKT is part of the dopamine-signaling pathway, suggesting a mechanism for the involvement of BANK1 in the BOLD response to working memory. Variants identified here may be relevant to (the susceptibility to) common disorders affecting brain function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Activity measurements of the radionuclide 99mTc for the IFIN-HH, Romania in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Sahagia, M.; Ioan, M. R.; Antohe, A.; Luca, A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, a comparison of activity measurements of 99mTc using the Transfer Instrument of the International Reference System (SIRTI) took place at the Institutul National de Cercetare - Dezvoltare in Fizica si Inginerie Nucleara - 'Horia Hulubei' (IFIN-HH, Romania). Ampoules containing about 21 kBq and 40 kBq of a 99mTc solution were measured in the SIRTI for, respectively, one and three half-lives. The comparison, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m, is linked to the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison and the degrees of equivalence with the key comparison reference value and between the present IFIN-HH result, the other K4 participants and the six participants in the K1 comparison have been evaluated. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. Activity measurements of the radionuclide 99mTc for the NIM, China in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Nonis, M.; Liang, J. C.; Chen, J.; Liu, H. R.; Zhang, M.; Zhao, Q.; Yang, Y. D.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the fourth comparison of activity measurements of 99mTc using the Transfer Instrument of the International Reference System (SIRTI) took place at the Chinese National Institute of Metrology (NIM). An ampoule containing about 70 kBq of 99mTc traceable to the NIM primary standard was measured in the SIRTI for more than three half-lives. The comparison, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m, is linked to the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison and the degrees of equivalence with the key comparison reference value and between the present NIM result, the other K4 participant and the six participants in the K1 comparison have been evaluated. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Centrally formed acetaldehyde mediates ethanol-induced brain PKA activation.

    PubMed

    Tarragon, E; Baliño, P; Aragon, C M G

    2014-09-19

    Centrally formed acetaldehyde has proven to be responsible for several psychopharmacological effects induced by ethanol. In addition, it has been suggested that the cAMP-PKA signaling transduction pathway plays an important role in the modulation of several ethanol-induced behaviors. Therefore, we hypothesized that acetaldehyde might be ultimately responsible for the activation of this intracellular pathway. We used three pharmacological agents that modify acetaldehyde activity (α-lipoic acid, aminotriazole, and d-penicillamine) to study the role of this metabolite on EtOH-induced PKA activation in mice. Our results show that the injection of α-lipoic acid, aminotriazole and d-penicillamine prior to acute EtOH administration effectively blocks the PKA-enhanced response to EtOH in the brain. These results strongly support the hypothesis of a selective release of acetaldehyde-dependent Ca(2+) as the mechanism involved in the neurobehavioral effects elicited by EtOH.

  14. [Brain activity during different stages of the relaxation process].

    PubMed

    gorev, A S; Kovaleva, A V; Panova, E N; Gorbacheva, A K

    2012-01-01

    A group of adults participated in experiment in which they were asked to reach relaxed state by using relaxation techniques (active relaxation) and to maintain this state without any technique (passive relaxation). Some changes of EEG-characteristics during relaxation were analyzed. This experiment includes four situations (different functional states): baselinel, active relaxation, passive relaxation, baseline2. EEG was recorded from 10 cortical leads: O1, O2, TPO (left and right), P3, P4, C3, C4, F3 and F4. A comparative EEG analysis was done for 10 frequency bands from 5 to 40 Hz. In each experimental situation we revealed general trends for EEG parameters and also some specific changes in EEG, which characterized brain organization during passive and active relaxed states.

  15. Probabilistic analysis of activation volumes generated during deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Butson, Christopher R; Cooper, Scott E; Henderson, Jaimie M; Wolgamuth, Barbara; McIntyre, Cameron C

    2011-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and shows great promise for the treatment of several other disorders. However, while the clinical analysis of DBS has received great attention, a relative paucity of quantitative techniques exists to define the optimal surgical target and most effective stimulation protocol for a given disorder. In this study we describe a methodology that represents an evolutionary addition to the concept of a probabilistic brain atlas, which we call a probabilistic stimulation atlas (PSA). We outline steps to combine quantitative clinical outcome measures with advanced computational models of DBS to identify regions where stimulation-induced activation could provide the best therapeutic improvement on a per-symptom basis. While this methodology is relevant to any form of DBS, we present example results from subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS for PD. We constructed patient-specific computer models of the volume of tissue activated (VTA) for 163 different stimulation parameter settings which were tested in six patients. We then assigned clinical outcome scores to each VTA and compiled all of the VTAs into a PSA to identify stimulation-induced activation targets that maximized therapeutic response with minimal side effects. The results suggest that selection of both electrode placement and clinical stimulation parameter settings could be tailored to the patient's primary symptoms using patient-specific models and PSAs.

  16. Calcium imaging of infrared-stimulated activity in rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Cayce, Jonathan Matthew; Bouchard, Matthew B; Chernov, Mykyta M; Chen, Brenda R; Grosberg, Lauren E; Jansen, E Duco; Hillman, Elizabeth M C; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) is a promising neurostimulation technique that can activate neural tissue with high spatial precision and without the need for exogenous agents. However, little is understood about how infrared light interacts with neural tissue on a cellular level, particularly within the living brain. In this study, we use calcium sensitive dye imaging on macroscopic and microscopic scales to explore the spatiotemporal effects of INS on cortical calcium dynamics. The INS-evoked calcium signal that was observed exhibited a fast and slow component suggesting activation of multiple cellular mechanisms. The slow component of the evoked signal exhibited wave-like properties suggesting network activation, and was verified to originate from astrocytes through pharmacology and 2-photon imaging. We also provide evidence that the fast calcium signal may have been evoked through modulation of glutamate transients. This study demonstrates that pulsed infrared light can induce intracellular calcium modulations in both astrocytes and neurons, providing new insights into the mechanisms of action of INS in the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Decoding the Representation of Numerical Values from Brain Activation Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Damarla, Saudamini Roy; Just, Marcel Adam

    2014-01-01

    Human neuroimaging studies have increasingly converged on the possibility that the neural representation of specific numbers may be decodable from brain activity, particularly in parietal cortex. Multivariate machine learning techniques have recently demonstrated that the neural representation of individual concrete nouns can be decoded from fMRI patterns, and that some patterns are general over people. Here we use these techniques to investigate whether the neural codes for quantities of objects can be accurately decoded. The pictorial mode (nonsymbolic) depicted a set of objects pictorially (e.g., a picture of three tomatoes), whereas the digit-object mode depicted quantities as combination of a digit (e.g., 3) with a picture of a single object. The study demonstrated that quantities of objects were decodable from neural activation patterns, in parietal regions. These brain activation patterns corresponding to a given quantity were common across objects and across participants in the pictorial mode. Other important findings included better identification of individual numbers in the pictorial mode, partial commonality of neural patterns across the two modes, and hemispheric asymmetry with pictorially-depicted numbers represented bilaterally and numbers in the digit-object mode represented primarily in the left parietal regions. The findings demonstrate the ability to identify individual quantities of objects based on neural patterns, indicating the presence of stable neural representations of numbers. Additionally, they indicate a predominance of neural representation of pictorially depicted numbers over the digit-object mode. PMID:22505340

  18. Decoding the representation of numerical values from brain activation patterns.

    PubMed

    Damarla, Saudamini Roy; Just, Marcel Adam

    2013-10-01

    Human neuroimaging studies have increasingly converged on the possibility that the neural representation of specific numbers may be decodable from brain activity, particularly in parietal cortex. Multivariate machine learning techniques have recently demonstrated that the neural representation of individual concrete nouns can be decoded from fMRI patterns, and that some patterns are general over people. Here we use these techniques to investigate whether the neural codes for quantities of objects can be accurately decoded. The pictorial mode (nonsymbolic) depicted a set of objects pictorially (e.g., a picture of three tomatoes), whereas the digit-object mode depicted quantities as combination of a digit (e.g., 3) with a picture of a single object. The study demonstrated that quantities of objects were decodable from neural activation patterns, in parietal regions. These brain activation patterns corresponding to a given quantity were common across objects and across participants in the pictorial mode. Other important findings included better identification of individual numbers in the pictorial mode, partial commonality of neural patterns across the two modes, and hemispheric asymmetry with pictorially-depicted numbers represented bilaterally and numbers in the digit-object mode represented primarily in the left parietal regions. The findings demonstrate the ability to identify individual quantities of objects based on neural patterns, indicating the presence of stable neural representations of numbers. Additionally, they indicate a predominance of neural representation of pictorially depicted numbers over the digit-object mode. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Probabilistic Analysis of Activation Volumes Generated During Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Butson, Christopher R.; Cooper, Scott E.; Henderson, Jaimie M.; Wolgamuth, Barbara; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2010-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and shows great promise for the treatment of several other disorders. However, while the clinical analysis of DBS has received great attention, a relative paucity of quantitative techniques exists to define the optimal surgical target and most effective stimulation protocol for a given disorder. In this study we describe a methodology that represents an evolutionary addition to the concept of a probabilistic brain atlas, which we call a probabilistic stimulation atlas (PSA). We outline steps to combine quantitative clinical outcome measures with advanced computational models of DBS to identify regions where stimulation-induced activation could provide the best therapeutic improvement on a per-symptom basis. While this methodology is relevant to any form of DBS, we present example results from subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS for PD. We constructed patient-specific computer models of the volume of tissue activated (VTA) for 163 different stimulation parameter settings which were tested in six patients. We then assigned clinical outcome scores to each VTA and compiled all of the VTAs into a PSA to identify stimulation-induced activation targets that maximized therapeutic response with minimal side effects. The results suggest that selection of both electrode placement and clinical stimulation parameter settings could be tailored to the patient’s primary symptoms using patient-specific models and PSAs. PMID:20974269

  20. Patterns recognition of electric brain activity using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musatov, V. Yu.; Pchelintseva, S. V.; Runnova, A. E.; Hramov, A. E.

    2017-04-01

    An approach for the recognition of various cognitive processes in the brain activity in the perception of ambiguous images. On the basis of developed theoretical background and the experimental data, we propose a new classification of oscillating patterns in the human EEG by using an artificial neural network approach. After learning of the artificial neural network reliably identified cube recognition processes, for example, left-handed or right-oriented Necker cube with different intensity of their edges, construct an artificial neural network based on Perceptron architecture and demonstrate its effectiveness in the pattern recognition of the EEG in the experimental.

  1. Quantum aspects of brain activity and the role of consciousness.

    PubMed Central

    Beck, F; Eccles, J C

    1992-01-01

    The relationship of brain activity to conscious intentions is considered on the basis of the functional microstructure of the cerebral cortex. Each incoming nerve impulse causes the emission of transmitter molecules by the process of exocytosis. Since exocytosis is a quantal phenomenon of the presynaptic vesicular grid with a probability much less than 1, we present a quantum mechanical model for it based on a tunneling process of the trigger mechanism. Consciousness manifests itself in mental intentions. The consequent voluntary actions become effective by momentary increases of the probability of vesicular emission in the thousands of synapses on each pyramidal cell by quantal selection. PMID:1333607

  2. Changes in baseball batters' brain activity with increased pitch choice.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kwangmin; Kim, Jingu; Ali, Asif; Kim, Woojong; Radlo, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    In baseball, one factor necessary for batters to decide whether to swing or not depends on what type of pitch is thrown. Oftentimes batters will look for their pitch (i.e., waiting for a fastball). In general, when a pitcher has many types of pitches in his arsenal, batters will have greater difficulty deciding upon the pitch thrown. Little research has been investigated the psychophysiology of a batters decision-making processes. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine how brain activation changes according to an increase in the number of alternatives (NA) available. A total of 15 male college baseball players participated in this study. The stimuli used in this experiment were video clips of a right-handed pitcher throwing fastball, curve, and slider pitches. The task was to press a button after selecting the fastball as the target stimulus from two pitch choices (fastball and curve), and then from three possibilities (fastball, curve, and slider). Functional and anatomic image scanning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) runs took 4 and 5[Formula: see text]min, respectively. According to our analysis, the right precentral gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were activated when the NA was one. The supplementary motor areas (SMA) and primary motor cortex were activated when there were two alternatives to choose from and the inferior orbitofrontal gyrus was specifically activated with three alternatives. Contrary to our expectations, the NA was not a critical factor influencing the activation of related decision making areas when the NA was compared against one another. These findings highlight that specific brain areas related to decision making were activated as the NA increased.

  3. Flexible, foldable, actively multiplexed, high-density electrode array for mapping brain activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Viventi, Jonathan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Vigeland, Leif; Frechette, Eric S; Blanco, Justin A; Kim, Yun-Soung; Avrin, Andrew E; Tiruvadi, Vineet R; Hwang, Suk-Won; Vanleer, Ann C; Wulsin, Drausin F; Davis, Kathryn; Gelber, Casey E; Palmer, Larry; Van der Spiegel, Jan; Wu, Jian; Xiao, Jianliang; Huang, Yonggang; Contreras, Diego; Rogers, John A; Litt, Brian

    2011-11-13

    Arrays of electrodes for recording and stimulating the brain are used throughout clinical medicine and basic neuroscience research, yet are unable to sample large areas of the brain while maintaining high spatial resolution because of the need to individually wire each passive sensor at the electrode-tissue interface. To overcome this constraint, we developed new devices that integrate ultrathin and flexible silicon nanomembrane transistors into the electrode array, enabling new dense arrays of thousands of amplified and multiplexed sensors that are connected using fewer wires. We used this system to record spatial properties of cat brain activity in vivo, including sleep spindles, single-trial visual evoked responses and electrographic seizures. We found that seizures may manifest as recurrent spiral waves that propagate in the neocortex. The developments reported here herald a new generation of diagnostic and therapeutic brain-machine interface devices.

  4. Release of neuronal HMGB1 by ethanol through decreased HDAC activity activates brain neuroimmune signaling.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jian Y; Crews, Fulton T

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimmune gene induction is involved in many brain pathologies including addiction. Although increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines has been found in ethanol-treated mouse brain and rat brain slice cultures as well as in post-mortem human alcoholic brain, the mechanisms remain elusive. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a nuclear protein that has endogenous cytokine-like activity. We previously found increased HMGB1 in post-mortem alcoholic human brain as well as in ethanol treated mice and rat brain slice cultures. The present study investigated the mechanisms for ethanol-induced release of HMGB1 and neuroimmune activation in a model of rat hippocampal-entorhinal cortex (HEC) brain slice cultures. Ethanol exposure triggered dose-dependent HMGB1 release, predominantly from neuronal cells. Inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs) promoted nucleocytoplasmic mobilization of HDAC1/4 and HMGB1 resulting in increased total HMGB1 and acetylated HMGB1 release. Similarly, ethanol treatment was found to induce the translocation of HDAC1/4 and HMGB1 proteins from nuclear to cytosolic fractions. Furthermore, ethanol treatment reduced HDAC1/4 mRNA and increased acetylated HMGB1 release into the media. These results suggest decreased HDAC activity may be critical in regulating acetylated HMGB1 release from neurons in response to ethanol. Ethanol and HMGB1 treatment increased mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β as well as toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Targeting HMGB1 or microglial TLR4 by using siRNAs to HMGB1 and TLR4, HMGB1 neutralizing antibody, HMGB1 inhibitor glycyrrhizin and TLR4 antagonist as well as inhibitor of microglial activation all blocked ethanol-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β. These results support the hypothesis that ethanol alters HDACs that regulate HMGB1 release and that danger signal HMGB1 as endogenous ligand for TLR4 mediates ethanol-induced brain neuroimmune signaling

  5. Inaudible high-frequency sounds affect brain activity: hypersonic effect.

    PubMed

    Oohashi, T; Nishina, E; Honda, M; Yonekura, Y; Fuwamoto, Y; Kawai, N; Maekawa, T; Nakamura, S; Fukuyama, H; Shibasaki, H

    2000-06-01

    Although it is generally accepted that humans cannot perceive sounds in the frequency range above 20 kHz, the question of whether the existence of such "inaudible" high-frequency components may affect the acoustic perception of audible sounds remains unanswered. In this study, we used noninvasive physiological measurements of brain responses to provide evidence that sounds containing high-frequency components (HFCs) above the audible range significantly affect the brain activity of listeners. We used the gamelan music of Bali, which is extremely rich in HFCs with a nonstationary structure, as a natural sound source, dividing it into two components: an audible low-frequency component (LFC) below 22 kHz and an HFC above 22 kHz. Brain electrical activity and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured as markers of neuronal activity while subjects were exposed to sounds with various combinations of LFCs and HFCs. None of the subjects recognized the HFC as sound when it was presented alone. Nevertheless, the power spectra of the alpha frequency range of the spontaneous electroencephalogram (alpha-EEG) recorded from the occipital region increased with statistical significance when the subjects were exposed to sound containing both an HFC and an LFC, compared with an otherwise identical sound from which the HFC was removed (i.e., LFC alone). In contrast, compared with the baseline, no enhancement of alpha-EEG was evident when either an HFC or an LFC was presented separately. Positron emission tomography measurements revealed that, when an HFC and an LFC were presented together, the rCBF in the brain stem and the left thalamus increased significantly compared with a sound lacking the HFC above 22 kHz but that was otherwise identical. Simultaneous EEG measurements showed that the power of occipital alpha-EEGs correlated significantly with the rCBF in the left thalamus. Psychological evaluation indicated that the subjects felt the sound containing an HFC to be more

  6. Imaging of brain tumor proliferative activity with iodine-131-iododeoxyuridine

    SciTech Connect

    Tjuvajev, J.G.; Macapinlac, H.A.; Daghighian, F.

    1994-09-01

    Iodine-131-iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) uptake and retention was imaged with SPECT at 2 and 24 hr after administering a 10-mCi dose to six patients with primary brain tumors. The SPECT images were directly compared to gadolinium contrast-enhanced MR images as well as to ({sup 18}F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET scans and {sup 201}Tl SPECT scans. Localized uptake and retention of IUdR-derived radioactivity was observed in five of six patients. The plasma half-life of ({sup 131}I) IUdR was short (1.5 min) in comparison to the half-life of total plasma radioactivity (6.4 hr). The pattern of ({sup 131}I)IUdR-derived radioactivity was markedly different in the 2-hr compared to 24-hr images. Radioactivity was localized along the periphery of the tumor and extended beyond the margin of tumor identified by contrast enhancement on MRI. The estimated levels of tumor radioactivity at 24 hr, based on semiquantitative phantom studies, ranged between <0.1 and 0.2 {mu}Ci/cc (<0.001% and 0.002% dose/cc); brain levels were not measurable. Iodine-131-IUdR SPECT imaging of brain tumor proliferation has low (marginal) sensitivity due to low count rates and can detect only the most active regions of tumor growth. Imaging at 24 hr represents a washout strategy to reduce {sup 131}I-labeled metabolites contributing to background activity in the tumors, and is more likely to show the pattern of ({sup 131}I)IUdR-DNA incorporation and thereby increase image specificity. Iodine-123-IUdR SPECT imaging at 12 hr and the use of ({sup 124}I)IUdR and PET will improve count acquisitions and image quality. 74 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Human sexual behavior related to pathology and activity of the brain.

    PubMed

    Komisaruk, Barry R; Rodriguez Del Cerro, Maria Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Reviewed in this chapter are: (1) correlations among human sexual behavior, brain pathology, and brain activity, including caveats regarding the interpretation of "cause and effect" among these factors, and the degree to which "hypersexuality" and reported changes in sexual orientation correlated with brain pathology are uniquely sexual or are attributable to a generalized disinhibition of brain function; (2) the effects, in some cases inhibitory, in others facilitatory, on sexual behavior and motivation, of stroke, epileptic seizures, traumatic brain injury, and brain surgery; and (3) insights into sexual motivation and behavior recently gained from functional brain imaging research and its interpretive limitations. We conclude from the reviewed research that the neural orchestra underlying the symphony of human sexuality comprises, rather than brain "centers," multiple integrated brain systems, and that there are more questions than answers in our understanding of the control of human sexual behavior by the brain - a level of understanding that is still in embryonic form.

  8. Prefrontal brain activity predicts temporally extended decision-making behavior.

    PubMed

    Yarkoni, Tal; Braver, Todd S; Gray, Jeremy R; Green, Leonard

    2005-11-01

    Although functional neuroimaging studies of human decision-making processes are increasingly common, most of the research in this area has relied on passive tasks that generate little individual variability. Relatively little attention has been paid to the ability of brain activity to predict overt behavior. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying behavior during a dynamic decision task that required subjects to select smaller, short-term monetary payoffs in order to receive larger, long-term gains. The number of trials over which the longterm gains accrued was manipulated experimentally (2 versus 12). Event-related neural activity in right lateral prefrontal cortex, a region associated with high-level cognitive processing, selectively predicted choice behavior in both conditions, whereas insular cortex responded to fluctuations in amount of reward but did not predict choice behavior. These results demonstrate the utility of a functional neuroimaging approach in behavioral psychology, showing that (a) highly circumscribed brain regions are capable of predicting complex choice behavior, and (b) fMRI has the ability to dissociate the contributions of different neural mechanisms to particular behavioral tasks.

  9. Natural image classification driven by human brain activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dai; Peng, Hanyang; Wang, Jinqiao; Tang, Ming; Xue, Rong; Zuo, Zhentao

    2016-03-01

    Natural image classification has been a hot topic in computer vision and pattern recognition research field. Since the performance of an image classification system can be improved by feature selection, many image feature selection methods have been developed. However, the existing supervised feature selection methods are typically driven by the class label information that are identical for different samples from the same class, ignoring with-in class image variability and therefore degrading the feature selection performance. In this study, we propose a novel feature selection method, driven by human brain activity signals collected using fMRI technique when human subjects were viewing natural images of different categories. The fMRI signals associated with subjects viewing different images encode the human perception of natural images, and therefore may capture image variability within- and cross- categories. We then select image features with the guidance of fMRI signals from brain regions with active response to image viewing. Particularly, bag of words features based on GIST descriptor are extracted from natural images for classification, and a sparse regression base feature selection method is adapted to select image features that can best predict fMRI signals. Finally, a classification model is built on the select image features to classify images without fMRI signals. The validation experiments for classifying images from 4 categories of two subjects have demonstrated that our method could achieve much better classification performance than the classifiers built on image feature selected by traditional feature selection methods.

  10. Targeted training modifies oscillatory brain activity in schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Popov, Tzvetan G; Carolus, Almut; Schubring, David; Popova, Petia; Miller, Gregory A; Rockstroh, Brigitte S

    2015-01-01

    Effects of both domain-specific and broader cognitive remediation protocols have been reported for neural activity and overt performance in schizophrenia (SZ). Progress is limited by insufficient knowledge of relevant neural mechanisms. Addressing neuronal signal resolution in the auditory system as a mechanism contributing to cognitive function and dysfunction in schizophrenia, the present study compared effects of two neuroplasticity-based training protocols targeting auditory-verbal or facial affect discrimination accuracy and a standard rehabilitation protocol on magnetoencephalographic (MEG) oscillatory brain activity in an auditory paired-click task. SZ were randomly assigned to either 20 daily 1-hour sessions over 4 weeks of auditory-verbal training (N = 19), similarly intense facial affect discrimination training (N = 19), or 4 weeks of treatment as usual (TAU, N = 19). Pre-training, the 57 SZ showed smaller click-induced posterior alpha power modulation than did 28 healthy comparison participants, replicating Popov et al. (2011b). Abnormally small alpha decrease 300-800 ms around S2 improved more after targeted auditory-verbal training than after facial affect training or TAU. The improvement in oscillatory brain dynamics with training correlated with improvement on a measure of verbal learning. Results replicate previously reported effects of neuroplasticity-based psychological training on oscillatory correlates of auditory stimulus differentiation, encoding, and updating and indicate specificity of cortical training effects.

  11. Multi-Dimensional Dynamics of Human Electromagnetic Brain Activity.

    PubMed

    Kida, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Emi; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) are invaluable neuroscientific tools for unveiling human neural dynamics in three dimensions (space, time, and frequency), which are associated with a wide variety of perceptions, cognition, and actions. MEG/EEG also provides different categories of neuronal indices including activity magnitude, connectivity, and network properties along the three dimensions. In the last 20 years, interest has increased in inter-regional connectivity and complex network properties assessed by various sophisticated scientific analyses. We herein review the definition, computation, short history, and pros and cons of connectivity and complex network (graph-theory) analyses applied to MEG/EEG signals. We briefly describe recent developments in source reconstruction algorithms essential for source-space connectivity and network analyses. Furthermore, we discuss a relatively novel approach used in MEG/EEG studies to examine the complex dynamics represented by human brain activity. The correct and effective use of these neuronal metrics provides a new insight into the multi-dimensional dynamics of the neural representations of various functions in the complex human brain.

  12. Multi-Dimensional Dynamics of Human Electromagnetic Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kida, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Emi; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) are invaluable neuroscientific tools for unveiling human neural dynamics in three dimensions (space, time, and frequency), which are associated with a wide variety of perceptions, cognition, and actions. MEG/EEG also provides different categories of neuronal indices including activity magnitude, connectivity, and network properties along the three dimensions. In the last 20 years, interest has increased in inter-regional connectivity and complex network properties assessed by various sophisticated scientific analyses. We herein review the definition, computation, short history, and pros and cons of connectivity and complex network (graph-theory) analyses applied to MEG/EEG signals. We briefly describe recent developments in source reconstruction algorithms essential for source-space connectivity and network analyses. Furthermore, we discuss a relatively novel approach used in MEG/EEG studies to examine the complex dynamics represented by human brain activity. The correct and effective use of these neuronal metrics provides a new insight into the multi-dimensional dynamics of the neural representations of various functions in the complex human brain. PMID:26834608

  13. Covert Waking Brain Activity Reveals Instantaneous Sleep Depth

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Scott M.; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Solet, Jo M.; Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    The neural correlates of the wake-sleep continuum remain incompletely understood, limiting the development of adaptive drug delivery systems for promoting sleep maintenance. The most useful measure for resolving early positions along this continuum is the alpha oscillation, an 8–13 Hz electroencephalographic rhythm prominent over posterior scalp locations. The brain activation signature of wakefulness, alpha expression discloses immediate levels of alertness and dissipates in concert with fading awareness as sleep begins. This brain activity pattern, however, is largely ignored once sleep begins. Here we show that the intensity of spectral power in the alpha band actually continues to disclose instantaneous responsiveness to noise—a measure of sleep depth—throughout a night of sleep. By systematically challenging sleep with realistic and varied acoustic disruption, we found that sleepers exhibited markedly greater sensitivity to sounds during moments of elevated alpha expression. This result demonstrates that alpha power is not a binary marker of the transition between sleep and wakefulness, but carries rich information about immediate sleep stability. Further, it shows that an empirical and ecologically relevant form of sleep depth is revealed in real-time by EEG spectral content in the alpha band, a measure that affords prediction on the order of minutes. This signal, which transcends the boundaries of classical sleep stages, could potentially be used for real-time feedback to novel, adaptive drug delivery systems for inducing sleep. PMID:21408616

  14. Smart helmet: Monitoring brain, cardiac and respiratory activity.

    PubMed

    von Rosenberg, Wilhelm; Chanwimalueang, Theerasak; Goverdovsky, Valentin; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-01-01

    The timing of the assessment of the injuries following a road-traffic accident involving motorcyclists is absolutely crucial, particularly in the events with head trauma. Standard apparatus for monitoring cardiac activity is usually attached to the limbs or the torso, while the brain function is routinely measured with a separate unit connected to the head-mounted sensors. In stark contrast to these, we propose an integrated system which incorporates the two functionalities inside an ordinary motorcycle helmet. Multiple fabric electrodes were mounted inside the helmet at positions featuring good contact with the skin at different sections of the head. The experimental results demonstrate that the R-peaks (and therefore the heart rate) can be reliably extracted from potentials measured with electrodes on the mastoids and the lower jaw, while the electrodes on the forehead enable the observation of neural signals. We conclude that various vital sings and brain activity can be readily recorded from the inside of a helmet in a comfortable and inconspicuous way, requiring only a negligible setup effort.

  15. Targeted training modifies oscillatory brain activity in schizophrenia patients

    PubMed Central

    Popov, Tzvetan G.; Carolus, Almut; Schubring, David; Popova, Petia; Miller, Gregory A.; Rockstroh, Brigitte S.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of both domain-specific and broader cognitive remediation protocols have been reported for neural activity and overt performance in schizophrenia (SZ). Progress is limited by insufficient knowledge of relevant neural mechanisms. Addressing neuronal signal resolution in the auditory system as a mechanism contributing to cognitive function and dysfunction in schizophrenia, the present study compared effects of two neuroplasticity-based training protocols targeting auditory–verbal or facial affect discrimination accuracy and a standard rehabilitation protocol on magnetoencephalographic (MEG) oscillatory brain activity in an auditory paired-click task. SZ were randomly assigned to either 20 daily 1-hour sessions over 4 weeks of auditory–verbal training (N = 19), similarly intense facial affect discrimination training (N = 19), or 4 weeks of treatment as usual (TAU, N = 19). Pre-training, the 57 SZ showed smaller click-induced posterior alpha power modulation than did 28 healthy comparison participants, replicating Popov et al. (2011b). Abnormally small alpha decrease 300–800 ms around S2 improved more after targeted auditory–verbal training than after facial affect training or TAU. The improvement in oscillatory brain dynamics with training correlated with improvement on a measure of verbal learning. Results replicate previously reported effects of neuroplasticity-based psychological training on oscillatory correlates of auditory stimulus differentiation, encoding, and updating and indicate specificity of cortical training effects. PMID:26082889

  16. Covert waking brain activity reveals instantaneous sleep depth.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Scott M; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Buxton, Orfeu M; Solet, Jo M; Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M

    2011-03-03

    The neural correlates of the wake-sleep continuum remain incompletely understood, limiting the development of adaptive drug delivery systems for promoting sleep maintenance. The most useful measure for resolving early positions along this continuum is the alpha oscillation, an 8-13 Hz electroencephalographic rhythm prominent over posterior scalp locations. The brain activation signature of wakefulness, alpha expression discloses immediate levels of alertness and dissipates in concert with fading awareness as sleep begins. This brain activity pattern, however, is largely ignored once sleep begins. Here we show that the intensity of spectral power in the alpha band actually continues to disclose instantaneous responsiveness to noise--a measure of sleep depth--throughout a night of sleep. By systematically challenging sleep with realistic and varied acoustic disruption, we found that sleepers exhibited markedly greater sensitivity to sounds during moments of elevated alpha expression. This result demonstrates that alpha power is not a binary marker of the transition between sleep and wakefulness, but carries rich information about immediate sleep stability. Further, it shows that an empirical and ecologically relevant form of sleep depth is revealed in real-time by EEG spectral content in the alpha band, a measure that affords prediction on the order of minutes. This signal, which transcends the boundaries of classical sleep stages, could potentially be used for real-time feedback to novel, adaptive drug delivery systems for inducing sleep.

  17. Spatiotemporal characteristics of electrocortical brain activity during mental calculation.

    PubMed

    Vansteensel, Mariska J; Bleichner, Martin G; Freudenburg, Zac V; Hermes, Dora; Aarnoutse, Erik J; Leijten, Frans S S; Ferrier, Cyrille H; Jansma, Johan Martijn; Ramsey, Nick F

    2014-12-01

    Mental calculation is a complex mental procedure involving a frontoparietal network of brain regions. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have revealed interesting characteristics of these regions, but the precise function of some areas remains elusive. In the present study, we used electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings to chronometrically assess the neuronal processes during mental arithmetic. A calculation task was performed during presurgical 3T fMRI scanning and subsequent ECoG monitoring. Mental calculation induced an increase in fMRI blood oxygen level dependent signal in prefrontal, parietal and lower temporo-occipital regions. The group-fMRI result was subsequently used to cluster the implanted electrodes into anatomically defined regions of interest (ROIs). We observed remarkable differences in high frequency power profiles between ROIs, some of which were closely associated with stimulus presentation and others with the response. Upon stimulus presentation, occipital areas were the first to respond, followed by parietal and frontal areas, and finally by motor areas. Notably, we demonstrate that the fMRI activation in the middle frontal gyrus/precentral gyrus is associated with two subfunctions during mental calculation. This finding reveals the significance of the temporal dynamics of neural ensembles within regions with an apparent uniform function. In conclusion, our results shed more light on the spatiotemporal aspects of brain activation during a mental calculation task, and demonstrate that the use of fMRI data to cluster ECoG electrodes is a useful approach for ECoG group analysis.

  18. Temporal dynamics of brain activation during a working memory task.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J D; Perlstein, W M; Braver, T S; Nystrom, L E; Noll, D C; Jonides, J; Smith, E E

    1997-04-10

    Working memory is responsible for the short-term storage and online manipulation of information necessary for higher cognitive functions, such as language, planning and problem-solving. Traditionally, working memory has been divided into two types of processes: executive control (governing the encoding manipulation and retrieval of information in working memory) and active maintenance (keeping information available 'online'). It has also been proposed that these two types of processes may be subserved by distinct cortical structures, with the prefrontal cortex housing the executive control processes, and more posterior regions housing the content-specific buffers (for example verbal versus visuospatial) responsible for active maintenance. However, studies in non-human primates suggest that dorsolateral regions of the prefrontal cortex may also be involved in active maintenance. We have used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activation in human subjects during performance of a working memory task. We used the temporal resolution of this technique to examine the dynamics of regional activation, and to show that prefrontal cortex along with parietal cortex appears to play a role in active maintenance.

  19. Social Support Can Buffer against Stress and Shape Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    Social support from close relationship partners is an important resource for coping with stress, particularly during childhood. We discuss ethical challenges associated with studying stress and its social buffering in the laboratory, as well as emerging evidence regarding two potential neural substrates for the social buffering of stress: hypothalamic oxytocin activity and activation of areas in the prefrontal cortex associated with effective self-regulation. We also address the role of early-life social experiences in shaping brain development, as well as recommendations for practice and policy that would advance the ethical treatment of children and reduce social inequalities in early-life experiences and opportunities–e.g., investing in programs that prevent child maltreatment and facilitating access to high-quality child care for economically disadvantaged families. We also debate the ethical implications of using oxytocin nasal sprays to simulate the stress-reducing properties of social support and advise waiting for more evidence before recommending their use. PMID:26478822

  20. Mood state and brain electric activity in ecstasy users.

    PubMed

    Gamma, A; Frei, E; Lehmann, D; Pascual-Marqui, R D; Hell, D; Vollenweider, F X

    2000-01-17

    Resting EEG during open and closed eyes and subsequent mood ratings were obtained from 15 Ecstasy users and 14 Ecstasy-naive controls. Absolute spectral power on the scalp, and the three-dimensional, intracerebral distribution of neuroelectric activity using low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) were computed. LORETA revealed global increases of theta, alpha 1 and beta 2/3 power during eyes open in Ecstasy users, and spectral analyses revealed a right-posterior increase of alpha 2 power (confirmed by LORETA) and increased beta band activity during open eyes. Ecstasy users had higher levels of state depressiveness, emotional excitability and a trend-level increase in state anxiety. The observed differences may be related to regular exposure to Ecstasy or other illicit drugs, or may be pre-existing.

  1. Optimization of PET instrumentation for brain activation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlbom, M.; Cherry, S.R.; Hoffman, E.J. . Dept. of Radiological Science); Eriksson, L. . Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology); Wienhard, K. )

    1993-08-01

    By performing cerebral blood flow studies with positron emission tomography (PET), and comparing blood flow images of different states of activation, functional mapping of the brain is possible. The ability of current commercial instruments to perform such studies is investigated in this work, based on a comparison of noise equivalent count (NEC) rates. Differences in the NEC performance of the different scanners in conjunction with scanner design parameters, provide insights into the importance of block design (size, dead time, crystal thickness) and overall scanner design (sensitivity and scatter fraction) for optimizing data from activation studies. The newer scanners with removable septa, operating with 3-D acquisition, have much higher sensitivity, but require new methodology for optimized operation. Only by administering multiple low doses (fractionation) of the flow tracer can the high sensitivity be utilized.

  2. Social Support Can Buffer against Stress and Shape Brain Activity.

    PubMed

    Hostinar, Camelia E; Gunnar, Megan R

    2015-07-01

    Social support from close relationship partners is an important resource for coping with stress, particularly during childhood. We discuss ethical challenges associated with studying stress and its social buffering in the laboratory, as well as emerging evidence regarding two potential neural substrates for the social buffering of stress: hypothalamic oxytocin activity and activation of areas in the prefrontal cortex associated with effective self-regulation. We also address the role of early-life social experiences in shaping brain development, as well as recommendations for practice and policy that would advance the ethical treatment of children and reduce social inequalities in early-life experiences and opportunities-e.g., investing in programs that prevent child maltreatment and facilitating access to high-quality child care for economically disadvantaged families. We also debate the ethical implications of using oxytocin nasal sprays to simulate the stress-reducing properties of social support and advise waiting for more evidence before recommending their use.

  3. Dynamic brain architectures in local brain activity and functional network efficiency associate with efficient reading in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Feng, Gangyi; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Zhu, Zude; He, Yong; Wang, Suiping

    2015-10-01

    The human brain is organized as a dynamic network, in which both regional brain activity and inter-regional connectivity support high-level cognitive processes, such as reading. However, it is still largely unknown how the functional brain network organizes to enable fast and effortless reading processing in the native language (L1) but not in a non-proficient second language (L2), and whether the mechanisms underlying local activity are associated with connectivity dynamics in large-scale brain networks. In the present study, we combined activation-based and multivariate graph-theory analysis with functional magnetic resonance imaging data to address these questions. Chinese-English unbalanced bilinguals read narratives for comprehension in Chinese (L1) and in English (L2). Compared with L2, reading in L1 evoked greater brain activation and recruited a more globally efficient but less clustered network organization. Regions with both increased network efficiency and enhanced brain activation in L1 reading were mostly located in the fronto-temporal reading-related network (RN), whereas regions with decreased global network efficiency, increased clustering, and more deactivation in L2 reading were identified in the default mode network (DMN). Moreover, functional network efficiency was closely associated with local brain activation, and such associations were also modulated by reading efficiency in the two languages. Our results demonstrate that an economical and integrative brain network topology is associated with efficient reading, and further reveal a dynamic association between network efficiency and local activation for both RN and DMN. These findings underscore the importance of considering interregional connectivity when interpreting local BOLD signal changes in bilingual reading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Lipid peroxidation processes and activity of brain succinate dehydrogenase in experimental craniocerebral trauma].

    PubMed

    Demchuk, M L; Medvedev, A E; Promyslov, M Sh; Gorkin, V Z

    1993-01-01

    A statistically significant decrease in the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) was found in the rabbit brain after craniocerebral injury. The decrease in the activity of brain SDH was not shown to result from "competitive inhibition" by malonate accumulated after activation of lipid peroxidation. The activity of brain SDH was normalized by directed modification of the function of the central nervous system via administration of phenamine (amphetamine) into the injured animals.

  5. How Situational Context Impacts Empathic Responses and Brain Activation Patterns.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yawei; Chen, Chenyi; Decety, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Clinical empathy, which is defined as the ability to understand the patient's experience and feelings from the patient's perspective, is acknowledged to be an important aspect of quality healthcare. However, how work experience modulates the empathic responses and brain activation patterns in medical professions remains elusive. This fMRI study recruited one hundred female nurses, who varied the length of work experience, and examined how their neural response, functional connectivity, and subjective evaluations of valence and arousal to perceiving another individual in physical pain are modulated by the situational context in which they occur (i.e., in a hospital or at home). Participants with longer hospital terms evaluated pain as less negative in valence and arousal when occurring in a hospital context, but not in a home context. Physical pain perceived in a hospital compared to a home context produced stronger activity in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ). The reverse comparison resulted in an increased activity in the insula and anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC). Mediation analysis indicated that reduced personal accomplishment, a symptom of burnout, breaks down the mediation effect of the putamen on context-dependent valence ratings. Overall, the study demonstrates how situational contexts significantly influence individuals' empathic processing, and that perceiving reward from patient care protects them from burnout. Highlights -Differences in behavior ratings and brain activations between medical practitioners perceiving others' pain in a hospital and at home.-Situational contexts significantly influence individual's empathic processing.-Perceiving rewards from patient care protects medical practitioners from burnout.-Empathy is a flexible phenomenon.

  6. Written distractor words influence brain activity during overt picture naming

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Michele T.; Hogstrom, Larson J.; Zhuang, Jie; Voyvodic, James T.; Johnson, Micah A.; Camblin, C. Christine

    2014-01-01

    Language production requires multiple stages of processing (e.g., semantic retrieval, lexical selection), each of which may involve distinct brain regions. Distractor words can be combined with picture naming to examine factors that influence language production. Phonologically-related distractors have been found to speed picture naming (facilitation), while slower response times and decreased accuracy (interference) generally occur when a distractor is categorically related to the target image. However, other types of semantically-related distractors have been reported to produce a facilitative effect (e.g., associative, part-whole). The different pattern of results for different types of semantically-related distractors raises the question about how the nature of the semantic relation influences the effect of the distractor. To explore the nature of these semantic effects further, we used functional MRI to examine the influence of four types of written distractors on brain activation during overt picture naming. Distractors began with the same sound, were categorically-related, part of the object to be named, or were unrelated to the picture. Phonologically-related trials elicited greater activation than both semantic conditions (categorically-related and part-whole) in left insula and bilateral parietal cortex, regions that have been attributed to phonological aspects of production and encoding, respectively. Semantic conditions elicited greater activation than phonological trials in left posterior MTG, a region that has been linked to concept retrieval and semantic integration. Overall, the two semantic conditions did not differ substantially in their functional activation which suggests a similarity in the semantic demands and lexical competition across these two conditions. PMID:24715859

  7. Real-time classification of activated brain areas for fMRI-based human-brain-interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, Tobias; Hollmann, Maurice; Grzeschik, Ramona; Mueller, Charles; Luetzkendorf, Ralf; Baecke, Sebastian; Luchtmann, Michael; Wagegg, Daniela; Bernarding, Johannes

    2008-03-01

    Functional MR imaging (fMRI) enables to detect different activated brain areas according to the performed tasks. However, data are usually evaluated after the experiment, which prohibits intra-experiment optimization or more sophisticated applications such as biofeedback experiments. Using a human-brain-interface (HBI), subjects are able to communicate with external programs, e.g. to navigate through virtual scenes, or to experience and modify their own brain activation. These applications require the real-time analysis and classification of activated brain areas. Our paper presents first results of different strategies for real-time pattern analysis and classification realized within a flexible experiment control system that enables the volunteers to move through a 3D virtual scene in real-time using finger tapping tasks, and alternatively only thought-based tasks.

  8. Brain activation, affect, and aerobic exercise: an examination of both state-independent and state-dependent relationships.

    PubMed

    Petruzzello, S J; Tate, A K

    1997-09-01

    Resting electroencephalograph (EEG) asymmetry is a biological marker of the propensity to respond affectively to, and a measure of change in affect associated with, acute aerobic exercise. This study examined the EEG-affect-exercise relationship. Twenty participants performed each of three randomly assigned 30-min conditions: (a) a nonexercise control, (b) a cycling exercise at 55% VO2max, and (c) a cycling exercise at 70% VO2max. EEG and affect were assessed pre- and 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min postcondition. No significant results were seen in the control or 55% conditions. In the 70% exercise condition, greater relative left frontal activation preexercise predicted increased positive affect and reduced state anxiety postexercise. Participants (n = 7) with extreme relative left frontal activation postexercise reported concomitant decreases in anxiety, whereas participants (n = 7) with extreme relative right frontal activation postexercise reported increases in anxiety. These findings (a) replicate prior work, (b) suggest a dose-response intensity effect, and (c) support the idea that exercise is an emotion-eliciting event. Affective responses seem to be mediated in part by differential resting levels of activation in the anterior brain regions. Ongoing anterior brain activation reflected concurrent postexercise affect.

  9. Brain activation induced by psychological stress in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Castro, M N; Villarreal, M F; Bolotinsky, N; Papávero, E; Goldschmidt, M G; Costanzo, E Y; Drucaroff, L; Wainsztein, A; de Achával, D; Pahissa, J; Bär, K-J; Nemeroff, C B; Guinjoan, S M

    2015-10-01

    Environmental influences are critical for the expression of genes putatively related to the behavioral and cognitive phenotypes of schizophrenia. Among such factors, psychosocial stress has been proposed to play a major role in the expression of symptoms. However, it is unsettled how stress interacts with pathophysiological pathways to produce the disease. We studied 21 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls aged 18 to 50years with 3T-fMRI, in which a period of 6min of resting state acquisition was followed by a block design, with three blocks of 1-min control-task, 1-min stress-task and 1-min rest after-task. Self-report of stress and PANSS were measured. Limbic structures were activated in schizophrenia patients by simple tasks and remained active during, and shortly after stress. In controls, stress-related brain activation was more time-focused, and restricted to the stressful task itself. Negative symptom severity was inversely related to activation of anterior cingulum and orbitofrontal cortex. Results might represent the neurobiological aspect of hyper-reactivity to normal stressful situations previously described in schizophrenia, thus providing evidence on the involvement of limbic areas in the response to stress in schizophrenia. Patients present a pattern of persistent limbic activation probably contributing to hypervigilance and subsequent psychotic thought distortions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain Activity and Functional Connectivity Associated with Hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Heidi; White, Matthew P; Greicius, Michael D; Waelde, Lynn C; Spiegel, David

    2017-08-01

    Hypnosis has proven clinical utility, yet changes in brain activity underlying the hypnotic state have not yet been fully identified. Previous research suggests that hypnosis is associated with decreased default mode network (DMN) activity and that high hypnotizability is associated with greater functional connectivity between the executive control network (ECN) and the salience network (SN). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate activity and functional connectivity among these three networks in hypnosis. We selected 57 of 545 healthy subjects with very high or low hypnotizability using two hypnotizability scales. All subjects underwent four conditions in the scanner: rest, memory retrieval, and two different hypnosis experiences guided by standard pre-recorded instructions in counterbalanced order. Seeds for the ECN, SN, and DMN were left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), respectively. During hypnosis there was reduced activity in the dACC, increased functional connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC;ECN) and the insula in the SN, and reduced connectivity between the ECN (DLPFC) and the DMN (PCC). These changes in neural activity underlie the focused attention, enhanced somatic and emotional control, and lack of self-consciousness that characterizes hypnosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Interactions between cardiac, respiratory, and brain activity in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musizza, Bojan; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2005-05-01

    The electrical activity of the heart (ECG), respiratory function and electric activity of the brain (EEG) were simultaneously recorded in conscious, healthy humans. Instantaneous frequencies of the heart beat, respiration and α-waves were then determined from 30-minutes recordings. The instantaneous cardiac frequency was defined as the inverse value of the time interval between two consecutive R-peaks. The instantaneous respiratory frequency was obtained from recordings of the excursions of thorax by application of the Hilbert transform. To obtain the instantaneous frequency of α-waves, the EEG signal recorded from the forehead was first analysed using the wavelet transform. Then the frequency band corresponding to α-waves was extracted and the Hilbert transform applied. Synchronization analysis was performed and the direction of coupling was ascertained, using pairs of instantaneous frequencies in each case. It is shown that the systems are weakly bidirectionally coupled. It was confirmed that, in conscious healthy humans, respiration drives cardiac activity. We also demonstrate from these analyses that α-activity drives both respiration and cardiac activity.

  12. Pulsed Out of Awareness: EEG Alpha Oscillations Represent a Pulsed-Inhibition of Ongoing Cortical Processing

    PubMed Central

    Mathewson, Kyle E.; Lleras, Alejandro; Beck, Diane M.; Fabiani, Monica; Ro, Tony; Gratton, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Alpha oscillations are ubiquitous in the brain, but their role in cortical processing remains a matter of debate. Recently, evidence has begun to accumulate in support of a role for alpha oscillations in attention selection and control. Here we first review evidence that 8–12 Hz oscillations in the brain have a general inhibitory role in cognitive processing, with an emphasis on their role in visual processing. Then, we summarize the evidence in support of our recent proposal that alpha represents a pulsed-inhibition of ongoing neural activity. The phase of the ongoing electroencephalography can influence evoked activity and subsequent processing, and we propose that alpha exerts its inhibitory role through alternating microstates of inhibition and excitation. Finally, we discuss evidence that this pulsed-inhibition can be entrained to rhythmic stimuli in the environment, such that preferential processing occurs for stimuli at predictable moments. The entrainment of preferential phase may provide a mechanism for temporal attention in the brain. This pulsed inhibitory account of alpha has important implications for many common cognitive phenomena, such as the attentional blink, and seems to indicate that our visual experience may at least some times be coming through in waves. PMID:21779257

  13. Human Brain Activity Related to the Tactile Perception of Stickiness.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Jiwon; Kim, Junsuk; Ryu, Jaekyun; Park, Jang-Yeon; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2017-01-01

    While the perception of stickiness serves as one of the fundamental dimensions for tactile sensation, little has been elucidated about the stickiness sensation and its neural correlates. The present study investigated how the human brain responds to perceived tactile sticky stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To evoke tactile perception of stickiness with multiple intensities, we generated silicone stimuli with varying catalyst ratios. Also, an acrylic sham stimulus was prepared to present a condition with no sticky sensation. From the two psychophysics experiments-the methods of constant stimuli and the magnitude estimation-we could classify the silicone stimuli into two groups according to whether a sticky perception was evoked: the Supra-threshold group that evoked sticky perception and the Infra-threshold group that did not. In the Supra-threshold vs. Sham contrast analysis of the fMRI data using the general linear model (GLM), the contralateral primary somatosensory area (S1) and ipsilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed significant activations in subjects, whereas no significant result was found in the Infra-threshold vs. Sham contrast. This result indicates that the perception of stickiness not only activates the somatosensory cortex, but also possibly induces higher cognitive processes. Also, the Supra- vs. Infra-threshold contrast analysis revealed significant activations in several subcortical regions, including the pallidum, putamen, caudate and thalamus, as well as in another region spanning the insula and temporal cortices. These brain regions, previously known to be related to tactile discrimination, may subserve the discrimination of different intensities of tactile stickiness. The present study unveils the human neural correlates of the tactile perception of stickiness and may contribute to broadening the understanding of neural mechanisms associated with tactile perception.

  14. Human Brain Activity Related to the Tactile Perception of Stickiness

    PubMed Central

    Yeon, Jiwon; Kim, Junsuk; Ryu, Jaekyun; Park, Jang-Yeon; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2017-01-01

    While the perception of stickiness serves as one of the fundamental dimensions for tactile sensation, little has been elucidated about the stickiness sensation and its neural correlates. The present study investigated how the human brain responds to perceived tactile sticky stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To evoke tactile perception of stickiness with multiple intensities, we generated silicone stimuli with varying catalyst ratios. Also, an acrylic sham stimulus was prepared to present a condition with no sticky sensation. From the two psychophysics experiments–the methods of constant stimuli and the magnitude estimation—we could classify the silicone stimuli into two groups according to whether a sticky perception was evoked: the Supra-threshold group that evoked sticky perception and the Infra-threshold group that did not. In the Supra-threshold vs. Sham contrast analysis of the fMRI data using the general linear model (GLM), the contralateral primary somatosensory area (S1) and ipsilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed significant activations in subjects, whereas no significant result was found in the Infra-threshold vs. Sham contrast. This result indicates that the perception of stickiness not only activates the somatosensory cortex, but also possibly induces higher cognitive processes. Also, the Supra- vs. Infra-threshold contrast analysis revealed significant activations in several subcortical regions, including the pallidum, putamen, caudate and thalamus, as well as in another region spanning the insula and temporal cortices. These brain regions, previously known to be related to tactile discrimination, may subserve the discrimination of different intensities of tactile stickiness. The present study unveils the human neural correlates of the tactile perception of stickiness and may contribute to broadening the understanding of neural mechanisms associated with tactile perception. PMID:28163677

  15. Reaction time variability and related brain activity in methamphetamine psychosis.

    PubMed

    Fassbender, Catherine; Lesh, Tyler A; Ursu, Stefan; Salo, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the dynamics of cognitive control instability in methamphetamine (MA) abuse, as well its relationship to substance-induced psychiatric symptoms and drug use patterns. We used an ex-Gaussian reaction time (RT) distribution to examine intraindividual variability (IIV) and excessively long RTs (tau) in an individual's RT on a Stroop task in 30 currently drug-abstinent (3 months to 2 years) MA abusers compared with 27 nonsubstance-abusing control subjects. All subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing the Stroop task, which allowed us to measure the relationship between IIV and tau to functional brain activity. Elevated IIV in the MA compared with the control group did not reach significance; however, when the MA group was divided into those subjects who had experienced MA-induced psychosis (MAP+) (n = 19) and those who had not (n = 11), the MAP+ group had higher average IIV compared with the other groups (p < .03). In addition, although control subjects displayed a relationship between IIV and conflict-related brain activity in bilateral prefrontal cortex such that increased IIV was associated with increased activity, the MAP+ group displayed this relationship in right prefrontal cortex only, perhaps reflecting elevated vigilance in the MAP+ group. Greater IIV did not correlate with severity of use or months MA abstinent. No group differences emerged in tau values. These results suggest increased cognitive instability in those MA-dependent subjects who had experienced MA-induced psychosis. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 'Keeping your brain active': the activities of people aged 50-65 years.

    PubMed

    Bowes, Alison; McCabe, Louise; Wilson, Mike; Craig, David

    2012-03-01

    The paper aims to construct a baseline of knowledge about current activities, attitudes and motivations of a sample of people aged 50-65 years in relation to 'keeping one's brain active', with a particular focus on activities suggested in the literature and in popular parlance to have positive effects. An online survey of people aged 50-65 years concerning their activities and motivations in relation to 'keeping one's brain active' was conducted with a sample of people employed in Scotland and in two online discussion forums. The survey ascertained respondents' background demographic data, data on health and lifestyle factors, activities they engaged in and reasons for engagement, including any concerns about dementia and experience of dementia. The achieved sample of 402 responses was representative of the general population on most counts, although the sample included more better-educated people and more smokers. Dementia prevention was a motivating factor for 21% of the respondents. More women and more of those living alone reported this motivation. It was linked with experience of dementia and future fears of developing the condition. New 'brain-training' technologies were used by younger people in higher socio-economic groups, and dementia prevention was cited as a motivation. The findings indicate that dementia prevention motivates activities perceived to keep the brain active, despite there being a virtual absence of scientific evidence showing that the desired effects will follow. Given the existence of evidence suggesting that other activities, particularly physical exercise, may be more important and the possibility that stress itself may promote the development of dementia, further research is urgently needed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Brain activation by music in patients in a vegetative or minimally conscious state following diffuse brain injury.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Yuka; Asano, Yoshitaka; Takenaka, Shunsuke; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Yonezawa, Shingo; Kasuya, Yukinori; Shinoda, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the brain activity potential of patients with impaired consciousness in a chronic stage of diffuse brain injury (DBI) using functional MRI (fMRI) following music stimulation (MS). Two patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) and five patients in a vegetative state (VS) due to severe DBI were enrolled along with 21 healthy adults. This study examined the brain regions activated by music and assessed topographical differences of the MS-activated brain among healthy adults and these patients. MS was shown to activate the bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG) of both healthy adults and patients in an MCS. In four of five patients in a VS, however, no significant activation in STG could be induced by the same MS. The remaining patient in a VS displayed the same MS-induced brain activation in STG as healthy adults and patients in an MCS and this patient's status also improved to an MCS 4 months after the study. The presence of STG activation by MS may predict a possible improvement of patients in a VS to MCS and fMRI employing MS may be a useful modality to objectively evaluate consciousness in these patients.

  18. Maternal Immune Activation Alters Fetal Brain Development through Interleukin-6

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen E. P.; Li, Jennifer; Garbett, Krassimira; Mirnics, Karoly; Patterson, Paul H.

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are thought to result from the interaction between a susceptibility genotype and environmental risk factors. The offspring of women who experience infection while pregnant have an increased risk for these disorders. Maternal immune activation (MIA) in pregnant rodents produces offspring with abnormalities in behavior, histology, and gene expression that are reminiscent of schizophrenia and autism, making MIA a useful model of the disorders. However, the mechanism by which MIA causes long-term behavioral deficits in the offspring is unknown. Here we show that the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is critical for mediating the behavioral and transcriptional changes in the offspring. A single maternal injection of IL-6 on day 12.5 of mouse pregnancy causes prepulse inhibition (PPI) and latent inhibition (LI) deficits in the adult offspring. Moreover, coadministration of an anti-IL-6 antibody in the poly(I:C) model of MIA prevents the PPI, LI, and exploratory and social deficits caused by poly(I:C) and normalizes the associated changes in gene expression in the brains of adult offspring. Finally, MIA in IL-6 knock-out mice does not result in several of the behavioral changes seen in the offspring of wild-type mice after MIA. The identification of IL-6 as a key intermediary should aid in the molecular dissection of the pathways whereby MIA alters fetal brain development, which can shed new light on the pathophysiological mechanisms that predispose to schizophrenia and autism. PMID:17913903

  19. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance.

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and Alzheimer's disease: hitting the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Zolezzi, Juan M; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2013-12-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is often affected in several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Integrity and proper functionality of the neurovascular unit are recognized to be critical for maintenance of the BBB. Research has traditionally focused on structural integrity more than functionality, and BBB alteration has usually been explained more as a consequence than a cause. However, ongoing evidence suggests that at the early stages, the BBB of a diseased brain often shows distinct expression patterns of specific carriers such as members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport protein family, which alter BBB traffic. In AD, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits are a pathological hallmark and, as recently highlighted by Cramer et al. (2012), Aβ clearance is quite fundamental and is a less studied approach. Current knowledge suggests that BBB traffic plays a more important role than previously believed and that pharmacological modulation of the BBB may offer new therapeutic alternatives for AD. Recent investigations carried out in our laboratory indicate that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists are able to prevent Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampal neurons and cognitive impairment in a double transgenic mouse model of AD. However, even when enough literature about PPAR agonists and neurodegenerative disorders is available, the problem of how they exert their functions and help to prevent and rescue Aβ-induced neurotoxicity is poorly understood. In this review, along with highlighting the main features of the BBB and its role in AD, we will discuss information regarding the modulation of BBB components, including the possible role of PPAR agonists as BBB traffic modulators.

  1. Community Reintegration Problems Among Veterans and Active Duty Service Members With Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    McGarity, Suzanne; Barnett, Scott D; Lamberty, Greg; Kretzmer, Tracy; Powell-Cope, Gail; Patel, Nitin; Nakase-Richardson, Risa

    To examine community reintegration problems among Veterans and military service members with mild or moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 1 year postinjury and to identify unique predictors that may contribute to these difficulties. VA Polytrauma Rehabilitation Centers. Participants were 154 inpatients enrolled in the VA TBI Model Systems Program with available injury severity data (mild = 28.6%; moderate/severe = 71.4%) and 1-year postinjury outcome data. Prospective, longitudinal cohort. Community reintegration outcomes included independent driving, employability, and general community participation. Additional measures assessed depression, posttraumatic stress, and cognitive and motor functioning. In the mild TBI (mTBI) group, posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms were associated with lower levels of various community reintegration outcomes. In the moderate/severe TBI group, cognition and motor skills were significantly associated with lower levels of community participation, independent driving, and employability. Community reintegration is problematic for Veterans and active duty service members with a history of TBI. Unique comorbidities across injury severity groups inhibit full reintegration into the community. These findings highlight the ongoing rehabilitation needs of persons with TBI, specifically evidence-based mental healthcare, in comprehensive rehabilitation programs consistent with a chronic disease management model.

  2. Some Problems for Representations of Brain Organization Based on Activation in Functional Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidtis, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Functional brain imaging has overshadowed traditional lesion studies in becoming the dominant approach to the study of brain-behavior relationships. The proponents of functional imaging studies frequently argue that this approach provides an advantage over lesion studies by observing normal brain activity in vivo without the disruptive effects of…

  3. Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy to Understand Brain "Activation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baslow, Morris H.; Guilfoyle, David N.

    2007-01-01

    Upon stimulation, areas of the brain associated with specific cognitive processing tasks may undergo observable physiological changes, and measures of such changes have been used to create brain maps for visualization of stimulated areas in task-related brain "activation" studies. These perturbations usually continue throughout the period of the…

  4. Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy to Understand Brain "Activation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baslow, Morris H.; Guilfoyle, David N.

    2007-01-01

    Upon stimulation, areas of the brain associated with specific cognitive processing tasks may undergo observable physiological changes, and measures of such changes have been used to create brain maps for visualization of stimulated areas in task-related brain "activation" studies. These perturbations usually continue throughout the period of the…

  5. Some Problems for Representations of Brain Organization Based on Activation in Functional Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidtis, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Functional brain imaging has overshadowed traditional lesion studies in becoming the dominant approach to the study of brain-behavior relationships. The proponents of functional imaging studies frequently argue that this approach provides an advantage over lesion studies by observing normal brain activity in vivo without the disruptive effects of…

  6. Cognitive and Emotional Modulation of Brain Default Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Brattico, Elvira; Bailey, Christopher J.; Korvenoja, Antti; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior lowers activity in brain areas that include the medial frontal cortex, the medial and lateral parietal cortex, and limbic and paralimbic brain regions, commonly referred to as the "default network." These activity decreases are believed to reflect the interruption of processes that are ongoing when the mind is in a restful…

  7. Cognitive and Emotional Modulation of Brain Default Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Brattico, Elvira; Bailey, Christopher J.; Korvenoja, Antti; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior lowers activity in brain areas that include the medial frontal cortex, the medial and lateral parietal cortex, and limbic and paralimbic brain regions, commonly referred to as the "default network." These activity decreases are believed to reflect the interruption of processes that are ongoing when the mind is in a restful…

  8. Acute moderate exercise enhances compensatory brain activation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Kazuki; Dan, Ippeita; Suwabe, Kazuya; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamada, Yuhki; Akahori, Mitsuya; Byun, Kyeongho; Kato, Morimasa; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-11-01

    A growing number of reports state that regular exercise enhances brain function in older adults. Recently a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study revealed that an acute bout of moderate exercise enhanced activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) associated with Stroop interference in young adults. Whether this acute effect is also applicable to older adults was examined. Sixteen older adults performed a color-word matching Stroop task before and after 10 minutes of exercise on a cycle ergometer at a moderate intensity. Cortical hemodynamics of the prefrontal area was monitored with a fNIRS during the Stroop task. We analyzed Stroop interference (incongruent-neutral) as Stroop performance. Though activation for Stroop interference was found in the bilateral prefrontal area before the acute bout of exercise, activation of the right frontopolar area (R-FPA) was enhanced after exercise. In the majority of participants, this coincided with improved performance reflected in Stroop interference results. Thus, an acute bout of moderate exercise improved Stroop performance in older adults, and this was associated with contralateral compensatory activation.

  9. Sex differences in brain activation elicited by humor.

    PubMed

    Azim, Eiman; Mobbs, Dean; Jo, Booil; Menon, Vinod; Reiss, Allan L

    2005-11-08

    With recent investigation beginning to reveal the cortical and subcortical neuroanatomical correlates of humor appreciation, the present event-related functional MRI (fMRI) study was designed to elucidate sex-specific recruitment of these humor related networks. Twenty healthy subjects (10 females) underwent fMRI scanning while subjectively rating 70 verbal and nonverbal achromatic cartoons as funny or unfunny. Data were analyzed by comparing blood oxygenation-level-dependent signal activation during funny and unfunny stimuli. Males and females share an extensive humor-response strategy as indicated by recruitment of similar brain regions: both activate the temporal-occipital junction and temporal pole, structures implicated in semantic knowledge and juxtaposition, and the inferior frontal gyrus, likely to be involved in language processing. Females, however, activate the left prefrontal cortex more than males, suggesting a greater degree of executive processing and language-based decoding. Females also exhibit greater activation of mesolimbic regions, including the nucleus accumbens, implying greater reward network response and possibly less reward expectation. These results indicate sex-specific differences in neural response to humor with implications for sex-based disparities in the integration of cognition and emotion.

  10. Sex differences in brain activation elicited by humor

    PubMed Central

    Azim, Eiman; Mobbs, Dean; Jo, Booil; Menon, Vinod; Reiss, Allan L.

    2005-01-01

    With recent investigation beginning to reveal the cortical and subcortical neuroanatomical correlates of humor appreciation, the present event-related functional MRI (fMRI) study was designed to elucidate sex-specific recruitment of these humor related networks. Twenty healthy subjects (10 females) underwent fMRI scanning while subjectively rating 70 verbal and nonverbal achromatic cartoons as funny or unfunny. Data were analyzed by comparing blood oxygenation-level-dependent signal activation during funny and unfunny stimuli. Males and females share an extensive humor-response strategy as indicated by recruitment of similar brain regions: both activate the temporal-occipital junction and temporal pole, structures implicated in semantic knowledge and juxtaposition, and the inferior frontal gyrus, likely to be involved in language processing. Females, however, activate the left prefrontal cortex more than males, suggesting a greater degree of executive processing and language-based decoding. Females also exhibit greater activation of mesolimbic regions, including the nucleus accumbens, implying greater reward network response and possibly less reward expectation. These results indicate sex-specific differences in neural response to humor with implications for sex-based disparities in the integration of cognition and emotion. PMID:16275931

  11. Brain activity and desire for Internet video game play.

    PubMed

    Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicolas; Daniels, Melissa A; Arenella, Lynn; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the brain circuitry mediating cue-induced desire for video games is similar to that elicited by cues related to drugs and alcohol. We hypothesized that desire for Internet video games during cue presentation would activate similar brain regions to those that have been linked with craving for drugs or pathologic gambling. This study involved the acquisition of diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 19 healthy male adults (age, 18-23 years) following training and a standardized 10-day period of game play with a specified novel Internet video game, "War Rock" (K2 Network, Irvine, CA). Using segments of videotape consisting of 5 contiguous 90-second segments of alternating resting, matched control, and video game-related scenes, desire to play the game was assessed using a 7-point visual analogue scale before and after presentation of the videotape. In responding to Internet video game stimuli, compared with neutral control stimuli, significantly greater activity was identified in left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right and left parietal lobe, right and left thalamus, and right cerebellum (false discovery rate <0.05, P < .009243). Self-reported desire was positively correlated with the β values of left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right and left thalamus. Compared with the general players, subjects who played more Internet video game showed significantly greater activity in right medial frontal lobe, right and left frontal precentral gyrus, right parietal postcentral gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left parietal precuneus gyrus. Controlling for total game time, reported desire for the Internet video game in the subjects who played more Internet video game was positively correlated with activation in right medial frontal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. The present findings suggest that cue-induced activation to Internet

  12. Brain activity and desire for internet video game play

    PubMed Central

    Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicolas; Daniels, Melissa A.; Arenella, Lynn; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have suggested that the brain circuitry mediating cue induced desire for video games is similar to that elicited by cues related to drugs and alcohol. We hypothesized that desire for internet video games during cue presentation would activate similar brain regions to those which have been linked with craving for drugs or pathological gambling. Methods This study involved the acquisition of diagnostic MRI and fMRI data from 19 healthy male adults (ages 18–23 years) following training and a standardized 10-day period of game play with a specified novel internet video game, “War Rock” (K-network®). Using segments of videotape consisting of five contiguous 90-second segments of alternating resting, matched control and video game-related scenes, desire to play the game was assessed using a seven point visual analogue scale before and after presentation of the videotape. Results In responding to internet video game stimuli, compared to neutral control stimuli, significantly greater activity was identified in left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right and left parietal lobe, right and left thalamus, and right cerebellum (FDR <0.05, p<0.009243). Self-reported desire was positively correlated with the beta values of left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right and left thalamus. Compared to the general players, members who played more internet video game (MIGP) cohort showed significantly greater activity in right medial frontal lobe, right and left frontal pre-central gyrus, right parietal post-central gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left parietal precuneus gyrus. Controlling for total game time, reported desire for the internet video game in the MIGP cohort was positively correlated with activation in right medial frontal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. Discussion The present findings suggest that cue-induced activation to internet video game stimuli may be similar to that observed

  13. Nanofabricated Neural Probes for Dense 3-D Recordings of Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Computations in brain circuits involve the coordinated activation of large populations of neurons distributed across brain areas. However, monitoring neuronal activity in the brain of intact animals with high temporal and spatial resolution has remained a technological challenge. Here we address this challenge by developing dense, three-dimensional (3-D) electrode arrays for electrophysiology. The 3-D arrays constitute the front-end of a modular and configurable system architecture that enables monitoring neuronal activity with unprecedented scale and resolution. PMID:27766885

  14. The Right Brain: An Active Partner in Written Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl-Gemake, Josephine; And Others

    The human brain is composed of two interdependent systems, the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere. While the left brain analyzes sequentially the phonemes of our language and names or reads words, the right brain produces the images, feelings, and associations connected with the words. Current educational systems, however, are doing little…

  15. Unnoticed regularity violation elicits change-related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Czigler, István; Pató, Lívia

    2009-03-01

    Event-related brain electric activity (ERP) was investigated to unnoticed visual changes. The orientation of grid elements (vertical or horizontal) changed after the presentation of 10-15 identical stimuli. The grid patterns were task irrelevant, and were presented in the background of a shape discrimination task. During the first half of the session, participants were unaware of the stimulus change. However, in comparison to the ERPs to the fifth identical stimuli, stimulus change elicited posterior negativities in the 270-375 ms range (visual mismatch negativity, vMMN). With participants instructed on the stimulus change, negativities emerged with earlier onset and with wider distribution. When stimulus change was preceded by only two identical stimuli, there were no such ERP effects. As the results show, a longer sequence of identical unattended stimuli may establish the memory representation of stimulus regularity, and violation of regularity is indicated by posterior negative ERP components (vMMN).

  16. Detection of cocaine induced rat brain activation by photoacoustic tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) was used to detect the progressive changes on the cerebral cortex of Sprague Dawley rats after the administration of cocaine hydrochloride. Different concentrations (0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg per kg body) of cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution were injected into Sprague Dawley rats through tail veins. Cerebral cortex images of the animals were continuously acquired by PAT. For continuous observation, PAT system used multi-transducers to reduce the scanning time and maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The obtained photoacoustic images were compared with each other and confirmed that changes in blood volume were induced by cocaine hydrochloride injection. The results demonstrate that PAT may be used to detect the effects of drug abuse-induced brain activation. PMID:21163301

  17. Working memory updating function training influenced brain activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Renlai; Fu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that working memory could be improved by training. We recruited healthy adult participants and used adaptive running working memory training tasks with a double-blind design, combined with the event-related potentials (ERPs) approach, to explore the influence of updating function training on brain activity. Participants in the training group underwent training for 20 days. Compared with the control group, the training group's accuracy (ACC) in the two-back working memory task had no significant differences after training, but reaction time (RT) was reduced significantly. Besides, the amplitudes of N160 and P300 increased significantly whereas that of P200 decreased significantly. The results suggest that training could have improved the participants' capacity on both inhibitory and updating.

  18. Brain activation in response to bladder filling in healthy adults: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Arya, Nisha G; Weissbart, Steven J; Xu, Sihua; Rao, Hengyi

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies have used different neuroimaging techniques and identified various brain regions that are activated during bladder filling. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding which of these brain regions regulate the process of urine storage. The aim of this meta-analysis is to identify brain regions that are commonly activated during bladder filling in healthy adults across different studies. PubMed was searched for neuroimaging studies investigating the effects of bladder filling on regional brain activation. Studies were excluded if they did not report brain activation differences from whole-brain group analysis by comparing the state of bladder filling with the state of bladder rest. The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. We identified 14 neuroimaging studies examining brain activation in response to experimental bladder filling in 181 healthy subjects, which reported 89 foci for ALE analysis. The meta-analysis revealed significant activation in multiple brain regions including thalamus (bilaterally), right insula, cerebellum, and brainstem (bilaterally). Several key brain regions involved in sensory processing are commonly activated during bladder filling in healthy adults across different studies. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:960-965, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Culture modulates brain activity during empathy with anger.

    PubMed

    de Greck, Moritz; Shi, Zhenhao; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Xiangyu; Yang, Xuedong; Wang, Xiaoying; Northoff, Georg; Han, Shihui

    2012-02-01

    Interdependent cultures (such as the Chinese) and independent cultures (such as the German) differ in their attitude towards harmony that is more valued in interdependent cultures. Interdependent and independent cultures also differ in their appreciation of anger--an emotion that implies the disruption of harmony. The present study investigated if interdependent and independent cultures foster distinct brain activity associated with empathic processing of familiar angry, familiar neutral, and unfamiliar neutral faces. Using functional MRI, we scanned Chinese and German healthy subjects during an intentional empathy task, a control task (the evaluation of skin color), and a baseline condition. The subject groups were matched with regard to age, gender, and education. Behaviorally, Chinese subjects described themselves as significantly more interdependent compared to German subjects. The contrast 'intentional empathy for familiar angry'>'baseline' revealed several regions, including the left inferior frontal cortex, the left supplementary motor area, and the left insula, that showed comparable hemodynamic responses in both groups. However, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had stronger hemodynamic responses in Chinese subjects in the contrast 'intentional empathy for familiar angry'>'baseline'. Germans, in contrast, showed stronger hemodynamic responses in the right temporo-parietal junction, right inferior and superior temporal gyrus, and left middle insula for the same contrast. Hemodynamic responses in the latter three brain regions correlated with interdependences scores over all subjects. Our results suggest that enhanced emotion regulation during empathy with anger in the interdependent lifestyle is mediated by the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Increased tolerance towards the expression of anger in the independent lifestyle, in contrast, is associated with increased activity of the right inferior and superior temporal gyrus and the left middle

  20. Imaging brain neuronal activity using functionalized magnetonanoparticles and MRI.

    PubMed

    Akhtari, Massoud; Bragin, Anatol; Moats, Rex; Frew, Andrew; Mandelkern, Mark

    2012-10-01

    This study explored the use of non-radioactive 2-deoxy glucose (2DG)-labeled magnetonanoparticles (MNP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect functional activity during rest, peripheral stimulation, and epileptic seizures, in animal models. Non-radioactive 2DG was covalently attached to magnetonanoparticles composed of iron oxide and dextran and intravenous (tail) injections were performed. 2DG-MNP was injected in resting and stimulated naïve rodents and the subsequent MRI was compared to published (14)C-2DG autoradiography data. Reproducibility and statistical significance was established in one studied model. Negative contrast enhancement (NCE) in acute seizures and chronic models of epilepsy were investigated. MRI NCE due to 2DG-MNP particles was compared to that of plain (unconjugated) MNP in one animal. NCE due to 2DG-MNP particles at 3 T, which is approved for human use, was also investigated. Histology showed presence of MNP (following intravenous injection) in the brain tissues of resting naïve animal. 2DG-MNP intraparenchymal uptake was visible on MRI and histology. The locations of NCE agreed with published results of 2DG autoradiography in resting and stimulated animals and epileptic rats. Localization of epileptogenicity was confirmed by subsequent depth-electrode EEG (iEEG). Non-radioactive 2DG-MNP can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and may accurately localize areas of increased activity. Although, this proof-of-principle study involves only a limited number of animals, and much more research and quantification are necessary to demonstrate that 2DG-MNP, or MNPs conjugated with other ligands, could eventually be used to image localized cerebral function with MRI in humans, this MNP-MRI approach is potentially applicable to the use of many bioactive molecules as ligands for imaging normal and abnormal localized cerebral functions.

  1. Task Context Influences Brain Activation during Music Listening.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Andjela; Kühnis, Jürg; Jäncke, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we examined brain activation in subjects during two music listening conditions: listening while simultaneously rating the musical piece being played [Listening and Rating (LR)] and listening to the musical pieces unconstrained [Listening (L)]. Using these two conditions, we tested whether the sequence in which the two conditions were fulfilled influenced the brain activation observable during the L condition (LR → L or L → LR). We recorded high-density EEG during the playing of four well-known positively experienced soundtracks in two subject groups. One group started with the L condition and continued with the LR condition (L → LR); the second group performed this experiment in reversed order (LR → L). We computed from the recorded EEG the power for different frequency bands (theta, lower alpha, upper alpha, lower beta, and upper beta). Statistical analysis revealed that the power in all examined frequency bands increased during the L condition but only when the subjects had not had previous experience with the LR condition (i.e., L → LR). For the subjects who began with the LR condition, there were no power increases during the L condition. Thus, the previous experience with the LR condition prevented subjects from developing the particular mental state associated with the typical power increase in all frequency bands. The subjects without previous experience of the LR condition listened to the musical pieces in an unconstrained and undisturbed manner and showed a general power increase in all frequency bands. We interpret the fact that unconstrained music listening was associated with increased power in all examined frequency bands as a neural indicator of a mental state that can best be described as a mind-wandering state during which the subjects are "drawn into" the music.

  2. Task Context Influences Brain Activation during Music Listening

    PubMed Central

    Markovic, Andjela; Kühnis, Jürg; Jäncke, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we examined brain activation in subjects during two music listening conditions: listening while simultaneously rating the musical piece being played [Listening and Rating (LR)] and listening to the musical pieces unconstrained [Listening (L)]. Using these two conditions, we tested whether the sequence in which the two conditions were fulfilled influenced the brain activation observable during the L condition (LR → L or L → LR). We recorded high-density EEG during the playing of four well-known positively experienced soundtracks in two subject groups. One group started with the L condition and continued with the LR condition (L → LR); the second group performed this experiment in reversed order (LR → L). We computed from the recorded EEG the power for different frequency bands (theta, lower alpha, upper alpha, lower beta, and upper beta). Statistical analysis revealed that the power in all examined frequency bands increased during the L condition but only when the subjects had not had previous experience with the LR condition (i.e., L → LR). For the subjects who began with the LR condition, there were no power increases during the L condition. Thus, the previous experience with the LR condition prevented subjects from developing the particular mental state associated with the typical power increase in all frequency bands. The subjects without previous experience of the LR condition listened to the musical pieces in an unconstrained and undisturbed manner and showed a general power increase in all frequency bands. We interpret the fact that unconstrained music listening was associated with increased power in all examined frequency bands as a neural indicator of a mental state that can best be described as a mind-wandering state during which the subjects are “drawn into” the music. PMID:28706480

  3. Prefrontal and Hippocampal Brain Volume Deficits: Role of Low Physical Activity on Brain Plasticity in First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Sarah C; Hardy, Anthony; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Jarrahi, Behnaz; Sandhu, Navjot; Subotnik, Kenneth L; Ventura, Joseph; Nuechterlein, Keith H

    2015-11-01

    Our objective in the present study was to conduct the first empirical study of the effects of regular physical activity habits and their relationship with brain volume and cortical thickness in patients in the early phase of schizophrenia. Relationships between larger brain volumes and higher physical activity levels have been reported in samples of healthy and aging populations, but have never been explored in first-episode schizophrenia patients. We collected MRI structural scans in 14 first-episode schizophrenia patients with either self-reported low or high physical activity levels. We found a reduction in total gray matter volume, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and hippocampal gray matter volumes in the low physical activity group compared to the high activity group. Cortical thickness in the dorsolateral and orbitofrontal PFC were also significantly reduced in the low physical activity group compared to the high activity group. In the combined sample, greater overall physical activity levels showed a non-significant tendency with better performance on tests of verbal memory and social cognition. Together these pilot study findings suggest that greater amounts of physical activity may have a positive influence on brain health and cognition in first-episode schizophrenia patients and support the implementation of physical exercise interventions in this patient population to improve brain plasticity and cognitive functioning.

  4. Brain Na+, K+-ATPase Activity In Aging and Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez; Ordieres, María Graciela López

    2014-01-01

    Na+/K+ pump or sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine 5’-triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase), its enzymatic version, is a crucial protein responsible for the electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. It is an ion transporter, which in addition to exchange cations, is the ligand for cardenolides. This enzyme regulates the entry of K+ with the exit of Na+ from cells, being the responsible for Na+/K+ equilibrium maintenance through neuronal membranes. This transport system couples the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP to exchange three sodium ions for two potassium ions, thus maintaining the normal gradient of these cations in animal cells. Oxidative metabolism is very active in brain, where large amounts of chemical energy as ATP molecules are consumed, mostly required for the maintenance of the ionic gradients that underlie resting and action potentials which are involved in nerve impulse propagation, neurotransmitter release and cation homeostasis. Protein phosphorylation is a key process in biological regulation. At nervous system level, protein phosphorylation is the major molecular mechanism through which the function of neural proteins is modulted in response to extracellular signals, including the response to neurotransmitter stimuli. It is the major mechanism of neural plasticity, including memory processing. The phosphorylation of Na+, K+-ATPase catalytic subunit inhibits enzyme activity whereas the inhibition of protein kinase C restores the enzyme activity. The dephosphorylation of neuronal Na+, K+-ATPase is mediated by calcineurin, a serine / threonine phosphatase. The latter enzyme is involved in a wide range of cellular responses to Ca2+ mobilizing signals, in the regulation of neuronal excitability by controlling the activity of ion channels, in the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as in synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. In the present article evidence showing Na+, K+-ATPase involvement in signaling pathways

  5. PRomotion Of Physical activity through structured Education with differing Levels of ongoing Support for people at high risk of type 2 diabetes (PROPELS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yates, Tom; Griffin, Simon; Bodicoat, Danielle H; Brierly, Gwen; Dallosso, Helen; Davies, Melanie J; Eborall, Helen; Edwardson, Charlotte; Gillett, Mike; Gray, Laura; Hardeman, Wendy; Hill, Sian; Morton, Katie; Sutton, Stephen; Troughton, Jacqui; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2015-07-02

    The prevention of type 2 diabetes is recognised as a health care priority. Lifestyle change has proven effective at reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes, but limitations in the current evidence have been identified in: the promotion of physical activity; availability of interventions that are suitable for commissioning and implementation; availability of evidence-based interventions using new technologies; and physical activity promotion among ethnic minorities. We aim to investigate whether a structured education programme with differing levels of ongoing support, including text-messaging, can increase physical activity over a 4 year period in a multi-ethnic population at high risk of diabetes. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial, with follow-up at 12 and 48 months. The primary outcome is change in ambulatory activity at 48 months. Secondary outcomes include changes to markers of metabolic, cardiovascular, anthropometric and psychological health along with cost-effectiveness. Participants aged 40-74 years for White European, or 25-74 years for South Asians, with an HbA1c value of between 6.0 and < 6.4% (42 and 47 mmol/mol) or with a previously recorded plasma glucose level or HbA1c value within the high risk (prediabetes) range within the last five years, are invited to take part in the trial. Participants are identified through primary care, using an automated diabetes risk score within their practice database, or from a database of previous research participants. Participants are randomly assigned to either: 1) the control group who receive a detailed advice leaflet; 2) the Walking Away group, who receive the same leaflet and attend a 3 hour structured education programme with annual maintenance sessions delivered in groups; or 3) the Walking Away Plus group, who receive the leaflet, attend the structured education programme with annual maintenance sessions, plus receive follow-on support through highly-tailored text-messaging and telephone calls to help

  6. Recovery of brain and plasma cholinesterase activities in ducklings exposed to organophosphorus pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Brain and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activities were determined for mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) exposed to dicrotophos and fenthion. Recovery rates of brain ChE did not differ between ducklings administered a single oral dose vs. a 2-week dietary dose of these organophosphates. Exposure to the organophosphates, followed by recovery of brain ChE, did not significantly affect the degree of brain ChE inhibition or the recovery of ChE activity at a subsequent exposure. Recovery of brain ChE activity followed the general model Y = a + b(logX) with rapid recovery to about 50% of normal, followed by a slower rate of recovery until normal ChE activity levels were attained. Fenthion and dicrotophos-inhibited brain ChE were only slightly reactivated in vitro by pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide, which suggested that spontaneous reactivation was not a primary method of recovery of ChE activity. Recovery of brain ChE activity can be modeled for interpretation of sublethal inhibition of brain ChE activities in wild birds following environmental applications of organophosphates. Plasma ChE activity is inferior to brain ChE activity for environmental monitoring, because of its rapid recovery and large degree of variation among individuals.

  7. Mapping of brain activity by automated volume analysis of immediate early genes

    PubMed Central

    Renier, Nicolas; Adams, Eliza L.; Kirst, Christoph; Wu, Zhuhao; Azevedo, Ricardo; Kohl, Johannes; Autry, Anita E.; Kadiri, Lolahon; Venkataraju, Kannan Umadevi; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Victoria X.; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Olsen, Olav; Dulac, Catherine; Osten, Pavel; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding how neural information is processed in physiological and pathological states would benefit from precise detection, localization and quantification of the activity of all neurons across the entire brain, which has not to date been achieved in the mammalian brain. We introduce a pipeline for high speed acquisition of brain activity at cellular resolution through profiling immediate early gene expression using immunostaining and light-sheet fluorescence imaging, followed by automated mapping and analysis of activity by an open-source software program we term ClearMap. We validate the pipeline first by analysis of brain regions activated in response to Haloperidol. Next, we report new cortical regions downstream of whisker-evoked sensory processing during active exploration. Lastly, we combine activity mapping with axon tracing to uncover new brain regions differentially activated during parenting behavior. This pipeline is widely applicable to different experimental paradigms, including animal species for which transgenic activity reporters are not readily available. PMID:27238021

  8. Mapping of Brain Activity by Automated Volume Analysis of Immediate Early Genes.

    PubMed

    Renier, Nicolas; Adams, Eliza L; Kirst, Christoph; Wu, Zhuhao; Azevedo, Ricardo; Kohl, Johannes; Autry, Anita E; Kadiri, Lolahon; Umadevi Venkataraju, Kannan; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Victoria X; Tang, Cheuk Y; Olsen, Olav; Dulac, Catherine; Osten, Pavel; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc

    2016-06-16

    Understanding how neural information is processed in physiological and pathological states would benefit from precise detection, localization, and quantification of the activity of all neurons across the entire brain, which has not, to date, been achieved in the mammalian brain. We introduce a pipeline for high-speed acquisition of brain activity at cellular resolution through profiling immediate early gene expression using immunostaining and light-sheet fluorescence imaging, followed by automated mapping and analysis of activity by an open-source software program we term ClearMap. We validate the pipeline first by analysis of brain regions activated in response to haloperidol. Next, we report new cortical regions downstream of whisker-evoked sensory processing during active exploration. Last, we combine activity mapping with axon tracing to uncover new brain regions differentially activated during parenting behavior. This pipeline is widely applicable to different experimental paradigms, including animal species for which transgenic activity reporters are not readily available.

  9. Smoking-Cue Induced Brain Activation In Adolescent Light Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Mark L.; Luks, Tracy L.; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Dryden, Wendy; Rait, Michelle A.; Simpson, Gregory V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Using fMRI, we examined whether or not adolescents with low levels of nicotine exposure (light smokers) display neural activation in areas shown to be involved with addiction in response to smoking-related stimuli. Design/Setting/Participants Twelve adolescent light smokers (aged 13 to17, smoked 1 to 5 cigarettes per day) and 12 non-smokers (ages 13 to 17, never smoked a cigarette) from the San Francisco Bay Area underwent fMRI scanning. During scanning they viewed blocks of photographic smoking and control cues. Smoking cues consisted of pictures of people smoking cigarettes and smoking-related objects such as lighters and ashtrays. Neutral cues consisted of everyday objects and people engaged in everyday activities. Findings For smokers, smoking cues elicited greater activation than neutral cues in the mesolimbic reward circuit (left anterior cingulate (T=7.88, p<.001), right hippocampus (T=6.62, p<.001) and right parahippocampal gyrus (T=4.70, p<.001)). We found activation from smoking cues versus neutral cues within both the left and right frontal medial orbital regions (T=5.09, p<.001 and T=3.94, p=.001 respectively), which may be unique to adolescents. Non-smokers showed no significant difference in activation between smoking-related cues and neutral cues. Conclusions Our finding that smoking cues produced activation in adolescent light smokers in brain regions seen in adult and heavy teen smokers suggests that even at low levels of smoking, adolescents exhibit heightened reactivity to smoking cues. This paper adds to the existing literature suggesting that nicotine dependence may begin with exposure to low levels of nicotine, underscoring the need for early intervention among adolescent smokers. PMID:21185518

  10. Brain activity for visual judgment of lifted weight.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alexander; Weiss, Thomas; Franz, Marcel; de Lussanet, Marc H E

    2013-10-01

    It is well established that humans can recognize high-level aspects from point-light biological motion, such as gender and mood. If the task is to judge the manipulated weight we expected that sensorimotor regions should be recruited in the brain. Moreover, we have recently shown that chronic pain in a limb that is involved in the presented movement disturbs the weight judgment. We therefore hypothesized that some cortical regions usually activated during the processing of pain will also be activated while viewing point-light biological motion with the instruction to judge the manipulated weights. We investigated point-light biological motion of two types of movements performed with different weights in a blocked fMRI experiment in healthy subjects. In line with our a priori hypothesis, we found strong activity in the regions known as the neuromatrix of pain, such as the anterior cingulate (ACC), insula, as well as primary and secondary somatosensory regions. We also found activation in the occipital and temporal regions that are typical for biological motion, as well as regions in the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex. The activation of the somatosensory regions probably serves the judgment of the biological motion stimuli. Activation of the anterior cingulate and the insula might be explained by their role in the integration of behaviorally relevant information. Alternatively, these structures are known to be involved in the processing of nociceptive information and pain. So it seems possible that the interference between judgment of weights and perception of pain in chronic pain patients occurs in the somatosensory areas, anterior cingulate and/or insula. This finding provides important information as to the underlying mechanisms used for the weight judgment task, but also why chronic pain interferes with this task. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. From Nose to Brain: Un-Sensed Electrical Currents Applied in the Nose Alter Activity in Deep Brain Structures

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Tali; Shushan, Sagit; Ravia, Aharon; Hahamy, Avital; Secundo, Lavi; Weissbrod, Aharon; Ben-Yakov, Aya; Holtzman, Yael; Cohen-Atsmoni, Smadar; Roth, Yehudah; Sobel, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Rules linking patterns of olfactory receptor neuron activation in the nose to activity patterns in the brain and ensuing odor perception remain poorly understood. Artificially stimulating olfactory neurons with electrical currents and measuring ensuing perception may uncover these rules. We therefore inserted an electrode into the nose of 50 human volunteers and applied various currents for about an hour in each case. This induced assorted non-olfactory sensations but never once the perception of odor. To validate contact with the olfactory path, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure resting-state brain activity in 18 subjects before and after un-sensed stimulation. We observed stimulation-induced neural decorrelation specifically in primary olfactory cortex, implying contact with the olfactory path. These results suggest that indiscriminate olfactory activation does not equate with odor perception. Moreover, this effort serendipitously uncovered a novel path for minimally invasive brain stimulation through the nose. PMID:27591145

  12. From Nose to Brain: Un-Sensed Electrical Currents Applied in the Nose Alter Activity in Deep Brain Structures.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Tali; Shushan, Sagit; Ravia, Aharon; Hahamy, Avital; Secundo, Lavi; Weissbrod, Aharon; Ben-Yakov, Aya; Holtzman, Yael; Cohen-Atsmoni, Smadar; Roth, Yehudah; Sobel, Noam

    2016-09-02

    Rules linking patterns of olfactory receptor neuron activation in the nose to activity patterns in the brain and ensuing odor perception remain poorly understood. Artificially stimulating olfactory neurons with electrical currents and measuring ensuing perception may uncover these rules. We therefore inserted an electrode into the nose of 50 human volunteers and applied various currents for about an hour in each case. This induced assorted non-olfactory sensations but never once the perception of odor. To validate contact with the olfactory path, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure resting-state brain activity in 18 subjects before and after un-sensed stimulation. We observed stimulation-induced neural decorrelation specifically in primary olfactory cortex, implying contact with the olfactory path. These results suggest that indiscriminate olfactory activation does not equate with odor perception. Moreover, this effort serendipitously uncovered a novel path for minimally invasive brain stimulation through the nose.

  13. Contribution of regional brain melanocortin receptor subtypes to elevated activity energy expenditure in lean, active rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Charu; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Cai, Minying; Hruby, Victor J.; Bednarek, Maria; Novak, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity and non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) are crucial factors accounting for individual differences in body weight, interacting with genetic predisposition. In the brain, a number of neuroendocrine intermediates regulate food intake and energy expenditure (EE); this includes the brain melanocortin (MC) system, consisting of melanocortin peptides as well as their receptors (MCR). MC3R and MC4R have emerged as critical modulators of EE and food intake. To determine how variance in MC signaling may underlie individual differences in physical activity levels, we examined behavioral response to MC receptor agonists and antagonists in rats that show high and low levels of physical activity and NEAT, that is, high- and low-capacity runners (HCR, LCR), developed by artificial selection for differential intrinsic aerobic running capacity. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we identified brain region-specific elevations in expression of MCR 3, 4, and also MC5R, in the highly active, lean HCR relative to the less active and obesity-prone LCR. Further, the differences in activity and associated EE as a result of MCR activation or suppression using specific agonists and antagonists were similarly region-specific and directly corresponded to the differential MCR expression patterns. The agonists and antagonists investigated here did not significantly impact food intake at the doses used, suggesting that the differential pattern of receptor expression may by more meaningful to physical activity than to other aspects of energy balance regulation. Thus, MCR-mediated physical activity may be a key neural mechanism in distinguishing the lean phenotype and a target for enhancing physical activity and NEAT. PMID:26404873

  14. Contribution of regional brain melanocortin receptor subtypes to elevated activity energy expenditure in lean, active rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, C; Koch, L G; Britton, S L; Cai, M; Hruby, V J; Bednarek, M; Novak, C M

    2015-12-03

    Physical activity and non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) are crucial factors accounting for individual differences in body weight, interacting with genetic predisposition. In the brain, a number of neuroendocrine intermediates regulate food intake and energy expenditure (EE); this includes the brain melanocortin (MC) system, consisting of MC peptides as well as their receptors (MCR). MC3R and MC4R have emerged as critical modulators of EE and food intake. To determine how variance in MC signaling may underlie individual differences in physical activity levels, we examined behavioral response to MC receptor agonists and antagonists in rats that show high and low levels of physical activity and NEAT, that is, high- and low-capacity runners (HCR, LCR), developed by artificial selection for differential intrinsic aerobic running capacity. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we identified brain region-specific elevations in expression of MCR 3, 4, and also MC5R, in the highly active, lean HCR relative to the less active and obesity-prone LCR. Further, the differences in activity and associated EE as a result of MCR activation or suppression using specific agonists and antagonists were similarly region-specific and directly corresponded to the differential MCR expression patterns. The agonists and antagonists investigated here did not significantly impact food intake at the doses used, suggesting that the differential pattern of receptor expression may by more meaningful to physical activity than to other aspects of energy balance regulation. Thus, MCR-mediated physical activity may be a key neural mechanism in distinguishing the lean phenotype and a target for enhancing physical activity and NEAT. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid enzymes in acute brain injury. 1. Dynamics of changes in CSF enzyme activity after acute experimental brain injury.

    PubMed Central

    Maas, A I

    1977-01-01

    Changes in CSF enzyme activity were studied after brain trauma for their prognostic value. Raised values of CPK and HBDH were demonstrated in the CSF of patients with severe brain injuries. Standardised cold lesions of the brain were induced in cats. The activities of the enzymes CPK, HBDH, LDH, GOT, GPT, and pseudocholinesterase were studied at half hour intervals in the cerebrospinal fluid and at hourly intervals in the serum. A statistically highly significant increase of all enzymes studied developed in the CSF. The greatest changes occurred within four hours of freezing. Large increases could occur in half an hour. Isoenzyme studies demonstrated that CPK and LDH were of cerebral origin. No consistently significant changes could be shown in the serum enzyme activity. It is concluded that after brain injuries, enzymes are released into the extracellular fluid of the brain and transported to the CSF. The limited value of a single enzyme estimation is emphasised. The results described seem to provide indirect evidence for transependymal flow of extracellular fluid in brain oedema. Images PMID:915509

  16. Brain activity associated with illusory correlations in animal phobia

    PubMed Central

    Wiemer, Julian; Schulz, Stefan M.; Reicherts, Philipp; Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Andreatta, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorder patients were repeatedly found to overestimate the association between disorder-relevant stimuli and aversive outcomes despite random contingencies. Such an illusory correlation (IC) might play an important role in the return of fear after extinction learning; yet, little is known about how this cognitive bias emerges in the brain. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 18 female patients with spider phobia and 18 healthy controls were exposed to pictures of spiders, mushrooms and puppies followed randomly by either a painful electrical shock or nothing. In advance, both patients and healthy controls expected more shocks after spider pictures. Importantly, only patients with spider phobia continued to overestimate this association after the experiment. The strength of this IC was predicted by increased outcome aversiveness ratings and primary sensory motor cortex activity in response to the shock after spider pictures. Moreover, increased activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) to spider pictures predicted the IC. These results support the theory that phobia-relevant stimuli amplify unpleasantness and sensory motor representations of aversive stimuli, which in turn may promote their overestimation. Hyper-activity in dlPFC possibly reflects a pre-occupation of executive resources with phobia-relevant stimuli, thus complicating the accurate monitoring of objective contingencies and the unlearning of fear. PMID:25411452

  17. Brain activity associated with illusory correlations in animal phobia.

    PubMed

    Wiemer, Julian; Schulz, Stefan M; Reicherts, Philipp; Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Andreatta, Marta; Pauli, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Anxiety disorder patients were repeatedly found to overestimate the association between disorder-relevant stimuli and aversive outcomes despite random contingencies. Such an illusory correlation (IC) might play an important role in the return of fear after extinction learning; yet, little is known about how this cognitive bias emerges in the brain. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 18 female patients with spider phobia and 18 healthy controls were exposed to pictures of spiders, mushrooms and puppies followed randomly by either a painful electrical shock or nothing. In advance, both patients and healthy controls expected more shocks after spider pictures. Importantly, only patients with spider phobia continued to overestimate this association after the experiment. The strength of this IC was predicted by increased outcome aversiveness ratings and primary sensory motor cortex activity in response to the shock after spider pictures. Moreover, increased activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) to spider pictures predicted the IC. These results support the theory that phobia-relevant stimuli amplify unpleasantness and sensory motor representations of aversive stimuli, which in turn may promote their overestimation. Hyper-activity in dlPFC possibly reflects a pre-occupation of executive resources with phobia-relevant stimuli, thus complicating the accurate monitoring of objective contingencies and the unlearning of fear.

  18. Brain Activation Underlying Threat Detection to Targets of Different Races

    PubMed Central

    Senholzi, Keith B.; Depue, Brendan E.; Correll, Joshua; Banich, Marie T.; Ito, Tiffany A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal underlying racial differences in threat detection. During fMRI, participants determined whether pictures of Black or White individuals held weapons. They were instructed to make shoot responses when the picture showed armed individuals but don’t shoot responses to unarmed individuals, with the cost of not shooting armed individuals being greater than that of shooting unarmed individuals. Participants were faster to shoot armed Blacks than Whites, but faster in making don’t shoot responses to unarmed Whites than Blacks. Brain activity differed to armed versus unarmed targets depending on target race, suggesting different mechanisms underlying threat versus safety decisions. Anterior cingulate cortex was preferentially engaged for unarmed Whites than Blacks. Parietal and visual cortical regions exhibited greater activity for armed Blacks than Whites. Seed-based functional connectivity of the amygdala revealed greater coherence with parietal and visual cortices for armed Blacks than Whites. Furthermore, greater implicit Black-danger associations were associated with increased amygdala activation to armed Blacks, compared to armed Whites. Our results suggest that different neural mechanisms may underlie racial differences in responses to armed versus unarmed targets. PMID:26357911

  19. Own-gender imitation activates the brain's reward circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Iacoboni, Macro; Martin, Alia; Dapretto, Mirella

    2012-01-01

    Imitation is an important component of human social learning throughout life. Theoretical models and empirical data from anthropology and psychology suggest that people tend to imitate self-similar individuals, and that such imitation biases increase the adaptive value (e.g., self-relevance) of learned information. It is unclear, however, what neural mechanisms underlie people's tendency to imitate those similar to themselves. We focused on the own-gender imitation bias, a pervasive bias thought to be important for gender identity development. While undergoing fMRI, participants imitated own- and other-gender actors performing novel, meaningless hand signs; as control conditions, they also simply observed such actions and viewed still portraits of the same actors. Only the ventral and dorsal striatum, orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala were more active when imitating own- compared to other-gender individuals. A Bayesian analysis of the BrainMap neuroimaging database demonstrated that the striatal region preferentially activated by own-gender imitation is selectively activated by classical reward tasks in the literature. Taken together, these findings reveal a neurobiological mechanism associated with the own-gender imitation bias and demonstrate a novel role of reward-processing neural structures in social behavior. PMID:22383803

  20. The influence of sentence novelty and figurativeness on brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Michele T.; Barrett, Kyle M.; Hogstrom, Larson J.

    2010-01-01

    The predominance of the left hemisphere in language comprehension and production is well established. More recently, the right hemisphere’s contribution to language has been examined. Clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging research support the right hemisphere’s involvement in metaphor processing. But, there is disagreement about whether metaphors, in and of themselves, engage the right hemisphere or if other factors that vary between metaphors and literal language elicit right hemisphere engagement. It is important to disambiguate these issues to improve our basic knowledge of figurative language processing, to more precisely define how the right hemisphere supports language, and to facilitate our ability to understand and treat language impairments. Here we investigated the role of the right hemisphere in language comprehension with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) by manipulating familiarity in both literal and metaphoric sentences. In an event-related design, participants viewed English sentences that appeared every 4.5 to 9 seconds, and to which they made a pleasantness judgment. All sentences elicited activation in traditional language brain regions including left inferior frontal gyrus, left anterior inferior temporal and left posterior middle temporal gyri. Overall, metaphors and novel stimuli elicited activation in bilateral inferior frontal gyri and left temporal regions. Additionally, metaphors elicited greater activation than literal sentences in right temporal pole. Although our results are partially consistent with the graded salience hypothesis and the coarse coding hypothesis, the right hemisphere’s sensitivity to familiar metaphors suggests that right hemisphere recruitment is most influenced by semantic integration demands. PMID:21146553

  1. Face gender modulates women's brain activity during face encoding.

    PubMed

    Lovén, Johanna; Svärd, Joakim; Ebner, Natalie C; Herlitz, Agneta; Fischer, Håkan

    2014-07-01

    Women typically remember more female than male faces, whereas men do not show a reliable own-gender bias. However, little is known about the neural correlates of this own-gender bias in face recognition memory. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated whether face gender modulated brain activity in fusiform and inferior occipital gyri during incidental encoding of faces. Fifteen women and 14 men underwent fMRI while passively viewing female and male faces, followed by a surprise face recognition task. Women recognized more female than male faces and showed higher activity to female than male faces in individually defined regions of fusiform and inferior occipital gyri. In contrast, men's recognition memory and blood-oxygen-level-dependent response were not modulated by face gender. Importantly, higher activity in the left fusiform gyrus (FFG) to one gender was related to better memory performance for that gender. These findings suggest that the FFG is involved in the gender bias in memory for faces, which may be linked to differential experience with female and male faces. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Own-gender imitation activates the brain's reward circuitry.

    PubMed

    Losin, Elizabeth A Reynolds; Iacoboni, Macro; Martin, Alia; Dapretto, Mirella

    2012-10-01

    Imitation is an important component of human social learning throughout life. Theoretical models and empirical data from anthropology and psychology suggest that people tend to imitate self-similar individuals, and that such imitation biases increase the adaptive value (e.g., self-relevance) of learned information. It is unclear, however, what neural mechanisms underlie people's tendency to imitate those similar to themselves. We focused on the own-gender imitation bias, a pervasive bias thought to be important for gender identity development. While undergoing fMRI, participants imitated own- and other-gender actors performing novel, meaningless hand signs; as control conditions, they also simply observed such actions and viewed still portraits of the same actors. Only the ventral and dorsal striatum, orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala were more active when imitating own- compared to other-gender individuals. A Bayesian analysis of the BrainMap neuroimaging database demonstrated that the striatal region preferentially activated by own-gender imitation is selectively activated by classical reward tasks in the literature. Taken together, these findings reveal a neurobiological mechanism associated with the own-gender imitation bias and demonstrate a novel role of reward-processing neural structures in social behavior.

  3. Optical imaging of neural and hemodynamic brain activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schei, Jennifer Lynn

    Optical imaging technologies can be used to record neural and hemodynamic activity. Neural activity elicits physiological changes that alter the optical tissue properties. Specifically, changes in polarized light are concomitant with neural depolarization. We measured polarization changes from an isolated lobster nerve during action potential propagation using both reflected and transmitted light. In transmission mode, polarization changes were largest throughout the center of the nerve, suggesting that most of the optical signal arose from the inner nerve bundle. In reflection mode, polarization changes were largest near the edges, suggesting that most of the optical signal arose from the outer sheath. To overcome irregular cell orientation found in the brain, we measured polarization changes from a nerve tied in a knot. Our results show that neural activation produces polarization changes that can be imaged even without regular cell orientations. Neural activation expends energy resources and elicits metabolic delivery through blood vessel dilation, increasing blood flow and volume. We used spectroscopic imaging techniques combined with electrophysiological measurements to record evoked neural and hemodynamic responses from the auditory cortex of the rat. By using implantable optics, we measured responses across natural wake and sleep states, as well as responses following different amounts of sleep deprivation. During quiet sleep, evoked metabolic responses were larger compared to wake, perhaps because blood vessels were more compliant. When animals were sleep deprived, evoked hemodynamic responses were smaller following longer periods of deprivation. These results suggest that prolonged neural activity through sleep deprivation may diminish vascular compliance as indicated by the blunted vascular response. Subsequent sleep may allow vessels to relax, restoring their ability to deliver blood. These results also suggest that severe sleep deprivation or chronic

  4. Agmatine : metabolic pathway and spectrum of activity in brain.

    PubMed

    Halaris, Angelos; Plietz, John

    2007-01-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous neuromodulator that, based on animal studies, has the potential for new drug development. As an endogenous aminoguanidine compound (1-amino-4-guanidinobutane), it is structurally unique compared with other monoamines. Agmatine was long thought to be synthesised only in lower life forms, until its biosynthetic pathway (decarboxylation of arginine) was described in the mammalian brain in 1994. Human arginine decarboxylase has been cloned and shown to have 48% identity to ornithine decarboxylase. In neurons of the brain and spinal cord, agmatine is packaged into synaptic vesicles and released upon neuronal depolarisation. Other evidence of a neuromodulation role for agmatine is the presence of a specific cellular uptake mechanism and a specific metabolic enzyme (agmatinase; which forms putrescine).Initially, agmatine was conceptualised as an endogenous clonidine-displacing substance of imidazoline receptors; however, it has now been established to have affinity for several transmembrane receptors, such as alpha(2)-adrenergic, imidazoline I(1) and glutamatergic NMDA receptors. In addition to activity at these receptors, agmatine irreversibly inhibits neuronal nitric oxide synthase and downregulates inducible nitric oxide synthase. Endogenous agmatine is induced in response to stress and/or inflammation. Stressful conditions that induce agmatine include hypoxic-ischaemia and cold-restraint stress of ulcerogenic proportion. Induction of agmatine in the brain seems to occur in astrocytes, although neurons also synthesise agmatine. The effects of injected agmatine in animals include anticonvulsant-, antineurotoxic- and antidepressant-like actions. Intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injections of agmatine rapidly elicit antidepressant-like behavioural changes in the rodent forced swim test and tail suspension test. Intraperitoneal injections of agmatine into rats and mice also elicit acute anxiolytic-like behavioural changes in the elevated

  5. Does body shaping influence brain shape? Habitual physical activity is linked to brain morphology independent of age.

    PubMed

    Demirakca, Traute; Brusniak, Wencke; Tunc-Skarka, Nuran; Wolf, Isabella; Meier, Sandra; Matthäus, Franziska; Ende, Gabriele; Schulze, Thomas G; Diener, Carsten

    2014-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) was found to influence human brain morphology. However, the impact of PA on brain morphology was mainly demonstrated in seniors. We investigated healthy individuals across a broad age range for the relation between habitual PA and brain morphology. Ninety-five participants (19-82 years) were assessed for self-reported habitual PA with the "Baecke habitual physical activity questionnaire", and T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were evaluated with whole brain voxel based morphometry for gray and white matter volumes and densities. Regression analyses revealed a positive relation between the extent of physical activity and gray matter volume bilaterally in the anterior hippocampal and parahippocampal gyrus independent of age and gender. Age as well as leisure and locomotion activities were linked to enhanced white matter volumes in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus, suggesting a positive interaction especially in seniors. Habitual physical activity is associated with regional volumetric gray and white matter alterations. The positive relation of hippocampal volume and physical activity seems not to be restricted to seniors. Thus, habitual physical activity should be generally considered as an influencing factor in studies investigating medial temporal lobe volume and associated cognitive functions (memory), especially in psychiatric research.

  6. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter

    PubMed Central

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such “intrinsic” brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to “mind”. However, many critical questions have yet to be addressed. In this review, we focus on a scarcely explored area, specifically the energetic requirements and constraints of spontaneous activity, taking into account both thermodynamical and informational perspectives. We argue that the “classical” definitions of spontaneous activity do not take into account an important feature, that is, the critical thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity is associated with slower oscillations compared with evoked, task-related activity, hence it exhibits lower levels of enthalpy and “free-energy” (i.e., the energy that can be converted to do work), thus supporting noteworthy thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Increased spike frequency during evoked activity has a significant metabolic cost, consequently, brain functions traditionally associated with spontaneous activity, such as mind wandering, require less energy that other nervous activities. We also review recent empirical observations in neuroscience, in order to capture how spontaneous brain dynamics and mental function can be embedded in a non-linear dynamical framework, which considers nervous activity in terms of phase spaces, particle trajectories, random walks, attractors and/or paths at the edge of the chaos. This takes us from the thermodynamic free-energy, to the realm

  7. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such "intrinsic" brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to "mind". However, many critical questions have yet to be addressed. In this review, we focus on a scarcely explored area, specifically the energetic requirements and constraints of spontaneous activity, taking into account both thermodynamical and informational perspectives. We argue that the "classical" definitions of spontaneous activity do not take into account an important feature, that is, the critical thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity is associated with slower oscillations compared with evoked, task-related activity, hence it exhibits lower levels of enthalpy and "free-energy" (i.e., the energy that can be converted to do work), thus supporting noteworthy thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Increased spike frequency during evoked activity has a significant metabolic cost, consequently, brain functions traditionally associated with spontaneous activity, such as mind wandering, require less energy that other nervous activities. We also review recent empirical observations in neuroscience, in order to capture how spontaneous brain dynamics and mental function can be embedded in a non-linear dynamical framework, which considers nervous activity in terms of phase spaces, particle trajectories, random walks, attractors and/or paths at the edge of the chaos. This takes us from the thermodynamic free-energy, to the realm of "variational

  8. Mapping social behavior-induced brain activation at cellular resolution in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongsoo; Venkataraju, Kannan Umadevi; Pradhan, Kith; Mende, Carolin; Taranda, Julian; Turaga, Srinivas C; Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Ng, Lydia; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Rockland, Kathleen S; Seung, H Sebastian; Osten, Pavel

    2015-01-13

    Understanding how brain activation mediates behaviors is a central goal of systems neuroscience. Here, we apply an automated method for mapping brain activation in the mouse in order to probe how sex-specific social behaviors are represented in the male brain. Our method uses the immediate-early-gene c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, visualized by serial two-photon tomography: the c-fos-GFP+ neurons are computationally detected, their distribution is registered to a reference brain and a brain atlas, and their numbers are analyzed by statistical tests. Our results reveal distinct and shared female and male interaction-evoked patterns of male brain activation representing sex discrimination and social recognition. We also identify brain regions whose degree of activity correlates to specific features of social behaviors and estimate the total numbers and the densities of activated neurons per brain areas. Our study opens the door to automated screening of behavior-evoked brain activation in the mouse.

  9. Mapping social behavior-induced brain activation at cellular resolution in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yongsoo; Venkataraju, Kannan Umadevi; Pradhan, Kith; Mende, Carolin; Taranda, Julian; Turaga, Srinivas C.; Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Ng, Lydia; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Rockland, Kathleen; Seung, H. Sebastian; Osten, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how brain activation mediates behaviors is a central goal of systems neuroscience. Here we apply an automated method for mapping brain activation in the mouse in order to probe how sex-specific social behaviors are represented in the male brain. Our method uses the immediate early gene c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, visualized by serial two-photon tomography: the c-fos-GFP-positive neurons are computationally detected, their distribution is registered to a reference brain and a brain atlas, and their numbers are analyzed by statistical tests. Our results reveal distinct and shared female and male interaction-evoked patterns of male brain activation representing sex discrimination and social recognition. We also identify brain regions whose degree of activity correlates to specific features of social behaviors and estimate the total numbers and the densities of activated neurons per brain areas. Our study opens the door to automated screening of behavior-evoked brain activation in the mouse. PMID:25558063

  10. Whole-brain mapping of behaviourally induced neural activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Vousden, Dulcie A; Epp, Jonathan; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Nieman, Brian J; van Eede, Matthijs; Dazai, Jun; Ragan, Timothy; Bito, Haruhiko; Frankland, Paul W; Lerch, Jason P; Henkelman, R Mark

    2015-07-01

    The ability to visualize behaviourally evoked neural activity patterns across the rodent brain is essential for understanding the distributed brain networks mediating particular behaviours. However, current imaging methods are limited in their spatial resolution and/or ability to obtain brain-wide coverage of functional activity. Here, we describe a new automated method for obtaining cellular-level, whole-brain maps of behaviourally induced neural activity in the mouse. This method combines the use of transgenic immediate-early gene reporter mice to visualize neural activity; serial two-photon tomography to image the entire brain at cellular resolution; advanced image processing algorithms to count the activated neurons and align the datasets to the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas; and statistical analysis to identify the network of activated brain regions evoked by behaviour. We demonstrate the use of this approach to determine the whole-brain networks activated during the retrieval of fear memories. Consistent with previous studies, we identified a large network of amygdalar, hippocampal, and neocortical brain regions implicated in fear memory retrieval. Our proposed methods can thus be used to map cellular networks involved in the expression of normal behaviours as well as to investigate in depth circuit dysfunction in mouse models of neurobiological disease.

  11. Brain Network Activation as a Novel Biomarker for the Return-to-Play Pathway Following Sport-Related Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, Adam W.; Barber Foss, Kim; Reches, Amit; Gadd, Brooke; Gordon, Michael; Rushford, Ken; Laufer, Ilan; Weiss, Michal; Myer, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Children and adolescent athletes are at a higher risk for concussion than adults, and also experience longer recovery times and increased associated symptoms. It has also recently been demonstrated that multiple, seemingly mild concussions may result in exacerbated and prolonged neurological deficits. Objective assessments and return-to-play criteria are needed to reduce risk and morbidity associated with concussive events in these populations. Recent research has pushed to study the use of electroencephalography as an objective measure of brain injury. In the present case study, we present a novel approach that examines event-related potentials via a brain network activation (BNA) analysis as a biomarker of concussion and recovery. Specifically, changes in BNA scores, as indexed through this approach, offer a potential indicator of neurological health as the BNA assessment qualitatively and quantitatively indexes the network dynamics associated with brain injury. Objective tools, such as these support accurate and efficient assessment of brain injury and may offer a useful step in categorizing the temporal and spatial changes in brain activity following concussive blows, as well as the functional connectivity of brain networks, associated with concussion. PMID:26635720

  12. Brain activation in a myoelectric prosthetic hand: the role of the brain in the rehabilitation of amputees.

    PubMed

    da Paz, Aloysio Campos; Braga, Lucia Willadino

    2007-12-01

    Historically, rehabilitation of amputees has focused on developing prostheses, adjusting them to fit the limb, and then submitting the patient to extensive "training" programs. The objective of this study was to investigate whether stimuli from the sensorimotor cortex, observed through functional magnetic resonance imaging, comprises a neuronal network that permits the control of a myoelectric prosthetic hand. A comprehensive review of the subject was conducted, and a specific case is presented to illustrate the hypothesis. In a self-controlled designed study, a 13-year-old girl with congenital amputation of the right hand was tested to verify if the brain can control fine motor movement of a myoelectric prosthetic hand. Functional magnetic resonance images were conducted to assess whether there was a relationship between brain activation and control of the prosthesis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected to investigate brain activation during the actual opening and closing of the existent hand and during the contraction of the remaining stump muscles used for opening and closing the myoelectric prosthetic hand. Similar activation was found in the brain hemispheres that control the myoelectric and existing hands. When the patient moved the prosthetic hand, activation was observed in the brain's sensorimotor and visual cortexes and the cerebellum. These data suggest that the patient was controlling and also perceiving that the artificial hand was performing movements. This study suggests that it may be possible to control speed, force, and modulation of a myoelectric prosthesis through impulses emitted by specific brain areas. Further research in brain control and improvement of myoelectric prosthesis will lead to a more holistic approach in the development of a man-machine complex.

  13. Perception's shadow: long-distance synchronization of human brain activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Eugenio; George, Nathalie; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Martinerie, Jacques; Renault, Bernard; Varela, Francisco J.

    1999-02-01

    Transient periods of synchronization of oscillating neuronal discharges in the frequency range 30-80Hz (gamma oscillations) have been proposed to act as an integrative mechanism that may br