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Sample records for onions allium cepa

  1. Acetic acid and weed control in onions (Allium cepa L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Although corn gluten meal shows great promise as an organic preemergent herbicide for onions, research has shown the need for supplemental, postemergen...

  2. Acetic acid: Crop injury and onion (Allium cepa L.) yields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Organic herbicides for sweet onions are limited to non-selective materials, such as corn gluten meal and vinegar. Research at Lane, Oklahoma has shown...

  3. Fatal onion (Allium cepa) toxicosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Borelli, Vanessa; Lucioli, Joelma; Furlan, Fernando Henrique; Hoepers, Patrícia Giovana; Roveda, Juliano Fleck; Traverso, Sandra Davi; Gava, Aldo

    2009-05-01

    Toxicosis caused by the ingestion of onion (Allium cepa) by 5 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) occurred in the district of Caçador, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The water buffalo died after ingestion of a large quantity of onion that had been left in the pasture. Clinical signs started 8 days postingestion and were characterized by pale mucous membranes, lethargy, and dark urine. At necropsy, pieces of onions were found in the rumen of 1 animal. The carcass smelled strongly of onion, and the kidneys and urine were dark brown. Microscopic renal lesions included tubular degeneration and necrosis with deposits of eosinophilic material in the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and tubular lumina. These changes were consistent with hemoglobinuric nephrosis. Centrilobular coagulation necrosis was observed in the liver accompanied by hemorrhage and macrophages containing brown cytoplasmic pigment. A diagnosis of hemolytic anemia caused by onion toxicosis was based on the epidemiological data, clinical signs, macroscopic changes, and histological lesions.

  4. Onion (Allium cepa) extract attenuates brain edema.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Soo-Wang; Jang, Mi; Park, Se Won; Kim, Eun Joo; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the potential beneficial effects of onion extract on brain ischemia-induced edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. The possible underlying mechanisms are investigated, especially those linked to the antioxidant effects of the onion extract. Brain ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h followed by reperfusion in mice. Mice were treated intravenously with onion extract 30 min before MCAO. Brain edema and BBB hyperpermeability were evaluated by the measurement of the brain water content and Evans blue extravasation, respectively. The disruption of tight junction proteins was examined by immunohistochemical staining. The level of malondialdehyde was determined using the thiobarbituric acid method. The activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase were determined by spectrophotometric assay. Brain water content in the ischemic hemisphere was significantly reduced by treatment with onion extract. Onion extract also had a significant effect on both the decrease in Evans blue extravasation and the inhibition of zonula occludens-1 and occludin disruption caused by brain ischemia. In addition, onion extract significantly prevented brain ischemia-induced reduction in catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities and elevation of malondialdehyde level in the brain tissue. The results from this study demonstrate that onion extract prevents brain edema, BBB hyperpermeability, and tight junction proteins disruption, possibly through its antioxidant effects in the mouse MCAO model. This study suggests that onion extract may be a beneficial nutrient for the prevention of BBB function during brain ischemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Micropropagation of onion (Allium cepa L.) from immature inflorescences.

    PubMed

    Marinangeli, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro plant production by direct organogenesis from immature flower heads is an ideal approach for clonal propagation of onions (Allium cepa L.). This technique ensures genetic stability, high propagation rate, and maintains donor plant of explants with an advantage over other means of in vitro regeneration. Onion micropropagation is usually applied in breeding programs, maintenance, and multiplication of cytoplasmic-male sterile lines for hybrid production, germplasm conservation, and as a tool for the application of other biotechnologies. For in vitro culture, mature onion bulbs are induced to reproductive phase by vernalization and forced to inflorescence initiation. Immature umbels are dissected from bulbs or cut directly when they appear from the pseudostem among the leaves. Disinfected inflorescences are cultivated in BDS basal medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid, 1 mg/L N (6)-benzyladenine, and 8 g/L agar, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod white fluorescent light (PPD: 50-70 μmol/m(2)s) for 35 days. The regenerated shoot clumps are divided and subculture under the same conditions. For bulbification phase, the individual shoots are cultured in BDS basal medium containing 90 g/L sucrose, without plant growth regulators, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod. Microbulbs can be directly cultivated ex vitro without acclimation.

  6. Screening and incorporation of rust resistance from Allium cepa into bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) via alien chromosome addition.

    PubMed

    Wako, Tadayuki; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Shimazaki, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Naoko; Sakai, Takako; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; 2n = 16), bulb onion (Allium cepa L. Common onion group), and shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) cultivars were inoculated with rust fungus, Puccinia allii, isolated from bunching onion. Bulb onions and shallots are highly resistant to rust, suggesting they would serve as useful resources for breeding rust resistant bunching onions. To identify the A. cepa chromosome(s) related to rust resistance, a complete set of eight A. fistulosum - shallot monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) were inoculated with P. allii. At the seedling stage, FF+1A showed a high level of resistance in controlled-environment experiments, suggesting that the genes related to rust resistance could be located on shallot chromosome 1A. While MAAL, multi-chromosome addition line, and hypoallotriploid adult plants did not exhibit strong resistance to rust. In contrast to the high resistance of shallot, the addition line FF+1A+5A showed reproducibly high levels of rust resistance.

  7. Corn gluten meal as an alternative organic preemergence herbicide for onions (Allium cepa L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are a potential alternative crop for Oklahoma and northeast Texas and corn gluten meal (CGM) is an alternative organic preemergence herbicide. Successful onion production is dependent on reliable weed control because of the onion’s slow growth rate, short height, non-branchin...

  8. Onion (Allium cepa) extract prevents cadmium induced renal dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ige, S. F.; Salawu, E. O.; Olaleye, S. B.; Adeeyo, O. A.; Badmus, J.; Adeleke, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a heavy metal, is known for its adverse effects on the body. In this study, the lowering effect of Cd on renal clearance (RC) was investigated, and Allium cepa extract (AcE) (an antioxidant) was pre-administered orally to prevent Cd's adverse effects. Seventy-two Wistar rats, grouped into three (n = 24), were used for this study. While Group C was given 1.0 ml of AcE daily (orally), Group A and Group B were given distilled water. AcE administration was done for eight weeks. Afterwards B and C were then given 1.5 ml/kg BW of 0.3 mg/L 3CdSO4.8H2O intraperitoneally for three consecutive days. The results obtained showed that Cd causes significant reduction in the 24 hour urine volume (from 3.017 ± 0.125 to 2.433 ± 0.118 ml), RC (from 3.258 ± 0.114 to 1.357 ± 0.104 ml/h for creatinine; and from 0.350 ± 0.057 to 0.185 ± 0.055 ml/h for urea), plasma and tissue SOD and CAT activity (form 1.644 ± 0.036 to 1.307 ± 0.056 u/g protein for plasma SOD; 0.391 ± 0.029 to 0.2692 ± 0.031 u/protein for plasma CAT; 1.695 ± 0.034 to 1.327 ± 0.049 u/g protein for tissues SOD; and from 0.350 ± 0.027 to 0.273 ± 0.043 u for tissue CAT), and significant MDA increased in plasma (from 1496.79 ± 1.321 to 1679.48 ± 143.29 μg/g protein) and tissue (from 1265.22 ± 2.285 to 1669.87 ± 14.61 μg/dL). AcE, however, prevents these Cd's adverse effects. This findings lead to the conclusion Cd exposure causes renal dysfunction, but oral administration of onion could prevent it. PMID:20535248

  9. Economical and environmentally-friendly approaches for usage of onion (Allium cepa L.) waste.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita; Mahato, Neelima; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Lee, Eul Tal; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-08-10

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most commonly cultivated crops across the globe, and its production is increasing every year due to increasing consumer demand. Simultaneously, huge amounts of waste are produced from different parts of the onion, which ultimately affect the environment in various ways. Hence, proper usage as well as disposal of this waste is important from the environmental aspect. This review summarizes various usage methods of onion waste material, and processes involved to achieve maximum benefits. Processing industries produce the largest amount of onion waste. Other sources are storage systems, domestic usage and cultivation fields. Particular emphasis has been given to the methods used for better extraction and usage of onion waste under specific topics: viz. organic synthesis, production of biogas, absorbent for pollutants and value added products.

  10. [Identification of a new bioregulator acting in ultralow doses in bulb onion (Allium cepa L.)].

    PubMed

    Kulikova, O G; Iamskova, V P; Il'ina, A P; Margasiuk, D V; Moliavka, A A; Iamskov, I A

    2011-01-01

    A bioregulator that has physicochemical and biological properties similar to a group of bioregulators isolated from various animal tissues has been found in the bulb onion (Allium cepa L.). It was determined that the biological action of the plant bioregulator is determined by a peptide with molecular weight of 4036 +/- 2 Da whose 18-C-terminal amino acid sequence consisted of 18 residues. On models of seed germination of some vegetable cultures, the ability of the bioregulator isolated from supernatant of onion extract in ultralow doses (10(-13) mg of protein/ml) to inhibit growth and development was demonstrated.

  11. Genotypic variation in sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) III. Characterization of sulfite reductase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic and cDNA sequences corresponding to a ferredoxin-sulfite reductase (SiR) have been cloned from bulb onion (Allium cepa L.) and the expression of the gene and activity of the enzyme characterised with respect to sulfur (S) supply. Cloning, mapping and expression studies revealed that onion ha...

  12. Effect of different exposed lights on quercetin and quercetin glucoside content in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Ko, Eun Young; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Sharma, Kavita; Li, Guan Hao; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glucosides are the major flavonols present in onion (Allium cepa L.) and are predominantly present as quercetin, quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside and quercetin-4'-glucoside. Effect of different light wavelengths on onion after harvest and storage, with fluorescent, blue, red and ultra violet light influenced the quercetin and quercetin glucosides profile. In a peeled onion, all the light treatments elevated quercetin content in bulb. Among them, particularly fluorescent light effect was more eminent which stimulates the maximum synthesis of quercetin in onion. In case of whole onion bulb, skin and pulp showed different responses to light treatment, respectively. The pulp had the highest quercetin glucosides under blue light, whereas the lowest under fluorescent light. Onion skin showed nearly opposite pattern as compared to the pulp. In particular, light treatment proved to be a better way to increase the level of quercetin content in onions which might be utilized for industrial production of bioactive compounds from onion and onion waste products.

  13. Effect of different exposed lights on quercetin and quercetin glucoside content in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun Young; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Sharma, Kavita; Li, Guan Hao; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glucosides are the major flavonols present in onion (Allium cepa L.) and are predominantly present as quercetin, quercetin-3,4′-diglucoside and quercetin-4′-glucoside. Effect of different light wavelengths on onion after harvest and storage, with fluorescent, blue, red and ultra violet light influenced the quercetin and quercetin glucosides profile. In a peeled onion, all the light treatments elevated quercetin content in bulb. Among them, particularly fluorescent light effect was more eminent which stimulates the maximum synthesis of quercetin in onion. In case of whole onion bulb, skin and pulp showed different responses to light treatment, respectively. The pulp had the highest quercetin glucosides under blue light, whereas the lowest under fluorescent light. Onion skin showed nearly opposite pattern as compared to the pulp. In particular, light treatment proved to be a better way to increase the level of quercetin content in onions which might be utilized for industrial production of bioactive compounds from onion and onion waste products. PMID:26150744

  14. Structural analyses and immunomodulatory properties of fructo-oligosaccharides from onion (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Kumar, V Prasanna; Prashanth, K V Harish; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-03-06

    Onion (Allium cepa) is an immune-boosting food rich in fructans. The major aim of this study is to characterize and investigate the immunomodulatory properties of onion fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). FOS was isolated from onion bulbs by hot 80% ethanol extraction (yield: ∼4.5 g/100 g fw) followed by gel permeation chromatography. NMR of onion FOS revealed unusual β-D-Glc terminal residue at the non-reducing end. TLC and ESI-MS analyses showed that onion FOS ranged from trisaccharides to hexasaccharides. Onion FOS (50 μg/mL) significantly increased (∼3-fold) the proliferation of mouse splenocytes/thymocytes vs. control. Further, onion FOS enhanced (∼2.5-fold) the production of nitric oxide by peritoneal exudates cells (PECs) from Wistar rats; intracellular free radicals production and phagocytic activity of isolated murine PECs were also augmented. Our structural and in vitro results indicate that onion FOS comprising of tri- to hexasaccharide units belongs to inulin-type fructans, and possess immunostimulatory activities towards murine lymphocytes and macrophages.

  15. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion) Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Ramagoni, Ramesh Kumar; Anchoju, Vijayendra Chary; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Syed, Arshi Uz Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Allium cepa (onion) is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb). Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  16. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion) Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Ramagoni, Ramesh Kumar; Anchoju, Vijayendra Chary; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Syed, Arshi Uz Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Allium cepa (onion) is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb). Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37–100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins. PMID:26284934

  17. Glu-Phe from onion (Allium Cepa L.) attenuates lipogenesis in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu Geon; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Hwang, Eom Ji; Jeon, Tae-Il; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2017-07-01

    A Glu-Phe (EF) was isolated from onion (Allium cepa L. cv. Sunpower). The chemical structure of EF was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization-mass (ESI-MS) spectroscopy. We showed that EF reduced lipid accumulation in mouse hepatocytes by inhibiting the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and its lipogenic target genes. We also found that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was required for the inhibitory effect of EF on lipid accumulation in mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, EF was qualified in nine onion cultivars by selective multiple reaction-monitoring detection of liquid chromatography-ESI-MS. These results suggest that EF could contribute to the beneficial effect of onion supplement in maintaining hepatic lipid homeostasis.

  18. Development of a disposable pyruvate biosensor to determine pungency in onions (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Abayomi, L A; Terry, L A; White, S F; Warner, P J

    2006-05-15

    A disposable prototype pyruvate biosensor was constructed using pyruvate oxidase immobilised on mediated meldolas blue electrodes to determine pungency in onions (Allium cepa L.). The optimum operating potential was +150 mV (versus Ag/AgCl). A strong correlation between the biosensor response and untreated onion juice of known pyruvate concentration 2-12 micromol/g fresh weight (FW) was demonstrated. The biosensor was able to differentiate between low and high pungency onions. The detection limit using 1 unit of pyruvate oxidase was 1-2 micromol/g FW. Optimum concentrations of co-factors TPP, FAD and MgSO4 comprising the enzyme cocktail were determined as being 0.04, 0.1 and 30 mM, respectively.

  19. Pentatricopeptide Repeat Genes in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Production of hybrid-onion seed depends on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS). The most commonly used CMS in onion requires the presence of male-sterile (S) cytoplasm and recessive alleles at one nuclear male-fertility restoration (Ms) locus. Male-sterile lines are seed propagated using maintain...

  20. Residual behavior of quizalofop ethyl on onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S K; Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Gurmail; Kumar, Rajinder; Chahil, G S; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2013-02-01

    Quizalofop ethyl, a phenoxy propionate herbicide, is used for postemergence control of annual and perennial grass weeds in broad-leaved crops in India. The experiments were designed to study the dissipation kinetics of quizalofop ethyl on onion for two seasons. A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for estimation of quizalofop ethyl residues in onion and soil was developed and validated. The recoveries of quizalofop ethyl residues from onion and soil at different spiking level range from 84.81 to 92.68 %. The limit of quantification of this method was found to be 0.01 μg g(-1). The risk assessment through consumption of the onion in comparison to its acceptable daily intake which is an important parameter for the safety of the consumer was also evaluated. Standardized methodology supported by recovery studies was adopted to estimate residues of quizalofop ethyl on onion and soil. The average initial deposits of quizalofop ethyl on onion were observed to be 0.25 and 0.33 mg kg(-1), following single application of the herbicide at 50 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1) during 2009 and 2010, respectively. The half-life values (T (1/2)) of quizalofop ethyl on onion crop were worked out to be 0.85 and 0.79 days, respectively, during 2009 and 2010. At harvest time, the residues of quizalofop ethyl on onion and soil were found to be below the determination limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1) following single application of the herbicide at 50 and 100 g a.i. ha(-1) for both the periods.

  1. Marker-assisted genotype analysis of bulb colors in segregating populations of onions (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunggil; Bang, Haejeen; Yoo, Kil-Sun; Pike, Leonard

    2007-04-30

    Bulb color in onions (Allium cepa) is an important trait whose complex inheritance mechanism involves epistatic interactions among major color-related loci. Recent studies revealed that inactivation of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) in the anthocyanin synthesis pathway was responsible for the color differences between yellow and red onions, and two recessive alleles of the anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) gene were responsible for a pink bulb color. Based on mutations in the recessive alleles of these two genes, PCR-based markers for allelic selection were developed. In this study, genotype analysis of onions from segregating populations was carried out using these PCR-based markers. Segregating populations were derived from the cross between yellow and red onions. Five yellow and thirteen pink bulbs from one segregating breeding line were genotyped for the two genes. Four pink bulbs were heterozygous for the DFR gene, which explains the continuous segregation of yellow and pink colors in this line. Most pink onions were homozygous recessive for the ANS gene, except for two heterozygotes. This finding indicated that the homozygous recessive ANS gene was primarily responsible for the pink color in this line. The two pink onions, heterozygous for the ANS gene, were also heterozygous for the DFR gene, which indicated that the pink color was produced by incomplete dominance of a red color gene over that of yellow. One pink line and six other segregating breeding lines were also analyzed. The genotyping results matched perfectly with phenotypic color segregation.

  2. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Schwinn, Kathy E; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A; Albert, Nick W; McCallum, John A; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species.

  3. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Schwinn, Kathy E.; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A.; Albert, Nick W.; McCallum, John A.; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species. PMID:28018399

  4. Isolation and identification of potential cancer chemopreventive agents from methanolic extracts of green onion (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hang; Parkin, Kirk L

    2007-04-01

    Phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes confer amelioration of risk arising from potentially carcinogenic chemicals derived both endogenously, and exogenously, from food and the environment. In this study, efforts were made to isolate and identify potentially cancer preventive constituents from methanolic extracts of green onion (Allium cepa) directed by the quinone reductase (QR) induction bioassay using murine hepatoma (Hepa 1c1c7) cells. Crude methanolic extracts of green onion tissue were solvent-partitioned, and subsequently fractionated by flash chromatography, thin layer chromatography and high pressure preparative liquid chromatography to afford pure QR-inducing isolates. Multiple isolates were found active at inducing QR. One newly identified compound, 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-propylsulfanyl-5H-furan-2-one (3), and four known compounds: 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural (1), acetovanillone (2), methyl 4-hydroxyl cinnamate (4) and ferulic acid methyl ester (5), were isolated and identified as active agents.

  5. [Genetic transformation of OSISAP1 gene to onion (Allium cepa L.) mediated by amicroprojectile bombardment].

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi-Jiang; Cui, Cheng-Ri

    2007-06-01

    Microprojectile bombardment-mediated transformation method has been developed for onion (Allium cepa L.) using embryogenic calli, induced from stem discs, as target tissue. Zinc-finger protein gene OSISAP1 (Oryza sative subspecies indica stress-associated protein gene) was introduced into the open-pollinated onion cultivar (subs.) 'HG400B'. Bombardment parameters were optimized as: the pressure is 1,100 psi, the distance is 6 cm, two times, the ratio of mass between plasmid DNA and golden particles is 1:320. An efficient microprojectile bombardment-mediated transformation system of onion (Allium cepa L.) callus has been established. The binary vector used carried the nptII gene for kanamycin resistance and the GUS reporter gene. Transgenic cultures were screened for their ability to express the GUS reporter gene and to grow in the presence of kanamycin (150 mg/L). Transient expression of GUS reporter gene was observed through histochemical staining of embryogenic callus transformed by microprojectile bombardment. The putative transgenic plants were analysed at the molecular level using PCR, southern hybridization, and RT-PCR. The results confirmed that the OSISAP1 gene was integrated as one copy into the genome of onion and expression. Transgenic plants were produced efficiently with a transformation frequency of about 10%. Test of salinity-alkali stress showed that sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate at 200 mmol/L effectively killed non-transgenic plants within 1 week of irrigation, while the transgenic plants were completely unaffected by salinity of 400 mmol/L. So transformation with the OSISAP1 gene raised the salinity-alkali-tolerance of the transgenic plants to a high level.

  6. Fluoride toxicity effects in onion (Allium cepa L.) grown in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Nayak, A K; Sharma, Y K

    2009-07-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under controlled condition to investigate the accumulation, uptake and toxicity effects of fluoride (F) in onion (Allium cepa L.) grown on the soil contaminated by inorganic fluoride (NaF). Six different levels of soil contamination were used by adding 0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg NaFkg(-1) to the soil. The F concentration in shoot, bulb and root varied between 16.3 and 109.1mg Fkg(-1), 15.8 and 54.3mg Fkg(-1) and 18.6 and 151.6 mg Fkg(-1), respectively. The visible symptoms of F toxicity in terms of tip burning and death of the plant was noticed in highly contaminated soils (>400mg NaFkg(-1) soil). The phyto-toxic threshold limit (LC(50)) in onion shoot was found to be 55 mg Fkg(-1), beyond which the biomass yield decreased by 50%. It was also inferred from the study that there is a partitioning of F in onion, with more accumulation in roots and shoots than in bulbs. The order of retention of fluoride in onion found to be roots>shoot>bulb.

  7. Pectic Enzyme Activities of Bacteria Associated with Rotted Onions (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Obi, S K; Umezurike, G M

    1981-10-01

    The aerobic bacteria associated with soft rot in onions (Allium cepa) were isolated and identified as a Vibrio sp., Micrococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas cepacia, an Acinetobacter sp., a Xanthomonas sp., Bacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium. With the cup-plate assay method, no pectin hydrolase could be detected from any of these isolates when they were cultured in pectin medium, but lyase and pectinesterases were detectable. Onion tissue cultures showed pectin hydrolase activity for P. cepacia and B. polymyxa and lyase and pectinesterase activities for all of the isolates, usually at higher levels of activity than those of the pectin medium culture filtrates. In both culture media, Vibrio sp. showed the highest lyase and pectinesterase activities. In the viscometric test, all of the isolates achieved at least a 50% decrease in viscosity for lyase enzyme, with M. epidermidis and Vibrio sp. recording viscosity decreases as high as 83%. The ability to cause soft rot in onion bulbs was demonstrated by P. cepacia and Xanthomonas sp. Benzoic acid at a concentration of 0.8 mg/ml caused total suppression of enzyme production, whereas sodium benzoate at this concentration reduced pectinesterase production by 71% and lyase production by 72%. The possible use of these preservatives in the control of soft rot in onions is noted.

  8. Antispasmodic saponins from bulbs of red onion, Allium cepa L. var. Tropea.

    PubMed

    Corea, Gabriella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A

    2005-02-23

    A phytochemical analysis of the polar extract from the red bulbs of Allium cepa L. var. Tropea, typical of Calabria, a southern region of Italy, was performed extensively for the first time, leading to the isolation of four new furostanol saponins, named tropeoside A1/A2 (1a/1b) and tropeoside B1/B2 (3a/3b), along with the respective 22-O-methyl derivatives (2a/2b and 4a/4b), almost certainly extraction artifacts. High concentrations of ascalonicoside A1/A2 (5a/5b) and ascalonicoside B (6), previously isolated from Allium ascalonicum Hort., were also found. This is the first report of furostanol saponins in this A. cepa variety. The chemical structures of the new compounds were established through a combination of extensive nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and chemical analyses. High concentrations of quercetin, quercetin 4(I)-glucoside, taxifolin, taxifolin 7-glucoside, and phenylalanine were also isolated. The new saponins were found to possess antispasmodic activity in the guinea pig isolated ileum; such an effect might contribute to explaining the traditional use of onion in the treatment of disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhiza improves yield and nutritional properties of onion (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Rąpała-Kozik, Maria; Wężowicz, Katarzyna; Grandin, Anna; Karlsson, Stefan; Ważny, Rafał; Anielska, Teresa; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    Improving the nutritional value of commonly cultivated crops is one of the most pending problems for modern agriculture. In natural environments plants associate with a multitude of fungal microorganisms that improve plant fitness. The best described group are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These fungi have been previously shown to improve the quality and yield of several common crops. In this study we tested the potential utilization of Rhizophagus irregularis in accelerating growth and increasing the content of important dietary phytochemicals in onion (Allium cepa). Our results clearly indicate that biomass production, the abundance of vitamin B1 and its analogues and organic acid concentration can be improved by inoculating the plant with AM fungi. We have shown that improved growth is accompanied with up-regulated electron transport in PSII and antioxidant enzyme activity.

  10. Sulphur management in onion (Allium cepa) cultivation in hills of Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, R C; Sharma, R K

    2010-05-01

    Field experiment were conducted at CSK HPKV Research Farm, Palampur during Rabi seasons of 2000-01 and 2001-02, to study the response of onion (Allium cepa var Patna red) at four sulphur levels (0, 15, 30 and 60 kg ha(-1)) applied through Gypsum and S95. The analysis was done to allocate the limited availability of sulphur for maximizing net profit over fertilizer cost. The results show that the dose of sulphur under its full availability is 43.02 kg ha(-1). But under its scarce availability the maximum benefit would occur when it is applied up to 32.11 kg ha(-1) followed by even distribution of fertilizer i.e. 20 kg ha(-1). The returns following sulphur application at these rates, would be Rs 69340, 73092 and 68700 ha(-1) respectively.

  11. Alleviation of cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression in Wistar rats by onion lectin (Allium cepa agglutinin).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vaddi P; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2016-06-20

    In various traditional medicines, onion has been classified as an immune-boosting food. Recent studies have claimed this property due to the presence of bioactive organosulfur compounds, prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides and an immunomodulatory protein, lectin (Allium cepa agglutinin; ACA) (Prasanna and Venkatesh, 2015. Characterization of onion lectin (Allium cepa agglutinin) as an immunomodulatory protein inducing Th1-type immune response in vitro. Int. Immunopharmacol. vol. 26, pp. 304-313). The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoprotective properties of ACA in normal and cyclophosphamide (CP; 100μg/kg)-induced immunosuppressed Wistar rats. Wistar rats were administrated different doses of ACA (1, 10, and 100μg) to respective groups in normal as well as immunosuppressed animals. The effect of ACA on the status of immune organs was assessed by examining the splenic and thymic indices, and histopathological changes. The biomarkers for humoral immunity (serum IgG and IgA levels) and serum pro-inflammatory markers (COX-2, TNF-α and IL-10) were measured by ELISA. ACA showed immunoprotective properties by significantly promoting the restoration of lymphoid cell count by ~6 fold vs. model control (immunosuppressed animals) and promotes the immune response significantly (~1.5-fold) in CP-induced immunosuppressed animals compared to model control; production of pro-inflammatory molecules (COX-2 and nitric oxide) and expression levels of immune regulatory molecule (TNF-α) were elevated in a dose-dependent manner. The observed in vivo results suggest that ACA has the potential to be used as a nutritional therapeutic to boost the immune status of immunosuppressed subjects brought about by CP administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxicity mechanisms of onion (Allium cepa) extracts and compounds in multidrug resistant erythroleukemic cell line.

    PubMed

    Votto, Ana P S; Domingues, Beatriz S; de Souza, Michele M; da Silva Júnior, Flavio M R; Caldas, Sergiane S; Filgueira, Daza M V B; Clementin, Rosilene M; Primel, Ednei G; Vallochi, Adriana L; Furlong, Eliana B; Trindade, Gilma S

    2010-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is being studied as a potential anticancer agent, but little is known regarding its effect in multidrug resistance (MDR) cells. In this work, the cytotoxicity of crude onion extract (OE) and fractioned extract (aqueous, methanolic and ethyl acetate), as well as some onion compounds (quercetin and propyl disulfide) were evaluated in Lucena MDR human erythroleukemic and its K562 parental cell line. The capacity of OE to induce apoptosis and/or necrosis in these cells, the possible participation of oxidative stress and DNA damage were also assessed. Similar sensitivities were obtained for both tumoral cells, however only OE caused significant effects in the cells. In K562 cells, a significant increase of apoptosis was verified while the Lucena cells experienced a significant increase of necrosis. An antioxidant capacity was verified for OE discarding oxidative damage. However, OE provoked similar significant DNA damage in both cell lines. Thus, the OE capacity to overcome the MDR phenotype suggests anti-MDR action of OE.

  13. Vesicle formation in the membrane of onion cells (Allium cepa) during rapid osmotic dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Assani, Akym; Moundanga, Sylvie; Beney, Laurent; Gervais, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Optimization of osmotic dehydration in different plant cells has been investigated through the variation of parameters such as the nature of the sugar used, the concentration of osmotic solutions and the processing time. In micro-organisms such as the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the exposure of a cell to a slow increase in osmotic pressure preserves cell viability after rehydration, while sudden dehydration involves a lower rate of cell viability, which could be due to membrane vesiculation. The aim of this work is to study cytoplasmic vesicle formation in onion epidermal cells (Allium cepa) as a function of the kinetics of osmotic pressure variation in the external medium. Methods Onion epidermal cells were submitted either to an osmotic shock or to a progressive osmotic shift from an osmotic pressure of 2 to 24 MPa to induce plasmolysis. After 30 min in the treatment solution, deplasmolysis was carried out. Cells were observed by microscopy during the whole cycle of dehydration–rehydration. Key Results The application of an osmotic shock to onion cells, from an initial osmotic pressure of 2 MPa to a final one of 24 MPa for <1 s, led to the formation of numerous exocytotic and osmocytic vesicles visualized through light and confocal microscopy. In contrast, after application of a progressive osmotic shift, from an initial osmotic pressure of 2 MPa to a final one of 24 MPa for 30 min, no vesicles were observed. Additionally, the absence of Hechtian strand connections led to the bursting of vesicles in the case of the osmotic shock. Conclusions It is concluded that the kinetics of osmotic dehydration strongly influence vesicle formation in onion cells, and that Hechtian strand connections between protoplasts and exocytotic vesicles are a prerequisite for successful deplasmolysis. These results suggest that a decrease in the area-to-volume ratio of a cell could cause cell death following an osmotic shock. PMID:19833611

  14. The role of gamma irradiation on the extraction of phenolic compounds in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Eun In; Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Young Soo; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-08-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the content of total phenolic compounds, especially quercetin (Q), in onion (Allium cepa L.) skin was investigated. Onion skin extracts contained two predominant flavonoid compounds, Q and quercetin-4'-glucoside (Q4'G). After 10 kGy gamma irradiation, the yield of Q in the extracts increased significantly from 36.8 to 153.9 μg/ml of the extract, and the Q4'G content decreased slightly from 165.0 to 134.1 μg/ml. In addition, the total phenolic compound content also increased after irradiation at 10 kGy, from 228.0 μg/g of fresh weight to 346.6 μg/g; negligible changes (237.1-256.7 μg/g) occurred at doses of up to 5 kGy. As we expected, radical-scavenging activity was enhanced remarkably (by 88.8%) in the 10 kGy irradiated sample. A dose-dependent increase in the peak intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra was observed in all irradiated samples, with a maximum increase at 10 kGy. The intensity relative to that of the control was 0.15, and it increased to 1.10 in 10 kGy irradiated samples. The optimum gamma irradiation dose, which is sufficient to break the chemical or physical bonds and release soluble phenols of low molecular weight in onion skin, is about 10 kGy.

  15. The effects of onion (Allium cepa) extract on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Alpsoy, Seref; Uygur, Ramazan; Aktas, Cevat; Topcu, Birol; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Karakaya, Osman; Gedikbasi, Asuman

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of onion (Allium cepa) extracts (ACE) on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced apoptosis in aortic endothelial cells. The rats in the ACE-pretreated group were given a daily dose of 1 ml ACE for 14 days. To induce aortic endothelial cell apoptosis, DOX (30 mg kg(-1) body weight) was injected intraperitoneally by a single dose and the rats were sacrificed after 48 h. To date, no such studies have been performed on antiapoptotic potential of ACE on DOX-induced apoptosis in aortic endothelial cells. Our data indicate a significant reduction in the activity of in situ identification of apoptosis using terminal dUTP nick end-labeling in aortic endothelial cells of the DOX-treated group with ACE therapy. DOX-treated with ACE groups showed a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels and increased levels of glutathione in comparison with the DOX-treated group. Data from our study show that prevention of endothelial cell apoptosis by ACE may contribute to the restoration of aortic endothelial dysfunction that is associated with DOX treatment.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunsha; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhan, Zongxiang; Liu, Bingjiang; Chen, Zhentai; Liang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, “starch and sucrose metabolism” (147, 2.40%) constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters (SUTs) participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase, and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose, and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS), both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research. PMID:27713754

  17. Nitrogen form and mycorrhizal inoculation amount and timing affect flavonol biosynthesis in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Mollavali, Mohanna; Perner, Henrike; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Hanschen, Franziska S; Schwarz, Dietmar

    2017-09-26

    Mycorrhizal symbiosis is known to be the most prevalent form of fungal symbiosis with plants. Although some studies focus on the importance of mycorrhizal symbiosis for enhanced flavonoids in the host plants, a comprehensive understanding of the relationship still is lacking. Therefore, we studied the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation of onions (Allium cepa L.) regarding flavonol concentration and the genes involved in flavonol biosynthesis when different forms of nitrogen were supplied. We hypothesized that mycorrhizal inoculation can act as a biotic stress and might lead to an increase in flavonols and expression of related genes. The three main quercetin compounds [quercetin-3,4'-di-O-β-D-glucoside (QDG), quercetin-4'-O-β-D-glucoside (QMG), and isorhamnetin-4'-O-β-D-glucoside (IMG)] of onion bulbs were identified and analyzed after inoculating with increasing amounts of mycorrhizal inocula at two time points and supplying either predominantly NO3(-) or NH4(+) nitrogen. We also quantified plant dry mass, nutrient element uptake, chalcone synthase (CHS), flavonol synthase (FLS), and phenyl alanine lyase (PAL) gene expression as key enzymes for flavonol biosynthesis. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (highest amount) and colonization at late development stages (bulb growth) increased QDG and QMG concentrations if plants were additionally supplied with predominantly NH4(+). No differences were observed in the IMG content. RNA accumulation of CHS, FLS, and PAL was affected by the stage of the mycorrhizal symbiosis and the nitrogen form. Accumulation of flavonols was not correlated, however, with either the percentage of myorrhization or the abundance of transcripts of flavonoid biosynthesis genes. We found that in plants at late developmental stages, RNA accumulation as a reflection of a current physiological situation does not necessarily correspond with the content of metabolites that accumulate over a long period. Our findings suggest that nitrogen

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunsha; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhan, Zongxiang; Liu, Bingjiang; Chen, Zhentai; Liang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, "starch and sucrose metabolism" (147, 2.40%) constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters (SUTs) participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase, and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose, and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS), both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research.

  19. The effect of aqueous preparation of Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativa (garlic) on erythrocyte osmotic fragility in Wistar rats: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Salami, H A; John, A I; Ekanem, A U

    2012-06-07

    Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativa (garlic) are bulbous herbs used as food item, spice and medicine in different parts of the world. The effects of onion and garlic on the osmotic fragility of red blood cells in albino rats were assessed in vivo and in vitro. In the in vivo studies, five albino rats weighing between 150 - 200g composed each of three study groups. Group A were administered 150mg/Kg body weight aqueous onion preparation; Group B 75mg/Kg body weight aqueous onion and 75mg/Kg body weight garlic preparations; and Group C served as the control and were administered distilled water. The treatment regimens were orally administered thrice a week, for a period of four weeks by gavages. The in vitro erythrocyte osmotic fragility was also evaluated in 12 Wistar rats that were not pre-treated with either onion alone or onion and garlic. The animals were divided into three groups. Blood samples from group A rats were treated with 150mg onion while blood from group B rats was treated with 75mg onion and 75mg garlic extracts. Group C served as the control and were treated with normal saline and osmotic fragility assays were carried out. The degree of haemolysis was greater in the treatment group compared to control and the percentage haemolysis was greater in blood samples with onion and garlic compared to the onion group. The same observation was made in the in vitro study, but the degree of haemolysis was significantly higher in in vitro than the in vivo experiments. It is concluded that onion and garlic increase the osmotic fragility of red blood cells in albino rats.

  20. The L locus, one of complementary genes required for anthocyanin production in onions (Allium cepa), encodes anthocyanidin synthase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunggil; Jones, Rick; Yoo, Kil-Sun; Pike, Leonard M

    2005-06-01

    Bulb color in onions (Allium cepa) is an important trait, but its complex, unclear mechanism of inheritance has been a limiting factor in onion cultivar improvement. The identity of the L locus, which is involved in the color difference between Brazilian yellow and red onions, is revealed in this study. A cross was made between a US-type yellow breeding line and a Brazilian yellow cultivar. The segregation ratio of nine red to seven yellow onions in the F(2) population supports the involvement of two complementary genes in anthocyanin production in the F(1) hybrids. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis of the Brazilian yellow onions indicated that the genes are involved late in the anthocyanin synthesis pathway. The genomic sequence of the anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) gene in Brazilian yellow onions showed a point mutation, which results in an amino acid change of a glycine to an arginine at residue 229. Because this residue is located adjacent to a highly conserved iron-binding active site, this mutation is likely responsible for the inactivation of the ANS gene in Brazilian yellow onions. Following the isolation of the promoter sequence of the mutant allele, a PCR-based marker for allelic selection of the ANS gene was designed. This assay is based on an insertion (larger than 3 kb) mutation. The marker perfectly co-segregated with the color phenotypes in the F(2) populations, thereby indicating that the L locus encodes ANS.

  1. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Bulb Onion (Allium cepa L.) during Cold Acclimation Using Contrasting Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Park, Jong-In; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Bulb onion (Allium cepa) is the second most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crop in the world. During winter, cold injury can limit the production of bulb onion. Genomic resources available for bulb onion are still very limited. To date, no studies on heritably durable cold and freezing tolerance have been carried out in bulb onion genotypes. We applied high-throughput sequencing technology to cold (2°C), freezing (-5 and -15°C), and control (25°C)-treated samples of cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) genotypes of A. cepa lines. A total of 452 million paired-end reads were de novo assembled into 54,047 genes with an average length of 1,331 bp. Based on similarity searches, these genes were aligned with entries in the public non-redundant (nr) database, as well as KEGG and COG database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using log10 values with the FPKM method. Among 5,167DEGs, 491 genes were differentially expressed at freezing temperature compared to the control temperature in both CT and CS libraries. The DEG results were validated with qRT-PCR. We performed GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of all DEGs and iPath interactive analysis found 31 pathways including those related to metabolism of carbohydrate, nucleotide, energy, cofactors and vitamins, other amino acids and xenobiotics biodegradation. Furthermore, a large number of molecular markers were identified from the assembled genes, including simple sequence repeats (SSRs) 4,437 and SNP substitutions of transition and transversion types of CT and CS. Our study is the first to provide a transcriptome sequence resource for Allium spp. with regard to cold and freezing stress. We identified a large set of genes and determined their DEG profiles under cold and freezing conditions using two different genotypes. These data represent a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies of Allium spp. PMID:27627679

  2. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Bulb Onion (Allium cepa L.) during Cold Acclimation Using Contrasting Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeongsukhyeon; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Park, Jong-In; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Bulb onion (Allium cepa) is the second most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crop in the world. During winter, cold injury can limit the production of bulb onion. Genomic resources available for bulb onion are still very limited. To date, no studies on heritably durable cold and freezing tolerance have been carried out in bulb onion genotypes. We applied high-throughput sequencing technology to cold (2°C), freezing (-5 and -15°C), and control (25°C)-treated samples of cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) genotypes of A. cepa lines. A total of 452 million paired-end reads were de novo assembled into 54,047 genes with an average length of 1,331 bp. Based on similarity searches, these genes were aligned with entries in the public non-redundant (nr) database, as well as KEGG and COG database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using log10 values with the FPKM method. Among 5,167DEGs, 491 genes were differentially expressed at freezing temperature compared to the control temperature in both CT and CS libraries. The DEG results were validated with qRT-PCR. We performed GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of all DEGs and iPath interactive analysis found 31 pathways including those related to metabolism of carbohydrate, nucleotide, energy, cofactors and vitamins, other amino acids and xenobiotics biodegradation. Furthermore, a large number of molecular markers were identified from the assembled genes, including simple sequence repeats (SSRs) 4,437 and SNP substitutions of transition and transversion types of CT and CS. Our study is the first to provide a transcriptome sequence resource for Allium spp. with regard to cold and freezing stress. We identified a large set of genes and determined their DEG profiles under cold and freezing conditions using two different genotypes. These data represent a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies of Allium spp.

  3. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oils on the Aspergillus versicolor growth and sterigmatocystin production.

    PubMed

    Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Dimić, Gordana; Lević, Jelena; Tanackov, Ilija; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vujičić, Biserka; Gvozdanović-Varga, Jelica

    2012-05-01

    In the present study the effects of individual and combined essential oils (EOs) extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb and garlic (Allium sativum L.) clove on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and sterigmatocystin (STC) production were investigated. The EOs obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty one compounds were identified in onion EO. The major components were: dimethyl-trisulfide (16.64%), methyl-propyl-trisulfide (14.21%), dietil-1,2,4-tritiolan (3R,5S-, 3S,5S- and 3R,5R- isomers) (13.71%), methyl-(1-propenyl)-disulfide (13.14%), and methyl-(1-propenyl)-trisulfide (13.02%). The major components of garlic EO were diallyl-trisulfide (33.55%), and diallyl-disulfide (28.05%). The mycelial growth and the STC production were recorded after 7, 14, and 21 d of the A. versicolor growth in Yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth containing different EOs concentrations. Compared to the garlic EO, the onion EO showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the A. versicolor mycelial growth and STC production. After a 21-d incubation of fungi 0.05 and 0.11 μg/mL of onion EO and 0.11 μg/mL of garlic EO completely inhibited the A. versicolor mycelial growth and mycotoxins biosynthesis. The combination of EOs of onion (75%) and garlic (25%) had a synergistic effect on growth inhibition of A. versicolor and STC production.

  4. Addition of a combination of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) to food of sheep stops gastrointestinal helminthic infections.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy

    2011-04-01

    Sheep with gastrointestinal nematodes and cestodes were fed on three farms with a combination of specially prepared extracts of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) for 8 days containing each 60 g coconut and onion extract, combined with milk powder and/or polyethylene glycol (PEG) propylencarbonate (PC). In all cases, the worm stages disappeared from the feces and were also not found 9 and 20 days after the end of the feeding with this plant combination. Since all treated animals increased their body weight considerably (when compared to untreated animals), worm reduction was apparently as effective as it was shown in previous laboratory trials with rats and mice (Klimpel et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; Abdel-Ghaffar et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; in this volume).

  5. Characterization of onion lectin (Allium cepa agglutinin) as an immunomodulatory protein inducing Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Vaddi K; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2015-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a bulb crop of economic importance, is known to have many health benefits. The major objective of the present study is to address the immunomodulatory properties of onion lectin (A. cepa agglutinin; ACA). ACA was purified from onion extract by D-mannose-agarose chromatography (yield: ~1 mg/kg). ACA is non-glycosylated and showed a molecular mass of ~12 kDa under reducing/non-reducing SDS-PAGE; glutaraldehyde cross-linking indicated that ACA is a non-covalent tetramer of ~12 kDa subunits. Its N-terminal sequence (RNVLLNNEGL; UniProt KB Accn. C0HJM8) showed 70-90% homology to mannose-specific Allium agglutinins. ACA showed specific hemagglutination activity of 8200 units/mg and is stable in the pH range 6-10 and up to 45° C. The immunomodulatory activity of ACA was assessed using the macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages; at 0.1 μg/well, it showed a significant increase (6-8-fold vs. control) in the production of nitric oxide at 24h, and significantly stimulated (2-4-fold vs. control) the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-12) at 24h. ACA (0.1 μg/well) enhanced the proliferation of murine thymocytes by ~4 fold (vs. control) at 24h; however, ACA does not proliferate B cell-enriched rat splenocytes. Further, it significantly elevated the expression levels of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) over the control in murine thymocytes. Taken together, purified ACA induces a Th1-type immune response in vitro. Though present in low amounts, ACA may contribute to the immune-boosting potential of the popular spice onion since considerable amounts are consumed on a daily basis universally.

  6. The Diversity and Abundance of Small Arthropods in Onion, Allium cepa, Seed Crops, and their Potential Role in Pollination

    PubMed Central

    Walker, M. K.; Howlett, B. G.; Wallace, A. R.; Mccallum, J. A.; Teulon, D. A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Onion, Allium cepa L. (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae), crop fields grown for seed production require arthropod pollination for adequate seed yield. Although many arthropod species visit A. cepa flowers, for most there is little information on their role as pollinators. Small flower visiting arthropods (body width < 3 mm) in particular are rarely assessed. A survey of eight flowering commercial A. cepa seed fields in the North and South Islands of New Zealand using window traps revealed that small arthropods were highly abundant among all except one field. Insects belonging to the orders Diptera and Thysanoptera were the most abundant and Hymenoptera, Collembola, Psocoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera were also present. To test whether small arthropods might contribute to pollination, seed sets from umbels caged within 3 mm diameter mesh cages were compared with similarly caged, hand-pollinated umbels and uncaged umbels. Caged umbels that were not hand-pollinated set significantly fewer seeds (average eight seeds/umbel, n = 10) than caged hand-pollinated umbels (average 146 seeds/umbel) and uncaged umbels (average 481 seeds/umbel). Moreover, sticky traps placed on umbels within cages captured similar numbers of small arthropods as sticky traps placed on uncaged umbels, suggesting cages did not inhibit the movement of small arthropods to umbels. Therefore, despite the high abundance of small arthropods within fields, evidence to support their role as significant pollinators of commercial A. cepa seed crops was not found. PMID:22208869

  7. The diversity and abundance of small arthropods in onion, Allium cepa, seed crops, and their potential role in pollination.

    PubMed

    Walker, M K; Howlett, B G; Wallace, A R; McCallum, J A; Teulon, D A J

    2011-01-01

    Onion, Allium cepa L. (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae), crop fields grown for seed production require arthropod pollination for adequate seed yield. Although many arthropod species visit A. cepa flowers, for most there is little information on their role as pollinators. Small flower visiting arthropods (body width < 3 mm) in particular are rarely assessed. A survey of eight flowering commercial A. cepa seed fields in the North and South Islands of New Zealand using window traps revealed that small arthropods were highly abundant among all except one field. Insects belonging to the orders Diptera and Thysanoptera were the most abundant and Hymenoptera, Collembola, Psocoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera were also present. To test whether small arthropods might contribute to pollination, seed sets from umbels caged within 3 mm diameter mesh cages were compared with similarly caged, hand-pollinated umbels and uncaged umbels. Caged umbels that were not hand-pollinated set significantly fewer seeds (average eight seeds/umbel, n = 10) than caged hand-pollinated umbels (average 146 seeds/umbel) and uncaged umbels (average 481 seeds/umbel). Moreover, sticky traps placed on umbels within cages captured similar numbers of small arthropods as sticky traps placed on uncaged umbels, suggesting cages did not inhibit the movement of small arthropods to umbels. Therefore, despite the high abundance of small arthropods within fields, evidence to support their role as significant pollinators of commercial A. cepa seed crops was not found.

  8. Antioxidant activity of phenolic extracts from different cultivars of Italian onion (Allium cepa) and relative human immune cell proliferative induction.

    PubMed

    Lisanti, Antonella; Formica, Vincenzo; Ianni, Federica; Albertini, Barbara; Marinozzi, Maura; Sardella, Roccaldo; Natalini, Benedetto

    2016-01-01

    The total antioxidant activity (TAC) may vary considerably between onion cultivars. Immunological effects of onion phenolic compounds are still underestimated. The objective of this study is to determine the total phenol content (TPC) and the relative TAC of three Allium cepa L. (Liliaceae) onion cultivars cultivated in Cannara (Italy): Rossa di Toscana, Borettana di Rovato, and Dorata di Parma, and to evaluate the phenol extracts ability to induce human immune cell proliferation. TPC was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, TAC with FRAP, TEAC/ABTS, and DPPH methods. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy human donors were incubated for 24 h at 37 °C with 1 ng/mL of phenolic extract in PBS, immunostained, and then analyzed by 4-color flow cytometry for the phenotypic characterization of T helper cells (CD4+ cells), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+ cells), T regulatory cells (CD25high CD4+ cells), and natural killer cells/monocytes (CD16+ cells). Rossa di Toscana displayed the highest TPC (6.61 ± 0.87 mg GA equivalents/g onion bulb DW) and the highest TAC with the experienced methods: FRAP, 9.19 ± 2.54 μmol Trolox equivalents/g onion bulb DW; TEAC/ABTS, 21.31 ± 0.41 μmol Trolox equivalents/g onion bulb DW; DPPH, 22.90 ± 0.01 μmol Trolox equivalents/g onion bulb DW. Incubation with Rossa di Toscana extract determined an increase in the frequency of the antitumor/anti-infection NK CD16+ immune cells (23.0 ± 0.4%). Content of health-promoting phenols and the deriving antioxidant and immunostimulating activity vary considerably among the investigated cultivars. Rossa di Toscana can be considered as a potential functional food.

  9. Effects of the plant steroidal hormone, 24-epibrassinolide, on the mitotic index and growth of onion (Allium cepa) root tips.

    PubMed

    Howell, W M; Keller, G E; Kirkpatrick, J D; Jenkins, R L; Hunsinger, R N; McLaughlin, E W

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of the steroidal plant hormone, 24-epibrassinolide (BL), on the mitotic index and growth of onion (Allium cepa) root tips. The classical Allium test was used to gather and quantify data on the rate of root growth, the stages of mitosis, and the number of mitoses in control and BL-treated groups of onions. Low doses of BL (0.005 ppm) nearly doubled the mean root length and the number of mitoses over that of controls. Intermediate doses of BL (0.05 ppm) also produced mean root lengths and number of mitoses that were significantly greater than those of the controls. The highest dose of BL (0.5 ppm) produced mean root lengths and number of mitoses that were less than control values, but the differences were not statistically significant. Examination of longitudinally sectioned root tips produced relatively similar results. This study confirms the suppositions of previous authors who have claimed that exogenously applied BL can increase the number of mitoses in plants, but failed to show cytogenetic data. This is the first report detailing the effects of BL on chromosomes and the cell cycle.

  10. Identification of imidacloprid metabolites in onion (Allium cepa L.) using high-resolution mass spectrometry and accurate mass tools.

    PubMed

    Thurman, E Michael; Ferrer, Imma; Zavitsanos, Paul; Zweigenbaum, Jerry A

    2013-09-15

    Imidacloprid is a potent and widely used insecticide on vegetable crops, such as onion (Allium cepa L.). Because of possible toxicity to beneficial insects, imidacloprid and several metabolites have raised safety concerns for pollenating insects, such as honey bees. Thus, imidacloprid metabolites continue to be an important subject for new methods that better understand its dissipation and fate in plants, such as onions. One month after a single addition of imidacloprid to soil containing onion plants, imidacloprid and its metabolites were extracted from pulverized onion with a methanol/water-buffer mixture and analyzed by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QTOF-MS) using a labeled imidacloprid internal standard and tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis. Accurate mass tools were developed and applied to detect seven new metabolites of imidacloprid with the goal to better understand its fate in onion. The accurate mass tools include: database searching, diagnostic ions, chlorine mass filters, Mass Profiler software, and manual use of metabolic analogy. The new metabolites discovered included an amine reduction product (m/z 226.0854), and its methylated analogue (m/z 240.1010), and five other metabolites, all of unknown toxicity to insects. The accurate mass tools were combined with LC/QTOF-MS and were able to detect both known and new metabolites of imidacloprid using fragmentation studies of both parent and labeled standards. New metabolites and their structures were inferred from these MS/MS studies with accurate mass, which makes it possible to better understand imidacloprid metabolism in onion as well as new metabolite targets for toxicity studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Flavonol Glucoside and Antioxidant Enzyme Biosynthesis Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Cultivars of Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Mollavali, Mohanna; Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Schwarz, Dietmar; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Zaare Nahandi, Fariborz

    2016-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on qualitative characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.). For this reason, five onion cultivars with different scale color and three different strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae) were used. Red cultivars, mainly 'Red Azar-shahr', showed the highest content in vitamin C, flavonols, and antioxidant enzymes. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total phenolic, pyruvic acid, and vitamin C of onion plants. Considerable increase was observed in quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-monoglucoside content in plants inoculated with Diversispora versiformis, but quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside was not significantly influenced. Analyses for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxiodant enzyme activities such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) revealed that all except PPO were enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Overall, these findings suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation influenced biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides and antioxidant enzymes by increasing nutrient uptake or by induction of the plant defense system.

  12. Fermentation enhances the in vitro antioxidative effect of onion (Allium cepa) via an increase in quercetin content.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Sang-In; Park, Sang-Yun; Bang, Han-Yeol; Jeong, Ji Hye; So, Jai-Hyun; Rhee, In-Koo; Song, Kyung-Sik

    2012-06-01

    Yellow onion (Allium cepa) extract showed enhanced antioxidative effects in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and acetyl ester (CM-H(2)DCFDA) assay after being treated with a crude enzyme extract from soybean paste fungi, Aspergillus kawachii. HPLC analysis showed two increased and two decreased peaks after enzyme treatment. The decreased peaks were identified as quercetin-3,4'-di-O-β-d-glucoside (1) and quercetin-4'-O-β-d-glucoside (2), and peaks that increased were quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (3) and quercetin (4), respectively. It was expected that 3 and 4 were originated from the glucosidic cleavage of their glucosides, 1 and 2. Among the increased compounds, only quercetin (4) showed strong antioxidative activity in the DPPH assay. In addition, the protective effect against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in HT22 cells was increased when treated with 25 μg/ml of fermented onion. The enhanced neuroprotective effect was also originated from the increased quercetin content. As a consequence, fermentation raised the quercetin content in onion, and subsequently increased the antioxidative and neuroprotective activities.

  13. Inhibitory effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) extract on proliferation of cancer cells and adipocytes via inhibiting fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Tian, Wei-Xi; Ma, Xiao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are widely used in the food industry for its nutritional and aromatic properties. Our studies showed that ethyl acetate extract of onion (EEO) had potent inhibitory effects on animal fatty acid synthase (FAS), and could induce apoptosis in FAS over-expressing human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, this apoptosis was accompanied by reduction of intracellular FAS activity and could be rescued by 25 mM or 50 mM exogenous palmitic acids, the final product of FAS catalyzed synthesis. These results suggest that the apoptosis induced by EEO occurs via inhibition of FAS. We also found that EEO could suppress lipid accumulation during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which was also related to its inhibition of intracellular FAS activity. Since obesity is closely related to breast cancer and obese patients are at elevated risk of developing various cancers, these findings suggested that onion might be useful for preventing obesity-related malignancy.

  14. Purification, amino acid sequence, and cDNA cloning of trypsin inhibitors from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs.

    PubMed

    Deshimaru, Masanobu; Watanabe, Akira; Suematsu, Keiko; Hatano, Maki; Terada, Shigeyuki

    2003-08-01

    Three protease inhibitors (OTI-1-3) have been purified from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Molecular masses of these inhibitors were found to be 7,370.2, 7,472.2, and 7,642.6 Da by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), respectively. Based on amino acid composition and N-terminal sequence, OTI-1 and -2 are the N-terminal truncated proteins of OTI-3. All the inhibitors are stable to heat and extreme pH. OTI-3 inhibited trypsin, chymotrypsin, and plasmin with dissociation constants of 1.3 x 10(-9) M, 2.3 x 10(-7) M, and 3.1 x 10(-7) M, respectively. The complete amino acid sequence of OTI-3 showed a significant homology to Bowman-Birk family inhibitors, and the first reactive site (P1) was found to be Arg17 by limited proteolysis by trypsin. The second reactive site (P1) was estimated to be Leu46, that may inhibit chymotrypsin. OTI-3 lacks an S-S bond near the second reactive site, resulting in a low affinity for the enzyme. The sequence of OTI-3 was also ascertained by the nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding a 101-residue precursor of the onion inhibitor.

  15. Determination of vanadium accumulation in onion root cells (Allium cepa L.) and its correlation with toxicity.

    PubMed

    Marcano, Letty; Carruyo, Ingrid; Fernández, Yusmary; Montiel, Xiomara; Torrealba, Zaida

    2006-08-01

    The vanadium is a metal that presents great interest from the toxicological point of view, because of the numerous alterations that can take place in different biological systems. This work evaluated the capacity of vanadium accumulation and its correlation with genotoxic effects in root cells of Allium cepa L. The bulbs were cultivated in renovated filtered water each 24 h, at a temperature of 25 +/- 0.5 degrees C, in darkness and constant aeration. Treatments were carried out under the same experimental conditions, using water solutions of vanadium of 25, 50, 75 and 100 microg/g for 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. A control was carried out where metal solution was substituted by distilled water. After the treatment, the meristems were fixed with alcohol--acetic acid (3:1) and stained according to the technique of Feulgen. The capacity of accumulation was determined by GFAAS. The analysis of the results revealed an accumulation of the metal for all times and concentrations. No correlation was presented among vanadium accumulation, growth and mitotic index; however, positive correlation was given with the induction of chromosomic aberrations. In conclusion, vanadium is able to induce cytotoxic effect in the exposed roots, but only genotoxic effect was correlated with metal accumulation.

  16. Cyanamide mode of action during inhibition of onion (Allium cepa L.) root growth involves disturbances in cell division and cytoskeleton formation.

    PubMed

    Soltys, Dorota; Rudzińska-Langwald, Anna; Kurek, Wojciech; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Sliwinska, Elwira; Bogatek, Renata

    2011-09-01

    Cyanamide is an allelochemical produced by hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.). Its phyotoxic effect on plant growth was examined on roots of onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Water solution of cyanamide (2-10 mM) restricted growth of onion roots in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of onion roots with cyanamide resulted in a decrease in root growth rate accompanied by a decrease in accumulation of fresh and dry weight. The inhibitory effect of cyanamide was reversed by its removal from the environment, but full recovery was observed only for tissue treated with this chemical at low concentration (2-6 mM). Cytological observations of root tip cells suggest that disturbances in cell division may explain the strong cyanamide allelopathic activity. Moreover, in cyanamide-treated onion the following changes were detected: reduction of mitotic cells, inhibition of proliferation of meristematic cells and cell cycle, and modifications of cytoskeleton arrangement.

  17. Effect of processing and cooking conditions on onion (Allium cepa L.) induced antiplatelet activity and thiosulfinate content.

    PubMed

    Cavagnaro, Pablo F; Galmarini, Claudio R

    2012-09-05

    Allium vegetables serve as sources of antiplatelet agents that may contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, onion and garlic, the major Allium species, are usually cooked before consumption. Here, we examined the effect of cooking on onion in vitro antiplatelet activity (IVAA). Two different cooking systems (convection oven and microwaves) and several time-temperature variables were tested on whole bulbs, quarters of bulbs, and completely crushed bulbs, monitoring the degradation of sulfur antiplatelet compounds (e.g., thiosulfinates) by analysis of pyruvate levels. Although heating was, in general, detrimental for onion IVAA, the extent of this effect varied greatly, from unaffected antiplatelet activity (AA) (i.e., similar to raw onion) to a complete lost of activity, depending upon the manner in which onions were prepared prior to heating, the cooking method, and the intensity of the heat treatment. "Whole", "quarters", and "crushed" onions lost their IVAA after 30, 20, and 10 min of oven heating, respectively. The longer retainment of AA in intact bulbs was attributed to a later alliinase inactivation. Proaggregatory effects observed in samples subjected to the most intense oven and microwave heat treatments suggest that extensively cooked onions may stimulate rather than inhibit platelet aggregation. The efficacy of Allium species as antiplatelet agents, as affected by preparation and cooking conditions, is discussed.

  18. Quercetin and isorhamnetin in sweet and red cultivars of onion (Allium cepa L.) at harvest, after field curing, heat treatment, and storage.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Marie E; Gustavsson, Karl-Erik; Vågen, Ingunn M

    2010-02-24

    Effects of heat treatment and storage on quercetin and isorhamnetin content, major and minor components of isorhamnetin, and quercetin glucosides and aglycone, were investigated in onion (Allium cepa L.). The sweet onion 'Recorra' and red onions 'Hyred' and 'Red Baron' were cultivated in the south part of Norway and thereafter stored for eight months. The onions were either not field dried, but stored directly, or field dried and then stored, or field dried and then heat treated before storage. Neither storage nor heat treatment caused any major differences in total flavonol content in the investigated sweet onion as well as in the red onion cultivars. The two major quercetin glucosides differed in their changes in content during storage; quercetin-4'-glucoside did not show any consistent changes during storage in the two red cultivars, independent of treatment, whereas quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside increased significantly by 30 or 51%, respectively, during storage in 'Hyred' and 'Red Baron' in the 24 h heat treated onions. Isorhamnetin-4'-glucoside, which might possibly be of special interest from a human health point of view, was present at 2-3 times higher amount in the sweet onion cultivar than in the two red cultivars. Some of the quercetin glucosides present at lower concentrations, isorhamnetin-3,4'-diglucoside, quercetin-3,7,4'-triglucoside, and quercetin-7,4'-diglucoside, increased during storage in all treatments in both 'Hyred' and 'Red Baron', though sometimes a decrease was found at the end of storage.

  19. Alterations in the blood glucose, serum lipids and renal oxidative stress in diabetic rats by supplementation of onion (Allium cepa. Linn).

    PubMed

    Bang, Mi-Ae; Kim, Hyeon-A; Cho, Young-Ja

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the anti-diabetic effect of onion (Allium cepa. Linn) in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normal rats fed control diet or supplemented with onion powder (7% w/w) and diabetic rats fed control diet or supplemented with onion powder. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, ip) in citrate buffer. The animals were fed each of the experimental diet for 5 weeks. Blood glucose levels of rats supplemented with onion were lower than those of rats fed control diet in the diabetic rats. Onion also decreased the total serum lipid, triglyceride, and atherogenic index and increased HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio in the diabetic rats. Glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were high in the diabetic rats compared to normal rats and reverted to near-control values by onion. These results indicate that onion decreased blood glucose, serum lipid levels and reduced renal oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats and this effect might exert the anti-diabetic effect of onion.

  20. Integrative structural annotation of de novo RNA-Seq provides an accurate reference gene set of the enormous genome of the onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungill; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kim, Yong-Min; Yeom, Seon-In; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jeon, Jongbum; Kim, Sunggil; Kim, Do-Sun; Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2015-02-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crops in the world. Although a considerable amount of onion transcriptome data has been deposited into public databases, the sequences of the protein-coding genes are not accurate enough to be used, owing to non-coding sequences intermixed with the coding sequences. We generated a high-quality, annotated onion transcriptome from de novo sequence assembly and intensive structural annotation using the integrated structural gene annotation pipeline (ISGAP), which identified 54,165 protein-coding genes among 165,179 assembled transcripts totalling 203.0 Mb by eliminating the intron sequences. ISGAP performed reliable annotation, recognizing accurate gene structures based on reference proteins, and ab initio gene models of the assembled transcripts. Integrative functional annotation and gene-based SNP analysis revealed a whole biological repertoire of genes and transcriptomic variation in the onion. The method developed in this study provides a powerful tool for the construction of reference gene sets for organisms based solely on de novo transcriptome data. Furthermore, the reference genes and their variation described here for the onion represent essential tools for molecular breeding and gene cloning in Allium spp.

  1. Integrative structural annotation of de novo RNA-Seq provides an accurate reference gene set of the enormous genome of the onion (Allium cepa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungill; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kim, Yong-Min; Yeom, Seon-In; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jeon, Jongbum; Kim, Sunggil; Kim, Do-Sun; Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2015-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crops in the world. Although a considerable amount of onion transcriptome data has been deposited into public databases, the sequences of the protein-coding genes are not accurate enough to be used, owing to non-coding sequences intermixed with the coding sequences. We generated a high-quality, annotated onion transcriptome from de novo sequence assembly and intensive structural annotation using the integrated structural gene annotation pipeline (ISGAP), which identified 54,165 protein-coding genes among 165,179 assembled transcripts totalling 203.0 Mb by eliminating the intron sequences. ISGAP performed reliable annotation, recognizing accurate gene structures based on reference proteins, and ab initio gene models of the assembled transcripts. Integrative functional annotation and gene-based SNP analysis revealed a whole biological repertoire of genes and transcriptomic variation in the onion. The method developed in this study provides a powerful tool for the construction of reference gene sets for organisms based solely on de novo transcriptome data. Furthermore, the reference genes and their variation described here for the onion represent essential tools for molecular breeding and gene cloning in Allium spp. PMID:25362073

  2. Proteomic Characterization of Differential Abundant Proteins Accumulated between Lower and Upper Epidermises of Fleshy Scales in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulbs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Si; Ning, Fen; Wu, Xiaolin; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely planted worldwide as a valuable vegetable crop. The scales of an onion bulb are a modified type of leaf. The one-layer-cell epidermis of onion scales is commonly used as a model experimental material in botany and molecular biology. The lower epidermis (LE) and upper epidermis (UE) of onion scales display obvious differences in microscopic structure, cell differentiation and pigment synthesis; however, associated proteomic differences are unclear. LE and UE can be easily sampled as single-layer-cell tissues for comparative proteomic analysis. In this study, a proteomic approach based on 2-DE and mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to compare LE and UE of fleshy scales from yellow and red onions. We identified 47 differential abundant protein spots (representing 31 unique proteins) between LE and UE in red and yellow onions. These proteins are mainly involved in pigment synthesis, stress response, and cell division. Particularly, the differentially accumulated chalcone-flavanone isomerase and flavone O-methyltransferase 1-like in LE may result in the differences in the onion scale color between red and yellow onions. Moreover, stress-related proteins abundantly accumulated in both LE and UE. In addition, the differential accumulation of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase 1-like protein and β-1,3-glucanase in the LE may be related to the different cell sizes between LE and UE of the two types of onion. The data derived from this study provides new insight into the differences in differentiation and developmental processes between onion epidermises. This study may also make a contribution to onion breeding, such as improving resistances and changing colors.

  3. Proteomic Characterization of Differential Abundant Proteins Accumulated between Lower and Upper Epidermises of Fleshy Scales in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulbs

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely planted worldwide as a valuable vegetable crop. The scales of an onion bulb are a modified type of leaf. The one-layer-cell epidermis of onion scales is commonly used as a model experimental material in botany and molecular biology. The lower epidermis (LE) and upper epidermis (UE) of onion scales display obvious differences in microscopic structure, cell differentiation and pigment synthesis; however, associated proteomic differences are unclear. LE and UE can be easily sampled as single-layer-cell tissues for comparative proteomic analysis. In this study, a proteomic approach based on 2-DE and mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to compare LE and UE of fleshy scales from yellow and red onions. We identified 47 differential abundant protein spots (representing 31 unique proteins) between LE and UE in red and yellow onions. These proteins are mainly involved in pigment synthesis, stress response, and cell division. Particularly, the differentially accumulated chalcone-flavanone isomerase and flavone O-methyltransferase 1-like in LE may result in the differences in the onion scale color between red and yellow onions. Moreover, stress-related proteins abundantly accumulated in both LE and UE. In addition, the differential accumulation of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase 1-like protein and β-1,3-glucanase in the LE may be related to the different cell sizes between LE and UE of the two types of onion. The data derived from this study provides new insight into the differences in differentiation and developmental processes between onion epidermises. This study may also make a contribution to onion breeding, such as improving resistances and changing colors. PMID:28036352

  4. Water Transport in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Roots (Changes of Axial and Radial Hydraulic Conductivities during Root Development).

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, W.; Steudle, E.

    1993-01-01

    The hydraulic architecture of developing onion (Allium cepa L. cv Calypso) roots grown hydroponically was determined by measuring axial and radial hydraulic conductivities (equal to inverse of specific hydraulic resistances). In the roots, Casparian bands and suberin lamellae develop in the endodermis and exodermis (equal to hypodermis). Using the root pressure probe, changes of hydraulic conductivities along the developing roots were analyzed with high resolution. Axial hydraulic conductivity (Lx) was also calculated from stained cross-sections according to Poiseuille's law. Near the base and the tip of the roots, measured and calculated Lx values were similar. However, at distances between 200 and 300 mm from the apex, measured values of Lx were smaller by more than 1 order of magnitude than those calculated, probably because of remaining cross walls between xylem vessel members. During development of root xylem, Lx increased by 3 orders of magnitude. In the apical 30 mm (tip region), axial resistance limited water transport, whereas in basal parts radial resistances (low radial hydraulic conductivity, Lpr) controlled the uptake. Because of the high axial hydraulic resistance in the tip region, this zone appeared to be "hydraulically isolated" from the rest of the root. Changes of the Lpr of the roots were determined by measuring the hydraulic conductance of roots of different length and referring these data to unit surface area. At distances between 30 and 150 mm from the root tip, Lpr was fairly constant (1.4 x 10-7 m s-1 MPa-1). In more basal root zones, Lpr was considerably smaller and varied between roots. The low contribution of basal zones to the overall water uptake indicated an influence of the exodermal Casparian bands and/or suberin lamellae in the endodermis or exodermis, which develop at distances larger than 50 to 60 mm from the root tip. PMID:12231786

  5. Conservation of Arabidopsis thaliana photoperiodic flowering time genes in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew; Massiah, Andrea Juliet; Thomas, Brian

    2010-10-01

    The genetics underlying onion development are poorly understood. Here the characterization of onion homologs of Arabidopsis photoperiodic flowering pathway genes is reported with the end goal of accelerating onion breeding programs by understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to different latitudes. The expression of onion GI, FKF1 and ZTL homologs under short day (SD) and long day (LD) conditions was examined using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression of AcGI and AcFKF1 was examined in onion varieties which exhibit different daylength responses. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to confirm the identity of the homologs. AcGI and AcFKF1 showed diurnal expression patterns similar to their Arabidopsis counterparts, while AcZTL was found to be constitutively expressed. AcGI showed similar expression patterns in varieties which exhibit different daylength responses, whereas AcFKF1 showed differences. It is proposed that these differences could contribute to the different daylength responses in these varieties. Phylogenetic analyses showed that all the genes isolated are very closely related to their proposed homologs. The results presented here show that key genes controlling photoperiodic flowering in Arabidopsis are conserved in onion, and a role for these genes in the photoperiodic control of bulb initiation is predicted. This theory is supported by expression and phylogenetic data.

  6. Assessment of antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of nigerian cultivars of onions (Allium cepa L) and garlic (Allium sativum L).

    PubMed

    Onyeoziri, Ukoha Pius; Romanus, Ekere Nwachukwu; Onyekachukwu, Uzodinma Irene

    2016-07-01

    This report assessed and compared the antioxidant potentials, quantities of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in methanolic extract of varieties of onions and garlic cultivars in Nigeria. The pH and total acidity of the extracts were equally determined. Antioxidancy of the cultivars were analysed using the in vitro assay techniques with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacity. Ascorbic acid phenolic content were determined by volumetric and Folin-Ciocalteu's method respectively. The pH and total acidity were respectively 5.65 and 0.150mmol/L (red onion), 5.69 and 0.123mmol/L (white onion) and 6.94 and 0.105mmol/L (garlic). Red onion had the highest value of total phenols, ascorbic acid and free radical scavenging activity of 14.25±0.35mg GAE/ml, 229.098mg/100g, 66.44% respectively. In DPPH assay, red and white onion showed higher tendency to inhibit auto-oxidation when compared to garlic. The ferric reducing ability was greatest in garlic and least in white onions. These data indicate that with respect to antioxidant activity, red onion variety has highest health promoting potential among others.

  7. Variation of quercetin glycoside derivatives in three onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jung-Ho; Seo, Jeong Min; Kim, Na-Hyung; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Sunggil; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the contents of individual quercetin glycosides in red, yellow and chartreuse onion by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Acid hydrolysis of individual quercetin glycosides using 6 M hydrochloric acid guided to identify and separate quercetin 7,4'-diglucoside, quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 4'-glucoside, and quercetin. The contents of total quercetin glycosides varied extensively among three varieties (ranged from 16.10 to 103.93 mg/g DW). Quercetin was the predominant compound that accounted mean 32.21 mg/g DW in red onion (43.6% of the total) and 127.92 mg/g DW in chartreuse onion (78.3% of the total) followed by quercetin 3-glucoside (28.83 and 24.16 mg/g DW) respectively. Quercetin 3-glucoside levels were much higher in yellow onion (43.85 mg/g DW) followed by quercetin 30.08 mg/g DW. Quercetin 4'-glucoside documented the lowest amount that documented mean 2.4% of the total glycosides. The varied contents of glycosides present in the different onion varieties were significant.

  8. Characterization of industrial onion wastes (Allium cepa L.): dietary fibre and bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Vanesa; Mollá, Esperanza; Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Aguilera, Yolanda; López-Andréu, Francisco J; Cools, Katherine; Terry, Leon A; Esteban, Rosa M

    2011-03-01

    The food industry produces a large amount of onion wastes, making it necessary to search for possible ways for their utilization. One way could be to use these onion wastes as a natural source of high-value functional ingredients, since onion are rich in several groups of compounds, which have perceived benefits to human health. The objective of this work is to gain knowledge of any differences between the different onion wastes obtained from industry and non-commercial bulbs to use them as food ingredients rich in specific compounds. The results showed that brown skin and top-bottom could be potentially used as functional ingredient rich in dietary fibre, mainly in insoluble fraction, and in total phenolics and flavonoids, with high antioxidant activity. Moreover, brown skin showed a high concentration of quercetin aglycone and calcium, and top-bottom showed high concentration of minerals. Outer scales could be used as source of flavonols, with good antioxidant activity and content of dietary fibre. However, inner scales could be an interesting source of fructans and alk(en)yl cystein sulphoxides. In addition, discarded onions (cvs Recas and Figueres) could be used as a good source of dietary fibre, and cv Recas also as a source of phenolics compounds.

  9. Chromosomal aberrations in onion (Allium cepa) induced by water chlorination by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sabti, K.; Kurelec, B.

    1985-01-01

    It has recently come to light that water chlorination generates mutagens and carcinogens. The mutagenicity of nonvolatile mutagenic by-products of water chlorination has been demonstrated in short-term biological testings. The predictive value of short-term tests is considerably enhanced by the use of more than one test system. A scientifically stringent approach in formulating a testing program for the assessment of genotoxins is to rely on tests that directly measure gene mutations and chromosome alterations. Chromosome aberrations (CA) become such a relevant bioassay. The CA measurement in the allium test is suitable for measuring the cytogenotoxic potential of chemicals present in water; it is simple, cheap, sensitive, and it does not require a generally undefined step of concentrating chemicals present in polluted waters. In the present investigation CA in Allium were chosen for the detection of mutagenic potential of a polluted river waters before and after the under-breakpoint chlorination.

  10. Human exposure modelling of quercetin in onions (Allium cepa L.) following thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Harris, S; Brunton, N; Tiwari, U; Cummins, E

    2015-11-15

    Post-harvest treatment can influence levels of secondary metabolites in fruits and vegetables. Onions contain high levels of quercetin but are commonly heat-treated before consumption. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the effect of cooking treatments on the flavonoid (3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg) concentrations in onion and to determine, by simulation modelling, probable human exposure. Onion samples (n=3) were cooked using three processes (fry, bake and steam) for three time intervals (5, 10 and 15 min). Frying (<10 min) was the ideal cooking method which retained concentrations of 3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg at >50%. Thermal processing (>10 min) was shown to decrease quercetin content in all samples. The simulation model predicted human absorption and exposure. Steaming (15 min) resulted in the lowest quercetin exposure, with mean values of 4000 and 400 μg/day for 3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg, respectively. Untreated onions had mean exposures of 14,000 and 3000 μg/day for 3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg, respectively.

  11. Residue decline and risk assessment of fluopyram + tebuconazole (400SC) in/on onion (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Patel, Badal V; Chawla, Suchi; Gor, Hetal; Upadhyay, Payal; Parmar, Kaushik D; Patel, Anil R; Shah, Paresh G

    2016-10-01

    A method was validated for estimating fluopyram and tebuconazole in onion on LC-MS/MS using dispersive QuEChERS. Three sprays of a combination fungicide fluopyram + tebuconazole (Luna experience, 400 SC) were applied @ 75 + 75 and 150 + 150 g a.i. ha(-1) at an interval of 10 days on onion using Knapsack sprayer. First spray was made at bulb setting stage. Spring onion samples were drawn at 0 (1 h), 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 days and matured onion bulb at harvest (52 days) after the last spray. Soil samples were also drawn at harvest. Foliar application of the combination product resulted in 1.14 and 2.86 mg kg(-1) fluopyram residues on spring onion at standard and double dose, respectively, one hour after the last application. The levels of fluopyram residues gradually declined and recorded 0.25 and 0.58 mg kg(-1) on 20th day of application with half-lives of 8.8 and 9.1 days at standard and double dose, respectively. For tebuconazole, the corresponding residues observed after 1 h (0 day) of application were 0.92 and 2.29 mg kg(-1). The levels declined gradually to 0.12 and 0.33 mg kg(-1) on 20th days with half-life of 6.7 to 7.7 days at standard and double dose, respectively. Here, we are proposing a pre-harvest interval of 7 day for fluopyram and tebuconazole in spring onion when applied at 75 + 75 g a.i. ha(-1) (400 SC). Risk assessment was done by calculating hazard quotient and by comparing theoretical maximum residue intake (TMRI) with maximum permissible intake (MPI). In all the cases, results of the study showed that HQ (Hazard Quotient) ≤1 and TMDI < MPI. Hence, the use of this combination product can be recommended with pre harvest interval of 7 days. The data can be used in establishing MRLs (maximum residue limits) for spring onion after considering multilocation trials.

  12. Identification of an NAC Transcription Factor Family by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Siyuan; Dai, Qiuzhong; Liu, Touming

    2016-01-01

    Although onion has been used extensively in the past for cytogenetic studies, molecular analysis has been lacking because the availability of genetic resources is limited. NAM, ATAF, and CUC (NAC) transcription factors (TFs) are plant-specific proteins, and they play key roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. However, none of the onion NAC (CepNAC) genes had been identified thus far. In this study, the transcriptome of onion leaves was analyzed by Illumina paired-end sequencing. Approximately 102.9 million clean sequence reads were produced and used for de novo assembly, which generated 117,189 non-redundant transcripts. Of these transcripts, 39,472 were annotated for their function. In order to mine the CepNAC TFs, CepNAC genes were searched from the transcripts assembled, resulting in the identification of all 39 CepNAC genes. These 39 CepNAC proteins were subjected to phylogenetic analysis together with 47 NAC proteins of known function that were previously identified in other species. The results showed that they can be divided into five groups (NAC-I–V). Interestingly, the NAC-IV and -V groups were found to be likely related to the processes of secondary wall synthesis and stress response, respectively. The transcriptome analysis generated a substantial amount of transcripts, which will aid immensely in identifying important genes and accelerating our understanding of onion growth and development. Moreover, the discovery of 39 CepNAC TFs and the identification of the sequence conservation between them and NAC proteins published will provide a basis for further characterization and validation of their functions in the future. PMID:27331904

  13. Interactions Between Frankliniella fusca and Pantoea ananatis in the Center Rot Epidemic of Onion (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Dutta, Bhabesh; Gitaitis, Ronald; Barman, Apurba; Avci, Utku; Marasigan, Kathleen; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu

    2016-09-01

    An Enterobacteriaceae bacterium, Pantoea ananatis (Serrano) Mergaert, is the causal agent of an economically important disease of onion, center rot. P. ananatis is transmitted by an onion-infesting thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds). However, interactions between F. fusca and P. ananatis as well as transmission mechanisms largely remain uncharacterized. This study investigated P. ananatis acquisition by thrips and transstadial persistence. Furthermore, the effects of bacterial acquisition on thrips fitness were also evaluated. When thrips larvae and adults were provided with acquisition access periods (AAP) on peanut leaflets contaminated with the bacterium, an exponentially positive relationship was observed between AAP and P. ananatis acquisition (R(2) ≥ 0.77, P = 0.01). P. ananatis persisted in thrips through several life stages (larvae, pupae, and adult). Despite the bacterial persistence, no significant effects on thrips fitness parameters such as fecundity and development were observed. Immunofluorescence microscopy of adult thrips with P. ananatis-specific antibody after 48 h AAP on contaminated food revealed that the bacterium was localized only in the gut. These results suggested that the pathogen is not circulative and could be transmitted through feces. Mechanical inoculation of onion seedlings with fecal rinsates produced center rot symptoms, whereas inoculation with rinsates potentially containing salivary secretions did not. These results provide evidence for stercorarian transmission (transmission through feces) of P. ananatis by F. fusca.

  14. Effect of different storage temperature on chemical composition of onion (Allium cepa L.) and its enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-03-01

    Onion stored at 4, 10, and 25 °C for 9 months were analyzed for changes in quercetin and its glucosidase content, enzymes, pyruvic acid, and sugar content. During storage, concentration of quercetin and its glucosidase showed an irregular variation at all studied temperature but at 4 °C the rate was high as compared to 10 and 25 °C. The enzymatic activity of Q4'G glucosidase and Q4'glucosyltransferase increased progressively until six months at 4, 10 and 25 °C, but later it started to decrease. At 4 and 10 °C, peroxidase activity increased during the first five weeks then decreased, while at 25 °C peroxidase activity decreased progressively after two months storage. Fructose, glucose and sucrose showed a different although more regular pattern by decreasing progressively at 4, 10 °C. At 4 °C fructose and glucose accumulated in the initial 3 to 4 months of storage while sucrose was unchanged. However, at 10 and 25 °C, fructose and glucose concentration continuously decreased, while sucrose increased consistently. Onion pyruvic acid increased at 4 and 10 °C during the first six months, while at 25 °C the fluctuation was observed during the whole storage period. Overall, we conclude that storage at 4 °C maintained the quality of onions best, as evidenced by the positive changes.

  15. Survival or growth of inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on yellow onions (Allium cepa) under conditions simulating food service and consumer handling and storage.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Vanessa M; Zhao, Irene Y; Schaffner, Donald W; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Whole and diced yellow onions (Allium cepa) were inoculated with five-strain cocktails of rifampin-resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella and stored under conditions to simulate food service or consumer handling. The inoculum was grown in broth (for both whole and diced onion experiments) or on agar plates (for whole onion experiments). Marked circles (3.3 cm in diameter) on the outer papery skin of whole onions were spot inoculated (10 μl in 10 drops) at 7 log CFU per circle, and onions were stored at 4°C, 30 to 50 % relative humidity, or at ambient conditions (23°C, 30 to 50 % relative humidity). Diced onions were inoculated at 3 log CFU/g and then stored in open or closed containers at 4°C or ambient conditions. Previously inoculated and ambient-stored diced onions were also mixed 1:9 (wt/wt) with refrigerated uninoculated freshly diced onions and stored in closed containers at ambient conditions. Inoculated pathogens were recovered in 0.1 % peptone and plated onto selective and nonselective media supplemented with 50 μg/ml rifampin. Both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations declined more rapidly on onion skins when the inoculum was prepared in broth rather than on agar. Agar-prepared E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella declined by 0.4 and 0.3 log CFU per sample per day, respectively, at ambient conditions; at 4°C the rates of reduction were 0.08 and 0.06 log CFU per sample per day for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, respectively. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella did not change over 6 days of storage at 4°C in diced onions. Lag times of 6 to 9 h were observed with freshly inoculated onion at ambient conditions; no lag was observed when previously inoculated and uninoculated onions were mixed. Growth rates at ambient conditions were 0.2 to 0.3 log CFU/g/h for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in freshly inoculated onion and 0.2 log CFU/g/h in mixed product. Diced onions support pathogen growth and should be kept refrigerated.

  16. Investigation of Volatiles Emitted from Freshly Cut Onions (Allium cepa L.) by Real Time Proton-Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS)

    PubMed Central

    Løkke, Mette Marie; Edelenbos, Merete; Larsen, Erik; Feilberg, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cut onions (Allium cepa L.) were continuously measured by PTR-MS during the first 120 min after cutting. The headspace composition changed rapidly due to the very reactive volatile sulfurous compounds emitted from onion tissue after cell disruption. Mass spectral signals corresponding to propanethial S-oxide (the lachrymatory factor) and breakdown products of this compound dominated 0–10 min after cutting. Subsequently, propanethiol and dipropyl disulfide predominantly appeared, together with traces of thiosulfinates. The concentrations of these compounds reached a maximum at 60 min after cutting. Propanethiol was present in highest concentrations and had an odor activity value 20 times higher than dipropyl disulfide. Thus, propanethiol is suggested to be the main source of the characteristic onion odor. Monitoring the rapid changes of VOCs in the headspace of cut onion necessitates a high time resolution, and PTR-MS is demonstrated to be a very suitable method for monitoring the headspace of freshly cut onions directly after cutting without extraction or pre-concentration. PMID:23443367

  17. Investigation of volatiles emitted from freshly cut onions (Allium cepa L.) by real time proton-transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS).

    PubMed

    Løkke, Mette Marie; Edelenbos, Merete; Larsen, Erik; Feilberg, Anders

    2012-11-22

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cut onions (Allium cepa L.) were continuously measured by PTR-MS during the first 120 min after cutting. The headspace composition changed rapidly due to the very reactive volatile sulfurous compounds emitted from onion tissue after cell disruption. Mass spectral signals corresponding to propanethial S-oxide (the lachrymatory factor) and breakdown products of this compound dominated 0-10 min after cutting. Subsequently, propanethiol and dipropyl disulfide predominantly appeared, together with traces of thiosulfinates. The concentrations of these compounds reached a maximum at 60 min after cutting. Propanethiol was present in highest concentrations and had an odor activity value 20 times higher than dipropyl disulfide. Thus, propanethiol is suggested to be the main source of the characteristic onion odor. Monitoring the rapid changes of VOCs in the headspace of cut onion necessitates a high time resolution, and PTR-MS is demonstrated to be a very suitable method for monitoring the headspace of freshly cut onions directly after cutting without extraction or pre-concentration.

  18. An experimental study of hemolysis induced by onion (Allium cepa) poisoning in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tang, X; Xia, Z; Yu, J

    2008-04-01

    The mechanism of hemolysis induced by onion poisoning in dogs was studied. Six adult, clinically normal Pekingese dogs were fed cooked onions at 30 g/kg body weight/day for 2 days. Blood samples were collected on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 12, 18 and 24 after onion administration, and urine was collected the day after bleeding. Red blood cell counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit were decreased from day 1, and significantly so on day 5 (P < 0.01), contrary to the results of white blood cell counts. So the plasma bilirubin levels and urobilinogen were increased on day 3 (P < 0.01) and day 4 (P < 0.01), respectively. The Heinz body counts were increased dramatically from day 1 (P < 0.01), peaking on day 3 (P < 0.01). Reticulocyte counts were increased from day 1 and the highest value was on day 8 (P < 0.01). Besides anemia, the following erythrocyte parameters were altered: erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was reduced from day 1 and reached the lowest value on day 5 (P < 0.01); the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate was decreased on day 1 (P < 0.01); reduced glutathione was decreased from day 1 (P < 0.01) and the lowest value was on day 3 (P < 0.01); glutathione-peroxidase was increased on day 1, but decreased significantly on day 3 (P < 0.01); hydrogen peroxide was increased on day 1 (P < 0.01), then went down on days 3-12 (the undermost value on day 5, P < 0.01); catalase was risen dramatically on day 5 (the peak value, P < 0.01); malondialdehyde (MDA) was increased on days 1-8, (P < 0.01), and reached the peak value on day 5 (P < 0.01). Deformity of the erythrocyte membrane was decreased on days 1-12 and fluorescence polarization (rho) and microviscosity (eta) of the erythrocyte membrane were increased on days 1-12 (P < 0.01). There were positive correlations between MDA and rho as well as eta, with correlation coefficients of 0.908 and 0.922, respectively (P < 0.01), but there was a negative correlation between MDA and deformity index

  19. Water stress can induce quiescence in newly-germinated onion (Allium cepa L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Whalley, W R; Lipiec, J; Finch-Savage, W E; Cope, R E; Clark, L J; Rowse, H R

    2001-05-01

    The effect of water stress on the early seedling growth of onions was studied by placing newly-germinated seedlings in vermiculite equilibrated at different water potentials. Roots and shoots elongated more at -0.29 than at -0.64 MPa, but did not elongate at -1.66 MPa. However, roots and shoots of seedlings that had been incubated in vermiculite at -1.66 MPa for up to 35 d resumed elongation when subsequently placed on wet filter boards. This suggests that water stress can induce quiescence in newly-germinated seedlings.

  20. Comparative analysis of cesium and potassium uptake in onion Allium cepa L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, P. Ł.; Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, G.

    2003-01-01

    Cesium uptake in onion (from 0.3 mM CsCl solution traced with 137CsCl) has been examined. The highest uptake occurred at pH 4-5 and it decreased with increasing pH. The intensity of Cs translocation depended on acidity of the solution. For acidic solutions, translocation of cesium into bulbs and leaves was greater than in case of alkaline solutions, where most of the cesium remained in the roots. Addition of potassium into the solutions (millimolar K concentrations) inhibits Cs uptake. The potassium pH-influx/efflux characteristic does not coincide with the Cs uptake.

  1. Effect of temperature on soluble invertase activity, and glucose, fructose and sucrose status of onion bulbs (Allium cepa) in store.

    PubMed

    Benkeblia, Noureddine; Onodera, Shuichi; Yoshihira, Taiki; Kosaka, Shinichi; Shiomi, Norio

    2004-06-01

    The activity of soluble invertase, and the variation in glucose, fructose and sucrose contents in onion bulbs (Allium cepa) during long-term storage at 10 degrees C and 20 degrees C were investigated. Invertase activity increased progressively after 8 weeks to 0.084 and 0.092 nkat/g fresh weight (FW), then sharply to 0.29 and 0.35 nkat/g FW at 20 degrees C and 10 degrees C, respectively, and remained high during 5 weeks. Then, activity decreased abruptly to 0.039 and 0.041 nkat/g, and remained low during the last 8 weeks and close to that observed initially. Glucose increased to 17.73 and 14.62 mg/g FW after 4 weeks at 20 degrees C and 10 degrees C, respectively, then decreased sharply between week 5 and week 7 to 4.13 and 4.91 mg/g FW, respectively, and remained rather stable ranging from 9 and 10 mg/g FW at both temperatures. Fructose showed a similar pattern and was 14.8 and 21.68 mg/g FW at 20 degrees C and 10 degrees C, respectively. Between week 10 and week 24, fructose ranged from 5 and 6 mg/g FW, and from 6 and 7 mg/g FW at 20 degrees C and 10 degrees C, respectively. Sucrose increased to 19.63 and 14.43 mg/g FW at 20 degrees C and 10 degrees C, respectively, decreased during 3 weeks, and then increased randomly from 5.69 to 9.42 mg/g FW at 20 degrees C, but remained in a steady state at 10 degrees C ranging 5.03 +/- 0.78 mg/g FW. During the last 6 weeks, the sucrose content was higher at 20 degrees C than at 10 degrees C. The fructose-glucose ratio varied during the first 8 weeks but remained at a steady level during the last 16 weeks. The (glucose+fructose)/sucrose ratio increased randomly at 10 degrees C, whereas at 20 degrees C the ratio increased during 10 weeks then decreased progressively during the final 14 weeks.

  2. Drying kinetics of onion ( Allium cepa L.) slices with convective and microwave drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiray, Engin; Seker, Anıl; Tulek, Yahya

    2017-05-01

    Onion slices were dried using two different drying techniques, convective and microwave drying. Convective drying treatments were carried out at different temperatures (50, 60 and 70 °C). Three different microwave output powers 328, 447 and 557 W were used in microwave drying. In convective drying, effective moisture diffusivity was estimated to be between 3.49 × 10-8 and 9.44 × 10-8 m2 s-1 within the temperature range studied. The effect of temperature on the diffusivity was described by the Arrhenius equation with an activation energy of 45.60 kJ mol-1. At increasing microwave power values, the effective moisture diffusivity values ranged from 2.59 × 10-7 and 5.08 × 10-8 m2 s-1. The activation energy for microwave drying of samples was calculated using an exponential expression based on Arrhenius equation. Among of the models proposed, Page's model gave a better fit for all drying conditions used.

  3. Quercetin and isorhamnetin glycosides in onion (Allium cepa L.): varietal comparison, physical distribution, coproduct evaluation, and long-term storage stability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihyun; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2011-02-09

    During onion processing, the outer dried protective layer (outer paper layer) and first two fleshy leaf layers are removed. This coproduct material is a potential commercial source of flavonoids especially quercetin. In the following study, the flavonoid composition was determined in coproduct materials and the press cake (material generated after juice extraction) in several commercially important onion varieties grown in California. Flavonoids were characterized and quantified using LC-(ESI)MS/MS and HPLC. The long-term stability of quercetin glycosides was assessed in dried coproduct materials stored at 4 and 22 °C over a 12 month period. In all varieties, the predominant forms of quercetin were the quercetin 3,4'-O-glucoside and 4'-O-glucoside. The first layer had significantly higher levels of flavonoids than the outer paper, second, and inner flesh layers on a DW basis (p < 0.05). Allium cepa "Milestone" contained the highest levels (p < 0.05) of flavonoids (1703 mg/100 g on a dry weight basis (DW). Onion press cake had significantly higher levels of total quercetin as compared with fresh onions (p < 0.05). The levels of 4'-O-glucoside significantly decreased during the first month of storage and remained stable for 12 months of storage at either 4 or 22 °C (p < 0.05).

  4. Dissection of Trichoderma longibrachiatum-induced defense in onion (Allium cepa L.) against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa by target metabolite profiling.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Abdel-Motaal, Fatma; El-Sayed, Magdi; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-ichi; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-05-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts that can cause substantial changes in the metabolism of host plants, thereby increasing plant growth and activating plant defense to various diseases. Target metabolite profiling approach was selected to demonstrate that Trichoderma longibrachiatum isolated from desert soil can confer beneficial agronomic traits to onion and induce defense mechanism against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa (FOC), through triggering a number of primary and secondary metabolite pathways. Onion seeds primed with Trichoderma T1 strain displayed early seedling emergence and enhanced growth compared with Trichoderma T2-treatment and untreated control. Therefore, T1 was selected for further investigations under greenhouse conditions, which revealed remarkable improvement in the onion bulb growth parameters and resistance against FOC. The metabolite platform of T1-primed onion (T1) and T1-primed onion challenged with FOC (T1+FOC) displayed significant accumulation of 25 abiotic and biotic stress-responsive metabolites, representing carbohydrate, phenylpropanoid and sulfur assimilation metabolic pathways. In addition, T1- and T1+FOC-treated onion plants showed discrete antioxidant capacity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) compared with control. Our findings demonstrated the contribution of T. longibrachiatum to the accumulation of key metabolites, which subsequently leads to the improvement of onion growth, as well as its resistance to oxidative stress and FOC.

  5. Comparative investigation of concentrations of major and trace elements in organic and conventional Danish agricultural crops. 1. Onions (Allium cepa Hysam) and peas (Pisum sativum ping pong).

    PubMed

    Gundersen, V; Bechmann, I E; Behrens, A; Stürup, S

    2000-12-01

    210 samples of onions (Allium cepa Hysam) from 11 conventionally and 10 organically cultivated sites and 190 samples of peas (Pisum sativum Ping Pong) from 10 conventionally and 9 organically cultivated sites in Denmark were collected and analyzed for 63 and 55 major and trace elements, respectively, by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Sampling, sample preparation, and analysis of the samples were performed under carefully controlled contamination-free conditions. Comparative statistical tests of the element concentration mean values for each site show significantly (p < 0.05) different levels of Ca, Mg, B, Bi, Dy, Eu, Gd, Lu, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, U, and Y between the organically and conventionally grown onions and significantly (p < 0.05) different levels of P, Gd, and Ti between the organically and conventionally grown peas. Principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the 63 elements measured in the individual onion samples from the 21 sites split up the sites into two groups according to the cultivation method when the scores of the first and third principal components were plotted against each other. Correspondingly, for peas, a PCA applied to the 55 elements measured as mean values for each site split up the 19 sites into two groups according to the cultivation method when the scores of the third and fourth principal component were plotted against each other. The methodology may be used as authenticity control for organic cultivation after further method development.

  6. Change in Flavonoid Composition and Antioxidative Activity during Fermentation of Onion (Allium cepa L.) by Leuconostoc mesenteroides with Different Salt Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu Geon; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Young-Min; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the change in flavonoid composition and antioxidative activity during fermentation of onion (Allium cepa L.) by Leuconostoc mesenteroides with different NaCl concentrations. In order to qualify and quantify the flavonoids during fermentation of onion, 7 flavonoids, [quercetin 3,7-O-β-d-diglucopyranoside (Q3,7G), quercetin 3,4'-O-β-d-diglucopyranoside (Q3,4'G), quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (Q3G), quercetin 4'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (Q4'G), isorhamnetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (IR3G), quercetin (Q), and isorhamnetin (IR)], were isolated and identified from onion. During fermentation, the contents of flavonoid glucosides (Q3,7G, Q3,4'G, Q3G, Q4'G, and IR3G) gradually decreased, whereas the contents of flavonoid aglycones (Q, IR) gradually increased. Decline rates of the flavonoid glucosides increased with the addition of L. mesenteroides. Furthermore, the activity of β-glucosidase, which is produced by L. mesenteroides, is dose-dependently inhibited with different NaCl concentrations during fermentation. The presence of L. mesenteroides enhanced the antioxidative activity of onion as demonstrated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and reducing power assays. The enhancement of antioxidative activity was considered because the content of flavonoid aglycones increased during fermentation. However, the addition of NaCl may decrease the antioxidative activity; we surmise that this phenomenon occurs because of the inhibition of β-glucosidase by NaCl. Therefore, we conclude that the addition of NaCl may be useful for the regulation of antioxidative activity via the control of β-glucosidase action, during the fermentation of flavonoid glucoside-rich foods. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Identification and Quantification of Flavonoids from Two Southern Italian Cultivars of Allium cepa L., Tropea (Red Onion) and Montoro (Copper Onion), and Their Capacity to Protect Human Erythrocytes from Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Idolo; Carbone, Virginia; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Minasi, Paola; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2015-06-03

    Onions (Allium cepa) are consumed worldwide and represent an important source of dietary phytochemicals with proven antioxidant properties, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, thiosulfinates, and anthocyanins. Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that regular consumption of onions is associated with a reduced risk of degenerative disorders. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the biological properties of different varieties of onions. Here, we characterized for the first time a variety of onion, called Ramata di Montoro (coppery onion from Montoro), grown in a niche area in southern Italy, and compared its phenolic profile and antioxidant properties to a commercial ecotype of red onion, Tropea, also present in southern Italy. An analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection and mass spectrometry was used to separate and characterize the phenolic fraction (anthocyanins and flavonols) extracted from both coppery and red types. The main compounds detected in the two ecotypes were quercetin and quercetin glucosides, isorhamnetin glucosides, kaempferol glucoside, and, among anthocyanins, cyanidin glucosides. Tropea ecotype onion showed a higher content of flavonols (632.82 mg/kg fresh weight) than Montoro type onion (252.91 mg/kg fresh weight). Accordingly, the antioxidant activity of the former was 2.8-fold higher compared to the latter. More pronounced were the differences existing between the four anthocyanins detected in the two ecotypes, with those in the Tropea ecotype onion present at concentrations 20-230-fold higher than in the Montoro type onion. Both extracts reduced LDL oxidation about 6-fold and protected human erythrocytes from oxidative damage induced by HClO by about 40%. In addition, as a consequence of HClO treatment, glutathione concentration in erythrocytes was reduced about 50% and pretreatment with onion extracts induced a recovery of glutathione level by about 15-22%. Qualitative

  8. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) extract administration on intestinal α-glucosidases activities and spikes in postprandial blood glucose levels in SD rats model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Ho; Jo, Sung-Hoon; Kwon, Young-In; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Diets high in calories and sweetened foods with disaccharides frequently lead to exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose. This state induces immediate oxidant stress and free radicals which trigger oxidative stress-linked diabetic complications. One of the therapeutic approaches for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia is to retard absorption of glucose by the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidases, in the digestive organs. Therefore, the inhibitory activity of Korean onion (Allium cepa L.) extract against rat intestinal α-glucosidases, such as sucrase, maltase, and porcine pancreatic α-amylase were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The content of quercetin in ethyl alcohol extract of onion skin (EOS) was 6.04 g/100 g dried weight of onion skin. The in vitro half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of EOS and quercetin, a major phenolic in onion, on rat intestinal sucrase were 0.40 and 0.11 mg/mL, respectively. The postprandial blood glucose lowering effects of EOS and quercetin were compared to a known type 2 diabetes drug (Acarbose), a strong α-glucosidase inhibitor in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. In rats fed on sucrose, EOS significantly reduced the blood glucose spike after sucrose loading. The area under the blood glucose-time curve (AUC(last)) in EOS-treated SD rats (0.5 g-EOS/kg) was significantly lower than in untreated SD rats (259.6 ± 5.1 vs. 283.1 ± 19.2 h·mg/dL). The AUC(last) in quercetin-treated SD rats (0.5 g-quercetin/kg) was similar to in EOS-treated group (256.1 ± 3.2 vs. 259.6 ± 5.1 h·mg/dL). Results from this study indicates that although quercetin does have blood glucose lowering potential via α-glucosidase inhibition, there are other bioactive compounds present in onion skin. Furthermore, the effects of two weeks administration of EOS in a high carbohydrate-dietary mixture (Pico 5053) on sucrase and maltase activities in intestine were evaluated in SD rat model. Compared

  9. Effects of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Extract Administration on Intestinal α-Glucosidases Activities and Spikes in Postprandial Blood Glucose Levels in SD Rats Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Ho; Jo, Sung-Hoon; Kwon, Young-In; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Diets high in calories and sweetened foods with disaccharides frequently lead to exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose. This state induces immediate oxidant stress and free radicals which trigger oxidative stress-linked diabetic complications. One of the therapeutic approaches for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia is to retard absorption of glucose by the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidases, in the digestive organs. Therefore, the inhibitory activity of Korean onion (Allium cepa L.) extract against rat intestinal α-glucosidases, such as sucrase, maltase, and porcine pancreatic α-amylase were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The content of quercetin in ethyl alcohol extract of onion skin (EOS) was 6.04 g/100 g dried weight of onion skin. The in vitro half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of EOS and quercetin, a major phenolic in onion, on rat intestinal sucrase were 0.40 and 0.11 mg/mL, respectively. The postprandial blood glucose lowering effects of EOS and quercetin were compared to a known type 2 diabetes drug (Acarbose), a strong α-glucosidase inhibitor in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. In rats fed on sucrose, EOS significantly reduced the blood glucose spike after sucrose loading. The area under the blood glucose-time curve (AUClast) in EOS-treated SD rats (0.5 g-EOS/kg) was significantly lower than in untreated SD rats (259.6 ± 5.1 vs. 283.1 ± 19.2 h·mg/dL). The AUClast in quercetin-treated SD rats (0.5 g-quercetin/kg) was similar to in EOS-treated group (256.1 ± 3.2 vs. 259.6 ± 5.1 h·mg/dL). Results from this study indicates that although quercetin does have blood glucose lowering potential via α-glucosidase inhibition, there are other bioactive compounds present in onion skin. Furthermore, the effects of two weeks administration of EOS in a high carbohydrate-dietary mixture (Pico 5053) on sucrase and maltase activities in intestine were evaluated in SD rat model. Compared to

  10. Energy-dependent RBE of neutrons to induce micronuclei in root-tip cells of Allium cepa onion irradiated as dry dormant seeds and seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenyi; Fujikawa, Kazuo; Endo, Satoru; Ishikawa, Masayori; Ohtaki, Megu; Ikeda, Hideo; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2003-06-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of various energy neutrons produced from a Schenkel-type accelerator at the Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University (HIRRAC), compared with 60Co gamma-ray radiation was determined. The neutron radiations and gamma-ray radiation produced good linear changes in the frequency of micronuclei induced in the root-tip cells of Allium cepa onion irradiated as dry dormant seeds (seed assay) and seedlings (seedling assay) with varying radiation doses. Therefore the RBE for radiation-induced micronuclei can be calculated as the ratio of the slopes of the fitted linear dose response for the neutron radiations and the 60Co gamma-ray radiation. The RBE values by seed assay and seedling assay decreased to 174 +/- 7, from 216 +/- 9, and to 31.4 +/- 1.0, from 45.3 +/- 1.3 (one standard error), respectively, when neutron energies increased to 1.0 MeV, from 0.2 MeV, in the present study. Furthermore, the ratio of the micronucleus induction rates of seed assay to seedling assay by gamma-ray radiation was much lower than that by neutron radiations.

  11. Confined direct analysis in real time ion source and its applications in analysis of volatile organic compounds of Citrus limon (lemon) and Allium cepa (onion).

    PubMed

    Li, Yue

    2012-05-30

    The DART (direct analysis in real time) ion source is a novel atmospheric pressure ionization technique that enables efficient ionization of gases, liquids and solids with high throughput. A major limit to its wider application in the analysis of gases is its poor detection sensitivity caused by open-air sampling. In this study, a confined interface between the DART ion source outlet and mass spectrometer sampling orifice was developed, where the plasma generated by the atmospheric pressure glow discharge collides and ionizes gas-phase molecules in a Tee-shaped flow tube instead of in open air. It leads to significant increase of collision reaction probability between high energy metastable molecules and analytes. The experimental results show that the ionization efficiency was increased at least by two orders of magnitude. This technique was then applied in the real time analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of Citrus Limon (lemon) and wounded Allium Cepa (onion). The confined DART ion source was proved to be a powerful tool for the studies of plant metabolomics. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Effect of single alien chromosome from shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) on carbohydrate production in leaf blade of bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Yamauchi, Naoki; Tashiro, Yosuke

    2004-12-01

    We used a complete set of Allium fistulosum - shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) monosomic addition lines (FF+1A - FF+8A) to identify shallot chromosomes affecting the production of sugars. In the alien addition lines grown over two years in an experimental field at Yamaguchi University (34 degrees N, 131 degrees E), shallot chromosomes 2A and 8A altered sugar contents in leaf-bunching onion (A. fistulosum). Except for FF+2A, every monosomic addition accumulated non-reducing sugars in winter leaf blades. FF+8A caused an increase in the amounts of non-reducing sugars in the winter. FF+2A hardly produced non-reducing sugar throughout the two-year study. These results indicated that genes related to non-reducing sugar metabolism are located on the 2A and 8A chromosomes. The results of regression analyses using 2002 data on A. fistulosum and the monosomic addition set revealed a correlation (r = 0.63 +/- 0.07; mean +/- SE., n = 9) between reducing sugar and monosaccharide (Glc+Fru) contents but no correlation between non-reducing sugar and sucrose contents. This result indicates the existence of other polysaccharides (e.g., scorodose) as non-reducing sugars in the leaf blade.

  13. Gold color in onions (Allium cepa): a natural mutation of the chalcone isomerase gene resulting in a premature stop codon.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Jones, R; Yoo, K S; Pike, L M

    2004-11-01

    Unusual gold-colored onions were selected from a F3 family originating from a cross between US-type yellow and Brazilian yellow onions. HPLC analysis showed that the gold onions contained a significantly reduced amount of quercetin, the most abundant flavonoid in onions. This result indicated that an early step in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway might be abnormal in these onions. The expression of flavonoid synthesis genes isolated from onions was examined in gold onions and compared to that in onions of other colors by RT-PCR. The results showed that all genes were transcribed in gold onions as in red onions. In order to identify any critical mutations in flavonoid synthesis genes encoding enzymes involved in early steps of the pathway, the genomic sequence of chalcone isomerase (CHI) was obtained. A premature stop codon and a subsequent single base-pair addition causing a frameshift were identified in the coding region of the CHI gene in the gold onions. Co-segregation of the mutant allele of the CHI gene and the gold phenotype was investigated in the original F2 segregating population. Genotyping of three color groups (red, yellow and gold) of F2 onions revealed perfect co-segregation of the mutant CHI allele with the gold phenotype. All tested gold F2 onions were homozygous for the mutant CHI allele. This perfect co-segregation implies that the presence of a premature stop codon in the gold CHI gene results in an inactive CHI. Inactivation of CHI results in a block in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway and the accumulation of chalcone derivatives, including a yellow pigment which might be responsible for the gold color in onions.

  14. Molecular and biochemical identification of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Hoa, Vu Quynh; Masuzaki, Shin-ichi; Wako, Tadayuki; Masamura, Noriya; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2009-02-01

    To develop the bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; genomes, FF) chromosome-specific genetic markers for identifying extra chromosomes, eight shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group; genomes, AA)--A. fistulosum monosomic addition plants (AA+nF) and 62 shallot--A. fistulosum single-alien deletion plants (AAF-nF) were analyzed by 23 different chromosome-specific genetic markers of shallot. The eight monosomic addition plants consisted of one AA+2F, two AA+6F, and five AA+8F. Of the 62 single-alien deletion plants, 60 could be identified as six different single-alien deletion lines (AAF-1F, -3F, -4F, -6F, -7F, and -8F) out of the eight possible types. Several single-alien deletion lines were classified on the basis of leaf and bulb characteristics. AAF-8F had the largest number of expanded leaves of five deletion plants. AAF-7F grew most vigorously, as expressed by its long leaf blade and biggest bulb size. AAF-4F had very small bulbs. AAF-7F and AAF-8F had different bulbs from those of shallot as well as other types of single-alien deletion lines in skin and outer scale color. Regarding the sugar content of the bulb tissues, the single-alien deletion lines showed higher fructan content than shallot. Moreover, shallot could not produce fructan with degree of polymerization (DP) 12 or higher, although the single-alien deletion lines showed DP 20 or higher. The content of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSO) in the single-alien deletion lines was significantly lower than that in shallot. These results indicated that chromosomes from A. fistulosum might carry anonymous factors to increase the highly polymerized fructan production and inhibit the synthesis of ACSO in shallot bulbs. Accordingly, alien chromosomes from A. fistulosum in shallot would contribute to modify the quality of shallot bulbs.

  15. Onion (Allium cepa L.) peel extract (OPE) regulates human sperm motility via protein kinase C-mediated activation of the human voltage-gated proton channel.

    PubMed

    Chae, M R; Kang, S J; Lee, K P; Choi, B R; Kim, H K; Park, J K; Kim, C Y; Lee, S W

    2017-09-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) and quercetin protect against oxidative damage and have positive effects on multiple functional parameters of spermatozoa, including viability and motility. However, the associated underlying mechanisms of action have not yet been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of onion peel extract (OPE) on voltage-gated proton (Hv1) channels, which play a critical role in rapid proton extrusion. This process underlies a wide range of physiological processes, particularly male fertility. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record the changes in Hv1 currents in HEK293 cells transiently transfected with human Hv1 (HVCN1). The effects of OPE on human sperm motility were also analyzed. OPE significantly activated the outward-rectifying proton currents in a concentration-dependent manner, with an EC50 value of 30 μg/mL. This effect was largely reversible upon washout. Moreover, OPE induced an increase in the proton current amplitude and decreased the time constant of activation at 0 mV from 4.9 ± 1.7 to 0.6 ± 0.1 sec (n = 6). In the presence of OPE, the half-activation voltage (V1/2 ) shifted in the negative direction, from 20.1 ± 5.8 to 5.2 ± 8.7 mV (n = 6), but the slope was not significantly altered. The OPE-induced current was profoundly inhibited by 10 μm Zn(2+) , the most potent Hv1 channel inhibitor, and was also inhibited by treatment with GF109203X, a specific protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. Furthermore, sperm motility was significantly increased in the OPE-treated groups. OPE exhibits protective effects on sperm motility, at least partially via regulation of the proton channel. Moreover, similar effects were exerted by quercetin, the major flavonoid in OPE. These results suggest OPE, which is rich in the potent Hv1 channel activator quercetin, as a possible new candidate treatment for human infertility. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  16. Completion of the mitochondrial genome sequence of onion (Allium cepa L.) containing the CMS-S male-sterile cytoplasm and identification of an independent event of the ccmF N gene split.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bongju; Kim, Kyunghee; Yang, Tae-Jin; Kim, Sunggil

    2016-11-01

    Cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS) conferred by the CMS-S cytoplasm has been most commonly used for onion (Allium cepa L.) F1 hybrid seed production. We first report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence containing CMS-S cytoplasm in this study. Initially, seven contigs were de novo assembled from 150-bp paired-end raw reads produced from the total genomic DNA using the Illumina NextSeq500 platform. These contigs were connected into a single circular genome consisting of 316,363 bp (GenBank accession: KU318712) by PCR amplification. Although all 24 core protein-coding genes were present, no ribosomal protein-coding genes, except rps12, were identified in the onion mitochondrial genome. Unusual trans-splicing of the cox2 gene was verified, and the cox1 gene was identified as part of the chimeric orf725 gene, which is a candidate gene responsible for inducing CMS. In addition to orf725, two small chimeric genes were identified, but no transcripts were detected for these two open reading frames. Thirteen chloroplast-derived sequences, with sizes of 126-13,986 bp, were identified in the intergenic regions. Almost 10 % of the onion mitochondrial genome was composed of repeat sequences. The vast majority of repeats were short repeats of <100 base pairs. Interestingly, the gene encoding ccmFN was split into two genes. The ccmF N gene split is first identified outside the Brassicaceae family. The breakpoint in the onion ccmF N gene was different from that of other Brassicaceae species. This split of the ccmF N gene was also present in 30 other Allium species. The complete onion mitochondrial genome sequence reported in this study would be fundamental information for elucidation of onion CMS evolution.

  17. Polyphenolics from various extracts/fractions of red onion (Allium cepa) peel with potent antioxidant and antimutagenic activities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brahma N; Singh, B R; Singh, R L; Prakash, D; Singh, D P; Sarma, B K; Upadhyay, G; Singh, H B

    2009-06-01

    In order to determine antioxidant activity, the five extracts/fractions of red onion peel were studied for their total content of phenolics (TPC), flavonoids (TFC), antioxidant activity (AOA), free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), assayed by DPPH radical in the terms of anti-radical power (ARP) and reducing power (RP), expressed as ascorbic acid equivalents (ASE)/ml. High TPC (384.7 +/- 5.0 mg GAE/g), TFC (165.2+/- 3.2 mg QE/g), AOA (97.4 +/- 7.6%), ARP (75.3 +/-4.5) and RP (1.6 +/-0.3 ASE/ml) were found for the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction. EA fraction had markedly higher antioxidant capacity than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in preventive or scavenging capacities against FeCl3-induced lipid peroxidation, protein fragmentation, hydroxyl (site-specific and non-site-specific), superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. EA fraction also showed dose dependent antimutagenic activity by following the inhibition of tobacco-induced mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA102) and hydroxyl radical-induced nicking in plasmid pUC18 DNA. HPLC and MS/MS analysis showed the presence of ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic acids, quercetin and kaempferol. The large amount of polyphenols contained in EA fraction may cause its strong antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. This information shows that EA fraction of red onion peel can be used as natural antioxidant in nutraceutical preparations.

  18. Dyeing of γ-irradiated cotton with natural flavonoid dye extracted from irradiated onion shells (Allium cepa) powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Shahid, Muhammad; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Nasir, Faiza; Akhtar, Nasim; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2013-11-01

    Powder of Onion shells as a source of natural flavonoid dye (Quercetin) and cotton fabrics were exposed to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Irradiated and un-irradiated dye powder was used for extraction of quercetin as well as antibacterial, hemolytic and antioxidant activities were also determined to observe the effect of radiation. Furthermore, color strength and colourfastness of irradiated fabrics were improved by using pre and post-mordants such as alum and iron. It is found that 4 kGy is the optimal absorbed dose for extraction of natural quercetin extracted from onion shells while maximum color strength and acceptable fastness properties are obtained on dyeing of irradiated fabric at 60 °C keeping M:L of 1:30 using 10% alum as pre-mordant and 6% alum as post-mordant. Gamma irradiation has not only improved the color strength of the dye using irradiated cotton but also that of colourfastness properties.

  19. Proteomic changes associated with freeze-thaw injury and post-thaw recovery in onion (Allium cepa L.) scales.

    PubMed

    Chen, Keting; Renaut, Jenny; Sergeant, Kjell; Wei, Hui; Arora, Rajeev

    2013-04-01

    The ability of plants to recover from freeze-thaw injury is a critical component of freeze-thaw stress tolerance. To investigate the molecular basis of freeze-thaw recovery, here we compared the proteomes of onion scales from unfrozen control (UFC), freeze-thaw injured (INJ), and post-thaw recovered (REC) treatments. Injury-related proteins (IRPs) and recovery-related proteins (RRPs) were differentiated according to their accumulation patterns. Many IRPs decreased right after thaw without any significant re-accumulation during post-thaw recovery, while others were exclusively induced in INJ tissues. Most IRPs are antioxidants, stress proteins, molecular chaperones, those induced by physical injury or proteins involved in energy metabolism. Taken together, these observations suggest that while freeze-thaw compromises the constitutive stress protection and energy supply in onion scales, it might also recruit 'first-responders' (IRPs that were induced) to mitigate such injury. RRPs, on the other hand, are involved in the injury-repair program during post-thaw environment conducive for recovery. Some RRPs were restored in REC tissues after their first reduction right after thaw, while others exhibit higher abundance than their 'constitutive' levels. RRPs might facilitate new cellular homeostasis, potentially by re-establishing ion homeostasis and proteostasis, cell-wall remodelling, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, defence against possible post-thaw infection, and regulating the energy budget to sustain these processes.

  20. Determination of cytoplasmic male sterile factors in onion plants (Allium cepa L.) using PCR-RFLP and SNP markers.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Yang, Tae-Jin; Hong, Su-Young; Kwon, Young-Seok; Woo, Jong-Gyu; Park, Hyo-Guen

    2006-06-30

    We have developed a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) marker that can distinguish male-fertile (N) and male-sterile (S) cytoplasm in onions. The PCR-RFLP marker was located in a chloroplast psbA gene amplicon. Digesting the amplicons from different cytoplasm-containing varieties with the restriction enzyme MspI revealed that N-cytoplasm plants have a functional MspI site (CCGG), whereas the S-cytoplasm plants has a substitution in that site (CTGG), and thus no MspI target. The results obtained using this PCR-RFLP marker to distinguish between cytoplasmic male sterile factors in 35 onion varieties corresponded with those using a CMS-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Moreover, the PCR-RFLP marker can identify N- ot S-cytoplasms in DNA sample mixtures in which they are in up to a 10-fold minority, indicating that use of the marker has high diagnostic precision. We also demonstrated the usefulness of the SNP detected in the psbA gene for high-throughput discrimination of CMS factors using Real-time PCR and a TaqMan probe assay.

  1. Transmission of Pantoea ananatis and P. agglomerans, causal agents of center rot of onion (Allium cepa), by onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) through feces.

    PubMed

    Dutta, B; Barman, A K; Srinivasan, R; Avci, U; Ullman, D E; Langston, D B; Gitaitis, R D

    2014-08-01

    Frankliniella fusca, the tobacco thrips, has been shown to acquire and transmit Pantoea ananatis, one of the causal agents of the center rot of onion. Although Thrips tabaci, the onion thrips, is a common pest of onions, its role as a vector of P. ananatis has been unknown. The bacterium, P. agglomerans, is also associated with the center rot of onion, but its transmission by thrips has not been previously investigated. In this study, we investigated the relationship of T. tabaci with P. ananatis and P. agglomerans. Surface-sterilized T. tabaci were provided with various acquisition access periods (AAP) on onion leaves inoculated with either P. ananatis or P. agglomerans. A positive exponential relationship was observed between thrips AAP duration and P. ananatis (R² = 0.967; P = 0.023) or P. agglomerans acquisition (R² = 0.958; P = 0.017). Transmission experiments conducted with T. tabaci adults indicated that 70% of the seedlings developed center rot symptoms 15 days after inoculation. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to P. ananatis revealed that the bacterium was localized only in the gut of T. tabaci adults. Mechanical inoculation of onion seedlings with fecal rinsates alone produced center rot but not with salivary secretions. Together these results suggested that T. tabaci could efficiently transmit P. ananatis and P. agglomerans.

  2. Effects of dietary onion (Allium cepa) extract supplementation on performance, apparent total tract retention of nutrients, blood profile and meat quality of broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Aditya, Siska; Ahammed, Musabbir; Jang, Seong Hun; Ohh, Sang Jip

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary onion (Allium cepa) extract (OE) supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract retention (ATTR), blood profile, carcass characteristics and meat quality in broilers. Methods Four hundred male broiler chicks (Ross 308, 3-d old) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments for 28 d feeding trial. Each treatment has five replications with 20 birds each. Four dietary treatments were designated according to the OE supplementation levels (0 as control, 5, 7.5, and 10 g of OE per kg of basal diet respectively). On d 28, a total of 20 birds from each treatment were subjected for ATTR, serum biochemical assay, carcass characteristic and organ weight measurement. Results Overall weight gain of OE 7.5 g/kg group was higher (p = 0.04) than control group. The ATTRs of dietary energy (p<0.01) and ether extract (p = 0.04) linearly increased with increasing levels of dietary OE. However, no difference in ATTR of dry matter and crude protein was evident. Furthermore, serum IgG concentration increased linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p = 0.03) with increasing OE supplementation. No differences in carcass dressing weight and amount of abdominal fat by treatments were observed. Also, the weight of organ including immune organ was not different among the treatments. The TBARS values of 10 d stored breast meat decreased linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p<0.01) with increasing dietary OE levels. The meat color was also affected, with lower (p<0.01) redness score in meats from OE supplemented groups. This study showed that dietary OE improved broiler weight gain presumably by increasing feed intake and ATTR of both energy and ether extract. The dietary OE increased serum IgG level and meat anti-oxidation capacity. Conclusion This study implies that the recommended level of dietary OE supplementation could be beneficial for improving broiler performance and meat quality. PMID:27809460

  3. Genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Mamta; Mukherjee, A; Chandrasekaran, N

    2009-09-15

    Potential health and environmental effects of nanoparticles need to be thoroughly assessed before their widespread commercialization. Though there are few studies on cytotoxicity of nanoparticles on mammalian and human cell lines, there are hardly any reports on genotoxic and cytotoxic behavior of nanoparticles in plant cells. This study aims to investigate cytotoxic and genotoxic impacts of silver nanoparticles using root tip cells of Allium cepa as an indicator organism. A.cepa root tip cells were treated with four different concentrations (25, 20, 75, and 100 ppm) of engineered silver nanoparticles (below 100 nm size) dispersion, to study endpoints like mitotic index, distribution of cells in mitotic phases, different types of chromosomal aberrations, disturbed metaphase, sticky chromosome, cell wall disintegration, and breaks. For each concentration five sets of microscopic observations were carried out. No chromosomal aberration was observed in the control (untreated onion root tips) and the mitotic index (MI) value was 60.3%. With increasing concentration of the nanoparticles decrease in the mitotic index was noticed (60.30% to 27.62%). The different cytological effects including the chromosomal aberrations were studied in detail for the treated cells as well as control. We infer from this study that silver nanoparticles could penetrate plant system and may impair stages of cell division causing chromatin bridge, stickiness, disturbed metaphase, multiple chromosomal breaks and cell disintegration. The findings also suggest that plants as an important component of the ecosystems need to be included when evaluating the overall toxicological impact of the nanoparticles in the environment.

  4. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn) Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elberry, Ahmed A.; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Abdel Sattar, Essam; Ghareib, Salah A.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Gabr, Salah A.

    2014-01-01

    Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4′-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:24829522

  5. Immunomodulatory effect of red onion (Allium cepa Linn) scale extract on experimentally induced atypical prostatic hyperplasia in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Elberry, Ahmed A; Mufti, Shagufta; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Abdel Sattar, Essam; Ghareib, Salah A; Mosli, Hisham A; Gabr, Salah A

    2014-01-01

    Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4'-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

  6. Establishment of a series of alien monosomic addition lines of Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with extra chromosomes from shallot (A. cepa L. aggregatum group).

    PubMed

    Shigyo, M; Tashiro, Y; Isshiki, S; Miyazaki, S

    1996-12-01

    Forty one plants of alien monosomic addition lines of Allium fistulosum L. with extra chromosomes from A. cepa L. Aggregatum group (FF + nA) were produced through the second backcross of amphidiploids between these two species to A. fistulosum. Identification of the extra chromosomes in the 16 plants by elaborate karyotype analyses indicate that a complete series (eight different types) of the alien monosomic addition lines was established in Allium for the first time in this study. Chromosomal locations of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene and 5S rDNA of A. cepa Aggregatum group were determined using the series; The gene locus Mdh-1 was located on 4A, Tpi-1 on 3A and a 5S rDNA locus on 7A. Our previous and present studies using the alien monosomic addition lines revealed 11 genetic markers (isozyme and 5S rDNA) assigned to all eight chromosomes of A. cepa Aggregatum group, and these markers reconfirmed the completion of the series. Extra chromosomes of 25 other plants were examined by means of simple analyses of the chromosome markers and karyotypes. Of the total 41 plants, frequencies of the alien monosomic addition lines with extra chromosomes 1A to 8A were as follows: 1A, 5 plants; 2A, 3; 3A, 5; 4A, 9; 5A, 4; 6A, 2; 7A, 11; and 8A, 2.

  7. Doubled haploid production from Spanish onion (Allium cepa L.) germplasm: embryogenesis induction, plant regeneration and chromosome doubling

    PubMed Central

    Fayos, Oreto; Vallés, María P.; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Mallor, Cristina; Castillo, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of doubled haploids in onion breeding is limited due to the low gynogenesis efficiency of this species. Gynogenesis capacity from Spanish germplasm, including the sweet cultivar Fuentes de Ebro, the highly pungent landrace BGHZ1354 and the two Valenciana type commercial varieties Recas and Rita, was evaluated and optimized in this study. The OH-1 population, characterized by a high gynogenesis induction, was used as control. Growing conditions of the donor plants were tested with a one-step protocol and field plants produced a slightly higher percentage of embryogenesis induction than growth chamber plants. A one-step protocol was compared with a two-step protocol for embryogenesis induction. Spanish germplasm produced a 2–3 times higher percentage of embryogenesis with the two-step protocol, Recas showing the highest percentage (2.09%) and Fuentes de Ebro the lowest (0.53%). These percentages were significantly lower than those from the OH-1 population, with an average of 15% independently of the protocol used. The effect of different containers on plant regeneration was tested using both protocols. The highest percentage of acclimated plants was obtained with the two-step protocol in combination with Eco2box (70%), whereas the lowest percentage was observed with glass tubes in the two protocols (20–23%). Different amiprofos-methyl (APM) treatments were applied to embryos for chromosome doubling. A similar number of doubled haploid plants were recovered with 25 or 50 μM APM in liquid medium. However, the application of 25 μM in solid medium for 24 h produced the highest number of doubled haploid plants. Somatic regeneration from flower buds of haploid and mixoploid plants proved to be a successful approach for chromosome doubling, since diploid plants were obtained from the four regenerated lines. In this study, doubled haploid plants were produced from the four Spanish cultivars, however further improvements are needed to increase their gynogenesis

  8. Doubled haploid production from Spanish onion (Allium cepa L.) germplasm: embryogenesis induction, plant regeneration and chromosome doubling.

    PubMed

    Fayos, Oreto; Vallés, María P; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Mallor, Cristina; Castillo, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    The use of doubled haploids in onion breeding is limited due to the low gynogenesis efficiency of this species. Gynogenesis capacity from Spanish germplasm, including the sweet cultivar Fuentes de Ebro, the highly pungent landrace BGHZ1354 and the two Valenciana type commercial varieties Recas and Rita, was evaluated and optimized in this study. The OH-1 population, characterized by a high gynogenesis induction, was used as control. Growing conditions of the donor plants were tested with a one-step protocol and field plants produced a slightly higher percentage of embryogenesis induction than growth chamber plants. A one-step protocol was compared with a two-step protocol for embryogenesis induction. Spanish germplasm produced a 2-3 times higher percentage of embryogenesis with the two-step protocol, Recas showing the highest percentage (2.09%) and Fuentes de Ebro the lowest (0.53%). These percentages were significantly lower than those from the OH-1 population, with an average of 15% independently of the protocol used. The effect of different containers on plant regeneration was tested using both protocols. The highest percentage of acclimated plants was obtained with the two-step protocol in combination with Eco2box (70%), whereas the lowest percentage was observed with glass tubes in the two protocols (20-23%). Different amiprofos-methyl (APM) treatments were applied to embryos for chromosome doubling. A similar number of doubled haploid plants were recovered with 25 or 50 μM APM in liquid medium. However, the application of 25 μM in solid medium for 24 h produced the highest number of doubled haploid plants. Somatic regeneration from flower buds of haploid and mixoploid plants proved to be a successful approach for chromosome doubling, since diploid plants were obtained from the four regenerated lines. In this study, doubled haploid plants were produced from the four Spanish cultivars, however further improvements are needed to increase their gynogenesis

  9. Assessing toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium levels relevant to discharge limits of industrial effluents into inland surface waters using common onion, Allium cepa bioassay.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2015-02-01

    Toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium relevant to established tolerance limits for the discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters was evaluated by Allium cepa bioassay. The roots of A. cepa bulbs exposed to Cu(2+) (3 mg L(-1)) individually or in mixtures with Cd(2+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) or/and Cr(6+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) exhibited the highest growth inhibition, mitotic index depression and nuclear abnormalities. Root tip cells exposed to Cr(6+) or Cd(2+) alone or in mixture displayed significant chromosomal aberrations in comparison to the controls. EC50s for root growth inhibition followed the order Cu(2+) < Cd(2+) < Cr(6+) indicating greater toxicity of copper. The results show that the industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits for these metals need to be reviewed considering potential cyto-genotoxicity to biological systems.

  10. Furostanol saponins from the seeds of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuang-Jun; Yuan, Ling; Ji, Teng-Fei; Yang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun

    2014-12-01

    Allium cepa L. is one of the most widely cultivated and used plants. In addition to its bulb (onion), which is used as food in many cultures, the seeds of A. cepa L. are used as a traditional herbal medicine by the Uygur nationality in China to treat diarrhea and promote blood flow. In a bioactivity-screening, the ethanol extract of seeds of A. cepa L. showed inhibitory effects on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) enzyme, with 81.1% inhibition. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of red onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds led to the isolation of eight new furostanol saponins, named ceparosides E-L (1-8). Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. Compounds 1-8 were screened for inhibitory effects on the PTP1B enzyme and cytotoxic activity against five human cells, including HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549 and A2780, but all were found to be inactive.

  11. Disintegration efficiency of pulsed electric field induced effects on onion (Allium cepa L.) tissues as a function of pulse protocol and determination of cell integrity by ¹H-NMR relaxometry.

    PubMed

    Ersus, Seda; Oztop, Mecit Halil; McCarthy, Michael J; Barrett, Diane M

    2010-09-01

    The influence of electrical pulse protocol parameters on cell rupture of onion tissues was investigated in order to improve fundamental understanding and to enhance the processing of plant tissues with pulsed electric fields (PEFs). The impact of PEF parameters on cell integrity of 20 mm dia, 4-mm thick disks of Don Victor onions (Allium cepa L.) was determined by ion leakage measurements. Electric field strength, pulse width, total pulse duration, and frequency effects were determined in relation to their effects on cell damage as a function of pulse protocol. Electric field strengths up to 500 V/cm increased the damage efficiency but there was no significant difference in efficiency beyond this field strength. Larger pulse widths increased the degree of tissue disintegration at a constant pulse number. Higher PEF efficiency was achieved with shorter pulse widths and a larger number of pulses at a constant total treatment time. Lower frequencies caused a greater degree of disintegration at constant number of pulses. ¹H-NMR experiments were performed to determine the proton relaxation components of the PEF-treated onion samples and to obtain cell damage information nondestructively. Paramagnetic ion uptake by the onion sample was used to identify different proton relaxation components. Five different proton relaxation components were observed and changes in the 2 components representing different proton environments showed high correlations with ion leakage results (R²= 0.99), indicating that T(2) distributions can be used to obtain information about cell membrane integrity in PEF-treated samples. 1H-NMR proved to be an effective method for nondestructive quantification of cell membrane rupture in onions.

  12. Production and characterization of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Tashiro, Yosuke

    2004-10-01

    First and second backcrosses of amphidiploid hybrids (2n = 4x = 32, genomes AAFF) between shallot (Allium cepa Aggregatum group) and A. fistulosum were conducted to produce A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien addition lines. When shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) was used as a pollinator, the amphidiploids and allotriploids set germinable BC(1) and BC(2) seeds, respectively. The 237 BC(1) plants mainly consisted of 170 allotriploids (2n = 3x = 24, AAF) and 42 hypo-allotriploids possessing 23 chromosomes, i.e., single-alien deletions (2n = 3x-1 = 23, AAF-nF). The single-alien deletions in the BC(1) progeny showed dwarfing characteristics and were discriminated from the allotriploids (2n = 24) and hyper-allotriploids (2n = 25) by means of flow cytometric analysis. The chromosome numbers of 46 BC(2) seedlings varied from 16 to 24. Eight monosomic additions (2n = 2x+1 = 17, AA+nF) and 20 single-alien deletions were found in these BC(2) seedlings. Consequently, six kinds of A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien chromosome additions possessing different chromosome numbers (2n = 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23) were recognized in the BC(1) and BC(2) populations. A total of 79 aneuploids, including 62 single-alien deletions, were analyzed by a chromosome 6F-specific isozyme marker (Got-2) in order to recognize its existence in their chromosome complements. This analysis revealed that two out of 62 single-alien deletions did not possess 6F. One (AAF-6F) out of the possible eight single-alien deletions could be identified at first. The present study is a first step toward the development of a useful tool, such as a complete set of eight different single-alien deletions, for the rapid chromosomal assignment of genes and genetic markers in A. fistulosum.

  13. Characterization of three active transposable elements recently inserted in three independent DFR-A alleles and one high-copy DNA transposon isolated from the Pink allele of the ANS gene in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunggil; Park, Jee Young; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-06-01

    Intact retrotransposon and DNA transposons inserted in a single gene were characterized in onions (Allium cepa) and their transcription and copy numbers were estimated in this study. While analyzing diverse onion germplasm, large insertions in the DFR-A gene encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were found in two accessions. A 5,070-bp long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon inserted in the active DFR-A (R4) allele was identified from one of the large insertions and designated AcCOPIA1. An intact ORF encoded typical domains of copia-like LTR retrotransposons. However, AcCOPIA1 contained atypical 'TG' and 'TA' dinucleotides at the ends of the LTRs. A 4,615-bp DNA transposon was identified in the other large insertion. This DNA transposon, designated AcCACTA1, contained an ORF coding for a transposase showing homology with the CACTA superfamily transposable elements (TEs). Another 5,073-bp DNA transposon was identified from the DFR-A (TRN) allele. This DNA transposon, designated AchAT1, belonged to the hAT superfamily with short 4-bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). Finally, a 6,258-bp non-autonomous DNA transposon, designated AcPINK, was identified in the ANS-p allele encoding anthocyanidin synthase, the next downstream enzyme to DFR in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. AcPINK also possessed very short 3-bp TIRs. Active transcription of AcCOPIA1, AcCACTA1, and AchAT1 was observed through RNA-Seq analysis and RT-PCR. The copy numbers of AcPINK estimated by mapping the genomic DNA reads produced by NextSeq 500 were predominantly high compared with the other TEs. A series of evidence indicated that these TEs might have transposed in these onion genes very recently, providing a stepping stone for elucidation of enormously large-sized onion genome structure.

  14. Development of a codominant PCR-based marker for allelic selection of the pink trait in onions (Allium cepa), based on the insertion mutation in the promoter of the anthocyanidin synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunggil; Yoo, Kil-Sun; Pike, Leonard M

    2005-02-01

    Bulb color in onions (Allium cepa) is an important trait and is inherited in a complex manner. However, the mechanism of color inheritance is poorly understood at the molecular level. A previous study showed that pink bulb color in onions is inherited as a single recessive trait. This trait is attributable to a significantly reduced transcription of the anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) gene. In this study, we developed a PCR-based marker for an allelic selection of the ANS gene to avoid the laborious progeny tests traditionally employed. To identify polymorphisms between pink and red alleles of the ANS gene, promoter sequences of both alleles were isolated. There was 97% nucleotide sequence identity between the promoter sequences of the two alleles. A 390-bp insertion was identified 632 bp upstream from the putative transcription start site in the pink allele. A pair of primers was designed on the flanking sequences of the inserted region and utilized as a PCR-based marker for allelic selection of the ANS gene. The reliability of the marker was tested using parents, F1 hybrids, and F3 lines whose genotypes had been identified by progeny tests. The marker was also used to evaluate the distribution of the pink allele in white and yellow breeding lines. The results indicated that a majority of the breeding lines tested were homozygous recessive.

  15. Development of a co-dominant, PCR-based marker for allelic selection of the pink trait in onions (Allium cepa), based on the insertion mutation in the promoter of the anthocyanidin synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunggil; Yoo, Kil-Sun; Pike, Leonard M

    2005-02-01

    Bulb color in onions (Allium cepa) is an important trait and is inherited in a complex manner. However, the mechanism of color inheritance is poorly understood at the molecular level. A previous study showed that pink bulb color in onions is inherited as a single recessive trait. This trait is attributable to a significantly reduced transcription of the anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) gene. In this study, we developed a PCR-based marker for an allelic selection of the ANS gene to avoid the laborious progeny tests traditionally employed. To identify polymorphisms between pink and red alleles of the ANS gene, promoter sequences of both alleles were isolated. There was 97% nucleotide sequence identity between the promoter sequences of the two alleles. A 390-bp insertion was identified 632 bp upstream from the putative transcription start site in the pink allele. A pair of primers was designed on the flanking sequences of the inserted region and utilized as a PCR-based marker for allelic selection of the ANS gene. The reliability of the marker was tested using parents, F1 hybrids, and F3 lines whose genotypes had been identified by progeny tests. The marker was also used to evaluate the distribution of the pink allele in white and yellow breeding lines. The results indicated that a majority of the breeding lines tested were homozygous recessive.

  16. Potential cytotoxic effect of Anilofos by using Allium cepa assay.

    PubMed

    Özkara, Arzu; Akyıl, Dilek; Eren, Yasin; Erdoğmuş, S Feyza

    2015-10-01

    Cytogenetic effects of Anilofos which was widely used in agriculture, was evaluated in Allium cepa root meristematic cells. In the Allium root growth inhibition test EC50 value was determined 50 ppm and 1/2× EC50 (25 ppm), EC50 (50 ppm) and 2 × EC50 (100 ppm) concentrations of Anilofos were applied to onion roots. A negative and positive control were used in the experiment in parallel. According to results mitotic index decreased with increasing the Anilofos concentrations in all application groups and each exposure time, while disturbed anaphase-telophase, choromosome laggard(s), stickiness and anaphase bridge(s) were observed. In anaphase-telophase cells, c-metaphase, disturbed nucleus and binuclear cells were observed in other anomalies. The results were also analyzed statistically by using Dunnett t test (2-tailed) and all concentrations of Anilofos were found significant.

  17. Development of a PCR-based marker utilizing a deletion mutation in the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene responsible for the lack of anthocyanin production in yellow onions (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunggil; Yoo, Kil Sun; Pike, Leonard M

    2005-02-01

    Bulb color in onions (Allium cepa) is an important trait, but the mechanism of color inheritance is poorly understood at the molecular level. A previous study showed that inactivation of the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene at the transcriptional level resulted in a lack of anthocyanin production in yellow onions. The objectives of the present study were the identification of the critical mutations in the DFR gene (DFR-A) and the development of a PCR-based marker for allelic selection. We report the isolation of two additional DFR homologs (DFR-B and DFR-C). No unique sequences were identified in either DFR homolog, even in the untranslated region (UTR). Both genes shared more than 95% nucleotide sequence identity with the DFR-A gene. To obtain a unique sequence from each gene, we isolated the promoter regions. Sequences of the DFR-A and DFR-B promoters differed completely from one another, except for an approximately 100-bp sequence adjacent to the 5'UTR. It was possible to specifically amplify only the DFR-A gene using primers designed to anneal to the unique promoter region. The sequences of yellow and red DFR-A alleles were the same except for a single base-pair change in the promoter and an approximately 800-bp deletion within the 3' region of the yellow DFR-A allele. This deletion was used to develop a co-dominant PCR-based marker that segregated perfectly with color phenotypes in the F2 population. These results indicate that a deletion mutation in the yellow DFR-A gene results in the lack of anthocyanin production in yellow onions.

  18. Cloning and regiospecificity studies of two flavonoid glucosyltransferases from Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Catherine M; Prata, Rogerio T N; Willits, Michael G; De Luca, Vincenzo; Steffens, John C; Graser, Gerson

    2003-11-01

    Two UDP-glucose-dependent flavonoid glucosyltransferases (EC 2.4.1.-) isolated from the epidermal layer of yellow onion (Allium cepa) were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and their substrate specificity investigated. The two enzymes exhibited different substrate- and regio-specificity profiles. A. cepa UGT73G1 used a wide range of different flavonoid substrates including flavonoids not naturally occurring in onion. Regiospecificity was indicated for hydroxyl-groups of the C-3, C-7 and C-4' positions of the flavan backbone structure to yield flavonoid mono- and diglucosides. In contrast, A. cepa UGT73J1 showed activity only with the flavonoid mono-glucoside isoquercitrin and the isoflavone aglycone genistein, with regiospecificity for the C-7 position. The regiospecificity for both enzymes included positions that are glucosylated in flavonoids of onion bulbs, indicating their involvement in flavonoid biosynthesis in A. cepa.

  19. Identification of two novel inactive DFR-A alleles responsible for failure to produce anthocyanin and development of a simple PCR-based molecular marker for bulb color selection in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunggil; Baek, Doohyun; Cho, Dong Youn; Lee, Eul-Tai; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung

    2009-05-01

    Two novel inactive alleles of Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase-A (DFR-A) were identified in yellow onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars and breeding lines from Korea and Japan. Unlike the previously reported inactive yellow DFR-A allele, designated as DFR-A ( TRN ) , in which the 3' portion of the coding sequences was deleted, an allele containing a premature stop codon, DFR-A ( PS ) , was isolated from the majority of cultivars. Co-segregation of DFR-A ( PS ) and color phenotypes in the F(2) population from a cross between yellow and red parents showed that inactivation of DFR-A was responsible for lack of anthocyanin in these yellow onions. In addition, RT-PCR analysis of F(2) population showed that the transcription level of the DFR-A ( PS ) allele was significantly reduced owing to non-sense-mediated mRNA decay. A 20-bp deletion of a simple sequence repeat in the promoter region of the DFR-A ( PS ) allele was used to develop a simple PCR-based molecular marker for selection of the DFR-A ( PS ) allele. All genotypes of 138 F(2) individuals were clearly distinguished by this molecular marker. In addition to the DFR-A ( PS ) allele, another DFR-A allele, DFR-A ( DEL ) , was identified in some cultivars. In case of the DFR-A ( DEL ) allele, no PCR products were amplified throughout DFR-A sequences including promoter regions, suggesting deletion of the entire DFR-A gene. Co-segregation of the absence of DFR-A and color phenotypes was confirmed in another F(2) population. Furthermore, RT-PCR results showed that no DFR-A transcript was detected in any yellow F(2) individuals.

  20. Effect of Allium sativum and Allium cepa oils on different stages of Boophilus annulatus.

    PubMed

    Aboelhadid, S M; Kamel, A A; Arafa, W M; Shokier, K A

    2013-05-01

    The study is aimed to investigate the acaricidal effect of Allium sativum (garlic) and Allium cepa (onion) oils on different stages of Boophilus annulatus hard tick. Engorged B. annulatus females were collected from naturally infected cattle. A number of engorged ticks were incubated at 28 °C and 85 % relative humidity to lay eggs, which were incubated to obtain larvae that were used in the study. The used garlic and onion oils were prepared by steam distillation and were analyzed by gas chromatography. These oils were dissolved in ethanol, methanol alcohols, and, partially, in water. The oils were tested in different concentrations; 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 %. These concentrations were applied on adult ticks by adult immersion test; on larvae by larval immersion technique and on eggs. The 20, 10, and 5 % of garlic oil dilutions in ethanol and methanol killed all adult ticks and larvae within 24 h. Similar results were obtained for 10 and 20 % garlic oil dissolved in water. The effect of 10 % aqueous solution of garlic oil on embryonated eggs was clear as its addition to these eggs led to their in ability to hatch, deformity in shape, and change in color. The 10 and 20 % onion oil in ethanol and methanol alcohols killed 76-86 % of the adult ticks within 72 h post-application. While, all larvae died within 24 h postsubjected to these two concentrations. These concentrations (10 and 20 %) of onion oil in water killed 56-80 % of the treated ticks. Moreover, 10 % aqueous solution of onion oil prevented hatching of embyonated eggs. We concluded that garlic and onion oils have acaricidal effect on all stages of B. annulatus at concentrations higher than 5 %. Only garlic oil could kill 100 % of adult ticks at concentrations from 5 % in alcohols.

  1. Treatment Effects of Onion (Allium cepa) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Sexual Behavior of Rat after Inducing an Antiepileptic Drug (lamotrigine)

    PubMed Central

    Khaki, Arash; Farnam, Alireza; Badie, Arash Davatgar; Nikniaz, Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial degree of sexual behavior in male rats after inducement of onion and ginger in lamotrigine receiving groups. Material and Methods: Wistar rats (n=70) (male=35, female=35) were allocated so that males were divided into seven groups: control (n=5) and test groups (n=35). Control group used normal Saline (3 cc for each rat). Lamotrigine group were given Lamotrigine (10 mg/kg). Onion group used onion fresh juice (3 cc for each rat/daily). Ginger group was fed on ginger powder (100 mg/kg/daily). Onion & Lamotrigine group used both onion juice (3 cc fresh onion juice for each rat/day) and Lamotrigine (10 mg/kg). Ginger & Lamotrigine group used both ginger powder (100 mg/kg/day) and Lamotrigine (10 mg/kg/day). Onion, ginger & Lamortigine group jointly used ginger powder (100 mg/kg/day) and onion juice (3 cc juice for each rat) and Lamotrigine (10 mg/kg/day). All groups were given treatments orally. For sexual behaviors, Estradiolbenzoate (50 microgram) and 6 hours before test (500 microgram) progesterone was injected to the female rats subcutaneously. Then rats were viewed for erection, ejaculation and cup. Results: There was maximum Serum total testosterone level in the onion group, there was maximum malondialdehyde (MDA) in the Lamotrigine group and there was maximum total antioxidant capacity in both the onion group and ginger group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Results revealed that administration of (100 mg/kg/day) of ginger powder, and freshly prepared onion juice (3 cc for each rat), significantly lowered the adverse effects of lamotrigine, and can have beneficial effects on sexual behavior in male rat. PMID:25207007

  2. Effects of dietary onion (Allium cepa) powder on growth, innate immune response and hemato-biochemical parameters of beluga (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754) juvenile.

    PubMed

    Akrami, Raza; Gharaei, Ahmad; Mansour, Majid Razeghi; Galeshi, Ali

    2015-08-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of dietary onion powder on growth, innate immune response and hemato-biochemical parameters of beluga juvenile (Huso huso). Basal diets containing onion powder 0 (control), 0.5 and 1% of feed were fed to beluga juvenile. At the end of the experiment, the highest weight gain (WG%) and specific growth rate (SGR) was observed in group fed with 1% onion (P < 0.05). There were no significant difference (P > 0.05) about feed conversion ratio (FCR) in treatment groups that fed diets containing various levels of onion powder. After 8 weeks, serum lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), respiratory burst activity and serum total immunoglobulin (Ig) showed a significant increase in treatment group with 1% onion powder compared to other groups (P < 0.05). The group fed 1% onion showed a significantly increases in the number of erythrocytes (RBC), leucocyte (WBC), haematocrit (Hct) levels compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Haemoglobin, monocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophil had no significant change (P > 0.05) in treatment groups and control. The analysis of AST and LDH levels showed a significant decrease in 1% onion compared to the control and 0.5% onion diet (P < 0.05), while ALT and ALP levels were not influenced (P > 0.05). The blood glucose, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, albumin and globulin levels were lower in treated groups compared with the control (P < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrated that dietary onion powder could be an improvement in growth, hematological parameters and immune function of beluga juvenile.

  3. Interactions between sanitizers and packaging gas compositions and their effects on the safety and quality of fresh-cut onions (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Page, Natalie; González-Buesa, Jaime; Ryser, Elliot T; Harte, Janice; Almenar, Eva

    2016-02-02

    Onions are one of the most widely utilized vegetables worldwide, with demand for fresh-cut onions steadily increasing. Due to heightened safety concerns and consumer demand, the implications of sanitizing and packaging on fresh-cut onion safety and quality need to be better understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of produce sanitizers, in-package atmospheres, and their interactions on the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold, and the physico-chemical quality of diced onions to determine the best sanitizer and in-package atmosphere combination for both safety and quality. Diced onions were inoculated or not with S. Typhimurium, sanitized in sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, or liquid chlorine dioxide, and then packaged in either polylactic acid bags containing superatmospheric O2, elevated CO2/reduced O2, or air, or in polyethylene terephthalate snap-fit containers. Throughout 14 days of storage at 7 °C, packaged diced onions were assessed for their safety (S. Typhimurium), and quality (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds, physico-chemical analyses, and descriptive and consumer acceptance sensory panels). While sanitizer affected (P<0.05) fewer parameters (S. Typhimurium, mesophiles, yeasts and molds, headspace CO2, weight loss, and pH), in-package atmosphere had a significant (P<0.05) effect on all parameters evaluated. Two-way interactions between sanitizer and atmosphere that affected S. Typhimurium and pH were identified whereas 3-way interactions (sanitizer, atmosphere and time) were only observed for headspace CO2. Sodium hypochlorite and elevated CO2/reduced O2 was the best sanitizer and in-package atmosphere combination for enhancing the safety and quality of packaged diced onions. In addition, this combination led to diced onions acceptable for purchase after 2 weeks of storage by trained and consumer panels.

  4. Identification of candidate amino acids involved in the formation of pink-red pigments in onion (Allium cepa L.) juice and separation by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2010-10-01

    The formation of pink-red pigments ("pinking") by various amino acids was investigated by reacting amino acids with compounds present in onion juice. The unknown pink-red pigments were generated and separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a diode array detector (DAD) in the range of 200 to 700 nm. To generate pink-red pigments, we developed several reaction systems using garlic alliinase, purified 1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1-PeCSO), onion thiosulfinate, natural onion juice, and 21 free amino acids. The compound 1-PeCSO was a key compound associated with pinking in the presence of both the alliinase and amino acids. Numerous naturally occurring pink-red pigments were detected and separated from pink onion juice using the HPLC-DAD system at 515 nm. Most free amino acids, with the exceptions of histidine, serine, and cysteine, formed various pink-red pigments when reacted with onion thiosulfinate. This observation indicated that onion pinking is caused not by a single pigment, but by many. Furthermore, more than one color compound could be produced from a single amino acid; this explains, in part, why there were many pink-red compound peaks in the chromatogram of discolored natural onion juice. We presumed that the complexity of the pink-red pigments was due to the involvement of more than 21 natural amino acids as well as several derivatives of the color products produced from each amino acid. We observed that the pinking process in onion juice is very similar to that of the greening process in crushed garlic, emphasizing that both thiosulfinate from flavor precursors and free amino acids are absolutely required for the discoloration.

  5. In vitro antifungal activities of Allium cepa, Allium sativum and ketoconazole against some pathogenic yeasts and dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Shokoohamiri, Mohammad-Reza; Amirrajab, Nasrin; Moghadasi, Behnaz; Ghajari, Ali; Zeini, Farideh; Sadeghi, Golnar; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2006-06-01

    By using an agar dilution assay, the antifungal activity of aqueous extracts prepared from Allium cepa (onion; AOE) and Allium sativum (garlic; AGE) were evaluated against Malassezia furfur (25 strains), Candida albicans (18 strains), other Candida sp. (12 strains) as well as 35 strains of various dermatophyte species and compared with the activity of a known antifungal drug, ketoconazole (KTZ). All the AOE, AGE and KTZ were found to be able to inhibit growth of all fungi tested in a dose-dependent manner with maximum of 100% at defined concentrations. The results indicate that onion and garlic might be promising in treatment of fungal-associated diseases from important pathogenic genera Candida, Malassezia and the dermatophytes.

  6. Higher Antioxidant Activity, Total Flavonols, and Specific Quercetin Glucosides in Two Different Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties Grown under Organic Production: Results from a 6-Year Field Study.

    PubMed

    Ren, Feiyue; Reilly, Kim; Kerry, Joseph P; Gaffney, Michael; Hossain, Mohammad; Rai, Dilip K

    2017-06-28

    We carried out a 6-year study to assess the effect of conventional, organic, and mixed cultivation practices on bioactive compounds (flavonoids, anthocyanins) and antioxidant capacity in onion. Total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, individual flavonols, individual anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were measured in two varieties ('Hyskin' and 'Red Baron') grown in a long-term split-plot factorial systems comparison trial. This is the first report of repeated measurements of bioactive content over an extensive time period in a single crop type within the same trial. Antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP), total flavonol content, and levels of Q 3,4' D and Q 3 G were higher in both varieties under fully organic compared to fully conventional management. Total flavonoids were higher in 'Red Baron' and when onions were grown under organic soil treatment. Differences were primarily due to different soil management practices used in organic agriculture rather than pesticide/ herbicide application.

  7. Pink (P), a new locus responsible for a pink trait in onions (Allium cepa) resulting from natural mutations of anthocyanidin synthase.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Binzel, M L; Yoo, K S; Park, S; Pike, L M

    2004-08-01

    A new locus conditioning a pink trait in onions was identified. Unusual pink onions were found in haploid populations induced from an F(1) hybrid between yellow and dark red parents and in F(3) populations originating from the same cross. Segregation ratios of red to pink in F(2), backcross, and F(3) populations indicated that this pink trait is determined by a single recessive locus. RT-PCR was carried out to look for any differential expression of anthocyanin synthesis genes between dark red and pink F(3) lines. The transcript level of anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) was significantly reduced in the pink line. To determine whether this reduced transcription is caused by other regulatory factors or by mutations in the ANS gene itself, ANS gene sequences from both dark red and pink F(3) lines were compared to detect any polymorphisms. Polymorphisms were identified, and subsequently utilized as molecular markers for the selection of ANS alleles. Absolute co-segregation of the pink allele and the ANS allele from the pink line was observed in parents, F(1) and F(3) populations. These results indicate that reduced transcription of the ANS gene caused by mutations in a cis -acting element is likely to result in the pink trait in onions.

  8. Effect of Allium cepa and Allium sativum on some immunological cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Mirabeau, Tatfeng Y; Samson, Enitan S

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of some spices have been reported to play a contributory role in enhancing immune function. We evaluated and compared the effect(s) of single and combined oral administration of fresh aqueous onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts at different concentrations on some immunological determinants in rats. CD₄ cells of the rats were estimated using Partec flow cytometric technique, while total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts were estimated using the Sysmsex® automated haematology analyzing technique. Our findings revealed that, CD4 and total WBC counts were significantly increased (P≤0.05) in a dose-dependent manner in both onion (250mg/Kg/d: 349±11cell/ul and 2.75±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 389±10cells/µl and 3.05±0.05 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 600±11cell/µl and 3.25±0.05X10³cells/l) and garlic (250mg/Kg/d: 410±10cell/ul and 2.85±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 494±32cells/µl and 3.30±0.10 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 684±11cell/µl and 3.55±0.05X10³cells/l) treated rats when compared to the zero control (200±11cells/µl and 1.55±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively). Extract of garlic at 750mg/Kg/d had significantly increased the CD4 cells and total white cell count when compared to other concentrations (P≤0.05). However, no significant effect was observed on these parameters when extracts were combined (250mg/Kg/d: 252±21cell/µl and 1.80±0.10X10³cells/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 315±21cells/ul and 2.10±0.10X10³cells/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 368±10cells/µl and 2.35±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively), the differential WBC count showed a significant increase in the proportion of cell types (lymphocytes, neutophils and monocytes) (P≤0.05). The results from this study revealed the immune boosting capabilities of Allium cepa and Allium sativum, but underscored their synergistic activities.

  9. Citricoccus zhacaiensis B-4 (MTCC 12119) a novel osmotolerant plant growth promoting actinobacterium enhances onion (Allium cepa L.) seed germination under osmotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Govindan; Bhatt, Ravindra M; Upreti, Kaushal K; Bindu, Gurupadam Hema; Shweta, Kademani

    2015-05-01

    The water potential of rhizospheric soil is a key parameter that determines the availability of water, oxygen, and nutrients to plants and microbes. Recent global warming trends and erratic precipitation patterns have resulted in the emergence of drought as a major constraint of agricultural productivity. Though several strategies are being evaluated to address this issue, a novel approach is the utilization of microbes for alleviation of drought stress effects in crops. Citricoccus zhacaiensis B-4 is an osmotolerant actinobacterium isolated from banana rhizosphere on mannitol supplemented medium (-2.92 MPa osmotic potential). This isolate expressed plant growth promotion traits viz, IAA, GA3 production, phosphate, zinc solubilization, ACC deaminase activity and ammonia production under PEG induced osmotic stress and non-stress conditions. Under in vitro osmotic conditions, biopriming with the actinobacterium improved the percent germination, seedling vigour and germination rate of onion seeds (cv. Arka Kalyan) at osmotic potentials up to -0.8 MPa. Considering its novelty, osmotolerance and plant growth promoting traits, biopriming with C. zhacaiensis is suggested as a viable option for the promotion of onion seed germination under drought stressed environments.

  10. Evaluation of genotoxicity of coal fly ash in Allium cepa root cells by combining comet assay with the Allium test.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Ashit Kumar; Mukherjee, Anita

    2009-06-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. Its utilization and disposal is of utmost importance. Using onion (Allium cepa) root tip system, the present study was carried out to evaluate the potential toxic and genotoxic effects of fly ash, collected from a thermal power plant in West Bengal, India. Prior to testing, the collected fly ash sample was mixed with sand in different proportions. Allium bulbs were allowed to germinate directly in fly ash and after five days the germinating roots were processed for the Allium test. Additionally, the Allium test was adapted for detecting DNA damage through comet assay. The results from the Allium test indicate that fly ash at 100% concentration inhibits root growth and mitotic indices; induces binucleated cells as a function of the proportion, but is not toxic at very low concentration. In the comet assay, a statistical increase for DNA strand breaks was found only at higher concentrations. The sample was analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometer for Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cd and As, whose presence could partly be responsible for the toxicity of fly ash. The study concludes that the classical Allium test can give a more comprehensive data when done in combination with the comet assay, which is faster, simpler and independent of mitosis. Also when fly ash is used for other purposes in combination with soils, it should be judiciously used at very low concentrations in order to protect the ecosystem health from any potential adverse effects.

  11. [Chromosomal organization of centromeric Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons in Allium cepa L. and Allium fistulosum L].

    PubMed

    Kiseleva, A V; Kirov, I V; Khrustaleva, L I

    2014-06-01

    This is the first report on the presence of Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons in the centromeric region of Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum. The paper identifies the putative Ty3/gypsy centromeric retrotransposons (CR) among the DNA sequences of A. cepa present in the NCBI database and evaluates their copy number in the genomes of Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum. The putative copy number of Ty3/gypsy CR constituted about 26000 for A. cepa and about 7000 for A. fistulosum. The chromosomal organization of Ty3/gypsy CR was analyzed with the help of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The 300-bp PCR products synthesized with genomic DNA of Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum and primers designed for the sequence ET645811 of A. cepa (Genome Survey Sequence database), displaying similarity to the reverse transcriptase of the CR Ty3/gypsy family, served as FISH hybridization probes. On the chromosomes of A. cepa, hybridization signals were mainly localized in the centromeric region. On the chromosomes of A. fistulosum the signals were less expressed in the centromeric regions, though they were abundant in other chromosomal regions. The pathways of evolution in these closely related species are discussed.

  12. Biological and chemical investigation of Allium cepa L. response to selenium inorganic compounds.

    PubMed

    Michalska-Kacymirow, M; Kurek, E; Smolis, A; Wierzbicka, M; Bulska, E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological and chemical response of Allium cepa L. exposed to inorganic selenium compounds. Besides the investigation of the total content of selenium as well as its chemical speciation, the Allium test was used to evaluate the growth of onion roots and mitotic activity in the roots' meristem. The total content of selenium was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled to ICP MS, was used for the selenium chemical speciation. Results indicated that A. cepa plants are able to biotransform inorganic selenium compounds into their organic derivatives, e.g., Se-methylselenocysteine from the Se(IV) inorganic precursor. Although the differences in the biotransformation of selenium are due mainly to the oxidation state of selenium, the experiment has also shown a fine effect of counter ions (H(+), Na(+), NH4 (+)) on the response of plants and on the specific metabolism of selenium.

  13. Utilization of quercetin and quercetin glycosides from onion (Allium cepa L.) solid waste as an antioxidant, urease and xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Nile, Arti Shivraj; Keum, Young Soo; Sharma, Kavita

    2017-11-15

    This study aimed to determine the flavonol glycosides from onion solid waste (OSW) using HPLC analysis, with antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. We found considerable amount of quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside (QMG: 254.85), quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside (QDG: 162.34), quercetin (Q: 60.44), and isorhamnetin-3-glucoside (IMG: 23.92) (mg/100g) dry weight (DW) of OSW. For OSW, the methanol and ethanol showed the strongest antioxidant activities, followed by ethyl acetate, chloroform, and n-hexane extracts. Among the flavonols, Q and QDG possessed higher antioxidant activities. OSW and flavonol glycosides displayed significant enzyme inhibitory activity, with IC50 values ranging from 12.5±0.11 to 32.5±0.28 for OSW, 8.2±0.07 to 16.8±0.02 for flavonol glycosides, and 4.2±0.05μg/mL for thiourea (positive control) towards urease; while 15.2±0.8 to 35.8±0.2 (μg/mL) for OSW, 10.5±0.06 to 20.8±0.05 (μg/mL) for flavonol glycosides, and 6.5±0.05μg/mL for allopurinol (positive control) towards xanthine oxidase, respectively. The OSW and flavonol glycosides may thus be considered as potential antioxidant and antigout agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Forskolin: genotoxicity assessment in Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Khalid Pasha; Aarey, Archana; Tamkeen, Shayesta; Jahan, Parveen

    2015-01-01

    Forskolin, a diterpene, 7β-acetoxy-8,13-epoxy-1α,6β,9α-trihydroxy-labd-14-en-11-one (C22H34O7) isolated from Coleus forskohlii, exerts multiple physiological effects by stimulating the enzyme adenylate cyclase and increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentrations. Forskolin is used in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, eczema, and other diseases. A cytogenetic assay was performed in Allium cepa to assess possible genotoxic effects of forskolin. Forskolin was tested at concentrations 5-100 μM for exposure periods of 24 or 48 h. Treated samples showed significant reductions in mitotic index (p < 0.05) and increases in the frequency of chromosome aberrations (p < 0.01) at both exposure times. The treated meristems showed chromosome aberrations including sticky metaphases, sticky anaphases, laggard, anaphase bridges, micronuclei, polyploidy, fragments, breaks, and C-mitosis. Forskolin may cause genotoxic effects and further toxicological evaluations should be conducted to ensure its safety.

  15. Effects of cypermethrin on Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Çavuşoğlu, Kültiğin; Kaya, Arzu; Yilmaz, Fadime; Yalçin, Emine

    2012-10-01

    In this study, toxic effects of the cypermethrin in Allium cepa L. cells were investigated. For this aim, we investigated the changes in pigment contents, antioxidant enzymes, mitotic index and chromosomal abnormalities as indicators of toxicity. The seeds were treated with different doses (1.5, 3.0, 6.0 ppm) of cypermethrin for 72 h. The result showed that there was a significant alteration in the tested parameters depending on treatment dose in the seeds exposed to cypermethrin when compared to the control group. Cypermethrin exposure significantly reduced the carotenoid, chlorophyll a and b pigments in all treatment groups. The activity of superoxide dismutase showed a concentration-time dependent increase and the maximum increase was observed on day 15 of treatment at 6.0 ppm cypermethrin exposure. The activity of catalase increased gradually with increasing cypermethrin concentration, but a soft decrease in CAT activity was decreased after 15 days of 1.5 ppm and 3.0 ppm cypermethrin treatment. In the roots treated with 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 ppm cypermethrin, the level of malondialdehyde was about 1.8, 2.4, and 3.4 times higher than the control group, respectively. It was also found that cypermethrin has a mitodepressive action on mitosis, and the MI was decreased depending on the dose of cyprmethrin. All of the concentrations of cypermethrin induced chromosomal abnormalities and the most common abnormality observed in the present study was chromosome bridges.

  16. SNP-markers in Allium species to facilitate introgression breeding in onion.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Olga E; van Kaauwen, Martijn P W; Shahin, Arwa; Hendrickx, Patrick M; Keizer, L C Paul; Burger, Karin; van Heusden, Adriaan W; van der Linden, C Gerard; Vosman, Ben

    2016-08-31

    Within onion, Allium cepa L., the availability of disease resistance is limited. The identification of sources of resistance in related species, such as Allium roylei and Allium fistulosum, was a first step towards the improvement of onion cultivars by breeding. SNP markers linked to resistance and polymorphic between these related species and onion cultivars are a valuable tool to efficiently introgress disease resistance genes. In this paper we describe the identification and validation of SNP markers valuable for onion breeding. Transcriptome sequencing resulted in 192 million RNA seq reads from the interspecific F1 hybrid between A. roylei and A. fistulosum (RF) and nine onion cultivars. After assembly, reliable SNPs were discovered in about 36 % of the contigs. For genotyping of the interspecific three-way cross population, derived from a cross between an onion cultivar and the RF (CCxRF), 1100 SNPs that are polymorphic in RF and monomorphic in the onion cultivars (RF SNPs) were selected for the development of KASP assays. A molecular linkage map based on 667 RF-SNP markers was constructed for CCxRF. In addition, KASP assays were developed for 1600 onion-SNPs (SNPs polymorphic among onion cultivars). A second linkage map was constructed for an F2 of onion x A. roylei (F2(CxR)) that consisted of 182 onion-SNPs and 119 RF-SNPs, and 76 previously mapped markers. Markers co-segregating in both the F2(CxR) and the CCxRF population were used to assign the linkage groups of RF to onion chromosomes. To validate usefulness of these SNP markers, QTL mapping was applied in the CCxRF population that segregates for resistance to Botrytis squamosa and resulted in a QTL for resistance on chromosome 6 of A. roylei. Our research has more than doubled the publicly available marker sequences of expressed onion genes and two onion-related species. It resulted in a detailed genetic map for the interspecific CCxRF population. This is the first paper that reports the detection of

  17. Biochemical and genetic analysis of carbohydrate accumulation in Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; McCallum, John; Shaw, Martin; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2008-05-01

    Onion and shallot (Allium cepa L.) exhibit wide variation in bulb fructan content, and the Frc locus on chromosome 8 conditions much of this variation. To understand the biochemical basis of Frc, we conducted biochemical and genetic analyses of Allium fistulosum (FF)-shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) alien monosomic addition lines (AALs; FF+1A-FF+8A) and onion mapping populations. Sucrose and fructan levels in leaves of FF+2A were significantly lower than in FF throughout the year, and the springtime activity of acid invertase was also lower. FF+8A showed significantly higher winter sucrose accumulation and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity. Inbred high fructan (Frc_) lines from the 'W202Ax Texas Grano 438' onion population exhibited significantly higher sucrose levels prior to bulbing than low fructan (frcfrc) lines. Sucrose synthase (SuSy) activity in these lines was correlated with leaf hexose content but not with Frc phenotype. Markers for additional candidate genes for sucrose metabolism were obtained by cloning a major SPS expressed in onion leaf and exhaustively mining onion expressed sequence tag resources. SPS and SuSy loci were assigned to chromosome 8 and 6, respectively, using AALs and linkage mapping. Further loci were assigned, using AALs, to chromosomes 1 (sucrose phosphate phosphatase), 2 (SuSy and three invertases) and 8 (neutral invertase). The concordance between chromosome 8 localization of SPS and elevated leaf sucrose levels conditioned by high fructan alleles at the Frc locus in bulb onion or alien monosomic additions of chromosome 8 in A. fistulosum suggest that the Frc locus may condition variation in SPS activity.

  18. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants on Allium cepa Linn.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, A; Bakare, A A

    2007-07-25

    The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss), Morinda lucida (Benth.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf.), Mangifera indica (Linn.) and Carica papaya (Linn.) was evaluated using the Allium cepa assay. The extracts were prepared with tap water as practised locally. Onion bulbs were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50%; and 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% concentrations (v/v) of each of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analyses, respectively. There was concentration-dependent and statistically significant (P<0.05) inhibition of root growth by the extracts when compared with the control. The EC(50) obtained for decoctions of Azadirachta indica. Cymbopogon citratus, Mangifera indica and Carica papaya were 0.6, 3.0, 1.4 and 0.8%, respectively. It was 2.6 and 0.8% for the squeezed extracts of Azadirachta indica and Morinda lucida, respectively. All the tested extracts were observed to have mitodepressive effects on cell division and induced mitotic spindle disturbance in Allium cepa. These results suggest an inhibitory, mitodepressive and turbagenic activities of the aqueous extracts on Allium cepa.

  19. Chromosomal Organization and Sequence Diversity of Genes Encoding Lachrymatory Factor Synthase in Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Masamura, Noriya; McCallum, John; Khrustaleva, Ludmila; Kenel, Fernand; Pither-Joyce, Meegham; Shono, Jinji; Suzuki, Go; Mukai, Yasuhiko; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-06-01

    Lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) catalyzes the formation of lachrymatory factor, one of the most distinctive traits of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.). Therefore, we used LFS as a model for a functional gene in a huge genome, and we examined the chromosomal organization of LFS in A. cepa by multiple approaches. The first-level analysis completed the chromosomal assignment of LFS gene to chromosome 5 of A. cepa via the use of a complete set of A. fistulosum-shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group) monosomic addition lines. Subsequent use of an F(2) mapping population from the interspecific cross A. cepa × A. roylei confirmed the assignment of an LFS locus to this chromosome. Sequence comparison of two BAC clones bearing LFS genes, LFS amplicons from diverse germplasm, and expressed sequences from a doubled haploid line revealed variation consistent with duplicated LFS genes. Furthermore, the BAC-FISH study using the two BAC clones as a probe showed that LFS genes are localized in the proximal region of the long arm of the chromosome. These results suggested that LFS in A. cepa is transcribed from at least two loci and that they are localized on chromosome 5.

  20. Chromosomal Organization and Sequence Diversity of Genes Encoding Lachrymatory Factor Synthase in Allium cepa L.

    PubMed Central

    Masamura, Noriya; McCallum, John; Khrustaleva, Ludmila; Kenel, Fernand; Pither-Joyce, Meegham; Shono, Jinji; Suzuki, Go; Mukai, Yasuhiko; Yamauchi,, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) catalyzes the formation of lachrymatory factor, one of the most distinctive traits of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.). Therefore, we used LFS as a model for a functional gene in a huge genome, and we examined the chromosomal organization of LFS in A. cepa by multiple approaches. The first-level analysis completed the chromosomal assignment of LFS gene to chromosome 5 of A. cepa via the use of a complete set of A. fistulosum–shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group) monosomic addition lines. Subsequent use of an F2 mapping population from the interspecific cross A. cepa × A. roylei confirmed the assignment of an LFS locus to this chromosome. Sequence comparison of two BAC clones bearing LFS genes, LFS amplicons from diverse germplasm, and expressed sequences from a doubled haploid line revealed variation consistent with duplicated LFS genes. Furthermore, the BAC-FISH study using the two BAC clones as a probe showed that LFS genes are localized in the proximal region of the long arm of the chromosome. These results suggested that LFS in A. cepa is transcribed from at least two loci and that they are localized on chromosome 5. PMID:22690373

  1. Antimutagenic potential of curcumin on chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa *

    PubMed Central

    Ragunathan, Irulappan; Panneerselvam, Natarajan

    2007-01-01

    Turmeric has long been used as a spice and food colouring agent in Asia. In the present investigation, the antimutagenic potential of curcumin was evaluated in Allium cepa root meristem cells. So far there is no report on the biological properties of curcumin in plant test systems. The root tip cells were treated with sodium azide at 200 and 300 µg/ml for 3 h and curcumin was given at 5, 10 and 20 µg/ml for 16 h, prior to sodium azide treatment. The tips were squashed after colchicine treatment and the cells were analyzed for chromosome aberration and mitotic index. Curcumin induces chromosomal aberration in Allium cepa root tip cells in an insignificant manner, when compared with untreated control. Sodium azide alone induces chromosomal aberrations significantly with increasing concentrations. The total number of aberrations was significantly reduced in root tip cells pretreated with curcumin. The study reveals that curcumin has antimutagenic potential against sodium azide induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa root meristem cells. In addition, it showed mild cytotoxicity by reducing the percentage of mitotic index in all curcumin treated groups, but the mechanism of action remains unknown. The antimutagenic potential of curcumin is effective at 5 µg/ml in Allium cepa root meristem cells. PMID:17610326

  2. Modulating effect of Allium cepa on kidney apoptosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Gharadaghi, Yaghub; Shojaee, Saeedeh; Khaki, Arash; Hatef, Amir; Ahmadi Ashtiani, Hamid Reza; Rastegar, Hossin; Fathiazad, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite that infects a broad range of warm blooded animals as well as humans. The present study was investigated to evaluate the effects of allium cepa on renal failur in male rats which experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii, RH strain. Methods: Wistar male rat (n=40) were allocated into four groups, group one that received tachyzoites of T. gondii (ip) (n=10), group two that received tachyzoites of T. gondii (ip), plus fresh onion juice by gavages method (n=10), group three received just fresh onion juice by gavages method (n=10) and control group (n=10) that received nothing. Animals were kept in standard condition. In 30 day after inducing Toxoplasma infection, 5cc blood was collected for serum protein and TAC levels. Kidney tissues of Rat in whole groups were removed and prepared for apopetosis analysis. Results: Serum protein and kidneys weights were significantly decreased in groups that were infected with T. gondii, in comparison to control and onions groups. Kidneys Apopetosis in toxoplasma group significantly increased in comparison to control group (P<0.05).level of TAC was significantly increased in groups that received onio juice (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that T. gondii have significantly effect on serum protein and TAC, apopetosis and fresh onion juice returned and treated this harmful effect, so it is suggested that eating of onion is useful in toxoplasma infection. PMID:24312764

  3. Isolation and characterization of new onionins A2 and A3 from Allium cepa, and of onionins A1, A2, and A3 from Allium fistulosum.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Kudo, Rino; Yamaguchi, Koki; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Kotaro; Ono, Masateru; Kajimoto, Tetsuya; Takeya, Motohiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the new stable sulfur-containing compounds onionins A2 (1) and A3 (2) were isolated from the acetone extracts of the bulbs of Allium cepa L. and identified as the stereoisomers of onionin A1 discovered in our previous study. Their chemical structures, 3,4-dimethyl-5-(1E-propenyl)-tetrahydrothiophene-2-sulfenic acid-S-oxides, were characterized using various spectroscopic techniques. In addition, 1 and 2 together with onionin A1 were successfully isolated from the leaves of the Welsh onion, Allium fistulosum L. The onion-extracted fractions showed good potential to inhibit the polarization of M2 activated macrophages, indicating their possible ability to inhibit tumor cell proliferation.

  4. Toxicological evaluation of landfill leachate using plant (Allium cepa) and fish (Leporinus obtusidens) bioassays.

    PubMed

    Klauck, Cláudia Regina; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio Siqueira; da Silva, Luciano Basso

    2013-11-01

    The disposal of municipal waste in landfills may pose an environmental problem because the product of the decomposition of these residues generates large volumes of leachate, which may present high toxicity. The aim of this study was to assess the toxic and genotoxic effects of a sample of untreated leachate in fish (Leporinus obtusidens) and onions (Allium cepa). The leachate was collected in a landfill located in the region of Vale do Rio dos Sinos, southern Brazil. The fish were exposed to raw leachate, at concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, 5%, 10% and 20% for 6 days, while the bulbs of A. cepa were exposed to concentrations of 5%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100% for 48 h. For fish, the concentrations of 5%, 10% and 20% were lethal, thus indicating high toxicity; however, sublethal concentrations (0.5% and 1.0%) showed no genotoxicity by micronucleus test when compared with the control group. In the bioassays involving onions, high toxicity was observed, with significant reduction of root growth and mitotic index in bulbs exposed to the 100% concentration of the leachate. An increase in the frequency of chromosome abnormalities in the A. cepa root cells in anaphase-telophase was observed in accordance with the increase in the concentration of leachate (5%, 10%, 25% and 50%), with values significantly greater than the control, at the highest concentration. The results showed that the leachate contains toxic and genotoxic substances, thus representing a major source of environmental pollution if not handled properly.

  5. Kitchen phytochemicals from Allium cepa - their role in multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gunpreet; Gupta, Vikas; Christopher, Ajay Francis; Bansal, Renu; Bansal, Parveen

    2017-05-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is increasingly becoming a concern to public health. Current antibiotics have failed to bring desirable results to many bacterial infections due to multi-resistant strains. So, concerted efforts are being made to curve this with the help of dietary phytohemicals. A number of dietary phytochemical are being put to trials for antimicrobial activity; however it is worthwhile to search such a part of diet that is very frequently used by major population. Keeping this view in mind an effort has been made to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of most common vegetable component Allium cepa. Methanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared from Allium cepa and antibacterial activity was tested on four pathogenic bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram negative) Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus Subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using Disc diffusion method and Minimum inhibitory concentration by the Microtitre well plate method. Conventional antibiotic discs of Tetracycline and Gentamycin were used as positive control. Among the two extracts, methanolic extract exhibited a significant antimicrobial activity on the test organisms Ps. aeruginosa (17.5mm) and B. subtilis (11.3mm). The minimum inhibitory concentration value for Ps. aeruginosa was 500μl and for B. subtilis was 250μl for methanolic extract. The growth of other two bacteria i.e. E. coli and S. aureus were not inhibited by methanolic as well as aqueous extract that indicates non susceptibility to aqueous and methanol extract of Allium cepa. From the study, it was concluded that the commonly used Allium cepa possess potent antibacterial property against Bacillus Subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  6. Molecular and Functional Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologs in Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Han, Jeong Suk Hyeon; Vijayakumar, Harshavardhanan; Subramani, Boopathi; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-02-16

    Onion bulbing is an important agricultural trait affecting economic value and is regulated by flowering-related genes. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene function is crucial for the initiation of flowering in various plant species and also in asexual reproduction in tuber plants. By employing various computational analysis using RNA-Seq data, we identified eight FT-like genes (AcFT) encoding PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein) domains in Allium cepa. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of FT-like proteins revealed six proteins that were identical to previously reported AcFT1-6 proteins, as well as one (AcFT7) with a highly conserved region shared with AcFT6 and another (comp106231) with low similarity to MFT protein, but containing a PEBP domain. Homology modelling of AcFT7 proteins showed similar structures and conservation of amino acids crucial for function in AtFT (Arabidopsis) and Hd3a (rice), with variation in the C-terminal region. Further, we analyzed AcFT expression patterns in different transitional stages, as well as under SD (short-day), LD (long-day), and drought treatment in two contrasting genotypic lines EM (early maturation, 36101) and LM (late maturation, 36122). The FT transcript levels were greatly affected by various environmental factors such as photoperiod, temperature and drought. Our results suggest that AcFT7 is a member of the FT-like genes in Allium cepa and may be involved in regulation of onion bulbing, similar to other FT genes. In addition, AcFT4 and AcFT7 could be involved in establishing the difference in timing of bulb maturity between the two contrasting onion lines.

  7. Cytogenetic and genotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on root cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Mamta; Khan, S Sudheer; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2011-06-15

    Increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) in consumer products may enhance its release into the environment. Phytotoxicity study is important to understand its possible environmental impact. Allium cepa (Onion bulb) is the best model organism to study genetic toxicology of nanoparticles. Here we have reported cytogenetic and genotoxic effects of ZnO NPs on the root cells of A. cepa. The effects of ZnO NPs on the mitotic index (MI), micronuclei index (MN index), chromosomal aberration index, and lipid peroxidation were determined through the hydroponic culturing of A. cepa. A. cepa roots were treated with the dispersions of ZnO NPs at four different concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100 μg ml(-1)). With the increasing concentrations of ZnO NPs MI decreased with the increase of pycnotic cells, on the other hand MN and chromosomal aberration index increased. The frequency of micronucleated cells was higher in ZnO NPs treated cells as compared to control (deionized distilled water). The number of cells in each mitotic phase changed upon ZnO NPs treatment. The effect of ZnO NPs on lipid peroxidation as examined by measuring TBARS concentration was evident at all the concentrations compared to bulk ZnO. The TEM image showed internalization of ZnO NPs like particles. SEM image of treated A. cepa demonstrated that the internalized nanoparticles agglomerated depending on the physico-chemical environment inside the cell. Our results demonstrated that ZnO NPs can be a clastogenic/genotoxic and cytotoxic agent. In conclusion, the A. cepa cytogenetic test can be used for the genotoxicity monitoring of novel nanomaterials like ZnO NPs, which is used in many consumer products.

  8. Effect of refinery waste effluent on tocopherol, carotenoid, phenolics and other antioxidants content in Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit Kumar; Ahmad, Masood

    2013-08-01

    Pollution in water used for irrigation is a major cause of stress generation in plant system. Under these stress conditions, reactive oxygen species derived from molecular oxygen can accumulate in plant, resulting in the oxidation of nucleic acids, lipids, chlorophyll and so on. This study was conducted in Allium cepa to analyze the alteration in the levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants as a consequence of Mathura refinery waste water (MRWW) exposure. The studied antioxidants were glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASC). Their determination was carried out in A. cepa bulbs exposed to different concentrations of MRWW that is 0.25×, 0.5×, 0.75× and 1.0×. A significant increase in the levels of these nonenzymatic antioxidants in onion bulbs upon treatment with MRWW suggested that these can serve as suitable biomarkers of toxicity. The toxicity of waste water was also tested on the level of tocopherol (Toc) and carotenoid (CAR) in onion bulbs, and in both the cases a high level of these metabolites was noticed. Phenolic content of A. cepa after the waste water insult was found to be increased, again a manifestation of adaptation against heavy metal and oxidative stress. It is clear from our findings that GSH, ASC, Toc and CAR in A. cepa system could serve as potential biomarkers for the presence of toxicants like heavy metals and its hazards in MRWW. The test waste water demonstrated profound effects on these parameters which is suggestive of the warrior strategies adopted by the plant system against the pollution-induced stress.

  9. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as...

  10. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as...

  11. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid...

  12. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as...

  13. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as...

  14. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as...

  15. Genetic and Pathogenic Variability of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae Isolated from Onion and Welsh Onion in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Nakahara, Katsuya; Tanaka, Shuhei; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae causes Fusarium basal rot in onion (common onion) and Fusarium wilt in Welsh onion. Although these diseases have been detected in various areas in Japan, knowledge about the genetic and pathogenic variability of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae is very limited. In this study, F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae was isolated from onion and Welsh onion grown in 12 locations in Japan, and a total of 55 F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates (27 from onion and 28 from Welsh onion) were characterized based on their rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) and translation elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) nucleotide sequences, vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), and the presence of the SIX (secreted in xylem) homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of IGS sequences showed that these isolates were grouped into eight clades (A to H), and 20 onion isolates belonging to clade H were monophyletic and assigned to the same VCG. All the IGS-clade H isolates possessed homologs of SIX3, SIX5, and SIX7. The SIX3 homolog was located on a 4 Mb-sized chromosome in the IGS-clade H isolates. Pathogenicity tests using onion seedlings showed that all the isolates with high virulence were in the IGS-clade H. These results suggest that F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates belonging to the IGS-clade H are genetically and pathogenically different from those belonging to the other IGS clades.

  16. Genotoxicity of Euphorbia hirta: an Allium cepa assay.

    PubMed

    Yuet Ping, Kwan; Darah, Ibrahim; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Yeng, Chen; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-06-26

    The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using Allium cepa assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of A. cepa. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative control. The result showed that mitotic index decreased as the concentrations of E. hirta extract increased. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed. Abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at interphase. Result of this study confirmed that the methanol extracts of E. hirta exerted significant genotoxic and mitodepressive effects at 1,000 µg/mL.

  17. Alterations in the mitotic index of Allium cepa induced by infusions of Pluchea sagittalis submitted to three different cultivation systems.

    PubMed

    Rossato, Liana V; Tedesco, Solange B; Laughinghouse, Haywood D; Farias, Júlia G; Nicoloso, Fernando T

    2010-12-01

    We evaluated the antiproliferative effect of infusions from Pluchea sagittalis using the Allium cepa test. Infusions in three concentrations (2.5, 5, and 25 g dm-3) of leaves cultivated in three environments (in vitro, acclimatized growth chamber, and field) were used. Six onion bulbs were used for each of the eight treatments, and the mitotic index was obtained from 6000 cells per treatment. In conclusion, leaf infusions of P. sagittalis cultivated in the field have a high antiproliferative activity, as well as the cultivation system influences the antiproliferative potential.

  18. Ethanolic extract of Allium cepa stimulates glucose transporter typ 4-mediated glucose uptake by the activation of insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Sudeep; Pal, Savita; Maurya, Rakesh; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2015-02-01

    The present work was undertaken to investigate the effects and the molecular mechanism of the standardized ethanolic extract of Allium cepa (onion) on the glucose transport for controlling diabetes mellitus. A. cepa stimulates glucose uptake by the rat skeletal muscle cells (L6 myotubes) in both time- and dose-dependent manners. This effect was shown to be mediated by the increased translocation of glucose transporter typ 4 protein from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane as well as the synthesis of glucose transporter typ 4 protein. The effect of A. cepa extract on glucose transport was stymied by wortmannin, genistein, and AI½. In vitro phosphorylation analysis revealed that, like insulin, A. cepa extract also enhances the tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor-β, insulin receptor substrate-1, and the serine phosphorylation of Akt under both basal and insulin-stimulated conditions without affecting the total amount of these proteins. Furthermore, it is also shown that the activation of Akt is indispensable for the A. cepa-induced glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. Taken together, these findings provide ample evidence that the ethanolic extract of A. cepa stimulates glucose transporter typ 4 translocation-mediated glucose uptake by the activation of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/Akt dependent pathway.

  19. Clastogenicity of atrazine assessed with the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Bolle, Paola; Mastrangelo, Sabina; Tucci, Paolo; Evandri, Maria G

    2004-01-01

    Atrazine is classified as a restricted use pesticide and it is currently included in an international revision program for re-evaluating the human and ecological (non-human populations) health risks associated with its release into the environment. The present study was undertaken to add new data on the genotoxic potential of atrazine using the Allium cepa chromosome aberration test. The test concentrations were based on the Maximum Contaminant Levels in water intended for human consumption set by European and US regulations. Atrazine produced a concentration-related increase in the number of total somatic chromosome aberrations, although this increase was statistically significant (p<0.05) only at the highest test concentration (5 microg/L). Analysis of the categories of structural chromosome damage indicated that breaks were the predominant lesion induced; the percent of cells per bulb with breaks also increased in a concentration-related manner, and the increase was statistically significant at the two highest test concentrations (1 and 5 microg/L) (p<0.05). The Allium cepa plant assay detected the clastogenicity of atrazine at concentrations that are likely to be encountered in water, a common site of atrazine contamination. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Genotoxicity of Thermopsis turcica on Allium cepa L. roots revealed by alkaline comet and random amplified polymorphic DNA assays.

    PubMed

    Ciğerci, İbrahim Hakkı; Cenkci, Süleyman; Kargıoğlu, Mustafa; Konuk, Muhsin

    2016-08-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate genotoxic potential of Thermopsis turcica aqueous extracts on the roots of onion bulb (Allium cepa L.) by comet assay and random amplified polymorphic DNA technique. The Allium root growth inhibition test indicated that the EC50 and 2×EC50 values were 8 and 16 mg/ml concentrations of T. turcica aqueous extracts, respectively. The negative control (distilled water), positive control (methyl methane sulfonate, 10 mg/l) and 8 and 16 mg/ml concentrations of T. turcica extracts were introduced to the roots of onion bulbs for 24 and 96 h. The root growth, DNA damage in root cells and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles of root tissue were used as endpoints of the genotoxicity. The comet assay clearly indicated that dose-dependent single strand DNA breaks in the root nuclei of onions were determined for the treatment concentrations of T. turcica extracts. In comparison to RAPD profile of negative control group, RAPD polymorphisms became evident as disappearance and/or appearance of RAPD bands in treated roots. The diagnostic and phenetic numerical analyses of RAPD profiles obviously indicated dose-dependent genotoxicity induced by Thermopsis extracts. In conclusion, the results clearly indicated that water extract of T. turcica has genotoxic potential on the roots of onion bulbs as shown by comet assay and RAPD technique.

  1. Cytogenetic effects of three commercially formulated pesticides on somatic and germ cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Kuchy, Aashiq H; Wani, Aijaz A; Kamili, Azra N

    2016-04-01

    Cytological effects of Endosri-ES (endosulfan), Nuvan-NU (dichlorvos), and Kvistin-KS (carbendazim) were evaluated on mitotic and meiotic cells of Allium cepa. Test concentrations were chosen by calculating EC50 values of formulated ES, NU, and KS, which turned to be 60, 200, and 500 ppm (parts per million), respectively. Cytological studies were undertaken on root meristem cells of A. cepa using EC50, 1/2 × EC50, and 2 × EC50 of these pesticides for 24 and 48 h. Similarly, a meiotic study was conducted by applying the pesticides at the aforesaid concentrations from seedling to bud stage. A set of onion bulbs exposed to tap water was run parallel for negative control and maleic hydrazide (112.09 ppm) as positive control. During the study period, mitotic index (MI) decreased at all the pesticide concentrations compared to the negative control. Among various chromosomal aberrations, chromatin bridges, breaks, stickiness, laggard, vagrant chromosomes, fragments, C-mitosis, multipolarity, ring chromosome as well as micronuclei were observed in mitotic preparations. In contrast, meiotic aberrations revealed comparatively less frequency of chromosomal aberrations and the most frequent were lagging chromosome, stray bivalents, secondary association, chromatin bridge, disturbed anaphase, and stickiness. Comparative analysis of the pesticides showed that NU was highly toxic to plant cells than KS, while as ES showed intermediate effects between the two. Further, our study revealed that all the three pesticides produce genotoxic effects which can cause health risks to the human populations. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  2. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Hancornia speciosa latex in Allium cepa root model.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T P; Sousa, T R; Arruda, A S; Peixoto, N; Gonçalves, P J; Almeida, L M

    2016-02-01

    The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangabeira tree) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including diarrhea, ulcer, gastritis, tuberculosis, acne and warts. In this study, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of H. speciosa latex on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa were examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to different concentrations of latex and then submitted to microscopic analysis using Giemsa stain. Water was used as a negative control and sodium azide as a positive control. The results showed that, under the testing conditions, the mitotic index (MI) of the onion roots submitted to latex treatment did not differ significantly from the negative control, which suggests that the latex is not cytotoxic. Low incidence of chromosome aberrations in the cells treated with H. speciosa latex was also observed, indicating that the latex does not have genotoxic effect either. The MI and the chromosome aberration frequency responded to the latex concentration, requiring more studies to evaluate the dosage effect on genotoxicity. The results indicate that in tested concentrations H. speciosa latex is probably not harmful to human health and may be potentially used in medicine.

  3. Sesquiterpene lactone dehydroleucodine selectively induces transient arrest in G2 in Allium cepa root meristematic cells.

    PubMed

    López, M E; Giordano, O S; López, L A

    2002-02-01

    Dehydroleucodine is a sesquiterpene lactone recently isolated from aerial parts of a medicinal herb, Artemisia douglasiana Besser. We have previously shown that 25 and 100 microM dehydroleucodine slowed down onion root growth by 30 and 70%, respectively, affecting neither cell viability nor cell elongation. In the present study we analyze the effect of dehydroleucodine on cell cycle phases in onion (Allium cepa L.) root meristematic cells synchronized with caffeine or caffeine and hydroxyurea. Synchronized root cells treated with 100 and 200 microM dehydroleucodine present an interphase lengthening of 5.2 h and 8.2 h, respectively. The S-phase length, estimated by [3H]thymidine incorporation assay, was 6 h for both control roots and roots that had been immersed in dehydroleucodine. The peak of [3H]leucine incorporation was observed 6 h after release from synchronization in controls and in dehydroleucodine-treated roots, indicating that protein synthesis in G2 was not affected. Thus, these results show that dose-dependently dehydroleucodine selectively induces a transient arrest of meristematic cell in G2 and that dehydroleucodine can be used experimentally as a cell cycle suppressor.

  4. Toxicity of CuO Nanoparticles to Structure and Metabolic Activity of Allium cepa Root Tips.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fei; Wang, Shuling; Xin, Hua

    2016-11-01

    Roots of Allium cepa were exposed to six CuO NPs suspensions (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 mg L(-1)) in this study. Results revealed that with the increase of CuO NPs concentration, the Cu content in roots increased significantly. Compared to control, onion roots treated with CuO NPs (except 5 mg L(-1) suspension) grew slowly after 24 h. The surface of the root cap and meristematic zone were obviously damaged. The apical meristem of roots treated by 10 mg L(-1) and above concentrations stopped division. The nucleus of meristematic cells deformed, and nucleoli number increased. The plasmolysis occurred, and the cell membrane and nuclear membrane fractured. With the increase of CuO NPs concentration, the MDA content increased, and the root activity decreased. When dealt with 80 mg L(-1) CuO NPs for 72 h, onion roots appeared to be corroded.

  5. Cloning and functional identification of the AcLFY gene in Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cuicui; Ye, Yangyang; Song, Ce; Chen, Dian; Jiang, Baiwen; Wang, Yong

    2016-05-13

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the important vegetable crops in the world, usually with a two-year life cycle. The bulbs form in the first year after sowing, then bolting and flowering are induced by low temperature in the following year. Previous studies have shown that LEAFY gene is an inflorescence tissue specific gene, and that it is also the ultimate collection channel of all flowering pathway. In this study, using homologous gene cloning and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), we isolated an inflorescence meristem specific LEAFY cDNA, AcLFY (JX275962), from onion. AcLFY contains a 1119 bp open reading frame, which encodes a putative protein of 372 amino acids, with ∼70% homology to the daffodils LEAFY and >50% homology to LEAFY proteins from other higher plants. Fluorescence quantitative results showed that AcLFY gene has the highest expression level in inflorescence meristem during early bolting, and is still expressed in leaves after the formation of flower organs. Overexpression of AcLFY gene in Arabidopsis thaliana induced early bolting and flowering, whereas knockdown of the endogenous LEAFY gene by RNAi caused a significant delay in bolting. In addition, transgenic plants also exhibited significant morphological changes in rosette leaves, branches, and plant height.

  6. Synergistic effect of isopropanol on induction of mitotic aberrations in Allium cepa

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, S.; Meier, J.R.; Smith, M.K.

    1995-12-31

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and several other organic and inorganic compounds was remediated by treatment with a mobile solvent extraction system. The genotoxicity of the soil, as measured by the induction of anaphase aberrations in Allium cepa root tip cells, increased after the remediation process. This increase appeared to be due to synergism between the residual solvent and genotoxic components not removed by the solvent extraction process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether isopropanol, at concentrations similar to residual amounts following remediation, induced a synergistic response with the known clastogen, 4-nitroquinoline n-oxide (4-NQO). Bulblets of Allium cepa (common onion) were exposed for 24 h to varying concentrations of isopropanol combined with 0.10 g/l 4-NQO in aqueous solution. The root tips were examined for mitotic index (MI), and cells in late anaphase/early telophase were scored for mitotic aberrations. MI and MA frequencies were transformed by the arcsin square root function prior to statistical analysis (ANOVA). Isopropanol by itself did not induce MA and did not affect the MI, either alone or in combination with 4-NQO. However, isopropanol enhanced the 4-NQO-induced MA response by 1.4 fold at 1.0 mg/ml (p-value = 0.13) and 2.0 fold at 1.2 mg/ml (p-value = 0.006). Lower concentrations of 0.3 and 0.1 mg/ml isopropanol had no effect. The results demonstrate that residual solvents can increase the genotoxicity of soils, presumably as a result of enhancing the bioavailability of genotoxic components.

  7. Synergistic effect of isopropanol on induction of mitotic aberrations in Allium cepa

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, S.; Meier, J.R.; Smith, M.K.; Torsella, J.

    1995-12-31

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and several other organic and inorganic compounds was remediated by treatment with a mobile solvent extraction system. The genotoxicity of the soil, as measured by the induction of anaphase aberrations in Allium cepa root tip cells, increased after the remediation process. This increase appeared to be due to synergism between the residual solvent and genotoxic components not removed by the solvent extraction process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether isopropanol, at concentrations similar to residual amounts following remediation, induced a synergistic response with the known clastogen, 4-nitroquinoline n-oxide (4-NQO). Bulblets of Allium cepa (common onion) were exposed for 24 h to varying concentrations of isopropanol combined with 0.10 mg/14-NQO in aqueous solution. The root tips were examined for mitotic index (MI), and cells in late anaphase/early telophase were scored for mitotic aberrations (MA, i.e., bridges, fragments, and lagging chromosomes). MI and MA frequencies were transformed by the arcsin square root function prior to statistical analysis (ANOVA). Isopropanol by itself did not induce MA and did not affect the Ml, either alone or in combination with 4-NQO. However, isopropanol enhanced the 4-NQO induced MA response by 1.4 fold at 1.0 mg/ml (p-value = 0.13) and 2.0 fold at 1.2 mg/ml (p-value = 0.006). Lower concentrations of 0.3 and 0.1 mg/ml isopropanol had no effect. The results demonstrate that residual solvents can increase the genotoxicity of soils, presumably as a result of enhancing the bioavailability of genotoxic components.

  8. Determination of genotoxic effects of Imazethapyr herbicide in Allium cepa root cells by mitotic activity, chromosome aberration, and comet assay.

    PubMed

    Liman, Recep; Ciğerci, İbrahim Hakkı; Öztürk, Nur Serap

    2015-02-01

    Imazethapyr (IM) is an imidazolinone herbicide that is currently used for broad-spectrum weed control in soybean and other legume crops. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of IM were investigated by using mitotic index (MI), mitotic phases, chromosomal abnormalities (CAs) and DNA damage on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. In Allium root growth inhibition test, EC50 value was determined as 20 ppm, and 0.5xEC50, EC50 and 2xEC50 concentrations of IM herbicide were introduced to onion tuber roots. Distilled water and methyl methane sulfonate (MMS, 10 mg/L) were used as a negative and positive control, respectively. As A. cepa cell cycle is 24 hours, so, application process was carried out for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. All the applied doses decreased MIs compared to control group and these declines were found to be statistically meaningful. Analysis of the chromosomes showed that 10 ppm IM except for 48 h induced CAs but 40 ppm IM except for 72 h decreased CAs. DNA damage was found significantly higher in 20 and 40 ppm of IM compared to the control in comet assay. These results indicated that IM herbicide exhibits cytotoxic activity but not genotoxic activity (except 10 ppm) and induced DNA damage in a dose dependent manner in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  9. Onion extract (Allium cepa L.), quercetin and catechin up-regulate paraoxonase 1 activity with concomitant protection against low-density lipoprotein oxidation in male Wistar rats subjected to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Nidhi; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) protects the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and is a major anti-atherosclerotic protein component of high-density lipoprotein. We explored the effect of onion extract and flavonoids (quercetin and catechin) in the regulation of PON1 expression and correlating with oxidised LDL levels in male Wistar rats subjected to mercuric chloride (HgCl₂) induced oxidative insult. Rats were divided into eight groups: Control, Experimental (HgCl₂), Experimental + onion/catechin/quercetin, Positive control (Normal + onion/catechin/quercetin). Treatment continued for 4 weeks. PON1 activity and radical scavenging activity decreased in the Experimental group (P < 0.001) with increased susceptibility of LDL for oxidation and plasma malondialdehyde levels (P < 0.001). Onion extract significantly attenuated the adverse effects of HgCl₂ by up-regulating PON1 activity (P < 0.05), radical scavenging activity (P < 0.01), and protected against LDL oxidation (P < 0.001) and lipid peroxidation (P < 0.01). Similar effects were observed with quercetin and to a lesser extent with catechin. The findings may explain the anti-atherosclerotic effect of onion and also foods containing quercetin and catechins.

  10. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid yellow... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing...

  11. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid yellow... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing...

  12. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid yellow... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing...

  13. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid yellow... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  14. Doubled Haploid ‘CUDH2107’ as a Reference for Bulb Onion (Allium cepa L.) Research: Development of a Transcriptome Catalogue and Identification of Transcripts Associated with Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Khosa, Jiffinvir S.; Lee, Robyn; Bräuning, Sophia; Lord, Janice; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; McCallum, John; Macknight, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers working on model plants have derived great benefit from developing genomic and genetic resources using ‘reference’ genotypes. Onion has a large and highly heterozygous genome making the sharing of germplasm and analysis of sequencing data complicated. To simplify the discovery and analysis of genes underlying important onion traits, we are promoting the use of the homozygous double haploid line ‘CUDH2107’ by the onion research community. In the present investigation, we performed transcriptome sequencing on vegetative and reproductive tissues of CUDH2107 to develop a multi-organ reference transcriptome catalogue. A total of 396 million 100 base pair paired reads was assembled using the Trinity pipeline, resulting in 271,665 transcript contigs. This dataset was analysed for gene ontology and transcripts were classified on the basis of putative biological processes, molecular function and cellular localization. Significant differences were observed in transcript expression profiles between different tissues. To demonstrate the utility of our CUDH2107 transcriptome catalogue for understanding the genetic and molecular basis of various traits, we identified orthologues of rice genes involved in male fertility and flower development. These genes provide an excellent starting point for studying the molecular regulation, and the engineering of reproductive traits. PMID:27861615

  15. Cytogenetic evaluation of gold nanorods using Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Rajeshwari, A; Roy, Barsha; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2016-12-01

    The current study reveals the impact of gold nanorods (NRs) capped with CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) or PEG (polyethylene glycol) on Allium cepa. The morphology and surface charge of CTAB- and PEG-capped gold NRs were characterized by electron microscopic and zeta potential analyses. The chromosomal aberrations like clumped chromosome, chromosomal break, chromosomal bridge, diagonal anaphase, disturbed metaphase, laggard chromosome, and sticky chromosome were observed in the root tip cells exposed to different concentrations (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/mL) of CTAB- and PEG-capped gold NRs. We found that both CTAB- and PEG-capped gold NRs were able to induce toxicity in the plant system after 4-h interaction. At a maximum concentration of 10 μg/mL, the mitotic index reduction induced by CTAB-capped gold NRs was 40-fold higher than that induced by PEG-capped gold NRs. The toxicity of gold NRs was further confirmed by lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress analyses. The unbound CTAB also contributed to the toxicity in root tip cells, while PEG alone shows less toxicity to the cells. The vehicle control CTAB contributed to the toxic effects in root tip cells, while PEG alone did not show any toxicity to the cells. The results revealed that even though both the particles have adverse effects on A. cepa, there was a significant difference in the mitotic index and oxidative stress generation in root cells exposed to CTAB-capped gold NRs. Thus, this study concludes that the surface polymerization of gold NRs by PEG can reduce the toxicity of CTAB-capped gold NRs.

  16. Correlation of toxicity with lead content in root tip cells (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Carruyo, Ingrid; Fernández, Yusmary; Marcano, Letty; Montiel, Xiomara; Torrealba, Zaida

    2008-12-01

    The present study determines lead content in onion root tip cells (Allium cepa L.), correlating it with its toxicity. The treatment was carried at 25 +/- 0.5 degrees C using aqueous solutions of lead chloride at 0.1, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1 ppm for 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. For each treatment, a control where the lead solution was substituted by distilled water was included. After treatment, the meristems were fixed with a mixture of alcohol-acetic acid (3:1) and colored according to the technique of Feulgen. Lead content was quantified by graphite furnace absorption atomic spectrometry. The lead content in the roots ranged from 3.25 to 244.72 microg/g dry weight, with a direct relation with the concentration and time of exposure. A significant negative correlation was presented (r = -0.3629; p < 0.01) among lead content and root growth increment, and a positive correlation (r = 0.7750; p < 0.01) with the induction of chromosomic aberrations. In conclusion, lead is able to induce a toxic effect in the exposed roots, correlated with its content.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. as photosensitizer of dye-sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Sutikno; Afrian, Noverdi; Supriadi,; Putra, Ngurah Made Dharma

    2016-04-19

    The synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. used as natural pigment for natural dye sensitizer of solar cell has successfully done and anthocyanin is extracted. Anthocynin is color pigment of plant which has characteristic absorption spectrum of photon and excites electrons up to pigment molecules. As the anthocyanin absorbed light increases the excited electrons increase as well. The generated current also increases and it leads to the efficiency increase. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dye of Allium cepa L. was 3,045 x 10{sup −4}%. A simple technique was taken to fabricate dye sensitizer solar cell is spincoating.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. as photosensitizer of dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutikno, Afrian, Noverdi; Supriadi, Putra, Ngurah Made Dharma

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. used as natural pigment for natural dye sensitizer of solar cell has successfully done and anthocyanin is extracted. Anthocynin is color pigment of plant which has characteristic absorption spectrum of photon and excites electrons up to pigment molecules. As the anthocyanin absorbed light increases the excited electrons increase as well. The generated current also increases and it leads to the efficiency increase. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dye of Allium cepa L. was 3,045 x 10-4%. A simple technique was taken to fabricate dye sensitizer solar cell is spincoating.

  19. Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties

    PubMed Central

    Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively.   Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity. PMID:23579100

  20. Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties.

    PubMed

    Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively.   Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity.

  1. Microscopic examination on cytological changes in Allium cepa and shift in phytoplankton population at different doses of Atrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Finger, Kristen; Usnick, Samantha; Rogers, William J.; Das, A. B.; Smith, Don W.

    2010-06-01

    Atrazine is a wide-range herbicide. For over 50 years, atrazine has been used as a selective broadleaf herbicide in many capacities, from pre-plant to pre-emergence to post-emergence, depending on the crop and application. Currently, 96% of all atrazine used is for commercial applications in fields for the control of broadleaf and grassy weeds in crops such as sorghum, corn, sugarcane, pineapple and for the control of undesirable weeds in rangeland. Many panhandle wells have also detected atrazine in samples taken. The concern for the public is the long-term effect of atrazine with its increasing popularity, and the impact on public health. We investigated the effect of different concentrations of atrazine on Allium cepa (onion), a standard plant test system. We established a control with the Allium bulbs grown on hydroponics culture. Varying concentrations of atrazine was used on the standard plant test system, Allium cepa grown hydroponically. The mitotic indices varied and with higher doses, we observed various chromosomal abnormalities including sticky bridges, early and late separations, and lag chromosomes with higher doses of treatments. In the second part of the experiment, 0.1ppb, 1ppb, 10ppb, and 100ppb concentrations of atrazine were applied to established phytoplankton cultures from the Lake Tanglewood, Texas. Study with a Sedgwick-Rafter counter, a BX-40 Olympus microscope with DP-70 camera revealed a gradual shift in the phytoplankton community from obligatory to facultative autotroph and finally to a parasitic planktonic community. This explains the periodic fish kill in the lakes after applications of atrazine in crop fields.

  2. Onion thiosulfinates: some like them hot, others not

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Onion (Allium cepa) efficiently acquires and accumulates sulfur. In most plants, the majority of sulfur is located in proteins in the amino acids cysteine and methionine; however in onion a significant proportion of the sulfur is found in non-protein amino-acid derivatives. In onion, sulfur is most ...

  3. Evaluation of onion germplasm for resistance to Iris yellow spot (Iris yellow spot virus) and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is the most economically important monocot outside of the grasses. This important crop suffers severe damage from onion thrips (Thrips tabaci), a cosmopolitan and polyphagous insect pest. In addition to direct feeding damages, onion thrips has emerged as the principal vector o...

  4. Rhodamine B induces long nucleoplasmic bridges and other nuclear anomalies in Allium cepa root tip cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Dehong; Bai, Bing; Jiang, Donghua; Shi, Lin; Cheng, Shunchang; Tao, Dongbing; Ji, Shujuan

    2014-03-01

    The cytogenetic toxicity of rhodamine B on root tip cells of Allium cepa was investigated. A. cepa were cultured in water (negative control), 10 ppm methyl methanesulfonate (positive control), and three concentrations of rhodamine B (200, 100, and 50 ppm) for 7 days. Rhodamine B inhibited mitotic activity; increased nuclear anomalies, including micronuclei, nuclear buds, and bridged nuclei; and induced oxidative stress in A. cepa root tissues. Furthermore, a substantial amount of long nucleoplasmic bridges were entangled together, and some nuclei were simultaneously linked to several other nuclei and to nuclear buds with nucleoplasmic bridges in rhodamine B-treated cells. In conclusion, rhodamine B induced cytogenetic effects in A. cepa root tip cells, which suggests that the A. cepa root is an ideal model system for detecting cellular interactions.

  5. Genotoxic effects of Campomanesia xanthocarpa extracts on Allium cepa vegetal system.

    PubMed

    Pastori, Tamara; Flores, Fernanda Cramer; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; da Silva, Cristiane de Bona; do Canto-Dorow, Thais Scotti; Tedesco, Solange Bosio

    2013-10-01

    CONTEXT. Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg. (Myrtaceae), popularly known in Brazil as guabiroba, is a plant used as antidiarrheic, anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic agents, and in stomach and hepatic disorders. The antiproliferative and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts and essential oil of C. xanthocarpa were evaluated. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the aqueous extracts (6 and 30 mg/mL) and essential oil (0.25%, v/v) obtained from leaves of C. xanthocarpa were evaluated using the Allium cepa L. (Amaryllidaceae) assay. Mitotic index was calculated as the percentage of dividing cells of total cells observed; chromosome abnormalities were observed and counted during cell division. Additionally, the composition of the essential oil and the quantification of the main compounds of the extracts were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector, respectively. Aqueous extracts (6 and 30 mg/mL) led to a reduction of 67.7% and 34.1% of the mitotic index, respectively, whereas the treatment with essential oil caused a 48.2% reduction in the mitotic index, when compared with negative control. Chromosomal mutations were observed and included anaphase bridges, delay chromosome, break chromosome, as well as metaphase with disorganized chromosomal and binuclear cells. The main compounds of the essential oil were β-caryophyllene (8.87%), viridiflorol (6.40%), spathulenol (5.16%), δ-cadinene (4.92%), linalool (4.46%) and α-cadinol (4.25%). Gallic acid (3.19%), chlorogenic acid (1.04%), quercetin (2.97%) and rutin (4.82%) were identified in an aqueous extract (30 mg/mL). Our results demonstrated that genotoxic and antiproliferative activities are present in C. xanthocarpa infusions using the in vivo onion root-tip cell test.

  6. Antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis and its main botanical source determined by the Allium cepa test system

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Matheus Mantuanelli; Jamal, Cláudia Masrouah; Malaspina, Osmar; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brazilian green propolis is a resinous substance prepared by bees from parts of the plant Baccharis dracunculifolia. As it possess several biological properties, this work assessed the cytotoxic/anticytotoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic and mutagenic/antimutagenic potential of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis (EEGP) and of B. dracunculifolia (EEBD), by means of the Allium cepa test system. The effects were evaluated by assessing the chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) frequencies on meristematic and F1 generation cells from onion roots. Chemical analyses performed with the extracts showed differences in flavonoid quality and quantity. No genotoxic or mutagenic potential was detected, and both extracts were capable of inhibiting cellular damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) treatment, reducing the frequencies of CA and MN. By these data, we can infer that, independent of their flavonoid content, the extracts presented a protective effect in A. cepa cells against the clastogenicity of MMS. PMID:27223486

  7. Acetic acid and weed control in onions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Although corn gluten meal shows great promise as an organic preemergent herbicide for onions, research has shown the need for supplemental, postemergen...

  8. Acetic acid: Crop injury and onion yields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Organic herbicides for sweet onions are limited to non-selective materials, such as corn gluten meal and vinegar. Research at Lane, Oklahoma has shown...

  9. Phenolic acid allelochemicals induced morphological, ultrastructural, and cytological modification on Cassia sophera L. and Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Gulzar, Aasifa; Siddiqui, M B; Bi, Shazia

    2016-09-01

    The allelopathic potential of leaf aqueous extract (LAE) of Calotropis procera on growth behavior, ultrastructural changes on Cassia sophera L., and cytological changes on Allium cepa L. was investigated. LAE at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %) significantly reduced the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of C. sophera. Besides, the ultrastructural changes (through scanning electron microscopy, SEM) induced in epidermal cells of 15-day-old seedlings of Cassia leaf were also noticed. The changes induced were shrinking and contraction of epidermal cells along with the formation of major grooves, canals, and cyst-like structures. The treated samples of epidermal cells no longer seem to be smooth as compared to control. LAE at different concentrations induces chromosomal aberrations and variation in shape of the interphase and prophase nucleus in A. cepa root tip cells when compared with control groups. The mitotic index in treated onion root tips decreased with increasing concentrations of the extracts. The most frequent aberrations were despiralization at prophase with the formation of micronuclei, sticky anaphase with bridges, sticky telophase, C-metaphase, etc. The results also show the induction of ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and cells with heterochromatic nuclei by extract treatment. Upon HPLC analysis, nine phenolic acids (caffeic acid, gentisic acid, catechol, gallic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid, resorcinol, p-coumaric acid, and p-hydroxy benzoic acid) were identified. Thus, the phenolic acids are mainly responsible for the allelopathic behavior of C. procera.

  10. Neuroprotective effect of Allium cepa L. in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tanveer; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    The present study was envisaged to investigate the neuroprotective potential of Allium cepa (A. cepa) in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity. Aluminium chloride (50 mg/kg/day) was administered orally in mice supplemented with different doses of A. cepa hydroethanolic extract for a period of 60 days. Various behavioural, biochemical and histopathological parameters were estimated in aluminium exposed animals. Chronic aluminium administration resulted in significant motor incoordination and memory deficits, which were also endorsed biochemically as there was increased oxidative stress as well as elevated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aluminium levels in the brain. Supplementation with A. cepa in aluminium exposed animals significantly improved muscle coordination and memory deficits as well as reduced oxidative stress, AChE and decreased abnormal aluminium deposition in the brain. Histopathologically, there was marked deterioration visualized as decreased vacuolated cytoplasm as well as decreased pyramidal cells in the hippocampal area of mice brain which were found to be reversed with A. cepa supplementation. Administration of BADGE (PPARγ antagonist) in aluminium exposed animals reversed the neuroprotective potential of A. cepa as assessed with various behavioural, biochemical, neurochemical and histopathological estimations. In conclusion, finding of this study suggested significant neuroprotective potential of A. cepa in aluminium induced neurotoxicity. Further, the role of PPARγ receptor agonism has also been suggested as a putative neuroprotective mechanism of A. cepa, which needs further studies for confirmation.

  11. Microstructure characterization of onion (A.cepa) peels and thin films for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abodunrin, T.; Boyo, A.; Usikalu, M.; Obafemi, L.; Oladapo, O.; Kotsedi, L.; Yenus, Z.; Maaza, M.

    2017-03-01

    A.cepa peels are obtained from mature onion bulbs. Because of the continuous need for energy, alternative avenues for producing energy are gaining importance. The motivation for this work is based on an urgent need to source energy from readily available waste materials like domestic onion peels. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated via doctor blade method and high temperature sintering from waste (onion peels) are investigated for their ability to convert solar to electrical energy. The charge carriers were revealed under phytochemical screening. Functional groups of compounds present in A.cepa peel were analyzed with Fourier transform in infrared (FTIR). The influence of different electrolyte sensitizer is observed on the DSSCs under standard air mass conditions of 1.5 AM. The microstructure properties of these A.cepa DSSCs were explored using scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), x-ray diffraction and Fluorecence spectroscopy (XRF). The interfacial boundary between A.cepa dye, TiO2 framework of TiO2 and indium doped tin oxide (ITO) reveals several prominent anatase and rutile peaks. Photoelectric results, revealed dye-sensitized solar cells with a maximum power output of 126 W and incident photon to conversion energy (IPCE) of 0.13%.This work has established that A.cepa peels can be used as a source of micro-energy generation.

  12. Isolation and characterization of Cepa2, a natural alliospiroside A, from shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) with anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Mahmoud, Hassan Y A H; El-Sayed, Magdi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Tran, L S

    2017-07-01

    Exploration of new and promising anticancer compounds continues to be one of the main tasks of cancer research because of the drug resistance, high cytotoxicity and limitations of tumor selectivity. Natural products represent a better choice for cancer treatment in comparison with synthetic compounds because of their pharmacokinetic properties and lower side effects. In the current study, we isolated a steroidal saponin, named Cepa2, from the dry roots of shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group), and determined its structure by using two-dimensional nuclear manganic resonance (2D NMR). The (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR data revealed that the newly isolated Cepa2 compound is identical to alliospiroside A (C38H60O12) [(25S)-3β-hydroxyspirost-5-en-1β-yl-2-O-(6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl)-α-L-arabinopyranoside], whose anticancer activity remains elusive. Our in vitro examination of the cytotoxic activity of the identified Cepa2 against P3U1 myeloma cancer cell line showed its high efficiency as an anticancer with 91.13% reduction in P3U1 cell viability 12 h post-treatment. The reduction of cell viability was correlated with the increase in reactive oxygen species levels in Cepa2-treated P3U1 cells, as compared with untreated cells. Moreover, scanning electron microscope results demonstrated apoptosis of the Cepa2-treated P3U1 cells in a time course-dependent manner. The results of our study provide evidence for the anticancer properties of the natural Cepa2/alliospiroside A extracted from shallot plants, and a strong foundation for in-depth investigations to build theoretical bases for cell apoptosis and development of novel anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome and biochemical analyses of steroidal saponin pathway in a complete set of Allium fistulosum-A. cepa monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Magdi; Sato, Shusei; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Tanaka, Keisuke; Mine, Yoko; Sugiyama, Nobuo; Suzuki, Minoru; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2017-01-01

    The genus Allium is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and its medicinal properties have been attributed to these bioactive compounds. The saponin compounds with diverse structures play a pivotal role in Allium's defense mechanism. Despite numerous studies on the occurrence and chemical structure of steroidal saponins, their biosynthetic pathway in Allium species is poorly understood. The monosomic addition lines (MALs) of the Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum, FF) with an extra chromosome from the shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group, AA) are powerful genetic resources that enable us to understand many physiological traits of Allium. In the present study, we were able to isolate and identify Alliospiroside A saponin compound in A. fistulosum with extra chromosome 2A from shallot (FF2A) and its role in the defense mechanism against Fusarium pathogens. Furthermore, to gain molecular insight into the Allium saponin biosynthesis pathway, high-throughput RNA-Seq of the root, bulb, and leaf of AA, MALs, and FF was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2500 platform. An open access Allium Transcript Database (Allium TDB, http://alliumtdb.kazusa.or.jp) was generated based on RNA-Seq data. The resulting assembled transcripts were functionally annotated, revealing 50 unigenes involved in saponin biosynthesis. Differential gene expression (DGE) analyses of AA and MALs as compared with FF (as a control) revealed a strong up-regulation of the saponin downstream pathway, including cytochrome P450, glycosyltransferase, and beta-glucosidase in chromosome 2A. An understanding of the saponin compounds and biosynthesis-related genes would facilitate the development of plants with unique saponin content and, subsequently, improved disease resistance.

  14. Certain antioxidant enzymes of Allium cepa as biomarkers for the detection of toxic heavy metals in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Riffat A; Ahmad, Masood

    2005-06-15

    The utility of antioxidant enzymes, viz glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), as biomarkers of heavy metal pollution in water was investigated using the Allium cepa (onion) system. These antioxidant enzymes were assayed in onion bulbs exposed to certain heavy metals taken separately, the test metals taken in combination as well as the industrial wastewater especially found to contain these metals. GST exhibited significantly enhanced activity upon treatment with individual heavy metals. However, GR, SOD and CAT did not show such a pronounced increase in activities. At higher heavy metal concentrations, GR, SOD and CAT showed a steep decline while GST activity still showed a rise. Moreover, APX, GPX and MDHAR also exhibited remarkable induction with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals. However, there was no significant change in DHAR activity with respect to the controls. Metabolites like ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) exhibited significant decline with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals while the level of H(2)O(2) continued to display the rise up to a heavy metal concentration of 100 microM, after which it showed a gradual decline. A. cepa bulbs treated with wastewater sample showed enzyme activity profiles similar to that shown with heavy metals, thereby suggesting the presence of heavy metals in the test wastewater. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry also detected large amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in the test water sample. The metal mixture, containing the amounts of heavy metals equivalent to those found in the wastewater, resulted in steep declines in GR, SOD and CAT activities in A. cepa while GST showed a rise. However, when this metal mixture was diluted to 2000-fold, GR, SOD and CAT also showed

  15. Genotoxicity testing of wastewater sludge using the Allium cepa anaphase-telophase chromosome aberration assay.

    PubMed

    Rank, J; Nielsen, M H

    1998-10-12

    Wastewater sludges were analysed in the Allium cepa genotoxicity test. They were sampled during three winter periods from three Danish municipal wastewater treatment plants differing in size and industrial load. The toxicity of the sludge was tested in the Allium root inhibition assay, and the results expressed as EC30 and EC50 values showed that the toxicity could be positive correlated to the industrial load. However, when genotoxicity was tested at concentrations corresponding to the EC30 and EC50 values in the A. cepa anaphase-telophase assay, only two sludge samples from the smallest plant with the lowest industrial load induced significant chromosome aberrations. Concentrations of the heavy metal's Pb, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Cd were also determined and could partly be correlated with the toxicity of the sludge and the industrial load of the treatment plants.

  16. Effects of polyamines and polyamine biosynthetic inhibitors on mitotic activity of Allium cepa root tips.

    PubMed

    Unal, Meral; Palavan-Unsal, Narcin; Tufekci, M A

    2008-03-01

    The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of exogenous polyamines (PAs), putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm) and PA biosynthetic inhibitors, alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), cyclohexilamine (CHA), methylglioxal bis-(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) were investigated in the root meristems of Allium cepa L. The reduction of mitotic index and the induction of chromosomal aberrations such as bridges, stickiness, c-mitotic anaphases, micronuclei, endoredupliction by PAs and PA biosynthetic inhibitors were observed and these were used as evidence of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity.

  17. Chromosomal and Nuclear Alterations in Root Tip Cells of Allium Cepa L. Induced by Alprazolam

    PubMed Central

    Nefic, Hilada; Musanovic, Jasmin; Metovic, Azra; Kurteshi, Kemajl

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Alprazolam is a triazolobenzodiazepine used in panic disorders and other anxiety states. Target organ of Alprazolam is CNS, causing depression of respiration and consciousness. Aim: This study aimed to estimate the genotoxic potential of Alprazolam using Allium cepa test. Methods: Allium cepa is one of the most suitable plants for detecting different types of xenobiotics. The test enables the assessment of different genetic endpoints making possible damage to the DNA of humans to be predicted. Results: Alprazolam induced chromosomal (anaphase bridges, breaks, lagging and stickiness, abnormal spiralisation, multipolarity and polyploidy) and cytological aberrations, especially nuclear alterations (nuclear buds, fragmented nucleus and apoptotic bodies, cells without nucleus, binucleated and micronucleated cells), morphological alterations in shape and size of cells, spindle disturbance and polar deviation in root tip meristem cells of Allium cepa at all tested concentrations. Alprazolam also caused significant inhibition of mitotic index in these cells. Conclusion: These changes in cells are indicators of genotoxic potential of Alprazolam suggesting a need for further in vitro studies on animal and human lymphocytes as well as in vivo studies. PMID:25568504

  18. RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome and biochemical analyses of steroidal saponin pathway in a complete set of Allium fistulosum—A. cepa monosomic addition lines

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Magdi; Sato, Shusei; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ito, Shin-ichi; Tanaka, Keisuke; Mine, Yoko; Sugiyama, Nobuo; Suzuki, Minoru; Yamauchi, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    The genus Allium is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and its medicinal properties have been attributed to these bioactive compounds. The saponin compounds with diverse structures play a pivotal role in Allium’s defense mechanism. Despite numerous studies on the occurrence and chemical structure of steroidal saponins, their biosynthetic pathway in Allium species is poorly understood. The monosomic addition lines (MALs) of the Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum, FF) with an extra chromosome from the shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group, AA) are powerful genetic resources that enable us to understand many physiological traits of Allium. In the present study, we were able to isolate and identify Alliospiroside A saponin compound in A. fistulosum with extra chromosome 2A from shallot (FF2A) and its role in the defense mechanism against Fusarium pathogens. Furthermore, to gain molecular insight into the Allium saponin biosynthesis pathway, high-throughput RNA-Seq of the root, bulb, and leaf of AA, MALs, and FF was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2500 platform. An open access Allium Transcript Database (Allium TDB, http://alliumtdb.kazusa.or.jp) was generated based on RNA-Seq data. The resulting assembled transcripts were functionally annotated, revealing 50 unigenes involved in saponin biosynthesis. Differential gene expression (DGE) analyses of AA and MALs as compared with FF (as a control) revealed a strong up-regulation of the saponin downstream pathway, including cytochrome P450, glycosyltransferase, and beta-glucosidase in chromosome 2A. An understanding of the saponin compounds and biosynthesis-related genes would facilitate the development of plants with unique saponin content and, subsequently, improved disease resistance. PMID:28800607

  19. Direct determination of the chromosomal location of bunching onion and bulb onion markers using bunching onion-shallot monosomic additions and allotriploid-bunching onion single alien deletions.

    PubMed

    Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Yamashita, Koichiro; Hagihara, Takuya; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Wako, Tadayuki

    2011-02-01

    To determine the chromosomal location of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and bulb onion (A. cepa L.) expressed sequence tags (ESTs), we used a complete set of bunching onion-shallot monosomic addition lines and allotriploid bunching onion single alien deletion lines as testers. Of a total of 2,159 markers (1,198 bunching onion SSRs, 324 bulb onion EST-SSRs and 637 bulb onion EST-derived non-SSRs), chromosomal locations were identified for 406 markers in A. fistulosum and/or A. cepa. Most of the bunching onion SSRs with identified chromosomal locations showed polymorphism in bunching onion (89.5%) as well as bulb onion lines (66.1%). Using these markers, we constructed a bunching onion linkage map (1,261 cM), which consisted of 16 linkage groups with 228 markers, 106 of which were newly located. All linkage groups of this map were assigned to the eight basal Allium chromosomes. In this study, we assigned 513 markers to the eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum and A. cepa. Together with 254 markers previously located on a separate bunching onion map, we have identified chromosomal locations for 766 markers in total. These chromosome-specific markers will be useful for the intensive mapping of desirable genes or QTLs for agricultural traits, and to obtain DNA markers linked to these.

  20. DNA replication stress induces deregulation of the cell cycle events in root meristems of Allium cepa

    PubMed Central

    Żabka, Aneta; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Maszewski, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Prolonged treatment of Allium cepa root meristems with changing concentrations of hydroxyurea (HU) results in either premature chromosome condensation or cell nuclei with an uncommon form of biphasic chromatin organization. The aim of the current study was to assess conditions that compromise cell cycle checkpoints and convert DNA replication stress into an abnormal course of mitosis. Methods Interphase-mitotic (IM) cells showing gradual changes of chromatin condensation were obtained following continuous 72 h treatment of seedlings with 0·75 mm HU (without renewal of the medium). HU-treated root meristems were analysed using histochemical stainings (DNA-DAPI/Feulgen; starch-iodide and DAB staining for H2O2 production), Western blotting [cyclin B-like (CBL) proteins] and immunochemistry (BrdU incorporation, detection of γ-H2AX and H3S10 phosphorylation). Key Results Continuous treatment of onion seedlings with a low concentration of HU results in shorter root meristems, enhanced production of H2O2, γ-phosphorylation of H2AX histones and accumulation of CBL proteins. HU-induced replication stress gives rise to axially elongated cells with half interphase/half mitotic structures (IM-cells) having both decondensed and condensed domains of chromatin. Long-term HU treatment results in cell nuclei resuming S phase with gradients of BrdU labelling. This suggests a polarized distribution of factors needed to re-initiate stalled replication forks. Furthermore, prolonged HU treatment extends both the relative time span and the spatial scale of H3S10 phosphorylation known in plants. Conclusions The minimum cell length and a threshold level of accumulated CBL proteins are both determining factors by which the nucleus attains commitment to induce an asynchronous course of chromosome condensation. Replication stress-induced alterations in an orderly route of the cell cycle events probably reflect a considerable reprogramming of metabolic functions of

  1. Nitrogen Effects on Onion Yield Under Drip and Furrow Irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is a high cash value crop with a very shallow root system that is frequently irrigated and fertilized with high N rates to maximize yield. Converting from furrow-irrigated to drip-irrigated onion production may reduce N fertilizer needs, water inputs, and NO3-N leaching poten...

  2. Broadcast applications of acetic acid: Crop injury and onion yields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The organic herbicides for sweet onions (Allium cepa L.) are limited to non-selective materials, such as corn gluten meal and vinegar. Research in Oklahoma has shown that corn gluten meal can be an affective early season pre-emergence herbicide for onion transplants, but once the residual impact of...

  3. Complete assignment of structural genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis influencing bulb color to individual chromosomes of the shallot (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Masuzaki, Shin-ichi; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Yamauchi, Naoki

    2006-08-01

    We analyzed Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) - shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) alien chromosome addition lines in order to assign the genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway to chromosomes of the shallot. Two complete sets of alien monosomic additions (2n = 2x + 1 = 17) were used for determining the chromosomal locations of several partial sequences of candidate genes, CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, and ANS via analyses of PCR-based markers. The results of DNA marker analyses showed that the CHS-A, CHS-B, CHI, F3H, DFR, and ANS genes should be assigned to chromosomes 2A, 4A, 3A, 3A, 7A, and 4A, respectively. HPLC analyses of 14 A. fistulosum - shallot multiple alien additions (2n = 2x + 2 - 2x + 7 = 18 - 23) were conducted to identify the anthocyanin compounds produced in the scaly leaves. A direct comparison between the genomic constitution and the anthocyanin compositions of the multiple additions revealed that a 3GT gene for glucosylation of anthocyanidin was located on 4A. Thus, we were able to assign all structural genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis influencing bulb color to individual chromosomes of A. cepa.

  4. Action of aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) leaves on meristematic root cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Neves, Erasmovlane S B; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Lima, Leonardo H G M; Peron, Ana Paula

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of aqueous extracts of dried Phyllanthus niruri L. (stonebreaker) leaves on Allium cepa L. root meristem cells at four concentrations, 0.02 (usual concentration), 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08mg/mL and exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For each concentration we used a group of five onion bulbs that were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective concentrations. The radicles were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1) for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by the crushing technique and stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5000 for each control and exposure time. The calculated mitotic indices were subjected to the Chi-squared statistical analysis (p<0.05). From the results obtained it was observed that all four concentrations tested had significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system. We also found the presence of cellular aberrations such as colchicined metaphases, anaphasic and telophasic bridges, and micronuclei in the two exposure times for all concentrations evaluated. Therefore, under the conditions studied the concentrations of aqueous extracts of leaves of P. niruri showed to be cytotoxic and genotoxic.

  5. Antioxidants in aqueous extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) suppress mitosis and cyclophosphamide-induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa L. cells.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, Akeem; Mohamed, Kamaruzaman Bin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Sofiman, Othman Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    In this study, freeze-dried water extract from the leaves of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) was tested for mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials using the Allium cepa assay. Freeze-dried water extract alone and its combination with cyclophosphamide (CP) (50 mg/kg) were separately dissolved in tap water at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg. Onions (A. cepa) were suspended in the solutions and controls for 48 h in the dark. Root tips were prepared for microscopic evaluation. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals' scavenging power of the extract was tested using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as standards. Water extract of Myristica fragrans scavenged free radicals better than BHA, but worse than BHT. The extract alone, as well as in combination with CP suppressed cell division, and induced chromosomal aberrations that were insignificantly different from the negative control (P ≤ 0.05). However, cytotoxic and mutagenic actions of CP were considerably suppressed. The observed effects on cell division and chromosomes of A. cepa may be principally connected to the antioxidant properties of the extract. The obtained results suggest mitodepressive and antimutagenic potentials of water extract of the leaves of M. fragrans as desirable properties of a promising anticancer agent.

  6. Antioxidants in aqueous extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) suppress mitosis and cyclophosphamide-induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa L. cells

    PubMed Central

    Akinboro, Akeem; Mohamed, Kamaruzaman Bin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Sofiman, Othman Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    In this study, freeze-dried water extract from the leaves of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) was tested for mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials using the Allium cepa assay. Freeze-dried water extract alone and its combination with cyclophosphamide (CP) (50 mg/kg) were separately dissolved in tap water at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg. Onions (A. cepa) were suspended in the solutions and controls for 48 h in the dark. Root tips were prepared for microscopic evaluation. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals’ scavenging power of the extract was tested using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as standards. Water extract of Myristica fragrans scavenged free radicals better than BHA, but worse than BHT. The extract alone, as well as in combination with CP suppressed cell division, and induced chromosomal aberrations that were insignificantly different from the negative control (P≤0.05). However, cytotoxic and mutagenic actions of CP were considerably suppressed. The observed effects on cell division and chromosomes of A. cepa may be principally connected to the antioxidant properties of the extract. The obtained results suggest mitodepressive and antimutagenic potentials of water extract of the leaves of M. fragrans as desirable properties of a promising anticancer agent. PMID:22042656

  7. Evaluation of cytotoxic potential of latex of Calotropis procera and podophyllotoxin in Allium cepa root model.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, R; Roy, S; Kumar, V L

    2006-04-01

    In the present study we have utilized the Allium cepa root tip meristem model to evaluate the cytotoxic and anti-mitotic activities of latex of Calotropis procera (DL) and podophyllotoxin. Standard cytotoxic drug cyclophosphamide and non-cytotoxic drugs cyprohcptadine and aspirin served as controls. Like cyclophosphamide, both DL and podophyllotoxin significantly inhibited the growth of roots and mitotic activity in a dose-dependent manner. However, podophyllotoxin was more potent in this regard and produced root decay. Cyproheptadine and aspirin, on the other hand, showed a marginal effect on the root growth and mitotic activity at much higher concentrations.

  8. Cytotoxic effects of Reactive Blue 33 on Allium cepa determined using Taguchi's L₈ orthogonal array.

    PubMed

    Al, Gonca; Özdemir, Utkan; Aksoy, Özlem

    2013-12-01

    In this study, Taguchi L₈ experimental design was applied to determine cytotoxic effects of Reactive Blue 33, which is the most toxic azo reactive dye species, on Allium cepa. With this aim, A. cepa test system was performed to achieve targeted experimental design with three factors (concentration of dye, pH and volume) in two different levels. Toxic conditions were determined considering calculated signal-to-noise ratios. "Smaller is better" approach was followed to calculate signal-to-noise ratios as it was aimed to obtain lower root lengths. In the work, toxic effects of azo dye were also predicted by using the Taguchi method. Taguchi model showed that experimental and predicted values were closer to each other demonstrating the success of Taguchi approach.

  9. Genotoxicity effects of Flusilazole on the somatic cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Ozakca, Dilek Unal; Silah, Hulya

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the fungicide flusilazole on somatic cells of Allium cepa. For evaluation of cytogenetic effects, root meristem cells of A. cepa were treated with 10, 20, 30 and 45 ppm (EC50 concentration) for 24, 48 and 72 h. The mitotic index and different types of chromosomal abnormalities such as bridges, stickiness and laggards were determined in both control and test groups. Acridine orange/Ethidium bromide double staining and fluorescence microscope was used to determine the stability of chromosome structure. Data obtained from staining process indicated that ratio of necrotic cells significantly increased by the flusilazole presoaking. The RAPD-PCR method was used and the higher doses treated-group (45 ppm) was more distant to the control group compare with others.

  10. Toxic effects of environmental pollutants: Comparative investigation using Allium cepa L. and Lactuca sativa L.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Graciele Lurdes; Lima, Maria Gabriela Franco; Reis, Gabriela Barreto Dos; Palmieri, Marcel José; Andrade-Vieria, Larissa Fonseca

    2017-03-21

    Studies that help understand the mechanisms of action of environmental pollutants are extremely important in environmental toxicology. In this context, assays using plants as models stand out for their simplicity and low performance cost. Among the plants used for this purpose, Allium cepa L. is the model most commonly applied for cytogenotoxic tests, while Lactuca sativa L., already widely used in phytotoxic investigations, has been gaining prominence in cytotoxic analyses. The present study aimed to compare the responses of A. cepa and L. sativa via macroscopic (root growth) and microscopic analyses (cell cycle and DNA fragmentation via TdT-mediated deoxy-uracil nick and labeling (TUNEL) and comet assays) after exposure of their roots to environmental pollutants with known cytogenotoxic mechanisms. Both species presented sensitive and efficient response to the applied tests after exposure to the DNA-alkylating agent Methyl Methanesulfonate (MMS), the heavy metal Cadmium, the aluminum industry waste Spent Potliner (SPL) and the herbicide Atrazine. However, they differed regarding the responses to the evaluated endpoints. Overall, A. cepa was more efficient in detecting clastogenic changes, arising from DNA breakage, while L. sativa rather detected aneugenic alterations, related to chromosome segregation in mitosis. In the tests applied to verify DNA fragmentation (comet and TUNEL assays), A. cepa presented higher sensitivity. In conclusion, both models are efficient to evaluate toxicological risks of environmental pollutants.

  11. Hydropower reservoirs: cytotoxic and genotoxic assessment using the Allium cepa root model.

    PubMed

    Rambo, Cassiano Lazarotto; Zanotelli, Patrícia; Dalegrave, Daniela; De Nez, Dinara; Szczepanik, Jozimar; Carazek, Fábio; Franscescon, Francini; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Siebel, Anna Maria; Magro, Jacir Dal

    2017-03-01

    Hydropower offers a reliable source of electricity in several countries, and Brazil supplies its energy needs almost entirely through hydropower plants. Nevertheless, hydropower plants comprise large buildings and water reservoirs and dams, resulting in huge ecological disruptions. Here, we analyzed the impact of four hydropower reservoirs construction in metals and pesticides incidence and the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of sediment elutriate of rivers from southern Brazil. Our analyses have evidenced the elevated incidence of different metals (lead, iron, cadmium, and chrome) and pesticides (methyl parathion, atrazine, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). We showed that Allium cepa exposed to sediment elutriates did not change the seed germination rate and mitotic index. However, roots from Allium cepa exposed to reservoirs sediment elutriates showed increased occurrence of chromosomal aberrations and nuclear abnormalities. Therefore, the results obtained in our study indicate that sediment from reservoirs present elevated concentration of metals and pesticides and a significant genotoxic potential. Taken together, our data support that hydropower reservoirs represent an environmental scenario that could impact surrounding wildlife and population.

  12. Exposure of Allium cepa root cells to zidovudine or nevirapine induces cytogenotoxic changes.

    PubMed

    Onwuamah, Chika K; Ekama, Sabdat O; Audu, Rosemary A; Ezechi, Oliver C; Poirier, Miriam C; Odeigah, Peter G C

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral drugs have proved useful in the clinical management of HIV-infected persons, though there are concerns about the effects of exposure to these DNA-reactive drugs. We investigated the potential of the plant model Allium cepa root tip assay to demonstrate the cytogenotoxicity of zidovudine and nevirapine and as a replace-reduce-refine programme amenable to resource-poor research settings. Cells mitotic index were determined in squashed root cells from Allium cepa bulbs exposed to zidovudine or nevirapine for 48 hr. The concentration of zidovudine and nevirapine inhibiting 50% root growth after 96 hr exposure was 65.0 µM and 92.5 µM respectively. Root length of all antiretroviral-exposed roots after 96 hr exposure was significantly shorter than the unexposed roots while additional root growth during a subsequent 48 hr recovery period in the absence of drug was not significantly different. By ANOVA, there was a significant association between percentage of cells in mitosis and zidovudine dose (p=0.004), but not nevirapine dose (p=0.68). Chromosomal aberrations such as sticky chromosomes, chromatin bridges, multipolar mitoses and binucleated cells were observed in root cells exposed to zidovudine and nevirapine for 48 hr. The most notable chromosomal aberration was drug-related increases in sticky chromosomes. Overall, the study showed inhibition in root length growth, changes in the mitotic index, and the induction of chromosomal aberrations in Allium bulbs treated for 96 hr or 48 hr with zidovudine and nevirapine. The study reveals generalized cytogenotoxic damage induced by exposure to zidovudine and nevirapine, and further show that the two compounds differ in their effects on mitosis and the types of chromosomal aberrations induced.

  13. Exposure of Allium cepa Root Cells to Zidovudine or Nevirapine Induces Cytogenotoxic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Onwuamah, Chika K.; Ekama, Sabdat O.; Audu, Rosemary A.; Ezechi, Oliver C.; Poirier, Miriam C.; Odeigah, Peter G C.

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral drugs have proved useful in the clinical management of HIV-infected persons, though there are concerns about the effects of exposure to these DNA-reactive drugs. We investigated the potential of the plant model Allium cepa root tip assay to demonstrate the cytogenotoxicity of zidovudine and nevirapine and as a replace-reduce-refine programme amenable to resource–poor research settings. Cells mitotic index were determined in squashed root cells from Allium cepa bulbs exposed to zidovudine or nevirapine for 48 hr. The concentration of zidovudine and nevirapine inhibiting 50% root growth after 96 hr exposure was 65.0 µM and 92.5 µM respectively. Root length of all antiretroviral-exposed roots after 96 hr exposure was significantly shorter than the unexposed roots while additional root growth during a subsequent 48 hr recovery period in the absence of drug was not significantly different. By ANOVA, there was a significant association between percentage of cells in mitosis and zidovudine dose (p = 0.004), but not nevirapine dose (p = 0.68). Chromosomal aberrations such as sticky chromosomes, chromatin bridges, multipolar mitoses and binucleated cells were observed in root cells exposed to zidovudine and nevirapine for 48 hr. The most notable chromosomal aberration was drug-related increases in sticky chromosomes. Overall, the study showed inhibition in root length growth, changes in the mitotic index, and the induction of chromosomal aberrations in Allium bulbs treated for 96 hr or 48 hr with zidovudine and nevirapine. The study reveals generalized cytogenotoxic damage induced by exposure to zidovudine and nevirapine, and further show that the two compounds differ in their effects on mitosis and the types of chromosomal aberrations induced. PMID:24599327

  14. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of extract of Amaranthus spinosus L. in Allium cepa and human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Prajitha, V; Thoppil, J E

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined the apoptosis inducing effects of Amaranthus spinosus L. aqueous extract in Allium cepa root meristematic cells and human erythrocytes. Cytogenetic assay revealed many apoptosis inducing cytogenetic aberrations viz., cytoplasmic breakage, cytoplasmic disintegration, cytoplasmic shrinkage, receding of cytoplasm, cytoplasmic vacuolation, enucleated cell, ghost cell, nuclear vacuolation, nuclear fragmentation and nuclear disintegration. A remarkable modification of red blood cell surface morphology was observed in the result of RBC assay. The treated RBCs show membrane blebbing and shrinkage, features typical for apoptosis in nucleated cells. Significant induction of cell death was observed in treated Allium root tip cells after Evans blue staining, disclosing the membrane damage potential of the plant extract. TTC assay results in reduced mitochondrial/metabolic activity in Allium root tip cells after treatment, designating the adverse effect of plant extract on mitochondrial respiratory chain. These results confirm the apoptosis inducing potential of A. spinosus extract. Confirming the present results by further in vitro studies, it can be effectively targeted against cell proliferation during cancer treatment by inducing apoptosis. Thus from the present investigation it can be concluded that the aqueous extract of A. spinosus exhibited apoptosis induction and cytotoxic activities.

  15. [Cytotoxic influence of chlorophenols on the root meristem cells of onion batuna seeds (Allium fistulosum L.)].

    PubMed

    Verholias, M R; Lutsenko, T V; Honcharuk, V V

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophenols are precursors to more dangerous toxicants dioxanes and are characterized wiht mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of chemical substances can be studied using methods of plant biological testing under the influence of different pollutants. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of pentachlorophenol and 3-chlorophenol solutions in root meristem cells of Allium fistulosum (L.) were investigated. Dose-dependent inhibition of onion seed germination under the influence of 5-chlorophenol and 3-chlorophenol solutions in different concentrations was revealed. Pentachlorophenol showed significantly greater dose-dependent toxic effect on seed germination than 3-chlorophenol.

  16. Efficacy assessment of acid mine drainage treatment with coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Geremias, Reginaldo; Bortolotto, Tiago; Wilhelm-Filho, Danilo; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; de Fávere, Valfredo Tadeu

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with calcinated coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. The pH values and the concentrations of aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and sulfate were determined before and after the treatment of the AMD with calcinated coal mining waste. Allium cepa L. was exposed to untreated and treated AMD, as well as to mineral water as a negative control (NC). At the end of the exposure period, the inhibition of root growth was measured and the mean effective concentration (EC(50)) was determined. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) in the fleshy leaves of the bulb, as well as the DNA damage index (ID) in meristematic cells, were evaluated. The results indicated that the AMD treatment with calcinated coal mining waste resulted in an increase in the pH and an expressive removal of aluminum, iron, manganese and zinc. A high sub-chronic toxicity was observed when Allium cepa L. was exposed to the untreated AMD. However, after the treatment no toxicity was detected. Levels of TBARS and PC, CAT activity and the DNA damage index were significantly increased (P<0.05) in Allium cepa L. exposed to untreated AMD when compared to treated AMD and also to negative controls. No significant alteration in the GSH content was observed. In conclusion, the use of calcinated coal mining waste associated with toxicological tests on Allium cepa L. represents an alternative system for the treatment and biomonitoring of these types of environmental contaminants.

  17. Combination of Cymbopogon citratus and Allium cepa essential oils increased antibacterial activity in leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Ramirez, Luis A; Silva-Espinoza, Brenda A; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Cruz-Valenzuela, M Reynaldo; Nazzaro, Filomena; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Cymbopogon citratus and Allium cepa essential oils (EOs) are rich in terpenes and sulfur compounds respectively, both with antibacterial activity and different cell targets, supporting the idea that their combination can increase their efficacy. Major constituents of C. citratus were geranial and neral, while A. cepa presented dipropyl disulfide and dipropyl trisulfide. Cymbopogon citratus and A. cepa EOs inhibited the in vitro growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (minimal inhibitory concentrations of 2.21 and 5.13 g L(-1) respectively), Salmonella Choleraesuis (3.04 and 1.28 g L(-1) ), Listeria monocytogenes (1.33 and 2.56 g L(-1) ) and Staphylococcus aureus (0.44 and 5.26 g L(-1) ). Application of the EO combination to spinach caused a greater reduction in E. coli (2.34 log colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1) ), S. Choleraesuis (2.94 log CFU g(-1) ), L. monocytogenes (2.06 log CFU g(-1) ) and S. aureus (1.37 log CFU g(-1) ) compared with higher doses of individual EOs; a similar effect was observed for romaine lettuce. Individual and combined EOs caused a reduction in flavor acceptability level; however, no significant differences were found among odor acceptability of control vegetables and those treated with the EO combination and C. citratus EO. Leafy vegetables treated with the EO combination showed higher antibacterial protection and odor acceptability compared with individual EO treatments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. AlliumMap-A comparative genomics resource for cultivated Allium vegetables

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vegetables of the genus Allium are widely consumed but remain poorly understood genetically. Genetic mapping has been conducted in intraspecific crosses of onion (Allium cepa L.), A. fistulosum and interspecific crosses between A. roylei and these two species, but it has not been possible to access genetic maps and underlying data from these studies easily. Description An online comparative genomics database, AlliumMap, has been developed based on the GMOD CMap tool at http://alliumgenetics.org. It has been populated with curated data linking genetic maps with underlying markers and sequence data from multiple studies. It includes data from multiple onion mapping populations as well as the most closely related species A. roylei and A. fistulosum. Further onion EST-derived markers were evaluated in the A. cepa x A. roylei interspecific population, enabling merging of the AFLP-based maps. In addition, data concerning markers assigned in multiple studies to the Allium physical map using A. cepa-A. fistulosum alien monosomic addition lines have been compiled. The compiled data reveal extensive synteny between onion and A. fistulosum. Conclusions The database provides the first online resource providing genetic map and marker data from multiple Allium species and populations. The additional markers placed on the interspecific Allium map confirm the value of A. roylei as a valuable bridge between the genetics of onion and A. fistulosum and as a means to conduct efficient mapping of expressed sequence markers in Allium. The data presented suggest that comparative approaches will be valuable for genetic and genomic studies of onion and A. fistulosum. This online resource will provide a valuable means to integrate genetic and sequence-based explorations of Allium genomes. PMID:22559261

  19. Light Intensity and Carbon Dioxide Availability Impact Antioxidant Activity in Green Onions (Allium fistulosumm L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Lanfang; Bisbee, Patricia; Pare, Paul

    The prospect of long-duration manned space missions poses many challenges, including the development of a sustainable life support system and effective methods of space-radiation protection. To mitigate the risk of increased space-radiation, functional foods rich in antioxidant properties such as green onions are of particular interest. However it has yet to be established whether antioxidant properties can be preserved or enhanced in space environment where carbon dioxide, lighting intensity, gravity and pressure differ from which plants have acclimated to on earth. In this study, green onions (Allium fistulosumm L. cultivar Kinka) rich in antioxidant flavonoids are used as a model system to investigate variations in antioxidant capacity with plants grown under varying light intensities and CO2 concentrations. The antioxidant potential is determined using both radical cation scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance assays. For all light intensities assayed, antioxidant potential in water extract of green onions per gram biomass declined with CO2 increases up to 1200 ppm, and then leveled off with further CO2 increase to 4000 ppm. This inverse carbon dioxide versus antioxidant activity correlation suggests lower accumulation rates for water soluble antioxidant compounds compared to total biomass under increasing CO2 concentrations. The effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts were light intensity dependent. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of traditional plant antioxidants including vitamin C and the major onion flavonoid quercetin.

  20. Genetic variation for epicuticular waxes in onion: a thrips-avoidance mechanism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Onion (Allium cepa) is the second most valuable vegetable crop in the world and the third most valuable in the USA. Thrips are one of the main insect pests of onion, causing damage to leaves and stored bulbs as well as transmitting serious diseases such as Iris Yellow Spot Virus and bacterial bulb r...

  1. Quantitative trait loci controlling amounts and types of epicuticular waxes in onion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural variation exists in onion (Allium cepa L.) for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on leaves. Wild-type waxy onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes, while the foliage of semi-glossy and glossy phenotypes accumulate significantly less wax. Reduced amounts of epicuticular waxes hav...

  2. Broadcast applications of Acetic Acid: Weed control in spring-transplanted onions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oklahoma producers are interested in sweet onion (Allium cepa L.) as an alternative crop for farm diversification, but weed control continues to be a primary obstacle. The weed control challenges for onion production are even greater for those considering organic crop production. The few organic h...

  3. Interactions among cultivation, weeds, and a bio-fungicide in organic Vidalia sweet onion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weed management in organic Vidalia® sweet onion (Allium cepa) is largely dependent on multiple cultivations with a tine weeder. Earlier research suggested cultivation with a tine weeder did not predispose onion bulbs to infection during storage. Trials were conducted from 2012 through 2014 near Ly...

  4. Relations between the physiological state of onions and an effective sprout inhibition by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlhelm, H.; Matejko, C.

    The mitotic activity in shoot meristem was examined during the entire storage period of onions ( Allium cepa L.) and was compared with the growth of the inner bud of the bulbs unirradiated and after irradiation. The meaning of cell division at the shoot apex for the sprouting of onions and the effect of γ-irradiation are discussed.

  5. Genotoxicity assessment of pulp and paper mill effluent before and after bacterial degradation using Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Sharad; Raj, Abhay; Lohani, Mohtashim; Satyanarayana, G N V

    2017-02-01

    A lignin peroxidases-producing Serratia liquefaciens was used for bioremediation of pulp and paper (P&P) mill effluent. The treatment led to reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour, lignin and phenolic content by 84%, 72%, 61% and 95%, respectively. The effluent detoxification was studied by genotoxicity assays using Allium cepa L. (onion) root tip cells. Genotoxicity studies included measuring mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in root tip cells following treatment with 25, 50, 75 and 100% (v/v) of effluent. The root tip cells grown in untreated effluent showed a significant decrease in MI from 69% (control) to 32%, 27%, 22% and 11% at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% effluent concentration, respectively. This indicated that the untreated effluent was highly cytotoxic in nature. Further, root tip cells, when treated with different concentrations of effluent showed various CA and NA including c-mitosis, stickiness, chromosome loss, chromosome break, anaphase bridge, multipolar anaphase, vagrant chromosomes, micronucleated and binucleated cells. The MI observed in root tip cells grown in bacterial treated effluents at similar concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100% v/v) showed an increase of 33%, 36%, 42% and 66%. CA showed a substantial decrease and in some instances, complete absence of CA was also observed. The findings suggest that S. liquefaciens culture could be a potential bacterial culture for bioremediation of P&P mill effluent, as it is effective in substantial lowering of pollutants load as well as reduces the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of effluent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. TLC determination of flavonoids from different cultivars of Allium cepa and Allium ascalonicum.

    PubMed

    Pobłocka-Olech, Loretta; Głód, Daniel; Żebrowska, Maria E; Sznitowska, Małgorzata; Krauze-Baranowska, Miroslawa

    2016-12-01

    This study comprises the optimization and validation of a new TLC method for determination of flavonols in the bulbs of seven cultivars of onions and shallots. Separation was performed on RP-18 plates with the solvent mixture tetrahydrofuran/water/formic acid (40+60+6, V/V/V) as a mobile phase. The method was evaluated for precision, linearity, LOD, LOQ, accuracy and robustness. Chromatographic analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of three main flavonols, quercetin, quercetin-4'-O-glucoside and quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside in the majority of analyzed cultivars. The content of flavonols in the analyzed extracts of onion bulbs varied from 123 ('Exihibition') to 1079 mg kg-1 fresh mass (fm) ('Hybing') in edible parts, and from 1727 ('Hyline') to 28949 mg kg-1 fm ('Red Baron') in outer scales. The bulbs of two shallot cultivars contained 209 ('Ambition') and 523 mg kg-1 fm ('Matador') of flavonols in edible parts and 5426 and 8916 mg kg-1 fm in outer scales, respectively.

  7. Oxidative potential of ultraviolet-A irradiated or nonirradiated suspensions of titanium dioxide or silicon dioxide nanoparticles on Allium cepa roots.

    PubMed

    Koce, Jasna Dolenc; Drobne, Damjana; Klančnik, Katja; Makovec, Darko; Novak, Sara; Hočevar, Matej

    2014-04-01

    The effect of ultraviolet-A irradiated or nonirradiated suspensions of agglomerates of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) or silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) nanoparticles on roots of the onion (Allium cepa) has been studied. The reactive potential of TiO(2) nanoparticles, which have photocatalytic potential, and the nonphotocatalytic SiO(2) nanoparticles with the same size of agglomerates was compared. The authors measured the activity of antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and catalase as well as lipid peroxidation to assess the oxidative stress in exposed A. cepa roots. A wide range of concentrations of nanoparticles was tested (0.1-1000 µg/mL). The sizes of agglomerates ranged in both cases from 300 nm to 600 nm, and the exposure time was 24 h. Adsorption of SiO(2) nanoparticles on the root surface was minimal but became significant when roots were exposed to TiO(2) agglomerates. No significant biological effects were observed even at high exposure concentrations of SiO(2) and TiO(2) nanoparticles individually. Plants appear to be protected against nanoparticles by the cell wall, which shields the cell membrane from direct contact with the nanoparticles. The authors discuss the need to supplement conventional phytotoxicity and stress end points with measures of plant physiological state when evaluating the safety of nanoparticles.

  8. Characterization of a 65 kDa NIF in the nuclear matrix of the monocot Allium cepa that interacts with nuclear spectrin-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Munive, Clara; Blumenthal, Sonal S D; de la Espina, Susana Moreno Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Plant cells have a well organized nucleus and nuclear matrix, but lack orthologues of the main structural components of the metazoan nuclear matrix. Although data is limited, most plant nuclear structural proteins are coiled-coil proteins, such as the NIFs (nuclear intermediate filaments) in Pisum sativum that cross-react with anti-intermediate filament and anti-lamin antibodies, form filaments 6-12 nm in diameter in vitro, and may play the role of lamins. We have investigated the conservation and features of NIFs in a monocot species, Allium cepa, and compared them with onion lamin-like proteins. Polyclonal antisera against the pea 65 kDa NIF were used in 1D and 2D Western blots, ICM (imunofluorescence confocal microscopy) and IEM (immunoelectron microscopy). Their presence in the nuclear matrix was analysed by differential extraction of nuclei, and their association with structural spectrin-like proteins by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization in ICM. NIF is a conserved structural component of the nucleus and its matrix in monocots with Mr and pI values similar to those of pea 65 kDa NIF, which localized to the nuclear envelope, perichromatin domains and foci, and to the nuclear matrix, interacting directly with structural nuclear spectrin-like proteins. Its similarities with some of the proteins described as onion lamin-like proteins suggest that they are highly related or perhaps the same proteins.

  9. Evaluation of cytogenotoxic effects of cold aqueous extract from Achyrocline satureioides by Allium cepa L test.

    PubMed

    Sabini, María C; Cariddi, Laura N; Escobara, Franco M; Bachetti, Romina A; Sutil, Sonia B; Contigiani, Marta S; Zanon, Silvia M; Sabini, Liliana I

    2011-07-01

    Achyrocline satureioides ("marcela del campo") is native to America. Numerous investigations have reported several bioactive properties such as anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial and antiviral. Nowadays, few medicinal plants have been scientifically evaluated to test its safety, efficacy and potential benefits, despite the great public interest in these herbs. The aim of this work was to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic activities of cold aqueous extract obtained from A. satureioides using Allium cepa L test. The results demonstrated the absence of genotoxicity of the extract. Only higher concentrations induced cytotoxicity but interestingly this effect was reversible and was not associated with mutagenicity. The contribution of this research provides assurance of safety in the application of Achyrocline satureioides in treatment of microbial diseases and other pathologies helping to define selective toxicity.

  10. Cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Corrêa Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; da Silva Souza, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic potential of sewage sludge using Allium cepa bioassay. Solubilized and crude sludge from two sewage treatment stations (STSs), herein named JM and M, were tested. In addition, sanitized, crude and solubilized sludge were also analyzed from STS M. The treatments showed positive response to phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and/or mutagenicity. Despite negative results for MN F1 (micronuclei counted in F1 root cells, derived from meristematic cells), the monitoring of genotoxic and mutagenic activities of sewage sludge are recommended because in agricultural areas this residue is applied in large scale and continuously. Based on our results we advise caution in the use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils.

  11. Controlled green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata with strong antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahni, Geetika; Panwar, Amit; Kaur, Balpreet

    2015-02-01

    A controlled "green synthesis" approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata plant extract has been reported. The effect of different process parameters, such as pH, temperature and time, on synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from plant extracts has been highlighted. The work reports an easy approach to control the kinetics of interaction of metal ions with reducing agents, stabilized by ammonia to achieve sub-10 nm particles with narrow size distribution. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectra and TEM analysis. Excellent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration of the nanoparticles was observed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Fusarium oxysporum which may allow their exploitation as a new generation nanoproduct in biomedical and agricultural applications.

  12. Alien genes introgression and development of alien monosomic addition lines from a threatened species, Allium roylei Stearn, to Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hoa Q; Yoshimatsu, Yasuyuki; Khrustaleva, Ludmila I; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-05-01

    To produce alien monosomic addition lines (AMALs) of Allium cepa (genomes CC, 2n = 2x = 16) carrying extrachromosomes from Allium roylei (RR, 2n = 2x = 16), reciprocal backcrossing of allotriploids (2n = 24, CCR) with diploids (2n = 16, CC) and selfing of a single allotriploid were carried out. The chromosome numbers in the BC(2)F(1) and BC(1)F(2) progenies ranged from 16 to 32. Forty-eight plants were recorded to possess 2n = 17 among a total of 169 plants in observation. Through the analyses of isozymes, expressed sequence tag (EST) markers, and karyotypes, all eight possible types of A. cepa-A. roylei monosomic addition lines (CC+1R-CC+8R) could be identified. Seven types of representative AMALs (without CC+2R) were used for the GISH analysis of somatic chromosomes. Except for CC+6R, all AMALs showed an entire (unrecombined) extrachromosome from A. roylei in the integral diploid background of A. cepa. A single recombination between A. cepa and A. roylei was observed on the extrachromosome in the remaining type. All alloplasmic AMALs possessing A. roylei cytoplasm showed high or complete pollen sterility. Only the autoplasmic CC+4R with A. cepa cytoplasm possessed relatively high pollen fertility. The bulbs of CC+4R displayed the distinct ovoid shape that discriminates them from spherical or oval ones in other AMALs. Downy mildew screening in the field showed higher resistance in A. roylei, a hypo-allotriploid (CCR-nR, 2n = 23), and an allotriploid (CCR, 2n = 24). Meanwhile, no complete resistance was found in some AMALs examined. This was the first trial toward the establishment of a complete set of A. cepa-A. roylei monosomic additions.

  13. Genotoxicity of sulcotrione pesticide and photoproducts on Allium cepa root meristem.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Eric; Sta, Chaima; Trivella, Aurélien; Goupil, Pascale; Richard, Claire; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2014-07-01

    Contamination by toxic agents in the environment has become matters of concern to agricultural countries. Sulcotrione, a triketone herbicide used to control dicotyledonous weeds in maize culture is rapidly photolyzed on plant foliage and generate two main photoproducts the xanthene-1,9-dione-3,4-dihydro-6-methylsulfonyl and 2-chloro-4-mesylbenzoic acid (CMBA). The aim of this study was to analyze the potential toxicity of the herbicide and the irradiated herbicide cocktail. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of non irradiated and irradiated sulcotrione were investigated in Allium cepa test. The sulcotrione irradiation was monitored under sunlight simulated conditions to reach 50% of phototransformation. Concentrations of sulcotrione in the range 5 × 10(-)(9)-5 × 10(-)(5)M were tested. Cytological analysis of root tips cells showed that both non irradiated and irradiated sulcotrione caused a dose-dependent decrease of mitotic index with higher cytotoxicity for the irradiated herbicide which can lead to 24.2% reduction of mitotic index compared to water control. Concomitantly, chromosomal aberrations were observed in A.cepa root meristems. Both non irradiated sulcotrione and irradiated sulcotrione induced a dose-dependent increase of chromosomal abnormalities frequencies to a maximal value of 33.7%. A saturating effect in anomaly frequencies was observed in meristems treated with high concentrations of non irradiated sulcotrione only. These data suggest that photolyzed sulcotrione cocktail have a greater cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than parent molecule and question about the impact of photochemical process on environment.

  14. [Chromosome CPD(PI/DAPI)- and CMA/DAPI-banding patterns in Allium cepa L].

    PubMed

    Kim, E S; Punina, E O; Rodionov, A V

    2002-04-01

    Chromosome banding patterns of Allium cepa L. were obtained by using fluorochrome combinations chromomycin A3 (CMA) + 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), DAPI + actinomycin D (AMD) and propidium iodide (PI) + DAPI. In A. cepa, telomeric heterochromatin displayed dull fluorescence after staining with DAPI and DAPI/AMD. After staining with the GC-specific CMA and AT-specific DAPI, the CMA-positive fluorescence of the NOR region and the telomeric bands of C-heterochromatin was observed. In combination with DAPI, PI, a dye with low AT/GC specificity, produced almost uniform fluorescence of chromosomal arms and heterochromatin, whereas the NOR-adjoining regions displayed bright fluorescence. Denaturation of chromosomal DNA (95 degrees C for 1-3 min) followed by renaturation in the 2 x SSC buffer (37 degrees C, 12 h) altered the chromosome fluorescence patterns: specific PI-positive bands appeared and the contrast of CMA-banding increased. Bright fluorescence of the NOR and adjoining regions was also observed in the case. Three-minute denaturation led also to a bright PI-positive fluorescence of telomeric heterochromatin. The denaturation of chromosomal DNA before staining results in changes of the DAPI fluorescence pattern and in the appearance of DAPI fluorescence in GR-rich NOP regions. The mechanisms underlying the effects of denaturation/renaturation procedures on chromosome banding patterns obtained with different fluorochromes are discussed.

  15. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of silver nanoparticle/carboxymethyl cellulose on Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Becaro, Aline A; Siqueira, Maria Célia; Puti, Fernanda C; de Moura, Marcia Regina; Correa, Daniel S; Marconcini, José Manoel; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Ferreira, Marcos David

    2017-07-01

    Several mutagenic agents may be present in substances released in the environment, which may cause serious environmental impacts. Among these substances, there is a special concern regarding the widespread use of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in several products due to their widely known bactericidal properties, including in the medical field and the food industry (e.g., active packaging). The assessment of the effects of AgNP released in the environment, having different concentrations, sizes, and being associated or not to other types of materials, including polymers, is therefore essential. In this research, the objective was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of AgNP (size range between 2 and 8 nm) on root meristematic cells of Allium cepa (A. cepa). Tests were carried out in the presence of colloidal solution of AgNP and AgNP mixed with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), using distinct concentrations of AgNP. As a result, when compared to control samples, AgNP induced a mitotic index decrease and an increase of chromosomal aberration number for two studied concentrations. When AgNP was in the presence of CMC, no cytotoxic potential was verified, but only the genotoxic potential for AgNP dispersion having concentration of 12.4 ppm.

  16. Potential genotoxic effects of melted snow from an urban area revealed by the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Blagojević, Jelena; Stamenković, Gorana; Vujosević, Mladen

    2009-09-01

    The presence of well-known atmospheric pollutants is regularly screened for in large towns but knowledge about the effects of mixtures of different pollutants and especially their genotoxic potential is largely missing. Since falling snow collects pollutants from the air, melted snow samples could be suitable for evaluating potential genotoxicity. For this purpose the Allium cepa anaphase-telophase test was used to analyse melted snow samples from Belgrade, the capital city of Serbia. Samples of snow were taken at two sites, characterized by differences in pollution intensity, in three successive years. At the more polluted site the analyses showed a very high degree of both toxicity and genotoxicity in the first year of the study corresponding to the effects of the known mutagen used as the positive control. At the other site the situation was much better but not without warning signals. The results showed that standard analyses for the presence of certain contaminants in the air do not give an accurate picture of the possible consequences of urban air pollution because the genotoxic potential remains hidden. The A. cepa test has been demonstrated to be very convenient for evaluation of air pollution through analyses of melted snow samples.

  17. Standardization of bulb and root sample sizes for the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Barbério, A; Voltolini, J C; Mello, M L S

    2011-06-01

    Although the Allium cepa test has been widely used to identify potentially cytotoxic and genotoxic pollutants in aquatic environments, variable non-standardized choices have been made regarding the number of plant bulbs and roots analyzed. We propose numbers for bulbs and roots per bulb when comparing the frequencies of micronuclei, mitotic anomalies and mitotic index with this test. Roots that had been treated with aqueous solutions, such as water samples collected in August 2007 from the Paraíba do Sul River at the Brazilian cities of Tremembé and Aparecida; negative and positive controls were used for bioassays. The presence of pollutants in the river water had been presumed based on our previous cytological data and an official report by the São Paulo State Environmental Agency (Brazil) on presence of fecal contaminants (Tremembé and Aparecida) and elevated dissolved aluminium (Aparecida) in the water under study. The sampling of ten bulbs and five roots per bulb was found adequate for comparative studies to evaluate with the A. cepa test the potential damage inflicted by pollutants in aquatic environments. Furthermore, even one bulb and one root per bulb was sufficient in discerning this damage, thereby shortening the time required to attain a statistically confident comparative evaluation. However, to allow for the use of statistical programs based on the evaluation of average values, and to avoid criticism based on genetic variability, we propose that three bulbs and three roots per bulb be considered as standard sample sizes for the A. cepa test.

  18. Physiological, anatomical, biochemical, and cytogenetic effects of thiamethoxam treatment on Allium cepa (amaryllidaceae) L.

    PubMed

    Çavuşoğlu, Kültiğin; Yalçin, Emine; Türkmen, Zafer; Yapar, Kürşad; Sağir, Saffet

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, toxic effects of active substance thiamethoxam of the insecticide Eforia were investigated on Allium cepa L. For this aim, we used the germination percentage, root length, weight gain, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, frequency of micronucleus (MN), chromosomal aberrations (CAs), and mitotic index (MI) as indicators of toxicity. Also, the changes in the root anatomy of A. cepa seeds treated with thiamethoxam were examined. The seeds in all the treatment groups were treated with three different doses (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) of thiamethoxam for 72 h. The results showed that there were significant alterations in the germination percentage, root length, weight gain, MDA level, MN, CAs, and MI frequency depending on application dose in the seeds exposed to thiamethoxam compared to control group. Thiamethoxam treatments significantly reduced the germination percentage, root length, and weight gain in all the treatment groups (P < 0.05). But, it caused an increase in MN and CAs formation (P < 0.05). It was also found that thiamethoxam has a mito-depressive action on mitosis, and the MI was decreased depending on the dose of applied-thiamethoxam (P < 0.05). About 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg doses of thiamethoxam significantly enhanced the lipid peroxidation and caused an increase in MDA levels at each dose treatment (P < 0.05). Some anatomical damages such as necrotic cell death, unclear vascular tissue, unclear epidermis layer, cell deformation, and unusual form of cell nucleus were observed by using light micrographs. Each dose of thiamethoxam caused severe toxic effects on A. cepa cells, and the maximum toxic effect was observed at the dose level of 500 mg/kg.

  19. Cytogenetic studies of chromium (III) oxide nanoparticles on Allium cepa root tip cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Rajeshwari, A; Jadon, Pradeep Singh; Chaudhuri, Gouri; Mukherjee, Anita; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2015-12-01

    The current study evaluates the cytogenetic effects of chromium (III) oxide nanoparticles on the root cells of Allium cepa. The root tip cells of A. cepa were treated with the aqueous dispersions of Cr2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) at five different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100μg/mL) for 4hr. The colloidal stability of the nanoparticle suspensions during the exposure period were ascertained by particle size analyses. After 4hr exposure to Cr2O3 NPs, a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) from 35.56% (Control) to 35.26% (0.01μg/mL), 34.64% (0.1μg/mL), 32.73% (1μg/mL), 29.6% (10μg/mL) and 20.92% (100μg/mL) was noted. The optical, fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopic analyses demonstrated specific chromosomal aberrations such as-chromosome stickiness, chromosome breaks, laggard chromosome, clumped chromosome, multipolar phases, nuclear notch, and nuclear bud at different exposure concentrations. The concentration-dependent internalization/bio-uptake of Cr2O3 NPs may have contributed to the enhanced production of anti oxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase to counteract the oxidative stress, which in turn resulted in observed chromosomal aberrations and cytogenetic effects. These results suggest that A. cepa root tip assay can be successfully applied for evaluating environmental risk of Cr2O3 NPs over a wide range of concentrations.

  20. Sunlight decreased genotoxicity of azadirachtin on root tip cells of Allium cepa and Eucrosia bicolor.

    PubMed

    Kwankua, W; Sengsai, S; Kuleung, C; Euawong, N

    2010-07-01

    Utilization of neem plant (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) extract for pest control in agriculture has raised concerns over contamination by the residues to the environment. Such residues, particularly azadirachtin (Aza), may cause deleterious effect to non-target organisms. This investigation was conducted to find out if Aza could be inactivated through exposures to sunlight. Activity of Aza was assessed as its ability to cause cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in the forms of nuclei abnormality and chromosome aberration as measured by mitotic index (MI) and mitotic aberration (MA). Varying concentrations of Aza were tested on Allium cepa and Eucrosia bicolor. It was found that the MI of all root tip meristematic cells of A. cepa and E. bicolor treated with 0.00005%, 0.00010%, 0.00015%, and 0.00020% (w/v) Aza-containing neem extract for 24h, were significantly lower than the controls. Complementary to the lower levels of MI, the Aza-treated groups showed higher MA levels in all cases investigated. Furthermore, the decreasing levels of MI and the increasing levels of MA related well with the increasing concentration of Aza. Microscopic examination of root tip meristematic cells revealed that the anomaly found most often were mitotic disturbances and chromosomal bridges. Exposures of 0.00020% (w/v) Aza to sunlight for 3 days and 7 days decreased Aza ability to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, both in terms of MI and MA, to root tip meristematic cells in A. cepa and E. bicolor. Photodegradation of Aza upon exposure to direct sunlight was confirmed by HPLC. The study implicates that Aza would unlikely cause long term deleterious effects to the environment since it would be inactivated by sunlight. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioremediation of municipal sludge by vermitechnology and toxicity assessment by Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Richa; Kumar, Dinesh; Gupta, S K

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate municipal sludge (MS) for its toxic potential by Allium cepa and also to understand the effect of vermicomposting on the reduction of toxicity, if any. Municipal sludge (MS) and vermicomposted sludge (VS) were evaluated. Elemental analysis of MS showed the presence of heavy metals. Morphological studies of A. cepa roots indicated coiled and wavy roots on exposure to MS but no root abnormality was reported in VS. Under genotoxic studies, inhibition in mitotic index was concentration dependent and the control values of 11.76 gradually reduced to 5.40 at 10% MS leachate whereas mitotic index was increased to 9.48 at 10% VS leachate. Exposure of leachate induced chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus formation and binucleate cells in a dose dependent manner. However, mitotic aberrations were observed significant at 10% MS leachate but they were insignificant at 10% VS leachate. The wet and dry weight of roots, root elongation and chlorophyll contents were reduced as the concentration of leachate increased but VS leachate did not produce considerable reduction. The wet and dry weight of A. cepa roots were 20.312 g and 3.250 g respectively and they were reduced to 10.82 g and 1.68 g respectively at 10% MS leachate but VS leachate showed an increase to 18.127 g and 2.53 g respectively. Total chlorophyll in control, 10% MS leachate and 10% VS leachate were 0.245 g, 0.162 g and 0.214 g respectively. It could be concluded that the MS was toxic to a remarkable extent but vermicomposting of sludge might be beneficial for bioremediation and recommended before land filling.

  2. Supplementation with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) expressing a single alien chromosome from shallot increases the antioxidant activity of Kamaboko fish jelly paste in vitro.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Wada, Ritsuko; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Maeda, Toshimichi; Date, Rie; Tokunaga, Takushi; Kazumura, Kimiko; Shimada, Kazuko; Matsumoto, Misato; Wako, Tadayuki; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2013-05-01

    Kamaboko is a traditional type of processed seafood made from fish jelly paste that is unique to Japan. We supplemented Kamaboko with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with an alien monosome from shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) and we measured in vitro the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value, an index of antioxidant activity. We also evaluated the results of sensory testing. The ORAC value of plain Kamaboko was 166±14 μmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g fresh weight (FW). The values of the edible Alliaceae powder, i.e., Japanese bunching onion (JBO, genome FF, 2n=2x=16) and the alien addition line of JBO carrying the 6A chromosome from shallot (FF+6A, 2n=2x+1=17), were 6,659±238 and 14,096±635 μmol TE/100 g dry weight (DW). We hypothesized that the 6A chromosome encoded the enhancement of polyphenol production. Subsequently, we created Kamaboko containing 4.8% JBO powder or 4.8% FF+6A powder. The ORAC value of each modified Kamaboko product was increased to 376±24 μmol TE/100 g FW for the JBO powder and to 460±16 μmol TE/100 g FW for the FF+6A powder, respectively. We next created Kamaboko containing 9.0% JBO powder or 9.0% FF+6A powder and the ORAC values of the respective modified Kamaboko products was increased to 671±16 and 740±21 μmol TE/100 g FW, i.e., 4.1- and 4.5-times the value of plain Kamaboko. Consequently, taking into consideration the sensory evaluation regarding taste and appearance as well, the use of Kamaboko supplemented with 4.8% FF+6A powder is recommended.

  3. Supplementation with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) expressing a single alien chromosome from shallot increases the antioxidant activity of Kamaboko fish jelly paste in vitro

    PubMed Central

    HARADA, KAZUKI; WADA, RITSUKO; YAGUCHI, SHIGENORI; MAEDA, TOSHIMICHI; DATE, RIE; TOKUNAGA, TAKUSHI; KAZUMURA, KIMIKO; SHIMADA, KAZUKO; MATSUMOTO, MISATO; WAKO, TADAYUKI; YAMAUCHI, NAOKI; SHIGYO, MASAYOSHI

    2013-01-01

    Kamaboko is a traditional type of processed seafood made from fish jelly paste that is unique to Japan. We supplemented Kamaboko with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with an alien monosome from shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) and we measured in vitro the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value, an index of antioxidant activity. We also evaluated the results of sensory testing. The ORAC value of plain Kamaboko was 166±14 μmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g fresh weight (FW). The values of the edible Alliaceae powder, i.e., Japanese bunching onion (JBO, genome FF, 2n=2x=16) and the alien addition line of JBO carrying the 6A chromosome from shallot (FF+6A, 2n=2x+1=17), were 6,659±238 and 14,096±635 μmol TE/100 g dry weight (DW). We hypothesized that the 6A chromosome encoded the enhancement of polyphenol production. Subsequently, we created Kamaboko containing 4.8% JBO powder or 4.8% FF+6A powder. The ORAC value of each modified Kamaboko product was increased to 376±24 μmol TE/100 g FW for the JBO powder and to 460±16 μmol TE/100 g FW for the FF+6A powder, respectively. We next created Kamaboko containing 9.0% JBO powder or 9.0% FF+6A powder and the ORAC values of the respective modified Kamaboko products was increased to 671±16 and 740±21 μmol TE/100 g FW, i.e., 4.1- and 4.5-times the value of plain Kamaboko. Consequently, taking into consideration the sensory evaluation regarding taste and appearance as well, the use of Kamaboko supplemented with 4.8% FF+6A powder is recommended. PMID:24648948

  4. Plant density and N fertilizer rate on yield and nutrient content of onion developed from greenhouse grown transplants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) can be established from seed or transplants. The latter planting material can be dormant or actively growing when transplanted to the field. Onion transplants can be produced in a greenhouse, but additional information is needed regarding the cultural requirements for these...

  5. Plant response of onion cultivars developed from greenhouse-grown transplants to plant density and fertilizer rate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) can be established from seed or transplants. The latter planting material can be dormant or actively growing when transplanted to the field. Onion transplants can be produced in a greenhouse, but there are gaps in the knowledge of the cultural requirements for these plants ...

  6. Onion dehydration: a review.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, S L; Rao, P S

    2012-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a very commonly used vegetable, ranks third in the world production of major vegetables. Apart from imparting a delicious taste and flavour due to its pungency in many culinary preparations, it serves several medicinal purposes also. Processing and preservation of onion by suitable means is a major thrust area since a long time. The various kinds of treatments followed for dehydration of onion such as convective air drying, solar drying, fluidized bed drying, vacuum microwave drying, infrared drying and osmotic drying are reviewed here. These techniques are mainly used for preservation and value addition of onion. Several researchers have tried for decades to model the drying kinetics and quality parameters, which are also compiled here briefly.

  7. Allium cepa chromosome aberration and micronucleus tests applied to study genotoxicity of extracts from pesticide-treated vegetables and grapes.

    PubMed

    Feretti, D; Zerbini, I; Zani, C; Ceretti, E; Moretti, M; Monarca, S

    2007-06-01

    The Allium cepa assay is an efficient test for chemical screening and in situ monitoring for genotoxicity of environmental contaminants. The test has been used widely to study genotoxicity of many pesticides revealing that these compounds can induce chromosomal aberrations in root meristems of A. cepa. Pesticide residues can be present in fruit and vegetables and represent a risk for human health. The mutagenic and carcinogenic action of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides on experimental animals is well known. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to low levels of pesticides can cause birth defects and that prenatal exposure is associated with carcinogenicity. This study evaluated the potential application of plant genotoxicity tests for monitoring mutagens in edible vegetables. The presence of pesticides and genotoxic compounds extracted from 21 treated vegetables and eight types of grapes sampled from several markets in Campania, a region in Southern Italy, was monitored concurrently. The extracts were analysed for pesticides by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and for genotoxicity using two plant tests: the micronucleus test and the chromosomal aberration test in A. cepa roots. Thirty-three pesticides were detected, some of which are not approved. Genotoxicity was found in some of the vegetables and grapes tested. Allium cepa tests proved to be sensitive in monitoring genotoxicity in food extracts. The micronucleus test in interphase cells gave a much higher mutagenicity than the chromosomal aberration test in anaphase-telophase cells.

  8. Genotoxicity Assessment of Water Samples from the Sungai Dua River in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, Using the Allium cepa Test.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, Akeem; Mohammed, Kamaruzaman; Rathnasamy, Selestin; Muniandy, Vijay Raj

    2011-12-01

    Unwanted side effects from a polluted water body may not be limited to the flora and fauna, they may also be transferred to the organisms along the food chain. Four water samples collected immediately and five days after rainfall from two locations inside the polluted Sungai Dua River (SGD) were tested for toxicity using the Allium cepa assay. The samples were analysed for metal content and were both macroscopically and microscopically evaluated. The water samples contained more sodium (Na(+)) and calcium (Ca(2+)) than the control tap water, and they showed root growth and mitotic inhibitions (MI) in A. cepa. However, the inhibitory effects were not dose-dependent. No chromosomal aberration (CA) was induced at 100.00% (undiluted water sample). These results suggest the water samples from SGD had weak mitodepressive and genotoxic effects on the A. cepa cells.

  9. Genotoxicity Assessment of Water Samples from the Sungai Dua River in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, Using the Allium cepa Test

    PubMed Central

    Akinboro, Akeem; Mohammed, Kamaruzaman; Rathnasamy, Selestin; Muniandy, Vijay Raj

    2011-01-01

    Unwanted side effects from a polluted water body may not be limited to the flora and fauna, they may also be transferred to the organisms along the food chain. Four water samples collected immediately and five days after rainfall from two locations inside the polluted Sungai Dua River (SGD) were tested for toxicity using the Allium cepa assay. The samples were analysed for metal content and were both macroscopically and microscopically evaluated. The water samples contained more sodium (Na+) and calcium (Ca2+) than the control tap water, and they showed root growth and mitotic inhibitions (MI) in A. cepa. However, the inhibitory effects were not dose-dependent. No chromosomal aberration (CA) was induced at 100.00% (undiluted water sample). These results suggest the water samples from SGD had weak mitodepressive and genotoxic effects on the A. cepa cells. PMID:24575215

  10. Anti-influenza A virus effects of fructan from Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Bum; Miyake, Sachi; Umetsu, Ryo; Hayashi, Kyoko; Chijimatsu, Takeshi; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2012-10-15

    A fructan that acts as an anti-influenza A virus substance was isolated from hot water extract of the green leafy part of a Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.). The structure of the fructan was characterised and elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic analyses. The fructan was composed of terminal (21.0%) and 2,1-linked β-D-Fruf residues (65.3%) with 1,6-linked β-D-Glcp residues (13.7%). The molecular weight of the polysaccharide and polydispersity was estimated to be 1.5×10(3) and 1.18, respectively. Although the fructan did not show anti-influenza A virus activity in vitro, it demonstrated an inhibitory effect on virus replication in vivo when it was orally administered to mice. In addition, the polysaccharide enhanced the production of neutralising antibodies against influenza A virus. Therefore, the antiviral mechanism of the polysaccharide seemed to be dependent on the host immune system, i.e., enhancement of the host immune function was achieved by the administration of the polysaccharide. From our observations, the fructan from Welsh onions is suggested to be one of the active principles which exert an anti-influenza virus effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-mutagenic potential of algal extracts on chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Hoda Anwer; Mahfouz, Hala; Maher, Nesma

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, sodium azide (SA) toxicity and the anti-mutagenic effects of different algal extracts at 0.1% and 0.2% concentrations were studied on the mitotic index (MI), chromosomal and nuclear aberrations using Allium cepa L. root assay. Moreover, phytochemical screening of photosynthetic pigments, antioxidants compounds, total antioxidant, DPPH scavenging activity, polysaccharides, and phenolic contents were done for two red seaweeds (Laurencia obtusa (Hudson) Lamouroux and Polysiphonia morrowii Harvey) and for one brown seaweed (Dictyopteris delicatula Lamouroux). Treatment with 300 μg/ml sodium azide (SA) induced the highest number of aberrations in A. cepa root. A highly significant decrease in the MI appeared after treatment with SA, whereas its value increased following different algal extracts treatments. The highest anti-mutagenic inhibition activity of Dictyopteris delicatula added at 0.2% concentration was 72.96%, 69.84%, 56.89% and 43.59% with the algal polyphenol, polysaccharide, aqueous and methanol extract treatments, respectively. The different algal extracts minimized the genotoxicity and exhibited anti-mutagenic potential against SA in a dose-dependent manner. Phytochemical studies showed that Dictyopteris delicatula contained the highest total phenol, chlorophyll-a and carotenoid quantity. Moreover it exhibited the highest total antioxidant and DPPH scavenging activities. Total polysaccharides and the weight percentage of sulphated polysaccharides were relatively higher in Polysiphonia morrowii followed by Laurencia obtusa. Hydroquinone and bromophenol were detected only in the studied brown and red seaweeds, respectively. Polysiphonia morrowii and Laurencia obtusa contained the highest quantity of galactose, rhmnose and xylose, while Dictyopteris delicatula contained fucose and mannitol as main monosaccharide units. In conclusion, the studied seaweeds may be considered as rich sources of natural antioxidants. Meanwhile the

  12. Genetic Analyses of Soluble Carbohydrate Concentrations in Onion Bulbs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fructans are the primary soluble carbohydrate in onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs and show significant correlations with dry weights and pungency. In this research, we estimated the genetic effects and interactions between two chromosome regions associated with higher amounts of soluble carbohydrates i...

  13. Translational Genomics of Onion: Challenges of an Enormous Nuclear Genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of high throughput DNA sequencing to address important production constraints has been termed “translational genomics”. Classical breeding of onion (Allium cepa) is expensive and slow due to a long generation time and the high costs of crossing with insects. Translational genomics should r...

  14. New report of Lolium multiflorum and Rumex crispus as weed hosts of epiphytic populations of Psuedomonas sp., causal agent of yellow bud in onion in Geogia, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yellow bud, an emerging bacterial disease of onion (Allium cepa L.), has been spreading throughout the Vidalia onion-growing region in Georgia since 2007. Symptoms of yellow bud include intense chlorosis in emerging leaves and severe blight in the older leaves leading to stand loss and reduced bulb ...

  15. Pilot Sequencing of Onion Genomic DNA Reveals Fragments of Transposable Elements, Low Gene Densities, and Significant Gene Enrichment After Methyl Filtration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Onion (Allium cepa) is a diploid (2n=2x=16) monocot with one of the largest nuclear genomes among cultivated plants, over 6 and 16 times that of maize and rice, respectively. In this study, we sequenced onion BACs to estimate gene densities and investigate the nature and distribution of repetitive ...

  16. Biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles and its effect on actively dividing cells of mitosis in Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Nagaonkar, Dipali; Shende, Sudhir; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Nanobiotechnological application of copper nanoparticles has paved the way for advancement in agriculture owing to its bactericidal and fungicidal activities. Recently, researchers have focussed on bioinspired synthesis of copper nanoparticles as a viable alternative to existing physicochemical techniques. For the commercialization of nanocopper, the toxicity evaluation is a major issue. In this context, Citrus medica (L.) fruit extract-mediated copper nanoparticles were synthesized and its different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 µg mL(-1) ) were evaluated for its effect on actively dividing cells of Allium cepa. The study clearly revealed that copper nanoparticles increased mitotic index up to the concentration of 20 µg mL(-1) . In addition, a gradual decline in mitotic index and increase in abnormality index was observed as the concentration of copper nanoparticles and treatment duration were increased. Aberrations in chromosomal behavior such as sticky and disturbed chromosomes in metaphase and anaphase, c-metaphase, bridges, laggard, disturbed telophase, and vacuolated nucleus were also observed.

  17. Toxicity of silver ions and differently coated silver nanoparticles in Allium cepa roots.

    PubMed

    Cvjetko, Petra; Milošić, Anita; Domijan, Ana-Marija; Vinković Vrček, Ivana; Tolić, Sonja; Peharec Štefanić, Petra; Letofsky-Papst, Ilse; Tkalec, Mirta; Balen, Biljana

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the dominating nanomaterial in consumer products due to their well-known antibacterial and antifungal properties. To enhance their properties, different surface coatings may be used, which affect physico-chemical properties of AgNPs. Due to their wide application, there has been concern about possible environmental and health consequences. Since plants play a significant role in accumulation and biodistribution of many environmentally released substances, they are also very likely to be influenced by AgNPs. In this study we investigated the toxicity of AgNO3 and three types of laboratory-synthesized AgNPs with different surface coatings [citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)] on Allium cepa roots. Ionic form of Ag was confirmed to be more toxic than any of the AgNPs applied. All tested AgNPs caused oxidative stress and exhibited toxicity only when applied in higher concentrations. The highest toxicity was recorded for AgNPs-CTAB, which resulted with increased Ag uptake in the roots, consequently leading to strong reduction of the root growth and oxidative damage. The weakest impact was found for AgNPs-citrate, much bigger, negatively charged NPs, which also aggregated to larger particles. Therefore, we can conclude that the toxicity of AgNPs is directly correlated with their size, overall surface charge and/or surface coating.

  18. Salt-induced abnormalities on root tip mitotic cells of Allium cepa: prevention by inositol pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Jolly; Majumder, Arun Lahiri

    2010-09-01

    Salt-induced growth reduction of plants is a well-known phenomenon which poses major problem in crop productivity in places where vast majority of land plants are affected by salt. In this report, studies were carried out to reveal the effect of salt injury on the cell division pattern in roots and the role of myo-inositol in preventing the salt-induced ion disequilibrium on the chromosome and DNA degradation in roots. Present study revealed induction of various chromosomal abnormalities on the root tip mitotic cells of Allium cepa by treatment with different concentrations of NaCl (0-500 mM) for 24 h as also the amelioration of such effect by prior treatment of the roots with different concentration of myo-inositol (0-300 mM). Results showed that a narrow albeit definite range of extracellular myo-inositol (100-150 mM) is effective in preventing internucleosomal fragmentation which is the early response in roots under salt stress. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing Oryza (OsINO1) as well as Porteresia (PcINO1) cytosolic L: -myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase coding genes can withstand and retain their chromosomal and DNA integrity in 100 mM NaCl solution and can subsequently prevent DNA fragmentation, caused by intracellular endonuclease activity at this salt concentration.

  19. Toxicological evaluation of commercial mineral water bottled in polyethylene terephthalate: a cytogenetic approach with Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Evandri, M G; Tucci, P; Bolle, P

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the possible toxicological effects of chemicals released into mineral water packaged in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Two commercial mineral waters, bottled both in PET and glass and stored under different conditions, were examined using the Allium cepa test. The influence of the water samples on macroscopic (root length, colour and form) and microscopic (root tip mitotic index, chromosome aberrations) parameters was examined. The water samples were analysed after: (A) controlled-condition storage (no direct light exposure and 18 +/- 2 degrees C), (B) storage at 40 degrees C for 10 days, in the dark (migration test in accordance with 82/711/EEC), and (C) exposure to sunlight and varying temperatures (18-38 degrees C, mean temperature 25 +/- 3 degrees C). The two water samples bottled in PET induced cytogenetic aberrations regardless of the storage conditions. These signs of toxicity were evident even only 8 weeks after bottling, which is well within the recommended expiry date. Storage conditions were very important, as is suggested by the finding that chromosomal aberrations were particularly apparent after exposure to direct sunlight. However, as plant systems are not considered as primary screening tools by current international guidelines for mammalian systems, extrapolation of the results from this test system to other systems and, eventually, to human beings should be based on results from a battery of assays covering various metabolic pathways.

  20. Cytogenetic damage in shallot ( Allium cepa) root meristems induced by oil industry "high-density brines".

    PubMed

    Vidaković-Cifrek, Z; Pavlica, M; Regula, I; Papes, D

    2002-10-01

    Saturated water solutions of calcium chloride, calcium bromide (densities 1.30 kg x dm(-3) and 1.61 kg x dm(-3), respectively) and their 1:1 mixture have been commonly used as oil industry "high-density brines." In our experiment they were added to tap water in amounts appropriate to achieve concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1 mol x dm(-3) to study their cytotoxic effect on the root tip cells of shallot ( Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum). All tested solutions in concentrations of 0.075 and 0.1 mol x dm(-3) caused significant inhibition of shallot root growth. CaBr (2) showed this effect in concentration 0.05 mol x dm(-3). The investigated solutions in all concentrations applied decreased mitotic activity in root tip cells. The most of mitotic abnormalities were the consequence of spindle failure and chromosome stickiness. Furthermore, the cell microtubules were investigated by indirect immunofluorescence to confirm that most abnormalities observed were the consequence of spindle failure. The present study, as well as previously done Lemna tests and Chlorella tests showed that investigated samples have certain effects on plants, so constant control of their presence in the environment is needed.

  1. Lamin-like analogues in plants: the characterization of NMCP1 in Allium cepa

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Díaz de la Espina, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The nucleoskeleton of plants contains a peripheral lamina (also called plamina) and, even though lamins are absent in plants, their roles are still fulfilled in plant nuclei. One of the most intriguing topics in plant biology concerns the identity of lamin protein analogues in plants. Good candidates to play lamin functions in plants are the members of the NMCP (nuclear matrix constituent protein) family, which exhibit the typical tripartite structure of lamins. This paper describes a bioinformatics analysis and classification of the NMCP family based on phylogenetic relationships, sequence similarity and the distribution of conserved regions in 76 homologues. In addition, NMCP1 in the monocot Allium cepa characterized by its sequence and structure, biochemical properties, and subnuclear distribution and alterations in its expression throughout the root were identified. The results demonstrate that these proteins exhibit many similarities to lamins (structural organization, conserved regions, subnuclear distribution, and solubility) and that they may fulfil the functions of lamins in plants. These findings significantly advance understanding of the structural proteins of the plant lamina and nucleoskeleton and provide a basis for further investigation of the protein networks forming these structures. PMID:23378381

  2. Changes in intracellular and apoplastic peroxidase activity, ascorbate redox status, and root elongation induced by enhanced ascorbate content in Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Pedregosa, María del Carmen; Villalba, José Manuel; Córdoba, Francisco; González-Reyes, José Antonio

    2005-02-01

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) treated with external ascorbic acid or with the immediate precursor of its synthesis L-galactono-gamma-lactone show a stimulated elongation rate of the roots and an increase in the number of new radicles appearing at the bulb base. Treatment with both molecules resulted in an enhanced accumulation of ascorbate and dehydroascorbate along the root axis, but the distribution of these redox forms was not uniform along the root, as detected in intracellular (symplastic) and extracellular (apoplastic) compartments. Thus, those radicular zones metabolically more active, such as the meristem and the elongation zone, accumulated the highest amount of both redox forms of ascorbate. On the other hand, ascorbate and L-galactono-gamma-lactone also stimulated cytosolic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and inhibited peroxidase activity as deduced from in vivo and in vitro experiments. Differences were also found when comparing apoplastic and symplastic activities. These results are compatible with the idea of an ascorbate-mediated stimulation of root growth by inhibiting cell wall stiffening and increasing root metabolism.

  3. Effects of Mg{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, and Hg{sup 2+} on the nucleus and nucleolus in root tip cells of allium cepa

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D.; Jiang, W.; Wang, W.; Zhai, L.

    1995-11-01

    Metal toxicity in plants has been known for a long time. Much importance has increasingly been attached to the problems of metal pollution with the development of modern industry and agriculture. If metals in plants are accumulated to a large extent, it might seriously affect them. The cytological effects of cobalt and mercury have been studied in Allium cepa by documentation of c-mitosis. Also, the quantification of chromosome aberration in Vicia faba root-tip cells treated by magnesium sulphate and in Allium cepa by metyl mercury chloride and mercuric chloride has been reported. Cytological research on the poisoning effects of Mg, Co and Hg on the nuclei and nucleoli in root-tip cells of plants has hardly been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different concentrations of magnesium, cobalt and mercury ions on root growth, and on the nuclei and nucleoli of root tip cells of Allium-cepa. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  4. OEM--a new medium for rapid isolation of onion-pathogenic and onion-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zaid, Ali M; Bonasera, Jean M; Beer, Steven V

    2012-12-01

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are plagued by a number of bacterial pathogens including Pantoea ananatis, P. agglomerans, Burkholderia cepacia, Enterobacter cloacae, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. axonopodis and several Pseudomonas spp. We developed a semi-selective medium, termed onion extract medium (OEM), to selectively and rapidly isolate bacteria pathogenic to and associated with onions and onion-related samples including bulbs, seeds, sets, transplant seedlings, soil and water. Most strains of interest grow sufficiently on OEM in 24h at 28°C for tentative identification based on colony morphology, facilitating further characterization by microbiological and/or molecular means.

  5. Onion: nature protection against physiological threats.

    PubMed

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Saeed, Farhan; Khalid, Nauman

    2015-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is found in various regions of Europe, North America, Asia, and Africa. It is one of the classic examples of Allium species used not only for culinary preparations but also for medicinal purposes. Onion with a variety of purposes is often used as a raw material in many dishes and accepts almost all of the traditions and culture. Owing to its storage characteristics and durability of shipping, onions have been traded more widely than most vegetables. The pungent fractions of garlic are mostly sulfur-containing moieties while its two chemical groups have marked effect on human health. These are flavonoids and ALK (EN)-based cysteine sulfoxides (ACSOs). Compounds in onions have been reported with a range of health benefits, including anticancer properties, antiplatelet activity, antithrombotic activity, antiasthmatic activity, and antibiotic effects.

  6. Discovery of a new source of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, cause of Fusarium wilt in Allium fistulosum, located on chromosome 2 of Allium cepa Aggregatum group.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hoa Q; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal effect of Allium cepa Aggregatum group (shallot) metabolites on Fusarium oxysporum and to determine the shallot chromosome(s) related to Fusarium wilt resistance using a complete set of eight Allium fistulosum - shallot monosomic addition lines. The antifungal effects of hexane, butanol, and water extraction fractions from bulbs of shallot on 35 isolates of F. oxysporum were examined using the disc diffusion method. Only hexane and butanol fractions showed high antifungal activity. Shallot showed no symptom of disease after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae. The phenolic content of the roots and the saponin content of root exudates of inoculated shallot increased to much higher levels than those of the control at 3 days after inoculation. Application of freeze-dried shallot root exudates to seeds of A. fistulosum soaked in a spore suspension of F. oxysporum resulted in protection of seedlings against infection. Among eight monosomic addition lines and A. fistulosum, FF+2A showed the highest resistance to Fusarium wilt. This monosomic addition line also showed a specific saponin band derived from shallot on the thin layer chromatography profile of saponins in the eight monosomic addition lines. The chromosome 2A of shallot might possess some of the genes related to Fusarium wilt resistance.

  7. De novo assembly and characterization of the Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) transcriptome using Illumina technology.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiu-Dong; Yu, Xin-Hui; Zhou, Shu-Mei; Liu, Shi-Qi

    2016-04-01

    Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) has long been cultivated as a vegetable and spice for its flavor and aroma. However, transcriptomic and genomic data for A. fistulosum remain scarce. The goal of this study was to generate transcript sequences for functional genomic analyses, and identify genes potentially involved in sulfur, selenium, and vitamin metabolism. In total, 53,378,674 high-quality reads were generated, and de novo assembly resulted in 103,286 contigs and 53,837 unigenes. The average unigene length was 619 bp with an N50 of 832 bp. Similarity searches revealed that 36,155 sequences were similar to those of known proteins in public databases. Of these, 35,250 unigenes sequences were significantly similar to sequences in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 22,804 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Additionally, 13,125 and 26,660 unigenes were annotated in the Cluster of Orthologous Group and Gene Ontology databases, respectively. A total of 20,680 unigenes were classified into 128 pathways via functional annotation against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. Key enzymes involved in sulfur and selenium metabolism were also identified. Additionally, our transcriptome revealed a number of unigenes encoding important enzymes involved in vitamin metabolism. We also identified 2014 simple sequence repeats in 1892 unigenes. This transcriptome analysis provides valuable information to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the biosynthesis of organic sulfur compounds. The detected simple sequence repeats may facilitate marker-assisted selection in Welsh onion breeding experiments.

  8. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Felicidade, I; Lima, J D; Pesarini, J R; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Ribeiro, L R; Oliveira, R J

    2014-11-28

    Polyphenolic compounds present in rosemary were found to have antioxidant properties, anticarcinogenic activity, and to increase the detoxification of pro-carcinogens. The aim of the study was to determine the effect the aqueous extract of rosemary (AER) on mutagenicity induced by methylmethane sulfonate in meristematic cells of Allium cepa, as well as to describe its mode of action. Anti-mutagenicity experiments were carried out with 3 different concentrations of AER, which alone showed no mutagenic effects. In antimutagenicity experiments, AER showed chemopreventive activity in cultured meristematic cells of A. cepa against exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. Additionally, post-treatment and simultaneous treatment using pre-incubation protocols were the most effective. Evaluation of different protocols and the percent reduction in DNA indicated bioantimutagenic as well desmutagenic modes of action for AER. AER may be chemopreventive and antimutagenic.

  9. Melanin biosynthesis inhibitory and antioxidant activities of quercetin-3'-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated from Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Furuta, Shoko; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2011-01-01

    In the course of searching for new whitening agents, we have found that the methanol extract of dried skin of Allium cepa shows potent melanin biosynthesis inhibitory activity in B16 melanoma cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of quercetin-3'-O-beta-D-glucoside (1) from the methanol extract of dried skin of A. cepa, which inhibited melanin formation in B16 melanoma cells with an IC50 value of 38.8 microM and mushroom tyrosinase with an IC50 value of 6.5 microM using L-tyrosine and 48.5 microM using L-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrates, respectively. In addition, the antioxidant activity of 1 was evaluated in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay; it showed 3.04 micromol Trolox equivalents/mmol. 1 was shown to be a promising ingredient that could be useful for treating hyperpigmentation and for protecting against oxidative stress.

  10. Frequencies of plasmodesmata in Allium cepa L. roots: implications for solute transport pathways.

    PubMed

    Ma, F; Peterson, C A

    2001-05-01

    Plasmodesmatal frequencies (PFs) were analysed in Allium cepa L. roots with a mature exodermis (100 mm from the tip). For all interfaces within the root, the numbers of plasmodesmata (PD) microm(-2) wall surface (Fw) were calculated from measurements of 60 walls on ultrathin sections. For tissues ranging from the epidermis up to the stelar parenchyma, the frequencies were also expressed as total PD numbers mm(-1) root length (Fn), which is most instructive for considering the radial transport of ions and photosynthates (because the tissues were arranged in concentric cylinders). The Fn values were constantly high at the interfaces of exodermis-central cortex, central cortex-endodermis and endodermis-pericycle (4.05x10(5), 5.13x10(5), and 5.64x10(5), respectively). If the plasmodesmata are functional, a considerable symplastic transport pathway exists between the exodermis and pericycle. Two interfaces had especially low PFs: epidermis-exodermis (Fn=8.96x10(4)) and pericycle-stelar parenchyma (Fn=6.44x10(4)). This suggests that there is significant membrane transport across the interface of epidermis-exodermis (through short cells) and direct transfer of ions from pericycle to protoxylem vessels. In the phloem, the highest PF was detected at the metaphloem sieve element-companion cell interface (Fw=0.42), and all other interfaces had much lower PFs (around 0.10). In the pericycle, the radial walls had a high PF (Fw=0.75), a feature that could permit lateral circulation of solutes, thus facilitating ion (inward) and photosynthate (outward) delivery.

  11. Efficacy of molecular markers jnurf13 and AcPms1 for prediction of genotypes at the nuclear Ms locus in North American open-pollinated populations of onion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed of hybrid onion (Allium cepa L.) is produced using cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and the for most widely used source of onion CMS, male sterility is conditioned by the interaction of male-sterile (S) cytoplasm and the homozygous recessive genotype at the nuclear male-fertility locus Ms. Due ...

  12. Overwintering locations and hosts for onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in the onion cropping ecosystem in New York.

    PubMed

    Larentzaki, E; Shelton, A M; Musser, F R; Nault, B A; Plate, J

    2007-08-01

    Identifying locations where onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), overwinter and subsequently disperse is important for designing control strategies. In upstate New York from 2003 through 2006, potential overwintering sites in the commercial onion, Allium cepa L., cropping system were investigated early in the spring before onion seedling emergence and again late in the season after onions were harvested. Onion thrips adults were sampled directly from the soil and indirectly from the soil by using emergence cages. Sampling locations included onion field interiors and edges and areas outside of these fields, including woods. Host material sampled included onion culls; volunteer onions, which sprout from cull onions left behind after harvest; and weeds. Onion thrips adults were found in all sections of onion fields and in locations outside of onion fields, with the fewest emerging from woods. Emergence began in early May and extended into June. Peak emergence occurred during the last half of May, at which time 50-75% of the population had emerged. Adults colonized volunteer onions as early as late March and as late as mid-November. No adults were found overwintering in onion cull piles. Adults also colonized several weed species, especially pigweed, Amaranthus hybridis L., and lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L., late in the fall. Our results indicate that onion thrips adults overwinter in the soil within and near onion fields and that they probably colonize volunteer onion plants before subsequent generations infest the onion crop in the spring. Volunteer onions and weeds also provide onion thrips with a host after onions are harvested. Consequently, onion thrips management strategies should include tactics that reduce volunteer onion and weed abundance.

  13. Delaying onion planting to control onion maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae): efficacy and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nault, Brian A; Werling, Benjamin P; Straub, Richard W; Nyrop, Jan P

    2011-10-01

    Onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), is an important pest of onion, Allium cepa L., in northern temperate areas, especially in the Great Lakes region of North America Management of D. antiqua relies on insecticide use at planting, but insecticide resistance can cause control failures that threaten the long-term viability of this strategy. Delaying the time onions are planted was investigated as an alternative management approach for D. antiqua and the ecological and behavioral mechanisms underlying host age and insect relationships were examined in laboratory and field experiments. Delaying onion planting by two to four weeks reduced damage to onions by 35 and 90%, respectively. Onions planted later emerged later and this reduced the period overwintered flies had to oviposit on the plants. Moreover, flies tended to lay few to no eggs on these young, late-planted onions. As anticipated, D. antiqua laid 4-8 times more eggs on older onions than on young onions, and older onions were more resilient to injury caused by D. antiqua neonates compared with younger onions. However, the resiliency to maggot attack lessened as the density of D. antiqua increased from 2 to 10 eggs per plant, which probably explains why greater levels of maggot damage are typically observed in early onion plantings compared with later plantings. Delaying onion planting until mid-May reduced D. antiqua damage without jeopardizing the period required to produce marketable yield, but this cultural tactic must be combined with other management strategies to prevent economic loss.

  14. Potential therapeutic effect of Allium cepa L. and quercetin in a murine model of Blomia tropicalis induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tatiane Teixeira; Campos, Keina Maciele; Cerqueira-Lima, Ana Tereza; Cana Brasil Carneiro, Tamires; da Silva Velozo, Eudes; Ribeiro Melo, Ingrid Christie Alexandrino; Figueiredo, Eugênia Abrantes; de Jesus Oliveira, Eduardo; de Vasconcelos, Darizy Flávia Silva Amorim; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain Carlos; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza Maria; Figueiredo, Camila Alexandrina

    2015-02-21

    Asthma is an inflammatory condition characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and chronic inflammation. The resolution of inflammation is an essential process to treat this condition. In this study we investigated the effect of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE) and quercetin (Qt) on cytokine and on smooth muscle contraction in vitro and its therapeutic potential in a murine model of asthma. AcE was obtained by maceration of Allium cepa L. and it was standardized in terms of quercetin concentration using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro, using AcE 10, 100 or 1000 μg/ml or Qt 3.5, 7.5, 15 μg/ml, we measured the concentration of cytokines in spleen cell culture supernatants, and the ability to relax tracheal smooth muscle from A/J mice. In vivo, Blomia tropicalis (BT)-sensitized A/J mice were treated with AcE 100, 1000 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg Qt. We measured cell influx in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) in lungs, serum levels of Bt-specific IgE, cytokines levels in BAL, and lung histology. We observed a reduction in the production of inflammatory cytokines, a relaxation of tracheal rings, and a reduction in total number of cells in BAL and EPO in lungs by treatment with AcE or Qt. AcE and Qt have potential as antiasthmatic drugs, as they possess both immunomodulatory and bronchodilatory properties.

  15. Water quality of urban streams: the Allium cepa seeds/seedlings test as a tool for surface water monitoring.

    PubMed

    Athanásio, Camila Gonçalves; Prá, Daniel; Rieger, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the genotoxic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of surface waters in urban streams using Allium cepa and analyzes the applicability of this assay for environmental monitoring. Water samples were collected from three streams located in the urban area of a municipality in the south of Brazil. For each stream, two samples were collected, one upstream and one downstream of the pollution discharge site. Physicochemical evaluation indicated that all samples had various degrees of environmental impact, but substantial impact was seen for the downstream samples of the Preto and Pedras streams. All samples increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations (P < 0.05). The sample from Pedras downstream site also caused a decrease in mitotic index (P < 0.08) and increase in micronuclei (P < 0.08) frequency, indicating potential cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. The Pedras stream receives mixed industrial and urban wastewater, while the Lajeado and Preto streams receive wastewater predominantly domestic in nature, which may partially explain the difference in toxicity among the samples. Moreover, the Allium cepa seeds/seedlings were shown to be extremely sensitive in detecting the genotoxicity of environmental water samples and can be applied as the first tool for environmental health hazard identification and prediction.

  16. Water Quality of Urban Streams: The Allium cepa Seeds/Seedlings Test as a Tool for Surface Water Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Athanásio, Camila Gonçalves; Prá, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the genotoxic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of surface waters in urban streams using Allium cepa and analyzes the applicability of this assay for environmental monitoring. Water samples were collected from three streams located in the urban area of a municipality in the south of Brazil. For each stream, two samples were collected, one upstream and one downstream of the pollution discharge site. Physicochemical evaluation indicated that all samples had various degrees of environmental impact, but substantial impact was seen for the downstream samples of the Preto and Pedras streams. All samples increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations (P < 0.05). The sample from Pedras downstream site also caused a decrease in mitotic index (P < 0.08) and increase in micronuclei (P < 0.08) frequency, indicating potential cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. The Pedras stream receives mixed industrial and urban wastewater, while the Lajeado and Preto streams receive wastewater predominantly domestic in nature, which may partially explain the difference in toxicity among the samples. Moreover, the Allium cepa seeds/seedlings were shown to be extremely sensitive in detecting the genotoxicity of environmental water samples and can be applied as the first tool for environmental health hazard identification and prediction. PMID:25574484

  17. Quantification of Quercetin Obtained from Allium cepa Lam. Leaves and its Effects on Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dureshahwar, Khan; Mubashir, Mohammed; Une, Hemant Devidas

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Antioxidant potential has protective effects in diabetic neuropathy (DN); hence, the present study was designed with an objective to quantify quercetin from shade-dried leaves of Allium cepa Lam. and to study its effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced chronic DN. Materials and Methods: The shade-dried leaves of A. cepa Lam. were extracted with methanol and then fractionated using ethyl acetate (ACEA). The quantification of quercetin in ACEA was evaluated by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The STZ (40 mg/kg) was administered to Sprague-Dawley rats (180–250 g) maintained at normal housing conditions. The STZ was administered once a day for 3 consecutive days. The elevation in blood glucose was monitored for 3 weeks periodically using flavin adenine dinucleotide-glucose dehydrogenase method by Contour TS glucometer. Rats showing blood glucose above 250 mg/dl were selected for the study. Animals were divided into eight groups. ACEA (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), quercetin (40 mg/kg), metformin (120 mg/kg), and gabapentin (100 mg/kg) were given orally once a day for 2 weeks. The blood glucose level was again measured at the end of treatment to assess DN. Thermal hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, motor incoordination, and neurotoxicity were studied initially and at the end of 2-week treatment. Biochemical parameters were also evaluated after 2-week drug treatment. Results: The quercetin present in ACEA was 4.82% by HPTLC. All the ACEA treatment reduces blood glucose level at the end of the 2-week study and shows a significant neuroprotective effect in STZ-induced DN in the above experimental models. Conclusion: The quercetin present in ACEA proved protective effect in STZ-induced DN. SUMMARY High-performance thin layer chromatography reveals the presence of 4.82% quercetin in Allium cepa ethyl acetate. (ACEA). Its investigation against various diabetic neuropathy biomarkers has proved that ACEA has significant blood glucose reducing action shown

  18. Waterlogging tolerance of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) enhanced by exogenous spermidine and spermine.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Jinn-Chin; Liu, Cheng-Wei; Fang, Denise Yi-Tan; Lai, Yu-Shen

    2009-08-01

    Soil flooding is a seasonal factor that negatively affects plant performance and crop yields. In order to investigate the effects of spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) on the waterlogging stress, it was checked that the content of relative water content (RWC), proline, chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA), net photosynthesis, the rate of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and superoxide radicals (O(2)(-)) generation and the antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT) (EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (GR) (EC 1.6.4.2) in Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L) plants. Pretreatment with 2 mM of Spd and Spm effectively maintained the balance of water content in plant leaves and roots under flooding stress. In addition, the data indicate that the protective role of proline should be considered minimal, as its accumulation was found to be inversely correlated with tolerance to stress; it also significantly retarded the loss of chlorophyll, enhanced photosynthesis, decreased the rate of O(2)(-) generation and H(2)O(2) content, and prevented flooding-induced lipid peroxidation. Spd and Spm helped to maintain antioxidant enzyme activities under flooding; however, APX activity was found to increase slightly in response to Spm. The antioxidant system, an important component of the water-stress-protective mechanism, can be changed by PAs, which are able to moderate the radical scavenging system and to lessen in this way the oxidative stress. The results suggest that pretreatment with Spd and Spm prevents oxidative damage, and the protective effect of Spd was found to be greater than that of Spm.

  19. Phytochemical Profiles and Antimicrobial Activities of Allium cepa Red cv. and A. sativum Subjected to Different Drying Methods: A Comparative MS-Based Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed A; Ali, Sara E; Hodaya, Rashad H; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Sultani, Haider N; Laub, Annegret; Eissa, Tarek F; Abou-Zaid, Fouad O F; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2017-05-08

    Plants of the Allium genus produce sulphur compounds that give them a characteristic (alliaceous) flavour and mediate for their medicinal use. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of Allium cepa red cv. and A. sativum in the context of three different drying processes were assessed using metabolomics. Bulbs were dried using either microwave, air drying, or freeze drying and further subjected to chemical analysis of their composition of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. Volatiles were collected using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with 42 identified volatiles including 30 sulphur compounds, four nitriles, three aromatics, and three esters. Profiling of the polar non-volatile metabolites via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution MS (UPLC/MS) annotated 51 metabolites including dipeptides, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and fatty acids. Major peaks in GC/MS or UPLC/MS contributing to the discrimination between A. sativum and A. cepa red cv. were assigned to sulphur compounds and flavonoids. Whereas sulphur conjugates amounted to the major forms in A. sativum, flavonoids predominated in the chemical composition of A. cepa red cv. With regard to drying impact on Allium metabolites, notable and clear separations among specimens were revealed using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA scores plot of the UPLC/MS dataset showed closer metabolite composition of microwave dried specimens to freeze dried ones, and distant from air dried bulbs, observed in both A. cepa and A. sativum. Compared to GC/MS, the UPLC/MS derived PCA model was more consistent and better in assessing the impact of drying on Allium metabolism. A phthalate derivative was found exclusively in a commercial garlic preparation via GC/MS, of yet unknown origin. The freeze dried samples of both Allium species exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities compared to dried specimens

  20. Chromosome aberration and micronucleus frequencies in Allium cepa cells exposed to petroleum polluted water--a case study.

    PubMed

    Leme, Daniela Morais; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2008-01-31

    In the present study, we applied Chromosome Aberration (CA) and Micronucleus (MN) tests to Allium cepa root cells, in order to evaluate the water quality of Guaecá river. This river, located in the city of São Sebastião, SP, Brazil, had been affected by an oil pipeline leak. Chemical analyses of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also carried out in water samples, collected in July 2005 (dry season) and February 2006 (rainy season) in 4 different river sites. The largest CA and MN incidence in the meristematic cells of A. cepa was observed after exposure to water sample collected during the dry season, at the spring of the river, where the oil leak has arisen. The F(1) cells from roots exposed to such sample (non-merismatic region) were also analyzed for the incidence of MN, showing a larger frequency of irregularities, indicating a possible development of CA into MN. Lastly, our study reveals a direct correlation between water chemical analyses (contamination by TPHs and PAHs) and both genotoxic and mutagenic effects observed in exposed A. cepa cells.

  1. Pre-apoptotic activity of aqueous extracts of Cynanchum sarcomedium Meve & Liede on cells of Allium cepa and human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bhagyanathan, Neethu Kannan; Thoppil, John Ernest

    2016-11-01

    Cynanchum sarcomedium Meve & Liede is a member of Apocynaceae, seen in dry and rocky areas. The present study highlights the cytotoxic potential of C. sarcomedium mediated by apoptosis on cells of Allium cepa and human red blood cells (RBCs). Cytogenetic changes in A. cepa and in situ visualization of cell death were revealed through acetocarmine and Evans blue staining techniques. Quantitative estimation of cell death was carried out at 600 nm in a spectrophotometer. Membrane characteristics of RBC in response to the treatment were evaluated by May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell membrane damage is a major factor for assessing apoptosis which is observed in the present study (90.91 %). Cell shrinkage, cytoplasmic fragmentation, condensed chromatin and presence of apoptotic bodies were the common cytological changes in A. cepa associated with apoptosis. Blebs in RBC evidenced by SEM revealed the membrane damage potential of the plant. Results obtained hereby suggest that the plant is an effective source to be used in toxicological studies and anti-cancer therapy.

  2. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters.

  3. Nitrogen requirements at bulb initiation for production of intermediate-day onions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of nitrogen application on growth, nitrogen (N) uptake, yield, and quality of intermediate-day onion (Allium cepa L. ‘Guimar’) was evaluated in the field in southern Portugal. Plants were fertilized with 30 kg/ha N at transplanting, 10 kg/ha N at 29 days after transplanting (DAT) during ...

  4. Economics of supplemental weed control applications on spring-transplanted onions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field research conducted to determine the relative benefits among alternative herbicides for weed control in onions (Allium cepa L.) measured weed control efficacy, impact of herbicides on crop injury, and the resulting weed competition on crop yields and marketable bulb size. Weed competition produ...

  5. Interspecific chromosomal rearrangements in monosomic addition lines of Allium.

    PubMed

    Barthes, L; Ricroch, A

    2001-10-01

    Monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) are useful for assigning linkage groups to chromosomes. We examined whether the chromosomal rearrangements following the introduction of a single onion (Allium cepa) chromosome into the Allium fistulosum genome were produced by homeologous crossing over or by a nonreciprocal conversion event. Among the monosomic lines available, 17 were studied by fluorescent genomic in situ hybridisation, using total A. cepa genomic DNA as the probe and total A. fistulosum genomic DNA as the competitor. In this way, rearrangements such as chromosomal translocations between A. cepa and A. fistulosum were identified as terminal regions consisting of tandem DNA repeats. Homeologous crossing over between the two closely related genomes occurred in 4 of the 17 lines, suggesting that such events are not rare. On the basis of a detailed molecular cytogenetic characterisation, we identified true monosomic alien addition lines for A. cepa chromosomes 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8 that can reliably be used in genetic studies.

  6. Plants of the genus Allium as antibacterial agents: From tradition to pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Mnayer, D; Tabanelli, G; Stojanović-Radić, Z Z; Sharifi-Rad, M; Yousaf, Z; Vallone, L; Setzer, W N; Iriti, M

    2016-08-29

    Plants belonging to the genus Allium are widely cultivated and used all over the world as food and medicinal plants. Since ancient times, these plants, particularly garlic (Allium sativum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.), have represented important components of typical recipes and traditional healing systems. Not the least of which, their use as food biopreservatives is well documented, due to the relevant antibacterial activity of their extracts and essential oils. In addition to garlic and onion, this review article deals with the main members of the genus Allium, including A. ampeloprasum (Leek), A. schoenoprasum (Chive) and A. ascalonicum (Shallot), focusing both on their ethnonutritional uses and potential as promising food biopreservative agents. Noteworthy, recent research has demonstrated Allium derivatives to be novel components in active edible coatings as well as nanoformulates.

  7. Evaluation of the antimutagenic activity and mode of action of carrageenan fiber in cultured meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Nantes, C I; Pesarini, J R; Mauro, M O; Monreal, A C D; Ramires, A D; Oliveira, R J

    2014-11-12

    In this study, we evaluated the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of carrageenan, a sulfated polysaccharide, and described its mode of action by using an Allium cepa assay. The results indicate that carrageenan is not mutagenic, rather it has significant chemopreventive potential that is mediated by both demutagenic and bio-antimutagenic activities. This compound can adsorb agents that are toxic to DNA and inactivate them. Additionally, carrageenan can modulate enzymes of the DNA repair system. The percentage of damage reduction ranged from 62.54 to 96.66%, reflecting the compound's high efficiency in preventing the type of mutagenic damage that may be associated with tumor development. Based on these findings and information available in the literature, we conclude that carrageenan is an important fiber that should be considered as a possible base for functional foods and/or diets with potential anticancer activity.

  8. Elastosis perforans serpiginosa: a case successfully treated with intralesional steroids and topical allium cepa-allantoin-pentaglycan gel.

    PubMed

    Campanati, Anna; Martina, Emanuela; Giuliodori, Katia; Ganzetti, Giulia; Marconi, Barbara; Conta, Irene; Giangiacomi, Mirella; Offidani, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Elastosis perforans serpiginosa is a rare skin disease in which abnormal elastic fibers, other connective tissue elements, and cellular debris are expelled from the papillary dermis through the epidermis. Three clinical variants of EPS can be detected: idiopathic, reactive, and drug-induced. Clinically it consists of small horny or umbilicated papules arranged in a linear, arciform, circular, or serpiginous pattern. It usually occurs in young adults and shows a predilection for the head and neck. The lesions are generally asymptomatic or slightly itching. Several treatments have been reported with poor long-term success; these include intralesional and topical corticosteroids, tazarotene, imiquimod, and cryotherapy. We report a case of 40-year-old black woman affected by elastosis perforans serpiginosa that was referred to our department and treated with intralesional injections of triamcinolone acetonide and topical application of allium cepa-allantoin-pentaglycan gel.

  9. DNA methylation and histone modification in onion chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Go; Shiomi, Maho; Morihana, Sayuri; Yamamoto, Maki; Mukai, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Onion, Allium cepa, is a model plant for experimental observation of somatic cell division, whose mitotic chromosome is extremely large, and contains the characteristic terminal heterochromatin. Epigenetic status of the onion chromosome is a matter of deep interest from a molecular cytogenetic point of view, because epigenetic marks regulate chromatin structure and gene expression. Here we examined chromosomal distribution of DNA methylation and histone modification in A. cepa in order to reveal the chromatin structure in detail. Immunodetection of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and in situ nick-translation analysis showed that onion genomic DNA was highly methylated, and the methylated CG dinucleotides were distributed in entire chromosomes. In addition, distributions of histone methylation codes, which occur in close association with DNA methylation, were similar to those of other large genome species. From these results, a highly heterochromatic and less euchromatic state of large onion chromosomes were demonstrated at an epigenetic level.

  10. Nutrient content and yield in relation to top breakover in onion developed from greenhouse-grown transplants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) generally are harvested based on percentage of tops broken over. Since plant metabolism changes over time, percentage of tops broken over may be used to determine a harvest time to deliver marketable bulbs with the best nutrient content. The cultivars Candy and Texas Grano ...

  11. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of cis-tetraammine(oxalato)ruthenium(III) dithionate on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Flávia de Castro; Vilanova-Costa, Cesar Augusto Sam Tiago; de Lima, Aliny Pereira; Ribeiro, Alessandra de Santana Braga Barbosa; da Silva, Hugo Delleon; Pavanin, Luiz Alfredo; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela de Paula

    2009-06-01

    Ruthenium complexes have attracted much attention as possible building blocks for new transition-metal-based antitumor agents. The present study examines the mitotoxic and clastogenic effects induced in the root tips of Allium cepa by cis-tetraammine(oxalato)ruthenium(III) dithionate {cis-[Ru(C(2)O(2))(NH(3))(4)](2)(S(2)O(6))} at different exposure durations and concentrations. Correlation tests were performed to determine the effects of the time of exposure and concentration of ruthenium complex on mitotic index (MI) and mitotic aberration index. A comparison of MI results of cis-[Ru(C(2)O(2))(NH(3))(4)](2)(S(2)O(6)) to those of lead nitrate reveals that the ruthenium complex demonstrates an average mitotic inhibition eightfold higher than lead, with the frequency of cellular abnormalities almost fourfold lower and mitotic aberration threefold lower. A. cepa root cells exposed to a range of ruthenium complex concentrations did not display significant clastogenic effects. Cis-tetraammine(oxalato)ruthenium(III) dithionate therefore exhibits a remarkable capacity to inhibit mitosis, perhaps by inhibiting DNA synthesis or blocking the cell cycle in the G2 phase. Further investigation of the mechanisms of action of this ruthenium complex will be important to define its clinical potential and to contribute to a novel and rational approach to developing a new metal-based drug with antitumor properties complementary to those exhibited by the drugs already in clinical use.

  12. Identification of Narcissus yellow stripe virus and a closely-related potyvirus isolate in plants of Allium carinatum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A survey of varieties and species of ornamental Allium revealed the presence of multiple viruses, including potyviruses, carlaviruses, and allexiviruses. Most of these viruses have been previously identified in A. sativum (garlic), A. cepa (onion), A. porrum (synonym A. ampeloprasum var. porrum; lee...

  13. Analysis of the genotoxic potential of low concentrations of Malathion on the Allium cepa cells and rat hepatoma tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Jaqueline; Mantovani, Mario Sérgio; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2015-10-01

    Based on the concentration of Malathion used in the field, we evaluated the genotoxic potential of low concentrations of this insecticide on meristematic and F1 cells of Allium cepa and on rat hepatoma tissue culture (HTC cells). In the A. cepa, chromosomal aberrations (CAs), micronuclei (MN), and mitotic index (MI) were evaluated by exposing the cells at 1.5, 0.75, 0.37, and 0.18mg/mL of Malathion for 24 and 48hr of exposure and 48hr of recovery time. The results showed that all concentrations were genotoxic to A. cepa cells. However, the analysis of the MI has showed non-relevant effects. Chromosomal bridges were the CA more frequently induced, indicating the clastogenic action of Malathion. After the recovery period, the higher concentrations continued to induce genotoxic effects, unlike the observed for the lowest concentrations tested. In HTC cells, the genotoxicity of Malathion was evaluated by the MN test and the comet assay by exposing the cells at 0.09, 0.009, and 0.0009mg/5mL culture medium, for 24hr of exposure. In the comet assay, all the concentrations induced genotoxicity in the HTC cells. In the MN test, no significant induction of MN was observed. The genotoxicity induced by the low concentrations of Malathion presented in this work highlights the importance of studying the effects of low concentrations of this pesticide and demonstrates the efficiency of these two test systems for the detection of genetic damage promoted by Malathion.

  14. The effect of cultivar, sowing date and transplant location in field on bolting of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bolting reduces the quality and commercial yield of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) in production. However, seed production is directly dependent on flower induction and bolting. The Welsh onion belongs to the green plant vernalisation type, specific seedling characteristics and sufficient accumulated time at low temperature are indispensible for the completion of its vernalisation process. Only if these conditions for vernalisation are fulfilled, the plants will bolt in the following year. The present investigation evaluated the effects of cultivar, sowing date and transplant location in field on the bolting of Welsh onion at the Horticultural Farm of the College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shannxi Province, China in two succeeding production years: 2010–2011 and 2011–2012. A strip split plot layout within a randomised complete block design with three replications was used. Results The results revealed that all three factors (cultivar, sowing date and transplant location) and their interaction had significant effects on the initiation and final rate of bolting observed by 30 April. The earliest bolting date (14 February, 2011 and 15 February, 2012) and the highest bolting rate (100% in 2011 and 62% in 2012) occurred when the JinGuan cultivar was sown on 20 August and transplanted in a plastic tunnel, whereas the latest date and lowest rate (no bolting observed until 30 April) of bolting occurred when the XiaHei cultivar was sown on 29 September and transplanted in an open field. Conclusions These results suggest that we can control bolting in Welsh onion production by choosing an appropriate cultivar, sowing date and transplant location. Choosing a late bolting cultivar, such as cultivar XiaHei, sowing around October, and transplanting in the open field can significantly delay bolting, while a sowing date in late August should be selected for seed production, and the seedlings should be transplanted in a plastic tunnel to

  15. Absence of mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the Drosophila wing-spot test and Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Laise Rodrigues; Brito, Arian Sandin; Melero, Anna Maria Gouvea de Souza; Zanin, Hudson; Ceragioli, Helder José; Baranauskas, Vitor; Cunha, Kênya Silva; Irazusta, Silvia Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the safety of the carbon nanotubes to human health and the environment, we investigated the potential toxicity and ability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NT), to induce DNA damage by employing the Allium cepa genotoxicity/mutagenicity test and the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. The results demonstrated that NT did not significantly induce genotoxic or mutagenic effects in the Allium cepa test. All concentrations evaluated in the SMART assay showed survival rates higher than 90percent, indicating the absence of chronic toxicity for NT. Furthermore, the various treatments showed no significant increase in the NT mutation and recombination frequencies in mwh/flr(3) genotype compared to respective negative controls, demonstrating the absence of DNA damage caused by NT.

  16. Monitoring of alcoholic fermentation of onion juice by NIR spectroscopy: valorization of worthless onions.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Saiz, José María; Pizarro, Consuelo; Esteban-Díez, Isabel; Ramírez, Oscar; Gonzalez-Navarro, Carlos Javier; Saiz-Abajo, María José; Itoiz, Reyes

    2007-04-18

    The valorization of vegetable byproducts is one of the main objectives of industry today. The project on which this study is based examined the potential usefulness of worthless onions (Allium cepa L. sp.) and overproduction to obtain several functional products with different applications in the food industry. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, combined with multivariate calibration, has been used to monitor the alcoholic fermentation of onion juice. Good results were obtained, revealing the suitability of NIR spectroscopy for controlling and optimizing this process in real time.

  17. Determining redundancy of short-day, onion (Allium cepa L. var. cepa) accessions in a germplasm collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System is one of the world’s largest national genebank networks focusing on preserving the genetic diversity of plants by acquiring, preserving, evaluating, documenting and distributing crop-related germplasm to researchers worldwide. Maintaining viable germplasm co...

  18. Effect of Allium cepa L. on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Osteoclast Precursor Cell Viability, Count, and Morphology Using 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole-Staining.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tatiane; Figueiredo, Camila A; Brito, Carlos; Stavroullakis, Alexander; Prakki, Anuradha; Da Silva Velozo, Eudes; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio

    2014-01-01

    Allium cepa L. is known to possess numerous pharmacological properties. Our aim was to examine the in vitro effects of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE) on Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS and Escherichia coli LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells to determine cell viability to other future cell-based assays. Osteoclast precursor cells (RAW 264.7) were stimulated by Pg LPS (1 μg/mL) and E. coli LPS (1 μg/mL) in the presence or absence of different concentrations of AcE (10-1000 μg/mL) for 5 days at 37°C/5% CO2. Resazurin reduction and total protein content assays were used to detect cell viability. AcE did not affect cell viability. Resazurin reduction assay showed that AcE, at up to 1000 μg/mL, did not significantly affect cell viability and cellular protein levels. Additionally a caspase 3/7 luminescence assay was used to disclose apoptosis and there was no difference in apoptotic activity between tested groups and control group. Fluorescence images stained by DAPI showed no alteration on the morphology and cell counts of LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells with the use of AcE in all tested concentrations when compared to control. These findings suggest that Allium cepa L. extract could be used for in vitro studies on Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS and Escherichia coli LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells.

  19. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Allium cepa Linn. bulb on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Kharadi, Geeta B; Patel, Kaksha J; Purohit, Bhargav M; Baxi, Seema N; Tripathi, C B

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the cardioprotective potential of the aqueous extract of Allium cepa Linn. bulb in isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. Isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model was used to evaluate in vivo effect of aqueous extract of A. cepa in Wistar albino rats. Seventy two rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with A. cepa 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg doses for 30 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline (ISO) 85 mg/kg on day 28 and 29. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 30 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract of A. cepa showed significant antioxidant property. ISO produced significant myocardial injury as compared to normal control group (P < 0.05). Administration of A. cepa in the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly recovered the altered parameters (Troponin-I, Creatine kinase-MB, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, HR, R-R interval, and oxidative stress markers) compared to disease control group (P < 0.05) while A. cepa in the dose 800 mg/kg recovered the altered parameters (HR, heart weight/body weight ratio, and superoxide dismutase level) compared to disease control group. Histopathological parameters did not recover in the doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg (P > 0.05). The aqueous extract of A. cepa 400 mg/kg was found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury while A. cepa 800 mg/kg did not show significant cardioprotective activity. So, we presume that A. cepa might be effective within certain dose range only.

  20. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Allium cepa Linn. bulb on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kharadi, Geeta B.; Patel, Kaksha J.; Purohit, Bhargav M.; Baxi, Seema N.; Tripathi, C.B.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the cardioprotective potential of the aqueous extract of Allium cepa Linn. bulb in isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. Isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model was used to evaluate in vivo effect of aqueous extract of A. cepa in Wistar albino rats. Seventy two rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with A. cepa 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg doses for 30 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline (ISO) 85 mg/kg on day 28 and 29. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 30 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract of A. cepa showed significant antioxidant property. ISO produced significant myocardial injury as compared to normal control group (P < 0.05). Administration of A. cepa in the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly recovered the altered parameters (Troponin-I, Creatine kinase-MB, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, HR, R-R interval, and oxidative stress markers) compared to disease control group (P < 0.05) while A. cepa in the dose 800 mg/kg recovered the altered parameters (HR, heart weight/body weight ratio, and superoxide dismutase level) compared to disease control group. Histopathological parameters did not recover in the doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg (P > 0.05). The aqueous extract of A. cepa 400 mg/kg was found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury while A. cepa 800 mg/kg did not show significant cardioprotective activity. So, we presume that A. cepa might be effective within certain dose range only. PMID:27920825

  1. Effect of feeding green onions (Allium ascalonicum) to White Chinese geese (Threskiornis spinicollis).

    PubMed

    Crespo, Rocio; Chin, R P

    2004-07-01

    Sudden increase in mortality was observed in 2 different flocks of mature breeder geese fed green onions. At necropsy, birds had pale epicardium with random petechiation, sanguinous fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac, and mild swelling of the liver and spleen. Histologically, there was accumulation of hemosiderin in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells of the liver, macrophages, and renal tubules. There was also moderate to severe hepatic necrosis, vacuolation of hepatocytes, splenitis, and renal tubular nephrosis. To assess the effects of green onion ingestion, 2 feeding trials were carried out in 3 mature White Chinese geese. In the first trial, onions were thoroughly mixed with pellet maintenance ration. In the second trial, onions were offered in a separate trough from the pelleted diet. During the 21 days of experiments, the red blood cell count and hematocrit decreased, whereas the polychromasia and reticulocyte estimate increased. The blood changes were more marked in birds from the second feeding trial. Gross and histologic changes were similar in both trials. Mild swelling and severe darkening of the liver were the only significant findings at necropsy. Histologically, the liver looked similar to that seen from the field outbreak. The liver contained moderate amounts of hemosiderin in the hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, and had centrolobular necrosis and vacuolation of hepatocytes. This experimental study demonstrated that anemia and liver pathology could be caused by ingestion of onions. Furthermore, Heinz bodies are not a consistent finding in the blood of geese fed onions.

  2. Bioefficacy, dissipation kinetics and safety evaluation of selected insecticides in Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Srinivas P, Satya; Banerjee, Kaushik; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Ghaste, Manoj S; Lawande, K E

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the bioefficacy of selected insecticides against thrips and their pre-harvest intervals (PHI) in onion pertaining to their recommended application rates and maximum residue limits. Profenophos, methomyl and imidacloprid showed comparatively higher bioefficacy against thrips. GC-MS and LC-MS/MS-based residue analysis methods in onion bulbs and composite matrix of bulbs+leaves were thoroughly validated. The residue data for bulb+leaves was assessed with reference to the EU-MRLs applicable for spring onion. Dimethoate was the most stable chemical with PHI of 52.5 days, followed by monocrotophos (24 days) and carbofuran (20.5 days). The PHIs of profenophos, chlorpyrifos, methomyl and cypermethrin were similar and within the range of 10-13 days. Imidacloprid and λ-cyhalothrin had similar PHI of 4.5 days. Spinosad was the fastest-degrading chemical with PHI of 2 days. The combined bioefficacy and residue dynamics information will support label-claim of these insecticides for the management of thrips in onion, help in scheduling their applications in pest management program as per relative PHIs and minimize the residue accumulations at harvest. The dietary exposure was less than the maximum permissible intake for most of the insecticides on all sampling days except for dimethoate and monocrotophos.

  3. Enzyme That Makes You Cry-Crystal Structure of Lachrymatory Factor Synthase from Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Silvaroli, Josie A; Pleshinger, Matthew J; Banerjee, Surajit; Kiser, Philip D; Golczak, Marcin

    2017-07-26

    The biochemical pathway that gives onions their savor is part of the chemical warfare against microbes and animals. This defense mechanism involves formation of a volatile lachrymatory factor (LF) ((Z)-propanethial S-oxide) that causes familiar eye irritation associated with onion chopping. LF is produced in a reaction catalyzed by lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS). The principles by which LFS facilitates conversion of a sulfenic acid substrate into LF have been difficult to experimentally examine owing to the inherent substrate reactivity and lability of LF. To shed light on the mechanism of LF production in the onion, we solved crystal structures of LFS in an apo-form and in complex with a substrate analogue, crotyl alcohol. The enzyme closely resembles the helix-grip fold characteristic for plant representatives of the START (star-related lipid transfer) domain-containing protein superfamily. By comparing the structures of LFS to that of the abscisic acid receptor, PYL10, a representative of the START protein superfamily, we elucidated structural adaptations underlying the catalytic activity of LFS. We also delineated the architecture of the active site, and based on the orientation of the ligand, we propose a mechanism of catalysis that involves sequential proton transfer accompanied by formation of a carbanion intermediate. These findings reconcile chemical and biochemical information regarding thioaldehyde S-oxide formation and close a long-lasting gap in understanding of the mechanism responsible for LF production in the onion.

  4. Onions--a global benefit to health.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gareth; Trueman, Laurence; Crowther, Timothy; Thomas, Brian; Smith, Brian

    2002-11-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is botanically included in the Liliaceae and species are found across a wide range of latitudes and altitudes in Europe, Asia, N. America and Africa. World onion production has increased by at least 25% over the past 10 years with current production being around 44 million tonnes making it the second most important horticultural crop after tomatoes. Because of their storage characteristics and durability for shipping, onions have always been traded more widely than most vegetables. Onions are versatile and are often used as an ingredient in many dishes and are accepted by almost all traditions and cultures. Onion consumption is increasing significantly, particularly in the USA and this is partly because of heavy promotion that links flavour and health. Onions are rich in two chemical groups that have perceived benefits to human health. These are the flavonoids and the alk(en)yl cysteine sulphoxides (ACSOs). Two flavonoid subgroups are found in onion, the anthocyanins, which impart a red/purple colour to some varieties and flavanols such as quercetin and its derivatives responsible for the yellow and brown skins of many other varieties. The ACSOs are the flavour precursors, which, when cleaved by the enzyme alliinase, generate the characteristic odour and taste of onion. The downstream products are a complex mixture of compounds which include thiosulphinates, thiosulphonates, mono-, di- and tri-sulphides. Compounds from onion have been reported to have a range of health benefits which include anticarcinogenic properties, antiplatelet activity, antithrombotic activity, antiasthmatic and antibiotic effects. Here we review the agronomy of the onion crop, the biochemistry of the health compounds and report on recent clinical data obtained using extracts from this species. Where appropriate we have compared the data with that obtained from garlic (Allium sativum L.) for which more information is widely available. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons

  5. Calcium movement, graviresponsiveness and the structure of columella cells and columella tissues in roots of Allium cepa L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    Roots of Allium cepa L. cv. Yellow are differentially responsive to gravity. Long (e.g. 40 mm) roots are strongly graviresponsive, while short (c.g. 4 mm) roots are minimally responsive to gravity. Although columella cells of graviresponsive roots are larger than those of nongraviresponsive roots, they partition their volumes to cellular organelles similarly. The movement of amyloplasts and nuclei in columella cells of horizontally-oriented roots correlates positively with the onset of gravicurvature. Furthermore, there is no significant difference in the rates of organellar redistribution when graviresponsive and nongraviresponsive roots are oriented horizontally. The more pronounced graviresponsiveness of longer roots correlates positively with (1) their caps being 9-6 times more voluminous, (2) their columella tissues being 42 times more voluminous, (3) their caps having 15 times more columella cells, and (4) their columella tissues having relative volumes 4.4 times larger than those of shorter, nongraviresponsive roots. Graviresponsive roots that are oriented horizontally are characterized by a strongly polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the root tip from the upper to the lower side, while similarly oriented nongraviresponsive roots exhibit only a minimal polar transport of 45Ca2+. These results indicate that the differential graviresponsiveness of roots of A. cepa is probably not due to either (1) ultrastructural differences in their columella cells, (2) differences in the rates of organellar redistribution when roots are oriented horizontally. Rather, these results indicate the graviresponsiveness may require an extensive columella tissue, which, in turn, may be necessary for polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the root tip.

  6. Toxicological effects of the waste of the sugarcane industry, used as agricultural fertilizer, on the test system Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Anacleto, Leonardo Ramos; Roberto, Matheus Mantuanelli; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2017-04-01

    Sugarcane is cultivated in tropical countries for sugar and ethanol production. In Brazil, this culture is among the most profitable with a production of 658.7 million tons/harvest. Sugarcane filter cake (SCFC) is a waste rich in organic matter and micronutrients, but also contains toxic metals. As it has been used as fertilizer and there is not enough knowledge about its environmental impacts, this work assessed the genotoxicogenetic effects of raw SCFC and associations with soil and sugarcane bagasse (SCB), by Allium cepa tests. Six associations of SCFC + soil and five associations of SCFC + soil + SCB were tested at three moments of degradation: initial (T0), 3 and 6 months (T1 and T2). Genotoxicogenetic assays were performed with solid substrates of these associations and with their respective aqueous extracts. Chemical analysis showed a decrease in metals, total organic carbon and nitrogen after 6 months of biodegradation, complying with Brazilian laws. In general, the combination of SCFC + soil + SCB was better than using only SCFC. T0 solubilized samples of different associations composed by highest quantities of SCFC inhibited the MI and induced CA without presenting mutagenicity (except for 75%-SCFC + soil + SCB). T1 samples showed more cytotoxicity than T0 samples, and also presented genotoxic and mutagenic effects. Solid substrate and solubilized associations of SCFC + soil + SCB of T2 samples had no toxicity. These results suggest 6 months of biodegradation and the SCB adding as effective to reduce toxicogenetic effects induced by SCFC. Also, small proportions of SCFC interfered less on the A. cepa test-system when compared with those containing high quantities of residue.

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  8. Evaluation of carbohydrates in Pukekohe Longkeeper and Grano cultivars of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Erin M; Somerfield, Sheryl D; Shaw, Martin; Bendall, Maaike; Hedderly, Duncan; Eason, Jocelyn; Sims, Ian

    2004-08-25

    The storage, soluble, and structural carbohydrates of two onion cultivars, the hard, pungent Pukekohe Longkeeper (PLK) and the softer, milder Houston Grano, were analyzed to determine differences that might be related to their response to sulfur nutrition received during growth as well as their postharvest attributes and end-use suitability. PLK tissue contained 1.37 times more dry matter than Grano and was composed of more fructan and sucrose and less glucose and fructose than Grano [corrected] There were also differences in neutral sugar content, especially galactose, and the amount, size, and content of pectin fractions soluble in chelator and weak alkali. These two onion cultivars differed in their capacity to take up sulfur, but there was no statistical association between sulfur supply and any measured dry matter component.

  9. Improved soluble bacterial expression and properties of the recombinant flavonoid glucosyltransferase UGT73G1 from Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ruxin; Chen, Caihong; Li, Yan; Sun, Kaiyan; Zhou, Fangfang; Chen, Kequan; Jia, Honghua

    2017-08-10

    Glycosylation of quercetin using flavonol-specific glycosyltransferases offers an alternate method for isoquercitrin production. Obtaining sufficient quantities of bioactive enzymes is an important prerequisite for highly effective biocatalysis and biotransformation. In this study, a codon-optimized gene for the flavonoid glucosyltransferase UGT73G1 from Allium cepa was heterologously expressed in the preferred prokaryotic expression host Escherichia coli. By combining expression as a fusion protein with 6-histidine tags with coexpression with molecular chaperones, increased soluble expression of UGT73G1 was achieved in E. coli. Two-terminal 6-histidine tags contributed more to the expression than molecular chaperones, as demonstrated by comparison of specific activities in crude extracts obtained from the recombinant E. coli strains. Studies of the catalytic properties of purified UGT73G1 indicated that its activity was significantly promoted by Mn(2+) and Mg(2+), while it was strongly inhibited by Cu(2+). These expression strategies enhanced the solubility and activity of the overexpressed protein and enabled characterization of this plant-derived glucosyltransferase expressed in a prokaryotic host. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Cytotoxicity of zinc nanoparticles fabricated by Justicia adhatoda L. on root tips of Allium cepa L.--a model approach.

    PubMed

    Taranath, T C; Patil, Bheemanagouda N; Santosh, T U; Sharath, B S

    2015-06-01

    Zinc nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous leaf extract of Justicia adhatoda L. The characterization of nanoparticles was done by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The characteristic absorption peak of the UV spectrum was recorded at 379 nm. The FTIR data revealed the possible biomolecules involved in bioreduction and capping of zinc nanoparticles for efficient stabilization. AFM and HR-TEM images have shown that the size of zinc nanoparticles ranges from 55 to 83 nm and they are spherical in shape. The biogenic zinc nanoparticles were evaluated for their toxic effect on mitotic chromosomes of Allium cepa as a model system. Experiments were conducted in triplicate to assay the effect of 25, 50, 75, and 100 % of zinc nanoparticles on mitotic chromosomes at an interval of 6 h duration for 24 h. The investigation revealed that the mitotic index (MI) was decreased with increased concentration of zinc nanoparticles and exposure duration. The results revealed that zinc nanoparticles have induced abnormalities like anaphase bridge formation, diagonal anaphase, C-metaphase, sticky metaphase, laggards, and sticky anaphase at different percentages and times of exposure. It is evident from the observation that mitotic cell division becomes abortive at 100 % treatment of zinc nanoparticles.

  11. Cytotoxicity of aluminum oxide nanoparticles on Allium cepa root tip--effects of oxidative stress generation and biouptake.

    PubMed

    Rajeshwari, A; Kavitha, S; Alex, Sruthi Ann; Kumar, Deepak; Mukherjee, Anita; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2015-07-01

    The commercial usage of Al2O3 nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) has gone up significantly in the recent times, enhancing the risk of environmental contamination with these agents and their consequent adverse effects on living systems. The current study has been designed to evaluate the cytogenetic potential of Al2O3 NPs in Allium cepa (root tip cells) at a range of exposure concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μg/mL), their uptake/internalization profile, and the oxidative stress generated. We noted a dose-dependent decrease in the mitotic index (42 to 28 %) and an increase in the number of chromosomal aberrations. Various chromosomal aberrations, e.g. sticky, multipolar and laggard chromosomes, chromosomal breaks, and the formation of binucleate cells, were observed by optical, fluorescence, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. FT-IR analysis demonstrated the surface chemical interaction between the nanoparticles and root tip cells. The biouptake of Al2O3 in particulate form led to reactive oxygen species generation, which in turn probably contributed to the induction of chromosomal aberrations.

  12. Copper-induced root growth inhibition of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. involves disturbances in cell division and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Qin, Rong; Wang, Congyue; Chen, Da; Björn, Lars O; Li, Shaoshan

    2015-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is considered to be an indispensable microelement for plants. Excessive Cu, however, is toxic and disturbs several processes in the plant. The present study addressed the effects of ionic Cu (2.0 µM and 8.0 µM) on mitosis, the microtubule cytoskeleton, and DNA in root tip cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. to better understand Cu toxicity on plant root systems. The results indicated that Cu accumulated in roots and that root growth was inhibited dramatically in Cu treatment groups. Chromosomal aberrations (for example, C-mitosis, chromosome bridges, chromosome stickiness, and micronucleus) were observed, and the mitotic index decreased during Cu treatments at different concentrations. Microtubules were one of the target sites of Cu toxicity in root tip meristematic cells, and Cu exposure substantially impaired microtubule arrangements. The content of α-tubulin decreased following 36 h of exposure to 2.0 µM or 8.0 µM of Cu in comparison with the control group. Copper increased DNA damage and suppressed cell cycle progression. The above toxic effects became more serious with increasing Cu concentration and prolonged exposure time.

  13. Effects of hexavalent chromium on microtubule organization, ER distribution and callose deposition in root tip cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Melissa, Pelagia

    2012-04-01

    The subcellular targets of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] were examined in Allium cepa root tips with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cr(VI) exerted dose- and time-dependent negative effects on root growth rate, the mitotic index and microtubule (MT) organization during cell division cycle. Interphase MTs were more resistant than the mitotic ones, but when affected they were shorter, sparse and disoriented. The preprophase band of MTs became poorly organized, branched or with fragmented MTs, whilst neither a perinuclear array nor a prophase spindle was formed. Metaphase spindles converged to eccentric mini poles or consisted of dissimilar halves and were unable to correctly orient the chromosomes. Anaphase spindles were less disturbed, but chromatids failed to separate; neither did they move to the poles. At telophase, projecting, lagging or bridging chromosomes and micronuclei also occurred. Phragmoplasts were unilaterally developed, split, located at unexpected sites and frequently dissociated from the branched and misaligned cell plates. Chromosomal aberrations were directly correlated with MT disturbance. The morphology and distribution of endoplasmic reticulum was severely perturbed and presumably contributed to MT disassembly. Heavy callose apposition was also induced by Cr(VI), maybe in the context of a cellular defence reaction. Results indicate that MTs are one of the main subcellular targets of Cr(VI), MT impairment underlies chromosomal and mitotic aberrations, and MTs may constitute a reliable biomonitoring system for Cr(VI) toxicity in plants.

  14. Effects of Spent Pot Liner on mitotic activity and nuclear DNA content in meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; de Campos, José Marcello Salabert; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2012-09-30

    Industrial waste usually contains complex mixtures of mutagenic chemicals. Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a complex solid waste from the aluminum industry, which is composed of organics, fluoride salts, inorganic cyanides, metals, and sodium. Due to the toxicity of these compounds, this study sought to use cytogenetics and flow cytometry to assess the effects of SPL on cell cycle parameters and DNA content in meristematic cells of Allium cepa. Three concentrations of leachates from SPL-soil mixtures were used for the study: 0, 10, and 25%. Roots were collected and analyzed after 4, 8, 12, 24, and 36 h of exposure to the above SPL leachates. The results showed an overall mitodepressive effect accompanied by an increased percentage of condensed nuclei and genomic instability as evidenced by the presence of cellular/chromosomal abnormalities. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling revealed nuclei with fragmented DNA, a marker of programmed cell death. This study also addressed the question of reversibility of the effects of SPL and found that 36 h of exposure to 25% SPL seemed to be the point at which the effects on the induction of apoptosis became irreversible.

  15. The possible involvement of root-cap mucilage in gravitropism and calcium movement across root tips of Allium cepa L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Roots of Allium cepa L. grown in aerated water elongate rapidly, but are not graviresponsive. These roots (1) possess extensive columella tissues comprised of cells containing numerous sedimented amyloplasts, (2) lack mucilage on their tips, and (3) are characterized by a weakly polar movement of calcium (Ca) across their tips. Placing roots in humid air correlates positively with the (1) onset of gravicurvature, (2) appearance of mucilage on tips of the roots, and (3) onset of the ability to transport Ca polarly to the lower side of the root tip. Gravicurvature of roots previously submerged in aerated water is more rapid when roots are oriented vertically for 1-2 h in humid air prior to being oriented horizontally. The more rapid gravicurvature of these roots correlates positively with the accumulation of mucilage at the tips of roots during the time the roots are oriented vertically. Therefore, the onset of gravicurvature and the ability of roots to transport Ca to the lower sides of their tips correlate positively with the presence of mucilage at their tips. These results suggest that mucilage may be important for the transport of Ca across root caps.

  16. The possible involvement of root-cap mucilage in gravitropism and calcium movement across root tips of Allium cepa L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Roots of Allium cepa L. grown in aerated water elongate rapidly, but are not graviresponsive. These roots (1) possess extensive columella tissues comprised of cells containing numerous sedimented amyloplasts, (2) lack mucilage on their tips, and (3) are characterized by a weakly polar movement of calcium (Ca) across their tips. Placing roots in humid air correlates positively with the (1) onset of gravicurvature, (2) appearance of mucilage on tips of the roots, and (3) onset of the ability to transport Ca polarly to the lower side of the root tip. Gravicurvature of roots previously submerged in aerated water is more rapid when roots are oriented vertically for 1-2 h in humid air prior to being oriented horizontally. The more rapid gravicurvature of these roots correlates positively with the accumulation of mucilage at the tips of roots during the time the roots are oriented vertically. Therefore, the onset of gravicurvature and the ability of roots to transport Ca to the lower sides of their tips correlate positively with the presence of mucilage at their tips. These results suggest that mucilage may be important for the transport of Ca across root caps.

  17. MWCNT uptake in Allium cepa root cells induces cytotoxic and genotoxic responses and results in DNA hyper-methylation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Manosij; Bhadra, Sreetama; Adegoke, Aremu; Bandyopadhyay, Maumita; Mukherjee, Anita

    2015-04-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have led to the large-scale production of nanoparticles, which, in turn, increases the chances of environmental exposure. While humans (consumers/workers) are primarily at risk of being exposed to the adverse effect of nanoparticles, the effect on plants and other components of the environment cannot be ignored. The present work investigates the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and epigenetic (DNA methylation) effect of MWCNT on the plant system- Allium cepa. MWCNT uptake in root cells significantly altered cellular morphology. Membrane integrity and mitochondrial function were also compromised. The nanotubes induced significant DNA damage, micronucleus formation and chromosome aberration. DNA laddering assay revealed the formation of internucleosomal fragments, which is indicative of apoptotic cell death. This finding was confirmed by an accumulation of cells in the sub-G0 phase of the cell cycle. An increase in CpG methylation was observed using the isoschizomers MspI/HpaII. HPLC analysis of DNA samples revealed a significant increase in the levels of 5-methyl-deoxy-cytidine (5mdC). These results confirm the cyto-genotoxic effect of MWCNT in the plant system and simultaneously highlight the importance of this epigenetic study in nanoparticle toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In Vivo Genotoxicity Assessment of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles by Allium cepa Root Tip Assay at High Exposure Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Pakrashi, Sunandan; Jain, Nitin; Dalai, Swayamprava; Jayakumar, Jerobin; Chandrasekaran, Prathna Thanjavur; Raichur, Ashok M.; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    The industrial production and commercial applications of titanium dioxide nanoparticles have increased considerably in recent times, which has increased the probability of environmental contamination with these agents and their adverse effects on living systems. This study was designed to assess the genotoxicity potential of TiO2 NPs at high exposure concentrations, its bio-uptake, and the oxidative stress it generated, a recognised cause of genotoxicity. Allium cepa root tips were treated with TiO2 NP dispersions at four different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 100 µg/mL). A dose dependant decrease in the mitotic index (69 to 21) and an increase in the number of distinctive chromosomal aberrations were observed. Optical, fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed chromosomal aberrations, including chromosomal breaks and sticky, multipolar, and laggard chromosomes, and micronucleus formation. The chromosomal aberrations and DNA damage were also validated by the comet assay. The bio-uptake of TiO2 in particulate form was the key cause of reactive oxygen species generation, which in turn was probably the cause of the DNA aberrations and genotoxicity observed in this study. PMID:24504252

  19. In vivo genotoxicity assessment of titanium dioxide nanoparticles by Allium cepa root tip assay at high exposure concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pakrashi, Sunandan; Jain, Nitin; Dalai, Swayamprava; Jayakumar, Jerobin; Chandrasekaran, Prathna Thanjavur; Raichur, Ashok M; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    The industrial production and commercial applications of titanium dioxide nanoparticles have increased considerably in recent times, which has increased the probability of environmental contamination with these agents and their adverse effects on living systems. This study was designed to assess the genotoxicity potential of TiO2 NPs at high exposure concentrations, its bio-uptake, and the oxidative stress it generated, a recognised cause of genotoxicity. Allium cepa root tips were treated with TiO2 NP dispersions at four different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 100 µg/mL). A dose dependant decrease in the mitotic index (69 to 21) and an increase in the number of distinctive chromosomal aberrations were observed. Optical, fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed chromosomal aberrations, including chromosomal breaks and sticky, multipolar, and laggard chromosomes, and micronucleus formation. The chromosomal aberrations and DNA damage were also validated by the comet assay. The bio-uptake of TiO2 in particulate form was the key cause of reactive oxygen species generation, which in turn was probably the cause of the DNA aberrations and genotoxicity observed in this study.

  20. Polyphenols isolated from Allium cepa L. induces apoptosis by suppressing IAP-1 through inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in human leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Min Ho; Lee, Won Sup; Jung, Ji Hyun; Jeong, Jae-Hun; Park, Cheol; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, GonSup; Jung, Jin-Myung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kim, Gi-Young; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Hong, Soon Chan; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Allium cepa Linn is commonly used as supplementary folk remedy for cancer therapy. Evidence suggests that Allium extracts have anti-cancer properties. However, the mechanisms of the anti-cancer activity of A. cepa Linn are not fully elucidated in human cancer cells. In this study, we investigated anti-cancer effects of polyphenols extracted from lyophilized A. cepa Linn (PEAL) in human leukemia cells and their mechanisms. PEAL inhibited cancer cell growth by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis. The apoptosis was suppressed by caspase 8 and 9 inhibitors. PEAL also up-regulated TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor DR5 and down-regulated survivin and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP-1). We confirmed these findings in other leukemic cells (THP-1, K562 cells). In addition, PEAL suppressed Akt activity and the PEAL-induced apoptosis was significantly attenuated in Akt-overexpressing U937 cells. In conclusion, our data suggested that PEAL induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in several human leukemic cells including U937 cells. The apoptosis was triggered through extrinsic pathway by up-regulating DR5 modulating as well as through intrinsic pathway by modulating IAP family members. In addition, PEAL induces caspase-dependent apoptosis at least in part through the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. This study provides evidence that PEAL might be useful for the treatment of leukemia.

  1. Onion is a host for two phytoplasma lineages, subgroups 16SrI-A and 16SrI-L, in Lithuania: a HinfI site revealed a SNP marking divergent branches of evolution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Onions (Allium cepa.L) being grown for seed production in the Kaunas region of Lithuania exhibited symptoms including mild yellowing of leaves and stems, stunting of plants, phyllody, and proliferation of flowers. RFLP and sequence analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA, ribosomal protein, and secY gen...

  2. Separation and identification of flavonoids from fistular onion stalk (Allium fisturosum L. var. Caespitosum Makio).

    PubMed

    Fu, Qinqin; Liu, Jingyou; Zhang, Changgong; Zhou, Yinbo; Zhang, Geng; Ma, Dan; Yang, Xinzhou

    2010-04-01

    The chemical constituents of fistular onion stalk obtained by supercritical CO(2) extraction were separated and purified by silica gel and sephadex LH-20 gel column chromatography and the preparative TLC method and four flavonoids were obtained. On the basis of the spectral data, they were structurally identified as (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, astragalin, and 3-O-beta-D(2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-glucopyranosides of kaempferol.

  3. Induction of microtubule damage in Allium cepa meristematic cells by pharmaceutical formulations of thiabendazole and griseofulvin.

    PubMed

    Andrioli, Nancy B; Soloneski, Sonia; Larramendy, Marcelo L; Mudry, Marta D

    2014-09-15

    Microtubules (MT) are formed by the assembly of α- and β-tubulins and MT-associated proteins. We characterized the effects of pharmaceutical formulations containing the microtubule disruptors thiabendazole (TBZ) and griseofulvin (GF) on the mitotic machinery of plant (A. cepa) meristematic cells. GF concentrations between 10 and 250 μg/ml were tested. GF induced mitotic index inhibition and genotoxic effects, including chromosome fragments, bridges, lagged chromosomes, C-metaphases, tripolar cell division, disorganized anaphases and nuclear abnormalities in interphase cells. Efects on the mitotic machinery were studied by direct immunofluorescence with β-tubulin labeling and by DNA counterstaining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Exposure of meristematic root cells to TBZ or GF, 100 μg/ml, caused microtubular damage which led to abnormal MT arrays. Our results suggest that GF induces abnormalities in spindle symmetry/polarity, while TBZ causes chromosome missegregation, polyploidy, and lack of cytokinesis.

  4. Induction of mitotic and chromosomal abnormalities on Allium cepa cells by pesticides imidacloprid and sulfentrazone and the mixture of them.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Jaqueline; Fernandes, Thais Cristina Casimiro; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of low concentrations of pesticides in non-target organisms, seeds of Allium cepa were exposed for 24 h to the imidacloprid insecticide, sulfentrazone herbicide and to the mixture of them, followed by recovery periods of 48 and 72 h. Imidacloprid results indicated an indirect genotoxic effect by inducing different types of chromosome aberration (CA), mainly bridges and chromosomal adherences. Cells with micronucleus (MN) were not significant in the analyzed meristems. Moreover, the 72-h recovery tests indicated that the two lower concentrations of the insecticide (0.036 and 0.36 g L(-1)) had their genotoxic effects minimized after discontinuation of treatment, differently to the observed for the field concentration (3.6 g L(-1)). Sulfentrazone herbicide at field concentration (6 g L(-1)) caused cytotoxic effects by inducing nuclear fragmentation and inhibition of cell division. The other concentrations (0.06, 0.6 and 1.2 g L(-1)) indicated genotoxic effects for this herbicide. The concentration of 0.06 g L(-1) induced persistent effects that could be visualized both by the induction of CA in the recovery times as by the presence of MN in meristematic and F1 cells. The induction of MN by this lowest concentration was associated with the great amount of breakage, losses and chromosomal bridges. The mixture of pesticides induced genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, by reducing the MI of the cells. The chromosomal damage induced by the mixture of pesticides was not persistent to the cells, since such damage was minimized 72 h after the interruption of the exposure.

  5. Dissimilar effects of β-lapachone- and hydroxyurea-induced DNA replication stress in root meristem cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Zabka, Aneta; Trzaskoma, Paweł; Maszewski, Janusz

    2013-12-01

    Two anticancer drugs, β-lapachone (β-lap, a naphthoquinone) and hydroxyurea (HU, an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase), differently affect nuclear morphology and cell cycle control mechanisms in root meristem cells of Allium cepa. The 18 h treatment with 100 μM β-lap results in a lowered number of M-phase cells, increased occurrence of mitotic abnormalities, including over-condensation of chromosomes, their enhanced stickiness, formation of anaphase bridges, micronucleation and reduced mitotic spindles. Following prolonged incubations using high doses of β-lap, cell nuclei reveal dark-red fluorescence evenly distributed in chromatin surrounding the unstained regions of nucleoli. Both drugs generate H2O2 and induce DNA double strand breaks, which is correlated with γ-phoshorylation of H2AX histones. However, the extent of H2AX phosphorylation (including the frequency of γ-H2AX foci and the relative number cells creating phospho-H2AX domains) is considerably reduced in root meristem cells treated jointly with the β-lap/HU mixture. Furthermore, various effects of caffeine (an inhibitor of ATM/ATR cell cycle checkpoint kinases) on β-lap- and HU-induced γ-phoshorylation of H2AX histones and the protective activity of HU against β-lap suggest that their genotoxic activities are largely dissimilar. β-Lap treatment results in the induction of apoptosis-like programmed cell death, while HU treatment leads to cell adaptation to replication stress and promotion of abnormal nuclear divisions with biphasic interphase/mitotic states of chromatin condensation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Cytotoxic effects of five commonly abused skin toning (bleaching) creams on Allium cepa root tip mitosis.

    PubMed

    Udengwu, O S; Chukwujekwu, J C

    2008-09-15

    The Allium test was used to study the cytotoxic effects of five commonly abused skin toning creams--Ikb, Tura, Top gel, Dorot and Mililo. These creams are commonly used by some black skinned people (especially the females) as skin lightening (bleaching) agents. The results showed that all the five bleaching creams were mito-depressive in action. They exhibited both chromatoclassic and mitoclassic effects. Their depressive effects were found to increase with duration of treatment. The induced abnormalities included chromosome contraction, spindle breakages, c-metaphase, star anaphase, chromosome stickiness and sticky bridges, precocious chromosome movement as well as endomitosis. It is suggested that since all eukaryotic cells are basically the same, these observed abnormalities could be similar to the effects these chemicals have on human skin when they are applied. Some of these are known to cause alteration in melanin formation as well as the biosynthesis of the enzyme tyrosinase. Furthermore, since certain points on the chromosomes called fragile sites have been implicated in oncogenesis, the observed abnormalities may be part of (or include) the switching on mechanisms of such genes, which could be responsible for the transformation of normal skin cells to malignant cells in those who abuse these creams.

  7. Antagonistic effect of polyamines on ABA-induced suppression of mitosis in Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Arpana; Sharma, Shashi

    2009-02-01

    Effect of abscisic acid (ABA) and polyamines (PAs) [putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm)] on mitosis in root tips of A. cepa was studied. Treatment with ABA (0.1 to 100 microM) for 24 hr suppressed the mitosis, measured as mitotic index (MI), in a concentration-dependent manner with approx. 50% suppression at 10 microM of ABA. Treatment with different PAs (1 to 100 microM) had differential mitosis suppression effect. Spm was most inhibitory followed by Spd and Put, respectively. The higher concentrations of PAs (1 mM Put; 0.1 and 1 mM Spd or Spm) caused cell distortion. Remarkably, a 24 hr pretreatment of root tips with PAs prior to ABA (100 microM) treatment resulted in a general concentration-dependent reversal of ABA-induced suppression of MI. Catalase (CAT) activity in the root tips, an indicator of redox metabolism, increased due to ABA treatment in a concentration-dependent manner, remained unaltered in response to Put and declined due to Spd and Spm (> or = 0.1 mM). However, all PAs, irrespective of their individual effects, generally antagonized the ABA-dependent increase in CAT activity. Data indicate the possibility of ABA-PA interaction in the regulation of mitosis.

  8. Low-dose toxicity of biogenic silver nanoparticles fabricated by Swertia chirata on root tips and flower buds of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Saha, Nirlipta; Dutta Gupta, S

    2017-02-09

    Chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (chem-AgNPs) have been assessed extensively to show adverse effects on plant cells but the role of biologically synthesized nanoparticles (bio-AgNPs) at lower concentrations and their toxicological impact on plant cells have not been sufficiently studied. In this study, bio-AgNPs were prepared using aqueous leaf extracts of Swertia chirata. This AgNPs showed absorption peak at 440nm of the visible spectrum. TEM analysis revealed that the average size of AgNPs were 20nm and mainly spherical in shape. AFM topographic images depicted the three dimensional aspects of AgNPs. XRD analysis confirmed the crystalline nature. FTIR spectrum of the AgNPs revealed the possible biomolecules involved in bioreduction and efficient stabilization of the particles. Low-dose of bio-AgNPs concentrations (5, 10 and 20μgml(-1)) were used for toxicity studies on Allium cepa. The studies revealed that various chromosomal aberrations were induced in both mitotic and meiotic cells of Allium cepa even at lower concentrations of bio-AgNPs. Abnormalities in post meiotic products were also observed. Both mitotic and meiotic indexes decreased with increasing concentrations of bio-AgNPs in the treated cells. These findings implied that low dose bio-AgNPs can induce significant clastogenic effects on both meristematic and reproductive plant cells.

  9. Systemic control of cell division and endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by modulating CDKs in root tip cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Tank, Jigna G; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP) treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  10. Systemic Control of Cell Division and Endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by Modulating CDKs in Root Tip Cells of Allium cepa

    PubMed Central

    Tank, Jigna G.; Thaker, Vrinda S.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP) treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed. PMID:24955358

  11. Evaluation of the antimutagenic activity and mode of action of the fructooligosaccharide inulin in the meristematic cells of Allium cepa culture.

    PubMed

    Mauro, M O; Pesarini, J R; Marin-Morales, M A; Monreal, M T F D; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Oliveira, R J

    2014-02-14

    This study evaluated the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of inulin in a chromosomal aberration assay in cultures of the meristematic cells of Allium cepa. The treatments evaluated were as follows: negative control--seed germination in distilled water; positive control--aqueous solution of methyl methanesulfonate (10 μg/mL MMS); mutagenicity--aqueous solutions of inulin (0.015, 0.15, and 1.50 μg/mL); and antimutagenicity--associations between MMS and the different inulin concentrations. The antimutagenicity protocols established were pre-treatment, simultaneous simple, simultaneous with pre-incubation, and post-treatment. The damage reduction percentage (DR%) was 43.56, 27.77, and 55.92% for the pre-treatment; -31.11, 18.51, and 7.03% for the simultaneous simple; 30.43, 19.12, and 21.11% for the simultaneous with pre-incubation; and 64.07, 42.96, and 53.70% for the post-treatment. The results indicated that the most effective treatment for inhibiting damages caused by MMS was the post-treatment, which was followed by the pre-treatment, suggesting activity by bioantimutagenesis and desmutagenesis. The Allium cepa assay was demonstrated to be a good screening test for this type of activity because it is easy to perform, has a low cost, and shows DR% that is comparable to that reported studies that evaluated the prevention of DNA damage in mammals by inulin.

  12. Induction of chromosome aberrations in the Allium cepa test system caused by the exposure of cells to benzo(a) pyrene.

    PubMed

    Cabaravdic, Mirsad

    2010-01-01

    Higher plants have been proposed as test organisms for the detection of genotoxic substances in the environment. Several plant test systems are already in use and are found to be as sensitive and reliable as other short-term tests. Allium cepa is one of these plants, which has been used in different studies to detect chromosome aberrations induced by chemicals. The use of non-animal test methods, including in vitro studies, provides importent tools to enhance our understanding of hazardous effect of chemicals, and for predicting these effects in humans. In vitro systems are used principally for screening purposes, and for generating toxicological profiles. Numerous chemicals can generate the breakage or interchange of DNA segments between chromosomal structures. Allium test is used as a screening method for genotoxicity evaluation of different chemical substances, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), as representative member of PAHs, were investigated of genotoxicity by using Allium roote chromosomes assay. The treatment with different series of concentrations of BaP, ranging from 1.0-50.0 microg/ml respectively. Used BaP caused decreased in the Mitotic index (MI) and increase frequency of abnormal mitosis when compared with the control.

  13. A Novel Alliinase from Onion Roots. Biochemical Characterization and cDNA Cloning1

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Jane E.; Shaw, Martin L.; Joyce, Meeghan D. Pither; McCallum, John A.; McManus, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    We have purified a novel alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) from roots of onion (Allium cepa L.). Two isoforms with alliinase activity (I and II) were separated by concanavalin A-Sepharose and had molecular masses of 52.7 (I) and 50.5 (II) kD on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and 51 (I) and 57.5 (II) kD by gel filtration fast-protein liquid chromatography. Isoform I had an isoelectric point of 9.3, while isoform II had isoelectric points of 7.6, 7.9, 8.1, and 8.3. The isoforms differed in their glycosylation. Both contained xylose/fucose containing complex-type N-linked glycans, and isoform II also contained terminal mannose structures. Both isoforms had activity with S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides. Unlike other allium alliinases, A. cepa root isoforms had cystine lyase activity. We cloned a gene from A. cepa root cDNA and show that it codes for A. cepa root alliinase protein. Homology to other reported allium alliinase genes is 50%. The gene coded for a protein of mass 51.2 kD, with two regions of deduced amino acid sequence identical to a 25- and a 40-amino acid region, as determined experimentally. The A. cepa root alliinase cDNA was expressed mainly in A. cepa roots. The structure and function of the alliinase gene family is discussed. PMID:10759524

  14. Evaluation of toxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of natural and technical cashew nut shell liquids using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina bioassays.

    PubMed

    Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Dantas, Alisson Ferreira; Oliveira, George Laylson da Silva; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L; de Lima, Sidney Gonçalo; Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes; de Freitas, Rivelilson M; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C; Dantas Lopes, José Arimateia

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems' root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-), during (co-), and after (post-) treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used.

  15. Evaluation of Toxic, Cytotoxic, Mutagenic, and Antimutagenic Activities of Natural and Technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquids Using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina Bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Oliveira, George Laylson da Silva; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L.; de Lima, Sidney Gonçalo; Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes; de Freitas, Rivelilson M.; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C.; Dantas Lopes, José Arimateia

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems' root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-), during (co-), and after (post-) treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used. PMID:25861638

  16. Spent Pot Liner (SPL) induced DNA damage and nuclear alterations in root tip cells of Allium cepa as a consequence of programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Vieira, L F; Gedraite, L S; Campos, J M S; Davide, L C

    2011-05-01

    There are various toxic effects of environmental pollutants, including apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is solid waste from the aluminum industry. It has a highly variable composition, including cyanide, fluoride, organics and metals. Preliminary characterizations of the effect of SPL on Allium cepa show the presence of condensed nuclei. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the toxic effect of SPL in A. cepa root meristem in the context of programmed cell death (PCD). A lot of specific features of this process such as DNA fragmentation, condensed chromatin, spherical nuclei and the formation of apoptotic-like bodies were observed in root meristem after SPL treatment. Root meristem treated with SPL 25% solution exhibited an alteration in antioxidant enzyme activities; a reduction in NCR as a consequence of high percentage of condensed nuclei; DNA fragmentation, detected by electrophoresis and TUNEL assay; cytoplasm vacuolization and also a disturbance in root morphology. These features are associated with programmed cell death (PCD) under abiotic stress. Therefore, these data show that SPL induces apoptosis-like PCD in root meristem cells of A. cepa.

  17. Allium cepa L. Response to Sodium Selenite (Se(IV)) Studied in Plant Roots by a LC-MS-Based Proteomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Karasinski, Jakub; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Konopka, Anna; Bulska, Ewa; Wrobel, Katarzyna

    2017-05-17

    Liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry was used for the first time to investigate the impact of Se(IV) (10 mgSe L(-1) as sodium selenite) on Allium cepa L. root proteome. Using MaxQuant platform, more than 600 proteins were found; 42 were identified based on at least 2 razor + unique peptides, score > 25, and were found to be differentially expressed in the exposed versus control roots with t-test difference > ±0.70 (p < 0.05, Perseus). Se(IV) caused growth inhibition and the decrease of total RNA in roots. Different abundances of proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, protein folding/assembly, cell cycle, energy/carbohydrate metabolism, stress response, and antioxidant defense were found in the exposed vs nonexposed roots. New evidence was obtained on the alteration of sulfur metabolism due to S-Se competition in A. cepa L. which, together with the original analytical approach, is the main scientific contribution of this study. Specifically, proteins participating in assimilation and transformation of both elements were affected; formation of volatile Se compounds seemed to be favored. Changes observed in methionine cycle suggested that Se(IV) stress might repress methylation capability in A. cepa L., potentially limiting accumulation of Se in the form of nonprotein methylated species and affecting adversely transmethylation-dependent signaling pathways.

  18. The effects of anti-DNA topoisomerase II drugs, etoposide and ellipticine, are modified in root meristem cells of Allium cepa by MG132, an inhibitor of 26S proteasomes.

    PubMed

    Żabka, Aneta; Winnicki, Konrad; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Maszewski, Janusz

    2015-11-01

    DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II), a highly specialized nuclear enzyme, resolves various entanglement problems concerning DNA that arise during chromatin remodeling, transcription, S-phase replication, meiotic recombination, chromosome condensation and segregation during mitosis. The genotoxic effects of two Topo II inhibitors known as potent anti-cancer drugs, etoposide (ETO) and ellipticine (EPC), were assayed in root apical meristem cells of Allium cepa. Despite various types of molecular interactions between these drugs and DNA-Topo II complexes at the chromatin level, which have a profound negative impact on the genome integrity (production of double-strand breaks, chromosomal bridges and constrictions, lagging fragments of chromosomes and their uneven segregation to daughter cell nuclei), most of the elicited changes were apparently similar, regarding both their intensity and time characteristics. No essential changes between ETO- and EPC-treated onion roots were noticed in the frequency of G1-, S-, G2-and M-phase cells, nuclear morphology, chromosome structures, tubulin-microtubule systems, extended distribution of mitosis-specific phosphorylation sites of histone H3, and the induction of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD). However, the important difference between the effects induced by the ETO and EPC concerns their catalytic activities in the presence of MG132 (proteasome inhibitor engaged in Topo II-mediated formation of cleavage complexes) and relates to the time-variable changes in chromosomal aberrations and AL-PCD rates. This result implies that proteasome-dependent mechanisms may contribute to the course of physiological effects generated by DNA lesions under conditions that affect the ability of plant cells to resolve topological problems that associated with the nuclear metabolic activities.

  19. The production of reactive oxygen species and the mitochondrial membrane potential are modulated during onion oil-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin-jiang; Stahl, Thorsten; Hu, Ying; Kassie, Fekadu; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2006-03-01

    Protective effects of Allium vegetables against cancers have been shown extensively in experimental animals and epidemiologic studies. We investigated cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis by onion oil extracted from Allium cepa, a widely consumed Allium vegetable, in human lung cancer A549 cells. GC/MS analysis suggested that propyl sulfides but not allyl sulfides are major sulfur-containing constituents of onion oil. Onion oil at 12.5 mg/L significantly induced apoptosis (13% increase of apoptotic cells) as indicated by sub-G1 DNA content. It also caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase; 25 mg/L onion oil increased the percentage of G2/M cells almost 6-fold compared with the dimethyl sulfoxide control. The action of onion oil may occur via a reactive oxygen species-dependent pathway because cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were blocked by the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and exogenous glutathione. Marked collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that dysfunction of the mitochondria may be involved in the oxidative burst and apoptosis induced by onion oil. Expression of phospho-cdc2 and phospho-cyclin B1 were downregulated by onion oil, perhaps accounting for the G2/M arrest. Overall, these results suggest that onion oil may exert chemopreventive action by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells.

  20. Encapsulation of a flavonoid-rich Allium cepa L. var. agrogatum don extract in β-cyclodextrin for transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhiying; Wu, Min; Guo, Qiushi; Yang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Bingren

    2013-05-22

    This work aims to evaluate the encapsulation of a flavonoid-rich Allium cepa L. var. agrogatum Don extract (ACADFE) in β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) by analyzing the percutaneous penetration in vitro and in vivo, leading to an explanation of the physical mechanism during transdermal transport. The optimal inclusion compound containing ACADFE in β-CD was prepared in a 1:3 molar ratio. The physicochemical characterization of the inclusion complex was performed using IR, UV-vis, simultaneous thermogravimetry (TG), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies. It was concluded that the inclusion complex could improve the aqueous solubility and bioavailability of ACADFE. The inclusion complex exhibited significant enhancement of percutaneous absorption both in vitro and in vivo. The dorsal skins of hairless mice were photographed using a confocal scanning laser microscope. Confocal scanning laser microscopy shows that penetration of the ACADFE-β-CD inclusion complex proceeds across skin via both follicular and transcellular routes.

  1. Determination of genotoxic effects of copper sulphate and cobalt chloride in Allium cepa root cells by chromosome aberration and comet assays.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Ciğerci, Ibrahim Hakki; Konuk, Muhsin; Fidan, A Fatih; Terzi, Hakan

    2009-05-01

    We used the anaphase-telophase chromosome aberration and comet (Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis, SCGE) assays to evaluate the genotoxic effects of copper sulphate (CS) and cobalt chloride (CC) chemicals prepared in two concentrations (EC(50), 2xEC(50)), using methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) as a positive control and untreated cells as a negative control. In Allium root growth inhibition test, EC(50) values for CS and CC are 1.5 and 5.5 ppm, respectively. Mitotic index (MI) decreased in all concentrations tested of CS and CC compared to the control at each exposure time. The bridge, stickiness, vagrant chromosomes, fragments, c-anaphase and multipolarity chromosome aberrations were observed in anaphase-telophase cells. The total chromosome aberrations were more frequent with an increasing in the exposure time and the concentrations of both chemicals. The genotoxicity of CS and CC in Allium cepa root cells was analyzed using a mild alkaline comet assay at pH 12.3, which allows the detection of single strand breaks. In all the concentrations, CS and CC induced a significant increase (P<0.05) in DNA damage. No significant difference was found between positive control (300+/-5.81) and 3 ppm CS (280+/-4.61). The methods used are applicable for biological monitoring of environmental pollutants.

  2. Onions: a source of unique dietary flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Slimestad, Rune; Fossen, Torgils; Vågen, Ingunn Molund

    2007-12-12

    Onion bulbs (Allium cepa L.) are among the richest sources of dietary flavonoids and contribute to a large extent to the overall intake of flavonoids. This review includes a compilation of the existing qualitative and quantitative information about flavonoids reported to occur in onion bulbs, including NMR spectroscopic evidence used for structural characterization. In addition, a summary is given to index onion cultivars according to their content of flavonoids measured as quercetin. Only compounds belonging to the flavonols, the anthocyanins, and the dihydroflavonols have been reported to occur in onion bulbs. Yellow onions contain 270-1187 mg of flavonols per kilogram of fresh weight (FW), whereas red onions contain 415-1917 mg of flavonols per kilogram of FW. Flavonols are the predominant pigments of onions. At least 25 different flavonols have been characterized, and quercetin derivatives are the most important ones in all onion cultivars. Their glycosyl moieties are almost exclusively glucose, which is mainly attached to the 4', 3, and/or 7-positions of the aglycones. Quercetin 4'-glucoside and quercetin 3,4'-diglucoside are in most cases reported as the main flavonols in recent literature. Analogous derivatives of kaempferol and isorhamnetin have been identified as minor pigments. Recent reports indicate that the outer dry layers of onion bulbs contain oligomeric structures of quercetin in addition to condensation products of quercetin and protocatechuic acid. The anthocyanins of red onions are mainly cyanidin glucosides acylated with malonic acid or nonacylated. Some of these pigments facilitate unique structural features like 4'-glycosylation and unusual substitution patterns of sugar moieties. Altogether at least 25 different anthocyanins have been reported from red onions, including two novel 5-carboxypyranocyanidin-derivatives. The quantitative content of anthocyanins in some red onion cultivars has been reported to be approximately 10% of the total

  3. [Chromosomal structure of the hybrids between Allium cepa L. and Allium fistulosum L. with relative resistance to downy mildew based on in situ hybridization].

    PubMed

    Budylin, M V; Kan, L Iu; Romanov, V S; Khrustaleva, L I

    2014-04-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used for a chromosomal composition study of the later generations of interspecific hybrids between A. cepa L. and A. fistulosum L., which are relatively resistant to downy mildew (peronosporosis). GISH revealed that F2 hybrids, which did not produce seeds, were triploids (2n = 3x = 24) with 24 chromosomes and possessed in their compliments 16 chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and eight chromosomes of A. cepa L. or eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and 16 chromosomes of A. cepa L. The advanced F5 hybrid, which produced few seeds, was amphidiploid with 32 chromosomes. BC1F5 hybrid was triploid with eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and 16 chromosomes of A. cepa L., which did not produce seeds. BC2 (BC1F5) plant was amphidiploid that possessed 4 recombinant chromosomes and produced few seeds. GISH results point to 2n-gametes formation in macro- and microsporogenesis of the hybrids. The mechanism of 2n-gametes formation and the possibility of apomixes events in the backcrossing progeny are discussed.

  4. Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator to measure cytotoxicity of surface water of the Quatorze River, located in Francisco Beltrão, Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Düsman, Elisângela; Luzza, Michel; Savegnago, Leoberto; Lauxen, Daiana; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta; Tonial, Ivane Benedetti; Sauer, Ticiane Pokrywiecki

    2014-03-01

    Due to an increase in water consumption in the industrial sector and within the Brazilian population, surface water that receives wastewater from industries, domestic sewage, agricultural industries, and sewage treatment stations can pollute water bodies when not properly treated. The water quality has been linked to catchment characteristics and intensity of agricultural activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to monitor the cytotoxic potential of the water of the Quatorze River, located in the town of Francisco Beltrão, Paraná, Brazil, along its route in the rural area, using the root meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. The results showed that the water at points 2, 3, and 4 were not cytotoxic because the rates of A. cepa cell division were unaltered. Point 1 had presented a mitotic index that was statistically larger than the negative control, indicating that this water contained substances with mitogenic capacity, as demonstrated by elevated values in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). However, the mitotic index values decreased along the route of the river (point 1 to point 4), possibly indicating a mechanism of self-purification, despite having received other sources of pollution. Thus, the results of this study show that the water of the Quatorze River should undergo periodic environmental monitoring at different times of the year, including cytotoxicity analysis, to evaluate the principal sources of contamination to maintain the quality of the river water and, consequently, to maintain human health and equilibrium of the entire ecosystem.

  5. Genotoxicity evaluation of two metallic-insecticides using Allium cepa and Tradescantia pallida: A new alternative against leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Raphael Bastão; de Souza, Cleiton Pereira; Bueno, Odair Correa; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2017-02-01

    In order to combat leaf-cutting ants, the pesticide sulfluramid used to be the most widely utilized active ingredient. However, its use was banned in 2009 by the Stockholm Convention, although some countries were allowed to continue using it. As an effective alternative to its replacement, researchers developed a metallic-insecticide system, which is a natural product linked to metal complexes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of these new metallic-insecticides in change the genetic material of non-target organisms. The tests were performed utilizing chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus tests in the Allium cepa test system and the Trad-MCN test in Tradescantia pallida. To better understand the results, one of the components of the formula, 5-methyl-phenanthroline, was also analyzed according to the same parameters. To A. cepa, the results showed that one of the metallic insecticides induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity at different concentrations, while the other metallic-insecticide showed chromosomal instability only at the highest concentration. The analysis of 5-methyl-phenanthroline revealed that it can be related with the positive results, since genotoxic effects were induced. In the Trad-MCN test, none of the metallic-insecticides showed genotoxic activity, although one of them induced more micronucleus formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The biphasic interphase-mitotic polarity of cell nuclei induced under DNA replication stress seems to be correlated with Pin2 localization in root meristems of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Żabka, Aneta; Trzaskoma, Paweł; Winnicki, Konrad; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Chmielnicka, Agnieszka; Maszewski, Janusz

    2015-02-01

    Long-term treatment of Allium cepa seedlings with low concentration of hydroxyurea (HU) results in a disruption of cell cycle checkpoints, leading root apex meristem (RAM) cells to an abnormal organization of nuclear structures forming interphase (I) and mitotic (M) domains of chromatin at opposite poles of the nucleus. Thus far, both critical cell length and an uneven distribution of cyclin B-like proteins along the nuclear axis have been recognized as essential factors needed to facilitate the formation of biphasic interphase-mitotic (IM) cells. Two new aspects with respect to their emergence are investigated in this study. The first concerns a relationship between the polarity of increasing chromatin condensation (IM orientation) and the acropetal (base→apex) alignment of RAM cell files. The second problem involves the effects of auxin (IAA), on the frequency of IM cells. We provide evidence that there is an association between the advanced M-poles of the IM cell nuclei and the polarized accumulation sites of auxin efflux carriers (PIN2 proteins) and IAA. Furthermore, our observations reveal exclusion regions for PIN2 proteins in the microtubule-rich structures, such as preprophase bands (PPBs) and phragmoplast. The current and previous studies have prompted us to formulate a hypothetical mechanism linking PIN2-mediated unilateral localization of IAA and the induction of bipolar IM cells in HU-treated RAMs of A. cepa.

  7. Assessment of the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of the commercial black dye in Allium cepa cells before and after bacterial biodegradation treatment.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Camargo, Bruna de Campos; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-10-01

    The present study evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic actions of different concentrations (50 and 200 μg/L) of BDCP (Black Dye Commercial Product) used by textile industries, before and after bacterial biodegradation, by the conventional staining cytogenetic technique and NOR-banding in Allium cepa cells. Differences in the chromosomal and nuclear aberrations and alterations in the number of nucleoli were observed in cells exposed to BDCP with and without the microbial treatment. The significant frequencies of chromosome and nuclear aberrations noted in the tests with bacterially biodegraded BDCP indicate that the metabolites generated by degradation are more genotoxic than the chemical itself. Losses of genetic material characterize a type of alteration that was mainly associated with the action of the original BDCP, whereas chromosome stickiness, nuclear buds and binucleated cells were the aberrations that were preferentially induced by BDCP metabolites after biodegradation. The significant frequencies of cell death observed in the tests with biodegraded BDCP also show the cytotoxic effects of the BDCP metabolites. The reduction in the total frequency of altered cells after the recovery treatments showed that the test organism A. cepa has the ability to recover from damage induced by BDCP and its metabolites after the exposure conditions are normalized.

  8. Comparison of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of plutonium-239 alpha particles and mobile phone GSM 900 radiation in the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Pesnya, Dmitry S; Romanovsky, Anton V

    2013-01-20

    The goal of this study was to compare the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of plutonium-239 alpha particles and GSM 900 modulated mobile phone (model Sony Ericsson K550i) radiation in the Allium cepa test. Three groups of bulbs were exposed to mobile phone radiation during 0 (sham), 3 and 9h. A positive control group was treated during 20min with plutonium-239 alpha-radiation. Mitotic abnormalities, chromosome aberrations, micronuclei and mitotic index were analyzed. Exposure to alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 and exposure to modulated radiation from mobile phone during 3 and 9h significantly increased the mitotic index. GSM 900 mobile phone radiation as well as alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 induced both clastogenic and aneugenic effects. However, the aneugenic activity of mobile phone radiation was more pronounced. After 9h of exposure to mobile phone radiation, polyploid cells, three-groups metaphases, amitoses and some unspecified abnormalities were detected, which were not registered in the other experimental groups. Importantly, GSM 900 mobile phone radiation increased the mitotic index, the frequency of mitotic and chromosome abnormalities, and the micronucleus frequency in a time-dependent manner. Due to its sensitivity, the A. cepa test can be recommended as a useful cytogenetic assay to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.

  9. Aluminum can induce alterations in the cellular localization and expression of three major nucleolar proteins in root tip cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L.

    PubMed

    Qin, Rong; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2013-01-01

    A 50 μM aluminum (Al) could induce nucleolar materials containing the argyrophilic proteins scattered in the nuclei and extruded from the nuclei into the cytoplasm in the root tip cells of Allium cepa. Unfortunately, what kinds of nucleolar proteins are affected has not been reported till now. In order to go deeper into the understanding of the cytological effects of Al on nucleolus and nucleolar proteins, alterations in the cellular localization and expression of three major nucleolar proteins: nucleophosmin, nucleolin, and fibrillarin were further examined under the treatment with Al in the root tip cells of A. cepa in the present study. Cytological effects of Al on nucleolus were observed by silver-staining method and three major nucleolar proteins: nucleophosmin, nucleolin, and fibrillarin were examined by western blotting. The results indicated that in the presence of 50 μM Al for 48 h the nucleolar proteins were translocated from nucleolus to nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. Western blotting data demonstrated the relatively higher expression of the three major nucleolar proteins when compared with control. Evidence from the present investigation indicated that Al had toxic effects on Ag-NOR proteins, nucleophosmin and nucleolin, and other kinds of nucleolar proteins, fibrillarin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Allium cepa bioassay to evaluate landfarming soil, before and after the addition of rice hulls to accelerate organic pollutants biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Souza, T S; Hencklein, F A; Angelis, D F; Gonçalves, R A; Fontanetti, C S

    2009-07-01

    Landfarming is a soil bioremediation technology practiced by oil refineries in order to reduce or eliminate hydrocarbons from petroleum sludge. The goal of the current study was to use Allium cepa bioassay to assess landfarming and landfarming with rice hulls amendment before and after hydrocarbons biodegradation assay in the laboratory. Three cytogenetic endpoints were used: mitotic and chromosome abnormalities (MCA), micronucleus (MN) and nuclear buds (NB). Landfarming presented 13.5 g/kg of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and caused strong clastogenic and mutagenic effects (p<0.05) in A. cepa. After 108 days of biodegradation, the landfarming reached the rate of 26.30 mmol of CO(2) released, the concentration of TPHs decreased by 27% and there was significant reduction in MCA, MN and NB. Landfarming treated with rice hulls had the highest release of CO(2), 110.9 mmol, associated with a remarkable reduction in TPHs concentration, 59%, and had the highest decrease in MCA, MN and NB (p>0.05). Our findings showed that the use of rice hulls accelerated the biodegradation efficacy of landfarming and reduced their clastogenicity, indicating that supplementary treatments are important to improve the efficiency of bioremediation processes.

  11. Induction of chromosome aberrations in the Allium cepa test system caused by the exposure of seeds to industrial effluents contaminated with azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Caritá, R; Marin-Morales, M A

    2008-06-01

    Numerous potentially mutagenic chemicals have been studied mainly because they can cause damaging and inheritable changes in the genetic material. Several tests are commonly used for biomonitoring pollution levels and to evaluate the effects of toxic and mutagenic agents present in the natural environment. This study aimed at assessing the potential of a textile effluent contaminated with azo dyes to induce chromosomal and nuclear aberrations in Allium cepa test systems. A continuous exposure of seeds in samples of the textile effluent in different concentrations was carried out (0.3%, 3%, 10%, and 100%). Cells in interphase and undergoing division were examined to assess the presence of chromosome aberrations, nuclear changes, and micronuclei. Our results revealed a mutagenic effect of the effluent at concentrations of 10% and 100%. At lower concentrations, the effluent (3% and 0.3%) did not induce mutagenic alterations in the test organism A. cepa. These findings are of concern, since cell damage may be transmitted to subsequent generations, possibly affecting the organism as a whole, as well as the local biota exposed to the effluent discharge. If the damage results in cell death, the development of the organism may be affected, which could also lead to its death.

  12. Cytogenetic and microtubule array effects of the zineb-containing commercial fungicide formulation Azzurro(®) on meristematic root cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Andrioli, Nancy B; Soloneski, Sonia; Larramendy, Marcelo L; Mudry, Marta D

    2012-02-18

    Zineb [ethylene bis(dithiocarbamate) zinc] is a widely employed foliar fungicide for agricultural and industrial applications. Allium cepa L. is a reliable model for the assessment of xenobiotic genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. We evaluated the effects of the zineb-containing commercial formulation Azzurro(®) (70% zineb) in cell cycle stages of the meristem root cells of A. cepa. The mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations at anaphase/telophase (CAs), micronuclei (MN), and abnormalities in immunodetected microtubule structures, e.g., preprophasic band (PPB), mitotic spindle (MS), and phragmoplast (Phrag), were used as end-points. Azzurro(®) (1 and 10μg/ml) induced a significant increase in the frequency of CAs (P<0.05), and the higher concentration inhibited the MI (P<0.05) compared to control values. The frequency of MN did not differ from control values at any concentration. Treatment with 1μg/ml Azzurro(®) induced a significant increase in the frequency of abnormal PPB (P<0.01), MS (P<0.001), and Phrag (P<0.01) and, at 10μg/ml, enhancements in the frequencies of abnormal MS (P<0.05) and Phrag (P<0.05) were seen. A tubulin immunodetection assay showed that exposure to Azzurro(®) interferes with normal assembly of microtubule structures during mitosis.

  13. Mitochondrial and Chromosomal Damage Induced by Oxidative Stress in Zn(2+) Ions, ZnO-Bulk and ZnO-NPs treated Allium cepa roots.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Bilal; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Azam, Ameer; Al-Shaeri, Majed; Khan, Mohammad Saghir; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed

    2017-01-25

    Large-scale synthesis and release of nanomaterials in environment is a growing concern for human health and ecosystem. Therefore, we have investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), zinc oxide bulk (ZnO-Bulk), and zinc ions (Zn(2+)) in treated roots of Allium cepa, under hydroponic conditions. ZnO-NPs were characterized by UV-visible, XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy and TEM analyses. Bulbs of A. cepa exposed to ZnO-NPs (25.5 nm) for 12 h exhibited significant decrease (23 ± 8.7%) in % mitotic index and increase in chromosomal aberrations (18 ± 7.6%), in a dose-dependent manner. Transmission electron microcopy and FT-IR data suggested surface attachment, internalization and biomolecular intervention of ZnO-NPs in root cells, respectively. The levels of TBARS and antioxidant enzymes were found to be significantly greater in treated root cells vis-à-vis untreated control. Furthermore, dose-dependent increase in ROS production and alterations in ΔΨm were observed in treated roots. FT-IR analysis of root tissues demonstrated symmetric and asymmetric P=O stretching of >PO2(-) at 1240 cm(-1) and stretching of C-O ribose at 1060 cm(-1), suggestive of nuclear damage. Overall, the results elucidated A. cepa, as a good model for assessment of cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage with ZnO-NPs and Zn(2+) in plants.

  14. Analysis of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on E. coli, human blood cells and Allium cepa suggests a greater toxic potential of hair dye.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Swati; Sasmal, Kankaayan; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Singh, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are among the most important emerging environmental contaminants in recent time. PPCPs include wide range of cosmetics, among which hair dyes, are immensely popular in modern society. However, impact of hair dye and its residual discharged to the environment in relation to human health and ecological imbalance have not been widely studied. Based on the result of initial survey among the group of populations of eastern India, three most popular and commonly used permanent hair dyes are selected. Working sample of dye is prepared as recommended on the instructions booklet of the hair dye. The effect of three dyes is studied on Escherichia coli, human red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and Allium cepa bulbs by growth inhibition, hemolysis, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and A. cepa micronuclei assays respectively. The Lethal dose (LD) demonstrated significant differences among three dyes and the model systems. In vitro hemolytic assays performed on RBC, and MTT assays on WBC show the cytotoxic effects of hair dye. Significant growth inhibition of E. coli has also been noted. In addition, the root tips of A. cepa treated with the dye have shown major chromosomal abnormalities coupled with cell division retardation. Here low mitotic index confirm cell division retardation. Finally, results of in vitro studies of dye-DNA interactions demonstrate electrostatic interaction. Combing all these results it confirms that hair dyes are cytotoxic and may cause mutagenic effect on living cells irrespective of microbes, plant and animal system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mitochondrial and Chromosomal Damage Induced by Oxidative Stress in Zn2+ Ions, ZnO-Bulk and ZnO-NPs treated Allium cepa roots

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Bilal; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Azam, Ameer; Al-Shaeri, Majed; Khan, Mohammad Saghir; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Musarrat, Javed

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale synthesis and release of nanomaterials in environment is a growing concern for human health and ecosystem. Therefore, we have investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), zinc oxide bulk (ZnO-Bulk), and zinc ions (Zn2+) in treated roots of Allium cepa, under hydroponic conditions. ZnO-NPs were characterized by UV-visible, XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy and TEM analyses. Bulbs of A. cepa exposed to ZnO-NPs (25.5 nm) for 12 h exhibited significant decrease (23 ± 8.7%) in % mitotic index and increase in chromosomal aberrations (18 ± 7.6%), in a dose-dependent manner. Transmission electron microcopy and FT-IR data suggested surface attachment, internalization and biomolecular intervention of ZnO-NPs in root cells, respectively. The levels of TBARS and antioxidant enzymes were found to be significantly greater in treated root cells vis-à-vis untreated control. Furthermore, dose-dependent increase in ROS production and alterations in ΔΨm were observed in treated roots. FT-IR analysis of root tissues demonstrated symmetric and asymmetric P=O stretching of >PO2− at 1240 cm−1 and stretching of C-O ribose at 1060 cm−1, suggestive of nuclear damage. Overall, the results elucidated A. cepa, as a good model for assessment of cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage with ZnO-NPs and Zn2+ in plants. PMID:28120857

  16. Exogenous ethylene inhibits sprout growth in onion bulbs

    PubMed Central

    Bufler, Gebhard

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Exogenous ethylene has recently gained commercial interest as a sprouting inhibitor of onion bulbs. The role of ethylene in dormancy and sprouting of onions, however, is not known. Methods A cultivar (Allium cepa ‘Copra’) with a true period of dormancy was used. Dormant and sprouting states of onion bulbs were treated with supposedly saturating doses of ethylene or with the ethylene-action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Initial sprouting was determined during storage at 18 °C by monitoring leaf blade elongation in a specific size class of leaf sheaths. Changes in ATP content and sucrose synthase activity in the sprout leaves, indicators of the sprouting state, were determined. CO2 and ethylene production of onion bulbs during storage were recorded. Key results Exogenous ethylene suppressed sprout growth of both dormant and already sprouting onion bulbs by inhibiting leaf blade elongation. In contrast to this growth-inhibiting effect, ethylene stimulated CO2 production by the bulbs about 2-fold. The duration of dormancy was not significantly affected by exogenous ethylene. However, treatment of dormant bulbs with 1-MCP caused premature sprouting. Conclusions Exogenous ethylene proved to be a powerful inhibitor of sprout growth in onion bulbs. The dormancy breaking effect of 1-MCP indicates a regulatory role of endogenous ethylene in onion bulb dormancy. PMID:18940850

  17. Effects of aluminum on nucleoli in root tip cells and selected physiological and biochemical characters in Allium cepa var. agrogarum L

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Increased Al concentration causes reduction of mitotic activity, induction of nucleolar alteration, increase of the production of ROS and alteration of several antioxidant enzyme activities in plant cells. Allium cepa is an excellent plant and a useful biomarker for environmental monitoring. Limited information is available about the effects of Al on nucleoli, antioxidant enzyme system, contents of MDA and soluble protein in A. cepa. Therefore, we carried out the investigation in order to better understand the effects of Al on the growth, nucleoli in root tip cells and selected physiological and biochemical characters. Results The results showed that the root growth exposed to 50 μM Al was inhibited significantly. 50 μM Al could induce some particles of argyrophilic proteins scattered in the nuclei and extruded from the nucleoli into the cytoplasm. The nucleolus did not disaggregate normally and still remained its characteristic structure during metaphase. Nucleolar reconstruction was inhibited. 50 μM Al induced high activities of SOD and POD in leaves and roots significantly (P < 0.05) when compared with control, whereas the level of CAT was low significantly (P < 0.05). At 50 μM Al the content of MDA in leaves was high significantly (P < 0.05) at 9th day and in roots increased (P < 0.05) with prolonging the treatment time during 6-12 days. The soluble protein content in leaves treated with 50 μM Al was high significantly (P < 0.05) at 6th day and increased with prolonging the treatment time. Conclusions We suggest that variations in nucleoli and the alterations of antioxidant enzyme activities, MDA and soluble protein contents in Allium cepa can serve as useful biomarkers, which can provide valuable information for monitoring and forecasting effects of exposure to Al in real scenarios conditions. Among the antioxidant enzymes SOD and POD appear to play a key role in the antioxidant defense mechanism under Al toxicity condition. Data from MDA

  18. An onion byproduct affects plasma lipids in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Marín, Eduvigis; Jensen, Runa I; Krath, Britta N; Kristensen, Mette; Poulsen, Morten; Cano, M Pilar; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Dragsted, Lars O

    2010-05-12

    Onion may contribute to the health effects associated with high fruit and vegetable consumption. A considerable amount of onion production ends up as waste that might find use in foods. Onion byproduct has not yet been explored for potential health benefits. The aim of this study is to elucidate the safety and potential role of onion byproducts in affecting risk markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). For that purpose, the effects of an onion byproduct, Allium cepa L. cepa 'Recas' (OBP), and its two derived fractions, an ethanolic extract (OE) and a residue (OR), on the distribution of plasma lipids and on factors affecting cholesterol metabolism in healthy rats have been investigated. The OBP or its fractions did not significantly reduce cholesterol or down-regulate hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) gene expression. The OR even had the effect of increasing plasma triacylglycerides (TAG) and cholesterol in the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) fraction. Neither total bile acids nor total primary or secondary bile acids were significantly affected by feeding rats the OBP or its fractions. Principal component analysis combining all markers revealed that the controls could be completely separated from OBP, OE, and OR groups in the scores plot and also that OE and OR groups were separated. Plasma lipids and bile acid excretion were the discriminating loading factors for separating OE and OR but also contributed to the separation of onion-fed animals and controls. It was concluded that the onion byproduct did not present significant beneficial effects on individual markers related to plasma lipid transport in this healthy rat model but that onion byproduct contains factors with the ability to modulate plasma lipids and lipoprotein levels.

  19. Fresh onion juice enhanced copulatory behavior in male rats with and without paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Allouh, Mohammed Z; Daradka, Haytham M; Al Barbarawi, Mohammed M; Mustafa, Ayman G

    2014-02-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is one of the most commonly cultivated species of the family Liliaceae, and has long been used in dietary and therapeutic applications. Treatment with fresh onion juice has been reported to promote testosterone production in male rats. Testosterone is the male sex hormone responsible for enhancing sexual libido and potency. This study aimed to investigate the effects of onion juice on copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats and in male rats with paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction. Sexually experienced male rats were divided into seven groups: a control group, three onion juice-treated groups, a paroxetine-treated group, and two groups treated with paroxetine plus different doses of onion juice. At the end of the treatments, sexual behavior parameters and testosterone levels were measured and compared among the groups. Administration of onion juice significantly reduced mount frequency and latency and increased the copulatory efficacy of potent male rats. In addition, administration of onion juice attenuated the prolonged ejaculatory latency period induced by paroxetine and increased the percentage of ejaculating rats. Serum testosterone levels increased significantly by onion juice administration. However, a significant reduction in testosterone because of paroxetine therapy was observed. This reduction was restored to normal levels by administration of onion juice. This study conclusively demonstrates that fresh onion juice improves copulatory behavior in sexually potent male rats and in those with paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction by increasing serum testosterone levels.

  20. Direct comparison between genomic constitution and flavonoid contents in Allium multiple alien addition lines reveals chromosomal locations of genes related to biosynthesis from dihydrokaempferol to quercetin glucosides in scaly leaf of shallot (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Masuzaki, S; Shigyo, M; Yamauchi, N

    2006-02-01

    The extrachromosome 5A of shallot (Allium cepa L., genomes AA) has an important role in flavonoid biosynthesis in the scaly leaf of Allium fistulosum-shallot monosomic addition lines (FF+nA). This study deals with the production and biochemical characterisation of A. fistulosum-shallot multiple alien addition lines carrying at least 5A to determine the chromosomal locations of genes for quercetin formation. The multiple alien additions were selected from the crossing between allotriploid FFA (female symbol) and A. fistulosum (male symbol). The 113 plants obtained from this cross were analysed by a chromosome 5A-specific PGI isozyme marker of shallot. Thirty plants were preliminarily selected for an alien addition carrying 5A. The chromosome numbers of the 30 plants varied from 18 to 23. The other extrachromosomes in 19 plants were completely identified by using seven other chromosome markers of shallot. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of the 19 multiple additions were conducted to identify the flavonoid compounds produced in the scaly leaves. Direct comparisons between the chromosomal constitution and the flavonoid contents of the multiple alien additions revealed that a flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) gene for the synthesis of quercetin from kaempferol was located on 7A and that an anonymous gene involved in the glucosidation of quercetin was on 3A or 4A. As a result of supplemental SCAR analyses by using genomic DNAs from two complete sets of A. fistulosum-shallot monosomic additions, we have assigned F3'H to 7A and flavonol synthase to 4A.

  1. Molecular characterization of transgenic shallots (Allium cepa L.) by adaptor ligation PCR (AL-PCR) and sequencing of genomic DNA flanking T-DNA borders.

    PubMed

    Zheng, S J; Henken, B; Sofiari, E; Jacobsen, E; Krens, F A; Kik, C

    2001-06-01

    Genomic DNA blot hybridization is traditionally used to demonstrate that, via genetic transformation, foreign genes are integrated into host genomes. However, in large genome species, such as Allium cepa L., the use of genomic DNA blot hybridization is pushed towards its limits, because a considerable quantity of DNA is needed to obtain enough genome copies for a clear hybridization pattern. Furthermore, genomic DNA blot hybridization is a time-consuming method. Adaptor ligation PCR (AL-PCR) of genomic DNA flanking T-DNA borders does not have these drawbacks and seems to be an adequate alternative to genomic DNA blot hybridization. Using AL-PCR we proved that T-DNA was integrated into the A. cepa genome of three transgenic lines transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 (pCAMBIA 1301). The AL-PCR patterns obtained were specific and reproducible for a given transgenic line. The results showed that T-DNA integration took place and gave insight in the number of T-DNA copies present. Comparison of AL-PCR and previously obtained genomic DNA blot hybridization results pointed towards complex T-DNA integration patterns in some of the transgenic plants. After cloning and sequencing the AL-PCR products, the junctions between plant genomic DNA and the T-DNA insert could be analysed in great detail. For example it was shown that upon T-DNA integration a 66 bp genomic sequence was deleted, and no filler DNA was inserted. Primers located within the left and right flanking genomic DNA in transgenic shallot plants were used to recover the target site of T-DNA integration.

  2. 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone in field-grown onion.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2013-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the impact of soil amendments on concentrations of two volatile organic compounds, 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone, in onion bulbs. The soil in five plots was mixed with sewage sludge, five plots were mixed with yard waste compost, five plots were mixed with laying hen manure each at 15 t acre(-1), and five unamended plots that never received soil amendments were used for comparison purposes. Plots (n = 20) were planted with onion, Allium cepa L. var. Super Star-F1 bulbs. Gas chromatographic/mass spetrometric (GC/MS) analyses of mature onion bulbs crude extracts revealed the presence of two major fragment ions that correspond to 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone. Soil amended with yard waste compost enhanced 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone production by 31 and 59%, respectively. Soil amended with chicken manure enhanced 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone production by 28 and 43%, respectively. Concentrations of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone were lowest in onion bulbs of plants grown in sewage sludge and unamended soil, respectively. The increased concentrations of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone in onion bulbs may provide a protective character against insect and spider mite attack in field grown onions.

  3. Antioxidant Effects of Methanol Extract of Allium cepa linn on Cyanide-induced Renal Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Ola-Mudathir, K F; Maduagwu, E N

    2014-12-29

    The protective effects of onion was assessed in the Kidney of rats following sub-acute exposure to cyanide. These effects were compared to those of sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3), a classical antidote of cyanide toxicity. The rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 animals each. Group 1 was administered distilled water, Group 2,3,4, 5, and 6 were administered 600 mg onion/kg bwt/day, 7 mg KCN/kg bwt/day, 300 mg onion/kg bwt/day+ 7 mg KCN/kg bwt/day, 600 mg onion/kg bwt/day+ 7mgKCN/kg bwt/day, 600mg Na2S2O3/kg bwt/day+ 7mgKCN/kg bwt/day respectively for 2 weeks. Group 3, 4 and 5 were pre-administered with 300mg onion/kg bwt/day, 600mg onion/kg bwt/day and 600mg Na2S2O3 /kg bwt/day respectively for 2 weeks. Serum and urine creatinine and urea level were assessed as a measure of kidney function. Oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters were estimated in Kidney. Serum creatinine and urea levels were significantly higher in the cyanide treated rats compared with control. This was accompanied by significant reduction in the urine level of creatinine and urea. Co-administration with onion extract and Na2S2O3 reverse the situation in both the serum and urine. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in rats treated with cyanide (3.846±0.20μg/g) was significantly increased in the kidney relative to control (0.691±0.15μg/g). This was accompanied with a decreased in antioxidant enzymes Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) (2.0±0.09U/mg), Catalase (CAT) (0.014±0.001katf),Glutathione-S-Tranferase (GST) (0.015±0.009nMol/mg) and non-enzymatic antioxidant Reduced Glutathione (GSH) (4.006±0.09μg/ml) compared with control (4.8±0.13 U/mg, 0.047±0.001 katf, 0.022±0.0013 nMol/mg, 6.802±0.2 μg/ml respectively). Co-administration with onion extract and Na2S2O3 significantly increased these antioxidant enzymes and significantly decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde in the kidney. The results indicate that onion extract reduced lipid peroxidation in the kidney and increased

  4. Evaluation of genotoxic effects of five flavour enhancers (glutamates) on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Türkoğlu, Şifa

    2015-09-01

    The effects of different treatments with flavour enhancers monosodium glutamate, monopotassium glutamate, calcium diglutamate, monoammonium glutamate, and magnesium diglutamate on the cytology, DNA content, and interphase nuclear volume (INV) of A. cepa were investigated. Three concentrations of these additives - 20, 40, and 60 ppm - were applied for 6, 12, and 24 h. All the concentrations of these chemicals showed an inhibitory effect on cell division in root tips of A. cepa and caused a decrease in mitotic index values. Additionally, all the treatments changed the frequency of mitotic phases when compared with the control groups. These compounds increased chromosome abnormalities, among them are micronuclei, c-mitosis, anaphase bridges, stickiness, binucleus, laggards, and breaks. The nuclear DNA content and INV decreased when compared with control groups.

  5. Vermistabilization of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) waste produced from sugar factory using earthworm Eisenia fetida: Genotoxic assessment by Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, sugar beet mud (SBM) and pulp (SBP) produced as a waste by-products of the sugar industry were mixed with cattle dung (CD) at different ratios on dry weight basis for vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida. Minimum mortality and highest population of worms were observed in 20:80 (SBM20) mixture of SBM and 10:90 (SBP10) ratios. However, increased percentages of wastes significantly affected the growth and fecundity of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, increased from initial feed mixture to final products (i.e., vermicompost), while organic carbon (OC), C:N ratio and electrical conductivity (EC) declined in all the products of vermicomposting. Although there was an increase in the contents of all the heavy metals except copper, chromium, and iron in SBM, the contents were less than the international standards for compost which indicates that the vermicompost can be used in the fields without any ill effects on the soil. Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of pre- and post-vermicomposted SBM to understand the effect of vermicomposting on the reduction of toxicity. Genotoxicity analysis of post-vermicomposted samples of SBM revealed 18-75% decline in the aberration frequencies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was recorded to identify the changes in texture in the control and vermicomposted samples. The vermicomposted mixtures in the presence of earthworms confirm more numerous surface irregularities that prove to be good manure.

  6. Allium cepa Extract and Quercetin Protect Neuronal Cells from Oxidative Stress via PKC-ε Inactivation/ERK1/2 Activation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of various neurologic disorders. Allium cepa extract (ACE) and their main flavonoid component quercetin (QCT) possess antioxidant activities and protect neurons from oxidative stress. We investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms, particularly those linked to the antioxidant effects of the ACE. Primary cortical neuronal cells derived from mouse embryos were preincubated with ACE or QCT for 30 min and exposed to L-buthionine sulfoximine for 4~24 h. We found that ACE and QCT significantly decreased neuronal death and the ROS increase induced by L-buthionine-S, R-sulfoximine (BSO) in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, ACE and QCT activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), leading to downregulation of protein kinase C-ε (PKC-ε) in BSO-stimulated neuronal cells. In addition, ACE and QCT decreased the phosphorylated levels of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Our results provide new insight into the protective mechanism of ACE and QCT against oxidative stress in neuronal cells. The results suggest that the inactivation of PKC-ε induced by phosphorylating ERK1/2 is responsible for the neuroprotective effect of ACE and QCT against BSO-induced oxidative stress. PMID:27668036

  7. Sanguinarine-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis-like programmed cell death(AL-PCD) in root meristem cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Żabka, Aneta; Winnicki, Konrad; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Maszewski, Janusz

    2017-03-01

    A vast number of studies on plant cell systems clearly indicate that various biotic and abiotic stresses give rise to the uncontrolled increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Excess concentrations of ROS result in damage to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and DNA, which may lead, in consequence, to the apoptotic cell death. The current study investigates the effects of sanguinarine (SAN), a natural alkaloid derived from the roots of Sanguinaria canadensis, on root apical meristem cells of Allium cepa. It is shown that SAN treatment generated large amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2·-). Oxidative stress induced in SAN-treated cells was correlated with DNA fragmentation, formation of micronuclei (MN), altered and 'degenerated' chromatin structures characteristic of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD). The experiments with SAN + MG132 (a proteasome inhibitor engaged in Topo II-mediated formation of cleavable complexes) and SAN + ascorbic acid (AA; H2O2 scavenger) seem to suggest, however, that the high level of H2O2 is not the only factor responsible for changes observed at the chromatin level and for the consequent cell death. Our findings imply that Topo II-DNA covalent complexes and 26S proteasomes are also involved in SAN-induced DNA damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Lead on the Morphology and Structure of the Nucleolus in the Root Tip Meristematic Cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ze; Zhang, Huaning; Qin, Rong; Zou, Jinhua; Wang, Junran; Shi, Qiuyue; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2014-01-01

    To study the toxic mechanisms of lead (Pb) in plants, the effects of Pb on the morphology and structure of the nucleolus in root tip meristematic cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. were investigated. Fluorescence labeling, silver-stained indirect immunofluorescent microscopy and western blotting were used. Fluorescence labeling showed that Pb ions were localized in the meristematic cells and the uptake and accumulation of Pb increased with treatment time. At low concentrations of Pb (1–10 μM) there were persistent nucleoli in some cells during mitosis, and at high concentration (100 μM) many of the nucleolar organizing regions were localized on sticky chromosomes in metaphase and anaphase cells. Pb induced the release of particles containing argyrophilic proteins to be released from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. These proteins contained nucleophosmin and nucleolin. Pb also caused the extrusion of fibrillarin from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. Western blotting demonstrated the increased expression of these three major nucleolar proteins under Pb stress. PMID:25089875

  9. DNA integrity of onion root cells under catechol influence.

    PubMed

    Petriccione, Milena; Forte, Valentina; Valente, Diego; Ciniglia, Claudia

    2013-07-01

    Catechol is a highly toxic organic pollutant, usually abundant in the waste effluents of industrial processes and agricultural activities. The environmental sources of catechol include pesticides, wood preservatives, tanning lotion, cosmetic creams, dyes, and synthetic intermediates. Genotoxicity of catechol at a concentration range 5 × 10(-1)-5 mM was evaluated by applying random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and time-lapse DNA laddering tests using onion (Allium cepa) root cells as the assay system. RAPD analysis revealed polymorphisms in the nucleotidic sequence of DNA that reflected the genotoxic potential of catechol to provoke point mutations, or deletions, or chromosomal rearrangements. Time-lapse DNA laddering test provided evidence that catechol provoked DNA necrosis and apoptosis. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining could distinguish apoptotic from necrotic cells in root cells of A. cepa.

  10. Transcriptome Sequencing Analyses between the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line and Its Maintainer Line in Welsh Onion (Allium fistulosum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qianchun; Lan, Yanping; Wen, Changlong; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yongqin

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is important for exploiting heterosis in crop plants and also serves as a model for investigating nuclear–cytoplasmic interaction. The molecular mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration was investigated in several important economic crops but remains poorly understood in the Welsh onion. Therefore, we compared the differences between the CMS line 64-2 and its maintainer line 64-1 using transcriptome sequencing with the aim of determining critical genes and pathways associated with male sterility. This study combined two years of RNA-seq data; there were 1504 unigenes (in May 2013) and 2928 unigenes (in May 2014) that were differentially expressed between the CMS and cytoplasmic male maintainer Welsh onion varieties. Known CMS-related genes were found in the set of differentially expressed genes and checked by qPCR. These genes included F-type ATPase, NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase, etc. Overall, this study demonstrated that the CMS regulatory genes and pathways may be associated with the mitochondria and nucleus in the Welsh onion. We believe that this transcriptome dataset will accelerate the research on CMS gene clones and other functional genomics research on A. fistulosum L. PMID:27376286

  11. Protective role of Royal Jelly (honeybee) on genotoxicity and lipid peroxidation, induced by petroleum wastewater, in Allium cepa L. root tips.

    PubMed

    Türkmen, Zafer; Cavuşoğlu, Kültiğin; Cavuşoğlu, Kürşat; Yapar, Kürşad; Yalçin, Emine

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, the protective effect of Royal Jelly (RJ) on genotoxicity and lipid peroxidation, induced by petroleum wastewater, in Allium cepa L. root-tip cells was investigated. For this purpose, we used the malondialdehyde (MDA) level, mitotic index (MI), frequency of micronucleus (MN) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) as indicators of genotoxicity and lipid peroxidation, and correlated these data with statistical parameters. In additional to the genotoxic analysis, we examined changes in the root anatomy of A. cepa seeds treated with the wastewater. Heavy metal concentrations in the wastewater were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The seeds were divided into six groups as control, wastewater and RJ treatment groups. They were treated with the wastewater alone, RJ alone (25 and 50 microm doses) and RJ + wastewater for 10 consecutive days. As a result, the mean concentrations of heavy metals in the wastewater were observed to be in the order: Pb > Fe > Al > Ni > Cu > Zn > Cr > Cd. The results showed that there was a significant alteration in MI and in the frequency of MN and CAs in the seeds exposed to the wastewater when compared with the controls. The wastewater exposure resulted in a significant increase in CAs and MN formation (P < 0.05). The wastewater also caused a decrease in MI (P < 0.05). Additionally, there was a significant increase in the MDA levels of the roots exposed to the wastewater (P < 0.05). Heavy metals in the petroleum wastewater significantly increased the MDA production, indicating lipid peroxidation. Moreover, light micrographs showed anatomical damages such as an accumulation of chemical compounds in cortex parenchyma, cell death, an unusual form of cell nucleus and unclear vascular tissue. However, the RJ treatment caused amelioration in the indices of lipid peroxidation and MI, and in the frequency of CAs and MN, when compared with the group treated with petroleum wastewater alone (P < 0.05). Also, the RJ

  12. Multiple garlic (Allium sativum L.) microRNAs regulate the immunity against the basal rot fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cepae.

    PubMed

    Chand, Subodh Kumar; Nanda, Satyabrata; Mishra, Rukmini; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2017-04-01

    The basal plate rot fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC), is the most devastating pathogen posing a serious threat to garlic (Allium sativum L.) production worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key modulators of gene expression related to development and defense responses in eukaryotes. However, the miRNA species associated with garlic immunity against FOC are yet to be explored. In the present study, a small RNA library developed from FOC infected resistant garlic line was sequenced to identify immune responsive miRNAs. Forty-five miRNAs representing 39 conserved and six novel sequences responsive to FOC were detected. qRT-PCR analyses further classified them into three classes based on their expression patterns in susceptible line CBT-As11 and in the resistant line CBT-As153. North-blot analyses of six selective miRNAs confirmed the qRT-PCR results. Expression studies on a selective set of target genes revealed a negative correlation with the complementary miRNAs. Furthermore, transgenic garlic plant overexpresing miR164a, miR168a and miR393 showed enhanced resistance to FOC, as revealed by decreased fungal growth and up-regulated expression of defense-responsive genes. These results indicate that multiple miRNAs are involved in garlic immunity against FOC and that the overexpression of miR164a, miR168a and miR393 can augment garlic resistance to Fusarium basal rot infection.

  13. Allium cepa L. and Quercetin Inhibit RANKL/Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-Induced Osteoclastogenesis by Downregulating NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tatiane; Figueiredo, Camila A; Brito, Carlos; Stavroullakis, Alexander; Ferreira, Ana Carolina; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio; Prakki, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the in vitro modulatory effects of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE) and quercetin (Qt) on osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced). Methods. RAW 264.7 cells were differentiated with 30 ng/mL of RANKL, costimulated with PgLPS (1 µg/mL), and treated with AcE (50-1000 µg/mL) or Qt (1.25, 2.5, or 5 µM). Cell viability was determined by alamarBlue and protein assays. Nuclei morphology was analysed by DAPI staining. TRAP assays were performed as follows: p-nitrophenyl phosphate was used to determine the acid phosphatase activity of the osteoclasts and TRAP staining was used to evaluate the number and size of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclast cells. Von Kossa staining was used to measure osteoclast resorptive activity. Cytokine levels were measured on osteoclast precursor cell culture supernatants. Using western blot analysis, p-IκBα and IκBα degradation, inhibitor of NF-kappaB, were evaluated. Results. Both AcE and Qt did not affect cell viability and significantly reduced osteoclastogenesis compared to control. We observed lower production of IL-6 and IL-1α and an increased production of IL-3 and IL-4. AcE and Qt downregulated NF-κB pathway. Conclusion. AcE and Qt may be inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced) via attenuation of RANKL/PgLPS-induced NF-κB activation.

  14. Allium cepa L. and Quercetin Inhibit RANKL/Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-Induced Osteoclastogenesis by Downregulating NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Tatiane; Figueiredo, Camila A.; Stavroullakis, Alexander; Ferreira, Ana Carolina; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the in vitro modulatory effects of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE) and quercetin (Qt) on osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced). Methods. RAW 264.7 cells were differentiated with 30 ng/mL of RANKL, costimulated with PgLPS (1 µg/mL), and treated with AcE (50–1000 µg/mL) or Qt (1.25, 2.5, or 5 µM). Cell viability was determined by alamarBlue and protein assays. Nuclei morphology was analysed by DAPI staining. TRAP assays were performed as follows: p-nitrophenyl phosphate was used to determine the acid phosphatase activity of the osteoclasts and TRAP staining was used to evaluate the number and size of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclast cells. Von Kossa staining was used to measure osteoclast resorptive activity. Cytokine levels were measured on osteoclast precursor cell culture supernatants. Using western blot analysis, p-IκBα and IκBα degradation, inhibitor of NF-kappaB, were evaluated. Results. Both AcE and Qt did not affect cell viability and significantly reduced osteoclastogenesis compared to control. We observed lower production of IL-6 and IL-1α and an increased production of IL-3 and IL-4. AcE and Qt downregulated NF-κB pathway. Conclusion. AcE and Qt may be inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced) via attenuation of RANKL/PgLPS-induced NF-κB activation. PMID:26273314

  15. Post-treatment with plant extracts used in Brazilian folk medicine caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate in the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Frescura, Viviane Dal-Souto; Kuhn, Andrielle Wouters; Laughinghouse, Haywood Dail; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; Tedesco, Solange Bosio

    2013-08-01

    Species of the genus Psychotria are used for multiple purposes in Brazilian folk medicine, either as water infusions, baths or poultices. This study was aimed to evaluate the genotoxic and antiproliferative effects of infusions of Psychotria brachypoda and P. birotula on the Allium cepa test. Exposure to distilled water was used as a negative control, while exposure to glyphosate was used as a positive control. The interaction of extracts (as a post-treatment) with the effects of glyphosate was also studied. Results showed that glyphosate and the extracts of both P. brachypoda and P. birotula reduced the mitotic index as compared with the negative control (distilled water). Surprisingly, however, both extracts from P. brachypoda and P. birotula caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate when used as a post-treatment. Glyphosate also induced the highest number of cells with chromosomal alterations, which was followed by that of P. birotula extracts. However, the extracts from P. brachypoda did not show any significant genotoxic effect. Post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with distilled water allowed a partial recovery of the genotoxic effect of glyphosate, and some of the Psychotria extracts also did so. Notably, post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with P. brachypoda extracts induced a statistically significant apoptotic effect. It is concluded that P. brachypoda extracts show antiproliferative effects and are not genotoxic, while extracts of P. birotula show a less potent antiproliferative effect and may induce chromosomal abnormalities. The finding of a partial reversion of the effects of glyphosate by a post-treatment with extracts from both plants should be followed up.

  16. Inter- and intrachromosomal asynchrony of cell division cycle events in root meristem cells of Allium cepa: possible connection with gradient of cyclin B-like proteins

    PubMed Central

    Polit, Justyna Teresa; Maszewski, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    Alternate treatments of Allium cepa root meristems with hydroxyurea (HU) and caffeine give rise to extremely large and highly elongated cells with atypical images of mitotic divisions, including internuclear asynchrony and an unknown type of interchromosomal asynchrony observed during metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Another type of asynchrony that cannot depend solely on the increased length of cells was observed following long-term incubation of roots with HU. This kind of treatment revealed both cell nuclei entering premature mitosis and, for the first time, an uncommon form of mitotic abnormality manifested in a gradual condensation of chromatin (spanning from interphase to prometaphase). Immunocytochemical study of polykaryotic cells using anti-β tubulin antibodies revealed severe perturbations in the microtubular organization of preprophase bands. Quantitative immunofluorescence measurements of the control cells indicate that the level of cyclin B-like proteins reaches the maximum at the G2 to metaphase transition and then becomes reduced during later stages of mitosis. After long-term incubation with low doses of HU, the amount of cyclin B-like proteins considerably increases, and a significant number of elongated cells show gradients of these proteins spread along successive regions of the perinuclear cytoplasm. It is suggested that there may be a direct link between the effects of HU-mediated deceleration of S- and G2-phases and an enhanced concentration of cyclin B-like proteins. In consequence, the activation of cyclin B-CDK complexes gives rise to an abnormal pattern of premature mitotic chromosome condensation with biphasic nuclear structures having one part of chromatin decondensed, and the other part condensed. PMID:20490501

  17. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L).

    PubMed

    Chand, Subodh K; Nanda, Satyabrata; Joshi, Raj K

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of post-transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, six conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L.) were analyzed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in garlic seedlings post-treatment with FOC for 72 h. The induction of miR394 expression during FOC infection was restricted to the basal stem plate tissue, the primary site of infection. Garlic miR394 was also upregulated by exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Two putative targets of miR394 encoding F-box domain and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) family proteins were predicted and verified using 5' RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript levels of the predicted targets were significantly reduced in garlic plants exposed to FOC. When garlic cultivars with variable sensitivity to FOC were exposed to the pathogen, an upregulation of miR394 and down regulation of the targets were observed in both varieties. However, the expression pattern was delayed in the resistant genotypes. These results suggest that miR394 functions in negative modulation of FOC resistance and the difference in timing and levels of expression in variable genotypes could be examined as markers for selection of FOC resistant garlic cultivars.

  18. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L)

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Subodh K.; Nanda, Satyabrata; Joshi, Raj K.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of post-transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, six conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L.) were analyzed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in garlic seedlings post-treatment with FOC for 72 h. The induction of miR394 expression during FOC infection was restricted to the basal stem plate tissue, the primary site of infection. Garlic miR394 was also upregulated by exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Two putative targets of miR394 encoding F-box domain and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) family proteins were predicted and verified using 5′ RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript levels of the predicted targets were significantly reduced in garlic plants exposed to FOC. When garlic cultivars with variable sensitivity to FOC were exposed to the pathogen, an upregulation of miR394 and down regulation of the targets were observed in both varieties. However, the expression pattern was delayed in the resistant genotypes. These results suggest that miR394 functions in negative modulation of FOC resistance and the difference in timing and levels of expression in variable genotypes could be examined as markers for selection of FOC resistant garlic cultivars. PMID:26973694

  19. Isolation and identification of phase II enzyme-inducing agents from nonpolar extracts of green onion (Allium spp.).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hang; Parkin, Kirk

    2006-11-01

    The objective of the study was to isolate and identify potential cancer preventive constituents from green onion based on the ability to induce quinone reductase (QR, a representative phase II enzyme) in murine hepatoma cells (Hepa 1c1c7). Crude nonpolar solvent extracts were prepared from freeze-dried green onion by sequential refluxing with hexane and then ethyl acetate, followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Active fractions were subjected to the Hepa 1c1c7 bioassay-guided steps of flash chromatography, thin layer chromatography (TLC), and high-pressure preparative liquid chromatography (HPLC) to afford pure isolates capable of inducing QR. Multiple fractions were active in inducing QR. Five pure compounds were isolated from active fractions and identified using spectroscopic methods; these were p-hydroxyphenethyl trans-ferulate (1), 5,6-dimethyl-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (2), ferulic acid (3), 1-(6-hydroxy-[3]pyridyl)-propan-1-one (4), and N-trans-feruloyl 3-O-methyldopamine (5). p-Hydroxyphenethyl trans-ferulate (1) doubled QR specific activity in Hepa 1c1c7 cells at a level of 2.1 microg/mL (6.6 microM).

  20. Effects of cadmium on uptake and translocation of nutrient elements in different welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuhui; Zhou, Qixing; Sun, Xiaoyin; Ren, Wenjie

    2016-03-01

    The concentration of nutrient elements is an important quality characteristic of vegetables, and the variation in accumulation among cultivars can provide clues about the mechanism of low accumulation of heavy metals. Pot-culture experiments were arranged under four cadmium (Cd) treatments (CK, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0mg/kg) to explore influences of Cd on the accumulation of nutrient elements in 25 welsh onion cultivars. There were significant positive correlations (p<0.05) between Cd and nutrient elements in the pseudostems and leaves. There were also significant positive correlations in nutrient elements (p<0.05) among cultivars, which might be disturbed under high Cd treatments, especially for P, Fe and Mn. Our results suggested that there is a synergistic effect on the accumulation between Cd and nutrient elements, and within nutrient elements among cultivars. In addition the uptake and translocation process of Cd was closely related to Mn in welsh onion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Potassium chloride as stomatal osmoticum in Allium cepa L. , a species devoid of starch in guard cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schnabl, H.; Raschke, K.

    1980-01-01

    KCl was, in general, the major osmoticum in guard cells, irrespective of whether stomata had opened on leaves or in epidermal strips floating on solutions. The solute requirement varied between 50 and 110 femtomoles KCl per micrometer increase in aperture per pair of guard cells. Stomata did not open on solutions of K iminodiacetate, presumably because its anion could not be taken up. Stomata opened if KCl or KBr was provided. Taken together, the results indicate that the absence of starch from guard cells deprived them of the ability to produce malate in amounts of osmotic consequence and that the presence of absorbable Cl/sup -/ (or Br/sup -/) was necessary for stomatal opening. Previous nutrient supply of the plants determined whether the charges of K/sup +/ in guard cells were completely balanced by Cl/sup -/ or only partially. Addition of K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to the nutrient solution reduced the participation of Cl/sup -/ in stomatal ion transfer, even if epidermal strips of these plants were later exposed to KCl solution. Although malate appeared not to participate in stomatal ion transfer in onion, epidermal samples of this species did contain malate. Malate accumulated in the epidermis of leaves put into the light but disappeared from illuminated epidermal strips floating on solutions. In whole leaves, epidermal malate content was positively correlated with stomatal opening; in epidermal strips floating on solutions, the correlation was negative or absent.

  2. Triparental origin of triploid onion, Allium × cornutum (Clementi ex Visiani, 1842), as evidenced by molecular, phylogenetic and cytogenetic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reconstruction of the parental origins of cultivated plants from wild relatives, especially after long periods of domestication, is not a trivial task. However, recent advances in molecular phylogenetics, among other approaches, have proved to be very informative in analyses of the origin and evolution of polyploid genomes. An established minor garden crop, triploid onion Allium × cornutum (Clementi ex Visiani, 1842) (2n = 3x = 24), is widespread in southeastern Asia and Europe. Our previous cytogenetic analyses confirmed its highly heterozygous karyotype and indicated its possible complex triparental genome origin. Allium cepa L. and Allium roylei Stearn were suggested as two putative parental species of A. × cornutum, whereas the third parental species remained hitherto unknown. Results Here we report the phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacers ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 of 35S rDNA and the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) region of 5S rDNA of A. × cornutum and its relatives of the section Cepa. Both ITS and NTS sequence data revealed intra-individual variation in triploid onion, and these data clustered into the three main clades, each with high sequence homology to one of three other species of section Cepa: A. cepa, A. roylei, and unexpectedly, the wild Asian species Allium pskemense B. Fedtsh. Allium pskemense is therefore inferred to be the third, so far unknown, putative parental species of triploid onion Allium × cornutum. The 35S and 5S rRNA genes were found to be localised on somatic chromosomes of A. × cornutum and its putative parental species by double fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). The localisation of 35S and 5S rDNA in A. × cornutum chromosomes corresponded to their respective positions in the three putative parental species, A. cepa, A. pskemense, and A. roylei. GISH (genomic in situ hybridisation) using DNA of the three putative parental diploids corroborated the results of the phylogenetic study

  3. Evaluating an Action Threshold-Based Insecticide Program on Onion Cultivars Varying in Resistance to Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Nault, Brian A; Huseth, Anders S

    2016-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a highly destructive pest of onion, Allium cepa L., and its management relies on multiple applications of foliar insecticides. Development of insecticide resistance is common in T. tabaci populations, and new strategies are needed to relax existing levels of insecticide use, but still provide protection against T. tabaci without compromising marketable onion yield. An action threshold-based insecticide program combined with or without a thrips-resistant onion cultivar was investigated as an improved approach for managing T. tabaci infestations in commercial onion fields. Regardless of cultivar type, the average number of insecticide applications needed to manage T. tabaci infestations in the action-threshold based program was 4.3, while the average number of sprays in the standard weekly program was 7.2 (a 40% reduction). The mean percent reduction in numbers of applications following the action threshold treatment in the thrips-resistant onion cultivar, 'Advantage', was 46.7% (range 40-50%) compared with the standard program, whereas the percentage reduction in applications in action threshold treatments in the thrips-susceptible onion cultivar, 'Santana', was 34.3% (range 13-50%) compared with the standard program, suggesting a benefit of the thrips-resistant cultivar. Marketable bulb yields for both 'Advantage' and 'Santana' in the action threshold-based program were nearly identical to those in the standard program, indicating that commercially acceptable bulb yields will be generated with fewer insecticide sprays following an action threshold-based program, saving money, time and benefiting the environment. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Hypocholesterolemic Efficacy of Quercetin Rich Onion Juice in Healthy Mild Hypercholesterolemic Adults: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tsong-Ming; Chiu, Hui-Fang; Shen, You-Cheng; Chung, Chia-Chun; Venkatakrishnan, Kamesh; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2015-12-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely employed as a food ingredient as well as traditional remedy to treat fever, burns, and scurvy. The present study focused on the modulator efficacy of the quercetin rich onion juice on lipid profile and antioxidant status in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. Twenty-four healthy subjects with mild hypercholesterolemia (≧ 200 mg/dL) were recruited and divided into two groups, and they consumed 100 mL of onion juice or placebo every day for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected at initial, 2nd, 6th, 8th, 10th week for estimating various biochemical assays, as well as anthropometric indices. After 8 weeks of intervention, onion juice greatly decreased (p < 0.05) waist circumference, total cholesterol and LDL-c. In addition, it elevates (p < 0.05) total antioxidation capacity and prolong lag-time of LDL oxidation were also noted. To conclude, drinking onion juice could markedly suppress cholesterol level and elevate total antioxidation capacity. Hence, onion juice was probably recommended for combating various cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Applications of direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) in Allium chemistry. (Z)-butanethial S-oxide and 1-butenyl thiosulfinates and their S-(E)-1-butenylcysteine S-oxide precursor from Allium siculum.

    PubMed

    Kubec, Roman; Cody, Robert B; Dane, A John; Musah, Rabi A; Schraml, Jan; Vattekkatte, Abith; Block, Eric

    2010-01-27

    Lachrymatory (Z)-butanethial S-oxide along with several 1-butenyl thiosulfinates was detected by DART mass spectrometry upon cutting Allium siculum , a popular ornamental Allium species used in some cultures as a spice. (Z)-Butanethial S-oxide isolated from the plant was shown to be identical to a synthetic sample. Its likely precursor, (R(S),R(C),E)-S-(1-butenyl)cysteine S-oxide (homoisoalliin), was isolated from homogenates of A. siculum, and a closely related species Allium tripedale , and fully characterized. Through use of LC-MS, a series of related gamma-glutamyl derivatives were tentatively identified in A. siculum and A. tripedale homogenates, including gamma-glutamyl-(E)-S-(1-butenyl)cysteine and its S-oxide, gamma-glutamyl-S-butylcysteine and its S-oxide, and gamma-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine and its S-oxide. Because compounds containing the 1-butenyl group have not been previously identified in genus Allium species, this work extends the range of known Allium sulfur compounds. The general applicability of DART mass spectrometry in identifying naturally occurring, thermally fragile thial S-oxides and thiosulfinates is illustrated with onion, Allium cepa , as well as a plant from a different genus, Petiveria alliacea .

  6. Cytotoxicity of Spent Pot Liner on Allium cepa root tip cells: A comparative analysis in meristematic cell type on toxicity bioassays.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Marcel José; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Campos, José Marcello Salabert; Dos Santos Gedraite, Leonardo; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2016-11-01

    Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a waste generated during the production of aluminum. It is comprised of a mixture of substances most of which, like cyanide, aluminum and fluoride, are toxic. Previous studies indicate the highly toxic nature of SPL. However studies using cells of the differentiation/elongation zone of the root meristem (referred as M2 cells in this study) after a proper recovery period in water were never considered. Using these cells could be useful to further understanding the toxicity mechanisms of SPL. A comparative approach between the effects on M2 cells and meristematic cells of the proximal meristem zone (referred as M1 cells in this study) could lead to understanding how DNA damage caused by SPL behaves on successive generations of cells. Allium cepa cells were exposed to 4 different concentrations of SPL (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10gL(-1)) mixed with soil and diluted in a CaCl2 0.01M to simulate the ionic forces naturally encountered on the environment. A solution containing only soil diluted on CaCl2 0.01M was used as control. M1 and M2 cells were evaluated separately, taking into account four different parameters: (1) mitotic alterations (MA); (2) presence of condensed nuclei (CN); (3) mitotic index (MI); (4) presence of micronucleus (MCN). Significant differences were observed between M1 and M2 roots tip cells for these four parameters accessed. M1 cells was more prompt to reveal citogenotoxicity through the higher frequency of MA observed. Meanwhile, for M2 cells higher frequencies of MCN and CN was noticed, followed by a reduction of MI. Also, it was possible to detect significant differences between the tested treatments and the control on every case. These results indicate SPL toxic effects carries on to future cells generations. This emphasizes the need to properly manage this waste. Joint evaluation of cells from both M1 and M2 regions was proven valuable for the evaluation of a series of parameters on all toxicity tests.

  7. Two different Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes confer resistance to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) in transgenic Bt-shallots (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Si-Jun; Henken, Betty; de Maagd, Ruud A; Purwito, Agus; Krens, Frans A; Kik, Chris

    2005-06-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was applied to produce beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) resistant tropical shallots (Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum). A cry1Ca or a H04 hybrid gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, driven by the chrysanthemum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (Rubisco SSU) promoter, along with the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) driven by the CaMV 35S promoter, was employed for genetic transformation. An average transformation frequency of 3.68% was obtained from two shallot cultivars, Tropix and Kuning. After transfer of the in vitro plants to the greenhouse 69% of the cry1Ca and 39% of the H04 transgenic shallots survived the first half year. After one year of cultivation in the greenhouse the remaining cry1Ca and H04 transgenic plants grew vigorously and had a normal bulb formation, although the cry1Ca transgenic plants (and controls) had darker green leaves compared to their H04 counterparts. Standard PCR, adaptor ligation PCR and Southern analyses confirmed the integration of T-DNA into the shallot genome. Northern blot and ELISA analyses revealed expression of the cry1Ca or H04 gene in the transgenic plants. The amount of Cry1Ca expressed in transgenic plants was higher than the expression levels of H04 (0.39 vs. 0.16% of the total soluble leaf proteins, respectively). There was a good correlation between protein expression and beet armyworm resistance. Cry1Ca or H04 gene expression of at least 0.22 or 0.08% of the total soluble protein in shallot leaves was sufficient to give a complete resistance against beet armyworm. This confirms earlier observations that the H04 toxin is more toxic to S. exigua than the Cry1Ca toxin. The results from this study suggest that the cry1Ca and H04 transgenic shallots developed could be used for introducing resistance to beet armyworm in (sub) tropical shallot.

  8. Effects of Fresh Yellow Onion Consumption on CEA, CA125 and Hepatic Enzymes in Breast Cancer Patients: A Double- Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Jafarpour-Sadegh, Farnaz; Montazeri, Vahid; Adili, Ali; Esfehani, Ali; Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza; Mesgari, Mehran; Pirouzpanah, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) consumption has been remarked in folk medicine which has not been noted to be administered so far as an adjunct to conventional doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. To our knowledge, this is the first study aimed to investigate the effects of consuming fresh yellow onions on hepatic enzymes and cancer specific antigens compared with a low-onion containing diet among breast cancer (BC) participants treated with doxorubicin. This parallel design randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 56 BC patients whose malignancy was confirmed with histopathological examination. Subjects were assigned in a stratified-random allocation into either group received body mass index dependent 100-160 g/d of onion as high onion group (HO; n=28) or 30-40 g/d small onion in low onion group (LO; n=28) for eight weeks intervention. Participants, care givers and laboratory assessor were blinded to the assignments (IRCT registry no: IRCT2012103111335N1). The compliance of participants in the analysis was appropriate (87.9%). Comparing changes throughout pre- and post-dose treatments indicated significant controls on carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer antigen-125 and alkaline phosphatase levels in the HO group (P<0.05). Our findings for the first time showed that regular onion administration could be effective for hepatic enzyme conveying adjuvant chemotherapy relevant toxicity and reducing the tumor markers in BC during doxorubicin-based chemotherapy.

  9. Comparative sequence and genetic analyses of asparagus BACs reveal no microsynteny with onion or rice.

    PubMed

    Jakse, Jernej; Telgmann, Alexa; Jung, Christian; Khar, Anil; Melgar, Sergio; Cheung, Foo; Town, Christopher D; Havey, Michael J

    2006-12-01

    The Poales (includes the grasses) and Asparagales [includes onion (Allium cepa L.) and asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)] are the two most economically important monocot orders. The Poales are a member of the commelinoid monocots, a group of orders sister to the Asparagales. Comparative genomic analyses have revealed a high degree of synteny among the grasses; however, it is not known if this synteny extends to other major monocot groups such as the Asparagales. Although we previously reported no evidence for synteny at the recombinational level between onion and rice, microsynteny may exist across shorter genomic regions in the grasses and Asparagales. We sequenced nine asparagus BACs to reveal physically linked genic-like sequences and determined their most similar positions in the onion and rice genomes. Four of the asparagus BACs were selected using molecular markers tightly linked to the sex-determining M locus on chromosome 5 of asparagus. These BACs possessed only two putative coding regions and had long tracts of degenerated retroviral elements and transposons. Five asparagus BACs were selected after hybridization of three onion cDNAs that mapped to three different onion chromosomes. Genic-like sequences that were physically linked on the cDNA-selected BACs or genetically linked on the M-linked BACs showed significant similarities (e < -20) to expressed sequences on different rice chromosomes, revealing no evidence for microsynteny between asparagus and rice across these regions. Genic-like sequences that were linked in asparagus were used to identify highly similar (e < -20) expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of onion. These onion ESTs mapped to different onion chromosomes and no relationship was observed between physical or genetic linkages in asparagus and genetic linkages in onion. These results further indicate that synteny among grass genomes does not extend to a sister order in the monocots and that asparagus may not be an appropriate smaller genome

  10. Identification of Novel Source of Resistance and Differential Response of Allium Genotypes to Purple Blotch Pathogen, Alternaria porri (Ellis) Ciferri

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Satyabrata; Chand, Subodh Kumar; Mandal, Purander; Tripathy, Pradyumna; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Purple blotch, caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cifferi, is a serious disease incurring heavy yield losses in the bulb and seed crop of onion and garlic worldwide. There is an immediate need for identification of effective resistance sources for use in host resistance breeding. A total of 43 Allium genotypes were screened for purple blotch resistance under field conditions. Allium cepa accession ‘CBT-Ac77’ and cultivar ‘Arka Kalyan’ were observed to be highly resistant. In vitro inoculation of a selected set of genotypes with A. porri, revealed that 7 days after inoculation was suitable to observe the disease severity. In vitro screening of 43 genotypes for resistance to A. porri revealed two resistant lines. An additional 14 genotypes showed consistent moderate resistance in the field as well as in vitro evaluations. Among the related Allium species, A. schoenoprasum and A. roylei showed the least disease index and can be used for interspecific hybridization with cultivated onion. Differential reaction analysis of three A. porri isolates (Apo-Chiplima, Apn-Nasik, Apg-Guntur) in 43 genotypes revealed significant variation among the evaluated Allium species (P = 0.001). All together, the present study suggest that, the newly identified resistance sources can be used as potential donors for ongoing purple blotch resistance breeding program in India. PMID:27904458

  11. Identification of Novel Source of Resistance and Differential Response of Allium Genotypes to Purple Blotch Pathogen, Alternaria porri (Ellis) Ciferri.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Satyabrata; Chand, Subodh Kumar; Mandal, Purander; Tripathy, Pradyumna; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Purple blotch, caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cifferi, is a serious disease incurring heavy yield losses in the bulb and seed crop of onion and garlic worldwide. There is an immediate need for identification of effective resistance sources for use in host resistance breeding. A total of 43 Allium genotypes were screened for purple blotch resistance under field conditions. Allium cepa accession 'CBT-Ac77' and cultivar 'Arka Kalyan' were observed to be highly resistant. In vitro inoculation of a selected set of genotypes with A. porri, revealed that 7 days after inoculation was suitable to observe the disease severity. In vitro screening of 43 genotypes for resistance to A. porri revealed two resistant lines. An additional 14 genotypes showed consistent moderate resistance in the field as well as in vitro evaluations. Among the related Allium species, A. schoenoprasum and A. roylei showed the least disease index and can be used for interspecific hybridization with cultivated onion. Differential reaction analysis of three A. porri isolates (Apo-Chiplima, Apn-Nasik, Apg-Guntur) in 43 genotypes revealed significant variation among the evaluated Allium species (P = 0.001). All together, the present study suggest that, the newly identified resistance sources can be used as potential donors for ongoing purple blotch resistance breeding program in India.

  12. Tyramide-FISH mapping of single genes for development of an integrated recombination and cytogenetic map of chromosome 5 of Allium cepa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chromosome 5 of onion carries major quantitative trait loci (QTL) of interest to breeders that control dry-matter content, pungency and storability of bulbs, amounts and types of epicuticular waxes, and resistances to abiotic factors. SNPs, SSRs and RFLPs in expressed regions of the onion genome hav...

  13. The evaluation of waste, surface and ground water quality using the Allium test procedure.

    PubMed

    Smaka-Kincl, V; Stegnar, P; Lovka, M; Toman, M J

    1996-07-05

    The bulbs of Allium cepa were grown in test liquids of various pollution levels as follows: undiluted industrial and municipal waste water; biological treatment plant output water; water from the Drava river upstream and downstream of the city of Maribor; and non-chlorinated drinking water as a negative control test. The paper presents the response of the Allium cepa genetic material to the presence of potential cytotoxic and genotoxic substances in test liquids and the suitability of the Allium cepa testing procedure as a method for short-term determination of water pollution level. The suitability of the Allium test procedure as a system for environmental monitoring is presented. The influence of water pollution on macroscopic and cytologic parameters of the common onion by application of the biological testing method was examined. The macroscopic parameter was inhibition of root growth. The cytological parameters were: aberrant cells in metaphase and anaphase, index of micronuclei appearance and inhibition of cell division. The possibility of categorization the different polluted test liquids into quality classes is presented according to the influence of the test liquids on macroscopic and cytologic parameters. Test liquids are divided into 8 quality classes: the first class is the least polluted surface waters, the second and the third classes are more polluted surface water, the fourth and the fifth classes are biological treatment plant output waters, the sixth till the eighth quality classes are untreated waste waters. The most polluted test liquids (untreated industrial and municipal waste waters) caused sublethal and even lethal effects. The most polluted tested liquids cause the inhibition of root growth over 50% (even up to 74%), decrease of mitotic index over 36% (even up to 66%), increase of presence of interphase cells with micronuclei over 3% and increase of presence of aberrant cells for more than 10 times in comparison to control test.

  14. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction and DNA repair network are involved in aluminum-induced DNA damage and adaptive response in root cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Panda, Brahma B; Achary, V Mohan M

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we studied the role of signal transduction in aluminum (Al(3+))-induced DNA damage and adaptive response in root cells of Allium cepa L. The root cells in planta were treated with Al(3+) (800 μM) for 3 h without or with 2 h pre-treatment of inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein phosphatase. Also, root cells in planta were conditioned with Al(3+) (10 μM) for 2 h and then subjected to genotoxic challenge of ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS; 5 mM) for 3 h without or with the pre-treatment of the aforementioned inhibitors as well as the inhibitors of translation, transcription, DNA replication and repair. At the end of treatments, roots cells were assayed for cell death and/or DNA damage. The results revealed that Al(3+) (800 μM)-induced significant DNA damage and cell death. On the other hand, conditioning with low dose of Al(3+) induced adaptive response conferring protection of root cells from genotoxic stress caused by EMS-challenge. Pre-treatment of roots cells with the chosen inhibitors prior to Al(3+)-conditioning prevented or reduced the adaptive response to EMS genotoxicity. The results of this study suggested the involvement of MAPK and DNA repair network underlying Al-induced DNA damage and adaptive response to genotoxic stress in root cells of A. cepa.

  15. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction and DNA repair network are involved in aluminum-induced DNA damage and adaptive response in root cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Brahma B.; Achary, V. Mohan M.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we studied the role of signal transduction in aluminum (Al3+)-induced DNA damage and adaptive response in root cells of Allium cepa L. The root cells in planta were treated with Al3+ (800 μM) for 3 h without or with 2 h pre-treatment of inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein phosphatase. Also, root cells in planta were conditioned with Al3+ (10 μM) for 2 h and then subjected to genotoxic challenge of ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS; 5 mM) for 3 h without or with the pre-treatment of the aforementioned inhibitors as well as the inhibitors of translation, transcription, DNA replication and repair. At the end of treatments, roots cells were assayed for cell death and/or DNA damage. The results revealed that Al3+ (800 μM)-induced significant DNA damage and cell death. On the other hand, conditioning with low dose of Al3+ induced adaptive response conferring protection of root cells from genotoxic stress caused by EMS-challenge. Pre-treatment of roots cells with the chosen inhibitors prior to Al3+-conditioning prevented or reduced the adaptive response to EMS genotoxicity. The results of this study suggested the involvement of MAPK and DNA repair network underlying Al-induced DNA damage and adaptive response to genotoxic stress in root cells of A. cepa. PMID:24926302

  16. Measurement of the distribution of non-structural carbohydrate composition in onion populations by a high-throughput microplate enzymatic assay.

    PubMed

    Revanna, Roopashree; Turnbull, Matthew H; Shaw, Martin L; Wright, Kathryn M; Butler, Ruth C; Jameson, Paula E; McCallum, John A

    2013-08-15

    Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC; glucose, fructose, sucrose and fructan) composition of onions (Allium cepa L.) varies widely and is a key determinant of market usage. To analyse the physiology and genetics of onion carbohydrate metabolism and to enable selective breeding, an inexpensive, reliable and practicable sugar assay is required to phenotype large numbers of samples. A rapid, reliable and cost-effective microplate-based assay was developed for NSC analysis in onions and used to characterise variation in tissue hexose, sucrose and fructan content in open-pollinated breeding populations and in mapping populations developed from a wide onion cross. Sucrose measured in microplates employing maltase as a hydrolytic enzyme was in agreement with HPLC-PAD results. The method revealed significant variation in bulb fructan content within open-pollinated 'Pukekohe Longkeeper' breeding populations over a threefold range. Very wide segregation from 80 to 600 g kg(-1) in fructan content was observed in bulbs of F2 genetic mapping populations from the wide onion cross 'Nasik Red × CUDH2150'. The microplate enzymatic assay is a reliable and practicable method for onion sugar analysis for genetics, breeding and food technology. Open-pollinated onion populations may harbour extensive within-population variability in carbohydrate content, which may be quantified and exploited using this method. The phenotypic data obtained from genetic mapping populations show that the method is well suited to detailed genetic and physiological analysis. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Onion extract structural changes during in vitro digestion and its potential antioxidant effect on brain lipids obtained from low- and high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Hur, S J; Lee, S J; Kim, D H; Chun, S C; Lee, S K

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of onion (Allium cepa, L.) extract on the antioxidant activity of lipids in low-and high-fat-fed mouse brain lipids and its structural change during in vitro human digestion. The onion extracts were passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of the mouth, stomach, and small intestine juice. The brain lipids were collected from low- and high-fat-fed mouse brain and then incubated with the in vitro-digested onion extracts to determine the lipid oxidation. The results confirmed that the main phenolics of onion extract were kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, and quercitrin. The quercetin content increased with digestion of the onion extract. Antioxidant activity was strongly influenced by in vitro human digestion of both onion extract and quercetin standard. After digestion by the small intestine, the antioxidant activity values were dramatically increased, whereas the antioxidant activity was less influenced by digestion in the stomach for both onion extract and quercetin standard. The inhibitory effect of lipid oxidation of onion extract in mouse brain lipids increased after digestion in the stomach. The inhibitory effect of lipid oxidation of onion extract was higher in the high-fat-fed mouse brain lipids than that in the low-fat-fed mouse brain lipids. The major study finding is that the antioxidative effect of onion extract may be higher in high-fat-fed mouse brain lipids than that in low-fat-fed mouse brain lipids. Thus, dietary onion may have important applications as a natural antioxidant agent in a high-fat diet.

  18. Garlic and onions: their cancer prevention properties.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Holly L; Ross, Sharon A; Milner, John A

    2015-03-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiologic studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer-preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biologic processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer-preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps.

  19. Garlic and onions: Their cancer prevention properties

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Ross, Sharon A.; Milner, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiological studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biological processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps. PMID:25586902

  20. Tyramide-FISH mapping of single genes for development of an integrated recombination and cytogenetic map of chromosome 5 of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Dmitry; Divashuk, Mikhail; Havey, Michael J; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2015-03-01

    Chromosome 5 of onion carries major quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control dry-matter content, pungency and storability of bulbs, amounts and types of epicuticular waxes, and resistances to abiotic factors, all of which are of interest to breeders. SNPs, SSRs, and RFLPs in expressed regions of the onion genome have been genetically mapped, and we used these clones and sequences from the NCBI database to develop DNA probes for in situ hybridization to integrate the genetic and physical maps of onion chromosome 5. We produced genomic amplicons from expressed regions of the onion genome that carried both exons and introns in order to increase the hybridization specificity of the probes and to enlarge the target DNA sizes. Tyramide-FISH technique was used to increase the detection sensitivity of relatively short target DNA regions, which range from 950 to 2100 bp. Through the integration of genetic and chromosomal maps, we were able to estimate the distribution of recombination events along onion chromosome 5. We demonstrated the efficiency of chromosomal in situ mapping of exon-intron genomic clones for the extremely large genome of onion.

  1. FLOWERING LOCUS T genes control onion bulb formation and flowering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robyn; Baldwin, Samantha; Kenel, Fernand; McCallum, John; Macknight, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is a biennial crop that in temperate regions is planted in the spring and, after a juvenile stage, forms a bulb in response to the lengthening photoperiod of late spring/summer. The bulb then overwinters and in the next season it flowers and sets seed. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a mobile signaling protein involved in regulating flowering, as well as other aspects of plant development. Here we show that in onions, different FT genes regulate flowering and bulb formation. Flowering is promoted by vernalization and correlates with the upregulation of AcFT2, whereas bulb formation is regulated by two antagonistic FT-like genes. AcFT1 promotes bulb formation, while AcFT4 prevents AcFT1 upregulation and inhibits bulbing in transgenic onions. Long-day photoperiods lead to the downregulation of AcFT4 and the upregulation of AcFT1, and this promotes bulbing. The observation that FT proteins can repress and promote different developmental transitions highlights the evolutionary versatility of FT.

  2. Exploring Allium species as a source of potential medicinal agents.

    PubMed

    Stajner, D; Milić, N; Canadanović-Brunet, J; Kapor, A; Stajner, M; Popović, B M

    2006-07-01

    It has been shown that Allium species may help to prevent tumor promotion, cardiovascular diseases and aging; all processes that are associated with free radicals. Therefore the Allium species of both cultivated species (Allium nutans L., Allium fistulosum L., Allium vineale L., Allium psekemense B. Fedtsch, Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L.) and wild species (Allium flavum L., Allium sphaerocephalum L., Allium atroviolaceum Boiss, Allium schenoprasum L., Allium vineale L., Allium ursinum L., Allium scorodoprasum L.) from various locations were investigated for their antioxidative properties. The leaves were examined for activities of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase), non-enzymic antioxidants (reduced glutathione and total flavonoids), content of soluble proteins, vitamin C, carotenoids, chlorophylls a and b, as well as the quantities of malonyldialdehyde and *OH and O2*- radicals. Using a contemporary spectroscopic fluorescent method, lipofuscin, 'plant age pigments' were determined. ESR spectroscopy was used to follow the decrease of oxygen radicals in the presence of extracts of Allium species in phosphate buffer (pH 7). The results showed that all Allium species had strong antioxidative properties due to their high concentration of total flavonoids, high content of carotenoids and chlorophylls, and very low concentrations of toxic oxygen radicals. ESR signals of DMPO-OH radical adducts, in the presence of Allium extracts in phosphate buffer (pH 7), were reduced by up to 94.3%.

  3. Within-plant distribution of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onions.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jianhua; Munro, Scott; Boulton, Alan; Stevens, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Two aspects of the within-plant distribution of Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion, Allium cepa L., plants were investigated: 1) diurnal variations in the distribution of adults and larvae between basal and upper sections of onion leaves, and 2) between-leaf and within-leaf distribution of the eggs. The diurnal investigations showed that higher proportions of larvae than of adults congregated at the basal sections of plants, particularly when plants were young and thrips density was low. As plants matured and thrips density increased, the larvae became more dispersed. Regardless of plant size, there were always more adults in the upper than basal plant sections. There were no clear time-windows during the 24-h diurnal cycle when more thrips were in the upper plant parts. T. tabaci eggs were laid everywhere in the plant. Leaves of intermediate ages had more eggs than older or younger leaves. Within leaves, the white leaf sheath received the least eggs and leaf tips received slightly more eggs than leaf sheaths. The highest egg density was found between the green leaf base and the leaf tips. Regardless of plant size, more than half of all eggs were laid above the basal sections. The percentage increased to >95% in mature plants. Except when plants were small the outer leaves were preferred over inner leaves and upper leaf sections preferred over lower leaf sections as egg-laying sites by adults. Implications of the results in the management of T. tabaci are discussed.

  4. First insights into the mode of action of a "lachrymatory factor synthase"--implications for the mechanism of lachrymator formation in Petiveria alliacea, Allium cepa and Nectaroscordum species.

    PubMed

    He, Quan; Kubec, Roman; Jadhav, Abhijit P; Musah, Rabi A

    2011-11-01

    A study of an enzyme that reacts with the sulfenic acid produced by the alliinase in Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae) to yield the P. alliacea lachrymator (phenylmethanethial S-oxide) showed the protein to be a dehydrogenase. It functions by abstracting hydride from sulfenic acids of appropriate structure to form their corresponding sulfines. Successful hydride abstraction is dependent upon the presence of a benzyl group on the sulfur to stabilize the intermediate formed on abstraction of hydride. This dehydrogenase activity contrasts with that of the lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) found in onion, which catalyzes the rearrangement of 1-propenesulfenic acid to (Z)-propanethial S-oxide, the onion lachrymator. Based on the type of reaction it catalyzes, the onion LFS should be classified as an isomerase and would be called a "sulfenic acid isomerase", whereas the P. alliacea LFS would be termed a "sulfenic acid dehydrogenase".

  5. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Inula viscosa Leaf Extracts with Allium Test

    PubMed Central

    Aşkin Çelik, Tülay; Aslantürk, Özlem Sultan

    2010-01-01

    I. viscosa has been used for years in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiseptic, and paper antiphlogistic activities. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of I. viscosa leaf extracts on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa have been examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to 2.5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, and 10 mg/ml concentrations of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Tap water has been used as a negative control and Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) (2 · 10−2 M) has been used as a positive control. The test concentrations have been determined according to doses which are recommended for use in alternative medicine. There has been statistically significant (P < .05) inhibition of root growth depending on concentration by the extracts when compared with the control groups. All the tested extracts have been observed to have cytotoxic effects on cell division in A. cepa. I. viscosa leaf extract induces the total number of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei (MNC) formations in A. cepa root tip cells significantly when compared with control groups. Also, this paper shows for the first time the induction of cell death, ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and binucleated cells by extract treatment. These results suggest the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the I. viscosa leaf extracts on A. cepa. PMID:20617136

  6. Colonization of onions by endophytic fungi and their impacts on the biology of Thrips tabaci.

    PubMed

    Muvea, Alexander M; Meyhöfer, Rainer; Subramanian, Sevgan; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of infection, are important mutualists that mediate plant-herbivore interactions. Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) is one of the key pests of onion, Allium cepa L., an economically important agricultural crop cultivated worldwide. However, information on endophyte colonization of onions, and their impacts on the biology of thrips feeding on them, is lacking. We tested the colonization of onion plants by selected fungal endophyte isolates using two inoculation methods. The effects of inoculated endophytes on T. tabaci infesting onion were also examined. Seven fungal endophytes used in our study were able to colonize onion plants either by the seed or seedling inoculation methods. Seed inoculation resulted in 1.47 times higher mean percentage post-inoculation recovery of all the endophytes tested as compared to seedling inoculation. Fewer thrips were observed on plants inoculated with Clonostachys rosea ICIPE 707, Trichoderma asperellum M2RT4, Trichoderma atroviride ICIPE 710, Trichoderma harzianum 709, Hypocrea lixii F3ST1 and Fusarium sp. ICIPE 712 isolates as compared to those inoculated with Fusarium sp. ICIPE 717 and the control treatments. Onion plants colonized by C. rosea ICIPE 707, T. asperellum M2RT4, T. atroviride ICIPE 710 and H. lixii F3ST1 had significantly lower feeding punctures as compared to the other treatments. Among the isolates tested, the lowest numbers of eggs were laid by T. tabaci on H. lixii F3ST1 and C. rosea ICIPE 707 inoculated plants. These results extend the knowledge on colonization of onions by fungal endophytes and their effects on Thrips tabaci.

  7. Ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene differentially regulate gene expression during onion sprout suppression.

    PubMed

    Cools, Katherine; Chope, Gemma A; Hammond, John P; Thompson, Andrew J; Terry, Leon A

    2011-07-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is regarded as a nonclimacteric vegetable. In onions, however, ethylene can suppress sprouting while the ethylene-binding inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) can also suppress sprout growth; yet, it is unknown how ethylene and 1-MCP elicit the same response. In this study, onions were treated with 10 μL L(-1) ethylene or 1 μL L(-1) 1-MCP individually or in combination for 24 h at 20°C before or after curing (6 weeks) at 20°C or 28°C and then stored at 1°C. Following curing, a subset of these same onions was stored separately under continuous air or ethylene (10 μL L(-1)) at 1°C. Onions treated with ethylene and 1-MCP in combination after curing for 24 h had reduced sprout growth as compared with the control 25 weeks after harvest. Sprout growth following storage beyond 25 weeks was only reduced through continuous ethylene treatment. This observation was supported by a higher proportion of down-regulated genes characterized as being involved in photosynthesis, measured using a newly developed onion microarray. Physiological and biochemical data suggested that ethylene was being perceived in the presence of 1-MCP, since sprout growth was reduced in onions treated with 1-MCP and ethylene applied in combination but not when applied individually. A cluster of probes representing transcripts up-regulated by 1-MCP alone but down-regulated by ethylene alone or in the presence of 1-MCP support this suggestion. Ethylene and 1-MCP both down-regulated a probe tentatively annotated as an ethylene receptor as well as ethylene-insensitive 3, suggesting that both treatments down-regulate the perception and signaling events of ethylene.

  8. Colonization of Onions by Endophytic Fungi and Their Impacts on the Biology of Thrips tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Muvea, Alexander M.; Meyhöfer, Rainer; Subramanian, Sevgan; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K.

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of infection, are important mutualists that mediate plant–herbivore interactions. Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) is one of the key pests of onion, Allium cepa L., an economically important agricultural crop cultivated worldwide. However, information on endophyte colonization of onions, and their impacts on the biology of thrips feeding on them, is lacking. We tested the colonization of onion plants by selected fungal endophyte isolates using two inoculation methods. The effects of inoculated endophytes on T. tabaci infesting onion were also examined. Seven fungal endophytes used in our study were able to colonize onion plants either by the seed or seedling inoculation methods. Seed inoculation resulted in 1.47 times higher mean percentage post-inoculation recovery of all the endophytes tested as compared to seedling inoculation. Fewer thrips were observed on plants inoculated with Clonostachys rosea ICIPE 707, Trichoderma asperellum M2RT4, Trichoderma atroviride ICIPE 710, Trichoderma harzianum 709, Hypocrea lixii F3ST1 and Fusarium sp. ICIPE 712 isolates as compared to those inoculated with Fusarium sp. ICIPE 717 and the control treatments. Onion plants colonized by C. rosea ICIPE 707, T. asperellum M2RT4, T. atroviride ICIPE 710 and H. lixii F3ST1 had significantly lower feeding punctures as compared to the other treatments. Among the isolates tested, the lowest numbers of eggs were laid by T. tabaci on H. lixii F3ST1 and C. rosea ICIPE 707 inoculated plants. These results extend the knowledge on colonization of onions by fungal endophytes and their effects on Thrips tabaci. PMID:25254657

  9. Ethylene and 1-Methylcyclopropene Differentially Regulate Gene Expression during Onion Sprout Suppression1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Katherine; Chope, Gemma A.; Hammond, John P.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Terry, Leon A.

    2011-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is regarded as a nonclimacteric vegetable. In onions, however, ethylene can suppress sprouting while the ethylene-binding inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) can also suppress sprout growth; yet, it is unknown how ethylene and 1-MCP elicit the same response. In this study, onions were treated with 10 μL L−1 ethylene or 1 μL L−1 1-MCP individually or in combination for 24 h at 20°C before or after curing (6 weeks) at 20°C or 28°C and then stored at 1°C. Following curing, a subset of these same onions was stored separately under continuous air or ethylene (10 μL L−1) at 1°C. Onions treated with ethylene and 1-MCP in combination after curing for 24 h had reduced sprout growth as compared with the control 25 weeks after harvest. Sprout growth following storage beyond 25 weeks was only reduced through continuous ethylene treatment. This observation was supported by a higher proportion of down-regulated genes characterized as being involved in photosynthesis, measured using a newly developed onion microarray. Physiological and biochemical data suggested that ethylene was being perceived in the presence of 1-MCP, since sprout growth was reduced in onions treated with 1-MCP and ethylene applied in combination but not when applied individually. A cluster of probes representing transcripts up-regulated by 1-MCP alone but down-regulated by ethylene alone or in the presence of 1-MCP support this suggestion. Ethylene and 1-MCP both down-regulated a probe tentatively annotated as an ethylene receptor as well as ethylene-insensitive 3, suggesting that both treatments down-regulate the perception and signaling events of ethylene. PMID:21593215

  10. Allium cepa anaphase-telophase root tip chromosome aberration assay on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, maleic hydrazide, sodium azide, and ethyl methanesulfonate.

    PubMed

    Rank, J; Nielsen, M H

    1997-04-24

    The Allium anaphase-telophase assay was used to show genotoxicity of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), maleic hydrazide (MH), sodium azide (NaN3) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). All agents induced chromosome aberrations at statistically significant levels. The rank of the lowest doses with positive effect was as follows: NaN3 0.3 mg/l < MH 1 mg/l < MNU 41 mg/l < EMS 100 mg/l. The results were compared with results from other plant assays (Arabidopsis, Vicia, Tradescantia) and for MH and MNU the values were found to be within the same range, whereas the results in the Allium test for NaN3 and EMS were in a lower range than that found for the other plant assays. EMS and MMS (methyl methanesulfonate), two chemicals used as positive controls in mutagenicity testing, were compared in the Allium test, and MMS was found to be about ten times more potent in inducing chromosome aberrations than EMS. Recording of micronuclei in interphase cells showed that this endpoint does not give more information of clastogenicity than recording of chromosome aberrations in anaphase-telophase cells.

  11. Cytogenotoxicity screening of source water, wastewater and treated water of drinking water treatment plants using two in vivo test systems: Allium cepa root based and Nile tilapia erythrocyte based tests.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2017-01-01

    Biological effect directed in vivo tests with model organisms are useful in assessing potential health risks associated with chemical contaminations in surface waters. This study examined the applicability of two in vivo test systems viz. plant, Allium cepa root based tests and fish, Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based tests for screening cytogenotoxic potential of raw source water, water treatment waste (effluents) and treated water of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) using two DWTPs associated with a major river in Sri Lanka. Measured physico-chemical parameters of the raw water, effluents and treated water samples complied with the respective Sri Lankan standards. In the in vivo tests, raw water induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitodepression and chromosomal abnormalities in the root meristem of the plant and micronuclei/nuclear buds evolution and genetic damage (as reflected by comet scores) in the erythrocytes of the fish compared to the aged tap water controls signifying greater genotoxicity of the source water especially in the dry period. The effluents provoked relatively high cytogenotoxic effects on both test systems but the toxicity in most cases was considerably reduced to the raw water level with the effluent dilution (1:8). In vivo tests indicated reduction of cytogenotoxic potential in the tested drinking water samples. The results support the potential applications of practically feasible in vivo biological test systems such as A. cepa root based tests and the fish erythrocyte based tests as complementary tools for screening cytogenotoxicity potential of the source water and water treatment waste reaching downstream of aquatic ecosystems and for evaluating cytogenotoxicity eliminating efficacy of the DWTPs in different seasons in view of human and ecological safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of optical constants of a bio-thin layer (onion epidermis), using SPR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Saif-ur-; Mumtaz, Huma; Hayashi, Shinji; Shaukat, S. F.; Sekkat, Zouheir

    2014-12-01

    We estimate the optical constants of a biological thin layer (Allium cepa) by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. For this study, the fresh inner thin epidermis of an onion bulb was used and stacked directly on gold (Au) and silver (Ag) film surfaces in order to identify the shift in SPR mode of each metal film at an operating wavelength of 632.8 nm. The thickness and dielectric constants of the biological thin layer were determined by matching the experimental SPR curves to theoretical ones. The thickness and roughness of bare Au and Ag thin films were also measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM); the results of which are in good agreement with those obtained through experiment. Due to the high surface roughness of the natural onion epidermis layer, AFM could not measure the exact thickness of an onion epidermis. It is estimated that the value of the real part of the dielectric constant of an onion epidermis is between the dielectric constants of water and air.

  14. Multielement fingerprinting as a tool in origin authentication of PGI food products: Tropea red onion.

    PubMed

    Furia, Emilia; Naccarato, Attilio; Sindona, Giovanni; Stabile, Gaetano; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2011-08-10

    Tropea red onion ( Allium cepa L. var. Tropea) is among the most highly appreciated Italian products. It is cultivated in specific areas of Calabria and, due to its characteristics, was recently awarded with the protected geographical indications (PGI) certification from the European Union. A reliable classification of onion samples in groups corresponding to "Tropea" and "non-Tropea" categories is now available to the producers. This important goal has been achieved through the evaluation of three supervised chemometric approaches. Onion samples with PGI brand (120) and onion samples not cultivated following the production regulations (80) were digested by a closed-vessel microwave oven system. ICP-MS equipped with a dynamic reaction cell was used to determine the concentrations of 25 elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cr, Dy, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ho, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, Pr, Rb, Sm, Sr, Tl, Y, and Zn). The multielement fingerprint was processed using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) (standard and stepwise), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN). The cross-validation procedure has shown good results in terms of the prediction ability for all of the chemometric models: standard LDA, 94.0%; stepwise LDA, 94.5%; SIMCA, 95.5%; and BP-ANN, 91.5%.

  15. The cytotoxic effect of wastewater from the phosphoric gypsum depot on common oak (Quercus robur L.) and shallot (Allium cepa var. ascalonicum).

    PubMed

    Pavlica, M; Besendorfer, V; Rosa, J; Papes, D

    2000-11-01

    The effect of wastewater from a phosphoric gypsum depot on common oak, Quercus robur L., at cytogenetical level was studied. Allium-test was used as a control. The treatment of common oak seedlings with wastewater under laboratory conditions caused mitodepressive effect. Chromosome aberrations and mitotic irregularities were found. Cytogenetic analysis of common oak seedlings grown from acorns collected near the depot did not show changes in mitotic activity in comparison to control but the number of aberrations was higher than in control. In comparison to Alliumtest common oak was found to be more tolerant to wastewater from the phosphoric gypsum depot.

  16. Cellular and Molecular Changes Associated with Onion Skin Formation Suggest Involvement of Programmed Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Galsurker, Ortal; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Daus, Avinoam; Fridman, Yael; Lers, Amnon; Eshel, Dani

    2016-01-01

    Skin formation of onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb involves scale desiccation accompanied by scale senescence, resulting in cell death and tissue browning. Understanding the mechanism of skin formation is essential to improving onion skin and bulb qualities. Although onion skin plays a crucial role in postharvest onion storage and shelf life, its formation is poorly understood. We investigated the mode of cell death in the outermost scales that are destined to form the onion skin. Surprisingly, fluorescein diacetate staining and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the outer scale desiccates from the inside out. This striking observation suggests that cell death in the outer scales, during skin formation, is an internal and organized process that does not derive only from air desiccation. DNA fragmentation, a known hallmark of programmed cell death (PCD), was revealed in the outer scales and gradually decreased toward the inner scales of the bulb. Transmission electron microscopy further revealed PCD-related structural alterations in the outer scales which were absent from the inner scales. De novo transcriptome assembly for three different scales: 1st (outer), 5th (intermediate) and 8th (inner) fleshy scales identified 2,542 differentially expressed genes among them. GO enrichment for cluster analysis revealed increasing metabolic processes in the outer senescent scale related to defense response, PCD processes, carbohydrate metabolism and flavonoid biosynthesis, whereas increased metabolism and developmental growth processes were identified in the inner scales. High expression levels of PCD-related genes were identified in the outer scale compared to the inner ones, highlighting the involvement of PCD in outer-skin development. These findings suggest that a program to form the dry protective skin exists and functions only in the outer scales of onion.

  17. Cellular and Molecular Changes Associated with Onion Skin Formation Suggest Involvement of Programmed Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Galsurker, Ortal; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Daus, Avinoam; Fridman, Yael; Lers, Amnon; Eshel, Dani

    2017-01-01

    Skin formation of onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb involves scale desiccation accompanied by scale senescence, resulting in cell death and tissue browning. Understanding the mechanism of skin formation is essential to improving onion skin and bulb qualities. Although onion skin plays a crucial role in postharvest onion storage and shelf life, its formation is poorly understood. We investigated the mode of cell death in the outermost scales that are destined to form the onion skin. Surprisingly, fluorescein diacetate staining and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the outer scale desiccates from the inside out. This striking observation suggests that cell death in the outer scales, during skin formation, is an internal and organized process that does not derive only from air desiccation. DNA fragmentation, a known hallmark of programmed cell death (PCD), was revealed in the outer scales and gradually decreased toward the inner scales of the bulb. Transmission electron microscopy further revealed PCD-related structural alterations in the outer scales which were absent from the inner scales. De novo transcriptome assembly for three different scales: 1st (outer), 5th (intermediate) and 8th (inner) fleshy scales identified 2,542 differentially expressed genes among them. GO enrichment for cluster analysis revealed increasing metabolic processes in the outer senescent scale related to defense response, PCD processes, carbohydrate metabolism and flavonoid biosynthesis, whereas increased metabolism and developmental growth processes were identified in the inner scales. High expression levels of PCD-related genes were identified in the outer scale compared to the inner ones, highlighting the involvement of PCD in outer-skin development. These findings suggest that a program to form the dry protective skin exists and functions only in the outer scales of onion. PMID:28119713

  18. Pb-inhibited mitotic activity in onion roots involves DNA damage and disruption of oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Plant responses to abiotic stress significantly affect the development of cells, tissues and organs. However, no studies correlating Pb-induced mitotic inhibition and DNA damage and the alterations in redox homeostasis during root division per se were found in the literature. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of Pb on mitotic activity and the associated changes in the oxidative metabolism in onion roots. The cytotoxic effect of Pb on cell division was assessed in the root meristems of Allium cepa (onion). The mitotic index (MI) was calculated and chromosomal abnormalities were sought. Pb-treatment induced a dose-dependent decrease in MI in the onion root tips and caused mitotic abnormalities such as distorted metaphase, fragments, sticky chromosomes, laggards, vagrant chromosomes and bridges. Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis was also performed to evaluate Pb induced genotoxicity. It was accompanied by altered oxidative metabolism in the onion root tips suggesting the interference of Pb with the redox homeostasis during cell division. There was a higher accumulation of malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and hydrogen peroxide, and a significant increase in the activities of superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases and glutathione reductases in Pb-treated onion roots, whereas catalases activity exhibited a decreasing pattern upon Pb exposure. The study concludes that Pb-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in the onion roots is mediated through ROS and is also tightly linked to the cell cycle. The exposure to higher concentrations arrested cell cycle leading to cell death, whereas different repair responses are generated at lower concentrations, thereby allowing the cell to complete the cell cycle.

  19. Effect of enoxaparin and onion extract on human skin fibroblast cell line - therapeutic implications for the treatment of keloids.

    PubMed

    Pikuła, Michał; Żebrowska, Maria E; Pobłocka-Olech, Loretta; Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława; Sznitowska, Małgorzata; Trzonkowski, Piotr

    2014-02-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are hyperproliferative skin disorders resulting in abnormal wound healing. In the prevention and treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars, ointments containing heparin and onion extract are very popular. Their therapeutic effects, however, are still controversial and the mechanism of action is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of enoxaparin and dry onion extract on proliferation, apoptosis and β1 integrin expression in human fibroblasts. Fibroblast human cell lines (46 BR.1 N) were treated for 48 h with various concentrations of enoxaparin sodium (20, 100, 500 µg/mL) and/or onion [Allium cepa L. (Alliaceae)] extract (50, 250, 1000 µg/mL). The cell proliferation was evaluated by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation assay. Furthermore, the expression of β1 integrin and apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. The results demonstrate that enoxaparin and onion extract inhibited the proliferation of human fibroblasts. Almost complete inhibition of cell proliferation was achieved by enoxaparin in 500 µg/mL concentration (91.5% reduction). The onion extract at a concentration of 250 µg/mL also strongly inhibited the proliferation of cells (50.8% reduction). Depending on concentration, enoxaparin and onion extract induced apoptosis (500 and 1000 µg/mL, respectively) and, depending on concentration, downregulated the expression of β1 integrin on human fibroblasts. This work points at possible mechanism of action of enoxaparin and onion extract, when administered in the treatment of patients with keloids and hypertrophic scars.

  20. Cytotoxicity on Allium cepa of the two main sulcotrione photoproducts, xanthene-1,9-dione-3,4-dihydro-6-methylsulphonyl and 2-chloro-4-mesylbenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Eric; Richard, Claire; Goupil, Pascale; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2015-10-01

    The cytotoxic effects of 2-chloro-4-mesylbenzoic acid (CMBA) and xanthene-1,9-dione-3,4-dihydro-6-methylsulphonyl (XDD), the two main photoproducts of sulcotrione, were investigated on Allium root meristematic cells at different concentrations. Degradation of sulcotrione was correlated to mitotic index decrease, together with increasing anomaly and c-mitosis frequencies. Mitotic index significantly decreased with increasing XDD and CMBA concentrations. Cell frequency with abnormal chromosomes increased with CMBA or XDD application rates. In contrast, CMBA induced a low micronucleus rate even for high concentrations while XDD increased the micronucleus ratio. C-mitoses, chromosomal aberrations due to an inactivation of the spindle, were enhanced by CMBA treatments but not by XDD. The photochemical degradation process of the pesticide can change the risk for the environment.

  1. Tandem repeats of Allium fistulosum associated with major chromosomal landmarks.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Ilya V; Kiseleva, Anna V; Van Laere, Katrijn; Van Roy, Nadine; Khrustaleva, Ludmila I

    2017-04-01

    Tandem repeats are often associated with important chromosomal landmarks, such as centromeres, telomeres, subtelomeric, and other heterochromatic regions, and can be good candidates for molecular cytogenetic markers. Tandem repeats present in many plant species demonstrate dramatic differences in unit length, proportion in the genome, and chromosomal organization. Members of genus Allium with their large genomes represent a challenging task for current genetics. Using the next generation sequencing data, molecular, and cytogenetic methods, we discovered two tandemly organized repeats in the Allium fistulosum genome (2n = 2C = 16), HAT58 and CAT36. Together, these repeats comprise 0.25% of the bunching onion genome with 160,000 copies/1 C of HAT58 and 93,000 copies/1 C of CAT36. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and C-banding showed that HAT58 and CAT36 associated with the interstitial and pericentromeric heterochromatin of the A. fistulosum chromosomes 5, 6, 7, and 8. FISH with HAT58 and CAT36 performed on A. cepa (2n = 2C = 16) and A. wakegi (2n = 2C = 16), a natural allodiploid hybrid between A. fistulosum and A. cepa, revealed that these repeats are species specific and produced specific hybridization patterns only on A. fistulosum chromosomes. Thus, the markers can be used in interspecific breeding programs for monitoring of alien genetic material. We applied Non-denaturing FISH that allowed detection of the repeat bearing chromosomes within 3 h. A polymorphism of the HAT58 chromosome location was observed. This finding suggests that the rapid evolution of the HAT58 repeat is still ongoing.

  2. The Allium Test--A Simple, Eukaryote Genotoxicity Assay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, H.; Segall, M. A.; Fox, K. D.

    1997-01-01

    Explains the allium test in which roots are excised from onion bulblets grown in aqueous solutions of a test agent. Root tips are then isolated and stained with aceto-orcein, and chromosomal aberrations are microscopically observed. (Author/AIM)

  3. The Allium Test--A Simple, Eukaryote Genotoxicity Assay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, H.; Segall, M. A.; Fox, K. D.

    1997-01-01

    Explains the allium test in which roots are excised from onion bulblets grown in aqueous solutions of a test agent. Root tips are then isolated and stained with aceto-orcein, and chromosomal aberrations are microscopically observed. (Author/AIM)

  4. Characterization of resistance, evaluation of the attractiveness of plant odors, and effect of leaf color on different onion cultivars to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fail, József; Deutschlander, Mark; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2012-04-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a worldwide pest of onion, Allium cepa L. In field studies on onion resistance conducted in 2007 and 2008 using 49 cultivars, 11 showed low leaf damage by T. tabaci. In laboratory studies, the 11 cultivars, along with two susceptible checks and four additional cultivars, were evaluated to characterize resistance to T. tabaci and to determine if color and/or light reflectance were associated with resistance to T tabaci. No-choice tests were performed with adults and the numbers of eggs and larvae were counted on each cultivar after three and 10 d, respectively. In choice tests in which all cultivars were planted together in a circle in a single pot, 100 adults were released and the number of adults on each plant was evaluated 24 h later. The behavioral response of walking T. tabaci adults to plant odors was studied in a glass Y-tube olfactometer. The reflectance spectrum of leaves was measured using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Results indicate that resistant cultivars showed an intermediate-high antibiotic effect to T. tabaci and all of them showed a very strong antixenotic effect. There were no significant preferences in the response of walking T. tabaci adults to plant odors. The two susceptible cultivars had the highest values of leaf reflectance for the first (275-375 nm) and second (310-410 nm) theoretical photopigment-system of T. tabaci, and these values were significantly different from most resistant cultivars. These results suggest a strong response of T. tabaci to onion cultivars with higher reflectance in the ultraviolet range (270-400 nm). Overall, these results appear promising in helping to identify categories of resistance to T. tabaci in onions that can be used in breeding programs.

  5. Silencing Onion Lachrymatory Factor Synthase Causes a Significant Change in the Sulfur Secondary Metabolite Profile1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Eady, Colin C.; Kamoi, Takahiro; Kato, Masahiro; Porter, Noel G.; Davis, Sheree; Shaw, Martin; Kamoi, Akiko; Imai, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Through a single genetic transformation in onion (Allium cepa), a crop recalcitrant to genetic transformation, we suppressed the lachrymatory factor synthase gene using RNA interference silencing in six plants. This reduced lachrymatory synthase activity by up to 1,544-fold, so that when wounded the onions produced significantly reduced levels of tear-inducing lachrymatory factor. We then confirmed, through a novel colorimetric assay, that this silencing had shifted the trans-S-1-propenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide breakdown pathway so that more 1-propenyl sulfenic acid was converted into di-1-propenyl thiosulfinate. A consequence of this raised thiosulfinate level was a marked increase in the downstream production of a nonenzymatically produced zwiebelane isomer and other volatile sulfur compounds, di-1-propenyl disulfide and 2-mercapto-3,4-dimethyl-2,3-dihydrothiophene, which had previously been reported in trace amounts or had not been detected in onion. The consequences of this dramatic simultaneous down- and up-regulation of secondary sulfur products on the health and flavor attributes of the onion are discussed. PMID:18583530

  6. Cloning of Sucrose:Sucrose 1-Fructosyltransferase from Onion and Synthesis of Structurally Defined Fructan Molecules from Sucrose1

    PubMed Central

    Vijn, Irma; van Dijken, Anja; Lüscher, Marcel; Bos, Antoine; Smeets, Edward; Weisbeek, Peter; Wiemken, Andres; Smeekens, Sjef

    1998-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc):Suc 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) is the key enzyme in plant fructan biosynthesis, since it catalyzes de novo fructan synthesis from Suc. We have cloned 1-SST from onion (Allium cepa) by screening a cDNA library using acid invertase from tulip (Tulipa gesneriana) as a probe. Expression assays in tobacco (Nicotiana plumbaginifolia) protoplasts showed the formation of 1-kestose from Suc. In addition, an onion acid invertase clone was isolated from the same cDNA library. Protein extracts of tobacco protoplasts transformed with this clone showed extensive Suc-hydrolyzing activity. Conditions that induced fructan accumulation in onion leaves also induced 1-SST mRNA accumulation, whereas the acid invertase mRNA level decreased. Structurally different fructan molecules could be produced from Suc by a combined incubation of protein extract of protoplasts transformed with 1-SST and protein extract of protoplasts transformed with either the onion fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase or the barley Suc:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase. PMID:9701606

  7. Genetic mapping of a major gene affecting onion bulb fructan content.

    PubMed

    McCallum, John; Clarke, Andrew; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Shaw, Martin; Butler, Ruth; Brash, Don; Scheffer, John; Sims, Ian; van Heusden, Sjaak; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Havey, Michael J

    2006-03-01

    The non-structural dry matter content of onion bulbs consists principally of fructose, glucose, sucrose and fructans. The objective of this study was to understand the genetic basis for the wide variation observed in the relative amounts of these carbohydrates. Bulb carbohydrate composition was evaluated in progeny from crosses between high dry matter storage onion varieties and sweet, low dry matter varieties. When samples were analysed on a dry weight basis, reducing sugar and fructan content exhibited high negative correlations and bimodal segregation suggestive of the action of a major gene. A polymorphic SSR marker, ACM235, was identified which exhibited strong disequilibrium with bulb fructan content in F(2:3) families from the 'W202A' x 'Texas Grano 438' mapping population evaluated in two environments. This marker was mapped to chromosome 8 in the interspecific population 'Allium cepa x A. roylei'. Mapping in the 'Colossal Grano PVP' x 'Early Longkeeper P12' F2 population showed that a dominant major gene conditioning high-fructan content lay in the same genomic region. QTL analysis of total bulb fructan content in the intraspecific mapping population 'BYG15-23' x 'AC43' using a complete molecular marker map revealed only one significant QTL in the same chromosomal region. This locus, provisionally named Frc, may account for the major phenotypic differences in bulb carbohydrate content between storage and sweet onion varieties.

  8. Effects of mycorrhizal colonization on growth parameters of onion under different irrigation and soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Neyshabouri, Mohammad Reza; Aliasgharzad, Nasser; Chaparzadeh, Nader

    2007-05-01

    The effects of three Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF), Glomus versiforme, G. intraradices and G. etonicatum) and three irrigation intervals (7, 9 and 11 days) on growth of onion (Allium cepa L.) cv. Red Azar Shahr were studied under two soil conditions (sterilized and non-sterilized). The results indicated that, AMF colonization improved plant height, Leaf Area Index (LAI), total biomass, bulb dry mass and diameter, Harvest Index (HI) and chlorophyll content (p < 0.001). Bulbing occurred 10-15 days earlier in mycorrhizal plants. Irrigation interval decreased biomass, LAI, Leaf Area Ratio (LAR), bulb diameter and dry mass and chlorophyll content (b and total) at 11 day irrigation interval. In term of interaction, G. versiforme at 9 day and non-mycorrhizal plants at 11 day produced the greatest and the lowest LAI (8.56 vs. 1.57), respectively. Mycorrhizal onions in contrary to non-mycorrhizal ones produced more LAI and biomass in sterilized soil and inoculation with G. etonicatum and the non-mycorrhizal onions in sterilized soil had the highest and the lowest biomass, respectively.

  9. Cloning and characterization of the lectin cDNA clones from onion, shallot and leek.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, E J; Smeets, K; Engelborghs, I; Aelbers, H; Balzarini, J; Pusztai, A; van Leuven, F; Goldstein, I J; Peumans, W J

    1993-10-01

    Characterization of the lectins from onion (Allium cepa), shallot (A. ascalonicum) and leek (A. porrum) has shown that these lectins differ from previously isolated Alliaceae lectins not only in their molecular structure but also in their ability to inhibit retrovirus infection of target cells. cDNA libraries constructed from poly(A)-rich RNA isolated from young shoots of onion, shallot and leek were screened for lectin cDNA clones using colony hybridization. Sequence analysis of the lectin cDNA clones from these three species revealed a high degree of sequence similarity both at the nucleotide and at the amino acid level. Apparently the onion, shallot and leek lectins are translated from mRNAs of ca. 800 nucleotides. The primary translation products are preproproteins (ca. 19 kDa) which are converted into the mature lectin polypeptides (12.5-13 kDa) after post-translational modifications. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA has shown that the lectins are most probably encoded by a family of closely related genes which is in good agreement with the sequence heterogeneity found between different lectin cDNA clones of one species.

  10. Characterization of Nutritionally Important Carotenoids in Welsh Onion Accessions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Members of the Allium genus are consumed for their culinary flavor attributes, but also contain antioxidant and anticarcinogenic phytochemicals. Welsh onions (Allium fistulosum L.) are commonly used in Asian cuisine, where both leaves and pseudostems are consumed. Carotenoids are an important clas...

  11. Allium acuminatum Seed Production: First Look at Cultural Parameters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is a report on the first year data for a two year project assessing seed production parameters for the native forb Allium acuminatum. As a component of greater sage-grouse and Southern Idaho ground squirrel habitat, Allium acuminatum Hook. (Taper-tip onion) has been targeted for use in restor...

  12. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Br-containing oxaphosphole on Allium cepa L. root tip cells and mouse bone marrow cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The continuous production and release of chemicals into the environment has led to the need to assess their genotoxicity. Numerous organophosphorus compounds with different structures have been synthesized in recent years, and several oxaphosphole derivatives are known to possess biological activity. Such chemical compounds may influence proliferating cells and cause disturbances of the genetic material. In this study, we examined the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of 4-bromo-N,N-diethyl-5,5-dimethyl-2,5-dihydro-1,2-oxaphosphol-2-amine 2-oxide (Br-oxph). In A. cepa cells, Br-oxph (10-9 M, 10 -6 M and 10 -3 M) reduced the mitotic index 48 h after treatment with the two highest concentrations, with no significant effect at earlier intervals. Mitotic cells showed abnormalities 24 h and 48 h after treatment with the two lowest concentrations but there were no consistent changes in interphase cells. Bone marrow cells from mice treated with Br-oxph (2.82 x 10 -3 μg/kg) also showed a reduced mitotic index after 48 h and a greater percentage of cells with aberrations (principally chromatid and isochromatid breaks). These findings indicate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Br-oxph in the two systems studied. PMID:21637696

  13. Effects of Onion Juice on the Normal Flora of Eyelids and Conjunctiva in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Nejabat, Mahmoud; Salehi, Alireza; Noorani Azad, Parisa; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Traditional medicine/complementary alternative medicine may suggest new ideas to modern medicine in order to face new challenges however these concepts should be acknowledged based on experimental studies. Objectives: We aimed to study the effects of onion (Allium cepa) juice on the normal flora of conjunctiva and eye lids, and to follow the histopathology changes of conjunctiva in an animal study. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four rabbits were randomly classified into three equal groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 received fresh red onion juice, as an eye drop, into the right eye twice daily for; one week, one month, and two months, respectively. Microbiological sampling by sterile swabs was performed before and after the intervention. Cultural characteristics, including the growth rate and the kind of organisms, are reported. At the end of the study, pathological samples were collected from the inferior fornix. Results: After the intervention, the number of positive cultures in the samples, collected from both the conjunctiva and eyelid, had decreased. Group 3 demonstrated the lowest amount of growth after the administration of the onion juice and the bacterial isolation rates from each organism had decreased. All pathological samples revealed some degree of inflammation. There was no evidence of metaplasia or dysplasia. There was no significant difference between the growth rates of organisms in the experimental groups using statistical analysis. Conclusions: According to our experiment, onion has an inhibitory effect on the growth of normal eye flora; although the duration of onion juice instillation did not show any significant effect on the group results. Hence, this finding is an initiating point for further investigations into the antimicrobial properties of this herb to treat common eye infections, including conjunctivitis and blepharitis. PMID:25147716

  14. The genus Allium--Part 1.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, G R; Hanley, A B

    1985-01-01

    Alliums have been grown for many centuries for their characteristic, pungent flavor and medicinal properties. The present review, which includes references published up to the middle of 1984, is primarily concerned with the chemical composition, flavor, and physiological properties of these crops, their extracts, and processed products. Special emphasis is placed upon the relationship between the organoleptically and biologically active components of onion and garlic. Following a brief historical introduction, current production of commercially important alliums is described and their botanical origins and interrelationships are explained. Following consideration of the major economic diseases and pests of alliums, the agronomic, husbandry, and practices associated with their cultivation are described, particular emphasis being placed upon the storage and processing of onion and garlic. The detailed, overall chemical composition and nutritional value of members of the genus Allium are presented in Section 7; after an outline of the origin and nature of flavor components and precursors, the flavor volatiles of individual members are presented. The effects of agronomic, environmental, and processing practices on chemical and flavor content and quality are considered in Section 9. The following section deals critically with the human and animal studies which have been conducted into the medical and therapeutic properties of alliums, emphasis being placed upon the studies into the antiatherosclerotic effect of onion and garlic and their essential oils. After a study of antimicrobial properties of alliums and their effects on insects and animals, an overview is presented which highlights unexplored or inadequately studied areas and suggests rewarding areas for future research.

  15. Thrips Settling, Oviposition and IYSV Distribution on Onion Foliage.

    PubMed

    Chitturi, Anitha; Riley, David; Nischwitz, Claudia; Gitaitis, Ron; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu

    2015-06-01

    Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) adult and larval settling and oviposition on onion (Allium cepa L.) foliage were investigated in relation to leaf position and leaf length at prebulb plant growth stages under controlled conditions. In the laboratory, four and six adult females of T. tabaci were released on onion plants at three-leaf stage and six- to eight-leaf stage, respectively, and thrips egg, nymph, and adult count data were collected on each of the three inner most leaves at every 2-cm leaf segment. Thrips settling and oviposition parameters were quantified during the light period on the above ground portion of onion plants from the distal end of the bulb or leaf sheath "neck" through the tips of the foliage. Results from studies confirmed that distribution of thrips adults, nymphs, and eggs were skewed toward the base of the plant. The settling distributions of thrips adults and nymphs differed slightly from the egg distribution in that oviposition occurred all the way to the tip of the leaf while adults and nymphs were typically not observed near the tip. In a field study, the foliage was divided into three equal partitions, i.e., top, middle, basal thirds, and thrips adults by species, primarily Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and T. tabaci, were collected from each partition to determine if there was a similar bias of all adult thrips toward the base of the plant. The results suggested that adults of different species appear to segregate along leaf length. Finally, thrips oviposition on 2-cm segments and Iris yellow spot virus positive leaf segments were quantified in the field, irrespective of thrips species. Both variables demonstrated a very similar pattern of bias toward the base of the plant and were significantly correlated.

  16. The association of peroxisomes with the developing cell plate in dividing onion root cells depends on actin microfilaments and myosin.

    PubMed

    Collings, David A; Harper, John D I; Vaughn, Kevin C

    2003-12-01

    We have investigated changes in the distribution of peroxisomes through the cell cycle in onion ( Allium cepa L.) root meristem cells with immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, and in leek ( Allium porrum L.) epidermal cells with immunofluorescence and peroxisomal-targeted green fluorescent protein. During interphase and mitosis, peroxisomes distribute randomly throughout the cytoplasm, but beginning late in anaphase, they accumulate at the division plane. Initially, peroxisomes occur within the microtubule phragmoplast in two zones on either side of the developing cell plate. However, as the phragmoplast expands outwards to form an annulus, peroxisomes redistribute into a ring immediately inside the location of the microtubules. Peroxisome aggregation depends on actin microfilaments and myosin. Peroxisomes first accumulate in the division plane prior to the formation of the microtubule phragmoplast, and throughout cytokinesis, always co-localise with microfilaments. Microfilament-disrupting drugs (cytochalasin and latrunculin), and a putative inhibitor of myosin (2,3-butanedione monoxime), inhibit aggregation. We propose that aggregated peroxisomes function in the formation of the cell plate, either by regulating hydrogen peroxide production within the developing cell plate, or by their involvement in recycling of excess membranes from secretory vesicles via the beta-oxidation pathway. Differences in aggregation, a phenomenon which occurs in onion, some other monocots and to a lesser extent in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells, but which is not obvious in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., may reflect differences within the primary cell walls of these plants.

  17. Energy efficiency procedures for agricultural machinery used in onion cultivation (Allium fistulosum) as an alternative to reduce carbon emissions under the clean development mechanism at Aquitania (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, K.; Carrillo, S.; Gutierrez, L.

    2014-06-01

    Climate change has both causes and consequences over agriculture. This paper focuses on the first element and presents scenarios for ASOLAGO -an onion cropper's association in Colombia with 250 members- to reduce their carbon footprint. It evaluates a case study at "La Primavera" farm using a methodology approved by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Land preparation and crop irrigation were analyzed as stages in order to propose energy efficiency alternatives for both the farm and the association. They include field efficiency, fuel economy and energy efficiency from biofuels for the first stage as well as solar and wind energy supply for the second. A cost-benefit analysis to generate additional income selling additional power produced by the system to the National Grid was done.

  18. Effects of Intercropping with Potato Onion on the Growth of Tomato and Rhizosphere Alkaline Phosphatase Genes Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Wu, Fengzhi; Zhou, Xingang; Fu, Xuepeng; Tao, Yue; Xu, Weihui; Pan, Kai; Liu, Shouwei

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: In China, excessive fertilization has resulted in phosphorus (P) accumulation in most greenhouse soils. Intercropping can improve the efficiency of nutrient utilization in crop production. In this study, pot experiments were performed to investigate the effects of intercropping with potato onion (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum G. Don) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings growth and P uptake, the diversity of rhizosphere phosphobacteria and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes in phosphorus-rich soil. Methods: The experiment included three treatments, namely tomato monoculture (TM), potato onion monoculture (OM), and tomato/potato onion intercropping (TI-tomato intercropping and OI-potato onion intercropping). The growth and P uptake of tomato and potato onion seedlings were evaluated. The dilution plating method was used to determine the population of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and phosphate-mineralizing bacteria (PMB). The genomic DNAs of PSB and PMB in the rhizosphere of tomato and potato onions were extracted and purified, and then, with the primer set of 338f /518r, the PCR amplification of partial bacterial 16S rDNA sequence was performed and sequenced to determine the diversities of PSB and PMB. After extracting the total genomic DNAs from the rhizosphere, the copy numbers and diversities of ALP genes were investigated using real-time PCR and PCR-DGGE, respectively. Results: Intercropping with potato onion promoted the growth and P uptake of tomato seedlings, but inhibited those of potato onion. After 37 days of transplanting, compared to the rhizosphere of TM, the soil pH increased, while the electrolytic conductivity and Olsen P content decreased (p < 0.05) in the rhizosphere of TI. The populations and diversities of PSB, PMB, and ALP genes increased significantly in the rhizosphere of TI, compared to the rhizosphere of TM. Conclusion: The results indicated that intercropping with potato onion promoted the growth and P

  19. Improved fructan accumulation in perennial ryegrass transformed with the onion fructosyltransferase genes 1-SST and 6G-FFT.

    PubMed

    Gadegaard, Gitte; Didion, Thomas; Folling, Marianne; Storgaard, Morten; Andersen, Claus H; Nielsen, Klaus K

    2008-07-31

    Carbohydrate limitation has been identified as a main cause of inefficient nitrogen use in ruminant animals, which feed mainly on fresh forage, hay and silage. This inefficiency results in suboptimal meat and milk productivity. One important molecular breeding strategy is to improve the nutritional value of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) by increasing the fructan content through expression of heterologous fructan biosynthetic genes. We developed perennial ryegrass lines expressing sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase genes from onion (Allium cepa) which exhibited up to a 3-fold increased fructan content. Further, the high fructan content was stable during the growth period, whereas the fructan content in an elite variety, marketed as a high sugar variety, dropped rapidly after reaching its maximum and subsequently remained low.

  20. The prophylactic use of a topical scar gel containing extract of Allium cepae, allantoin, and heparin improves symptoms and appearance of cesarean-section scars compared with untreated scars.

    PubMed

    Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Vázquez-Martínez, Osvaldo T; Iglesias Benavides, José Luis; Buske, Kristin; Lehn, Annette; Acker, Clemens

    2014-02-01

    Abdominal Cesarean sections (C-sections) are frequently associated with an increased risk of excessive or unpleasant scarring. A topical scar gel containing extract of Allium cepae, allantoin and heparin (Contractubex®; Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Germany), has shown efficacy in improving the appearance of various scar types. To investigate the efficacy of the topical scar gel, Contractubex, in the early treatment of C-section scars. A total of 61 females, aged ≥18 years, who had given birth by elective C-section for the first time within the last 5-10 days, were included in this prospective, randomized, single-center study. Patients were advised to apply the topical scar gel twice daily (treatment group), or received no treatment (control group). Efficacy was evaluated at 6 and 12 weeks after a baseline visit using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS), a validated scar assessment tool comprised of a Patient Scale and an Observer Scale. Analysis revealed a significant change in the POSAS Patient Scale total score, with a 14.2% improvement in the treatment group compared with a decline of similar magnitude (-14.8%) in the control group at week 6. Significant improvements were also seen for POSAS Patient Scale sub-items in the treatment group compared with the control group for scar color (13.6% vs -18.5%, respectively, P=0.0284), stiffness (12.5% vs -34.6%, respectively, P=0.0029), and irregularity (29.4% vs -46.2%, respectively, P=0.0140) after 6 weeks of treatment. No significant changes were observed for the POSAS Observer Scale total score or its subitems after treatment with the topical scar gel, although there was a strong overall trend in favor of the treatment group. No significant adverse events were observed during the study. Contractubex represents an efficacious and well-tolerated preventative treatment that rapidly and significantly improves the color, stiffness and irregularity of C-section scars.

  1. Physiological response and sulfur metabolism of the V. dahliae-infected tomato plants in tomato/potato onion companion cropping

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xuepeng; Li, Chunxia; Zhou, Xingang; Liu, Shouwei; Wu, Fengzhi

    2016-01-01

    Companion cropping with potato onions (Allium cepa var. agrogatum Don.) can enhance the disease resistance of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) to Verticillium dahliae infection by increasing the expressions of genes related to disease resistance. However, it is not clear how tomato plants physiologically respond to V. dahliae infection and what roles sulfur plays in the disease-resistance. Pot experiments were performed to examine changes in the physiology and sulfur metabolism of tomato roots infected by V. dahliae under the companion cropping (tomato/potato onion). The results showed that the companion cropping increased the content of total phenol, lignin and glutathione and increased the activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots of tomato plants. RNA-seq analysis showed that the expressions of genes involved in sulfur uptake and assimilation, and the formation of sulfur-containing defense compounds (SDCs) were up-regulated in the V. dahlia-infected tomatoes in the companion cropping. In addition, the interactions among tomato, potato onion and V. dahliae induced the expression of the high- affinity sulfate transporter gene in the tomato roots. These results suggest that sulfur may play important roles in tomato disease resistance against V. dahliae. PMID:27808257

  2. Collection and seed production of Allium acuminatum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As a component of Greater Sage-Grouse and Southern Idaho Ground Squirrel habitat, Allium acuminatum Hook. (Taper-tip onion) has been targeted for use in restoration projects and conservation. Before a native plant can be used in large or small projects in the landscape quantities of propagules nee...

  3. Quantitative metabolite profiling of edible onion species by NMR and HPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Soininen, Tuula H; Jukarainen, Niko; Auriola, Seppo O K; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Karjalainen, Reijo; Vepsäläinen, Jouko J

    2014-12-15

    Allium genus is a treasure trove of valuable bioactive compounds with potentially therapeutically important properties. This work utilises HPLC-MS and a constrained total-line-shape (CTLS) approach applied to (1)H NMR spectra to quantify metabolites present in onion species to reveal important inter-species differences. Extensive differences were detected between the sugar concentrations in onion species. Yellow onion contained the highest and red onion the lowest amounts of amino acids. The main flavonol-glucosides were quercetin 3,4'-diglucoside and quercetin 4'-glucoside. In general, the levels of flavonols were, higher in yellow onions than in red onions, and garlic and leek contained a lower amount of flavonols than the other Allium species. Our results highlight how (1)H NMR together with HPLC-MS can be useful in the quantification and the identification of the most abundant metabolites, representing an efficient means to pinpoint important functional food ingredients from Allium species.

  4. Varietal differences in phenolic content and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of onions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Meyers, Katherine J; van der Heide, Jan; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-11-03

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk for the development of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, including phenolics and flavonoids, are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds contributing to the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Onions are a major source of dietary flavonoids; however, there may exist varietal differences in composition, concentration, and beneficial activities. To characterize these differences, shallots and 10 onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties commonly available in the United States (Western Yellow, Northern Red, New York Bold, Western White, Peruvian Sweet, Empire Sweet, Mexico, Texas 1015, Imperial Valley Sweet, and Vidalia) were evaluated for total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Shallots contained the highest total phenolic content (114.7 +/- 10.0 mg/100 g of sample) among the varieties tested, with a 6-fold difference observed when compared to the variety with the lowest phenolic content (Vidalia, p < 0.05). Western Yellow onion variety exhibited the highest total flavonoid content (69.2 +/- 3.7 mg/100 g of onion) of the varieties tested, with an 11-fold difference when compared to the variety with the lowest flavonoid content (Western White, p < 0.05). Shallots exhibited the highest total antioxidant activity (45.5 +/- 2.1 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of onion), followed by Western Yellow, New York Bold, Northern Red, Mexico, Empire Sweet, Western White, Peruvian Sweet, Texas 1015, Imperial Valley Sweet, and Vidalia. For all varieties, both total phenolic and flavonoid contents were strongly correlated with total antioxidant activity (R (2) = 0.9668, p < 0.05; and R (2) = 0.7033, p < 0.05, respectively). The proliferation of HepG(2) and Caco-2 cells was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion after exposure to the Western Yellow, shallots, New

  5. Antagonistic effects of several bacteria on Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of root and crown rot of onion under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Tehrani, A; Saberi-Riseh, R; Heidarian, R

    2004-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is one of the most important vegetable crop which is commonly used as a food supplement. This plant is found to be vulnerable to various pathogenic infections during its growth development. Among different onion diseases, root and crown rot,caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepa, s considered an importantfungal disease. In this study, the inhibitory effect of Bacillus cereus (isolates 22 and 52), B. subtilis (isolate 126), Pseudomonas fluorescens (isolates 48 and CHAO), benomyl fungicide and a combination of isolates CHAO and 22 and isolate 52 and benomyl were investigated on disease development under the field condition. This experiment was carried out in a randomize complete blocks with 10 treatments and three repetitions. Grouping of treatments was done at 5% level using Duncan multiple comparison test. It was also demonstrated that isolate 126 was the most effective antagonist with regard to crop yield but other treatments despite showing significant on plant growth factors were less effective in increasing crop yield.

  6. β-Glucan Synthetases of Plasma Membrane and Golgi Apparatus from Onion Stem 1

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Woude, William J.; Lembi, Carole A.; Morré, D. James; Kindinger, Jaunita I.; Ordin, Lawrence

    1974-01-01

    Biosynthesis of glucans occurred in cell-free fractions isolated from onion stem (Allium cepa L.) enriched in either dictyosomes or plasma membranes. β-1,3- and β-1, 4-Glucans were synthesized in differing proportions and at different rates as the concentration of uridine diphosphoglucose or the proportion of dictyosomes or plasma membrane varied. At low (1.5 μm) UDP-glucose concentrations synthesis of alkali-insoluble glucan was correlated with abundance of dicytosomes; most of the substrate utilized by plasma membrane was for glycolipid synthesis. At high (1 mm) UDP-glucose concentration, the synthesis of alkali-insoluble glucans correlated with the abundance of plasma membrane. Substrate enhancement of β-1, 4-glucan synthesis in dictyosome fractions was less than proportional to increases in substrate concentration. In contrast, β-1, 4-glucan synthesis by plasma membrane was more than proportionately increased. At high substrate concentrations the synthesis of β-1, 3-glucans predominated in both dictyosome and plasma membrane fractions. The results show that the capacity to synthesize glucans resides in both Golgi apparatus and plasma membranes of onion stem, but that the plasma membrane has the greatest capacity for synthesis of alkali-insoluble glucans at high UDP-glucose concentrations. Images PMID:16658884

  7. Effects of indole amides on lettuce and onion germination and growth.

    PubMed

    Borgati, Thiago F; Boaventura, Maria Amelia D

    2011-01-01

    Auxins, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), are important in plant germination and growth, while physiological polyamines, such as putrescine, are involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, and their concentrations increase during germination. In this work, novel indole amides were synthesized in good yields by monoacylation of morpholine and unprotected symmetrical diamines with indole-3-carboxylic acid, a putative metabolite of IAA, possessing no auxin-like activity. These amides were tested for their effects on seed germination and growth of the radicles and shoots of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Allium cepa (onion) seedlings, at 100.0, 1.0, and 0.01 microM concentrations. Germination was generally stimulated, with the exception of amide 3, derived from morpholine, at 100 microM. On radicle and shoot growth, the effect of these compounds was predominantly inhibitory. Compound 3 was the best inhibitor of growth of lettuce and onion, at the highest concentration. Amides, such as propanil, among others, are described as having herbicidal activity.

  8. Cytotoxicity of Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings on Allim cepa L root meristems.

    PubMed

    Moura, A G; Santana, G M; Ferreira, P M P; Sousa, J M C; Peron, A P

    2016-06-01

    Despite their great importance for the food industry, flavorings, in general, raise a number of questions regarding their cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, since, in the literature, there are few studies found evaluating the toxicity on the systemic and cellular level, of these chemical compounds. The root meristems of Allium cepa (onion) are widely used for the assessment of toxicity of chemical compounds of interest. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate, in A. cepa meristematic cells, individually and in combination at the cellular level, the toxicity of synthetic Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings, identical to the natural, at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. In combination we used 0.5 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 0.5 mL of Cheddar flavor; and 1.0 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 1.0 mL of Cheddar flavor, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For these evaluations, we used groups of five onion bulbs, which were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective doses. The root tips were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1) for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by crushing and were stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control and exposure time. The mitotic indices calculated and cellular aberrations observed were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test (p <0.05). No chromosomal abnormalities nor those of mitotic spindle were observed for the treatments performed. The results, both individually and in combination, showed that the flavorings under study significantly reduced the cell division rate of the test system cells used. Therefore, under the conditions studied, the two flavorings were cytotoxic.

  9. Genotoxicity of indium tin oxide by Allium and Comet tests.

    PubMed

    Ciğerci, İbrahim Hakkı; Liman, Recep; Özgül, Emre; Konuk, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    Genotoxic effects of indium tin oxide (ITO) were investigated on root cells of Allium cepa by employing both Allium and Comet assays. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of ITO at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm) for 4 h. Exposure of ITO significantly increased mitotic index, and total chromosomal aberrations by the Allium test. While chromosome laggards, stickiness, disturbed anaphase-telophase and anaphase bridges were observed in anaphase-telophase cells, c-metaphase and binuclear cells were observed in other cells. A significant increase in DNA damage was also observed at all concentrations of ITO by the Comet assay. These results indicate that ITO exhibits genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  10. Molecular Rigidity in Dry and Hydrated Onion Cell Walls.

    PubMed

    Ha, M. A.; Apperley, D. C.; Jarvis, M. C.

    1997-10-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation experiments can provide information on the rigidity of individual molecules within a complex structure such as a cell wall, and thus show how each polymer can potentially contribute to the rigidity of the whole structure. We measured the proton magnetic relaxation parameters T2 (spin-spin) and T1p (spin-lattice) through the 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of dry and hydrated cell walls from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Dry cell walls behaved as rigid solids. The form of their T2 decay curves varied on a continuum between Gaussian, as in crystalline solids, and exponential, as in more mobile materials. The degree of molecular mobility that could be inferred from the T2 and T1p decay patterns was consistent with a crystalline state for cellulose and a glassy state for dry pectins. The theory of composite materials may be applied to explain the rigidity of dry onion cell walls in terms of their components. Hydration made little difference to the rigidity of cellulose and most of the xyloglucan shared this rigidity, but the pectic fraction became much more mobile. Therefore, the cellulose/xyloglucan microfibrils behaved as solid rods, and the most significant physical distinction within the hydrated cell wall was between the microfibrils and the predominantly pectic matrix. A minor xyloglucan fraction was much more mobile than the microfibrils and probably corresponded to cross-links between them. Away from the microfibrils, pectins expanded upon hydration into a nonhomogeneous, but much softer, almost-liquid gel. These data are consistent with a model for the stress-bearing hydrated cell wall in which pectins provide limited stiffness across the thickness of the wall, whereas the cross-linked microfibril network provides much greater rigidity in other directions.

  11. Novel approach for the determination of volatile compounds in processed onion by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Colina-Coca, Clara; González-Peña, Diana; Vega, Estela; de Ancos, Begoña; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción

    2013-01-15

    A novel headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS GC-MS) method was developed for analysis of volatile compounds in onion (Allium cepa L. var. cepa, 'Recas'). MS was operated using full scan mode and selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode in order to quantify some specific compounds with increased sensitivity relative to full scan mode. The limits of detection and quantitation ranged from 0.01 to 0.10 μg/g and from 0.02 to 3.83 μg/g fresh weight, respectively, for studied compounds. The procedure allowed the identification of eighteen compounds and quantitation of nine compounds in the volatile fraction of onion, belonging mainly to di-, and trisulfides and aldehydes. These methods were applied to evaluate how high-pressure (HP) as a processing technology affects onion volatile compounds, responsible in part of the onion biological activity. Onion samples were treated at T1: 200 MPa/25°C/5 min, T2: 400 MPa/25°C/5 min and T3: 600 MPa/25°C/5 min (treatments). In addition, the difference among diced, freeze-dried and pulverized onions (groups) was studied, in order to select the process more adequate for better preserving volatile compounds. The results obtained in full scan mode showed that both main factors (group and treatment) had a significant effect (P<0.001). There were also significant differences between groups and treatments for all compounds, being the main effect of group more marked by HS GC-MS using selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode. For 2-methyl 2-pentenal, dimethyl trisulfide, and methyl propyl trisulfide it has been observed an increase in freeze-dried and pulverized onion samples compared with diced samples regardless the HP treatment. However, freeze-drying and pulverization processes affected the stability of propionaldehyde, 1-propanethiol, hexanal, dipropyl disulfide, and dipropyl trisulfide, diminishing their content regardless the HP treatment. HP at 200 and 400 MPa/25°C/5 min were the least detrimental treatments to the total

  12. Cytological studies on onion root-tip cells treated with water-soluble extract of tobacco smoke condensate from commercial cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, P S; Gulati, D K; Bhalla, P R

    1975-08-01

    The effect of water-soluble extract of tobacco smoke condensate (TSC) from two commercially available cigarettes with dirrerent types of filters was studied on the cytology of root-tip cells of onion (Allium cepa). One of the cigarettes had a 2-cm cellulose acetate filter, and the other had a filter comprised of 1 cm of cellulose acetate and 2 cm of activated charcoal. TSC from these cigarettes induced mitotic abnormalities. To investigate whether these two commercial filters could retain cigarette smoke component (s) responsible for mitotic irregularities, the cigarettes were defiltered, and TSC was prepared and tested on the young roots of onion. Observations revealed that the cytological effect of TSC from defiltered cigarettes was not significantly different from the effect of TSC from cigarettes with filters. Thus, the filters utilized in these cigarettes do not retain compound(s) responsible for mitotic irregularities in the root-tip cells of onion. With increasing concentrations (0.01% ot 0.1%) of TSC from cigarettes with filters and defiltered, precent mitotic abnormalities increased. These abnormalities included scattering, stickiness, lagging, condensation, and breaking of chromosomes during metaphase. Bridging and lagging of chromosomes were observed during anaphase.

  13. Testing of the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of metolcarb by using both Ames/Salmonella and Allium test.

    PubMed

    Liman, Recep; Akyil, Dilek; Eren, Yasin; Konuk, Muhsin

    2010-08-01

    Mutagenic and genotoxic effects of metolcarb were investigated by both bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains with or without metabolic activation system (S9) and Allium cepa root meristematic cells, respectively. Metolcarb was dissolved in DMSO in Ames/Salmonella test system. 0.1, 1 and 10 microg/plate doses of metolcarb were found to be mutagenic S. typhimurium TA98 without S9. In Allium root growth inhibition test, EC50 value was determined 200 ppm and 0.5xEC50, EC50 and 2xEC50 concentrations of metolcarb were introduced to onion tuber roots and distilled water used as a negative control. Mitotic index (MI), increased in all concentrations compared to control at each exposure time. While disturbed anaphase-telophase, chromosome laggards, stickiness and bridges were observed in anaphase-telophase cells, pro-metaphase, C-mitosis, polyploidy, binuclear cells and disturbed nucleus were observed in other cells. The results were also analyzed statistically by using SPSS for Windows, Mann-Whitney test and Duncan's multiple range tests were performed respectively.

  14. Genotoxicity assessment of propyl thiosulfinate oxide, an organosulfur compound from Allium extract, intended to food active packaging.

    PubMed

    Mellado-García, P; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Prieto, A I; Marcos, R; Pichardo, S; Cameán, A M

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils from onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their main components, such as propyl thiosulfinate oxide (PTSO) are being intended for active packaging with the purpose of maintaining and extending food product quality and shelf life. The present work aims to assess for the first time the potential mutagenicity/genotoxicity of PTSO (0-50 µM) using the following battery of genotoxicity tests: (1) the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test, OECD 471); (2) the micronucleus test (OECD 487) (MN) and (3) the mouse lymphoma thymidine-kinase assay (OECD 476) (MLA) on L5178YTk(+/-), cells; and (4) the comet assay (with and without Endo III and FPG enzymes) on Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that PTSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test, however it was mutagenic in the MLA assay after 24 h of treatment (2.5-20 µM). The parent compound did not induce MN on mammalian cells; however, its metabolites (in the presence S9) produced positive results (from 15 µM). Data from the comet assay indicated that PTSO did not induce DNA breaks or oxidative DNA damage. Further in vivo genotoxicity tests are needed to confirm its safety before it is used as active additive in food packaging.

  15. Evaluation of allium and its seasoning on toxigenic, nutritional, and sensorial profiles of groundnut oil.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kasi; Anandaraj, K; Al-Sohaibani, Saleh A

    2014-04-01

    Mitigation of xerophilic storage fungi-associated aflatoxin threat in culinary oil will be a new technology advantage to food industries. Groundnut oil isolate Aspergillus flavus MTCC 10680 susceptibility to Allium species (A. sativum L., A. cepa L., and A. cepa var. aggregatum) extracts, composition, and in silico confirmation of extract's phytoconstituent aflatoxin synthesis inhibition were determined. The behavior of seasoning carrier medium groundnut oil in the presence of Allium was also determined. All the Allium species extracts exhibited concentration dependent in vitro inhibition on mycelial biomass, radial growth, and toxin elaboration. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 28, 16, and 9 compounds in the extracts of A. sativum, A. cepa, A. cepa var. aggregatum, respectively. The Allium phytocostituents-like hexadecanoic acid, 5-Octanoyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione, Guanosine, and so on, showed higher binding energy with aflatoxin synthesis key enzyme ver1. Allium seasoning increased the typical nutty odor of the groundnut oil with sweet aroma note as well as intensification of pale yellow color. Allium seasoning exhibited the highest aflatoxin detoxification and aroma development without any nutritional loss. Culinary oil Allium seasoning has anti-aflatoxin and food additive potential for use in food industries.

  16. First Genome Sequence of Shallot Latent Carlavirus from Allium macrostemon Bunge

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Kouta; Yasaka, Ryosuke; Fukuda, Shinji; Ishimaru, Kanji; Tomitaka, Yasuhiro; Yamashita, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A wild Japanese garlic plant (Allium macrostemon Bunge, wild onion) with leaves showing chlorotic stripes was collected in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Genome sequencing showed that it was infected with shallot latent carlavirus. The genomic sequence of this virus is reported for the first time from wild onion. PMID:28818904

  17. First Genome Sequence of Shallot Latent Carlavirus from Allium macrostemon Bunge.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Kazusato; Okamura, Kouta; Yasaka, Ryosuke; Fukuda, Shinji; Ishimaru, Kanji; Tomitaka, Yasuhiro; Yamashita, Kazuo

    2017-08-17

    A wild Japanese garlic plant (Allium macrostemon Bunge, wild onion) with leaves showing chlorotic stripes was collected in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Genome sequencing showed that it was infected with shallot latent carlavirus. The genomic sequence of this virus is reported for the first time from wild onion. Copyright © 2017 Ohshima et al.

  18. New dynamics in an old friend: dynamic tubular vacuoles radiate through the cortical cytoplasm of red onion epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, Elizabeth J; Collings, David A

    2009-10-01

    The textbook image of the plant vacuole sitting passively in the centre of the cell is not always correct. We observed vacuole dynamics in the epidermal cells of red onion (Allium cepa) bulbs, using confocal microscopy to detect autofluorescence from the pigment anthocyanin. The central vacuole was penetrated by highly mobile transvacuolar strands of cytoplasm, which were also visible in concurrent transmitted light images. Tubular vacuoles also extended from the large central vacuole and radiated through the cortical cytoplasm. These tubules were thin, having a diameter of about 1.5 microm, and were connected to the central vacuole as shown by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments. The tubules were bounded by the tonoplast, as revealed by transient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) targeted to the vacuolar membrane and through labeling with the dye MDY-64. Expression of endoplasmic reticulum-targeted GFP demonstrated that the vacuolar tubules were distinct from the cortical endoplasmic reticulum. Movement of the tubular vacuoles depended on actin microfilaments, as microfilament disruption blocked tubule movement and caused their collapse into minivacuoles. The close association of the tubules with GFP-tagged actin microfilaments suggests that the tubules are associated with myosin, and that tubules likely move along microfilaments. Tubular vacuoles do not require anthocyanin for their formation, as tubules were also present in white onion cells that lack anthocyanin. The function of these tubular vacuoles remains unknown, but as they greatly increase the surface area of the tonoplast, they might increase transport rates between the cytoplasm and vacuole.

  19. The uptake of nickel and chromium from irrigation water by potatoes, carrots and onions.

    PubMed

    Stasinos, Sotiris; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2013-05-01

    Heavy metals, in general, can migrate from polluted soil and/or irrigation water to tuber plants, leading, after chronic consumption, to health problems. The scope of this study was to investigate the uptake of chromium and nickel by carrots (Daucus carrota), onions (Allium cepa) and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) in a greenhouse experiment simulating the open-field irrigation conditions in the two biggest tuber producing regions of Greece (Asopos river in Viotia and Messapia in Evia). The study included cultivation of tubers for a period of approximately 4 months in six irrigation lines, each one provided by a water solution containing different levels of Cr(VI) and Ni(II) ranging from 0μg/l (control) to 250μg/l. The soil used was obtained from a certified organic greenhouse. Uptake of Cr was observed in onion leaves between 0 and 10μg/l water concentrations (+109.2 percent, p=0.006), 0μg/l and 20μg/l (+47.5 percent, p=0.006), 0μg/l and 50μg/l (+202.8 percent, p=0.006), 0μg/l and 100μg/l (+89.9 percent, p=0.028), 0μg/l and 250μg/l (+61.3 percent, p=0.009). Uptake of Ni was observed: (a) in onion leaves between 0 and 250μg/l water concentrations (+90.2 percent, p=0.076), (b) in onion shoots between 0 and 10μg/l (+39.1 percent, p=0.045), 0 and 250μg/l (+55 percent, p=0.047) and (c) in potatoes between 0 and 20μg/l (+28.1 percent, p=0.083). Our results suggest that irrigation water containing Cr and Ni can cross-contaminate onions and potatoes cultivated in a soil never previously polluted, anthropogenically, with heavy metals. No such results were found for carrots.

  20. Onion dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Lienau, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    This article describes the onion dehydration process as generally practiced in the United States. The actual processing steps from harvest to final product, and geothermal applications for power production and energy requirements in the dehydration industry are discussed. A design of a dehydrator converted to geothermal energy usage is included.

  1. Identification of two novel pigment precursors and a reddish-purple pigment involved in the blue-green discoloration of onion and garlic.

    PubMed

    Imai, Shinsuke; Akita, Kaori; Tomotake, Muneaki; Sawada, Hiroshi

    2006-02-08

    By using a model reaction system representing blue-green discoloration that occurs when purees of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) are mixed, we isolated two pigment precursors (PPs) and a reddish-purple pigment (PUR-1) and determined their chemical structures. PPs were isolated from a heat-treated solution containing color developer (CD) and either l-valine or l-alanine, and their structures were determined as 2-(3,4-dimethylpyrrolyl)-3-methylbutanoic acid (PP-Val), and 2-(3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrrolyl) propanoic acid (PP-Ala), respectively. Next, PUR-1 was isolated from a heat-treated solution containing PP-Val and allicin, and its structure was determined as (1E)-1-(1-((1S)-1-carboxy-2-methylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-prop-1-enylene-3-(1-((1S)-1-carboxy-2-methylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-2-ylidenium). The structure of PUR-1 suggested that PP molecules containing a 3,4-dimethyl pyrrole ring had been cross-linked by an allyl group of allicin to form conjugated pigments. While PUR-1 is a dipyrrole compound exhibiting a reddish-purple color, a color shift toward blue to green can be expected as the cross-linking reaction continues to form, for example, tri- or tetrapyrrole compounds.

  2. Genotoxicity of drinking water disinfection by-products (bromoform and chloroform) by using both Allium anaphase-telophase and comet tests.

    PubMed

    Khallef, Messaouda; Liman, Recep; Konuk, Muhsin; Ciğerci, İbrahim Hakkı; Benouareth, Djameleddine; Tabet, Mouna; Abda, Ahlem

    2015-03-01

    Genotoxic effects of bromoform and chloroform, disinfection by-products of the chlorination of drinking water, were examined by using mitotic index (MI), mitotic phase, chromosome aberrations (CAs) and comet assay on root meristematic cells of Allium cepa. Different concentrations of bromoform (25, 50, 75 and 100 μg/mL) and chloroform (25, 50, 100 and 200 μg/mL) were introduced to onion tuber roots. Distilled water was used as a negative control and methyl methansulfonate (MMS-10 μg/mL) as positive control. All obtained data were subjected to statistical analyses by using SPSS 15.0 for Windows software. For comparison purposes, Duncan multiple range tests by using one-way analysis of variance were employed and p < 0.05 was accepted as significant value. Exposure of both chemicals (except 25 μg/mL applications of bromoform) significantly decreased MI. Bromoform and chloroform (except 25 μg/mL applications) increased total CAs in Allium anaphase-telophase test. A significant increase in DNA damage was also observed at all concentrations of both bromoform and chloroform examined by comet assay. The damages were higher than that of positive control especially at 75-100 μg/mL for bromoform and 100-200 μg/mL for chloroform.

  3. Adenylate Cyclase Activity Not Found in Soybean Hypocotyl and Onion Meristem 1

    PubMed Central

    Yunghans, Wayne N.; Morré, D. James

    1977-01-01

    Tissue, homogenates, and purified cell fractions prepared from hypocotyls of a dicot, soybean (Glycine max), and meristematic tissue of a monocot, onion (Allium cepa), were examined critically for evidence of adenylate cyclase activity. Three assay methods were used: chemical analysis, isotope dilution analysis, and enzyme cytochemistry. In both crude extracts or whole tissue, as well as purified memb