Science.gov

Sample records for online mechanical integrity

  1. Integrating function and mechanism.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2009-12-01

    Behavioural ecology often makes the assumption that animals can respond flexibly by adopting the optimal behaviour for each circumstance. However, as ethologists have long known, behaviour is determined by mechanisms that are not optimal in every circumstance. As we discuss here, we believe that it is necessary to integrate these separate traditions by considering the evolution of mechanisms, an approach referred to as 'Evo-mecho'. This integration is timely because there is a growing awareness of the importance of environmental complexity in shaping behaviour; there are established and effective computational procedures for simulating evolution and there is rapidly increasing knowledge of the neuronal basis of decision-making. Although behavioural ecologists have built complex models of optimal behaviour in simple environments, we argue that they need to focus on simple mechanisms that perform well in complex environments.

  2. Integrated online job-shop scheduling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xing; Chen, Kuan H.; Luh, Peter B.; Chiueh, T. D.; Chang, ShihChang; Thakur, Lakshman S.

    1999-11-01

    The rapid development of information technology and e- commerce requires fast response form scheduling systems. Based on the Lagrangian relaxation approach for job shop scheduling, this paper present an integrated system that will generate schedules quickly. The Lagrangian relaxation approach is an iterative optimization process, where dynamic programming is solved in each iteration. Since dynamic programming is computational expensive especially for large problems, this paper develops the simplified dynamic programming, which will cut the computation time of each iteration by one order. Furthermore, a digital circuit to be embedded in PC is designed to implement the iterative optimization algorithm, leading to another order of speed improvement. The resulting integrated scheduling system consists of the hardware for optimization and the related software. It is estimated that two orders of magnitude gain in speed can be obtained, which will make on-line scheduling for practical job shops possible.

  3. Synchronised integrated online e-health profiles.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jian; Iannella, Renato; Sahama, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Web-based social networking applications have become increasingly important in recent years. The current applications in the healthcare sphere can support the health management, but to date there is no patient-controlled integrator. This paper proposes a platform called Multiple Profile Manager (MPM) that enables a user to create and manage an integrated profile that can be shared across numerous social network sites. Moreover, it is able to facilitate the collection of personal healthcare data, which makes a contribution to the development of public health informatics. Here we want to illustrate how patients and physicians can be benefited from enabling the platform for online social network sites. The MPM simplifies the management of patients' profiles and allows health professionals to obtain a more complete picture of the patients' background so that they can provide better health care. To do so, we demonstrate a prototype of the platform and describe its protocol specification, which is an XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol) [1] extension, for sharing and synchronising profile data (vCard²) between different social networks. PMID:21893917

  4. Interim Report on Concrete Degradation Mechanisms and Online Monitoring Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Agarwal, Vivek; Neal, Kyle; Kosson, David; Adams, Douglas

    2014-09-01

    The existing nuclear power plants in the United States have initial operating licenses of 40 years, though most of these plants have applied for and received license extensions. As plant structures, systems, and components age, their useful life—considering both structural integrity and performance—is reduced as a result of deterioration of the materials. The research on online monitoring of concrete structures conducted under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program at Idaho National Laboratory will develop and demonstrate concrete structures health monitoring capabilities. Assessment and management of aging concrete structures in nuclear plants require a more systematic approach than simple reliance on existing code margins of safety. Therefore, structural health monitoring is required to produce actionable information regarding structural integrity that supports operational and maintenance decisions. Through this research project, several national laboratories and Vanderbilt University propose to develop a framework of research activities for the health monitoring of nuclear power plant concrete structures that includes the integration of four elements—damage modeling, monitoring, data analytics, and uncertainty quantification. This report briefly discusses available techniques and ongoing challenges in each of the four elements of the proposed framework with emphasis on degradation mechanisms and online monitoring techniques.

  5. Odin environment integration mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Clemm, G.; Osterweil, L.

    1986-04-01

    A method of integrating software development tools is described. A data centered approach is taken, the software objects residing in a software object (data) repository. Odin can be thought of as an interpreter for a high level command language whose operands are the various software objects in the data repository and whose operators are the various tool fragments used to construct the software tools. Software objects can be such tools as source code, parse trees, symbol tables, flow graphs, documentation, test data, test results, and program structure representations. Discussions of previous research, Odin architecture, design, the Odin request language, the Odin specification language, and an example of Odin implementation are presented. 45 refs., 8 figs. (DWL)

  6. Faculty and Online Education as a Mechanism of Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Harold G., Jr.; Bieber, Jeffery P.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a critical perspective to examine how online education is used in brick-and-mortar institutions as a mechanism through which power is exercised by and against professors who teach online. Based on a larger study of 25 professors and administrators at four institutions, this work focuses on the experiences of 12 professors.…

  7. Terrain mechanical parameters online estimation for lunar rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing; Cui, Pingyuan; Ju, Hehua

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents a new method for terrain mechanical parameters estimation for a wheeled lunar rover. First, after deducing the detailed distribution expressions of normal stress and sheer stress at the wheel-terrain interface, the force/torque balance equations of the drive wheel for computing terrain mechanical parameters is derived through analyzing the rigid drive wheel of a lunar rover which moves with uniform speed in deformable terrain. Then a two-points Guass-Lengendre numerical integral method is used to simplify the balance equations, after simplifying and rearranging the resolve model are derived which are composed of three non-linear equations. Finally the iterative method of Newton and the steepest descent method are combined to solve the non-linear equations, and the outputs of on-board virtual sensors are used for computing terrain key mechanical parameters i.e. internal friction angle and press-sinkage parameters. Simulation results show correctness under high noises disturbance and effectiveness with low computational complexity, which allows a lunar rover for online terrain mechanical parameters estimation.

  8. IT Integration and Online Learning in the Singapore Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David; Tan, Seng Chee; Chen, Der-Thanq

    2003-01-01

    Reviews technology integration efforts in Singapore. Discusses examples of online learning in schools under four broad categories: cyber conferencing, e-learning services providers, e-publication, and wireless technology. Describes ways information technology is being used at the National Institute of Education in Singapore, as a tool for…

  9. Assessment of Online Discussion in Work-Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Judith; Brown, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how online discussion can be used in work-integrated learning as a vehicle for students to demonstrate their learning in the workplace and to facilitate collaborative learning where face-to-face classes are not feasible. Design/methodology/approach: The paper evaluates the use of assessable online…

  10. The CAPA Integrative Online System for College Major Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Nancy E.; Borgen, Fred H.

    2010-01-01

    Career assessment has advanced on several fronts, enabling a CAPA integrative online system for exploring college majors with unprecedented precision and utility. The key inventories in the system are the CAPA Confidence Inventory (CCI), with its 6 general and 27 specific scales, and the CAPA Interest Inventory, with its 6 general and 35 specific…

  11. Faculty Integrity and Its Contribution to the Culture of Integrity in Online Nursing Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    In higher education there exists a growing concern about the potential for student cheating in online programs. At the same time, online nursing programs are increasing in number. While there is clarity about how educators perceive and experience a lack of student integrity, there is little clarity about how educators define and experience the…

  12. Integrators for Nonholonomic Mechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLachlan, R.; Perlmutter, M.

    2006-08-01

    We study a discrete analog of the Lagrange-d'Alembert principle of nonhonolomic mechanics and give conditions for it to define a map and to be reversible. In specific cases it can generate linearly implicit, semi-implicit, or implicit numerical integrators for nonholonomic systems which, in several examples, exhibit superior preservation of the dynamics. We also study discrete nonholonomic systems on Lie groups and their reduction theory, and explore the properties of the exact discrete flow of a nonholonomic system.

  13. The integration of an online module on student learning.

    PubMed

    Yehle, Karen S; Chang, Karen

    2012-11-01

    Heart failure is a prevalent and costly condition. Patients with better self-management are less likely to be rehospitalized. An online interactive heart failure module was developed and integrated into a medical-surgical nursing course to assist students in learning how to care for patients with heart failure. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the integration of an online heart failure module improved baccalaureate nursing students' heart failure self-management knowledge. A pretest/posttest design was used to examine the effects of student knowledge of heart failure self-management following implementation of an online module. Among 235 students, significant improvement of heart failure self-management knowledge was observed (P < .05). The mean posttest scores ranged from 13.82 to 15.93. Students had problems mastering knowledge of weight monitoring, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, symptoms to report to physicians, and potassium-based salt substitutes. These findings were similar to four studies examining nurses' knowledge of heart failure. Students and nurses have difficulty mastering similar heart failure education concepts. An additional strategy, such as simulated or case scenarios, needs to be developed to help nurses and nursing students master all key concepts of heart failure self-management.

  14. 40 CFR 146.8 - Mechanical integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mechanical integrity. 146.8 Section...) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS General Provisions § 146.8 Mechanical integrity. (a) An injection well has mechanical integrity if: (1) There is no significant leak in the...

  15. 40 CFR 146.8 - Mechanical integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mechanical integrity. 146.8 Section...) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS General Provisions § 146.8 Mechanical integrity. (a) An injection well has mechanical integrity if: (1) There is no significant leak in the...

  16. 40 CFR 146.8 - Mechanical integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mechanical integrity. 146.8 Section...) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS General Provisions § 146.8 Mechanical integrity. (a) An injection well has mechanical integrity if: (1) There is no significant leak in the...

  17. Integrating ArcGIS Online with GEOSS Data Access Broker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchi, Roberto; Hogeweg, Marten

    2014-05-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) seeks to address 9 societal benefit areas for Earth observations to address: disasters, health, energy, climate, agriculture, ecosystems, biodiversity, water, and weather. As governments and their partners continue to monitor the face of the Earth, the collection, storage, analysis, and sharing of these observations remain fragmented, incomplete, or redundant. Major observational gaps also remain (particularly as we seek to look beneath the surface of the land and the water). As such, GEO's credo is that "decision makers need a global, coordinated, comprehensive, and sustained system of observing systems." Not surprisingly, one of the largest block of issues facing GEOSS is in the area of data: the access to data (including the building services to make the data more accessible), inadequate data integration and interoperability, error and uncertainty of observations, spatial and temporal gaps in observations, and the related issues of user involvement and capacity building. This is especially for people who stand to gain the most benefit from the datasets, but don't have the resources or knowledge to use them. Esri has millions of GIS and imagery users in hundreds of thousands of organizations around the world that work in the aforementioned 9 GEO societal benefit areas. Esri is therefore proud to have entered into a partnership with GEOSS, more specifically by way of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between Esri and the Earth and Space Science Informatics (ESSI) Laboratory of Prof. Stefano Nativi at the CNR (National Research Council of Italy) Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research. Esri is working with the ESSI Lab to integrate ArcGIS Online by way of the ArcGIS Online API into the GEOSS Data Access Broker (DAB), resulting in the discoverability of all public content from ArcGIS Online through many of the search portals that participate in this network (e.g., DataOne, CEOS, CUAHSI, OneGeology, IOOS

  18. Online Collaborative Mentoring for Technology Integration in Pre-Service Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorner, Helga; Kumar, Swapna

    2016-01-01

    The Mentored Innovation Model is an online collaborative mentoring model developed in Hungary to help teachers integrate technology in their classrooms in meaningful ways. It combines an online modular approach of formal pedagogical ICT training with an informal online community experience of sharing, developing and critiquing of shared learning…

  19. 40 CFR 147.3107 - Mechanical integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mechanical integrity. 147.3107 Section 147.3107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3107 Mechanical integrity. (a) Monitoring of annulus pressure...

  20. 40 CFR 147.3107 - Mechanical integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mechanical integrity. 147.3107 Section 147.3107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3107 Mechanical integrity. (a) Monitoring of annulus pressure...

  1. 40 CFR 68.73 - Mechanical integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mechanical integrity. 68.73 Section 68.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.73 Mechanical integrity....

  2. 40 CFR 147.3107 - Mechanical integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mechanical integrity. 147.3107 Section 147.3107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3107 Mechanical integrity. (a) Monitoring of annulus pressure...

  3. 40 CFR 68.73 - Mechanical integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mechanical integrity. 68.73 Section 68.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.73 Mechanical integrity....

  4. 40 CFR 147.3107 - Mechanical integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical integrity. 147.3107 Section 147.3107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3107 Mechanical integrity. (a) Monitoring of annulus pressure...

  5. 40 CFR 147.3107 - Mechanical integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mechanical integrity. 147.3107 Section 147.3107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3107 Mechanical integrity. (a) Monitoring of annulus pressure...

  6. Why mechanical subsystems are difficult to integrate

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.J.; Ortiz, K.; Wesner, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Though the theme of System Engineering is integration, and it is normal to attempt in integration to ignore the lines between disciplines, there are distinct characteristics of the mechanical design portion of any major system design project that make this difficult. How these characteristics compound the difficulty of integration is discussed and means to minimize the associated obstacles are suggested.

  7. Integrating local and CRI online documentation using SGML and DynaWeb

    SciTech Connect

    Shuler, V.; Girill, T.R.

    1997-04-01

    This paper tells how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory enriched CRI`s online documentation set by publishing local manuals using the same SGML DTD used by CRI and delivered using (a more sophisticated version of) the same World Wide Web server (DynaWeb3.0). This approach supports flexible local content and styles, yet integrates local and CRI manuals through one access mechanism and user interface. We explain the basic strategy involved, compare the benefits of this approach with three alternatives, and discuss the problems to which it gives rise.

  8. On-line smoothing for an integrated navigation system with low-cost MEMS inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Duong, Thanh Trung; Liao, Jhen-Kai; Lai, Ying-Chih; Chang, Chin-Chia; Cai, Jia-Ming; Huang, Shih-Ching

    2012-12-13

    The integration of the Inertial Navigation System (INS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely applied to seamlessly determine the time-variable position and orientation parameters of a system for navigation and mobile mapping applications. For optimal data fusion, the Kalman filter (KF) is often used for real-time applications. Backward smoothing is considered an optimal post-processing procedure. However, in current INS/GPS integration schemes, the KF and smoothing techniques still have some limitations. This article reviews the principles and analyzes the limitations of these estimators. In addition, an on-line smoothing method that overcomes the limitations of previous algorithms is proposed. For verification, an INS/GPS integrated architecture is implemented using a low-cost micro-electro-mechanical systems inertial measurement unit and a single-frequency GPS receiver. GPS signal outages are included in the testing trajectories to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method in comparison to conventional schemes.

  9. Online Strategy Instruction for Integrating Dictionary Skills and Language Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranalli, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the feasibility of an automated, online form of L2 strategy instruction (SI) as an alternative to conventional, classroom-based forms that rely primarily on teachers. Feasibility was evaluated by studying the effectiveness, both actual and perceived, of a five-week, online SI course designed to teach web-based dictionary skills…

  10. Program-Integrated Information Literacy Instruction for Online Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Swapna; Ochoa, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Academic librarians often provide information literacy support for specific courses or topics in the form of research guides, one-shot training sessions, library orientations, or by embedding library content into online courses. Less frequently, they provide continuous program-level support on-campus or online. This paper highlights the value of…

  11. Engaging Online Learners by Integrating Emotional Intelligence into Online Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lendi, Tracy Lyn

    2011-01-01

    E-learning has become a powerful player in the world of academia as well as in the corporate arena and the demand for online learning continues to increase. Even with demand increasing, a consistent practice for the design of self-paced, standalone online learning has yet to be accepted by the instructional design community. Creation of online…

  12. On-Line Literature: The Challenge of Integrating Web-Based Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzich, Constance M.

    2012-01-01

    This classroom research discusses the challenges of integrating face-to-face interactions with the use of on-line resources in secondary English classrooms. Examining the lesson plans of pre-service and early career teachers in the US, I found that the uses of on-line resources were frequently neither coherent nor consistent with the goals and…

  13. Academic Fidelity and Integrity as Attributes of University Online Degree Program Offerings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambescia, Stephen F.; Paolucci, Rocco

    2009-01-01

    As stakeholders continue to discuss, debate, and advocate their positions related to the value of online learning at colleges and universities, one element that will continue to be discussed, regardless of the specific issue at hand, is "academic integrity and fidelity". Academic fidelity of online degree program offerings is defined in this study…

  14. 75 FR 56112 - Integrated Food Safety System Online Collaboration Development-Cooperative Agreement With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Integrated Food Safety System Online Collaboration... world; support safety efforts by States, localities, and businesses at home; and utilize data to...

  15. Integrating Graduate Attributes with Assessment Criteria in Business Education: Using an Online Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Darrall; Treleaven, Lesley; Kamvounias, Patty; Beem, Betsi; Hill, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a study of the integration of graduate attributes into Business education using an online system to facilitate the process. "ReView" is a system that provides students with criteria-based tutor feedback on assessment tasks and also provides opportunities for online student self-assessment. Setup incorporates a…

  16. Integrating Collaborative PBL with Blended Learning to Explore Preservice Teachers' Development of Online Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-chu

    2010-01-01

    This study integrated collaborative problem-based learning (collaborative PBL) with blended learning to explore the emerging process and function of online learning communities among preservice teachers. Thirty-two preservice teachers participated in a 16-week instruction program. Analyses of online group discussions and portfolios found that (a)…

  17. 40 CFR 68.73 - Mechanical integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.73 Mechanical integrity. (a... accepted good engineering practices. (3) The frequency of inspections and tests of process equipment shall be consistent with applicable manufacturers' recommendations and good engineering practices, and...

  18. 40 CFR 68.73 - Mechanical integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.73 Mechanical integrity. (a... accepted good engineering practices. (3) The frequency of inspections and tests of process equipment shall be consistent with applicable manufacturers' recommendations and good engineering practices, and...

  19. Integrated mechanism design with artificial intelligence assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Bohatier, C.; Silberberg, Y.; Guillot, J.

    1996-11-01

    The proposed design methodology is developed as an integrated process in the production process. A setup of design workshop is suggested. An original functional approach is proposed. Its implementation using artificial intelligence is performed by an expert system generator. This intelligent assistance prototype is open to other aided computer engineering fields. Finally, an application to mechanism design is presented.

  20. MECHANICAL INTEGRITY TESTING AND TRAINING FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Underground injection control regulations of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency require that all injection wells demonstrate mechanical integrity, which is defined as no significant leak in the casing, tubing or packer, and no significant fluid movement into an underground ...

  1. Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

  2. Thermodynamic integration from classical to quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Habershon, Scott; Manolopoulos, David E.

    2011-12-14

    We present a new method for calculating quantum mechanical corrections to classical free energies, based on thermodynamic integration from classical to quantum mechanics. In contrast to previous methods, our method is numerically stable even in the presence of strong quantum delocalization. We first illustrate the method and its relationship to a well-established method with an analysis of a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. We then show that our method can be used to calculate the quantum mechanical contributions to the free energies of ice and water for a flexible water model, a problem for which the established method is unstable.

  3. Integrating Online Discussion in an Australian Intensive English Language Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the Internet was used for online interaction in a 10-week English-as-a-Second-Language course. Students were highly motivated and seeking eventual admittance to undergraduate programs through successful completion of International English language Testing System (IELTS) examinations. (Author/VWL)

  4. Maintaining Academic Integrity in On-Line Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heberling, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of academic cheating and plagiarism focuses on occurrences in online courses, based on experiences at Baker College (Michigan). Highlights include tools to fight plagiarism; using search engines to detect plagiarism; digital paper mills; plagiarism detection companies; and the role of administrators and faculty. (LRW)

  5. Design Considerations for Integrating Twitter into an Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohr, Linda E.; Costello, Jane; Hawkins, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    While the use of Twitter for communication and assessment activities in online courses is not new, it has not been without its challenges. This is increasingly true of high enrolment courses. The use of a Twitter Evaluation application which leverages a Learning Management System's (LMS's) application programming interface (API) provides a…

  6. Thickness measurement locations of mechanical integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, J.R.; Rivas, N.

    1996-07-01

    This paper will describe the importance of establishing thickness measurement location (TNE) criteria. It will also seek to quantify the frequency of inspections and review the methods for establishing techniques to ensure reliability and repeatability of inspections at TMLs using qualified inspectors. Also discussed will be the most useful way to document the results of an inspection and how to effectively maintain consistency in the mechanical integrity program. It reviews different methods of inspection and uses lessons learned from in-service experience with numerous mechanical projects in the petrochemical industry. The importance of qualified inspectors, quality inspection, electronic data acquisition and electronic data storage will be discussed.

  7. Intelligent identification of wear mechanism via on-line ferrograph images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tonghai; Peng, Yeping; Sheng, Chenxing; Wu, Jiaoyi

    2014-03-01

    Condition based maintenance(CBM) issues a new challenge of real-time monitoring for machine health maintenance. Wear state monitoring becomes the bottle-neck of CBM due to the lack of on-line information acquiring means. The wear mechanism judgment with characteristic wear debris has been widely adopted in off-line wear analysis; however, on-line wear mechanism characterization remains a big problem. In this paper, the wear mechanism identification via on-line ferrograph images is studied. To obtain isolated wear debris in an on-line ferrograph image, the deposition mechanism of wear debris in on-line ferrograph sensor is studied. The study result shows wear debris chain is the main morphology due to local magnetic field around the deposited wear debris. Accordingly, an improved sampling route for on-line wear debris deposition is designed with focus on the self-adjustment deposition time. As a result, isolated wear debris can be obtained in an on-line image, which facilitates the feature extraction of characteristic wear debris. By referring to the knowledge of analytical ferrograph, four dimensionless morphological features, including equivalent dimension, length-width ratio, shape factor, and contour fractal dimension of characteristic wear debris are extracted for distinguishing four typical wear mechanisms including normal, cutting, fatigue, and severe sliding wear. Furthermore, a feed-forward neural network is adopted to construct an automatic wear mechanism identification model. By training with the samples from analytical ferrograph, the model might identify some typical characteristic wear debris in an on-line ferrograph image. This paper performs a meaningful exploratory for on-line wear mechanism analysis, and the obtained results will provide a feasible way for on-line wear state monitoring.

  8. On-line monitoring of control rod integrity in BWRs using a mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, I.; Loner, H.; Ammon, K.; Sihver, L.; Ledergerber, G.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance of fuel and control rod integrity in the core of a boiling water reactor is essential for maintaining a safe and reliable operation. Control rods of a boiling water reactor are mainly filled with boron carbide as a neutron absorber. Due to the irradiation of boron with neutrons, a continuous production of lithium and helium will occur inside a control rod. Most of the created helium will be retained in the boron carbide lattice; however a small part will escape into the void volume of the control blade. Therefore the integrity of control rods during operation can efficiently be followed by on-line measurements of helium concentration in the reactor off-gas system using a mass spectrometer. Since helium is a fill gas in fuel rods, the same method is a useful early warning system for primary fuel failures. In this paper, we introduce an on-line helium detector system which is installed at the nuclear power plant in Leibstadt. Furthermore the measuring experiences of control rod failure detection at the plant are presented. Different causes of increased helium levels in the off-gas system have been distinguished. There are spontaneous helium releases as well as helium releases caused by changed conditions in the reactor (power reduction, control rod movement, etc.). Helium peaks can also be characterized according to the released amount of helium, the peak shape and the duration of the release, which leads to different interpretations of the release mechanisms. In addition, the measured amount of released helium from a 50 days period (280 l) is also compared to the calculated amount of produced helium from the washed out boron during the same time period (190 l).

  9. Chemical Weather Forecasting using the online fully integrated modeling system RAMS/ICLAMS - Comparison with the offline approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushta, Jonilda; Astitha, Marina; Solomos, Stavros; Kallos, George

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of chemical weather forecasting, the online approach consists of the coupled treatment of chemical parameters, simultaneously with the meteorological parameters, in a single integrated modelling system. This approach offers the possibility to simulate the links and feedbacks between atmospheric processes that are traditionally neglected in air quality models. These links include direct and indirect effects of gases and aerosols on radiation, clouds and precipitation that in turn re-modify atmospheric composition in a two way interactive pattern. Both meteorological and chemical components are expected to benefit from this approach. The extend to which this improvement can justify a thorough migration to integrated systems is the subject of the current work. In this study we discuss the performance of the online Integrated Community Limited Area Modelling System (RAMS/ICLAMS) and compare the results with the offline use with CAMx model, for a month long summertime text period. The area under consideration is Europe and the Greater Mediterranean Region (GMR). In both on and off line simulations the same meteorological driver has been used (RAMS). The comparability of the two models is achieved with the implementation of same chemical mechanisms, meteorological fields, emissions, initial and boundary conditions. The differences in the model configurations are also taken into account in the comparison of the two modelling approaches. In this presentation, the advantages and disadvantages of simulating the regional atmospheric chemical composition by using the online versus the offline approach are analyzed and discussed.

  10. Exploring Engaging Gamification Mechanics in Massive Online Open Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Jen-Wei; Wei, Hung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have developed rapidly and become tremendously popular because of their plentiful gamification designs, such as reputation points, rewards, and goal setting. Although previous studies have mentioned a broad range of gamification designs that might influence MOOC learner engagement, most gamified MOOCs fail to…

  11. Statistical Mechanics of Quantum Integrable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadati, Miki; Kato, Go; Iida, Toshiaki

    Recent developments in statistical mechanics of quantum integrable systems are reviewed. Those studies are fundamental and have a renewed interest related to newly developing fields such as atomic Bose-Einstein condensations, photonic crystals and quantum computations. After a brief summary of the basic concepts and methods, the following three topics are discussed. First, by the thermal Bethe ansatz (TBA), a hard-core Bose gas is exactly solved. The model includes fully the effect of excluded volume and is identified to be a c=1 conformal field theory. Second, the cluster expansion method based on the periodic boundary condition for the Bethe wave function, which we call the Bethe ansatz cluster expansion (BACE) method, is developed for a δ-function gas and the XXX Heisenberg chain. This directly proves the TBA and reveals intrinsic properties of quantum integrable systems. Third, for a δ-function gas, the integral equations for the distribution functions of the quasi-momentum and the quasi-particle energy are solved in the form of power series. In the weak coupling case, the results reproduce those of Bogoliubov theory.

  12. Integrator for on-line measurement of buffet signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batts, C. N.

    1970-01-01

    Device determines average rms value of buffet signals by integrating rms signals from strain gages for preselected period of time. System measures average rms value of other transient data, and the upper frequency limit depends on the frequency response of the amplifiers.

  13. Online identification algorithms for integrated dielectric electroactive polymer sensors and self-sensing concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffstadt, Thorben; Griese, Martin; Maas, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    Transducers based on dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP) use electrostatic pressure to convert electric energy into strain energy or vice versa. Besides this, they are also designed for sensor applications in monitoring the actual stretch state on the basis of the deformation dependent capacitive-resistive behavior of the DEAP. In order to enable an efficient and proper closed loop control operation of these transducers, e.g. in positioning or energy harvesting applications, on the one hand, sensors based on DEAP material can be integrated into the transducers and evaluated externally, and on the other hand, the transducer itself can be used as a sensor, also in terms of self-sensing. For this purpose the characteristic electrical behavior of the transducer has to be evaluated in order to determine the mechanical state. Also, adequate online identification algorithms with sufficient accuracy and dynamics are required, independent from the sensor concept utilized, in order to determine the electrical DEAP parameters in real time. Therefore, in this contribution, algorithms are developed in the frequency domain for identifications of the capacitance as well as the electrode and polymer resistance of a DEAP, which are validated by measurements. These algorithms are designed for self-sensing applications, especially if the power electronics utilized is operated at a constant switching frequency, and parasitic harmonic oscillations are induced besides the desired DC value. These oscillations can be used for the online identification, so an additional superimposed excitation is no longer necessary. For this purpose a dual active bridge (DAB) is introduced to drive the DEAP transducer. The capabilities of the real-time identification algorithm in combination with the DAB are presented in detail and discussed, finally.

  14. Strategies for Integrating Emerging Technologies: Case Study of an Online Educational Technology Master's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerkawski, Betul C.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging technologies do not necessarily facilitate or advance learning processes; teaching strategies that are used in the learning process, integration and incorporation methods do. In online instruction, research shows that "effective distance education depends on the provision of pedagogical excellence" (Bernard et al., 2004, p.413).…

  15. Online Academic-Integrity Mastery Training May Improve Students' Awareness of, and Attitudes toward, Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Guy J.; Gouldthorp, Bethanie; Thomas, Emma F.; O'Brien, Geraldine M.; Correia, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Some evidence has emerged in recent years that plagiarism can be reduced through the use of online mastery tests that are designed to train introductory psychology students in awareness of academic integrity and referencing conventions. Although these studies demonstrated a reduction in incidents of plagiarism they did not directly examine whether…

  16. Best Practice Strategies to Promote Academic Integrity in Online Education. Version 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WCET, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This list of best practice strategies is based on "Institutional Policies/Practices and Course Design Strategies to Promote Academic Integrity in Online Education," produced by WCET (WICHE Cooperative for Educational Technologies) in February 2009 and updated in April 2009. In May 2009, the Instructional Technology Council (ITC) surveyed its…

  17. Integrating Online Learning in NSW Secondary Schools: Three Schools' Perspectives on ICT Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neyland, Edwina

    2011-01-01

    This report examines factors associated with integration of online learning in Sydney region high schools. Past studies have shown that schools can be identified as operating at a certain level of use--ranging from non-use, through stages such as entry, and adaptation, arriving at transformation--when a focus on technology shifts to a focus on the…

  18. Integrating Technology with Literacy: Using Teacher-Guided Collaborative Online Learning to Encourage Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Alyson

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on classroom-based research that was designed to monitor the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in a teacher-guided collaborative online learning context to encourage students' critical response to literary texts. The study investigates the premise that an ICT project where children read books and then…

  19. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science…

  20. An Integrated Approach to Preempt Cheating on Asynchronous, Objective, Online Assessments in Graduate Business Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Cheating, left untended, erodes the validity of evaluation and, ultimately, corrupts the legitimacy of a course. We profile an approach to manage, with an eye toward preempting, cheating on asynchronous, objective, online quizzes. This approach taps various technological and social solutions to academic dishonesty, integrating them into a…

  1. Teaching Science through Online, Peer Discussions: SpeakEasy in the Knowledge Integration Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Christopher M.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses whether students can learn science from carefully designed online peer discussions. Contrasts two formats of contributed comments--historical debate and narrative text--and assesses the impact of an asynchronous discussion on student understanding of the nature of light. Reports that students gain integrated understanding of the nature…

  2. New Development of the Online Integrated Climate-Chemistry model framwork (RegCM-CHEM4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakey, A. S.; Shalaby, A. K.; Solmon, F.; Giorgi, F.; Tawfik, A. B.; Steiner, A. L.; Baklanov, A.

    2012-04-01

    The RegCM-CHEM4 is a new online integrated climate-chemistry model based on the regional climate model (RegCM4). The RegCM4 developed at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), is a hydrostatic, sigma coordinate model. Tropospheric gas-phase chemistry is integrated into the climate model using the condensed version of the Carbon Bond Mechanism CBM-Z with lumped species that represent broad categories of organics based on carbon bond structure. The computationally rapid radical balance method RBM is coupled as a chemical solver to the gas-phase mechanism. Photolysis rates are determined as a function of meteorological and chemical inputs and interpolated from an array of pre-determined values based on the Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible Model (TUV) with cloud cover corrections. Cloud optical depths and cloud altitudes from RegCM-CHEM4 are used in the photolysis calculations, thereby directly coupling the photolysis rates and chemical reactions to meteorological conditions at each model time step. In this study, we evaluate the model over Europe for two different time scales: (1) an event-based analysis of the ozone episode associated with the heat wave of August 2003 and (2) a climatological analysis of a six-year simulation (2000-2005). For the episode analysis, model simulations show a good agreement with the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP) observations of hourly ozone over different regions in Europe and capture ozone concentrations during and after the summer 2003 heat wave event. Analysis of the full six years of simulation indicates that the coupled chemistry-climate model can reproduce the seasonal cycle of ozone, with an overestimation of ozone in the non-event years of 5-15 ppb depending on the geographic region. Overall, the ozone and ozone precursor evaluation shows the feasibility of using RegCM-CHEM4 for decadal-length simulations of chemistry-climate interactions.

  3. 40 CFR 147.3109 - Timing of mechanical integrity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of mechanical integrity test... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3109 Timing of mechanical integrity test. The demonstrations of mechanical integrity required by § 146.14(b)(2) of this chapter prior to approval for the operation of...

  4. 40 CFR 147.3010 - Mechanical integrity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mechanical integrity tests. 147.3010..., Ute Mountain Ute, and All Other New Mexico Tribes § 147.3010 Mechanical integrity tests. The... a pressure test, using liquid or gas that clearly demonstrates that mechanical integrity exists...

  5. 40 CFR 147.3109 - Timing of mechanical integrity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of mechanical integrity test... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3109 Timing of mechanical integrity test. The demonstrations of mechanical integrity required by § 146.14(b)(2) of this chapter prior to approval for the operation of...

  6. 40 CFR 147.3010 - Mechanical integrity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mechanical integrity tests. 147.3010..., Ute Mountain Ute, and All Other New Mexico Tribes § 147.3010 Mechanical integrity tests. The... a pressure test, using liquid or gas that clearly demonstrates that mechanical integrity exists...

  7. 40 CFR 147.3010 - Mechanical integrity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical integrity tests. 147.3010..., Ute Mountain Ute, and All Other New Mexico Tribes § 147.3010 Mechanical integrity tests. The... a pressure test, using liquid or gas that clearly demonstrates that mechanical integrity exists...

  8. 40 CFR 147.3109 - Timing of mechanical integrity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of mechanical integrity test... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3109 Timing of mechanical integrity test. The demonstrations of mechanical integrity required by § 146.14(b)(2) of this chapter prior to approval for the operation of...

  9. 40 CFR 147.3109 - Timing of mechanical integrity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of mechanical integrity test... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3109 Timing of mechanical integrity test. The demonstrations of mechanical integrity required by § 146.14(b)(2) of this chapter prior to approval for the operation of...

  10. 40 CFR 147.3109 - Timing of mechanical integrity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of mechanical integrity test... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3109 Timing of mechanical integrity test. The demonstrations of mechanical integrity required by § 146.14(b)(2) of this chapter prior to approval for the operation of...

  11. 40 CFR 147.3010 - Mechanical integrity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mechanical integrity tests. 147.3010..., Ute Mountain Ute, and All Other New Mexico Tribes § 147.3010 Mechanical integrity tests. The... a pressure test, using liquid or gas that clearly demonstrates that mechanical integrity exists...

  12. 40 CFR 147.3010 - Mechanical integrity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mechanical integrity tests. 147.3010..., Ute Mountain Ute, and All Other New Mexico Tribes § 147.3010 Mechanical integrity tests. The... a pressure test, using liquid or gas that clearly demonstrates that mechanical integrity exists...

  13. Digital Display Integration Project Project Online 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Bardsley, J. N.

    1999-11-01

    The electronic display industry is changing in three important ways. First, the dominance of the cathode ray tube (CRT) is being challenged by the development of flat panel displays (FPDs). This will lead to the availability of displays of higher performance, albeit at greater cost. Secondly, the analog interfaces between displays that show data and the computers that generate the data are being replaced by digital connections. Finally, a high-resolution display is becoming the most expensive component in computer system for homes and small offices. It is therefore desirable that the useful lifetime of the display extend over several years and that the electronics allows the display to be used with many different image sources. Hopefully, the necessity of having three or four large CRTs in one office to accommodate different computer operating systems or communication protocols will soon disappear. Instead, we hope to see a set of flat panels that can be switched to show several independent images from multiple sources or a composite image from a single source. The more rapid rate of technological improvements and the higher cost of flat panel displays raise the incentive for greater planning and guidance in the acquisition and integration of high performance displays into large organizations, such as LLNL. The goal of the Digital Display Integration Project (DDIP) is to provide such support. This will be achieved through collaboration with leading suppliers of displays, communications equipment and image-processing products, and by greater exchange of information within the Laboratory. The project will start in October 1999. During the first two years (FY2000-1), the primary focus of the program will be upon: introducing displays with high information content (over 5M pixels); facilitating the transition from analog to digital interfaces; enabling data transfer from key computer platforms; incorporating optical communications to remove length restrictions on data

  14. Knowledge Integration While Interacting with an Online Troubleshooting Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerushalmi, Edit; Puterkovsky, Menashe; Bagno, Esther

    2013-08-01

    A troubleshooting activity was carried out by an e-tutor in two steps. First, students diagnosed a mistaken statement and then compared their diagnosis to a teacher's diagnosis provided by the e-tutor. The mistaken statement involved a widespread tendency to over-generalize Ohm's law. We studied the discourse between pairs of students working with the e-tutor to examine whether and how the activity attained its objective of engaging students in knowledge integration processes; namely to elicit students' ideas, add scientifically acceptable or non-acceptable ideas and support them in developing criteria to sort out their ideas. We focus here on two case studies involving a pair of students with high prior knowledge and a pair with poor prior knowledge. The micro-analysis of these two pairs shows how the activity triggered students to explicate multiple alternative interpretations of the principles and concepts involved and attempts to align conflicting conceptions. We discuss how successive emendations gradually culminated in the elaboration of the students' understanding of these concepts.

  15. Integration mechanisms and hospital efficiency in integrated health care delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Wan, Thomas T H; Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Ma, Allen

    2002-04-01

    This study analyzes integration mechanisms that affect system performances measured by indicators of efficiency in integrated delivery systems (IDSs) in the United States. The research question is, do integration mechanisms improve IDSs' efficiency in hospital care? American Hospital Association's Annual Survey (1998) and Dorenfest's Survey on Information Systems in Integrated Healthcare Delivery Systems (1998) were used to conduct the study, using IDS as the unit of analysis. A covariance structure equation model of the effects of system integration mechanisms on IDS performance was formulated and validated by an empirical examination of IDSs. The study sample includes 973 hospital-based integrated health care delivery systems operating in the United States, carried in the list of Dorenfests Survey on Information Systems in Integrated Health care Delivery Systems. The measurement indicators of system integration mechanisms are categorized into six related domains: informatic integration, case management, hybrid physician-hospital integration, forward integration, backward integration, and high tech medical services. The multivariate analysis reveals that integration mechanisms in system operation are positively correlated and positively affect IDSs' efficiency. The six domains of integration mechanisms account for 58.9% of the total variance in hospital performance. The service differentiation strategy such as having more high tech medical services have much stronger influences on efficiency than other integration mechanisms do. The beneficial effects of integration mechanisms have been realized in IDS performance. High efficiency in hospital care can be achieved by employing proper integration strategies in operations.

  16. Integration of Online Parameter Identification and Neural Network for In-Flight Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hageman, Jacob J.; Smith, Mark S.; Stachowiak, Susan

    2003-01-01

    An indirect adaptive system has been constructed for robust control of an aircraft with uncertain aerodynamic characteristics. This system consists of a multilayer perceptron pre-trained neural network, online stability and control derivative identification, a dynamic cell structure online learning neural network, and a model following control system based on the stochastic optimal feedforward and feedback technique. The pre-trained neural network and model following control system have been flight-tested, but the online parameter identification and online learning neural network are new additions used for in-flight adaptation of the control system model. A description of the modification and integration of these two stand-alone software packages into the complete system in preparation for initial flight tests is presented. Open-loop results using both simulation and flight data, as well as closed-loop performance of the complete system in a nonlinear, six-degree-of-freedom, flight validated simulation, are analyzed. Results show that this online learning system, in contrast to the nonlearning system, has the ability to adapt to changes in aerodynamic characteristics in a real-time, closed-loop, piloted simulation, resulting in improved flying qualities.

  17. MicrobesOnline: an integrated portal for comparative and functional genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Dehal, Paramvir; Joachimiak, Marcin; Price, Morgan; Bates, John; Baumohl, Jason; Chivian, Dylan; Friedland, Greg; Huang, Kathleen; Keller, Keith; Novichkov, Pavel; Dubchak, Inna; Alm, Eric; Arkin, Adam

    2011-07-14

    Since 2003, MicrobesOnline (http://www.microbesonline.org) has been providing a community resource for comparative and functional genome analysis. The portal includes over 1000 complete genomes of bacteria, archaea and fungi and thousands of expression microarrays from diverse organisms ranging from model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to environmental microbes such as Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Shewanella oneidensis. To assist in annotating genes and in reconstructing their evolutionary history, MicrobesOnline includes a comparative genome browser based on phylogenetic trees for every gene family as well as a species tree. To identify co-regulated genes, MicrobesOnline can search for genes based on their expression profile, and provides tools for identifying regulatory motifs and seeing if they are conserved. MicrobesOnline also includes fast phylogenetic profile searches, comparative views of metabolic pathways, operon predictions, a workbench for sequence analysis and integration with RegTransBase and other microbial genome resources. The next update of MicrobesOnline will contain significant new functionality, including comparative analysis of metagenomic sequence data. Programmatic access to the database, along with source code and documentation, is available at http://microbesonline.org/programmers.html.

  18. MicrobesOnline: an integrated portal for comparative and functional genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Dehal, Paramvir S.; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; Price, Morgan N.; Bates, John T.; Baumohl, Jason K.; Chivian, Dylan; Friedland, Greg D.; Huang, Katherine H.; Keller, Keith; Novichkov, Pavel S.; Dubchak, Inna L.; Alm, Eric J.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2009-09-17

    Since 2003, MicrobesOnline (http://www.microbesonline.org) has been providing a community resource for comparative and functional genome analysis. The portal includes over 1000 complete genomes of bacteria, archaea and fungi and thousands of expression microarrays from diverse organisms ranging from model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to environmental microbes such as Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Shewanella oneidensis. To assist in annotating genes and in reconstructing their evolutionary history, MicrobesOnline includes a comparative genome browser based on phylogenetic trees for every gene family as well as a species tree. To identify co-regulated genes, MicrobesOnline can search for genes based on their expression profile, and provides tools for identifying regulatory motifs and seeing if they are conserved. MicrobesOnline also includes fast phylogenetic profile searches, comparative views of metabolic pathways, operon predictions, a workbench for sequence analysis and integration with RegTransBase and other microbial genome resources. The next update of MicrobesOnline will contain significant new functionality, including comparative analysis of metagenomic sequence data. Programmatic access to the database, along with source code and documentation, is available at http://microbesonline.org/programmers.html.

  19. Improving integrity of on-line grammage measurement with traceable basic calibration.

    PubMed

    Kangasrääsiö, Juha

    2010-07-01

    The automatic control of grammage (basis weight) in paper and board production is based upon on-line grammage measurement. Furthermore, the automatic control of other quality variables such as moisture, ash content and coat weight, may rely on the grammage measurement. The integrity of Kr-85 based on-line grammage measurement systems was studied, by performing basic calibrations with traceably calibrated plastic reference standards. The calibrations were performed according to the EN ISO/IEC 17025 standard, which is a requirement for calibration laboratories. The observed relative measurement errors were 3.3% in the first time calibrations at the 95% confidence level. With the traceable basic calibration method, however, these errors can be reduced to under 0.5%, thus improving the integrity of on-line grammage measurements. Also a standardised algorithm, based on the experience from the performed calibrations, is proposed to ease the adjustment of the different grammage measurement systems. The calibration technique can basically be applied to all beta-radiation based grammage measurements.

  20. Integrating UNIX workstation into existing online data acquisition systems for Fermilab experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Oleynik, G.

    1991-03-01

    With the availability of cost effective computing prior from multiple vendors of UNIX workstations, experiments at Fermilab are adding such computers to their VMS based online data acquisition systems. In anticipation of this trend, we have extended the software products available in our widely used VAXONLINE and PANDA data acquisition software systems, to provide support for integrating these workstations into existing distributed online systems. The software packages we are providing pave the way for the smooth migration of applications from the current Data Acquisition Host and Monitoring computers running the VMS operating systems, to UNIX based computers of various flavors. We report on software for Online Event Distribution from VAXONLINE and PANDA, integration of Message Reporting Facilities, and a framework under UNIX for experiments to monitor and view the raw event data produced at any level in their DA system. We have developed software that allows host UNIX computers to communicate with intelligent front-end embedded read-out controllers and processor boards running the pSOS operating system. Both RS-232 and Ethernet control paths are supported. This enables calibration and hardware monitoring applications to be migrated to these platforms. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Flippin' Fluid Mechanics - Using Online Technology to Enhance the In-Class Learning Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; Majerich, D. M.

    2013-11-01

    This study provides an empirical analysis of using online technologies and team problem solving sessions to shift an undergraduate fluid mechanics course from a traditional lecture format to a collaborative learning environment. Students were from two consecutive semesters of the same course taught by the same professor. One group used online technologies and solved problems in class and the other did not. Out of class, the treatment group watched 72 short (11 minutes, average) video lectures covering course topics and example problems being solved. Three times a week students worked in teams of two to solve problems on desktop whiteboard tablets while the instructor and graduate assistants provided ``just-in-time'' tutoring. The number of team problems assigned during the semester exceeded 100. Weekly online homework was assigned to reinforce topics. The WileyPlus online system generated unique problem parameters for each student. The control group received three-50 minute weekly lectures. Data include three midterms and a final exam. Regression results indicate that controlling for all of the entered variables, for every one more problem solving session the student attended, the final grade was raised by 0.327 points. Thus, if a student participated in all 25 of the team problem solving sessions, the final grade would have been 8.2 points higher, a difference of nearly a grade. Using online technologies and teamwork appeared to result in improved achievement, but more research is needed to support these findings.

  2. Pediatric Integrative Medicine in Residency (PIMR): Description of a New Online Educational Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    McClafferty, Hilary; Dodds, Sally; Brooks, Audrey J.; Brenner, Michelle G.; Brown, Melanie L.; Frazer, Paige; Mark, John D.; Weydert, Joy A.; Wilcox, Graciela M. G.; Lebensohn, Patricia; Maizes, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Use of integrative medicine (IM) is prevalent in children, yet availability of training opportunities is limited. The Pediatric Integrative Medicine in Residency (PIMR) program was designed to address this training gap. The PIMR program is a 100-hour online educational curriculum, modeled on the successful Integrative Medicine in Residency program in family medicine. Preliminary data on site characteristics, resident experience with and interest in IM, and residents’ self-assessments of perceived knowledge and skills in IM are presented. The embedded multimodal evaluation is described. Less than one-third of residents had IM coursework in medical school or personal experience with IM. Yet most (66%) were interested in learning IM, and 71% were interested in applying IM after graduation. Less than half of the residents endorsed pre-existing IM knowledge/skills. Average score on IM medical knowledge exam was 51%. Sites endorsed 1–8 of 11 site characteristics, with most (80%) indicating they had an IM practitioner onsite and IM trained faculty. Preliminary results indicate that the PIMR online curriculum targets identified knowledge gaps. Residents had minimal prior IM exposure, yet expressed strong interest in IM education. PIMR training site surveys identified both strengths and areas needing further development to support successful PIMR program implementation. PMID:27417353

  3. 40 CFR 68.73 - Mechanical integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... acceptable limits (defined by the process safety information in § 68.65) before further use or in a safe and...) Application. Paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section apply to the following process equipment: (1) Pressure... shall establish and implement written procedures to maintain the on-going integrity of process...

  4. Communication as a mechanism for cultural integration.

    PubMed

    Backstrom, Tomas; Hagstrom, Tom; Goransson, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Providing autonomy for employees ensures innovation competence if balanced by integration into the organization. The aim of this article is to study processes leading to the integration of employees into the company culture. The two research questions are: What makes the culture of a work group similar to the company culture? How is a work group culture constructed? Theories that are employed concern culture as an organizing structure emerging in the interaction, company culture as a way to exert control, and social networks as a way to describe the interaction. Empirical data come from a merchant bank from which 105 respondents from ten work groups answered questions about their communication and their integration into the company culture. The results show that the sub-culture of the group emerges in communication between members of the group. There seems to be a self-reinforcing spiral between collegial talk, especially about goals, plans and changes at the work place, and cultural integration. All members of a group should be included in this communication to create a strong culture. The value system of the supervisor strongly influences the sub-culture of the work group. Appointing supervisors with values that correspond to the company culture and provide for employee communications is thus central for organizations using culture as a tool for control.

  5. An integrated on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ying; Fu, Qibin; Wang, Weikang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Feng; Yang, Gen; Wang, Yugang

    2015-09-01

    Ionizing radiation poses a threat to genome integrity by introducing DNA damages, particularly DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in cells. Understanding how cells react to DSB and maintain genome integrity is of major importance, since increasing evidences indicate the links of DSB with genome instability and cancer predispositions. However, tracking the dynamics of DNA damages and repair response to ionizing radiation in individual cell is difficult. Here we describe the development of an on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system based on isotopic sources at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The system was designed to irradiate cells and in situ observe the cellular responses to ionizing radiation in real time. On-line irradiation was achieved by mounting a metal framework that hold an isotopic γ source above the cell culture dish for γ irradiation; or by integrating an isotopic α source to an objective lens under the specialized cell culture dish for α irradiation. Live cell imaging was performed on a confocal microscope with an environmental chamber installed on the microscope stage. Culture conditions in the environment chamber such as CO2, O2 concentration as well as temperature are adjustable, which further extends the capacity of the system and allows more flexible experimental design. We demonstrate the use of this system by tracking the DSB foci formation and disappearance in individual cells after exposure to irradiation. On-line irradiation together with in situ live cell imaging in adjustable culture conditions, the system overall provides a powerful tool for investigation of cellular and subcellular response to ionizing radiation under different physiological conditions such as hyperthermia or hypoxia.

  6. Rumor spreading model with consideration of forgetting mechanism: A case of online blogging LiveJournal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Laijun; Wang, Qin; Cheng, Jingjing; Chen, Yucheng; Wang, Jiajia; Huang, Wei

    2011-07-01

    Rumor is an important form of social interaction, and its spreading has a significant impact on people’s lives. In the age of Web, people are using electronic media more frequently than ever before, and blog has become one of the main online social interactions. Therefore, it is essential to learn the evolution mechanism of rumor spreading on homogeneous network in consideration of the forgetting mechanism of spreaders. Here we study a rumor spreading model on an online social blogging platform called LiveJournal. In comparison with the Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model, we provide a more detailed and realistic description of rumor spreading process with combination of forgetting mechanism and the SIR model of epidemics. A mathematical model has been presented and numerical solutions of the model were used to analyze the impact factors of rumor spreading, such as the average degree, forgetting rate and stifling rate. Our results show that there exist a threshold of the average degree of LiveJournal and above which the influence of rumor reaches saturation. Forgetting mechanism and stifling rate exert great influence on rumor spreading on online social network. The analysis results can guide people’s behaviors in view of the theoretical and practical aspects.

  7. Online monitoring of mechanical properties of three-dimensional tissue engineered constructs for quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinwald, Yvonne; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Yang, Ying; Baba Ismail, Yanny M.; El Haj, Alicia J.

    2016-03-01

    Mechanical preconditioning and mechanical properties of tissue engineered constructs are essential for their capability to regenerate damaged tissues. To online monitor the mechanical properties a hydrostatic pressure bioreactor was coupled with optical coherence tomography into a new image modality termed hydrostatic pressure optical coherence elastography (HP-OCE). HP-OCE was utilised to assess the properties of three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs while being physically stimulated within the hydrostatic force bioreactor. Hydrogels have been infiltrated into porous rapid prototyped or salt-leached scaffolds to mimic heterogeneous mechanical properties of cell-seeded constructs. Variations of mechanical properties in the solid scaffolds and agarose gels with different gel concentrations as well as the presences of cells have been clearly delineated by HP-OCE. Results indicate that HP-OCE allows contactless real-time non-invasive monitoring of the mechanical properties of tissue constructs and the effect of physical stimulation on cellular activities.

  8. MASCARA: opto-mechanical design and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spronck, Julien F. P.; Lesage, Anna-Léa.; Stuik, Remko; Bettonvil, Felix; Snellen, Ignas A. G.

    2014-07-01

    MASCARA, the Multi-site All-Sky CAmeRA, consists of several fully-automated stations. Its goal is to find exoplanets transiting the brightest stars, in the mV = 4 to 8 magnitude range. Each station contains five wide- angle cameras monitoring the near-entire sky at each location. The five cameras are located in a temperature- controlled enclosure and look at the sky through five windows. A housing with a moving roof protects MASCARA from the environment. Here, we present the opto-mechanical design of the first MASCARA station.

  9. Polymer quantum mechanics some examples using path integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Lorena; Vergara, J. David

    2014-01-14

    In this work we analyze several physical systems in the context of polymer quantum mechanics using path integrals. First we introduce the group averaging method to quantize constrained systems with path integrals and later we use this procedure to compute the effective actions for the polymer non-relativistic particle and the polymer harmonic oscillator. We analyze the measure of the path integral and we describe the semiclassical dynamics of the systems.

  10. Integration of NDE Reliability and Fracture Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, F. L.; Doctor, S. R.; Heas!er, P. G.; Morris, C. J.; Pitman, S. G.; Selby, G. P.; Simonen, F. A.

    1981-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting a four-phase program for measuring and evaluating the effectiveness and reliability of in-service inspection (lSI} performed on the primary system piping welds of commercial light water reactors (LWRs). Phase I of the program is complete. A survey was made of the state of practice for ultrasonic rsr of LWR primary system piping welds. Fracture mechanics calculations were made to establish required nondestrutive testing sensitivities. In general, it was found that fatigue flaws less than 25% of wall thickness would not grow to failure within an inspection interval of 10 years. However, in some cases failure could occur considerably faster. Statistical methods for predicting and measuring the effectiveness and reliability of lSI were developed and will be applied in the "Round Robin Inspections" of Phase II. Methods were also developed for the production of flaws typical of those found in service. Samples fabricated by these methods wilI be used in Phase II to test inspection effectiveness and reliability. Measurements were made of the influence of flaw characteristics {i.e., roughness, tightness, and orientation) on inspection reliability. These measurernents, as well as the predictions of a statistical model for inspection reliability, indicate that current reporting and recording sensitivities are inadequate.

  11. Towards the development of a hybrid-integrated chip interferometer for online surface profile measurements.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Martin, H; Jiang, X

    2016-06-01

    Non-destructive testing and online measurement of surface features are pressing demands in manufacturing. Thus optical techniques are gaining importance for characterization of complex engineering surfaces. Harnessing integrated optics for miniaturization of interferometry systems onto a silicon wafer and incorporating a compact optical probe would enable the development of a handheld sensor for embedded metrology applications. In this work, we present the progress in the development of a hybrid photonics based metrology sensor device for online surface profile measurements. The measurement principle along with test and measurement results of individual components has been presented. For non-contact measurement, a spectrally encoded lateral scanning probe based on the laser scanning microscopy has been developed to provide fast measurement with lateral resolution limited to the diffraction limit. The probe demonstrates a lateral resolution of ∼3.6 μm while high axial resolution (sub-nanometre) is inherently achieved by interferometry. Further the performance of the hybrid tuneable laser and the scanning probe was evaluated by measuring a standard step height sample of 100 nm. PMID:27370493

  12. Integration of Globus Online with the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, C.; Deng, W.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Potekhin, M.

    2012-12-01

    The PanDA Workload Management System is the basis for distributed production and analysis for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. In this role, it relies on sophisticated dynamic data movement facilities developed in ATLAS. In certain scenarios, such as small research teams in ATLAS Tier-3 sites and non-ATLAS Virtual Organizations, the overhead of installation and operation of these components makes their use not very cost effective. Globus Online is an emerging new tool from the Globus Alliance, which already proved popular within the research community. It provides the users with fast and robust file transfer capabilities that can also be managed from a Web interface, and in addition to grid sites, can have individual workstations and laptops serving as data transmission endpoints. We will describe the integration of the Globus Online functionality into the PanDA suite of software, in order to give more flexibility in choosing the method of data transfer to ATLAS Tier-3 and Open Science Grid (OSG) users.

  13. Digital detectives and virtual volunteers: Integrating emergent online communities into disaster response operations.

    PubMed

    Griswold, Alisha

    2013-01-01

    The demonstration of altruistic behaviours by disaster survivors, and even those observing emergencies from afar, is well documented. Over the past few decades, government-sponsored crisis planning has evolved to include affiliated volunteer agencies, with a general acknowledgment of the need to plan for unaffiliated or spontaneous volunteers. Just as the understanding of the need for volunteers has grown, so too have the ways in which volunteers are able to donate their time and skills. The popularity of social media networks and online communities provide new ways for the public to get involved in disaster response. Public service agencies should be proactive in investigating these emerging platforms and understanding their impacts during crises. Established methods of integrating on-scene volunteers into post-disaster response operations can be used as templates for creating virtual volunteer programmes. PMID:24113633

  14. The Israeli National Medical Library's new minicomputerized on-line integrated system (MAIMON).

    PubMed

    Avriel, D; Miller, R; Fuchs, C

    1981-04-01

    An in-house library system based on a dedicated mini-computer has been in operation in the Israel National Medical Library since the summer of 1979. The integrated system, called MAIMON, features on-line access to bibliographic and circulation records. It replaces manual procedures in cataloging, searching, lending, and reservations. The system provides previously unavailable statistics on items in heavy use and demand, items to be removed from the active collection, and who uses what in the library. It is designed to be user cordial and to save users' time. The system has been very favorably accepted by patrons, and frees professional librarians from time-consuming clerical routine tasks. The system is evaluated in terms of performance, convenience, and cost. PMID:6784799

  15. Digital detectives and virtual volunteers: Integrating emergent online communities into disaster response operations.

    PubMed

    Griswold, Alisha

    2013-01-01

    The demonstration of altruistic behaviours by disaster survivors, and even those observing emergencies from afar, is well documented. Over the past few decades, government-sponsored crisis planning has evolved to include affiliated volunteer agencies, with a general acknowledgment of the need to plan for unaffiliated or spontaneous volunteers. Just as the understanding of the need for volunteers has grown, so too have the ways in which volunteers are able to donate their time and skills. The popularity of social media networks and online communities provide new ways for the public to get involved in disaster response. Public service agencies should be proactive in investigating these emerging platforms and understanding their impacts during crises. Established methods of integrating on-scene volunteers into post-disaster response operations can be used as templates for creating virtual volunteer programmes.

  16. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2016-08-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.

  17. Mechanical integrity test methods for Class 2 injection wells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1991-03-01

    Mechanical integrity testing of injection wells to ensure that they do not threaten an underground source of drinking water (USDW) is a key component of the Underground Injection Control (UIC) program of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974. Approximately 55% of all active injection wells are classified as Class II wells. These wells are used by the oil and gas industry primarily to dispose of waste fluids or to enhance production of hydrocarbons. Mechanical integrity is defined as the absence of significant leaks in the casing, tubing, or packers (internal integrity); and the absence of significant fluid movement into a USDW through cement channels behind the casing (external integrity). A wide variety of mechanical integrity test (MIT) methods have been developed to meet federal and primacy state program requirements. The internal mechanical integrity of standard injection wells can be evaluated by radioactive tracer surveys, standard annular pressure tests, annulus pressure monitoring, and continuous injection pressure versus injection rate monitoring. These tests are listed in order of decreasing reliability and increasing detection limits. 28 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Follicle Online: an integrated database of follicle assembly, development and ovulation.

    PubMed

    Hua, Juan; Xu, Bo; Yang, Yifan; Ban, Rongjun; Iqbal, Furhan; Cooke, Howard J; Zhang, Yuanwei; Shi, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Folliculogenesis is an important part of ovarian function as it provides the oocytes for female reproductive life. Characterizing genes/proteins involved in folliculogenesis is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms associated with this biological function and to cure the diseases associated with folliculogenesis. A large number of genes/proteins associated with folliculogenesis have been identified from different species. However, no dedicated public resource is currently available for folliculogenesis-related genes/proteins that are validated by experiments. Here, we are reporting a database 'Follicle Online' that provides the experimentally validated gene/protein map of the folliculogenesis in a number of species. Follicle Online is a web-based database system for storing and retrieving folliculogenesis-related experimental data. It provides detailed information for 580 genes/proteins (from 23 model organisms, including Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Mesocricetus auratus, Bos Taurus, Drosophila and Xenopus laevis) that have been reported to be involved in folliculogenesis, POF (premature ovarian failure) and PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome). The literature was manually curated from more than 43,000 published articles (till 1 March 2014). The Follicle Online database is implemented in PHP + MySQL + JavaScript and this user-friendly web application provides access to the stored data. In summary, we have developed a centralized database that provides users with comprehensive information about genes/proteins involved in folliculogenesis. This database can be accessed freely and all the stored data can be viewed without any registration. Database URL: http://mcg.ustc.edu.cn/sdap1/follicle/index.php PMID:25931457

  19. Integrating continental-scale ecological data into university courses: Developing NEON's Online Learning Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasser, L. A.; Gram, W.; Lunch, C. K.; Petroy, S. B.; Elmendorf, S.

    2013-12-01

    'Big Data' are becoming increasingly common in many fields. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be collecting data over the 30 years, using consistent, standardized methods across the United States. Similar efforts are underway in other parts of the globe (e.g. Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network, TERN). These freely available new data provide an opportunity for increased understanding of continental- and global scale processes such as changes in vegetation structure and condition, biodiversity and landuse. However, while 'big data' are becoming more accessible and available, integrating big data into the university courses is challenging. New and potentially unfamiliar data types and associated processing methods, required to work with a growing diversity of available data, may warrant time and resources that present a barrier to classroom integration. Analysis of these big datasets may further present a challenge given large file sizes, and uncertainty regarding best methods to properly statistically summarize and analyze results. Finally, teaching resources, in the form of demonstrative illustrations, and other supporting media that might help teach key data concepts, take time to find and more time to develop. Available resources are often spread widely across multi-online spaces. This presentation will overview the development of NEON's collaborative University-focused online education portal. Portal content will include 1) interactive, online multi-media content that explains key concepts related to NEON's data products including collection methods, key metadata to consider and consideration of potential error and uncertainty surrounding data analysis; and 2) packaged 'lab' activities that include supporting data to be used in an ecology, biology or earth science classroom. To facilitate broad use in classrooms, lab activities will take advantage of freely and commonly available processing tools, techniques and scripts. All

  20. Dielectrophoresis microsystem with integrated flow cytometers for on-line monitoring of sorting efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Hansen, Ole; Petersen, Peter K; Rogeberg, Anders; Kutter, Jörg P; Bang, Dang D; Wolff, Anders

    2006-12-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) and flow cytometry are powerful technologies and widely applied in microfluidic systems for handling and measuring cells and particles. Here, we present a novel microchip with a DEP selective filter integrated with two microchip flow cytometers (FCs) for on-line monitoring of cell sorting processes. On the microchip, the DEP filter is integrated in a microfluidic channel network to sort yeast cells by positive DEP. The two FCs detection windows are set upstream and downstream of the DEP filter. When a cell passes through the detection windows, the light scattered by the cell is measured by integrated polymer optical elements (waveguide, lens, and fiber coupler). By comparing the cell counting rates measured by the two FCs, the collection efficiency of the DEP filter can be determined. The chips were used for quantitative determination of the effect of flow rate, applied voltage, conductivity of the sample, and frequency of the electric field on the sorting efficiency. A theoretical model for the capture efficiency was developed and a reasonable agreement with the experimental results observed. Viable and non-viable yeast cells showed different frequency dependencies and were sorted with high efficiency. At 2 MHz, more than 90% of the viable and less than 10% of the non-viable cells were captured on the DEP filter. The presented approach provides quantitative real-time data for sorting a large number of cells and will allow optimization of the conditions for, e.g., collecting cancer cells on a DEP filter while normal cells pass through the system. Furthermore, the microstructure is simple to fabricate and can easily be integrated with other microstructures for lab-on-a-chip applications. PMID:17161009

  1. Factorial Invariance of an Integrated Measure of Classroom Sense of Community in Face-to-Face and Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, YoonJung; Hathcoat, John D.; Bridges, Stacey L.; Mathew, Susan; Bang, Hyeyoung

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a more integrated measure of classroom sense of community (SOC) while testing factorial invariance of the measurement structure across face-to-face and online courses. We incorporated two existing SOC measures to capture both context-specific and context-general characteristics of SOC and developed an…

  2. Nigerian Students' Perceptions and Cultural Meaning Construction Regarding Academic Integrity in the Online International Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szilagyi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    By presenting perceptions of Nigerian students enrolled in the online international postgraduate programmes of the University of Liverpool regarding academic integrity, this paper aims to explore Western ideas, such as originality and plagiarism that are extraneous in the students' local cultures. Different historical and cultural…

  3. A Community of Practice Facilitated by Facebook for Integrating New Online EFL Writing Forms into Assiut University College of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a design study conducted within the Egyptian context of pre-service EFL teacher education, which implemented a Community of Practice (CoP) design facilitated by Facebook, to integrate some new forms of online writing. Based on some preliminary empirical results triangulated with literature review, a preliminary design…

  4. Integrating Emerging Topics through Online Team Design in a Hybrid Communication Networks Course: Interaction Patterns and Impact of Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisslein, Jana; Seeling, Patrick; Reisslein, Martin

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge in the introductory communication networks course in electrical and computer engineering curricula is to integrate emerging topics, such as wireless Internet access and network security, into the already content-intensive course. At the same time it is essential to provide students with experiences in online collaboration,…

  5. Proceedings of the Integrated Online Library Systems Meeting (9th, New York, May 11-12, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibbarelli, Pamela R., Comp.; Nixon, Carol, Comp.

    Integrated Online Library Systems (IOLS) focuses exclusively on the issues of planning and managing automated systems in libraries and information centers. The theme of the 1994 IOLS annual meeting was "Coordinating Access to Multiple Systems," and 29 papers were selected for presentation that provide insight into the current technologies being…

  6. Integrating Online GIS into the K-12 Curricula: Lessons from the Development of a Collaborative GIS in Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Paul; Semple, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    GIS has shown promise in Project Based Learning (PBL) environments, but many obstacles exist in its integration into school curriculums. This article discusses the development and utilization of an online GIS tool that was created to illustrate that the perceptual gap between relevance and ease of use of GIS software can be bridged at the K-12…

  7. Analysis of Learning Behavior in Problem-Solving-Based and Project-Based Discussion Activities within the Seamless Online Learning Integrated Discussion (SOLID) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sheng-Yi; Hou, Huei-Tse; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Both asynchronous and synchronous discussions have advantages and limitations for online learning. This study conducts an empirical analysis of these discussion activities while applying the proposed Seamless Online Learning Integrated Discussion (SOLID) system, which can instantly integrate Facebook's asynchronous discussion function with the MSN…

  8. An integrated system for the online monitoring of particle therapy treatment accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorina, E.

    2016-07-01

    Quality assurance in hadrontherapy remains an open issue that can be addressed with reliable monitoring of treatment accuracy. The INSIDE (INnovative SolutIons for DosimEtry in hadrontherapy) project aims to develop an integrated online monitoring system based on two dedicated PET panels and a tracking system, called Dose Profiler. The proposed solution is designed to operate in-beam and provide an immediate feedback on the particle range acquiring both photons produced by β+ decays and prompt secondary particle signals. Monte Carlo simulations cover an important role both in the system development, by confirming the design feasibility, and in the system operation, by understanding data. A FLUKA-based integrated simulation was developed taking into account the hadron beam structure, the phantom/patient features and the PET detector and Dose Profiler specifications. In addition, to reduce simulation time in signal generation on PET detectors, a two-step technique has been implemented and validated. The first PET modules were tested in May 2015 at the Centro Nazionale Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) in Pavia (Italy) with very satisfactory results: in-spill, inter-spill and post-treatment PET images were reconstructed and a quantitative agreement between data and simulation was found.

  9. A Model for Developing High-Quality Online Courses: Integrating a Systems Approach with Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puzziferro, Maria; Shelton, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    As the demand for online education continues to increase, institutions are faced with developing process models for efficient, high-quality online course development. This paper describes a systems, team-based, approach that centers on an online instructional design theory ("Active Mastery Learning") implemented at Colorado State University-Global…

  10. GaN-on-diamond electronic device reliability: Mechanical and thermo-mechanical integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Dong; Sun, Huarui; Pomeroy, James W.; Kuball, Martin; Francis, Daniel; Faili, Firooz; Twitchen, Daniel J.

    2015-12-21

    The mechanical and thermo-mechanical integrity of GaN-on-diamond wafers used for ultra-high power microwave electronic devices was studied using a micro-pillar based in situ mechanical testing approach combined with an optical investigation of the stress and heat transfer across interfaces. We find the GaN/diamond interface to be thermo-mechanically stable, illustrating the potential for this material for reliable GaN electronic devices.

  11. Integrating Thermal Tools Into the Mechanical Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Siebes, Georg; Novak, Keith S.; Kinsella, Gary M.

    1999-01-01

    The intent of mechanical design is to deliver a hardware product that meets or exceeds customer expectations, while reducing cycle time and cost. To this end, an integrated mechanical design process enables the idea of parallel development (concurrent engineering). This represents a shift from the traditional mechanical design process. With such a concurrent process, there are significant issues that have to be identified and addressed before re-engineering the mechanical design process to facilitate concurrent engineering. These issues also assist in the integration and re-engineering of the thermal design sub-process since it resides within the entire mechanical design process. With these issues in mind, a thermal design sub-process can be re-defined in a manner that has a higher probability of acceptance, thus enabling an integrated mechanical design process. However, the actual implementation is not always problem-free. Experience in applying the thermal design sub-process to actual situations provides the evidence for improvement, but more importantly, for judging the viability and feasibility of the sub-process.

  12. On-line mechanical condenser tube cleaning - SIDTEC{trademark} case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, L.; Echols, F.; DeMarco, J.; Baum, W.C.; Carroll, J.

    1996-08-01

    Past practices of using oxidizing biocides or off-line mechanical cleanings to maintain condenser performance are becoming increasingly difficult to justify in once-through cooling water systems. Oxidizing biocides are not only a regulatory headache, but a safety and handling hazard as well. Off-line mechanical cleanings reduce unit availability and do nothing to prevent degradation between cleanings. Since 1992, a new process for the on-line maintenance of main steam condensers has altered the approach several plants have taken to improve thermal performance and eliminate the use of biocides. With more plants in service, this technology gains wider acceptance for plants with once-through cooling water systems. 9 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. On-line mechanical tube cleaning for steam electric power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-18

    In July 1991, Superior I.D. Tube Cleaners, Inc. (SIDTEC{trademark}) received a grant through the Department of Energy and the Energy Related Invention Program to conduct a long term demonstration of a proprietary technology for on-line mechanical condenser tube cleaning in thermal Power plants on open or once-through cooling water systems where the warmed condenser cooling water is discharged through a canal. The purpose of the demonstration was to confirm and establish the use of this mechanical method as an alternative to the application of chemical biocides in condenser cooling water for the control of biofouling, the growth of micro-organisms which can reduce a unit`s operating efficiency. The SIDTEC on-line mechanical tube cleaner, the Rocket{trademark}, is used to physically remove accumulated deposits on the water side of the main steam condenser, and the non-intrusive tube cleaner recovery system, the Skimmer{trademark}, is used to recover and recirculate tube cleaners. The periodic circulation of tube cleaners can maintain optimum condenser cleanliness and improve unit heat rate. Thermal power plants which discharge condenser cooling water through a canal now have a viable alternative to the chemical treatment of condenser cooling water, whether the principal foulant is biofouling, chemical scaling, silting, or a combination of the three. At prices competitive with scale inhibitors, and a fraction of competing mechanical systems, this technology is provided as a service requiring no capital investment; minimal retrofit modifications to plant structures or equipment; can be installed and maintained without a unit shutdown; does not add any restrictions in the cooling water system; and is environmentally benign.

  14. Integrated micro-electro-mechanical sensor development for inertial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.J.; Kinney, R.D.; Sarsfield, J.

    1998-04-01

    Electronic sensing circuitry and micro electro mechanical sense elements can be integrated to produce inertial instruments for applications unheard of a few years ago. This paper will describe the Sandia M3EMS fabrication process, inertial instruments that have been fabricated, and the results of initial characterization tests of micro-machined accelerometers.

  15. Inference on biological mechanisms using an integrated phenotype prediction model.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Yumi; Ushijima, Masaru; Miyata, Satoshi; Matsuura, Masaaki; Ohtaki, Megu

    2008-03-01

    We propose a methodology for constructing an integrated phenotype prediction model that accounts for multiple pathways regulating a targeted phenotype. The method uses multiple prediction models, each expressing a particular pattern of gene-to-gene interrelationship, such as epistasis. We also propose a methodology using Gene Ontology annotations to infer a biological mechanism from the integrated phenotype prediction model. To construct the integrated models, we employed multiple logistic regression models using a two-step learning approach to examine a number of patterns of gene-to-gene interrelationships. We first selected individual prediction models with acceptable goodness of fit, and then combined the models. The resulting integrated model predicts phenotype as a logical sum of predicted results from the individual models. We used published microarray data on neuroblastoma from Ohira et al (2005) for illustration, constructing an integrated model to predict prognosis and infer the biological mechanisms controlling prognosis. Although the resulting integrated model comprised a small number of genes compared to a previously reported analysis of these data, the model demonstrated excellent performance, with an error rate of 0.12 in a validation analysis. Gene Ontology analysis suggested that prognosis of patients with neuroblastoma may be influenced by biological processes such as cell growth, G-protein signaling, phosphoinositide-mediated signaling, alcohol metabolism, glycolysis, neurophysiological processes, and catecholamine catabolism. PMID:18578362

  16. Follicle Online: an integrated database of follicle assembly, development and ovulation

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Juan; Xu, Bo; Yang, Yifan; Ban, Rongjun; Iqbal, Furhan; Zhang, Yuanwei; Shi, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Folliculogenesis is an important part of ovarian function as it provides the oocytes for female reproductive life. Characterizing genes/proteins involved in folliculogenesis is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms associated with this biological function and to cure the diseases associated with folliculogenesis. A large number of genes/proteins associated with folliculogenesis have been identified from different species. However, no dedicated public resource is currently available for folliculogenesis-related genes/proteins that are validated by experiments. Here, we are reporting a database ‘Follicle Online’ that provides the experimentally validated gene/protein map of the folliculogenesis in a number of species. Follicle Online is a web-based database system for storing and retrieving folliculogenesis-related experimental data. It provides detailed information for 580 genes/proteins (from 23 model organisms, including Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Mesocricetus auratus, Bos Taurus, Drosophila and Xenopus laevis) that have been reported to be involved in folliculogenesis, POF (premature ovarian failure) and PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome). The literature was manually curated from more than 43 000 published articles (till 1 March 2014). The Follicle Online database is implemented in PHP + MySQL + JavaScript and this user-friendly web application provides access to the stored data. In summary, we have developed a centralized database that provides users with comprehensive information about genes/proteins involved in folliculogenesis. This database can be accessed freely and all the stored data can be viewed without any registration. Database URL: http://mcg.ustc.edu.cn/sdap1/follicle/index.php PMID:25931457

  17. A Distinct Mechanism of Temporal Integration for Motion through Depth.

    PubMed

    Katz, Leor N; Hennig, Jay A; Cormack, Lawrence K; Huk, Alexander C

    2015-07-15

    Temporal integration of visual motion has been studied extensively within the frontoparallel plane (i.e., 2D). However, the majority of motion occurs within a 3D environment, and it is unknown whether the principles from 2D motion processing generalize to more realistic 3D motion. We therefore characterized and compared temporal integration underlying 2D (left/right) and 3D (toward/away) direction discrimination in human observers, varying motion coherence across a range of viewing durations. The resulting discrimination-versus-duration functions followed three stages, as follows: (1) a steep improvement during the first ∼150 ms, likely reflecting early sensory processing; (2) a subsequent, more gradual benefit of increasing duration over several hundreds of milliseconds, consistent with some form of temporal integration underlying decision formation; and (3) a final stage in which performance ceased to improve with duration over ∼1 s, which is consistent with an upper limit on integration. As previously found, improvements in 2D direction discrimination with time were consistent with near-perfect integration. In contrast, 3D motion sensitivity was lower overall and exhibited a substantial departure from perfect integration. These results confirm that there are overall differences in sensitivity for 2D and 3D motion that are consistent with a sensory difference between binocular and dichoptic sensory mechanisms. They also reveal a difference at the integration stage, in which 3D motion is not accumulated as perfectly as in the 2D motion model system.

  18. The promise of Mechanical Turk: how online labor markets can help theorists run behavioral experiments.

    PubMed

    Rand, David G

    2012-04-21

    Combining evolutionary models with behavioral experiments can generate powerful insights into the evolution of human behavior. The emergence of online labor markets such as Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) allows theorists to conduct behavioral experiments very quickly and cheaply. The process occurs entirely over the computer, and the experience is quite similar to performing a set of computer simulations. Thus AMT opens the world of experimentation to evolutionary theorists. In this paper, I review previous work combining theory and experiments, and I introduce online labor markets as a tool for behavioral experimentation. I review numerous replication studies indicating that AMT data is reliable. I also present two new experiments on the reliability of self-reported demographics. In the first, I use IP address logging to verify AMT subjects' self-reported country of residence, and find that 97% of responses are accurate. In the second, I compare the consistency of a range of demographic variables reported by the same subjects across two different studies, and find between 81% and 98% agreement, depending on the variable. Finally, I discuss limitations of AMT and point out potential pitfalls. I hope this paper will encourage evolutionary modelers to enter the world of experimentation, and help to strengthen the bond between theoretical and empirical analyses of the evolution of human behavior.

  19. On-line Meteorology-Chemistry/Aerosols Modelling and Integration for Risk Assessment: Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostanbekov, Kairat; Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Nurseitov, Daniyar; Zakarin, Edige; Baklanov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    On regional level, and especially in areas with potential diverse sources of industrial pollutants, the risk assessment of impact on environment and population is critically important. During normal operations, the risk is minimal. However, during accidental situations, the risk is increased due to releases of harmful pollutants into different environments such as water, soil, and atmosphere where it is following processes of continuous transformation and transport. In this study, the Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment High Resolution Limited Area Model) was adapted and employed for assessment of scenarios with accidental and continuous emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) for selected case studies during January of 2010. The following scenarios were considered: (i) control reference run; (ii) accidental release (due to short-term 1 day fire at oil storage facility) occurred at city of Atyrau (Kazakhstan) near the northern part of the Caspian Sea; and (iii) doubling of original continuous emissions from three locations of metallurgical enterprises on the Kola Peninsula (Russia). The implemented aerosol microphysics module M7 uses 5 types - sulphates, sea salt, dust, black and organic carbon; as well as distributed in 7 size modes. Removal processes of aerosols include gravitational settling and wet deposition. As the Enviro-HIRLAM model is the on-line integrated model, both meteorological and chemical processes are simultaneously modelled at each time step. The modelled spatio-temporal variations for meteorological and chemical patterns are analyzed for both European and Kazakhstan regions domains. The results of evaluation of sulphur dioxide concentration and deposition on main populated cities, selected regions, countries are presented employing GIS tools. As outcome, the results of Enviro-HIRLAM modelling for accidental release near the Caspian Sea are integrated into the RANDOM (Risk Assessment of Nature Detriment due to Oil spill Migration) system.

  20. Charging YOYO-1 on capillary wall for online DNA intercalation and integrating this approach with multiplex PCR and bare narrow capillary-hydrodynamic chromatography for online DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huang; Zhu, Zaifang; Lu, Joann Juan; Liu, Shaorong

    2015-02-01

    Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been widely utilized for high-throughput pathogen identification. Often, a dye is used to intercalate the amplified DNA fragments, and identifications of the pathogens are carried out by DNA melting curve analysis or gel electrophoresis. Integrating DNA amplification and identification is a logic path toward maximizing the benefit of multiplex PCR. Although PCR and gel electrophoresis have been integrated, replenishing the gels after each run is tedious and time-consuming. In this technical note, we develop an approach to address this issue. We perform multiplex PCR inside a capillary, transfer the amplified fragments to a bare narrow capillary, and measure their lengths online using bare narrow capillary-hydrodynamic chromatography (BaNC-HDC), a new technique recently developed in our laboratory for free-solution DNA separation. To intercalate the DNA with YOYO-1 (a fluorescent dye) for BaNC-HDC, we flush the capillary column with a YOYO-1 solution; positively charged YOYO-1 is adsorbed (or charged) onto the negatively charged capillary wall. As DNA molecules are driven down the column for separation, they react with the YOYO-1 stored on the capillary wall and are online-intercalated with the dye. With a single YOYO-1 charging, the column can be used for more than 40 runs, although the fluorescence signal intensities of the DNA peaks decrease gradually. Although the dye-DNA intercalation occurs during the separation, it does not affect the retention times, separation efficiencies, or resolutions. PMID:25555111

  1. Integrating Online Multimedia into College Course and Classroom: With Application to the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael V.

    2009-01-01

    Description centers on an approach for efficiently incorporating online media resources into course and classroom. Consideration is given to pedagogical rationale, types of media, locating programs and clips, content retrieval and delivery, copyright issues, and typical problems experienced by instructors and students using online resources. In…

  2. Designing an Online Case-Based Library for Technology Integration in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebebci, Mustafa Tevfik; Kucuk, Sirin; Celik, Ismail; Akturk, A. Oguz; Sahin, Ismail; Eren, Fetah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce an interactive online case-study library website developed in a national project. The design goal of the website is to provide interactive, enhanced, case-based and online educational resource for educators through the purpose and within the scope of a national project. The ADDIE instructional design model…

  3. Use of Signaling to Integrate Desktop Virtual Reality and Online Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Bucky J.; Antonenko, Pavlo D.

    2012-01-01

    Desktop virtual reality is an emerging educational technology that offers many potential benefits for learners in online learning contexts; however, a limited body of research is available that connects current multimedia learning techniques with these new forms of media. Because most formal online learning is delivered using learning management…

  4. Integrating Online Instruction in a College Classroom to Improve Cost Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzhardt, Jay; Semb, George

    2005-01-01

    We compared online study guides to pen-and-paper study guides in terms of academic performance, the amount of time instructors spent grading study guides, and student preferences. Students in 3 sections of a child psychology course used online study guides (n = 46), and students in 3 other sections used pen-and-paper study guides (n = 64).…

  5. Fast Flux Watch: A mechanism for online detection of fast flux networks.

    PubMed

    Al-Duwairi, Basheer N; Al-Hammouri, Ahmad T

    2014-07-01

    Fast flux networks represent a special type of botnets that are used to provide highly available web services to a backend server, which usually hosts malicious content. Detection of fast flux networks continues to be a challenging issue because of the similar behavior between these networks and other legitimate infrastructures, such as CDNs and server farms. This paper proposes Fast Flux Watch (FF-Watch), a mechanism for online detection of fast flux agents. FF-Watch is envisioned to exist as a software agent at leaf routers that connect stub networks to the Internet. The core mechanism of FF-Watch is based on the inherent feature of fast flux networks: flux agents within stub networks take the role of relaying client requests to point-of-sale websites of spam campaigns. The main idea of FF-Watch is to correlate incoming TCP connection requests to flux agents within a stub network with outgoing TCP connection requests from the same agents to the point-of-sale website. Theoretical and traffic trace driven analysis shows that the proposed mechanism can be utilized to efficiently detect fast flux agents within a stub network. PMID:25685515

  6. Fast Flux Watch: A mechanism for online detection of fast flux networks

    PubMed Central

    Al-Duwairi, Basheer N.; Al-Hammouri, Ahmad T.

    2014-01-01

    Fast flux networks represent a special type of botnets that are used to provide highly available web services to a backend server, which usually hosts malicious content. Detection of fast flux networks continues to be a challenging issue because of the similar behavior between these networks and other legitimate infrastructures, such as CDNs and server farms. This paper proposes Fast Flux Watch (FF-Watch), a mechanism for online detection of fast flux agents. FF-Watch is envisioned to exist as a software agent at leaf routers that connect stub networks to the Internet. The core mechanism of FF-Watch is based on the inherent feature of fast flux networks: flux agents within stub networks take the role of relaying client requests to point-of-sale websites of spam campaigns. The main idea of FF-Watch is to correlate incoming TCP connection requests to flux agents within a stub network with outgoing TCP connection requests from the same agents to the point-of-sale website. Theoretical and traffic trace driven analysis shows that the proposed mechanism can be utilized to efficiently detect fast flux agents within a stub network. PMID:25685515

  7. Fast Flux Watch: A mechanism for online detection of fast flux networks.

    PubMed

    Al-Duwairi, Basheer N; Al-Hammouri, Ahmad T

    2014-07-01

    Fast flux networks represent a special type of botnets that are used to provide highly available web services to a backend server, which usually hosts malicious content. Detection of fast flux networks continues to be a challenging issue because of the similar behavior between these networks and other legitimate infrastructures, such as CDNs and server farms. This paper proposes Fast Flux Watch (FF-Watch), a mechanism for online detection of fast flux agents. FF-Watch is envisioned to exist as a software agent at leaf routers that connect stub networks to the Internet. The core mechanism of FF-Watch is based on the inherent feature of fast flux networks: flux agents within stub networks take the role of relaying client requests to point-of-sale websites of spam campaigns. The main idea of FF-Watch is to correlate incoming TCP connection requests to flux agents within a stub network with outgoing TCP connection requests from the same agents to the point-of-sale website. Theoretical and traffic trace driven analysis shows that the proposed mechanism can be utilized to efficiently detect fast flux agents within a stub network.

  8. A dual model of entertainment-based and community-based mechanisms to explore continued participation in online entertainment communities.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yun; Hou, Jinghui; Ma, Xiao; Cai, Shuqin

    2013-05-01

    Online entertainment communities have exploded in popularity and drawn attention from researchers. However, few studies have investigated what leads people to remain active in such communities at the postadoption stage. We proposed and tested a dual model of entertainment-based and community-based mechanisms to examine the factors that affect individuals' continued participation in online entertainment communities. Survival analysis was employed on a longitudinal dataset of 2,302 users collected over 2 years from an online game community. Our results were highly consistent with the theoretical model. Specifically, under the entertainment-based mechanism, our findings showed that the intensities of initial use and frequent use were positive predictors of players' activity lifespan. Under the community-based mechanism, the results demonstrated that the number of guilds a player was affiliated with and the average number of days of being a guild member positively predict players' lifespan in the game. Overall, our study suggests that the entertainment-based mechanism and community-based mechanism are two key drivers that determinate individuals' continued participation in online entertainment communities.

  9. Frida integral field unit opto-mechanical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Salvador; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Bringas, Vicente; Corrales, Adi; Espejo, Carlos; Lucero, Diana; Rodriguez, Alberto; Sánchez, Beatriz; Uribe, Jorge

    2012-09-01

    FRIDA (inFRared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias) has been designed as a cryogenic and diffraction limited instrument that will offer broad and narrow band imaging and integral field spectroscopy (IFS). Both, the imaging mode and IFS observing modes will use the same Teledyne 2Kx2K detector. This instrument will be installed at Nasmyth B station, behind the GTC Adaptive Optics system. FRIDA will provide the IFS mode using a 30 slices Integral Field Unit (IFU). This IFU design is based on University of Florida FISICA where the mirror block arrays are diamond turned on monolithic metal blocks. FRIDA IFU is conformed mainly by 3 mirror blocks with 30 spherical mirrors each. It also has a Schwarzschild relay based on two off axis spherical mirrors and an afocal system of two parabolic off axis mirrors. Including two insertion mirrors the IFU holds 96 metal mirrors. Each block or individual mirror is attached on its own mechanical mounting. In order to study beam interferences with mechanical parts, ghosts and scattered light, an iterative optical-mechanical modeling was developed. In this work this iterative modeling is described including pictures showing actual ray tracing on the opto-mechanical components.

  10. Concept and integration of an on-line quasi-operational airborne hyperspectral remote sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Hendrik; Lenz, Andreas; Gross, Wolfgang; Perpeet, Dominik; Wuttke, Sebastian; Middelmann, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Modern mission characteristics require the use of advanced imaging sensors in reconnaissance. In particular, high spatial and high spectral resolution imaging provides promising data for many tasks such as classification and detecting objects of military relevance, such as camouflaged units or improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Especially in asymmetric warfare with highly mobile forces, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) needs to be available close to real-time. This demands the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in combination with downlink capability. The system described in this contribution is integrated in a wing pod for ease of installation and calibration. It is designed for the real-time acquisition and analysis of hyperspectral data. The main component is a Specim AISA Eagle II hyperspectral sensor, covering the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectral range with a spectral resolution up to 1.2 nm and 1024 pixel across track, leading to a ground sampling distance below 1 m at typical altitudes. The push broom characteristic of the hyperspectral sensor demands an inertial navigation system (INS) for rectification and georeferencing of the image data. Additional sensors are a high resolution RGB (HR-RGB) frame camera and a thermal imaging camera. For on-line application, the data is preselected, compressed and transmitted to the ground control station (GCS) by an existing system in a second wing pod. The final result after data processing in the GCS is a hyperspectral orthorectified GeoTIFF, which is filed in the ERDAS APOLLO geographical information system. APOLLO allows remote access to the data and offers web-based analysis tools. The system is quasi-operational and was successfully tested in May 2013 in Bremerhaven, Germany.

  11. Thalamocortical mechanisms for integrating musical tone and rhythm.

    PubMed

    Musacchia, Gabriella; Large, Edward W; Schroeder, Charles E

    2014-02-01

    Studies over several decades have identified many of the neuronal substrates of music perception by pursuing pitch and rhythm perception separately. Here, we address the question of how these mechanisms interact, starting with the observation that the peripheral pathways of the so-called "Core" and "Matrix" thalamocortical system provide the anatomical bases for tone and rhythm channels. We then examine the hypothesis that these specialized inputs integrate acoustic content within rhythm context in auditory cortex using classical types of "driving" and "modulatory" mechanisms. This hypothesis provides a framework for deriving testable predictions about the early stages of music processing. Furthermore, because thalamocortical circuits are shared by speech and music processing, such a model provides concrete implications for how music experience contributes to the development of robust speech encoding mechanisms.

  12. Thalamocortical mechanisms for integrating musical tone and rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Musacchia, Gabriella; Large, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Studies over several decades have identified many of the neuronal substrates of music perception by pursuing pitch and rhythm perception separately. Here, we address the question of how these mechanisms interact, starting with the observation that the peripheral pathways of the so-called “Core” and “Matrix” thalamocortical system provide the anatomical bases for tone and rhythm channels. We then examine the hypothesis that these specialized inputs integrate tonal content within rhythm context in auditory cortex using classical types of “driving” and “modulatory” mechanisms. This hypothesis provides a framework for deriving testable predictions about the early stages of music processing. Furthermore, because thalamocortical circuits are shared by speech and music processing, such a model provides concrete implications for how music experience contributes to the development of robust speech encoding mechanisms. PMID:24103509

  13. Creating Dynamic Learning Communities in Synchronous Online Courses: One Approach from the Center for the Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (CIRTL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniels, Melissa; Pfund, Christine; Barnicle, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The ability to convert face-to-face curricula into rigorous and equally rich online experiences is a topic of much investigation. In this paper, we report on the conversion of a face-to-face research mentor training curriculum into a synchronous, online course. Graduate students and postdoc participants from the Center for the Integration of…

  14. An Overview of the Mechanical Integrity of Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Shemtov-Yona, Keren; Rittel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    With the growing use of dental implants, the incidence of implants' failures grows. Late treatment complications, after reaching full osseointegration and functionality, include mechanical failures, such as fracture of the implant and its components. Those complications are deemed severe in dentistry, albeit being usually considered as rare, and therefore seldom addressed in the clinical literature. The introduction of dental implants into clinical practice fostered a wealth of research on their biological aspects. By contrast, mechanical strength and reliability issues were seldom investigated in the open literature, so that most of the information to date remains essentially with the manufacturers. Over the years, implants have gone through major changes regarding the material, the design, and the surface characteristics aimed at improving osseointegration. Did those changes improve the implants' mechanical performance? This review article surveys the state-of-the-art literature about implants' mechanical reliability, identifying the known causes for fracture, while outlining the current knowledge-gaps. Recent results on various aspects of the mechanical integrity and failure of implants are presented and discussed next. The paper ends by a general discussion and suggestions for future research, outlining the importance of mechanical considerations for the improvement of their future performance. PMID:26583117

  15. An Overview of the Mechanical Integrity of Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Shemtov-Yona, Keren; Rittel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    With the growing use of dental implants, the incidence of implants' failures grows. Late treatment complications, after reaching full osseointegration and functionality, include mechanical failures, such as fracture of the implant and its components. Those complications are deemed severe in dentistry, albeit being usually considered as rare, and therefore seldom addressed in the clinical literature. The introduction of dental implants into clinical practice fostered a wealth of research on their biological aspects. By contrast, mechanical strength and reliability issues were seldom investigated in the open literature, so that most of the information to date remains essentially with the manufacturers. Over the years, implants have gone through major changes regarding the material, the design, and the surface characteristics aimed at improving osseointegration. Did those changes improve the implants' mechanical performance? This review article surveys the state-of-the-art literature about implants' mechanical reliability, identifying the known causes for fracture, while outlining the current knowledge-gaps. Recent results on various aspects of the mechanical integrity and failure of implants are presented and discussed next. The paper ends by a general discussion and suggestions for future research, outlining the importance of mechanical considerations for the improvement of their future performance.

  16. Social plasticity in fish: integrating mechanisms and function.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R F

    2012-12-01

    Social plasticity is a ubiquitous feature of animal behaviour. Animals must adjust the expression of their social behaviour to the nuances of daily social life and to the transitions between life-history stages, and the ability to do so affects their Darwinian fitness. Here, an integrative framework is proposed for understanding the proximate mechanisms and ultimate consequences of social plasticity. According to this framework, social plasticity is achieved by rewiring or by biochemically switching nodes of the neural network underlying social behaviour in response to perceived social information. Therefore, at the molecular level, it depends on the social regulation of gene expression, so that different brain genomic and epigenetic states correspond to different behavioural responses and the switches between states are orchestrated by signalling pathways that interface the social environment and the genotype. At the evolutionary scale, social plasticity can be seen as an adaptive trait that can be under positive selection when changes in the environment outpace the rate of genetic evolutionary change. In cases when social plasticity is too costly or incomplete, behavioural consistency can emerge by directional selection that recruits gene modules corresponding to favoured behavioural states in that environment. As a result of this integrative approach, how knowledge of the proximate mechanisms underlying social plasticity is crucial to understanding its costs, limits and evolutionary consequences is shown, thereby highlighting the fact that proximate mechanisms contribute to the dynamics of selection. The role of teleosts as a premier model to study social plasticity is also highlighted, given the diversity and plasticity that this group exhibits in terms of social behaviour. Finally, the proposed integrative framework to social plasticity also illustrates how reciprocal causation analysis of biological phenomena (i.e. considering the interaction between

  17. Physical and mechanical properties of spinach for whole-surface online imaging inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiuying; Mo, Chang Y.; Chan, Diane E.; Peng, Yankun; Qin, Jianwei; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin

    2011-06-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of baby spinach were investigated, including density, Young's modulus, fracture strength, and friction coefficient. The average apparent density of baby spinach leaves was 0.5666 g/mm3. The tensile tests were performed using parallel, perpendicular, and diagonal directions with respect to the midrib of each leaf. The test results showed that the mechanical properties of spinach are anisotropic. For the parallel, diagonal, and perpendicular test directions, the average values for the Young's modulus values were found to be 2.137MPa, 1.0841 MPa, and 0.3914 MPa, respectively, and the average fracture strength values were 0.2429 MPa, 0.1396 MPa, and 0.1113 MPa, respectively. The static and kinetic friction coefficient between the baby spinach and conveyor belt were researched, whose test results showed that the average coefficients of kinetic and maximum static friction between the adaxial (front side) spinach leaf surface and conveyor belt were 1.2737 and 1.3635, respectively, and between the abaxial (back side) spinach leaf surface and conveyor belt were 1.1780 and 1.2451 respectively. These works provide the basis for future development of a whole-surface online imaging inspection system that can be used by the commercial vegetable processing industry to reduce food safety risks.

  18. Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness.

    PubMed

    Grace, James B; Anderson, T Michael; Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Adler, Peter B; Harpole, W Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M; Pärtel, Meelis; Bakker, Jonathan D; Buckley, Yvonne M; Crawley, Michael J; Damschen, Ellen I; Davies, Kendi F; Fay, Philip A; Firn, Jennifer; Gruner, Daniel S; Hector, Andy; Knops, Johannes M H; MacDougall, Andrew S; Melbourne, Brett A; Morgan, John W; Orrock, John L; Prober, Suzanne M; Smith, Melinda D

    2016-01-21

    How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plots spanning five continents, we detect the clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking productivity and richness. We find that an integrative model has substantially higher explanatory power than traditional bivariate analyses. In addition, the specific results unveil several surprising findings that conflict with classical models. These include the isolation of a strong and consistent enhancement of productivity by richness, an effect in striking contrast with superficial data patterns. Also revealed is a consistent importance of competition across the full range of productivity values, in direct conflict with some (but not all) proposed models. The promotion of local richness by macroecological gradients in climatic favourability, generally seen as a competing hypothesis, is also found to be important in our analysis. The results demonstrate that an integrative modelling approach leads to a major advance in our ability to discern the underlying processes operating in ecological systems. PMID:26760203

  19. Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Adler, Peter B.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Pärtel, Meelis; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Damschen, Ellen I.; Davies, Kendi F.; Fay, Philip A.; Firn, Jennifer; Gruner, Daniel S.; Hector, Andy; Knops, Johannes M. H.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Morgan, John W.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Smith, Melinda D.

    2016-01-01

    How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plots spanning five continents, we detect the clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking productivity and richness. We find that an integrative model has substantially higher explanatory power than traditional bivariate analyses. In addition, the specific results unveil several surprising findings that conflict with classical models. These include the isolation of a strong and consistent enhancement of productivity by richness, an effect in striking contrast with superficial data patterns. Also revealed is a consistent importance of competition across the full range of productivity values, in direct conflict with some (but not all) proposed models. The promotion of local richness by macroecological gradients in climatic favourability, generally seen as a competing hypothesis, is also found to be important in our analysis. The results demonstrate that an integrative modelling approach leads to a major advance in our ability to discern the underlying processes operating in ecological systems.

  20. CmapTools: Integrating Teaching, Learning, and Evaluation in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Barbara J.; Canas, Alberto J.; Stark-Schweitzer, Tracy

    2007-01-01

    Concept maps are an instructional strategy that promotes meaningful learning. This chapter examines the use of concept maps in online environments through discussion of CmapTools software. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  1. Integrated home monitoring and compliance optimization for patients with mechanical circulatory support devices.

    PubMed

    Klack, Lars; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Wilkowska, Wiktoria; Kasugai, Kai; Heidrich, Felix; Ziefle, Martina

    2011-12-01

    This article presents an integrated, automatic home-monitoring, and assist system for patients suffering from end-stage heart failure, particularly patients with implanted mechanical circulatory support devices, such as ventricular assist devices and total artificial hearts. The system incorporates various biosensors to monitor the vital parameters of the patient unobtrusively in the home environment. Recorded data can be accessed online and in real time by a supervising physician, and these data serve as a means for immediate diagnosis of emergency events. The retrieved information can also be continuously analyzed to generate suggestions for medication, nutrition, and exercise for the patient to optimize their rehabilitation and overall health. An experimental environment (the Future Care Lab) was set up at RWTH Aachen University to serve as a testing environment for the development and evaluation of this novel integrated system. The Future Care Lab was not only used as a platform for technically testing the monitoring system, but also more concretely demonstrating to users the integration of these new medical technologies in a home. Thus, the Future Care Lab provides a unique environment for an interdisciplinary research approach consisting of iterative cycles of system development and evaluation of user acceptance.

  2. Coreference and Lexical Repetition: Mechanisms of Discourse Integration

    PubMed Central

    Ledoux, Kerry; Gordon, Peter C.; Camblin, C. Christine; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2006-01-01

    The use of repeated expressions to establish coreference allows an investigation of the relationship between basic processes of word recognition and higher-level language processes that involve the integration of information into a discourse model. In two experiments on reading, we used eye tracking and event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether repeated expressions that are coreferential within a local discourse context show the kind of repetition priming that is shown in lists of words. In both experiments, effects of lexical repetition were modulated by effects of local discourse context that arose from manipulations of the linguistic prominence of the antecedent of a coreferentially repeated name. These results are interpreted within the context of discourse prominence theory, which suggests that processes of coreferential interpretation interact with basic mechanisms of memory integration during the construction of a model of discourse. PMID:17848036

  3. Reputation mechanism: From resolution for truthful online auctions to the model of optimal one-gambler problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study reputation mechanisms, and show how the notion of reputation can help us in building truthful online auction mechanisms. From the mechanism design prospective, we derive the conditions on and design a truthful online auction mechanism. Moreover, in the case when some agents may lay or cannot have the real knowledge about the other agents reputations, we derive the resolution of the auction, such that the mechanism is truthful. Consequently, we move forward to the optimal one-gambler/one-seller problem, and explain how that problem is refinement of the previously discussed online auction design in the presence of reputation mechanism. In the setting of the optimal one-gambler problem, we naturally rise and solve the specific question: What is an agent's optimal strategy, in order to maximize his revenue? We would like to stress that our analysis goes beyond the scope, which game theory usually discusses under the notion of reputation. We model one-player games, by introducing a new parameter (reputation), which helps us in predicting the agent's behavior, in real-world situations, such as, behavior of a gambler, real-estate dealer, etc.

  4. Using the Semantic Web for Rapid Integration of WikiPathways with Other Biological Online Data Resources.

    PubMed

    Waagmeester, Andra; Kutmon, Martina; Riutta, Anders; Miller, Ryan; Willighagen, Egon L; Evelo, Chris T; Pico, Alexander R

    2016-06-01

    The diversity of online resources storing biological data in different formats provides a challenge for bioinformaticians to integrate and analyse their biological data. The semantic web provides a standard to facilitate knowledge integration using statements built as triples describing a relation between two objects. WikiPathways, an online collaborative pathway resource, is now available in the semantic web through a SPARQL endpoint at http://sparql.wikipathways.org. Having biological pathways in the semantic web allows rapid integration with data from other resources that contain information about elements present in pathways using SPARQL queries. In order to convert WikiPathways content into meaningful triples we developed two new vocabularies that capture the graphical representation and the pathway logic, respectively. Each gene, protein, and metabolite in a given pathway is defined with a standard set of identifiers to support linking to several other biological resources in the semantic web. WikiPathways triples were loaded into the Open PHACTS discovery platform and are available through its Web API (https://dev.openphacts.org/docs) to be used in various tools for drug development. We combined various semantic web resources with the newly converted WikiPathways content using a variety of SPARQL query types and third-party resources, such as the Open PHACTS API. The ability to use pathway information to form new links across diverse biological data highlights the utility of integrating WikiPathways in the semantic web. PMID:27336457

  5. Using the Semantic Web for Rapid Integration of WikiPathways with Other Biological Online Data Resources.

    PubMed

    Waagmeester, Andra; Kutmon, Martina; Riutta, Anders; Miller, Ryan; Willighagen, Egon L; Evelo, Chris T; Pico, Alexander R

    2016-06-01

    The diversity of online resources storing biological data in different formats provides a challenge for bioinformaticians to integrate and analyse their biological data. The semantic web provides a standard to facilitate knowledge integration using statements built as triples describing a relation between two objects. WikiPathways, an online collaborative pathway resource, is now available in the semantic web through a SPARQL endpoint at http://sparql.wikipathways.org. Having biological pathways in the semantic web allows rapid integration with data from other resources that contain information about elements present in pathways using SPARQL queries. In order to convert WikiPathways content into meaningful triples we developed two new vocabularies that capture the graphical representation and the pathway logic, respectively. Each gene, protein, and metabolite in a given pathway is defined with a standard set of identifiers to support linking to several other biological resources in the semantic web. WikiPathways triples were loaded into the Open PHACTS discovery platform and are available through its Web API (https://dev.openphacts.org/docs) to be used in various tools for drug development. We combined various semantic web resources with the newly converted WikiPathways content using a variety of SPARQL query types and third-party resources, such as the Open PHACTS API. The ability to use pathway information to form new links across diverse biological data highlights the utility of integrating WikiPathways in the semantic web.

  6. Using the Semantic Web for Rapid Integration of WikiPathways with Other Biological Online Data Resources

    PubMed Central

    Waagmeester, Andra; Pico, Alexander R.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of online resources storing biological data in different formats provides a challenge for bioinformaticians to integrate and analyse their biological data. The semantic web provides a standard to facilitate knowledge integration using statements built as triples describing a relation between two objects. WikiPathways, an online collaborative pathway resource, is now available in the semantic web through a SPARQL endpoint at http://sparql.wikipathways.org. Having biological pathways in the semantic web allows rapid integration with data from other resources that contain information about elements present in pathways using SPARQL queries. In order to convert WikiPathways content into meaningful triples we developed two new vocabularies that capture the graphical representation and the pathway logic, respectively. Each gene, protein, and metabolite in a given pathway is defined with a standard set of identifiers to support linking to several other biological resources in the semantic web. WikiPathways triples were loaded into the Open PHACTS discovery platform and are available through its Web API (https://dev.openphacts.org/docs) to be used in various tools for drug development. We combined various semantic web resources with the newly converted WikiPathways content using a variety of SPARQL query types and third-party resources, such as the Open PHACTS API. The ability to use pathway information to form new links across diverse biological data highlights the utility of integrating WikiPathways in the semantic web. PMID:27336457

  7. Mechanical integrity and piping systems -- The forgotten elements

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.D.; Uscocovich, J.S.

    1996-07-01

    Many codes and regulations address the issue of process piping inspections, the most recent being AP1570. OSH1910.119 paragraph (j) also contains requirements for maintaining the mechanical integrity of an operating system through inspections and tests. This paper includes details for an examination approach dealing with process piping as a system, including often neglected items such as piping supports and expansion joints. A training methodology will be discussed which incorporates site walkdowns, operating history, typical failures and other items which may be used to formulate a site specific and flexible program to ensure safe and reliable piping systems as well as compliance with OSHA 1910.119 paragraph (j).

  8. Mechanisms for integration of information models across related domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Rob

    2010-05-01

    It is well recognised that there are opportunities and challenges in cross-disciplinary data integration. A significant barrier, however, is creating a conceptual model of the combined domains and the area of integration. For example, a groundwater domain application may require information from several related domains: geology, hydrology, water policy, etc. Each domain may have its own data holdings and conceptual models, but these will share various common concepts (eg. The concept of an aquifer). These areas of semantic overlap present significant challenges, firstly to choose a single representation (model) of a concept that appears in multiple disparate models,, then to harmonise these other models with the single representation. In addition, models may exist at different levels of abstraction depending on how closely aligned they are with a particular implementation. This makes it hard for modellers in one domain to introduce elements from another domain without either introducing a specific style of implementation, or conversely dealing with a set of abstract patterns that are hard to integrate with existing implementations. Models are easier to integrate if they are broken down into small units, with common concepts implemented using common models from well-known, and predictably managed shared libraries. This vision however requires development of a set of mechanisms (tools and procedures) for implementing and exploiting libraries of model components. These mechanisms need to handle publication, discovery, subscription, versioning and implementation of models in different forms. In this presentation a coherent suite of such mechanisms is proposed, using a scenario based on re-use of geosciences models. This approach forms the basis of a comprehensive strategy to empower domain modellers to create more interoperable systems. The strategy address a range of concerns and practice, and includes methodologies, an accessible toolkit, improvements to available

  9. Proving the mechanical integrity of solution mined caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Van Fossan, N.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-523) specifies an Underground Injection Control (UIC) program be promulgated to satisfy certain requirements of the act. Underground storage wells are covered by the act. The most crucial item in any UIC program is the requirement of proving the mechanical integrity of a storage system. This work enumerates the individual elements of a hydrocarbon underground storage system in domal salt, addresses the nature and magnitude of the maximum forces which may be exerted on each element, and proposes tests which will prove that each element is capable of resisting these forces. Appropriate safety factors also are proposed.

  10. Angular momentum in molecular quantum mechanical integral evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, Brett I.

    2005-01-01

    Solid-harmonic derivatives of quantum-mechanical integrals over Gaussian transforms of scalar, or radial, atomic basis functions create angular momentum about each center. Generalized Gaunt coefficients limit the amount of cross differentiation for multi-center integrals to ensure that cross differentiation does not affect the total angular momentum. The generalized Gaunt coefficients satisfy a number of other selection rules, which are exploited in a new computer code for computing forces in analytic density-functional theory based on robust and variational fitting of the Kohn-Sham potential. Two-center exponents are defined for four or more solid-harmonic differentiations of matrix elements. Those differentiations can either build up angular momentum about the centers or give forces on molecular potential-energy surfaces, thus generalized Gaunt coefficients of order greater than the number of centers are considered. These 4- j generalized Gaunt coefficients and two-center exponents are used to compute the first derivatives of all integrals involving all the Gaussian exponents on a triplet of centers at once. First all angular factors are contracted with the corresponding part of the linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals density matrix. This intermediate quantity is then reused for the nuclear attraction integral and the integrals corresponding to each basis function in the analytic fit of the Kohn-Sham potential in the muffin-tin-like, but analytic, Slater-Roothaan method that allows molecules to dissociate into atoms having any desired energy, including the experimental electronic energy. The energy is stationary in all respects and all forces precisely agree with a previous code in tests on small molecules. During geometry optimization of an icosahedral C 720 fullerene computing these angular factors and transforming them via the 4- j generalized Gaunt coefficient takes more than sixty percent of the total computer time. These same angular factors could be used

  11. Cellular mechanisms for integral feedback in visually guided behavior.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Bettina; Weir, Peter T; Roth, Eatai; Fairhall, Adrienne L; Dickinson, Michael H

    2014-04-15

    Sensory feedback is a ubiquitous feature of guidance systems in both animals and engineered vehicles. For example, a common strategy for moving along a straight path is to turn such that the measured rate of rotation is zero. This task can be accomplished by using a feedback signal that is proportional to the instantaneous value of the measured sensory signal. In such a system, the addition of an integral term depending on past values of the sensory input is needed to eliminate steady-state error [proportional-integral (PI) control]. However, the means by which nervous systems implement such a computation are poorly understood. Here, we show that the optomotor responses of flying Drosophila follow a time course consistent with temporal integration of horizontal motion input. To investigate the cellular basis of this effect, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from the set of identified visual interneurons [horizontal system (HS) cells] thought to control this reflex during tethered flight. At high stimulus speeds, HS cells exhibit steady-state responses during flight that are absent during quiescence, a state-dependent difference in physiology that is explained by changes in their presynaptic inputs. However, even during flight, the membrane potential of the large-field interneurons exhibits no evidence for integration that could explain the behavioral responses. However, using a genetically encoded indicator, we found that calcium accumulates in the terminals of the interneurons along a time course consistent with the behavior and propose that this accumulation provides a mechanism for temporal integration of sensory feedback consistent with PI control.

  12. The Activity-Integrated Method for Quality Assessment of Reduning Injection by On-Line DPPH-CE-DAD

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yang; Li, Jin; Liu, Er-wei; He, Jun; Jiao, Xiu-cheng; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Bo-li; Xiao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was developed and validated for both screening and determining the concentration of seven antioxidants of Reduning injection. The pH and concentrations of buffer solution, SDS, β-CD and organic modifier were studied for the detection of DPPH and seven antioxidants. By on-line mixing DPPH and sample solution, a DPPH-CE method for testing the antioxidant activity of the complex matrix was successfully established and used to screen the antioxidant components of Reduning injection. Then, antioxidant components including caffeic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid C, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid were quantified by the newly established CE–DAD method. Finally, the total antioxidant activity and the multiple active components were selected as markers to evaluate the quality of Reduning injection. The results demonstrated that the on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was reagent-saving, rapid and feasible for on-line simultaneous determination of total pharmacological activity and contents of multi-components samples. It was also a powerful method for evaluating the quality control and mechanism of action of TCM injection. PMID:25181475

  13. Manufacturing, integration, and testing of ELMER structure and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronquillo, Bernardo; Vega, Miguel A.; Ona, Miquel; Porras, Ester; Mayor, Ignacio; Roy, David; Camps, Sergio; Pereda, Francisco J.; Garcia-Vargas, Maria Luisa; Maldonado Medina, Manuel; Martin Fleitas, Juan Manuel; Sanchez, Ernesto

    2004-09-01

    ELMER is an optical instrument for the GTC designed to observe between 3650 and 10000 Armstrong. The observing modes for the instrument at Day One shall be: Imaging, Long Slit Spectroscopy, Mask-multi-object spectroscopy, Slit-less multi-object spectroscopy, Fast Photometry and Fast short-slit spectroscopy. It will be installed at the Nasmyth-B focal station at Day One, but it will also be designed to operate at the Folded Cassegrain focal station. The physical configuration of the instrument consists of a front section where the focal plane components are mounted (Slit Unit) and a rear section with the rest of the components (Field Lens, Prism/Grism/VPH Wheel, Filter Wheel, Collimator, Camera, Folder Mirrors, Shutter and Cryostat with the detector). Both sections are connected through a hexapod type structure. The optical path is bent twice with the two folder mirrors providing a compact system. The design phase of the ELMER Structure and Mechanisms finished on November 2002. Procurement and manufacturing covered from December 2002 to June 2003. Mechanical and electrical integration was accomplished on September 2003. Test campaign at factory covered from the end of September to mid November. Critical performance of the mechanics has been carefully tested during this period: positional tolerances of optical interfaces, repeatability of the 5 mechanisms (4 rotating wheels and collimator linear stage) and deflections of the instrument due to gravity. Results from the tests are widely within the specified values, providing a top performance instrument.

  14. Evaluation of online information sources on alien species in Europe: the need of harmonization and integration.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Francesca; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Vandekerkhove, Jochen; Zenetos, Argyro; Cardoso, Ana Cristina

    2013-06-01

    Europe is severely affected by alien invasions, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem services, economy, and human health. A large number of national, regional, and global online databases provide information on the distribution, pathways of introduction, and impacts of alien species. The sufficiency and efficiency of the current online information systems to assist the European policy on alien species was investigated by a comparative analysis of occurrence data across 43 online databases. Large differences among databases were found which are partially explained by variations in their taxonomical, environmental, and geographical scopes but also by the variable efforts for continuous updates and by inconsistencies on the definition of "alien" or "invasive" species. No single database covered all European environments, countries, and taxonomic groups. In many European countries national databases do not exist, which greatly affects the quality of reported information. To be operational and useful to scientists, managers, and policy makers, online information systems need to be regularly updated through continuous monitoring on a country or regional level. We propose the creation of a network of online interoperable web services through which information in distributed resources can be accessed, aggregated and then used for reporting and further analysis at different geographical and political scales, as an efficient approach to increase the accessibility of information. Harmonization, standardization, conformity on international standards for nomenclature, and agreement on common definitions of alien and invasive species are among the necessary prerequisites. PMID:23609303

  15. Evaluation of Online Information Sources on Alien Species in Europe: The Need of Harmonization and Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatto, Francesca; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Vandekerkhove, Jochen; Zenetos, Argyro; Cardoso, Ana Cristina

    2013-06-01

    Europe is severely affected by alien invasions, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem services, economy, and human health. A large number of national, regional, and global online databases provide information on the distribution, pathways of introduction, and impacts of alien species. The sufficiency and efficiency of the current online information systems to assist the European policy on alien species was investigated by a comparative analysis of occurrence data across 43 online databases. Large differences among databases were found which are partially explained by variations in their taxonomical, environmental, and geographical scopes but also by the variable efforts for continuous updates and by inconsistencies on the definition of "alien" or "invasive" species. No single database covered all European environments, countries, and taxonomic groups. In many European countries national databases do not exist, which greatly affects the quality of reported information. To be operational and useful to scientists, managers, and policy makers, online information systems need to be regularly updated through continuous monitoring on a country or regional level. We propose the creation of a network of online interoperable web services through which information in distributed resources can be accessed, aggregated and then used for reporting and further analysis at different geographical and political scales, as an efficient approach to increase the accessibility of information. Harmonization, standardization, conformity on international standards for nomenclature, and agreement on common definitions of alien and invasive species are among the necessary prerequisites.

  16. Evaluation of online information sources on alien species in Europe: the need of harmonization and integration.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Francesca; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Vandekerkhove, Jochen; Zenetos, Argyro; Cardoso, Ana Cristina

    2013-06-01

    Europe is severely affected by alien invasions, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem services, economy, and human health. A large number of national, regional, and global online databases provide information on the distribution, pathways of introduction, and impacts of alien species. The sufficiency and efficiency of the current online information systems to assist the European policy on alien species was investigated by a comparative analysis of occurrence data across 43 online databases. Large differences among databases were found which are partially explained by variations in their taxonomical, environmental, and geographical scopes but also by the variable efforts for continuous updates and by inconsistencies on the definition of "alien" or "invasive" species. No single database covered all European environments, countries, and taxonomic groups. In many European countries national databases do not exist, which greatly affects the quality of reported information. To be operational and useful to scientists, managers, and policy makers, online information systems need to be regularly updated through continuous monitoring on a country or regional level. We propose the creation of a network of online interoperable web services through which information in distributed resources can be accessed, aggregated and then used for reporting and further analysis at different geographical and political scales, as an efficient approach to increase the accessibility of information. Harmonization, standardization, conformity on international standards for nomenclature, and agreement on common definitions of alien and invasive species are among the necessary prerequisites.

  17. Comparing the similarity of responses received from studies in Amazon's Mechanical Turk to studies conducted online and with direct recruitment.

    PubMed

    Bartneck, Christoph; Duenser, Andreas; Moltchanova, Elena; Zawieska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Computer and internet based questionnaires have become a standard tool in Human-Computer Interaction research and other related fields, such as psychology and sociology. Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) service is a new method of recruiting participants and conducting certain types of experiments. This study compares whether participants recruited through AMT give different responses than participants recruited through an online forum or recruited directly on a university campus. Moreover, we compare whether a study conducted within AMT results in different responses compared to a study for which participants are recruited through AMT but which is conducted using an external online questionnaire service. The results of this study show that there is a statistical difference between results obtained from participants recruited through AMT compared to the results from the participant recruited on campus or through online forums. We do, however, argue that this difference is so small that it has no practical consequence. There was no significant difference between running the study within AMT compared to running it with an online questionnaire service. There was no significant difference between results obtained directly from within AMT compared to results obtained in the campus and online forum condition. This may suggest that AMT is a viable and economical option for recruiting participants and for conducting studies as setting up and running a study with AMT generally requires less effort and time compared to other frequently used methods. We discuss our findings as well as limitations of using AMT for empirical studies.

  18. Integrated design of castings: effect of porosity on mechanical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, R. A.; Beckermann, C.

    2012-07-01

    Porosity can significantly reduce the strength and durability of castings in service. An integrated design approach has been developed where casting simulation is combined with mechanical performance simulations. Predictions of the porosity distribution from the casting process simulation are transferred to and used in stress and fatigue life simulations. Thus, the effect of casting quality on service performance can be evaluated. Results of a study are presented where the measured porosity distribution in cast steel specimens is transferred to an elasto-plastic finite-element stress analysis model. Methods are developed to locally reduce the mechanical properties according to the porosity present, without having to resolve individual pores. Plastic deformation is modeled using porous metal plasticity theory. The predictions are compared to tensile measurements performed on the specimens. The complex deformations and the reductions in the ductility of the specimens due to porosity are predicted well. The predicted stresses are transferred to a fatigue analysis code that takes the porosity distribution into account as well. The measured and predicted fatigue lives are also in good agreement. Finally, the results of a case study are presented that illustrate the utility of the present integrated approach in optimizing the design of a steel casting.

  19. Integrable systems and lie symmetries in classical mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, T.

    1986-01-01

    The interrelationship between integrability and symmetries in classical mechanics is studied. Two-dimensional time- and velocity-independent potentials form the domain of the study. It is shown that, contrary to folklore, existence of a single finite symmetry does not ensure integrability. A method due to Darboux is used to construct potentials that admit a time-independent invariant. All potentials admitting invariants linear or quadratic in the momentum coordinates are constructed. These are the only integrable potentials which can be expressed as arbitrary functions of certain arguments. A complete construction of potentials admitting higher-order invariants does not seem possible. However, the necessary general forms for potentials that admit a particular invariant of arbitrary order are found. These invariants must be spherically symmetric in the leading terms. Two kinds of symmetries are studied: point Lie symmetries of the Newtonian equations of motion for conservative potentials, and point Noether symmetries of the action functionals obtained from the standard Lagrangians associated with these potentials. All conservative potentials which admit these symmetries are constructed. The class of potentials admitting Noether symmetries is shown to be a subclass of those admitting Lie symmetries.

  20. Multi-sensor integration for on-line tool wear estimation through radial basis function networks and fuzzy neural network.

    PubMed

    Kuo, R J.; Cohen, P H.

    1999-03-01

    On-line tool wear estimation plays a very critical role in industry automation for higher productivity and product quality. In addition, appropriate and timely decision for tool change is significantly required in the machining systems. Thus, this paper is dedicated to develop an estimation system through integration of two promising technologies, artificial neural networks (ANN) and fuzzy logic. An on-line estimation system consisting of five components: (1) data collection; (2) feature extraction; (3) pattern recognition; (4) multi-sensor integration; and (5) tool/work distance compensation for tool flank wear, is proposed herein. For each sensor, a radial basis function (RBF) network is employed to recognize the extracted features. Thereafter, the decisions from multiple sensors are integrated through a proposed fuzzy neural network (FNN) model. Such a model is self-organizing and self-adjusting, and is able to learn from the experience. Physical experiments for the metal cutting process are implemented to evaluate the proposed system. The results show that the proposed system can significantly increase the accuracy of the product profile.

  1. Integrating Data Mining in Program Evaluation of K-12 Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Jui-Long; Hsu, Yu-Chang; Rice, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated an innovative approach of program evaluation through analyses of student learning logs, demographic data, and end-of-course evaluation surveys in an online K-12 supplemental program. The results support the development of a program evaluation model for decision making on teaching and learning at the K-12 level. A case study…

  2. Institutional Characteristics and Student Retention: What Integrated Postsecondary Education Data Reveals about Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiyaka, Edward T.; Sithole, Alec; Manyanga, Fidelis; McCarthy, Peter; Bucklein, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    Online course delivery continues to grow as a viable means of providing increased educational access to more students, but low student retention rates remain a major challenge. In this study, key institutional characteristics that influence student retention in postsecondary education are analyzed. These are student-faculty ratio, graduation rate,…

  3. Facilitating Cooperative Learning in Online and Blended Courses: An Example from an Integrated Marketing Communications Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Katryna

    2013-01-01

    Employers today expect that students will be able to work in teams. Cooperative learning theory addresses how skills such as decision making, problem solving and communication can be learned by individuals in group settings. This paper discusses how cooperative learning can be used in an online and blended environment to increase active learning…

  4. Integrate Web 2.0 Technology to Facilitate Online Professional Community: EMI Special Editing Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Chih-Hsiung; Blocher, Michael; Ntoruru, Joshua

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the collaborative journal review of an online professional community that was established to prepare this special edition for publication. The focus is on how Web 2.0 technology can be used to support a professional journal review community and to enhance active social interaction among reviewers. The theme of this special…

  5. Integration of Endnote Online in Information Literacy Instruction Designed for Small and Large Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baykoucheva, Svetla; Houck, Joseph D.; White, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The blended model for information literacy instruction described in this article introduces students not only to efficient techniques for finding scientific literature and properties of chemical compounds, but also to managing this information with a bibliographic management program (EndNote Online). The model blends face-to-face instruction with…

  6. Promoting Assessment Efficacy through an Integrated System for Online Clinical Assessment of Practical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Peter J.; Engstrom, Craig; Green, Anita; Friis, Peter; Dickens, Sue; Macdonald, Doune

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents evaluation outcomes from an externally funded research project involving the online clinical assessment of practical skills (eCAPS) using web-based video technologies within a university medical programme. eCAPS was implemented to trial this web-based approach for promoting the efficacy of "practical" skills assessment in knee…

  7. On the Integrity of Online Testing for Introductory Statistics Courses: A Latent Variable Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fask, Alan; Englander, Fred; Wang, Zhaobo

    2015-01-01

    There has been a remarkable growth in distance learning courses in higher education. Despite indications that distance learning courses are more vulnerable to cheating behavior than traditional courses, there has been little research studying whether online exams facilitate a relatively greater level of cheating. This article examines this issue…

  8. 30 CFR 250.1916 - What criteria for mechanical integrity must my SEMS program meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What criteria for mechanical integrity must my... mechanical integrity must my SEMS program meet? You must develop and implement written procedures that provide instructions to ensure the mechanical integrity and safe operation of equipment through...

  9. Sex-Related Online Behaviors, Perceived Peer Norms and Adolescents’ Experience with Sexual Behavior: Testing an Integrative Model

    PubMed Central

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Reitz, Ellen; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents’ sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents’ lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM]) and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS]) sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer norms in predicting adolescents’ experience with sexual behavior. Structural equation modeling on longitudinal data from 1,132 Dutch adolescents (Mage T1 = 13.95; range 11-17; 52.7% boys) demonstrated concurrent, direct, and indirect effects between sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms, and experience with sexual behavior. SEIM use (among boys) and SNS use (among boys and girls) predicted increases in adolescents’ perceptions of peer approval of sexual behavior and/or in their estimates of the numbers of sexually active peers. These perceptions, in turn, predicted increases in adolescents’ level of experience with sexual behavior at the end of the study. Boys’ SNS use also directly predicted increased levels of experience with sexual behavior. These findings highlight the need for multisystemic research and intervention development to promote adolescents’ sexual health. PMID:26086606

  10. Sex-Related Online Behaviors, Perceived Peer Norms and Adolescents' Experience with Sexual Behavior: Testing an Integrative Model.

    PubMed

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; ter Bogt, Tom F M; Reitz, Ellen; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2015-01-01

    Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM]) and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS]) sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer norms in predicting adolescents' experience with sexual behavior. Structural equation modeling on longitudinal data from 1,132 Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; range 11-17; 52.7% boys) demonstrated concurrent, direct, and indirect effects between sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms, and experience with sexual behavior. SEIM use (among boys) and SNS use (among boys and girls) predicted increases in adolescents' perceptions of peer approval of sexual behavior and/or in their estimates of the numbers of sexually active peers. These perceptions, in turn, predicted increases in adolescents' level of experience with sexual behavior at the end of the study. Boys' SNS use also directly predicted increased levels of experience with sexual behavior. These findings highlight the need for multisystemic research and intervention development to promote adolescents' sexual health.

  11. Cryptanalysis and improvement of a quantum communication-based online shopping mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Hui; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2015-06-01

    Recently, Chou et al. (Electron Commer Res 14:349-367, 2014) presented a novel controlled quantum secure direct communication protocol which can be used for online shopping. The authors claimed that their protocol was immune to the attacks from both external eavesdropper and internal betrayer. However, we find that this protocol is vulnerable to the attack from internal betrayer. In this paper, we analyze the security of this protocol to show that the controller in this protocol is able to eavesdrop the secret information of the sender (i.e., the customer's shopping information), which indicates that it cannot be used for secure online shopping as the authors expected. Accordingly, an improvement of this protocol, which could resist the controller's attack, is proposed. In addition, we present another protocol which is more appropriate for online shopping. Finally, a discussion about the difference in detail of the quantum secure direct communication process between regular quantum communications and online shopping is given.

  12. Interfacing modules for integrating discipline specific structural mechanics codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endres, Ned M.

    1989-01-01

    An outline of the organization and capabilities of the Engine Structures Computational Simulator (Simulator) at NASA Lewis Research Center is given. One of the goals of the research at Lewis is to integrate various discipline specific structural mechanics codes into a software system which can be brought to bear effectively on a wide range of engineering problems. This system must possess the qualities of being effective and efficient while still remaining user friendly. The simulator was initially designed for the finite element simulation of gas jet engine components. Currently, the simulator has been restricted to only the analysis of high pressure turbine blades and the accompanying rotor assembly, although the current installation can be expanded for other applications. The simulator presently assists the user throughout its procedures by performing information management tasks, executing external support tasks, organizing analysis modules and executing these modules in the user defined order while maintaining processing continuity.

  13. Integrated Force Method Solution to Indeterminate Structural Mechanics Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Halford, Gary R.

    2004-01-01

    Strength of materials problems have been classified into determinate and indeterminate problems. Determinate analysis primarily based on the equilibrium concept is well understood. Solutions of indeterminate problems required additional compatibility conditions, and its comprehension was not exclusive. A solution to indeterminate problem is generated by manipulating the equilibrium concept, either by rewriting in the displacement variables or through the cutting and closing gap technique of the redundant force method. Compatibility improvisation has made analysis cumbersome. The authors have researched and understood the compatibility theory. Solutions can be generated with equal emphasis on the equilibrium and compatibility concepts. This technique is called the Integrated Force Method (IFM). Forces are the primary unknowns of IFM. Displacements are back-calculated from forces. IFM equations are manipulated to obtain the Dual Integrated Force Method (IFMD). Displacement is the primary variable of IFMD and force is back-calculated. The subject is introduced through response variables: force, deformation, displacement; and underlying concepts: equilibrium equation, force deformation relation, deformation displacement relation, and compatibility condition. Mechanical load, temperature variation, and support settling are equally emphasized. The basic theory is discussed. A set of examples illustrate the new concepts. IFM and IFMD based finite element methods are introduced for simple problems.

  14. Integration of Ligand Field Molecular Mechanics in Tinker.

    PubMed

    Foscato, Marco; Deeth, Robert J; Jensen, Vidar R

    2015-06-22

    The ligand field molecular mechanics (LFMM) method for transition-metal complexes has been integrated in Tinker, an easily available and popular molecular modeling software package. The capability to calculate LFMM potentials has been provided by extending the functional forms of the Tinker package as well as by integrating routines for calculating the ligand field stabilization energy (LFSE), which is central to LFMM. The capabilities of the implementation are illustrated by both static calculations on the two spin states of [Fe(NH3)6](2+) and on [Cu(NH3)m](2+) (m = 4, 5, 6) and dynamic (LFMD) simulations of an FeN6-type spin-crossover compound. In addition to showing that results obtained with the Tinker-LFMM implementation are consistent with those of experiment and other computational methods and programs, we note that whereas LFMM is able to handle the conventional tetragonal Jahn-Teller distortion of the bond distances in [Cu(NH3)6](2+), the LFSE term is also necessary in order to obtain even qualitatively correct coordination geometries for the two lower-coordinate copper complexes. PMID:25970002

  15. End-To-End Solution for Integrated Workload and Data Management using GlideinWMS and Globus Online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Miller, Zachary; Kettimuthu, Rajkumar; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Holzman, Burt; Weiss, Cathrin; Duan, Xi; Lacinski, Lukasz

    2012-12-01

    Grid computing has enabled scientific communities to effectively share computing resources distributed over many independent sites. Several such communities, or Virtual Organizations (VO), in the Open Science Grid and the European Grid Infrastructure use the GlideinWMS system to run complex application work-flows. GlideinWMS is a pilot-based workload management system (WMS) that creates an on-demand, dynamically-sized overlay Condor batch system on Grid resources. While the WMS addresses the management of compute resources, however, data management in the Grid is still the responsibility of the VO. In general, large VOs have resources to develop complex custom solutions, while small VOs would rather push this responsibility to the infrastructure. The latter requires a tight integration of the WMS and the data management layers, an approach still not common in modern Grids. In this paper we describe a solution developed to address this shortcoming in the context of Center for Enabling Distributed Peta-scale Science (CEDPS) by integrating GlideinWMS with Globus Online (GO). Globus Online is a fast, reliable file transfer service that makes it easy for any user to move data. The solution eliminates the need for the users to provide custom data transfer solutions in the application by making this functionality part of the GlideinWMS infrastructure. To achieve this, GlideinWMS uses the file transfer plug-in architecture of Condor. The paper describes the system architecture and how this solution can be extended to support data transfer services other than Globus Online when used with Condor or GlideinWMS.

  16. Integrative network analysis reveals molecular mechanisms of blood pressure regulation.

    PubMed

    Huan, Tianxiao; Meng, Qingying; Saleh, Mohamed A; Norlander, Allison E; Joehanes, Roby; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Brian H; Zhang, Bin; Johnson, Andrew D; Ying, Saixia; Courchesne, Paul; Raghavachari, Nalini; Wang, Richard; Liu, Poching; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Vasan, Ramachandran; Munson, Peter J; Madhur, Meena S; Harrison, David G; Yang, Xia; Levy, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci associated with blood pressure (BP). The molecular mechanisms underlying BP regulation, however, remain unclear. We investigated BP-associated molecular mechanisms by integrating BP GWAS with whole blood mRNA expression profiles in 3,679 individuals, using network approaches. BP transcriptomic signatures at the single-gene and the coexpression network module levels were identified. Four coexpression modules were identified as potentially causal based on genetic inference because expression-related SNPs for their corresponding genes demonstrated enrichment for BP GWAS signals. Genes from the four modules were further projected onto predefined molecular interaction networks, revealing key drivers. Gene subnetworks entailing molecular interactions between key drivers and BP-related genes were uncovered. As proof-of-concept, we validated SH2B3, one of the top key drivers, using Sh2b3(-/-) mice. We found that a significant number of genes predicted to be regulated by SH2B3 in gene networks are perturbed in Sh2b3(-/-) mice, which demonstrate an exaggerated pressor response to angiotensin II infusion. Our findings may help to identify novel targets for the prevention or treatment of hypertension.

  17. Integrative network analysis reveals molecular mechanisms of blood pressure regulation.

    PubMed

    Huan, Tianxiao; Meng, Qingying; Saleh, Mohamed A; Norlander, Allison E; Joehanes, Roby; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Brian H; Zhang, Bin; Johnson, Andrew D; Ying, Saixia; Courchesne, Paul; Raghavachari, Nalini; Wang, Richard; Liu, Poching; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Vasan, Ramachandran; Munson, Peter J; Madhur, Meena S; Harrison, David G; Yang, Xia; Levy, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci associated with blood pressure (BP). The molecular mechanisms underlying BP regulation, however, remain unclear. We investigated BP-associated molecular mechanisms by integrating BP GWAS with whole blood mRNA expression profiles in 3,679 individuals, using network approaches. BP transcriptomic signatures at the single-gene and the coexpression network module levels were identified. Four coexpression modules were identified as potentially causal based on genetic inference because expression-related SNPs for their corresponding genes demonstrated enrichment for BP GWAS signals. Genes from the four modules were further projected onto predefined molecular interaction networks, revealing key drivers. Gene subnetworks entailing molecular interactions between key drivers and BP-related genes were uncovered. As proof-of-concept, we validated SH2B3, one of the top key drivers, using Sh2b3−/− mice. We found that a significant number of genes predicted to be regulated by SH2B3 in gene networks are perturbed in Sh2b3−/− mice, which demonstrate an exaggerated pressor response to angiotensin II infusion. Our findings may help to identify novel targets for the prevention or treatment of hypertension.

  18. Towards an integrated network of coral immune mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Palmer, C V; Traylor-Knowles, N

    2012-10-22

    Reef-building corals form bio-diverse marine ecosystems of high societal and economic value, but are in significant decline globally due, in part, to rapid climatic changes. As immunity is a predictor of coral disease and thermal stress susceptibility, a comprehensive understanding of this new field will likely provide a mechanistic explanation for ecological-scale trends in reef declines. Recently, several strides within coral immunology document defence mechanisms that are consistent with those of both invertebrates and vertebrates, and which span the recognition, signalling and effector response phases of innate immunity. However, many of these studies remain discrete and unincorporated into the wider fields of invertebrate immunology or coral biology. To encourage the rapid development of coral immunology, we comprehensively synthesize the current understanding of the field in the context of general invertebrate immunology, and highlight fundamental gaps in our knowledge. We propose a framework for future research that we hope will stimulate directional studies in this emerging field and lead to the elucidation of an integrated network of coral immune mechanisms. Once established, we are optimistic that coral immunology can be effectively applied to pertinent ecological questions, improve current prediction tools and aid conservation efforts.

  19. Environmental effects on the mechanical integrity of optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, Nathan; Yannacopoulos, Spiro

    1997-05-01

    The use of optical fibers is of particular interest to the telecommunications industry, due to the many striking advantages over traditional copper lines. These advantages cannot be realized, however, unless the mechanical integrity of the fibers is guaranteed. Therefore, the fact that certain environments can have detrimental effects on the mechanical properties of optical fibers is of great concern. In this investigation, both zero stress aging tests and two- point bending static fatigue tests were performed. The environments tested include buffer solutions of pH 4, 7, and 10, sodium chloride solution, unleaded gasoline, wasp killer, and deionized water. Zero stress aging in these environments had varying effects on the fibers, ranging from mild to severe reductions in fiber strength. Aging in the high-pH alkaline solutions produced severe reductions in fiber strength, whereas aging in the wasp killer, gasoline, and low-pH acidic environments resulted in relatively mild reductions in fiber strength. The static fatigue tests produced similar results, with stress corrosion parameters ranging from 5.5 for the pH 10 environment to 25.4 for the unleaded gasoline environment. 'Fatigue knees' were also observed in the NaCl and pH 7 environments. Because of the fatigue knees, the stress corrosion parameters dropped from 25.3 to 3.7, and 19.7 to 3.1 for the NaCl and pH 7 environments respectively.

  20. Towards an integrated network of coral immune mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Palmer, C V; Traylor-Knowles, N

    2012-10-22

    Reef-building corals form bio-diverse marine ecosystems of high societal and economic value, but are in significant decline globally due, in part, to rapid climatic changes. As immunity is a predictor of coral disease and thermal stress susceptibility, a comprehensive understanding of this new field will likely provide a mechanistic explanation for ecological-scale trends in reef declines. Recently, several strides within coral immunology document defence mechanisms that are consistent with those of both invertebrates and vertebrates, and which span the recognition, signalling and effector response phases of innate immunity. However, many of these studies remain discrete and unincorporated into the wider fields of invertebrate immunology or coral biology. To encourage the rapid development of coral immunology, we comprehensively synthesize the current understanding of the field in the context of general invertebrate immunology, and highlight fundamental gaps in our knowledge. We propose a framework for future research that we hope will stimulate directional studies in this emerging field and lead to the elucidation of an integrated network of coral immune mechanisms. Once established, we are optimistic that coral immunology can be effectively applied to pertinent ecological questions, improve current prediction tools and aid conservation efforts. PMID:22896649

  1. Integrating online communities and social networks with computerised treatment for insomnia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Middlemass, Jo; Davy, Zowie; Cavanagh, Kate; Linehan, Conor; Morgan, Kevin; Lawson, Shaun; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2012-01-01

    Background Insomnia is a common psychological complaint. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), although effective, is little used because of lack of trained providers. Computerised CBT-I (CCBT-I) may be a solution to this shortfall in access. Aim To explore patient and health professional perspectives and the role of social networking, to develop a novel CCBT-I programme to increase access to this form of intervention. Design and setting Qualitative methods underpinned by the theory of planned behaviour in primary care in Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire. Method Semi-structured interviews and focus groups with a purposive sample of health professionals and adults with insomnia. Results A total of 23 health professionals and 28 patients were interviewed. Features designed to engender trust and improve functionality were perceived to improve uptake and adherence to CCBT-I. Trust lay in programme accreditation; for professionals, trust derived from evidence of effectiveness; for patients, trust depended on the doctor–patient relationship, professional support, the quality of online peer support, and perceptions of risk. Patients wanted mobile applications; access in short periods; self-assessment; interactive, personalised information on sleep; and moderated contact with other users. Patients and practitioners differed over whether useful information could be distinguished from less useful or potentially incorrect information. Conclusion Improving uptake and adherence to online programmes for insomnia requires design features focusing on trust and functionality. Enabling greater patient control and interaction with other users and professionals may stimulate positive experiences of online therapy. CCBT-I would enable greater access to treatment but is limited by lack of online access or poor computer literacy. PMID:23211265

  2. Decreasing the damage in smart structures using integrated online DDA/ISMP and semi-active control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, K.; Amini, F.

    2012-10-01

    Integrated structural health monitoring (SHM) and vibration control has been considered recently by researchers. Up to now, all of the research in the field of integrated SHM and vibration control has been conducted using control devices and control algorithms to enhance system identification and damage detection. In this study, online SHM is used to improve the performance of structural vibration control, unlike previous research. Also, a proposed algorithm including integrated online SHM and a semi-active control strategy is used to reduce both damage and seismic response of the main structure due to strong seismic disturbance. In the proposed algorithm the nonlinear behavior of the building structure is simulated during the excitation. Then, using the measured data and the damage detection algorithm based on identified system Markov parameters (DDA/ISMP), a method proposed by the authors, damage corresponding to axial and bending stiffness of all structural elements is identified. In this study, a 20 t MR damper is employed as a control device to mitigate both damage and dynamic response of the building structure. Also, the interaction between SHM and a semi-active control strategy is assessed. To illustrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, a two bay two story steel braced frame structure is used. By defining the damage index and damage rate index, the input current of the MR damper is generated using a fuzzy logic controller. The obtained results show that the possibility of smart building creation is provided using the proposed algorithm. In comparison to the widely used strategy of only vibration control, it is shown that the proposed algorithm is more effective. Furthermore, in the proposed algorithm, the total consumed current intensity and generated control forces are considerably less than for the strategy of only vibration control.

  3. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Public Health: Online and Integrated into Core Master of Public Health Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Lynnell; Ewen, Shaun; Coombe, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    The Master of Public Health (MPH) is an internationally recognised post-graduate qualification for building the public health workforce. In Australia, MPH graduate attributes include six Indigenous public health (IPH) competencies. The University of Melbourne MPH program includes five core subjects and ten specialisation streams, of which one is Indigenous health. Unless students complete this specialisation or electives in Indigenous health, it is possible for students to graduate without attaining the IPH competencies. To address this issue in a crowded and competitive curriculum an innovative approach to integrating the IPH competencies in core MPH subjects was developed. Five online modules that corresponded with the learning outcomes of the core public health subjects were developed, implemented and evaluated in 2015. This brief report outlines the conceptualisation, development, and description of the curriculum content; it also provides preliminary student evaluation and staff feedback on the integration project. Significance for public health This approach to a comprehensive, online, integrated Indigenous public health (IPH) curriculum is significant, as it ensures that all University of Melbourne Master of Public Health (MPH) graduates will have the competencies to positively contribute to Indigenous health status. A workforce that is attuned not only to the challenges of IPH, but also to the principles of self-determination, Indigenous agency and collaboration is better equipped to be comprised of ethical and judgment-safe practitioners. Additionally, the outlined approach of utilizing IPH content and examples into core MPH subjects ensures both the Australian relevance for an Australian-based health professional course and international appeal through the modules inclusion of International Indigenous case-studies and content. Furthermore, approaches learned in a challenging Indigenous Australian context are transferable and applicable to other IPH

  4. The Coral Triangle Atlas: an integrated online spatial database system for improving coral reef management.

    PubMed

    Cros, Annick; Ahamad Fatan, Nurulhuda; White, Alan; Teoh, Shwu Jiau; Tan, Stanley; Handayani, Christian; Huang, Charles; Peterson, Nate; Venegas Li, Ruben; Siry, Hendra Yusran; Fitriana, Ria; Gove, Jamison; Acoba, Tomoko; Knight, Maurice; Acosta, Renerio; Andrew, Neil; Beare, Doug

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the construction of an online GIS database system, hosted by WorldFish, which stores bio-physical, ecological and socio-economic data for the 'Coral Triangle Area' in South-east Asia and the Pacific. The database has been built in partnership with all six (Timor-Leste, Malaysia, Indonesia, The Philippines, Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea) of the Coral Triangle countries, and represents a valuable source of information for natural resource managers at the regional scale. Its utility is demonstrated using biophysical data, data summarising marine habitats, and data describing the extent of marine protected areas in the region.

  5. The Coral Triangle Atlas: An Integrated Online Spatial Database System for Improving Coral Reef Management

    PubMed Central

    Cros, Annick; Ahamad Fatan, Nurulhuda; White, Alan; Teoh, Shwu Jiau; Tan, Stanley; Handayani, Christian; Huang, Charles; Peterson, Nate; Venegas Li, Ruben; Siry, Hendra Yusran; Fitriana, Ria; Gove, Jamison; Acoba, Tomoko; Knight, Maurice; Acosta, Renerio; Andrew, Neil; Beare, Doug

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the construction of an online GIS database system, hosted by WorldFish, which stores bio-physical, ecological and socio-economic data for the ‘Coral Triangle Area’ in South-east Asia and the Pacific. The database has been built in partnership with all six (Timor-Leste, Malaysia, Indonesia, The Philippines, Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea) of the Coral Triangle countries, and represents a valuable source of information for natural resource managers at the regional scale. Its utility is demonstrated using biophysical data, data summarising marine habitats, and data describing the extent of marine protected areas in the region. PMID:24941442

  6. Integrating mechanisms of visual guidance in naturalistic language production.

    PubMed

    Coco, Moreno I; Keller, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Situated language production requires the integration of visual attention and linguistic processing. Previous work has not conclusively disentangled the role of perceptual scene information and structural sentence information in guiding visual attention. In this paper, we present an eye-tracking study that demonstrates that three types of guidance, perceptual, conceptual, and structural, interact to control visual attention. In a cued language production experiment, we manipulate perceptual (scene clutter) and conceptual guidance (cue animacy) and measure structural guidance (syntactic complexity of the utterance). Analysis of the time course of language production, before and during speech, reveals that all three forms of guidance affect the complexity of visual responses, quantified in terms of the entropy of attentional landscapes and the turbulence of scan patterns, especially during speech. We find that perceptual and conceptual guidance mediate the distribution of attention in the scene, whereas structural guidance closely relates to scan pattern complexity. Furthermore, the eye-voice span of the cued object and its perceptual competitor are similar; its latency mediated by both perceptual and structural guidance. These results rule out a strict interpretation of structural guidance as the single dominant form of visual guidance in situated language production. Rather, the phase of the task and the associated demands of cross-modal cognitive processing determine the mechanisms that guide attention.

  7. Integrating degenerative mechanisms in bone and cartilage: a multiscale approach.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Justin W; Shim, Vickie B; Hunter, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    At the whole organ level, degenerative mechanisms in bone and cartilage are primarily attributed to modifications in loading pattern. Either a change in magnitude or location can initiate a degenerative path. At the micro scale we often see changes in structure such as porosity increase in bone and fibrillation in cartilage. These changes contribute to a reduced structural integrity that weakens the bulk strength of tissue. Finally, at the cell level we have modeling and remodeling pathways that may be disrupted through disease, drugs and altered stimulus from the micro and macro scales. In order to understand this entire process and the roles each level plays a multiscale modeling framework is necessary. This framework can take whole body loadings and pass information through finer spatial scales in order to understand how everyday dynamic movements influence micro and cellular response. In a similar manner, cellular and microstructural processes regulate whole bulk properties and modify whole organ strength. In this study we highlight the multiscale links developed as part of the open-source ontologies for the Physiome Project using the lower limb as an example. We consider the influence of remodeling in (i) anabolic treatments in cortical bone; and (ii) subchondral bone and cartilage degeneration. PMID:23367446

  8. Integrated molecular mechanism directing nucleosome reorganization by human FACT

    PubMed Central

    Tsunaka, Yasuo; Fujiwara, Yoshie; Oyama, Takuji; Hirose, Susumu; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2016-01-01

    Facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) plays essential roles in chromatin remodeling during DNA transcription, replication, and repair. Our structural and biochemical studies of human FACT–histone interactions present precise views of nucleosome reorganization, conducted by the FACT-SPT16 (suppressor of Ty 16) Mid domain and its adjacent acidic AID segment. AID accesses the H2B N-terminal basic region exposed by partial unwrapping of the nucleosomal DNA, thereby triggering the invasion of FACT into the nucleosome. The crystal structure of the Mid domain complexed with an H3–H4 tetramer exhibits two separate contact sites; the Mid domain forms a novel intermolecular β structure with H4. At the other site, the Mid–H2A steric collision on the H2A-docking surface of the H3–H4 tetramer within the nucleosome induces H2A–H2B displacement. This integrated mechanism results in disrupting the H3 αN helix, which is essential for retaining the nucleosomal DNA ends, and hence facilitates DNA stripping from histone. PMID:26966247

  9. Contribution of Saharan dust in an integrated air quality system and its on-line assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Pérez, Carlos; Jorba, Oriol; Baldasano, José M.

    2008-02-01

    Nowadays none of the operational daily forecasts in Europe includes the influence of Saharan dust on a non-climatic basis. In order to account for this, the BSC-CNS currently operates daily photochemical forecasts in the Iberian Peninsula with MM5-EMEP-CMAQ modelling system and Saharan dust forecasts over Southern Europe with Eta/DREAM. The necessity of coupling both modelling systems is addressed by the study of a long summer episode combining regional re-circulations and Saharan dust covering from June 19 to July 12, 2006. As a first approach, the natural dust contribution from Eta/DREAM is added on-line to the anthropogenic output of CMAQ. The performance of the model has been quantitatively evaluated with discrete and categorical (skill scores) statistics by a fully operational on-line comparison of the first-layer simulations results of CMAQ and CMAQ+DREAM and the values measured in two different stations located in the Mediterranean part of the domain. The results indicate a remarkable improvement in the discrete and skill-scores evaluation (accuracy, critical success index and probability of detection) of PM10 exceedances set in regulations when using CMAQ+DREAM compared to CMAQ- or DREAM-alone simulations.

  10. On-line integration of computer controlled diagnostic devices and medical information systems in undergraduate medical physics education for physicians.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Josef; Nosek, Tomas; Zahora, Jiri; Bezrouk, Ales; Masin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    We designed and evaluated an innovative computer-aided-learning environment based on the on-line integration of computer controlled medical diagnostic devices and a medical information system for use in the preclinical medical physics education of medical students. Our learning system simulates the actual clinical environment in a hospital or primary care unit. It uses a commercial medical information system for on-line storage and processing of clinical type data acquired during physics laboratory classes. Every student adopts two roles, the role of 'patient' and the role of 'physician'. As a 'physician' the student operates the medical devices to clinically assess 'patient' colleagues and records all results in an electronic 'patient' record. We also introduced an innovative approach to the use of supportive education materials, based on the methods of adaptive e-learning. A survey of student feedback is included and statistically evaluated. The results from the student feedback confirm the positive response of the latter to this novel implementation of medical physics and informatics in preclinical education. This approach not only significantly improves learning of medical physics and informatics skills but has the added advantage that it facilitates students' transition from preclinical to clinical subjects.

  11. On-line integration of computer controlled diagnostic devices and medical information systems in undergraduate medical physics education for physicians.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Josef; Nosek, Tomas; Zahora, Jiri; Bezrouk, Ales; Masin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    We designed and evaluated an innovative computer-aided-learning environment based on the on-line integration of computer controlled medical diagnostic devices and a medical information system for use in the preclinical medical physics education of medical students. Our learning system simulates the actual clinical environment in a hospital or primary care unit. It uses a commercial medical information system for on-line storage and processing of clinical type data acquired during physics laboratory classes. Every student adopts two roles, the role of 'patient' and the role of 'physician'. As a 'physician' the student operates the medical devices to clinically assess 'patient' colleagues and records all results in an electronic 'patient' record. We also introduced an innovative approach to the use of supportive education materials, based on the methods of adaptive e-learning. A survey of student feedback is included and statistically evaluated. The results from the student feedback confirm the positive response of the latter to this novel implementation of medical physics and informatics in preclinical education. This approach not only significantly improves learning of medical physics and informatics skills but has the added advantage that it facilitates students' transition from preclinical to clinical subjects. PMID:22200603

  12. Performance of a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for online monitoring in an integrated system combining microbial fuel cell and upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hui; Yang, Guang; Wang, Jie; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhang, Xinbo

    2016-10-01

    A hybrid system integrating a microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensor with upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was investigated for real-time online monitoring of the internal operation of the UASB reactor. The features concerned were its rapidity and steadiness with a constant operation condition. In addition, the signal feedback mechanism was examined by the relationship between voltage and time point of changed COD concentration. The sensitivity of different concentrations was explored by comparing the signal feedback time point between the voltage and pH. Results showed that the electrical signal feedback was more sensitive than pH and the thresholds of sensitivity were S=3×10(-5)V/(mg/L) and S=8×10(-5)V/(mg/L) in different concentration ranges, respectively. Although only 0.94% of the influent COD was translated into electricity and applied for biosensing, this integrated system indicated great potential without additional COD consumption for real-time monitoring.

  13. Micro flow reactor chips with integrated luminescent chemosensors for spatially resolved on-line chemical reaction monitoring.

    PubMed

    Gitlin, Leonid; Hoera, Christian; Meier, Robert J; Nagl, Stefan; Belder, Detlev

    2013-10-21

    Real-time chemical reaction monitoring in microfluidic environments is demonstrated using luminescent chemical sensors integrated in PDMS/glass-based microscale reactors. A fabrication procedure is presented that allows for straightforward integration of thin polymer layers with optical sensing functionality in microchannels of glass-PDMS chips of only 150 μm width and of 10 to 35 μm height. Sensor layers consisting of polystyrene and an oxygen-sensitive platinum porphyrin probe with film thicknesses of about 0.5 to 4 μm were generated by combining spin coating and abrasion techniques. Optimal coating procedures were developed and evaluated. The chip-integrated sensor layers were calibrated and investigated with respect to stability, reproducibility and response times. These microchips allowed observation of dissolved oxygen concentration in the range of 0 to over 40 mg L(-1) with a detection limit of 368 μg L(-1). The sensor layers were then used for observation of a model reaction, the oxidation of sulphite to sulphate in a microfluidic chemical reactor and could observe sulphite concentrations of less than 200 μM. Real-time on-line monitoring of this chemical reaction was realized at a fluorescence microscope setup with 405 nm LED excitation and CCD camera detection.

  14. Virtual patients in massive open online courses--design implications and integration strategies.

    PubMed

    Stathakarou, Natalia; Zary, Nabil; Kononowicz, Andrzej A

    2014-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are raising extensive attention across disciplines, while it becomes evident that rethinking of learning designs that work well in these environments is needed. In the field of medical education, where the technology of MOOCs is not widely adopted yet, we wish to investigate the potential offered by virtual patients for the purpose of clinical reasoning skills training. In this paper we describe three use case scenarios employing virtual patients' features in MOOCs: (1) collective evaluation of decision making in the context of uncertainty; (2) collective repurposing of cases and division of discussion into subgroups focusing on local variances in healthcare; (3) division of content in short cases for flexible selection and adaptive learning with virtual patients. We also present technical requirements for implementing the use case scenarios and future work plans.

  15. Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE): Integrating C-POL and Social Media to Train Peer Leaders in HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Jaganath, Devan; Gill, Harkiran K.; Cohen, Adam Carl; Young, Sean D.

    2011-01-01

    Novel methods, such as Internet-based interventions, are needed to combat the spread of HIV. While past initiatives have used the Internet to promote HIV prevention, the growing popularity, decreasing digital divide, and multi-functionality of social networking sites, such as Facebook, make this an ideal time to develop innovative ways to use online social networking sites to scale HIV prevention interventions among high-risk groups. The UCLA HOPE [Harnessing Online Peer Education] study is a longitudinal experimental study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of using social media for peer-led HIV prevention, specifically among African American and Latino Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). No curriculum currently exists to train peer leaders in delivering culturally aware HIV prevention messages using social media. Training was created that adapted the Community Popular Opinion Leader (C-POL) model, for use on social networking sites. Peer leaders are recruited who represent the target population and have experience with both social media and community outreach. The curriculum contains the following elements: discussion and role playing exercises to integrate basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS, awareness of sociocultural HIV/AIDS issues in the age of technology, and communication methods for training peer leaders in effective, interactive social media-based HIV prevention. Ethical issues related to Facebook and health interventions are integrated throughout the sessions. Training outcomes have been developed for long-term assessment of retention and efficacy. This is the first C-POL curriculum that has been adapted for use on social networking websites. Although this curriculum has been used to target African American and Latino MSM, it has been created to allow generalization to other high-risk groups. PMID:22149081

  16. Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE): integrating C-POL and social media to train peer leaders in HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Jaganath, Devan; Gill, Harkiran K; Cohen, Adam Carl; Young, Sean D

    2012-01-01

    Novel methods, such as Internet-based interventions, are needed to combat the spread of HIV. While past initiatives have used the Internet to promote HIV prevention, the growing popularity, decreasing digital divide, and multi-functionality of social networking sites, such as Facebook, make this an ideal time to develop innovative ways to use online social networking sites to scale HIV prevention interventions among high-risk groups. The UCLA Harnessing Online Peer Education study is a longitudinal experimental study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of using social media for peer-led HIV prevention, specifically among African American and Latino Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). No curriculum currently exists to train peer leaders in delivering culturally aware HIV prevention messages using social media. Training was created that adapted the Community Popular Opinion Leader (C-POL) model, for use on social networking sites. Peer leaders are recruited who represent the target population and have experience with both social media and community outreach. The curriculum contains the following elements: discussion and role playing exercises to integrate basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS, awareness of sociocultural HIV/AIDS issues in the age of technology, and communication methods for training peer leaders in effective, interactive social media-based HIV prevention. Ethical issues related to Facebook and health interventions are integrated throughout the sessions. Training outcomes have been developed for long-term assessment of retention and efficacy. This is the first C-POL curriculum that has been adapted for use on social networking websites. Although this curriculum has been used to target African-American and Latino MSM, it has been created to allow generalization to other high-risk groups.

  17. Design and Evaluation of an Integrated Online Motion Control Training Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buiu, C.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an integrated Internet-based package for teaching the fundamentals of motion control by using a wide range of resources: theory, videos, simulators, games, quizzes, and a remote lab. The package is aimed at automation technicians, pupils at vocational schools and students taking an introductory course in…

  18. Active Learning in the Online Environment: The Integration of Student-Generated Audio Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolliger, Doris U.; Armier, David Des, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Educators have integrated instructor-produced audio files in a variety of settings and environments for purposes such as content presentation, lecture reviews, student feedback, and so forth. Few instructors, however, require students to produce audio files and share them with peers. The purpose of this study was to obtain empirical data on…

  19. Integrating Global Learning into a Psychology Course Using an Online Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forden, Carie L.; Carrillo, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a demand for the integration of global learning/diversity across the curriculum. A series of cross-cultural assignments was created to facilitate global learning in two social psychology classes, one in Egypt, and one in the USA. In these assignments, students collected data and applied course concepts to real-life problems, then…

  20. Blended Delivery and Online Assessment: Scaffolding Student Reflections in Work-Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Ingrid; Beatson, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents a teaching innovation addressing the challenges of embedding and assessing reflective practice in work-integrated learning, specifically marketing internships. We identify four issues relating to this problem: lack of knowledge or skill for reflection, limitations of physical journals, facilitation of different forms of…

  1. Designing Online Strategy Instruction for Integrated Vocabulary Depth of Knowledge and Web-Based Dictionary Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranalli, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a CALL resource that teaches aspects of word combinability (i.e., grammatical collocation, transitivity, and complementation) to tertiary-level ESL learners by integrating conceptual understanding with related text-analysis and web-based dictionary skills. The resource delivers an automated,…

  2. Content and Language Integrated Learning through an Online Game in Primary School: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dourda, Kyriaki; Bratitsis, Tharrenos; Griva, Eleni; Papadopoulou, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an educational design proposal is presented which combines two well established teaching approaches, that of Game-based Learning (GBL) and Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The context of the proposal was the design of an educational geography computer game, utilizing QR Codes and Google Earth for teaching English…

  3. An Integrated Online Library System as a Node in a Local Area Network: The Mitre Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Mary Coyle

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the Mitre Corporation's implementation of OCLC's LS/2000 integrated library system using a local area network (LAN). LAN issues--requirements, equipment, reliability, growth, security, and traffic--are covered in general and as they relate to Mitre. Installation of the LAN/system interface and benefits and drawbacks of using a LAN for…

  4. Integrating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Applications into Business Courses Using Online Business Geographics Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fred; Mangold, W. Glynn; Holmes, Terry

    2006-01-01

    Although the value of geographic information systems (GIS) technologies is recognized by practitioners and educators alike, GIS instruction has yet to make significant inroads into business curricula. In this article, the authors discuss the constraints of integrating GIS tools into business education. They develop a prototype module for…

  5. The Dynamics among Non-English Speaking Online Learners' Language Proficiency, Coping Mechanisms, and Cultural Intelligence: Implications for Effective Practice for Online Cross-Cultural Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Chun-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural online collaboration has evolved as an inevitable trend that people influenced by globalization cannot neglect. The primary purpose of this study was to discover major factors contributing to productive and effective online cross-cultural collaborative learning for people from diverse cultural backgrounds with varying levels of…

  6. The Integrate Student Portal: Online Resources to Prepare Students for the Workforce of a Sustainable Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckner, M. Z.; Manduca, C. A.; Egger, A. E.; Macdonald, H.

    2014-12-01

    The InTeGrate Student Portal is a suite of web pages that utilize InTeGrate resources to support student success by providing undergraduates with tools and information necessary to be proactive in their career choices and development. Drawn from various InTeGrate workshops and programming, the Portal organizes these resources to illuminate a variety of career opportunities and pathways to both traditional and non-traditional jobs that support a sustainable future. Informed from a variety of sources including employers, practitioners, faculty, students, reports, and articles, the pages explore five facets: (1) sustainability across the disciplines, (2) workforce preparation, (3) professional communication, (4) teaching and teaching careers, and (5) the future of green research and technology. The first three facets explore how sustainability is integrated across disciplines and how sustainability and 'green' jobs are available in a wide range of traditional and non-traditional workplaces within and beyond science. They provide students guidance in preparing for this sustainability workforce, including where to learn about jobs and how to pursue them, advice for strengthening their job applications, and how to build a set of skills that employers seek. This advice encompasses classroom skills as well as those acquired and strengthened as part of extracurricular or workplace experiences. The fourth facet, aimed at teaching assistants with little or no experience as well as at students who are interested in pursuing teaching as a career, provides information and resources about teaching. The fifth facet explores future directions of technology and the need for innovations in the workforce of the future to address sustainability issues. We seek your input and invite you to explore the Portal at: serc.carleton.edu/integrate/students/

  7. An overview of on-line systems using drug metabolizing enzymes integrated into capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Paweł; Woźniakiewicz, Michał; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2013-09-01

    Enzymatic assays using CE are now among the most noteworthy applications of this analytical technique in pharmacology-related investigations. Studies of metabolic pathways of new chemical entities mediated by drug metabolizing enzymes are attracting particular attention. Conventional CE-based enzymatic in vitro assays are generally restricted to the separation of reagents after incubation performed off-line. EMMA represents an alternative and fully prospective approach, allowing injection, reaction, separation, and detection to be conducted in a single capillary. Such an on-line system-in contrast to the standard approach-enables automation, miniaturization, and a significant reduction in reagent volumes, resulting in a very robust and cost-efficient method. Hence, EMMA could be a method of choice for the screening of new drugs, enzymatic inhibitors, and putative drug-drug interactions. This review provides a summary of reports covering the area of EMMA-based and related methods implemented into in vitro studies of drug metabolizing enzymes. A general description of the EMMA framework, enzyme families, and a concise discussion of the prognosis for the development of this methodology are given as well.

  8. Automation and integration of multiplexed on-line sample preparation with capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, H.

    1999-03-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multiplexed sample processing system in conjunction with multiplexed capillary electrophoresis for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The concept from DNA template to called bases was first demonstrated with a manually operated single capillary system. Later, an automated microfluidic system with 8 channels based on the same principle was successfully constructed. The instrument automatically processes 8 templates through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in a parallel fashion. A multiplexed freeze/thaw switching principle and a distribution network were implemented to manage flow direction and sample transportation. Dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reactions are performed in an 8-capillary array in a hot air thermal cycler. Subsequently, the sequencing ladders are directly loaded into a corresponding size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at {approximately} 60 C for purification. On-line denaturation and stacking injection for capillary electrophoresis is simultaneously accomplished at a cross assembly set at {approximately} 70 C. Not only the separation capillary array but also the reaction capillary array and purification columns can be regenerated after every run. DNA sequencing data from this system allow base calling up to 460 bases with accuracy of 98%.

  9. IOLS '98. Proceedings of the National Conference on Integrated Online Library Systems (13th, New York, New York, May 13-14, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibbarelli, Pamela R., Comp.; Nixon, Carol, Comp.

    Integrated Online Library Systems (IOLS) focuses exclusively on the issues of planning and managing automated systems in libraries and information centers. The theme of the IOLS '98 annual meeting is "Embrace and Extend," and 18 papers were selected for presentation that provide insight into the current technologies being "embraced" in libraries.…

  10. Integrating Four Courses into a 12 Credit Hour Block of Instruction in an On-Line Format as Part of a Master's Program in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Jack; Roberson, Thelma J.

    This paper shares the approach taken by one department of educational leadership to creating a vehicle for delivering its master's degree program to national and international students through the integration of online and on-site instructional formats. The paper addresses the historical background of higher education reform, the curriculum of the…

  11. Metagenomics, metaMicrobesOnline and Kbase Data Integration (MICW - Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    ScienceCinema

    Dehal, Paramvir [LBNL

    2016-07-12

    Berkeley Lab's Paramvir Dehal on "Managing and Storing large Datasets in MicrobesOnline, metaMicrobesOnline and the DOE Knowledgebase" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.

  12. Metagenomics, metaMicrobesOnline and Kbase Data Integration (MICW - Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    SciTech Connect

    Dehal, Paramvir

    2011-10-12

    Berkeley Lab's Paramvir Dehal on "Managing and Storing large Datasets in MicrobesOnline, metaMicrobesOnline and the DOE Knowledgebase" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.

  13. 3D Printed Microfluidic Device with Integrated Biosensors for Online Analysis of Subcutaneous Human Microdialysate.

    PubMed

    Gowers, Sally A N; Curto, Vincenzo F; Seneci, Carlo A; Wang, Chu; Anastasova, Salzitsa; Vadgama, Pankaj; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Boutelle, Martyn G

    2015-08-01

    This work presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a robust 3D printed microfluidic analysis system that integrates with FDA-approved clinical microdialysis probes for continuous monitoring of human tissue metabolite levels. The microfluidic device incorporates removable needle type integrated biosensors for glucose and lactate, which are optimized for high tissue concentrations, housed in novel 3D printed electrode holders. A soft compressible 3D printed elastomer at the base of the holder ensures a good seal with the microfluidic chip. Optimization of the channel size significantly improves the response time of the sensor. As a proof-of-concept study, our microfluidic device was coupled to lab-built wireless potentiostats and used to monitor real-time subcutaneous glucose and lactate levels in cyclists undergoing a training regime. PMID:26070023

  14. 3D Printed Microfluidic Device with Integrated Biosensors for Online Analysis of Subcutaneous Human Microdialysate

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a robust 3D printed microfluidic analysis system that integrates with FDA-approved clinical microdialysis probes for continuous monitoring of human tissue metabolite levels. The microfluidic device incorporates removable needle type integrated biosensors for glucose and lactate, which are optimized for high tissue concentrations, housed in novel 3D printed electrode holders. A soft compressible 3D printed elastomer at the base of the holder ensures a good seal with the microfluidic chip. Optimization of the channel size significantly improves the response time of the sensor. As a proof-of-concept study, our microfluidic device was coupled to lab-built wireless potentiostats and used to monitor real-time subcutaneous glucose and lactate levels in cyclists undergoing a training regime. PMID:26070023

  15. An information diffusion model based on retweeting mechanism for online social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Fei; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Zhen-jiang; Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Ying

    2012-06-01

    To characterize information propagation on online microblogs, we propose a diffusion model (SCIR) which contains four possible states: Susceptible, contacted, infected and refractory. Agents that read the information but have not decided to spread it, stay in the contacted state. They may become infected or refractory, and both the infected and refractory state are stable. Results show during the evolution process, more contacted agents appear in scale-free networks than in regular lattices. The degree based density of infected agents increases with the degree monotonously, but larger average network degree doesn't always mean less relaxation time.

  16. Integration of Instructional Design Principles to Online Courses and Faculty Training in Three Puerto Rican Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Wanda W.

    2011-01-01

    Research on how the principles of instructional design are taught in faculty training courses for online teaching and how faculty members incorporate these principles into their online courses is limited. This gap in the research literature is especially pronounced when considering the relatively new online learning context of Puerto Rico's higher…

  17. Integrating Online Compression to Accelerate Large-Scale Data Analytics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bicer, T.; Yin, Jian; Chiu, David; Agrawal, Gagan; Schuchardt, Karen L.

    2013-05-19

    Abstract—With growing dataset sizes, and as computing cycles are increasing faster than storage and wide-area bandwidths, compression appears like a promising approach for improving the performance of large-scale data analytics applications. In this context, this paper makes the following contributions. First, we develop a new compression methodology, which exploits the similarities between spatial and/or temporal neighbors in a simulation dataset, and enables high compression ratios and low decompression costs. Second, we have developed a framework that can be used to incorporate a variety of compression and decompression algorithms. This framework also supports a simple API to allow integration with an existing application or data processing middleware. Once a compression algorithm is implemented, this framework can allow multi-threaded retrieval, multi-threaded data decompression, and use of informed prefetching and caching. By integrating this framework with a data-intensive middleware, we have applied our compression methodology and framework to three applications over two datasets, including a GCRM climate model dataset. We obtained an average compression ratio of 51.68%, and up to 53.27% improvement in execution time of data analysis applications.

  18. Implementation of an online chemical mechanism within a global-regional atmospheric model: design and initial steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorba, O.; Pérez, C.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Chemical processes in air quality modelling systems are usually treated independently from the meteorological models. This approach is computationally attractive since off-line chemical transport simulations only require a single meteorological dataset to produce many chemical simulations. However, this separation of chemistry and meteorology produces a loss of important information about atmospheric processes and does not allow for feedbacks between chemistry and meteorology. To take into account such processes current models are evolving to an online coupling of chemistry and meteorology to produce consistent chemical weather predictions. The Earth Sciences Department of the Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC) develops the NMMB/BSC-DUST (Pérez et al., 2008), an online dust model within the global-regional NCEP/NMMB numerical weather prediction model (Janjic and Black, 2007) under development at National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Current implementation is based on the well established regional dust model and forecast system DREAM (Nickovic et al., 2001). The most relevant characteristics of NMMB/BSC-DUST are its on-line coupling of the dust scheme with the meteorological driver, the wide range of applications from meso to global scales, and the inclusion of dust radiative effects allowing feedbacks between aerosols and meteorology. In order to complement such development, BSC works also in the implementation of a fully coupled online chemical mechanism within NMMB/BSC-DUST. The final objective is to develop a fully chemical weather prediction system able to resolve gas-aerosol-meteorology interactions from global to local scales. In this contribution we will present the design of the chemistry coupling and the current progress of its implementation. Following the NCEP/NMMB approach, the chemistry part will be coupled through the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) as a pluggable component. The chemical mechanism and chemistry solver is

  19. Why Mechanics Should Be Integral to Secondary School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Mechanics has never been the most popular subject in A-level mathematics, the UK's public examination for 16-18-year olds, either with students, teachers or educators. The attempts to popularize mechanics have failed and it is conceivable that the subject will be dropped from the A-level syllabus in the foreseeable future. This article argues the…

  20. Diverse stomatal signaling and the signal integration mechanism.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yoshiyuki; Mori, Izumi C; Munemasa, Shintaro

    2015-01-01

    Guard cells perceive a variety of chemicals produced metabolically in response to abiotic and biotic stresses, integrate the signals into reactive oxygen species and calcium signatures, and convert these signatures into stomatal movements by regulating turgor pressure. Guard cell behaviors in response to such complex signals are critical for plant growth and sustenance in stressful, ever-changing environments. The key open question is how guard cells achieve the signal integration to optimize stomatal aperture. Abscisic acid is responsible for stomatal closure in plants in response to drought, and its signal transduction has been well studied. Other plant hormones and low-molecular-weight compounds function as inducers of stomatal closure and mediators of signaling in guard cells. In this review, we summarize recent advances in research on the diverse stomatal signaling pathways, with specific emphasis on signal integration and signal interaction in guard cell movement.

  1. SU-E-T-571: Newly Emerging Integrated Transmission Detector Systems Provide Online Quality Assurance of External Beam Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D; Chung, E; Hess, C; Stern, R; Benedict, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Two newly emerging transmission detectors positioned upstream from the patient have been evaluated for online quality assurance of external beam radiotherapy. The prototype for the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM), developed by iRT Systems GmbH (Koblenz, Germany) is a large-area ion chamber mounted on the linac accessory tray to monitor photon fluence, energy, beam shape, and gantry position during treatment. The ion chamber utilizes a thickness gradient which records variable response dependent on beam position. The prototype of Delta4 Discover™, developed by ScandiDos (Uppsala, Sweden) is a linac accessory tray mounted 4040 diode array that measures photon fluence during patient treatment. Both systems are employable for patient specific QA prior to treatment delivery. Methods: Our institution evaluated the reproducibility of measurements using various beam types, including VMAT treatment plans with both the IQM ion chamber and the Delta4 Discover diode array. Additionally, the IQM’s effect on photon fluence, dose response, simulated beam error detection, and the accuracy of the integrated barometer, thermometer, and inclinometer were characterized. The evaluated photon beam errors are based on the annual tolerances specified in AAPM TG-142. Results: Repeated VMAT treatments were measured with 0.16% reproducibility by the IQM and 0.55% reproducibility by the Delta4 Discover. The IQM attenuated 6, 10, and 15 MV photon beams by 5.43±0.02%, 4.60±0.02%, and 4.21±0.03% respectively. Photon beam profiles were affected <1.5% in the non-penumbra regions. The IQM’s ion chamber’s dose response was linear and the thermometer, barometer, and inclinometer agreed with other calibrated devices. The device detected variations in monitor units delivered (1%), field position (3mm), single MLC leaf positions (13mm), and photon energy. Conclusion: We have characterized two new transmissions detector systems designed to provide in-vivo like measurements upstream

  2. On the Relevancy of Efficient, Integrated Computer and Network Monitoring in HEP Distributed Online Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, D.; Gavillet, Ph.; Delgado, V.; Albert, J. N.; Bellas, N.; Javello, J.; Miere, Y.; Ruffinoni, D.; Smith, G.

    Large Scientific Equipments are controlled by Computer Systems whose complexity is growing driven, on the one hand by the volume and variety of the information, its distributed nature, the sophistication of its treatment and, on the other hand by the fast evolution of the computer and network market. Some people call them genetically Large-Scale Distributed Data Intensive Information Systems or Distributed Computer Control Systems (DCCS) for those systems dealing more with real time control. Taking advantage of (or forced by) the distributed architecture, the tasks are more and more often implemented as Client-Server applications. In this framework the monitoring of the computer nodes, the communications network and the applications becomes of primary importance for ensuring the safe running and guaranteed performance of the system. With the future generation of HEP experiments, such as those at the LHC in view, it is proposed to integrate the various functions of DCCS monitoring into one general purpose Multi-layer System.

  3. CDinFusion--submission-ready, on-line integration of sequence and contextual data.

    PubMed

    Hankeln, Wolfgang; Wendel, Norma Johanna; Gerken, Jan; Waldmann, Jost; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Kottmann, Renzo; Yilmaz, Pelin; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2011-01-01

    State of the art (DNA) sequencing methods applied in "Omics" studies grant insight into the 'blueprints' of organisms from all domains of life. Sequencing is carried out around the globe and the data is submitted to the public repositories of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. However, the context in which these studies are conducted often gets lost, because experimental data, as well as information about the environment are rarely submitted along with the sequence data. If these contextual or metadata are missing, key opportunities of comparison and analysis across studies and habitats are hampered or even impossible. To address this problem, the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) promotes checklists and standards to better describe our sequence data collection and to promote the capturing, exchange and integration of sequence data with contextual data. In a recent community effort the GSC has developed a series of recommendations for contextual data that should be submitted along with sequence data. To support the scientific community to significantly enhance the quality and quantity of contextual data in the public sequence data repositories, specialized software tools are needed. In this work we present CDinFusion, a web-based tool to integrate contextual and sequence data in (Multi)FASTA format prior to submission. The tool is open source and available under the Lesser GNU Public License 3. A public installation is hosted and maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology at http://www.megx.net/cdinfusion. The tool may also be installed locally using the open source code available at http://code.google.com/p/cdinfusion.

  4. CDinFusion – Submission-Ready, On-Line Integration of Sequence and Contextual Data

    PubMed Central

    Hankeln, Wolfgang; Wendel, Norma Johanna; Gerken, Jan; Waldmann, Jost; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Kottmann, Renzo; Yilmaz, Pelin; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2011-01-01

    State of the art (DNA) sequencing methods applied in “Omics” studies grant insight into the ‘blueprints’ of organisms from all domains of life. Sequencing is carried out around the globe and the data is submitted to the public repositories of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. However, the context in which these studies are conducted often gets lost, because experimental data, as well as information about the environment are rarely submitted along with the sequence data. If these contextual or metadata are missing, key opportunities of comparison and analysis across studies and habitats are hampered or even impossible. To address this problem, the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) promotes checklists and standards to better describe our sequence data collection and to promote the capturing, exchange and integration of sequence data with contextual data. In a recent community effort the GSC has developed a series of recommendations for contextual data that should be submitted along with sequence data. To support the scientific community to significantly enhance the quality and quantity of contextual data in the public sequence data repositories, specialized software tools are needed. In this work we present CDinFusion, a web-based tool to integrate contextual and sequence data in (Multi)FASTA format prior to submission. The tool is open source and available under the Lesser GNU Public License 3. A public installation is hosted and maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology at http://www.megx.net/cdinfusion. The tool may also be installed locally using the open source code available at http://code.google.com/p/cdinfusion. PMID:21935468

  5. The Integrity of Digital Information: Mechanics and Definitional Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford A.

    1994-01-01

    Considers issues regarding the migration of a system of literature into electronic formats. Highlights include integrity in an information distribution system; digest technology; tracings that permit detection of copied digital objects; verifying sources; digital signature technology and cryptography; electronic publishing; and intellectual…

  6. Membrane curvature in cell biology: An integration of molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jarsch, Iris K; Daste, Frederic; Gallop, Jennifer L

    2016-08-15

    Curving biological membranes establishes the complex architecture of the cell and mediates membrane traffic to control flux through subcellular compartments. Common molecular mechanisms for bending membranes are evident in different cell biological contexts across eukaryotic phyla. These mechanisms can be intrinsic to the membrane bilayer (either the lipid or protein components) or can be brought about by extrinsic factors, including the cytoskeleton. Here, we review examples of membrane curvature generation in animals, fungi, and plants. We showcase the molecular mechanisms involved and how they collaborate and go on to highlight contexts of curvature that are exciting areas of future research. Lessons from how membranes are bent in yeast and mammals give hints as to the molecular mechanisms we expect to see used by plants and protists.

  7. Membrane curvature in cell biology: An integration of molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jarsch, Iris K; Daste, Frederic; Gallop, Jennifer L

    2016-08-15

    Curving biological membranes establishes the complex architecture of the cell and mediates membrane traffic to control flux through subcellular compartments. Common molecular mechanisms for bending membranes are evident in different cell biological contexts across eukaryotic phyla. These mechanisms can be intrinsic to the membrane bilayer (either the lipid or protein components) or can be brought about by extrinsic factors, including the cytoskeleton. Here, we review examples of membrane curvature generation in animals, fungi, and plants. We showcase the molecular mechanisms involved and how they collaborate and go on to highlight contexts of curvature that are exciting areas of future research. Lessons from how membranes are bent in yeast and mammals give hints as to the molecular mechanisms we expect to see used by plants and protists. PMID:27528656

  8. Effectiveness of a Novel Integrative Online Treatment for Depression (Deprexis): Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Thomas; Caspar, Franz; Beevers, Christopher G; Andersson, Gerhard; Weiss, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Background Depression is associated with immense suffering and costs, and many patients receive inadequate care, often because of the limited availability of treatment. Web-based treatments may play an increasingly important role in closing this gap between demand and supply. We developed the integrative, Web-based program Deprexis, which covers therapeutic approaches such as behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, mindfulness/acceptance exercises, and social skills training. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the Web-based intervention in a randomized controlled trial. Methods There were 396 adults recruited via Internet depression forums in Germany, and they were randomly assigned in an 80:20 weighted randomization sequence to either 9 weeks of immediate-program-access as an add-on to treatment-as-usual (N = 320), or to a 9-week delayed-access plus treatment-as-usual condition (N = 76). At pre- and post-treatment and 6-month follow-up, we measured depression (Beck Depression Inventory) as the primary outcome measure and social functioning (Work and Social Adjustment Scale) as the secondary outcome measure. Completer analyses and intention-to-treat analyses were performed. Results Of 396 participants, 216 (55%) completed the post-measurement 9 weeks later. Available case analyses revealed a significant reduction in depression severity (BDI), Cohen’s d = .64 (CI 95% = 0.33 - 0.94), and significant improvement in social functioning (WSA), Cohen’s d = .64, 95% (CI 95% = 0.33 - 0.95). These improvements were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat analyses confirmed significant effects on depression and social functioning improvements (BDI: Cohen’s d = .30, CI 95% = 0.05 - 0.55; WSA: Cohen’s d = .36, CI 95% = 0.10 - 0.61). Moreover, a much higher percentage of patients in the intervention group experienced a significant reduction of depression symptoms (BDI: odds ratio [OR] = 6.8, CI 95% = 2.90 - 18.19) and recovered more often (OR

  9. Correlation detection as a general mechanism for multisensory integration

    PubMed Central

    Parise, Cesare V.; Ernst, Marc O.

    2016-01-01

    The brain efficiently processes multisensory information by selectively combining related signals across the continuous stream of multisensory inputs. To do so, it needs to detect correlation, lag and synchrony across the senses; optimally integrate related information; and dynamically adapt to spatiotemporal conflicts across the senses. Here we show that all these aspects of multisensory perception can be jointly explained by postulating an elementary processing unit akin to the Hassenstein–Reichardt detector—a model originally developed for visual motion perception. This unit, termed the multisensory correlation detector (MCD), integrates related multisensory signals through a set of temporal filters followed by linear combination. Our model can tightly replicate human perception as measured in a series of empirical studies, both novel and previously published. MCDs provide a unified general theory of multisensory processing, which simultaneously explains a wide spectrum of phenomena with a simple, yet physiologically plausible model. PMID:27265526

  10. Correlation detection as a general mechanism for multisensory integration.

    PubMed

    Parise, Cesare V; Ernst, Marc O

    2016-01-01

    The brain efficiently processes multisensory information by selectively combining related signals across the continuous stream of multisensory inputs. To do so, it needs to detect correlation, lag and synchrony across the senses; optimally integrate related information; and dynamically adapt to spatiotemporal conflicts across the senses. Here we show that all these aspects of multisensory perception can be jointly explained by postulating an elementary processing unit akin to the Hassenstein-Reichardt detector-a model originally developed for visual motion perception. This unit, termed the multisensory correlation detector (MCD), integrates related multisensory signals through a set of temporal filters followed by linear combination. Our model can tightly replicate human perception as measured in a series of empirical studies, both novel and previously published. MCDs provide a unified general theory of multisensory processing, which simultaneously explains a wide spectrum of phenomena with a simple, yet physiologically plausible model. PMID:27265526

  11. Learner Perspectives on Online Assessments as a Mechanism to Engage in Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Lynnaire; Kotevski, Suzanne; Dean, Bonnie Amelia

    2014-01-01

    Reflective practice is an important lifelong skill for business professionals. In the work integrated learning (WIL) curriculum, supporting interns' development of reflective practice is critical to their experience in WIL as well as their transition into professional practice. The purpose of this paper is to explore students' perceptions on the…

  12. From mechanisms to function: an integrated framework of animal innovation

    PubMed Central

    Tebbich, Sabine; Griffin, Andrea S.; Peschl, Markus F.; Sterelny, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Animal innovations range from the discovery of novel food types to the invention of completely novel behaviours. Innovations can give access to new opportunities, and thus enable innovating agents to invade and create novel niches. This in turn can pave the way for morphological adaptation and adaptive radiation. The mechanisms that make innovations possible are probably as diverse as the innovations themselves. So too are their evolutionary consequences. Perhaps because of this diversity, we lack a unifying framework that links mechanism to function. We propose a framework for animal innovation that describes the interactions between mechanism, fitness benefit and evolutionary significance, and which suggests an expanded range of experimental approaches. In doing so, we split innovation into factors (components and phases) that can be manipulated systematically, and which can be investigated both experimentally and with correlational studies. We apply this framework to a selection of cases, showing how it helps us ask more precise questions and design more revealing experiments. PMID:26926285

  13. From mechanisms to function: an integrated framework of animal innovation.

    PubMed

    Tebbich, Sabine; Griffin, Andrea S; Peschl, Markus F; Sterelny, Kim

    2016-03-19

    Animal innovations range from the discovery of novel food types to the invention of completely novel behaviours. Innovations can give access to new opportunities, and thus enable innovating agents to invade and create novel niches. This in turn can pave the way for morphological adaptation and adaptive radiation. The mechanisms that make innovations possible are probably as diverse as the innovations themselves. So too are their evolutionary consequences. Perhaps because of this diversity, we lack a unifying framework that links mechanism to function. We propose a framework for animal innovation that describes the interactions between mechanism, fitness benefit and evolutionary significance, and which suggests an expanded range of experimental approaches. In doing so, we split innovation into factors (components and phases) that can be manipulated systematically, and which can be investigated both experimentally and with correlational studies. We apply this framework to a selection of cases, showing how it helps us ask more precise questions and design more revealing experiments.

  14. Integration of kinetic isotope effect analyses to elucidate ribonuclease mechanism.

    PubMed

    Harris, Michael E; Piccirilli, Joseph A; York, Darrin M

    2015-11-01

    The well-studied mechanism of ribonuclease A is believed to involve concerted general acid-base catalysis by two histidine residues, His12 and His119. The basic features of this mechanism are often cited to explain rate enhancement by both protein and RNA enzymes that catalyze RNA 2'-O-transphosphorylation. Recent kinetic isotope effect analyses and computational studies are providing a more chemically detailed description of the mechanism of RNase A and the rate limiting transition state. Overall, the results support an asynchronous mechanism for both solution and ribonuclease catalyzed reactions in which breakdown of a transient dianoinic phosphorane intermediate by 5'OP bond cleavage is rate limiting. Relative to non-enzymatic reactions catalyzed by specific base, a smaller KIE on the 5'O leaving group and a less negative βLG are observed for RNase A catalysis. Quantum mechanical calculations consistent with these data support a model in which electrostatic and H-bonding interactions with the non-bridging oxygens and proton transfer from His119 render departure of the 5'O less advanced and stabilize charge buildup in the transition state. Both experiment and computation indicate advanced 2'OP bond formation in the rate limiting transition state. However, this feature makes it difficult to resolve the chemical steps involved in 2'O activation. Thus, modeling the transition state for RNase A catalysis underscores those elements of its chemical mechanism that are well resolved, as well as highlighting those where ambiguity remains. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Enzyme Transition States from Theory and Experiment.

  15. Process Improvement Through Tool Integration in Aero-Mechanical Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Clark

    2010-01-01

    Emerging capabilities in commercial design tools promise to significantly improve the multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary design and analysis coverage for aerospace mechanical engineers. This paper explores the analysis process for two example problems of a wing and flap mechanical drive system and an aircraft landing gear door panel. The examples begin with the design solid models and include various analysis disciplines such as structural stress and aerodynamic loads. Analytical methods include CFD, multi-body dynamics with flexible bodies and structural analysis. Elements of analysis data management, data visualization and collaboration are also included.

  16. Simulation and experimental investigation of active lightweight compliant mechanisms with integrated piezoceramic actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modler, Niels; Winkler, Anja; Filippatos, Angelos; Lovasz, Erwin-Christian; Mărgineanu, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Compliant mechanisms with integrated actuators can enable new function-integrative structures through the elastic deformation of elements without the use of classical links and joints. For such designs, the mechanical behaviour of the mechanism has to be well known, because external loads, the utilised materials and the geometry of the structural parts influence the deformation performance significantly. In order to speed up the development process of such mechanisms, a tool for the dynamic analysis of compliant movements is necessary before any further FEM simulation and manufacturing. Therefore, the paper presents a simulating procedure for active compliant mechanisms obtained through the integration of piezoceramic actuators into fibre-reinforced composite structures using a double layer model. A new mechanism was designed, simulated, constructed and tested. The comparison between simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the presented procedure in regard to the design phase of new active compliant structures.

  17. Caecilian jaw-closing mechanics: integrating two muscle systems.

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Haas, Alexander; Summers, Adam P

    2008-12-01

    Caecilians (Lissamphibia: Gymnophiona) are unique among vertebrates in having two sets of jaw-closing muscles, one on either side of the jaw joint. Using data from high-resolution X-ray radiation computed tomography scans, we modelled the effect of these two muscle groups (mm. levatores mandibulae and m. interhyoideus posterior) on bite force over a range of gape angles, employing a simplified lever arm mechanism that takes into account muscle cross-sectional area and fibre angle. Measurements of lever arm lengths, muscle fibre orientations and physiological cross-sectional area of cranial muscles were available from three caecilian species: Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis; Siphonops annulatus; and Typhlonectes natans. The maximal gape of caecilians is restricted by a critical gape angle above which the mm. levatores mandibulae will open the jaw and destabilize the mandibular joint. The presence of destabilizing forces in the caecilian jaw mechanism may be compensated for by a mandibular joint in that the fossa is wrapped around the condyle to resist dislocation. The caecilian skull is streptostylic; the quadrate-squamosal complex moves with respect to the rest of the skull. This increases the leverage of the jaw-closing muscles. We also demonstrate that the unusual jaw joint requires streptostyly because there is a dorsolateral movement of the quadrate-squamosal complex when the jaw closes. The combination of the two jaw-closing systems results in high bite forces over a wide range of gape angles, an important advantage for generalist feeders such as caecilians. The relative sizes and leverage mechanics of the two closing systems allow one to exert more force when the other has a poor mechanical advantage. This effect is seen in all three species we examined. In the aquatic T. natans, with its less well-roofed skull, there is a larger contribution of the mm. levatores mandibulae to total bite force than in the terrestrial I. cf. kohtaoensis and S. annulatus.

  18. Caecilian jaw-closing mechanics: integrating two muscle systems.

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Haas, Alexander; Summers, Adam P

    2008-12-01

    Caecilians (Lissamphibia: Gymnophiona) are unique among vertebrates in having two sets of jaw-closing muscles, one on either side of the jaw joint. Using data from high-resolution X-ray radiation computed tomography scans, we modelled the effect of these two muscle groups (mm. levatores mandibulae and m. interhyoideus posterior) on bite force over a range of gape angles, employing a simplified lever arm mechanism that takes into account muscle cross-sectional area and fibre angle. Measurements of lever arm lengths, muscle fibre orientations and physiological cross-sectional area of cranial muscles were available from three caecilian species: Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis; Siphonops annulatus; and Typhlonectes natans. The maximal gape of caecilians is restricted by a critical gape angle above which the mm. levatores mandibulae will open the jaw and destabilize the mandibular joint. The presence of destabilizing forces in the caecilian jaw mechanism may be compensated for by a mandibular joint in that the fossa is wrapped around the condyle to resist dislocation. The caecilian skull is streptostylic; the quadrate-squamosal complex moves with respect to the rest of the skull. This increases the leverage of the jaw-closing muscles. We also demonstrate that the unusual jaw joint requires streptostyly because there is a dorsolateral movement of the quadrate-squamosal complex when the jaw closes. The combination of the two jaw-closing systems results in high bite forces over a wide range of gape angles, an important advantage for generalist feeders such as caecilians. The relative sizes and leverage mechanics of the two closing systems allow one to exert more force when the other has a poor mechanical advantage. This effect is seen in all three species we examined. In the aquatic T. natans, with its less well-roofed skull, there is a larger contribution of the mm. levatores mandibulae to total bite force than in the terrestrial I. cf. kohtaoensis and S. annulatus. PMID

  19. Nearly-integrable dissipative systems and celestial mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celletti, A.; di Ruzza, S.; Lhotka, C.; Stefanelli, L.

    2010-09-01

    The influence of dissipative effects on classical dynamical models of Celestial Mechanics is of basic importance. We introduce the reader to the subject, giving classical examples found in the literature, like the standard map, the Hénon map, the logistic mapping. In the framework of the dissipative standard map, we investigate the existence of periodic orbits as a function of the parameters. We also provide some techniques to compute the breakdown threshold of quasi-periodic attractors. Next, we review a simple model of Celestial Mechanics, known as the spin-orbit problem which is closely linked to the dissipative standard map. In this context we present the conservative and dissipative KAM theorems to prove the existence of quasi-periodic tori and invariant attractors. We conclude by reviewing some dissipative models of Celestial Mechanics. Among the rotational dynamics we consider the Yarkovsky and YORP effects; within the three-body problem we introduce the so-called Stokes and Poynting-Robertson effects.

  20. Brain mechanisms for reading words and pseudowords: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Simos, Panagiotis G; Breier, Joshua I; Fletcher, Jack M; Foorman, Barbara R; Castillo, Eduardo M; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2002-03-01

    The present study tested two predictions of dual-process models of reading: (i) that the brain structures involved in sublexical phonological analysis and those involved in whole-word phonological access during reading are different; and (ii) that reading of meaningful items, by means of the addressed phonology process, is mediated by different brain structures than reading of meaningless letter strings. We obtained brain activation profiles using Magnetic Source Imaging and, in addition, pronunciation latencies during reading of: (i) exception words (primarily involving addressed phonology and having meaning), (ii) pseudohomophones (requiring assembled phonology and having meaning), and (iii) pseudowords (requiring assembled phonology but having no meaning). Reading of meaningful items entailed a high degree of activation of the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTGp) and mesial temporal lobe areas, whereas reading the meaningless pseudowords was associated with much reduced activation of these two regions. Reading of all three types of print resulted in activation of the posterior superior temporal gyrus (STGp), inferior parietal and basal temporal areas. In addition, pronunciation speed of exception words correlated significantly with the onset of activity in MTGp but not STGp, whereas the opposite was true for pseudohomophones and pseudowords. These findings are consistent with the existence of two different brain mechanisms that support phonological processing in word reading: one mechanism that subserves assembled phonology and depends on the posterior part of STGp, and a second mechanism that is responsible for pronouncing words with rare print-to-sound correspondences and does not necessarily involve this region but instead appears to depend on MTGp.

  1. Brain mechanisms for reading words and pseudowords: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Simos, Panagiotis G; Breier, Joshua I; Fletcher, Jack M; Foorman, Barbara R; Castillo, Eduardo M; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2002-03-01

    The present study tested two predictions of dual-process models of reading: (i) that the brain structures involved in sublexical phonological analysis and those involved in whole-word phonological access during reading are different; and (ii) that reading of meaningful items, by means of the addressed phonology process, is mediated by different brain structures than reading of meaningless letter strings. We obtained brain activation profiles using Magnetic Source Imaging and, in addition, pronunciation latencies during reading of: (i) exception words (primarily involving addressed phonology and having meaning), (ii) pseudohomophones (requiring assembled phonology and having meaning), and (iii) pseudowords (requiring assembled phonology but having no meaning). Reading of meaningful items entailed a high degree of activation of the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTGp) and mesial temporal lobe areas, whereas reading the meaningless pseudowords was associated with much reduced activation of these two regions. Reading of all three types of print resulted in activation of the posterior superior temporal gyrus (STGp), inferior parietal and basal temporal areas. In addition, pronunciation speed of exception words correlated significantly with the onset of activity in MTGp but not STGp, whereas the opposite was true for pseudohomophones and pseudowords. These findings are consistent with the existence of two different brain mechanisms that support phonological processing in word reading: one mechanism that subserves assembled phonology and depends on the posterior part of STGp, and a second mechanism that is responsible for pronouncing words with rare print-to-sound correspondences and does not necessarily involve this region but instead appears to depend on MTGp. PMID:11839603

  2. Framework programmable platform for the advanced software development workstation. Integration mechanism design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Richard J.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Mayer, Paula S. D.; Reddy, Uday; Ackley, Keith; Futrell, Mike

    1991-01-01

    The Framework Programmable Software Development Platform (FPP) is a project aimed at combining effective tool and data integration mechanisms with a model of the software development process in an intelligent integrated software development environment. Guided by this model, this system development framework will take advantage of an integrated operating environment to automate effectively the management of the software development process so that costly mistakes during the development phase can be eliminated.

  3. Use of On-Line Math Skills Modules in an Introductory General Education Geoscience Course at a Community College: The Importance of Integration Across Lab & Lecture Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosavi, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    The NSF sponsored on-line math skills module series The Math You Need When You Need It (TMYN) was constructed to provide math skill development and support to introductory geoscience course instructors whose students science learning is often hindered by deficiencies in critical math skills. The on-line modules give instructors a mechanism for student-centered, skill-specific math tutorials, practice exercises and assessments outside regular class time. In principle, a student deficient in a skill such as graphing, calculating a best-fit line or manipulating and quantifying a concept such as density can use the appropriate TMYN module to identify their area of weakness, focus on developing the skill using geologically relevant examples, and get feedback reflecting their mastery of the skill in an asynchronous format just as the skill becomes critical to learning in the course. The asynchronous format allows the instructor to remain focused on the geoscience content during class time without diverting all students' attention to skill remediation needed by only a subset of the population. Such a blended approach prevents the progression of the class from being slowed by the need for remediation for some students while simultaneously not leaving those students behind. The challenge to geoscience educators comes in identifying the best strategy for implementing TMYN modules in their classrooms. This presentation contrasts the effectiveness of 2 strategies for implementing TMYN in an introductory Earth System Science class taken as a general education science lab requirement by lower division students at a community college. This course is typical of many such large general education courses in that lab instruction is provided by separate educators from the primary instructor in charge of the lecture, often creating 2 parallel and only dimly connected courses in the experience of many students. In case 1, TMYN was implemented in 3 of 4 lab sections by an adjunct lab

  4. An integrated mechanism of cardiomyocyte nuclear Ca(2+) signaling.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Cristián; Vicencio, Jose Miguel; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Jaimovich, Enrique; Rothermel, Beverly A; Uhlén, Per; Hill, Joseph A; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    In cardiomyocytes, Ca(2+) plays a central role in governing both contraction and signaling events that regulate gene expression. Current evidence indicates that discrimination between these two critical functions is achieved by segregating Ca(2+) within subcellular microdomains: transcription is regulated by Ca(2+) release within nuclear microdomains, and excitation-contraction coupling is regulated by cytosolic Ca(2+). Accordingly, a variety of agonists that control cardiomyocyte gene expression, such as endothelin-1, angiotensin-II or insulin-like growth factor-1, share the feature of triggering nuclear Ca(2+) signals. However, signaling pathways coupling surface receptor activation to nuclear Ca(2+) release, and the phenotypic responses to such signals, differ between agonists. According to earlier hypotheses, the selective control of nuclear Ca(2+) signals by activation of plasma membrane receptors relies on the strategic localization of inositol trisphosphate receptors at the nuclear envelope. There, they mediate Ca(2+) release from perinuclear Ca(2+) stores upon binding of inositol trisphosphate generated in the cytosol, which diffuses into the nucleus. More recently, identification of such receptors at nuclear membranes or perinuclear sarcolemmal invaginations has uncovered novel mechanisms whereby agonists control nuclear Ca(2+) release. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the selective control of nuclear Ca(2+) signals with special focus on emerging models of agonist receptor activation.

  5. An integrated mechanism of cardiomyocyte nuclear Ca2+ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Cristián; Vicencio, Jose Miguel; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Jaimovich, Enrique; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Uhlén, Per; Hill, Joseph A.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    In cardiomyocytes, Ca2+ plays a central role in governing both contraction and signaling events that regulate gene expression. Current evidence indicates that discrimination between these two critical functions is achieved by segregating Ca2+ within subcellular microdomains: transcription is regulated by Ca2+ release within nuclear microdomains, and excitation–contraction coupling is regulated by cytosolic Ca2+. Accordingly, a variety of agonists that control cardiomyocyte gene expression, such as endothelin-1, angiotensin-II or insulin-like growth factor-1, share the feature of triggering nuclear Ca2+ signals. However, signaling pathways coupling surface receptor activation to nuclear Ca2+ release, and the phenotypic responses to such signals, differ between agonists. According to earlier hypotheses, the selective control of nuclear Ca2+ signals by activation of plasma membrane receptors relies on the strategic localization of inositol trisphosphate receptors at the nuclear envelope. There, they mediate Ca2+ release from perinuclear Ca2+ stores upon binding of inositol trisphosphate generated in the cytosol, which diffuses into the nucleus. More recently, identification of such receptors at nuclear membranes or perinuclear sarcolemmal invaginations has uncovered novel mechanisms whereby agonists control nuclear Ca2+ release. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the selective control of nuclear Ca2+ signals with special focus on emerging models of agonist receptor activation. PMID:24997440

  6. An integrated mechanism of cardiomyocyte nuclear Ca(2+) signaling.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Cristián; Vicencio, Jose Miguel; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Jaimovich, Enrique; Rothermel, Beverly A; Uhlén, Per; Hill, Joseph A; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    In cardiomyocytes, Ca(2+) plays a central role in governing both contraction and signaling events that regulate gene expression. Current evidence indicates that discrimination between these two critical functions is achieved by segregating Ca(2+) within subcellular microdomains: transcription is regulated by Ca(2+) release within nuclear microdomains, and excitation-contraction coupling is regulated by cytosolic Ca(2+). Accordingly, a variety of agonists that control cardiomyocyte gene expression, such as endothelin-1, angiotensin-II or insulin-like growth factor-1, share the feature of triggering nuclear Ca(2+) signals. However, signaling pathways coupling surface receptor activation to nuclear Ca(2+) release, and the phenotypic responses to such signals, differ between agonists. According to earlier hypotheses, the selective control of nuclear Ca(2+) signals by activation of plasma membrane receptors relies on the strategic localization of inositol trisphosphate receptors at the nuclear envelope. There, they mediate Ca(2+) release from perinuclear Ca(2+) stores upon binding of inositol trisphosphate generated in the cytosol, which diffuses into the nucleus. More recently, identification of such receptors at nuclear membranes or perinuclear sarcolemmal invaginations has uncovered novel mechanisms whereby agonists control nuclear Ca(2+) release. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the selective control of nuclear Ca(2+) signals with special focus on emerging models of agonist receptor activation. PMID:24997440

  7. Integrated electroosmotic perfusion of tissue with online microfluidic analysis to track the metabolism of cystamine, pantethine, and coenzyme A.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juanfang; Sandberg, Mats; Weber, Stephen G

    2013-12-17

    We have developed an approach that integrates electroosmotic perfusion of tissue with a substrate-containing solution and online microfluidic analysis of products, in this case thiols. Using this approach we have tracked the metabolism of cystamine, pantethine and CoA in the extracellular space of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs). Currently, little is known about coenzyme A (CoA) biodegradation and even less is known about the regulation and kinetic characteristics for this sequential multienzyme reaction. We found that the steady state percentage yields of cysteamine from cystamine and pantethine during the transit through OHSCs were 91% ± 4% (SEM) and 0.01%-0.03%, respectively. The large difference in the yields of cysteamine can be used to explain the drugs' different toxicities and clinical effectiveness against cystinosis. The kinetic parameters of the enzyme reaction catalyzed by the ectoenzyme pantetheinase are KM,C/α = 4.4 ± 1.1 mM and Vmax,C = 29 ± 3 nM/s, where α is the percentage yield of pantethine to pantetheine through disulfide exchange. We estimate that the percentage yield of pantethine to pantetheine through disulfide exchange is approximately 0.5%. Based on the formation rate of cysteamine in the OHSCs, we obtained the overall apparent Michaelis constant and maximum reaction rate for sequential, extracellular CoA degradation in an in situ environment, which are K'M = 16 ± 4 μM, V'max = 7.1 ± 0.5 nM/s. Kinetic parameters obtained in situ, although difficult to measure, are better representations of the biochemical flux in the living organism than those from isolated enzymes in vitro. PMID:24215585

  8. Investigation of failure mechanisms in integrated vacuum circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosengreen, A.

    1972-01-01

    The fabrication techniques of integrated vacuum circuits are described in detail. Data obtained from a specially designed test circuit are presented. The data show that the emission observed in reverse biased devices is due to cross-talk between the devices and can be eliminated by electrostatic shielding. The lifetime of the cathodes has been improved by proper activation techniques. None of the cathodes on life test has shown any sign of failure after more than 3500 hours. Life tests of triodes show a decline of anode current by a factor of two to three after a few days. The current recovers when the large positive anode voltage (100 V) has been removed for a few hours. It is suggested that this is due to trapped charges in the sapphire substrate. Evidence of the presence of such charges is given, and a model of the charge distribution is presented consistent with the measurements. Solution of the problem associated with the decay of triode current may require proper treatment of the sapphire surface and/or changes in the deposition technique of the thin metal films.

  9. Web conferencing in online classrooms.

    PubMed

    Hart, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Web conferencing is a promising tool for online education. A well-developed teaching strategy can lead to effective use of this technology to create a sense of community, engage students, and promote academic integrity in online courses. This article presents strategies for integrating Web conferencing into online nursing courses.

  10. Psychological flexibility and catastrophizing as associated change mechanisms during online Acceptance & Commitment Therapy for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Trompetter, Hester R; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Fox, Jean-Paul; Schreurs, Karlein M G

    2015-11-01

    The underlying mechanisms of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural interventions for chronic pain need further clarification. The role of, and associations between, pain-related psychological flexibility (PF) and pain catastrophizing (PC) were examined during a randomized controlled trial on internet-based Acceptance & Commitment Therapy (ACT) for chronic pain. We assessed (1) the unique and combined indirect effects of PF and PC on outcomes, and (2) the causality of relations between PF, PC and the primary outcome pain interference in daily life (MPI) during ACT. A total of 238 pain sufferers were allocated to either ACT, a control condition on Expressive Writing, or a waiting list condition. Non-parametric cross-product of coefficients mediational analyses and cross-lagged panel designs were applied. Compared to control conditions, both baseline to post-intervention changes in PF and PC seemed to uniquely mediate baseline to three-month follow-up changes in pain interference and psychological distress. Only PF mediated changes in pain intensity. Indirect effects were twice as large for PF (κ2 = .09-.19) than for PC (κ² PCS = .05-.10). Further assessment of changes during ACT showed, however, that only PF, and not PC, predicted subsequent changes in MPI, while early and late changes in both PF and PC predicted later changes in each other. In conclusion, only PF functioned as a direct, causal working mechanism during ACT, with larger indirect effects that occurred earlier than changes in PC. Additionally, PC may function as an indirect mechanism of change during ACT for chronic pain via its direct influence on PF.

  11. Multifunctional composites and structures with integrated mechanical and electromagnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirkhizi, Alireza Vakil

    Composite materials are used for their excellent structural performance. Load-bearing properties are traditionally the only aspects for which a composite structure is designed. Recent technological advances have made it possible to reach beyond this limited view. Inspired by biological systems, we seek to develop engineering materials that exhibit multiple functionalities in addition to providing structural integrity. Composites are a natural host for embedding elements that can enhance their nonstructural response. The present work is focused on embedding periodic arrays of scattering elements within composites to modify and tune their overall electromagnetic properties. A number of techniques for numerical and analytical modeling of the periodic media are discussed. Based on these methods we have designed and fabricated composites with tuned electromagnetic properties. Examples include fiber-reinforced polymer composites with embedded arrays of straight wires or coils. In both cases, the overall dielectric constant of the medium is reduced and can even be rendered negative within microwave frequencies. The coil medium can exhibit chiral response. Solutions for eliminating this behavior as well as a method for calculation of the bianisotropic material parameters are presented. One can achieve similar response at higher frequencies by reducing the length scale. For example, we show that a polymer film with embedded nano-strips of gold can demonstrate negative dielectric constant in infrared regime. An example of a structural composite is presented for which the magnetic permeability is altered and is turned negative within a microwave band. Finally, a general method for homogenization of the electromagnetic properties of periodic media based on the microstructure is developed. Two independent chapters complete this dissertation. In Chapter 8 the response of a soft hypo-elastic material in a pressure---shear experiment is studied. A nonlinear pressure- and

  12. A review of OSHA PSM citations relating to mechanical integrity of process piping

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, M.L.; Remson, A.C.; Yerger, C.M.

    1996-07-01

    OSHA`s process safety management (PSM) regulation has been in effect for more than three years. The regulation poses challenges for facilities in documenting the integrity of process piping systems. This paper summarizes the results of a project sponsored by the Materials Technology Institute (MTI) to compile PSM enforcement information relating to mechanical integrity W and process safety information (PSI) relating to equipment. This paper provides an analysis of how OSHA is citing violations of the PSM regulation as it relates to process piping. This information should be helpful to engineers and maintenance personnel who need guidance on how to ``OSHA-proof`` their mechanical integrity compliance for process piping systems.

  13. Centrosome-intrinsic mechanisms modulate centrosome integrity during fever

    PubMed Central

    Vertii, Anastassiia; Zimmerman, Wendy; Ivshina, Maria; Doxsey, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The centrosome is critical for cell division, ciliogenesis, membrane trafficking, and immunological synapse function. The immunological synapse is part of the immune response, which is often accompanied by fever/heat stress (HS). Here we provide evidence that HS causes deconstruction of all centrosome substructures primarily through degradation by centrosome-associated proteasomes. This renders the centrosome nonfunctional. Heat-activated degradation is centrosome selective, as other nonmembranous organelles (midbody, kinetochore) and membrane-bounded organelles (mitochondria) remain largely intact. Heat-induced centrosome inactivation was rescued by targeting Hsp70 to the centrosome. In contrast, Hsp70 excluded from the centrosome via targeting to membranes failed to rescue, as did chaperone inactivation. This indicates that there is a balance between degradation and chaperone rescue at the centrosome after HS. This novel mechanism of centrosome regulation during fever contributes to immunological synapse formation. Heat-induced centrosome inactivation is a physiologically relevant event, as centrosomes in leukocytes of febrile patients are disrupted. PMID:26269579

  14. Crack Turning and Arrest Mechanisms for Integral Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Richard; Ingraffea, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    In the course of several years of research efforts to predict crack turning and flapping in aircraft fuselage structures and other problems related to crack turning, the 2nd order maximum tangential stress theory has been identified as the theory most capable of predicting the observed test results. This theory requires knowledge of a material specific characteristic length, and also a computation of the stress intensity factors and the T-stress, or second order term in the asymptotic stress field in the vicinity of the crack tip. A characteristic length, r(sub c), is proposed for ductile materials pertaining to the onset of plastic instability, as opposed to the void spacing theories espoused by previous investigators. For the plane stress case, an approximate estimate of r(sub c), is obtained from the asymptotic field for strain hardening materials given by Hutchinson, Rice and Rosengren (HRR). A previous study using of high order finite element methods to calculate T-stresses by contour integrals resulted in extremely high accuracy values obtained for selected test specimen geometries, and a theoretical error estimation parameter was defined. In the present study, it is shown that a large portion of the error in finite element computations of both K and T are systematic, and can be corrected after the initial solution if the finite element implementation utilizes a similar crack tip discretization scheme for all problems. This scheme is applied for two-dimensional problems to a both a p-version finite element code, showing that sufficiently accurate values of both K(sub I) and T can be obtained with fairly low order elements if correction is used. T-stress correction coefficients are also developed for the singular crack tip rosette utilized in the adaptive mesh finite element code FRANC2D, and shown to reduce the error in the computed T-stress significantly. Stress intensity factor correction was not attempted for FRANC2D because it employs a highly accurate

  15. Simulated effect on the compressive and shear mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates.

    PubMed

    He, Chenglin; Chen, Jinxiang; Wu, Zhishen; Xie, Juan; Zu, Qiao; Lu, Yun

    2015-05-01

    Honeycomb plates can be applied in many fields, including furniture manufacturing, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, transportation and aerospace. In the present study, we discuss the simulated effect on the mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates by investigating the compressive and shear failure modes and the mechanical properties of trabeculae reinforced by long or short fibers. The results indicate that the simulated effect represents approximately 80% and 70% of the compressive and shear strengths, respectively. Compared with existing bionic samples, the mass-specific strength was significantly improved. Therefore, this integrated honeycomb technology remains the most effective method for the trial manufacturing of bionic integrated honeycomb plates. The simulated effect of the compressive rigidity is approximately 85%. The short-fiber trabeculae have an advantage over the long-fiber trabeculae in terms of shear rigidity, which provides new evidence for the application of integrated bionic honeycomb plates.

  16. Simulated effect on the compressive and shear mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates.

    PubMed

    He, Chenglin; Chen, Jinxiang; Wu, Zhishen; Xie, Juan; Zu, Qiao; Lu, Yun

    2015-05-01

    Honeycomb plates can be applied in many fields, including furniture manufacturing, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, transportation and aerospace. In the present study, we discuss the simulated effect on the mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates by investigating the compressive and shear failure modes and the mechanical properties of trabeculae reinforced by long or short fibers. The results indicate that the simulated effect represents approximately 80% and 70% of the compressive and shear strengths, respectively. Compared with existing bionic samples, the mass-specific strength was significantly improved. Therefore, this integrated honeycomb technology remains the most effective method for the trial manufacturing of bionic integrated honeycomb plates. The simulated effect of the compressive rigidity is approximately 85%. The short-fiber trabeculae have an advantage over the long-fiber trabeculae in terms of shear rigidity, which provides new evidence for the application of integrated bionic honeycomb plates. PMID:25746272

  17. Introducing a New Interface for the Online MagIC Database by Integrating Data Uploading, Searching, and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, N.; Minnett, R.; Constable, C.; Koppers, A. A.; Tauxe, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) is dedicated to supporting the paleomagnetic, geomagnetic, and rock magnetic communities through the development and maintenance of an online database (http://earthref.org/MAGIC/), data upload and quality control, searches, data downloads, and visualization tools. While MagIC has completed importing some of the IAGA paleomagnetic databases (TRANS, PINT, PSVRL, GPMDB) and continues to import others (ARCHEO, MAGST and SECVR), further individual data uploading from the community contributes a wealth of easily-accessible rich datasets. Previously uploading of data to the MagIC database required the use of an Excel spreadsheet using either a Mac or PC. The new method of uploading data utilizes an HTML 5 web interface where the only computer requirement is a modern browser. This web interface will highlight all errors discovered in the dataset at once instead of the iterative error checking process found in the previous Excel spreadsheet data checker. As a web service, the community will always have easy access to the most up-to-date and bug free version of the data upload software. The filtering search mechanism of the MagIC database has been changed to a more intuitive system where the data from each contribution is displayed in tables similar to how the data is uploaded (http://earthref.org/MAGIC/search/). Searches themselves can be saved as a permanent URL, if desired. The saved search URL could then be used as a citation in a publication. When appropriate, plots (equal area, Zijderveld, ARAI, demagnetization, etc.) are associated with the data to give the user a quicker understanding of the underlying dataset. The MagIC database will continue to evolve to meet the needs of the paleomagnetic, geomagnetic, and rock magnetic communities.

  18. A review of path-independent integrals in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, task 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.

    1985-01-01

    The path independent (P-I) integrals in elastic plastic fracture mechanics which have been proposed in recent years to overcome the limitations imposed on the J integral are reviewed. The P-I integrals considered herein are the J integral by Rice, the thermoelastic P-I integrals by Wilson and Yu and by Gurtin, the J* integral by Blackburn, the J sub theta integral by Ainsworth et al., the J integral by Kishimoto et al., and the delta T sub p and delta T* sub p integrals by Atluri et al. The theoretical foundation of these P-I integrals is examined with emphasis on whether or not path independence is maintained in the presence of nonproportional loading and unloading in the plastic regime, thermal gradients, and material inhomogeneities. The similarities, differences, salient features, and limitations of these P-I integrals are discussed. Comments are also made with regard to the physical meaning, the possibility of experimental measurement, and computational aspects.

  19. On-line structural integrity monitoring and defect diagnosis of steam generators using analysis of guided acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Baofu

    2005-11-01

    Integrity monitoring and flaw diagnostics of flat beams and tubular structures was investigated in this research using guided acoustic signals. The primary objective was to study the feasibility of using imbedded sensors for monitoring steam generator and heat exchanger tubing. A piezo-sensor suite was deployed to activate and collect Lamb wave signals that propagate along metallic specimens. The dispersion curves of Lamb waves along plate and tubular structures were generated through numerical analysis. Several advanced techniques were explored to extract representative features from acoustic time series. Among them, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a recently developed technique for the analysis of non-linear and transient signals. A moving window method was introduced to generate the local peak characters from acoustic time series, and a zooming window technique was developed to localize the structural flaws. The dissertation presents the background of the analysis of acoustic signals acquired from piezo-electric transducers for structural defect monitoring. A comparison of the use of time-frequency techniques, including the Hilbert-Huang transform, is presented. It also presents the theoretical study of Lamb wave propagation in flat beams and tubular structures, and the need for mode separation in order to effectively perform defect diagnosis. The results of an extensive experimental study of detection, location, and isolation of structural defects in flat aluminum beams and brass tubes are presented. The time-frequency analysis and pattern recognition techniques were combined for classifying structural defects in brass tubes. Several types of flaws in brass tubes were tested, both in the air and in water. The techniques also proved to be effective under background/process noise. A detailed theoretical analysis of Lamb wave propagation was performed and simulations were carried out using the finite element software system ABAQUS. This analytical study

  20. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    Integrity monitoring and flaw diagnostics of flat beams and tubular structures was investigated in this research task using guided acoustic signals. A piezo-sensor suite was deployed to activate and collect Lamb wave signals that propagate along metallic specimens. The dispersion curves of Lamb waves along plate and tubular structures are generated through numerical analysis. Several advanced techniques were explored to extract representative features from acoustic time series. Among them, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a recently developed technique for the analysis of non-linear and transient signals. A moving window method was introduced to generate the local peak characters from acoustic time series, and a zooming window technique was developed to localize the structural flaws. The time-frequency analysis and pattern recognition techniques were combined for classifying structural defects in brass tubes. Several types of flaws in brass tubes were tested, both in the air and in water. The techniques also proved to be effective under background/process noise. A detailed theoretical analysis of Lamb wave propagation was performed and simulations were carried out using the finite element software system ABAQUS. This analytical study confirmed the behavior of the acoustic signals acquired from the experimental studies. The report presents the background the analysis of acoustic signals acquired from piezo-electric transducers for structural defect monitoring. A comparison of the use of time-frequency techniques, including the Hilbert-Huang transform, is presented. The report presents the theoretical study of Lamb wave propagation in flat beams and tubular structures, and the need for mode separation in order to effectively perform defect diagnosis. The results of an extensive experimental study of detection, location, and isolation of structural defects in flat aluminum beams and brass tubes are presented. The results of this research show the feasibility of on-line

  1. Comparing the Similarity of Responses Received from Studies in Amazon’s Mechanical Turk to Studies Conducted Online and with Direct Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Bartneck, Christoph; Duenser, Andreas; Moltchanova, Elena; Zawieska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Computer and internet based questionnaires have become a standard tool in Human-Computer Interaction research and other related fields, such as psychology and sociology. Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (AMT) service is a new method of recruiting participants and conducting certain types of experiments. This study compares whether participants recruited through AMT give different responses than participants recruited through an online forum or recruited directly on a university campus. Moreover, we compare whether a study conducted within AMT results in different responses compared to a study for which participants are recruited through AMT but which is conducted using an external online questionnaire service. The results of this study show that there is a statistical difference between results obtained from participants recruited through AMT compared to the results from the participant recruited on campus or through online forums. We do, however, argue that this difference is so small that it has no practical consequence. There was no significant difference between running the study within AMT compared to running it with an online questionnaire service. There was no significant difference between results obtained directly from within AMT compared to results obtained in the campus and online forum condition. This may suggest that AMT is a viable and economical option for recruiting participants and for conducting studies as setting up and running a study with AMT generally requires less effort and time compared to other frequently used methods. We discuss our findings as well as limitations of using AMT for empirical studies. PMID:25876027

  2. Advanced Integration in Multi-Scale Mechanics and Welding Process Simulation in Weld Integrity Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vitek, J.M.; Wilkowski, G.M.; Brust, F.W.; Babu, S.

    2008-01-30

    In this project, mathematical models that predict the microstructure in pipeline steel welds were to be developed. These models were to be integrated with thermal models that describe the time-temperature history in the weld as a function of location in order to derive the spatial variation of microstructure in the weld. The microstructure predictions were also to be combined with microstructure-hardness relations, based on the additivity principle, to determine the spatial variation of hardness in the weld. EMC2 also developed microstructural models based on empirical relationships. ORNL was to pursue the development of more fundamental, theoretically based models. ORNL applied a previously developed model for inclusion formation to predict the extent and nature of inclusions that form during weld cooling from the liquid. This inclusion model was directly integrated with computational thermodynamics capability. A convenient user interface was developed for both the inclusion model and the thermodynamic phase-stability calculations. The microstructure model was based on the simultaneous transformation theory analysis as applied to the transformation of austenite to various ferrite constituents during weld cooling. The model available on the Materials Algorithm Project web site was used. Extensive modification of this model was required to correct problems with compilation and calculations as a function of the computational platform (Unix, Linux, Windows, etc.) that was used. The user interface for the inclusion model and thermodynamic phase-stability calculations was delivered to EMC2 along with the modified and correct microstructure model. Evaluation of the theoretically based model will be carried out and the predictions will be compared with experimental results as well as predictions based on the empirical models developed by EMC2.

  3. Increasing pipeline mechanical integrity through the management of mechanical and toughness data

    SciTech Connect

    Biagiotti, S.F. Jr.; Battisti, J.A.

    1996-07-01

    On October 22, 1991, prompted by two brittle fractures that initiated after pipe movement events, the Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) issued an Alert Notice requiring pipeline owners and operators of gas or hazardous liquid pipeline facilities to conduct analyses before moving pipelines, whether or not the pipelines are pressurized at the time of movement. Since most operators have not typically maintained detailed information on the material characteristics of all steel pipelines in operation (i.e. fracture toughness properties), the OPS recommended that samples of new pipe, stock pipe, and pipe removed from service should be tested and the results accumulated into a database. To this end, Marathon Pipe Line (MPL) Company developed an in-house database system to manage mechanical, toughness, and weldability properties of pipeline materials. Marathon`s approach to the management of pipeline toughness and mechanical data is presented herein. During the design phase of a planned pipe movement, such as a line lowering, engineers consult the database for mechanical and toughness information related to the grade, size, and line section of interest. Based on the mechanical and toughness historical data, a safe line lowering condition is recommended. Over the last two years, more than 1,200 sets of data on more than 200 line sections have been entered into the database.

  4. Optical tweezers and multiphoton microscopies integrated photonic tool for mechanical and biochemical cell processes studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Thomaz, A. A.; Faustino, W. M.; Fontes, A.; Fernandes, H. P.; Barjas-Castro, M. d. L.; Metze, K.; Giorgio, S.; Barbosa, L. C.; Cesar, C. L.

    2007-09-01

    The research in biomedical photonics is clearly evolving in the direction of the understanding of biological processes at the cell level. The spatial resolution to accomplish this task practically requires photonics tools. However, an integration of different photonic tools and a multimodal and functional approach will be necessary to access the mechanical and biochemical cell processes. This way we can observe mechanicaly triggered biochemical events or biochemicaly triggered mechanical events, or even observe simultaneously mechanical and biochemical events triggered by other means, e.g. electricaly. One great advantage of the photonic tools is its easiness for integration. Therefore, we developed such integrated tool by incorporating single and double Optical Tweezers with Confocal Single and Multiphoton Microscopies. This system can perform 2-photon excited fluorescence and Second Harmonic Generation microscopies together with optical manipulations. It also can acquire Fluorescence and SHG spectra of specific spots. Force, elasticity and viscosity measurements of stretched membranes can be followed by real time confocal microscopies. Also opticaly trapped living protozoas, such as leishmania amazonensis. Integration with CARS microscopy is under way. We will show several examples of the use of such integrated instrument and its potential to observe mechanical and biochemical processes at cell level.

  5. An integrative process model of leadership: examining loci, mechanisms, and event cycles.

    PubMed

    Eberly, Marion B; Johnson, Michael D; Hernandez, Morela; Avolio, Bruce J

    2013-09-01

    Utilizing the locus (source) and mechanism (transmission) of leadership framework (Hernandez, Eberly, Avolio, & Johnson, 2011), we propose and examine the application of an integrative process model of leadership to help determine the psychological interactive processes that constitute leadership. In particular, we identify the various dynamics involved in generating leadership processes by modeling how the loci and mechanisms interact through a series of leadership event cycles. We discuss the major implications of this model for advancing an integrative understanding of what constitutes leadership and its current and future impact on the field of psychological theory, research, and practice.

  6. IMaX opto-mechanical integration: the AIV process for a magnetograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; González Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Sánchez Rodríguez, Antonio; Pastor Santos, Carmen; Álvarez-Herrero, Alberto

    2008-07-01

    IMaX current status is reported on. IMaX, the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment developed for a Spanish consortium for the SUNRISE Mission, is a payload that will work simultaneously as a high sensitivity polarimeter, a high resolving spectral power, and a near diffraction limited imager. Once every mechanical element has been purchased, the assembly, integration, alignment and verification processes (AIV process) has been carried out successfully. After a brief description of the IMaX opto-mechanical elements that have been received, the integration sequence as well as the main results obtained during the AIV process are presented. Basically, AIV process consists on the opto-mechanical components assembly on the Optical Bench (OB), the optical elements assembly on the previously integrated optomechanics, the alignment and orientation of the opto-mechanical components, and the two-channels quality evaluation that allows to leave the opto-mechanical components ready for the cameras integration and IMaX performance tests characterization. Actually, the most relevant results related to the AIV process as well as the IMaX performance firsts tests are presented.

  7. Segment-based vs. element-based integration for mortar methods in computational contact mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, Philipp; Popp, Alexander; Wall, Wolfgang A.

    2015-01-01

    Mortar finite element methods provide a very convenient and powerful discretization framework for geometrically nonlinear applications in computational contact mechanics, because they allow for a variationally consistent treatment of contact conditions (mesh tying, non-penetration, frictionless or frictional sliding) despite the fact that the underlying contact surface meshes are non-matching and possibly also geometrically non-conforming. However, one of the major issues with regard to mortar methods is the design of adequate numerical integration schemes for the resulting interface coupling terms, i.e. curve integrals for 2D contact problems and surface integrals for 3D contact problems. The way how mortar integration is performed crucially influences the accuracy of the overall numerical procedure as well as the computational efficiency of contact evaluation. Basically, two different types of mortar integration schemes, which will be termed as segment-based integration and element-based integration here, can be found predominantly in the literature. While almost the entire existing literature focuses on either of the two mentioned mortar integration schemes without questioning this choice, the intention of this paper is to provide a comprehensive and unbiased comparison. The theoretical aspects covered here include the choice of integration rule, the treatment of boundaries of the contact zone, higher-order interpolation and frictional sliding. Moreover, a new hybrid scheme is proposed, which beneficially combines the advantages of segment-based and element-based mortar integration. Several numerical examples are presented for a detailed and critical evaluation of the overall performance of the different schemes within several well-known benchmark problems of computational contact mechanics.

  8. Integrating Technology, Curriculum, and Online Resources: A Multilevel Model Study of Impacts on Science Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Lei

    2013-01-01

    This scale-up study investigated the impact of a teacher technology tool (Curriculum Customization Service, CCS), curriculum, and online resources on earth science teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and practices and on students' achievement and engagement with science learning. Participants included 73 teachers and over 2,000 ninth-grade students…

  9. Integration of a Case-Based Online Module into an Undergraduate Curriculum: What Is Involved and Is It Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlett, David; Vincent, Tim; Gainsborough, Nicola; Fairclough, Jil; Taylor, Nick; Cohen, Jon; Vincent, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have been undertaken demonstrating that online learning is an effective teaching tool, working best when combined with more conventional teaching methods. There is a paucity of data both examining the longitudinal blending of an e-module with more conventional modes of curriculum delivery and also relating to the time and…

  10. A Subject-Specific Glossary-Assisted Model. Integrated Online Resources for Chinese Students Taking Degree Courses in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Han

    This document provides a brief overview of a PowerPoint presentation (with accompanying slides) where the development of a detailed, online subject-specific glossary is discussed. The pedagogical justification for the creation and use of a glossary is presented. It is asserted that a subject-specific glossary has many advantages and useful…

  11. On-line stable isotope gas exchange reveals an inducible but leaky carbon concentrating mechanism in Nannochloropsis salina.

    PubMed

    Hanson, David T; Collins, Aaron M; Jones, Howland D T; Roesgen, John; Lopez-Nieves, Samuel; Timlin, Jerilyn A

    2014-09-01

    Carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are common among microalgae, but their regulation and even existence in some of the most promising biofuel production strains is poorly understood. This is partly because screening for new strains does not commonly include assessment of CCM function or regulation despite its fundamental role in primary carbon metabolism. In addition, the inducible nature of many microalgal CCMs means that environmental conditions should be considered when assessing CCM function and its potential impact on biofuels. In this study, we address the effect of environmental conditions by combining novel, high frequency, on-line (13)CO2 gas exchange screen with microscope-based lipid characterization to assess CCM function in Nannochloropsis salina and its interaction with lipid production. Regulation of CCM function was explored by changing the concentration of CO2 provided to continuous cultures in airlift bioreactors where cell density was kept constant across conditions by controlling the rate of media supply. Our isotopic gas exchange results were consistent with N. salina having an inducible "pump-leak" style CCM similar to that of Nannochloropsis gaditana. Though cells grew faster at high CO2 and had higher rates of net CO2 uptake, we did not observe significant differences in lipid content between conditions. Since the rate of CO2 supply was much higher for the high CO2 conditions, we calculated that growing cells bubbled with low CO2 is about 40 % more efficient for carbon capture than bubbling with high CO2. We attribute this higher efficiency to the activity of a CCM under low CO2 conditions. PMID:24844569

  12. ADVANCED INTEGRATION OF MULTI-SCALE MECHANICS AND WELDING PROCESS SIMULATION IN WELD INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, Gery M.; Rudland, David L.; Shim, Do-Jun; Brust, Frederick W.; Babu, Sundarsanam

    2008-06-30

    -driving force by a factor of 2 depending on strain-hardening, pressure level as a % of SMYS, and flaw size. • From years of experience in circumferential fracture analyses and experimentation, there has not been sufficient integration of work performed for other industries into analogous problems facing the oil and gas pipeline markets. Some very basic concepts and problems solved previously in these fields could have circumvented inconsistencies seen in the stress-based and strain-based analysis efforts. For example, in nuclear utility piping work, more detailed elastic-plastic fracture analyses were always validated in their ability to predict loads and displacements (stresses and strains). The eventual implementation of these methodologies will result in acceleration of the industry adoption of higher-strength line-pipe steels.

  13. VGJphi integration and excision mechanisms contribute to the genetic diversity of Vibrio cholerae epidemic strains.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhabatosh; Bischerour, Julien; Barre, François-Xavier

    2011-02-01

    Most strains of Vibrio cholerae are not pathogenic or cause only local outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Acquisition of the capacity to produce the cholera toxin results from a lysogenic conversion event due to a filamentous bacteriophage, CTX. Two V. cholerae tyrosine recombinases that normally serve to resolve chromosome dimers, XerC and XerD, promote CTX integration by directly recombining the ssDNA genome of the phage with the dimer resolution site of either or both V. cholerae chromosomes. This smart mechanism renders the process irreversible. Many other filamentous vibriophages seem to attach to chromosome dimer resolution sites and participate in the rapid and continuous evolution of toxigenic V. cholerae strains. We analyzed the molecular mechanism of integration of VGJ, a representative of the largest family of these phages. We found that XerC and XerD promote the integration of VGJ into a specific chromosome dimer resolution site, and that the dsDNA replicative form of the phage is recombined. We show that XerC and XerD can promote excision of the integrated prophage, and that this participates in the production of new extrachromosomal copies of the phage genome. We further show how hybrid molecules harboring the concatenated genomes of CTX and VGJ can be produced efficiently. Finally, we discuss how the integration and excision mechanisms of VGJ can explain the origin of recent epidemic V. cholerae strains. PMID:21262799

  14. The plant cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism-concepts for organization and mode of action.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Thorsten

    2015-02-01

    One of the main differences between plant and animal cells are the walls surrounding plant cells providing structural support during development and protection like an adaptive armor against biotic and abiotic stress. During recent years it has become widely accepted that plant cells use a dedicated system to monitor and maintain the functional integrity of their walls. Maintenance of integrity is achieved by modifying the cell wall and cellular metabolism in order to permit tightly controlled changes in wall composition and structure. While a substantial amount of evidence supporting the existence of the mechanism has been reported, knowledge regarding its precise mode of action is still limited. The currently available evidence suggests similarities of the plant mechanism with respect to both design principles and molecular components involved to the very well characterized system active in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. There the system has been implicated in cell morphogenesis as well as response to abiotic stresses such as osmotic challenges. Here the currently available knowledge on the yeast system will be reviewed initially to provide a framework for the subsequent discussion of the plant cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism. The review will then end with a discussion on possible design principles for the cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism and the function of the plant turgor pressure in this context.

  15. Teaching Basic Quantum Mechanics in Secondary School Using Concepts of Feynman Path Integrals Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanaro, Maria de los Angeles; Otero, Maria Rita; Arlego, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the teaching of basic quantum mechanics in high school. Rather than following the usual formalism, our approach is based on Feynman's path integral method. Our presentation makes use of simulation software and avoids sophisticated mathematical formalism. (Contains 3 figures.)

  16. High Gain Antenna System Deployment Mechanism Integration, Characterization, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parong, Fil; Russell, Blair; Garcen, Walter; Rose, Chris; Johnson, Chris; Huber, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The integration and deployment testing of the High Gain Antenna System for the Global Precipitation Measurement mission is summarized. The HGAS deployment mechanism is described. The gravity negation system configuration and its influence on vertical, ground-based, deployment tests are presented with test data and model predictions. A focus is made on the late discovery and resolution of a potentially mission degrading deployment interference condition. The interaction of the flight deployment mechanism, gravity negation mechanism, and use of dynamic modeling is described and lessons learned presented.

  17. High Gain Antenna System Deployment Mechanism Integration, Characterization, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parong, Fil; Russell, Blair; Garcen, Walter; Rose, Chris; Johnson, Chris; Huber, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The integration and deployment testing of the High Gain Antenna System (HGAS) for the Global Precipitation Measurement mission is summarized. The HGAS deployment mechanism is described. The gravity negation system configuration and its influence on vertical, ground-based deployment tests are presented with test data and model predictions. A focus is made on the late discovery and resolution of a potentially mission-degrading deployment interference condition. The interaction of the flight deployment mechanism, gravity-negation mechanism, and use of dynamic modeling is described and lessons learned presented

  18. Integrated random-aligned carbon nanotube layers: deformation mechanism under compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhiping; Gui, Xuchun; Gan, Qiming; Lin, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Yuan; Zhang, Wenhui; Xiang, Rong; Cao, Anyuan; Tang, Zikang

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have the potential to construct highly compressible and elastic macroscopic structures such as films, aerogels and sponges. The structure-related deformation mechanism determines the mechanical behavior of those structures and niche applications. Here, we show a novel strategy to integrate aligned and random nanotube layers and reveal their deformation mechanism under uniaxial compression with a large range of strain and cyclic testing. Integrated nanotube layers deform sequentially with different mechanisms due to the distinct morphology of each layer. While the aligned layer forms buckles under compression, nanotubes in the random layer tend to be parallel and form bundles, resulting in the integration of quite different properties (strength and stiffness) and correspondingly distinct plateau regions in the stress-strain curves. Our results indicate a great promise of constructing hierarchical carbon nanotube structures with tailored energy absorption properties, for applications such as cushioning and buffering layers in microelectromechanical systems.Carbon nanotubes have the potential to construct highly compressible and elastic macroscopic structures such as films, aerogels and sponges. The structure-related deformation mechanism determines the mechanical behavior of those structures and niche applications. Here, we show a novel strategy to integrate aligned and random nanotube layers and reveal their deformation mechanism under uniaxial compression with a large range of strain and cyclic testing. Integrated nanotube layers deform sequentially with different mechanisms due to the distinct morphology of each layer. While the aligned layer forms buckles under compression, nanotubes in the random layer tend to be parallel and form bundles, resulting in the integration of quite different properties (strength and stiffness) and correspondingly distinct plateau regions in the stress-strain curves. Our results indicate a great promise of

  19. State of Charge Dependent Mechanical Integrity Behavior of 18650 Lithium-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Liu, Binghe; Hu, Dayong

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the mechanism of mechanical deformation/stress-induced electrical failure of lithium–ion batteries (LIBs) is important in crash-safety design of power LIBs. The state of charge (SOC) of LIBs is a critical factor in their electrochemical performance; however, the influence of SOC with mechanical integrity of LIBs remains unclear. This study investigates the electrochemical failure behaviors of LIBs with various SOCs under both compression and bending loadings, underpinned by the short circuit phenomenon. Mechanical behaviors of the whole LIB body, which is regarded as an intact structure, were analyzed in terms of structure stiffness. Results showed that the mechanical behaviors of LIBs depend highly on SOC. Experimental verification on the cathode and anode sheet compression tests show that higher SOC with more lithium inserted in the anode leads to higher structure stiffness. In the bending tests, failure strain upon occurrence of short circuit has an inverse linear relationship with the SOC value. These results may shed light on the fundamental physical mechanism of mechanical integrity LIBs in relation to inherent electrochemical status.

  20. State of Charge Dependent Mechanical Integrity Behavior of 18650 Lithium-ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Liu, Binghe; Hu, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of mechanical deformation/stress-induced electrical failure of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is important in crash-safety design of power LIBs. The state of charge (SOC) of LIBs is a critical factor in their electrochemical performance; however, the influence of SOC with mechanical integrity of LIBs remains unclear. This study investigates the electrochemical failure behaviors of LIBs with various SOCs under both compression and bending loadings, underpinned by the short circuit phenomenon. Mechanical behaviors of the whole LIB body, which is regarded as an intact structure, were analyzed in terms of structure stiffness. Results showed that the mechanical behaviors of LIBs depend highly on SOC. Experimental verification on the cathode and anode sheet compression tests show that higher SOC with more lithium inserted in the anode leads to higher structure stiffness. In the bending tests, failure strain upon occurrence of short circuit has an inverse linear relationship with the SOC value. These results may shed light on the fundamental physical mechanism of mechanical integrity LIBs in relation to inherent electrochemical status. PMID:26911922

  1. State of Charge Dependent Mechanical Integrity Behavior of 18650 Lithium-ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Liu, Binghe; Hu, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of mechanical deformation/stress-induced electrical failure of lithium–ion batteries (LIBs) is important in crash-safety design of power LIBs. The state of charge (SOC) of LIBs is a critical factor in their electrochemical performance; however, the influence of SOC with mechanical integrity of LIBs remains unclear. This study investigates the electrochemical failure behaviors of LIBs with various SOCs under both compression and bending loadings, underpinned by the short circuit phenomenon. Mechanical behaviors of the whole LIB body, which is regarded as an intact structure, were analyzed in terms of structure stiffness. Results showed that the mechanical behaviors of LIBs depend highly on SOC. Experimental verification on the cathode and anode sheet compression tests show that higher SOC with more lithium inserted in the anode leads to higher structure stiffness. In the bending tests, failure strain upon occurrence of short circuit has an inverse linear relationship with the SOC value. These results may shed light on the fundamental physical mechanism of mechanical integrity LIBs in relation to inherent electrochemical status. PMID:26911922

  2. Online Supplementary ADP Learning Controller Design and Application to Power System Frequency Control With Large-Scale Wind Energy Integration.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wentao; Liu, Feng; Si, Jennie; He, Dawei; Harley, Ronald; Mei, Shengwei

    2016-08-01

    The emergence of smart grids has posed great challenges to traditional power system control given the multitude of new risk factors. This paper proposes an online supplementary learning controller (OSLC) design method to compensate the traditional power system controllers for coping with the dynamic power grid. The proposed OSLC is a supplementary controller based on approximate dynamic programming, which works alongside an existing power system controller. By introducing an action-dependent cost function as the optimization objective, the proposed OSLC is a nonidentifier-based method to provide an online optimal control adaptively as measurement data become available. The online learning of the OSLC enjoys the policy-search efficiency during policy iteration and the data efficiency of the least squares method. For the proposed OSLC, the stability of the controlled system during learning, the monotonic nature of the performance measure of the iterative supplementary controller, and the convergence of the iterative supplementary controller are proved. Furthermore, the efficacy of the proposed OSLC is demonstrated in a challenging power system frequency control problem in the presence of high penetration of wind generation.

  3. Integrating GIS with Distributed Applications Using Dynamic Data-Sharing Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, Robert A. ); Tzemos, Spyridon ); Stoops, LaMar R. )

    2002-08-21

    Effective integration of a stand-alone GIS (e.g., ArcView 3.x) into a complex distributed software application requires an efficient, reliable mechanism for passing data and function requests to and from the GIS component. This paper describes the use of dynamic data-sharing and inter-process communication mechanisms to integrate GIS capability into a multi-jurisdictional distributed emergency management information system. These mechanisms include dynamic layer updates from spatial and attribute information shared via a distributed relational database across multiple sites; storage of private and shared ViewMarks to facilitate consistent GIS views; and asynchronous inter-process communication using function queuing and a data sharing library.

  4. Li-ion Battery Separators, Mechanical Integrity and Failure Mechanisms Leading to Soft and Hard Internal Shorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sahraei, Elham; Wang, Kai

    2016-09-01

    Separator integrity is an important factor in preventing internal short circuit in lithium-ion batteries. Local penetration tests (nail or conical punch) often produce presumably sporadic results, where in exactly similar cell and test set-ups one cell goes to thermal runaway while the other shows minimal reactions. We conducted an experimental study of the separators under mechanical loading, and discovered two distinct deformation and failure mechanisms, which could explain the difference in short circuit characteristics of otherwise similar tests. Additionally, by investigation of failure modes, we provided a hypothesis about the process of formation of local “soft short circuits” in cells with undetectable failure. Finally, we proposed a criterion for predicting onset of soft short from experimental data.

  5. Li-ion Battery Separators, Mechanical Integrity and Failure Mechanisms Leading to Soft and Hard Internal Shorts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sahraei, Elham; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Separator integrity is an important factor in preventing internal short circuit in lithium-ion batteries. Local penetration tests (nail or conical punch) often produce presumably sporadic results, where in exactly similar cell and test set-ups one cell goes to thermal runaway while the other shows minimal reactions. We conducted an experimental study of the separators under mechanical loading, and discovered two distinct deformation and failure mechanisms, which could explain the difference in short circuit characteristics of otherwise similar tests. Additionally, by investigation of failure modes, we provided a hypothesis about the process of formation of local “soft short circuits” in cells with undetectable failure. Finally, we proposed a criterion for predicting onset of soft short from experimental data. PMID:27581185

  6. Li-ion Battery Separators, Mechanical Integrity and Failure Mechanisms Leading to Soft and Hard Internal Shorts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sahraei, Elham; Wang, Kai

    2016-09-01

    Separator integrity is an important factor in preventing internal short circuit in lithium-ion batteries. Local penetration tests (nail or conical punch) often produce presumably sporadic results, where in exactly similar cell and test set-ups one cell goes to thermal runaway while the other shows minimal reactions. We conducted an experimental study of the separators under mechanical loading, and discovered two distinct deformation and failure mechanisms, which could explain the difference in short circuit characteristics of otherwise similar tests. Additionally, by investigation of failure modes, we provided a hypothesis about the process of formation of local "soft short circuits" in cells with undetectable failure. Finally, we proposed a criterion for predicting onset of soft short from experimental data.

  7. Li-ion Battery Separators, Mechanical Integrity and Failure Mechanisms Leading to Soft and Hard Internal Shorts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sahraei, Elham; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Separator integrity is an important factor in preventing internal short circuit in lithium-ion batteries. Local penetration tests (nail or conical punch) often produce presumably sporadic results, where in exactly similar cell and test set-ups one cell goes to thermal runaway while the other shows minimal reactions. We conducted an experimental study of the separators under mechanical loading, and discovered two distinct deformation and failure mechanisms, which could explain the difference in short circuit characteristics of otherwise similar tests. Additionally, by investigation of failure modes, we provided a hypothesis about the process of formation of local "soft short circuits" in cells with undetectable failure. Finally, we proposed a criterion for predicting onset of soft short from experimental data. PMID:27581185

  8. Multiscale mechanical integrity of human supraspinatus tendon in shear after elastin depletion.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fei; Lake, Spencer P

    2016-10-01

    Human supraspinatus tendon (SST) exhibits region-specific nonlinear mechanical properties under tension, which have been attributed to its complex multiaxial physiological loading environment. However, the mechanical response and underlying multiscale mechanism regulating SST behavior under other loading scenarios are poorly understood. Furthermore, little is known about the contribution of elastin to tendon mechanics. We hypothesized that (1) SST exhibits region-specific shear mechanical properties, (2) fiber sliding is the predominant mode of local matrix deformation in SST in shear, and (3) elastin helps maintain SST mechanical integrity by facilitating force transfer among collagen fibers. Through the use of biomechanical testing and multiphoton microscopy, we measured the multiscale mechanical behavior of human SST in shear before and after elastase treatment. Three distinct SST regions showed similar stresses and microscale deformation. Collagen fiber reorganization and sliding were physical mechanisms observed as the SST response to shear loading. Measures of microscale deformation were highly variable, likely due to a high degree of extracellular matrix heterogeneity. After elastase treatment, tendon exhibited significantly decreased stresses under shear loading, particularly at low strains. These results show that elastin contributes to tendon mechanics in shear, further complementing our understanding of multiscale tendon structure-function relationships.

  9. Multiscale mechanical integrity of human supraspinatus tendon in shear after elastin depletion.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fei; Lake, Spencer P

    2016-10-01

    Human supraspinatus tendon (SST) exhibits region-specific nonlinear mechanical properties under tension, which have been attributed to its complex multiaxial physiological loading environment. However, the mechanical response and underlying multiscale mechanism regulating SST behavior under other loading scenarios are poorly understood. Furthermore, little is known about the contribution of elastin to tendon mechanics. We hypothesized that (1) SST exhibits region-specific shear mechanical properties, (2) fiber sliding is the predominant mode of local matrix deformation in SST in shear, and (3) elastin helps maintain SST mechanical integrity by facilitating force transfer among collagen fibers. Through the use of biomechanical testing and multiphoton microscopy, we measured the multiscale mechanical behavior of human SST in shear before and after elastase treatment. Three distinct SST regions showed similar stresses and microscale deformation. Collagen fiber reorganization and sliding were physical mechanisms observed as the SST response to shear loading. Measures of microscale deformation were highly variable, likely due to a high degree of extracellular matrix heterogeneity. After elastase treatment, tendon exhibited significantly decreased stresses under shear loading, particularly at low strains. These results show that elastin contributes to tendon mechanics in shear, further complementing our understanding of multiscale tendon structure-function relationships. PMID:27472764

  10. A universal data access and protocol integration mechanism for smart home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Pengfei; Yang, Qi; Zhang, Xuan

    2013-03-01

    With the lack of standardized or completely missing communication interfaces in home electronics, there is no perfect solution to address every aspect in smart homes based on existing protocols and technologies. In addition, the central control unit (CCU) of smart home system working point-to-point between the multiple application interfaces and the underlying hardware interfaces leads to its complicated architecture and unpleasant performance. A flexible data access and protocol integration mechanism is required. The current paper offers a universal, comprehensive data access and protocol integration mechanism for a smart home. The universal mechanism works as a middleware adapter with unified agreements of the communication interfaces and protocols, offers an abstraction of the application level from the hardware specific and decoupling the hardware interface modules from the application level. Further abstraction for the application interfaces and the underlying hardware interfaces are executed based on adaption layer to provide unified interfaces for more flexible user applications and hardware protocol integration. This new universal mechanism fundamentally changes the architecture of the smart home and in some way meets the practical requirement of smart homes more flexible and desirable.

  11. Modelling the dynamics of motion integration with a new luminance-gated diffusion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tlapale, Emilien; Masson, Guillaume S; Kornprobst, Pierre

    2010-08-01

    The dynamics of motion integration show striking similarities when observed at neuronal, psychophysical, and oculomotor levels. Based on the inter-relation and complementary insights given by those dynamics, our goal was to test how basic mechanisms of dynamical cortical processing can be incorporated in a dynamical model to solve several aspects of 2D motion integration and segmentation. Our model is inspired by the hierarchical processing stages of the primate visual cortex: we describe the interactions between several layers processing local motion and form information through feedforward, feedback, and inhibitive lateral connections. Also, following perceptual studies concerning contour integration and physiological studies of receptive fields, we postulate that motion estimation takes advantage of another low-level cue, which is luminance smoothness along edges or surfaces, in order to gate recurrent motion diffusion. With such a model, we successfully reproduced the temporal dynamics of motion integration on a wide range of simple motion stimuli: line segments, rotating ellipses, plaids, and barber poles. Furthermore, we showed that the proposed computational rule of luminance-gated diffusion of motion information is sufficient to explain a large set of contextual modulations of motion integration and segmentation in more elaborated stimuli such as chopstick illusions, simulated aperture problems, or rotating diamonds. As a whole, in this paper we proposed a new basal luminance-driven motion integration mechanism as an alternative to less parsimonious models, we carefully investigated the dynamics of motion integration, and we established a distinction between simple and complex stimuli according to the kind of information required to solve their ambiguities.

  12. Neural Mechanisms for Integrating Prior Knowledge and Likelihood in Value-Based Probabilistic Inference

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Chih-Chung; Yu, Chia-Chen; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2015-01-01

    In Bayesian decision theory, knowledge about the probabilities of possible outcomes is captured by a prior distribution and a likelihood function. The prior reflects past knowledge and the likelihood summarizes current sensory information. The two combined (integrated) form a posterior distribution that allows estimation of the probability of different possible outcomes. In this study, we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying Bayesian integration using a novel lottery decision task in which both prior knowledge and likelihood information about reward probability were systematically manipulated on a trial-by-trial basis. Consistent with Bayesian integration, as sample size increased, subjects tended to weigh likelihood information more compared with prior information. Using fMRI in humans, we found that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) correlated with the mean of the posterior distribution, a statistic that reflects the integration of prior knowledge and likelihood of reward probability. Subsequent analysis revealed that both prior and likelihood information were represented in mPFC and that the neural representations of prior and likelihood in mPFC reflected changes in the behaviorally estimated weights assigned to these different sources of information in response to changes in the environment. Together, these results establish the role of mPFC in prior-likelihood integration and highlight its involvement in representing and integrating these distinct sources of information. PMID:25632152

  13. Neural mechanisms for integrating prior knowledge and likelihood in value-based probabilistic inference.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chih-Chung; Yu, Chia-Chen; Maloney, Laurence T; Wu, Shih-Wei

    2015-01-28

    In Bayesian decision theory, knowledge about the probabilities of possible outcomes is captured by a prior distribution and a likelihood function. The prior reflects past knowledge and the likelihood summarizes current sensory information. The two combined (integrated) form a posterior distribution that allows estimation of the probability of different possible outcomes. In this study, we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying Bayesian integration using a novel lottery decision task in which both prior knowledge and likelihood information about reward probability were systematically manipulated on a trial-by-trial basis. Consistent with Bayesian integration, as sample size increased, subjects tended to weigh likelihood information more compared with prior information. Using fMRI in humans, we found that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) correlated with the mean of the posterior distribution, a statistic that reflects the integration of prior knowledge and likelihood of reward probability. Subsequent analysis revealed that both prior and likelihood information were represented in mPFC and that the neural representations of prior and likelihood in mPFC reflected changes in the behaviorally estimated weights assigned to these different sources of information in response to changes in the environment. Together, these results establish the role of mPFC in prior-likelihood integration and highlight its involvement in representing and integrating these distinct sources of information. PMID:25632152

  14. Hebbian mechanisms help explain development of multisensory integration in the superior colliculus: a neural network model.

    PubMed

    Cuppini, C; Magosso, E; Rowland, B; Stein, B; Ursino, M

    2012-12-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) integrates relevant sensory information (visual, auditory, somatosensory) from several cortical and subcortical structures, to program orientation responses to external events. However, this capacity is not present at birth, and it is acquired only through interactions with cross-modal events during maturation. Mathematical models provide a quantitative framework, valuable in helping to clarify the specific neural mechanisms underlying the maturation of the multisensory integration in the SC. We extended a neural network model of the adult SC (Cuppini et al., Front Integr Neurosci 4:1-15, 2010) to describe the development of this phenomenon starting from an immature state, based on known or suspected anatomy and physiology, in which: (1) AES afferents are present but weak, (2) Responses are driven from non-AES afferents, and (3) The visual inputs have a marginal spatial tuning. Sensory experience was modeled by repeatedly presenting modality-specific and cross-modal stimuli. Synapses in the network were modified by simple Hebbian learning rules. As a consequence of this exposure, (1) Receptive fields shrink and come into spatial register, and (2) SC neurons gained the adult characteristic integrative properties: enhancement, depression, and inverse effectiveness. Importantly, the unique architecture of the model guided the development so that integration became dependent on the relationship between the cortical input and the SC. Manipulations of the statistics of the experience during the development changed the integrative profiles of the neurons, and results matched well with the results of physiological studies. PMID:23011260

  15. Development and implementation of an automatic integration system for fibre optic sensors in the braiding process with the objective of online-monitoring of composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufenbach, W.; Gude, M.; Czulak, A.; Kretschmann, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Increasing economic, political and ecological pressure leads to steadily rising percentage of modern processing and manufacturing processes for fibre reinforced polymers in industrial batch production. Component weights beneath a level achievable by classic construction materials, which lead to a reduced energy and cost balance during product lifetime, justify the higher fabrication costs. However, complex quality control and failure prediction slow down the substitution by composite materials. High-resolution fibre-optic sensors (FOS), due their low diameter, high measuring point density and simple handling, show a high applicability potential for an automated sensor-integration in manufacturing processes, and therefore the online monitoring of composite products manufactured in industrial scale. Integrated sensors can be used to monitor manufacturing processes, part tests as well as the component structure during product life cycle, which simplifies allows quality control during production and the optimization of single manufacturing processes.[1;2] Furthermore, detailed failure analyses lead to a enhanced understanding of failure processes appearing in composite materials. This leads to a lower wastrel number and products of a higher value and longer product life cycle, whereby costs, material and energy are saved. This work shows an automation approach for FOS-integration in the braiding process. For that purpose a braiding wheel has been supplemented with an appliance for automatic sensor application, which has been used to manufacture preforms of high-pressure composite vessels with FOS-networks integrated between the fibre layers. All following manufacturing processes (vacuum infiltration, curing) and component tests (quasi-static pressure test, programmed delamination) were monitored with the help of the integrated sensor networks. Keywords: SHM, high-pressure composite vessel, braiding, automated sensor integration, pressure test, quality control, optic

  16. Physical and perceptual factors shape the neural mechanisms that integrate audiovisual signals in speech comprehension.

    PubMed

    Lee, HweeLing; Noppeney, Uta

    2011-08-01

    Face-to-face communication challenges the human brain to integrate information from auditory and visual senses with linguistic representations. Yet the role of bottom-up physical (spectrotemporal structure) input and top-down linguistic constraints in shaping the neural mechanisms specialized for integrating audiovisual speech signals are currently unknown. Participants were presented with speech and sinewave speech analogs in visual, auditory, and audiovisual modalities. Before the fMRI study, they were trained to perceive physically identical sinewave speech analogs as speech (SWS-S) or nonspeech (SWS-N). Comparing audiovisual integration (interactions) of speech, SWS-S, and SWS-N revealed a posterior-anterior processing gradient within the left superior temporal sulcus/gyrus (STS/STG): Bilateral posterior STS/STG integrated audiovisual inputs regardless of spectrotemporal structure or speech percept; in left mid-STS, the integration profile was primarily determined by the spectrotemporal structure of the signals; more anterior STS regions discarded spectrotemporal structure and integrated audiovisual signals constrained by stimulus intelligibility and the availability of linguistic representations. In addition to this "ventral" processing stream, a "dorsal" circuitry encompassing posterior STS/STG and left inferior frontal gyrus differentially integrated audiovisual speech and SWS signals. Indeed, dynamic causal modeling and Bayesian model comparison provided strong evidence for a parallel processing structure encompassing a ventral and a dorsal stream with speech intelligibility training enhancing the connectivity between posterior and anterior STS/STG. In conclusion, audiovisual speech comprehension emerges in an interactive process with the integration of auditory and visual signals being progressively constrained by stimulus intelligibility along the STS and spectrotemporal structure in a dorsal fronto-temporal circuitry.

  17. tRNAscan-SE On-line: integrating search and context for analysis of transfer RNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Todd M.; Chan, Patricia P.

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput genome sequencing continues to grow the need for rapid, accurate genome annotation and tRNA genes constitute the largest family of essential, ever-present non-coding RNA genes. Newly developed tRNAscan-SE 2.0 has advanced the state-of-the-art methodology in tRNA gene detection and functional prediction, captured by rich new content of the companion Genomic tRNA Database. Previously, web-server tRNA detection was isolated from knowledge of existing tRNAs and their annotation. In this update of the tRNAscan-SE On-line resource, we tie together improvements in tRNA classification with greatly enhanced biological context via dynamically generated links between web server search results, the most relevant genes in the GtRNAdb and interactive, rich genome context provided by UCSC genome browsers. The tRNAscan-SE On-line web server can be accessed at http://trna.ucsc.edu/tRNAscan-SE/. PMID:27174935

  18. tRNAscan-SE On-line: integrating search and context for analysis of transfer RNA genes.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Todd M; Chan, Patricia P

    2016-07-01

    High-throughput genome sequencing continues to grow the need for rapid, accurate genome annotation and tRNA genes constitute the largest family of essential, ever-present non-coding RNA genes. Newly developed tRNAscan-SE 2.0 has advanced the state-of-the-art methodology in tRNA gene detection and functional prediction, captured by rich new content of the companion Genomic tRNA Database. Previously, web-server tRNA detection was isolated from knowledge of existing tRNAs and their annotation. In this update of the tRNAscan-SE On-line resource, we tie together improvements in tRNA classification with greatly enhanced biological context via dynamically generated links between web server search results, the most relevant genes in the GtRNAdb and interactive, rich genome context provided by UCSC genome browsers. The tRNAscan-SE On-line web server can be accessed at http://trna.ucsc.edu/tRNAscan-SE/. PMID:27174935

  19. Switching modes in corticogenesis: mechanisms of neuronal subtype transitions and integration in the cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Toma, Kenichi; Hanashima, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Information processing in the cerebral cortex requires the activation of diverse neurons across layers and columns, which are established through the coordinated production of distinct neuronal subtypes and their placement along the three-dimensional axis. Over recent years, our knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of the specification and integration of neuronal subtypes in the cerebral cortex has progressed rapidly. In this review, we address how the unique cytoarchitecture of the neocortex is established from a limited number of progenitors featuring neuronal identity transitions during development. We further illuminate the molecular mechanisms of the subtype-specific integration of these neurons into the cerebral cortex along the radial and tangential axis, and we discuss these key features to exemplify how neocortical circuit formation accomplishes economical connectivity while maintaining plasticity and evolvability to adapt to environmental changes. PMID:26321900

  20. Hybrid Processing: the Impact of Mechanical and Surface Thermal Treatment Integration onto the Machine Parts Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeeba, V. Yu; Ivancivsky, V. V.; Kutyshkin, A. V.; Parts, K. A.

    2016-04-01

    The comparative analysis of the two hybrid process technologies, which are based on the integration of mechanical treatment (abrasive grinding or turning) and a surface heat strengthening by high frequency current on the same processing equipment, is given in the paper. The acquired results demonstrate that the suggested integrating approach allows carrying out the processing on the one technological base, which leads to the increase in the quality of the machine parts surface layer. The conducted experimental research proves that a minor stock allowance value for the final mechanical processing (sparking out or diamond smoothing) ensures the absence of defects such as local abatement zones and provides strain hardening of the work piece surface. This leads to the formation of the work-hardened layer of 0.01 - 0.03 mm, increase in microhardness value by 12 - 17% and the level of residual compressive stress in the surface layer by 10 - 21 % respectively.

  1. Path integral action and Chern-Simons quantum mechanics in noncommutative plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Scholtz, Frederik G.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the connection between the path integral representation of propagators in the coherent state basis with additional degrees of freedom (Rohwer et al 2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 345302) and the one without any such degrees of freedom (Gangopadhyay and Scholtz 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 241602) is established. We further demonstrate that the path integral formalism developed in the noncommutative plane using the coherent state basis leads to a quantum mechanics involving a Chern-Simons term in momentum which is of noncommutative origin. The origin of this term from the Bopp-shift point of view is also investigated. A relativistic generalization of the action derived from the path integral framework is then proposed. Finally, we construct a map from the commutative quantum Hall system to a particle in a noncommutative plane moving in a magnetic field. The value of the noncommutative parameter from this map is then computed and is found to agree with previous results.

  2. Integration and Co-Development of the MCM and IUPAC Databases: Providing Kinetic Data and Mechanisms to the Atmospheric Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, G. D.; Young, J. C.; Barjat, H. R.; Pascoe, S.; Rickard, A. R.; Martin, C. J.; Pilling, M. J.; Cox, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    Chemistry is central to both climate change and air quality. Predictions of the future state of the atmosphere and the development of appropriate mitigation measures rely on models, which necessarily incorporate chemistry. The link between fundamental laboratory research and atmospheric models is provided by (i) databases of rate coefficients and products for individual reactions, (ii) chemical mechanisms that assemble the appropriate reactions involved in the atmospheric oxidation of the important emitted species. The UK is a major international centre in both of these areas, through the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) database at Cambridge and the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) at Leeds. The MCM (http://mcm.leeds.ac.uk/MCM/) is a near-explicit chemical mechanism describing the gas-phase tropospheric degradation of a series of primary emitted volatile organic compounds. The current version of the MCM, MCMv3.1 contains 135 primary emitted VOCs which lead to a mechanism containing ~ 5900 species and 13500 reactions. Web based tools are available so that the user can easily browse through the entire mechanism and extract subsets. The IUPAC sub committee for Gas Kinetic Data Evaluation provides evaluated kinetic and photochemical data through both peer reviewed articles and a dedicated website (http://www.iupac-kinetic.ch.cam.ac.uk/). The website provides datasheet evaluations on ~ 900 gas-phase, photolysis and heterogeneous reactions. The rationale behind the work presented is the creation of a common interactive tool for atmospheric chemistry through the integration of the IUPAC and MCM databases. The integration of these two complementary databases will also serve to create a community platform for the dissemination of data and tools. Crucially, the integration of the two databases makes use of developments being made by other chemo-informatics communities using emerging standardised formats and nomenclature. The provision of the data

  3. Data integration reveals key homeostatic mechanisms following low dose radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, Susan C.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Sowa, Marianne B.; Stenoien, David L.; Weber, Thomas J.; Morgan, William F.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2015-05-15

    The goal of this study was to define pathways regulated by low dose radiation to understand how biological systems respond to subtle perturbations in their environment and prioritize pathways for human health assessment. Using an in vitro 3-D human full thickness skin model, we have examined the temporal response of dermal and epidermal layers to 10 cGy X-ray using transcriptomic, proteomic, phosphoproteomic and metabolomic platforms. Bioinformatics analysis of each dataset independently revealed potential signaling mechanisms affected by low dose radiation, and integrating data shed additional insight into the mechanisms regulating low dose responses in human tissue. We examined direct interactions among datasets (top down approach) and defined several hubs as significant regulators, including transcription factors (YY1, MYC and CREB1), kinases (CDK2, PLK1) and a protease (MMP2). These data indicate a shift in response across time — with an increase in DNA repair, tissue remodeling and repression of cell proliferation acutely (24–72 h). Pathway-based integration (bottom up approach) identified common molecular and pathway responses to low dose radiation, including oxidative stress, nitric oxide signaling and transcriptional regulation through the SP1 factor that would not have been identified by the individual data sets. Significant regulation of key downstream metabolites of nitrative stress was measured within these pathways. Among the features identified in our study, the regulation of MMP2 and SP1 was experimentally validated. Our results demonstrate the advantage of data integration to broadly define the pathways and networks that represent the mechanisms by which complex biological systems respond to perturbation. - Highlights: • Low dose ionizing radiation altered homeostasis in 3D skin tissue model. • Global gene/protein/metabolite data integrated using complementary statistical approaches • Time and location-specific change in matrix regulation

  4. From the phenomenology to the mechanisms of consciousness: Integrated Information Theory 3.0.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Masafumi; Albantakis, Larissa; Tononi, Giulio

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents Integrated Information Theory (IIT) of consciousness 3.0, which incorporates several advances over previous formulations. IIT starts from phenomenological axioms: information says that each experience is specific--it is what it is by how it differs from alternative experiences; integration says that it is unified--irreducible to non-interdependent components; exclusion says that it has unique borders and a particular spatio-temporal grain. These axioms are formalized into postulates that prescribe how physical mechanisms, such as neurons or logic gates, must be configured to generate experience (phenomenology). The postulates are used to define intrinsic information as "differences that make a difference" within a system, and integrated information as information specified by a whole that cannot be reduced to that specified by its parts. By applying the postulates both at the level of individual mechanisms and at the level of systems of mechanisms, IIT arrives at an identity: an experience is a maximally irreducible conceptual structure (MICS, a constellation of concepts in qualia space), and the set of elements that generates it constitutes a complex. According to IIT, a MICS specifies the quality of an experience and integrated information ΦMax its quantity. From the theory follow several results, including: a system of mechanisms may condense into a major complex and non-overlapping minor complexes; the concepts that specify the quality of an experience are always about the complex itself and relate only indirectly to the external environment; anatomical connectivity influences complexes and associated MICS; a complex can generate a MICS even if its elements are inactive; simple systems can be minimally conscious; complicated systems can be unconscious; there can be true "zombies"--unconscious feed-forward systems that are functionally equivalent to conscious complexes. PMID:24811198

  5. From the phenomenology to the mechanisms of consciousness: Integrated Information Theory 3.0.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Masafumi; Albantakis, Larissa; Tononi, Giulio

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents Integrated Information Theory (IIT) of consciousness 3.0, which incorporates several advances over previous formulations. IIT starts from phenomenological axioms: information says that each experience is specific--it is what it is by how it differs from alternative experiences; integration says that it is unified--irreducible to non-interdependent components; exclusion says that it has unique borders and a particular spatio-temporal grain. These axioms are formalized into postulates that prescribe how physical mechanisms, such as neurons or logic gates, must be configured to generate experience (phenomenology). The postulates are used to define intrinsic information as "differences that make a difference" within a system, and integrated information as information specified by a whole that cannot be reduced to that specified by its parts. By applying the postulates both at the level of individual mechanisms and at the level of systems of mechanisms, IIT arrives at an identity: an experience is a maximally irreducible conceptual structure (MICS, a constellation of concepts in qualia space), and the set of elements that generates it constitutes a complex. According to IIT, a MICS specifies the quality of an experience and integrated information ΦMax its quantity. From the theory follow several results, including: a system of mechanisms may condense into a major complex and non-overlapping minor complexes; the concepts that specify the quality of an experience are always about the complex itself and relate only indirectly to the external environment; anatomical connectivity influences complexes and associated MICS; a complex can generate a MICS even if its elements are inactive; simple systems can be minimally conscious; complicated systems can be unconscious; there can be true "zombies"--unconscious feed-forward systems that are functionally equivalent to conscious complexes.

  6. From the Phenomenology to the Mechanisms of Consciousness: Integrated Information Theory 3.0

    PubMed Central

    Tononi, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents Integrated Information Theory (IIT) of consciousness 3.0, which incorporates several advances over previous formulations. IIT starts from phenomenological axioms: information says that each experience is specific – it is what it is by how it differs from alternative experiences; integration says that it is unified – irreducible to non-interdependent components; exclusion says that it has unique borders and a particular spatio-temporal grain. These axioms are formalized into postulates that prescribe how physical mechanisms, such as neurons or logic gates, must be configured to generate experience (phenomenology). The postulates are used to define intrinsic information as “differences that make a difference” within a system, and integrated information as information specified by a whole that cannot be reduced to that specified by its parts. By applying the postulates both at the level of individual mechanisms and at the level of systems of mechanisms, IIT arrives at an identity: an experience is a maximally irreducible conceptual structure (MICS, a constellation of concepts in qualia space), and the set of elements that generates it constitutes a complex. According to IIT, a MICS specifies the quality of an experience and integrated information ΦMax its quantity. From the theory follow several results, including: a system of mechanisms may condense into a major complex and non-overlapping minor complexes; the concepts that specify the quality of an experience are always about the complex itself and relate only indirectly to the external environment; anatomical connectivity influences complexes and associated MICS; a complex can generate a MICS even if its elements are inactive; simple systems can be minimally conscious; complicated systems can be unconscious; there can be true “zombies” – unconscious feed-forward systems that are functionally equivalent to conscious complexes. PMID:24811198

  7. Assuring Mechanical Integrity of Refinery Equipment Through Global ON-Stream Inspection

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Berthold

    2006-02-22

    The development of global on-stream inspection technology will have a dramatic effect on how refinery operations are managed in the U.S. in the future. Global on-stream inspection will provide assurance of the mechanical integrity of critical plant equipment and will allow refineries to operate more efficiently with less impact on our environment and with an increased margin of safety.

  8. Integrated Design of an Active Torque Balancing Mechanism and a Planetary Gear Reducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jing; Yao, Yanan

    In this paper, a novel concept of integrating an active torque balancing mechanism with a planetary gear reducer is presented. This integrated device is composed of a speed reduction unit and a torque compensation unit. The speed reduction unit, which contains a two-stage planetary gear train, can make the device to transform the speed and torque for meeting the needed requirements of the machine. The torque compensation unit, which consists of a differential gear train and a servo motor, can make the device to balance the input torque fluctuations of the mechanical system. Through an analytical method, an exact control function which can totally eliminate the input torque fluctuation of the driving motor of the machine is derived for the servo motor of the integrated device. At the same time, by adjusting the structure parameters of the differential gear train, the torque fluctuation of the servo motor can be limited too. Besides, in order to obtain a satisfactory tradeoff between the torque fluctuations of the driving motor and the servo motor, an optimization method is developed to find an appropriate control function for the servo motor. In addition, an integrated approach is proposed to optimize both the structure parameters of the differential gear train and the control function of the servo motor. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the design procedures and to show their feasibilities.

  9. Clean assembly and integration techniques for the Hubble Space Telescope High Fidelity Mechanical Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, David W.; Hedgeland, Randy J.

    1994-01-01

    A mechanical simulator of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Aft Shroud was built to perform verification testing of the Servicing Mission Scientific Instruments (SI's) and to provide a facility for astronaut training. All assembly, integration, and test activities occurred under the guidance of a contamination control plan, and all work was reviewed by a contamination engineer prior to implementation. An integrated approach was followed in which materials selection, manufacturing, assembly, subsystem integration, and end product use were considered and controlled to ensure that the use of the High Fidelity Mechanical Simulator (HFMS) as a verification tool would not contaminate mission critical hardware. Surfaces were cleaned throughout manufacturing, assembly, and integration, and reverification was performed following major activities. Direct surface sampling was the preferred method of verification, but access and material constraints led to the use of indirect methods as well. Although surface geometries and coatings often made contamination verification difficult, final contamination sampling and monitoring demonstrated the ability to maintain a class M5.5 environment with surface levels less than 400B inside the HFMS.

  10. Optimization of the mechanical properties of composite materials with integrated embedded sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, Kristin; Rye, Patrick; Ghezzo, Fabrizia; Starr, Anthony; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2006-03-01

    The increasing demand for in-service structural health monitoring has stimulated efforts to integrate self and environmental sensing capabilities into materials and structures. To sense damage within composite materials, we are developing a compact network microsensor array to be integrated into the material. These structurally-integrated embedded microsensors render the composite information-based, so that it can monitor and report on the local structural environment, on request or in real-time as necessary. Here we present efforts to characterize the structural effects of embedding these sensors. Quasi-static three-point bending (short beam shear) and fatigue three-point bending (short beam shear) tests are conducted in order to characterize the effects of introducing sensors, or suitable dummy sensors in the form of chip resistors, and commonly used circuit board material, namely G-10/FR4 Garolite on the various mechanical properties of the host structural composite material. Furthermore, various methods and geometries of embedding the microsensors are examined in order to determine the technique that optimizes the mechanical properties of the host composite material. The work described here is part of an ongoing effort to understand the structural effects of integrating microsensor networks into a host composite material.

  11. On-line two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometric detection using a fully electric isolated mechanical valve.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Felix J; Montealegre, Cristina; Neusüß, Christian

    2016-04-01

    CE is becoming more and more important in many fields of bioanalytical chemistry. Besides optical detection, hyphenation to ESI-MS detection is increasingly applied for sensitive identification purposes. Unfortunately, many CE techniques and methods established in research and industry are not compatible to ESI-MS since essential components of the background electrolyte interfere in ES ionization. In order to identify unknown peaks in established CE methods, here, a heart-cut 2D-CE separation system is introduced using a fully isolated mechanical valve with an internal loop of only 20 nL. In this system, the sample is separated using potentially any non-ESI compatible method in the first separation dimension. Subsequently, the portion of interest is cut by the internal sample loop of the valve and reintroduced to the second dimension where the interfering compounds are removed, followed by ESI-MS detection. When comparing the separation efficiency of the system with the valve to a system using a continuous capillary only a slight increase in peak width is observed. Ultraviolet/visible detection is integrated in the first dimension for switching time determination, enabling reproducible cutting of peaks of interest. The feasibility of the system is successfully demonstrated by a 2D analysis of a BSA tryptic digest sample using a nonvolatile (phosphate based) background electrolyte in the first dimension.

  12. BioDataServer: a SQL-based service for the online integration of life science data.

    PubMed

    Freier, Andreas; Hofestädt, Ralf; Lange, Matthias; Scholz, Uwe; Stephanik, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Regarding molecular biology, we see an exponential growth of data and knowledge. Among others, this fact is reflected in more than 300 molecular databases which are readily available on the Internet. The usage of these data requires integration tools capable of complex information fusion processes. This paper will present a novel concept for user specific integration of life science data. Our approach is based on a mediator architecture in conjunction with freely adjustable data schemes. The implemented prototype is called BioDataServer and can be accessed on the Internet: http://integration.genophen.de. To realize a comfortable usage of the resulted data sets of the integration process, a SQL-based query language and a XML data format were developed and implemented.

  13. On-line sample preconcentration with chemical derivatization of bacterial biomarkers by capillary electrophoresis: a dual strategy for integrating sample pretreatment with chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Ptolemy, Adam S; Le Bihan, Marianne; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2005-11-01

    Simple, selective yet sensitive methods to quantify low-abundance bacterial biomarkers derived from complex samples are required in clinical, biological, and environmental applications. In this report, a new strategy to integrate sample pretreatment with chemical analysis is investigated using on-line preconcentration with chemical derivatization by CE and UV detection. Single-step enantioselective analysis of muramic acid (MA) and diaminopimelic acid (DAP) was achieved by CE via sample enrichment by dynamic pH junction with ortho-phthalaldehyde/N-acetyl-L-cysteine labeling directly in-capillary. The optimized method resulted in up to a 100-fold enhancement in concentration sensitivity compared to conventional off-line derivatization procedures. The method was also applied toward the detection of micromolar levels of MA and DAP excreted in the extracellular medium of Escherichia coli bacterial cell cultures. On-line preconcentration with chemical derivatization by CE represents a unique approach for conducting rapid, sensitive, and high-throughput analyses of other classes of amino acid and amino sugar metabolites with reduced sample handling, where the capillary functions simultaneously as a concentrator, microreactor, and chiral selector.

  14. On-line sample preconcentration with chemical derivatization of bacterial biomarkers by capillary electrophoresis: a dual strategy for integrating sample pretreatment with chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Ptolemy, Adam S; Le Bihan, Marianne; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2005-11-01

    Simple, selective yet sensitive methods to quantify low-abundance bacterial biomarkers derived from complex samples are required in clinical, biological, and environmental applications. In this report, a new strategy to integrate sample pretreatment with chemical analysis is investigated using on-line preconcentration with chemical derivatization by CE and UV detection. Single-step enantioselective analysis of muramic acid (MA) and diaminopimelic acid (DAP) was achieved by CE via sample enrichment by dynamic pH junction with ortho-phthalaldehyde/N-acetyl-L-cysteine labeling directly in-capillary. The optimized method resulted in up to a 100-fold enhancement in concentration sensitivity compared to conventional off-line derivatization procedures. The method was also applied toward the detection of micromolar levels of MA and DAP excreted in the extracellular medium of Escherichia coli bacterial cell cultures. On-line preconcentration with chemical derivatization by CE represents a unique approach for conducting rapid, sensitive, and high-throughput analyses of other classes of amino acid and amino sugar metabolites with reduced sample handling, where the capillary functions simultaneously as a concentrator, microreactor, and chiral selector. PMID:16200529

  15. Mobilization and Mechanism of Transcription of Integrated Self-Inactivating Lentiviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Hanawa, Hideki; Persons, Derek A.; Nienhuis, Arthur W.

    2005-01-01

    Permanent genetic modification of replicating primitive hematopoietic cells by an integrated vector has many potential therapeutic applications. Both oncoretroviral and lentiviral vectors have a predilection for integration into transcriptionally active genes, creating the potential for promoter activation or gene disruption. The use of self-inactivating (SIN) vectors in which a deletion of the enhancer and promoter sequences from the 3′ long terminal repeat (LTR) is copied over into the 5′ LTR during vector integration is designed to improve safety by reducing the risk of mobilization of the vector genome and the influence of the LTR on nearby cellular promoters. Our results indicate that SIN vectors are mobilized in cells expressing lentiviral proteins, with the frequency of mobilization influenced by features of the vector design. The mechanism of transcription of integrated vector genomes was evaluated using a promoter trap design with a vector encoding tat but lacking an upstream promoter in a cell line in which drug resistance depended on tat expression. In six clones studied, all transcripts originated from cryptic promoters either upstream or within the vector genome. We estimate that approximately 1 in 3,000 integrated vector genomes is transcribed, leading to the inference that activation of cryptic promoters must depend on local features of chromatin structure and the constellation of nearby regulatory elements as well as the nature of the regulatory elements within the vector. PMID:15956585

  16. HEBBIAN MECHANISMS HELP EXPLAIN DEVELOPMENT OF MULTISENSORY INTEGRATION IN THE SUPERIOR COLLICULUS: A NEURAL NETWORK MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Cuppini, C.; Magosso, E.; Rowland, B.; Stein, B.; Ursino, M.

    2013-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) integrates relevant sensory information (visual, auditory, somatosensory) from several cortical and subcortical structures, to program orientation responses to external events. However, this capacity is not present at birth, and it is acquired only through interactions with cross-modal events during maturation. Mathematical models provide a quantitative framework, valuable in helping to clarify the specific neural mechanisms underlying the maturation of the multisensory integration in the SC. We extended a neural network model of the adult SC (Cuppini et al. 2010) to describe the development of this phenomenon starting from an immature state, based on known or suspected anatomy and physiology, in which: 1) AES afferents are present but weak, 2) Responses are driven from non-AES afferents, and 3) The visual inputs have a marginal spatial tuning. Sensory experience was modelled by repeatedly presenting modality-specific and cross-modal stimuli. Synapses in the network were modified by simple Hebbian learning rules. As a consequence of this exposure, 1) Receptive fields shrink and come into spatial register, and 2) SC neurons gained the adult characteristic integrative properties: enhancement, depression, and inverse effectiveness. Importantly, the unique architecture of the model guided the development so that integration became dependent on the relationship between the cortical input and the SC. Manipulations of the statistics of the experience during the development changed the integrative profiles of the neurons, and results matched well with the results of physiological studies. PMID:23011260

  17. Other ways of seeing: From behavior to neural mechanisms in the online “visual” control of action with sensory substitution

    PubMed Central

    Proulx, Michael J.; Gwinnutt, James; Dell’Erba, Sara; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; de Sousa, Alexandra A.; Brown, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Vision is the dominant sense for perception-for-action in humans and other higher primates. Advances in sight restoration now utilize the other intact senses to provide information that is normally sensed visually through sensory substitution to replace missing visual information. Sensory substitution devices translate visual information from a sensor, such as a camera or ultrasound device, into a format that the auditory or tactile systems can detect and process, so the visually impaired can see through hearing or touch. Online control of action is essential for many daily tasks such as pointing, grasping and navigating, and adapting to a sensory substitution device successfully requires extensive learning. Here we review the research on sensory substitution for vision restoration in the context of providing the means of online control for action in the blind or blindfolded. It appears that the use of sensory substitution devices utilizes the neural visual system; this suggests the hypothesis that sensory substitution draws on the same underlying mechanisms as unimpaired visual control of action. Here we review the current state of the art for sensory substitution approaches to object recognition, localization, and navigation, and the potential these approaches have for revealing a metamodal behavioral and neural basis for the online control of action. PMID:26599473

  18. Efficacy and causal mechanism of an online social media intervention to increase physical activity: Results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingwen; Brackbill, Devon; Yang, Sijia; Centola, Damon

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify what features of social media – promotional messaging or peer networks – can increase physical activity. Method: A 13-week social media-based exercise program was conducted at a large Northeastern university in Philadelphia, PA. In a randomized controlled trial, 217 graduate students from the University were randomized to three conditions: a control condition with a basic online program for enrolling in weekly exercise classes led by instructors of the University for 13 weeks, a media condition that supplemented the basic program with weekly online promotional media messages that encourage physical activity, and a social condition that replaced the media content with an online network of four to six anonymous peers composed of other participants of the program, in which each participant was able to see their peers' progress in enrolling in classes. The primary outcome was the number of enrollments in exercise classes, and the secondary outcomes were self-reported physical activities. Data were collected in 2014. Results: Participants enrolled in 5.5 classes on average. Compared with enrollment in the control condition (mean = 4.5), promotional messages moderately increased enrollment (mean = 5.7, p = 0.08), while anonymous social networks significantly increased enrollment (mean = 6.3, p = 0.02). By the end of the program, participants in the social condition reported exercising moderately for an additional 1.6 days each week compared with the baseline, which was significantly more than an additional 0.8 days in the control condition. Conclusion: Social influence from anonymous online peers was more successful than promotional messages for improving physical activity. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02267369. PMID:26844132

  19. Integral Equation Theory of Molecular Solvation Coupled with Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanics Method in NWChem Package

    SciTech Connect

    Chuev, Gennady N.; Valiev, Marat; Fedotova, Marina V.

    2012-04-10

    We have developed a hybrid approach based on a combination of integral equation theory of molecular liquids and QM/MM methodology in NorthWest computational Chemistry (NWChem) software package. We have split the evaluations into conse- quent QM/MM and statistical mechanics calculations based on the one-dimensional reference interaction site model, which allows us to reduce signicantly the time of computation. The method complements QM/MM capabilities existing in the NWChem package. The accuracy of the presented method was tested through com- putation of water structure around several organic solutes and their hydration free energies. We have also evaluated the solvent effect on the conformational equilibria. The applicability and limitations of the developed approach are discussed.

  20. Best Practice Goes Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Bonita L.; Wojnar, Linda C.

    This article presents a best practice model for an online teacher education course, illustrating the process of integrating computer and reading literacies to increase learning and improve teaching. Six best practice components were included in the class design: integrative units, small group activities, representing to learn, classroom workshop,…

  1. In Situ Quantitative Mechanical Characterization and Integration of One Dimensional Metallic Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yang

    2011-12-01

    One dimensional (1-D) metallic nanostructures (e.g. nanowires, nanorods) have stimulated great interest recently as important building blocks for future nanoscale electronic and electromechanical devices. In this thesis work, gold and nickel nanowires with various diameters were successfully fabricated, and two dedicated platforms, based on (1) a novel micro mechanical device (MMD) assisted with a quantitative nanoindenter and (2) a TEM-AFM sample holder system, were developed and adopted to perform in situ tensile tests inside SEM and TEM on samples with diameter ranging from a few nanometers to hundreds nanometers. Size-dependent mechanical behavior and different fracture mechanisms of gold nanowires had been revealed and discussed. In addition, we discovered cold welding phenomenon for ultrathin gold nanowires (diameter < 10nm), which is anticipated to have potential applications in the future bottom-up integration of metallic 1-D nanostructures and next-generation interconnects for extremely dense logic circuits.

  2. Integrated modelling of transitions in mechanical conditions during casting and heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorborg, J.; Klinkhammer, J.; Heitzer, M.

    2015-06-01

    The mechanical material behaviour of a cast component changes significantly during casting and heat treatment. The big difference in temperature levels during the different process steps causes different deformation mechanisms to be active. The thermal gradients promote transient stresses that can lead to inelastic deformations, residual stresses and in some cases to defects in the final part. It is a big challenge to make a reasonable transition in the mechanical model, and hence material data, when modelling several different coupled process steps. It is important to use an integrated approach where the transition is included in the full load history of the part. When industrial examples are considered, the sequence of process steps typically also changes the thermal and mechanical boundary conditions significantly e.g. going from being mechanically constrained during casting to being supported point-wise during the heat treatment process. This change includes mapping of results and obtaining equilibrium in a new global system, where the further reaction forces from the supports must be handled with contact conditions to e.g. predict deformations due to gravity during solution heat treatment. The work presented in this paper is focused on modelling the mechanical fields, taking into account the changes in the mechanical material model at different temperature levels, and the transition in mechanical behaviour when the microstructure is changing during the different steps of the heat treatment process. The approach used is based on a unified model where creep effects are considered at high temperature and rate effects are included in general during cooling. Proposals are made to include cooling rate sensitivity, annealing and precipitation hardening via modification of mechanical properties in the different process steps.

  3. Integrating rock mechanics issues with repository design through design process principles and methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1996-04-01

    A good designer needs not only knowledge for designing (technical know-how that is used to generate alternative design solutions) but also must have knowledge about designing (appropriate principles and systematic methodology to follow). Concepts such as {open_quotes}design for manufacture{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}concurrent engineering{close_quotes} are widely used in the industry. In the field of rock engineering, only limited attention has been paid to the design process because design of structures in rock masses presents unique challenges to the designers as a result of the uncertainties inherent in characterization of geologic media. However, a stage has now been reached where we are be able to sufficiently characterize rock masses for engineering purposes and identify the rock mechanics issues involved but are still lacking engineering design principles and methodology to maximize our design performance. This paper discusses the principles and methodology of the engineering design process directed to integrating site characterization activities with design, construction and performance of an underground repository. Using the latest information from the Yucca Mountain Project on geology, rock mechanics and starter tunnel design, the current lack of integration is pointed out and it is shown how rock mechanics issues can be effectively interwoven with repository design through a systematic design process methodology leading to improved repository performance. In essence, the design process is seen as the use of design principles within an integrating design methodology, leading to innovative problem solving. In particular, a new concept of {open_quotes}Design for Constructibility and Performance{close_quotes} is introduced. This is discussed with respect to ten rock mechanics issues identified for repository design and performance.

  4. Structural integrity and failure mechanisms of a smart piezoelectric actuator under a cyclic bending mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sung-Choong; Goo, Nam Seo

    2008-08-01

    Information on the onset and evolution of damage within materials is essential for guaranteeing the integrity of actuator systems. The authors have evaluated the structural integrity and the failure mechanisms of smart composite actuators with a PZT ceramic plate under electric cyclic loading. For this, two kinds of actuators, actuator 1 and actuator 2, were manufactured. Prior to the main testing, performance testing was performed on the actuators to determine their resonant frequencies. Electric cyclic tests were conducted up to twenty million cycles. An acoustic emission technique was used for monitoring the damage evolution in real time. We observed the extent of the damage after testing using scanning electron microscopy and reflected optical microscopy to support characteristics in the acoustic emission behavior that corresponded to specific types of damage mechanisms. It was shown that the initial damage mechanism of the smart composite actuator under electric cyclic loading originated from the transgranular micro-fatigue damage in the PZT ceramic layer. With increasing cycles, a local intergranular crack initiated and developed onto the surface of the PZT ceramic layer or propagated into the internal layer. Finally, short-circuiting led to the electric breakdown of the actuator. These results were different depending on the drive frequencies and the configuration of the actuators. Moreover, we differentiated between the aforementioned damage mechanisms via AE signal pattern analyses based on the primary frequency and the waveform. From our results, we conclude that the drive frequency and the existence of a protecting layer are dominant factors in the structural integrity of the smart composite actuator.

  5. Novel in situ mechanical testers to enable integrated metal surface micro-machines.

    SciTech Connect

    Follstaedt, David Martin; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Hearne, Sean Joseph; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Dyck, Christopher William

    2005-10-01

    The ability to integrate metal and semiconductor micro-systems to perform highly complex functions, such as RF-MEMS, will depend on developing freestanding metal structures that offer improved conductivity, reflectivity, and mechanical properties. Three issues have prevented the proliferation of these systems: (1) warpage of active components due to through-thickness stress gradients, (2) limited component lifetimes due to fatigue, and (3) low yield strength. To address these issues, we focus on developing and implementing techniques to enable the direct study of the stress and microstructural evolution during electrodeposition and mechanical loading. The study of stress during electrodeposition of metal thin films is being accomplished by integrating a multi-beam optical stress sensor into an electrodeposition chamber. By coupling the in-situ stress information with ex-situ microstructural analysis, a scientific understanding of the sources of stress during electrodeposition will be obtained. These results are providing a foundation upon which to develop a stress-gradient-free thin film directly applicable to the production of freestanding metal structures. The issues of fatigue and yield strength are being addressed by developing novel surface micromachined tensile and bend testers, by interferometry, and by TEM analysis. The MEMS tensile tester has a ''Bosch'' etched hole to allow for direct viewing of the microstructure in a TEM before, during, and after loading. This approach allows for the quantitative measurements of stress-strain relations while imaging dislocation motion, and determination of fracture nucleation in samples with well-known fatigue/strain histories. This technique facilitates the determination of the limits for classical deformation mechanisms and helps to formulate a new understanding of the mechanical response as the grain sizes are refined to a nanometer scale. Together, these studies will result in a science-based infrastructure to

  6. Developing a Curriculum for On-Line International Business Degree: An Integrated Approach Using Systems and ERP Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Mayur S.; Pitre, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The world today can be characterized by constant change. One such change is globalization: the integration of world economies into a single economy. Because of globalization, it is necessary for colleges and universities to respond with appropriate curriculum changes that addresses this new world phenomenon. Several institutions of higher…

  7. Solar Radiation and the UV Index: An Application of Numerical Integration, Trigonometric Functions, Online Education and the Modelling Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio V.; Galligan, Linda; Turner, Joanna; Amar, Abdurazaq; King, Rachel; Ultra, Filipina; Butler, Harry

    2016-01-01

    A short series of practical classroom mathematics activities employing the use of a large and publicly accessible scientific data set are presented for use by students in years 9 and 10. The activities introduce and build understanding of integral calculus and trigonometric functions through the presentation of practical problem solving that…

  8. Hierarchical mechanics of connective tissues: integrating insights from nano to macroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Gohl, Kheng Lim; Listrat, Anne; Béchet, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    As the key component of the musculoskeletal system, the extracellular matrix of soft connective tissues such as ligaments and tendons is a biological example of fibre-reinforced composite but with a complex hierarchical architecture. To establish a comprehensive structure-function relationship at the respective levels (i.e., from molecule to tissue) of the hierarchical architecture is challenging and requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving the integration of findings from the fields of molecular biology, biochemistry, structural biology, materials science and biophysics. Accordingly, in recent years, some of these fields, namely structural biology, materials science and biophysics, have made significant progress in the microscale and nanoscale studies of extracellular matrix using new tools, such as microelectromechanical systems, optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy, complemented by new techniques in simultaneous imaging and mechanical testing and computer modelling. The intent of this paper is to review the key findings on the mechanical response of extracellular matrix at the respective levels of the hierarchical architecture. The main focus is on the structure and function--the findings are compared across the different levels to provide insights that support the goal of establishing a comprehensive structure-function relationship of extracellular matrix. For this purpose, the review is divided into two parts. The first part explores the features of key structural units of extracellular matrix, namely tropocollagen molecule (the lowest level), microfibril, collagen fibril, collagen fibre and fascicle. The second part examines the mechanics of the structural units at the respective levels. Finally a framework for extracellular matrix mechanics is proposed to support the goal to establish a comprehensive structure-function relationship. The framework describes the integration of the mechanisms of reinforcement by the structural units at the

  9. Hierarchical mechanics of connective tissues: integrating insights from nano to macroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Gohl, Kheng Lim; Listrat, Anne; Béchet, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    As the key component of the musculoskeletal system, the extracellular matrix of soft connective tissues such as ligaments and tendons is a biological example of fibre-reinforced composite but with a complex hierarchical architecture. To establish a comprehensive structure-function relationship at the respective levels (i.e., from molecule to tissue) of the hierarchical architecture is challenging and requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving the integration of findings from the fields of molecular biology, biochemistry, structural biology, materials science and biophysics. Accordingly, in recent years, some of these fields, namely structural biology, materials science and biophysics, have made significant progress in the microscale and nanoscale studies of extracellular matrix using new tools, such as microelectromechanical systems, optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy, complemented by new techniques in simultaneous imaging and mechanical testing and computer modelling. The intent of this paper is to review the key findings on the mechanical response of extracellular matrix at the respective levels of the hierarchical architecture. The main focus is on the structure and function--the findings are compared across the different levels to provide insights that support the goal of establishing a comprehensive structure-function relationship of extracellular matrix. For this purpose, the review is divided into two parts. The first part explores the features of key structural units of extracellular matrix, namely tropocollagen molecule (the lowest level), microfibril, collagen fibril, collagen fibre and fascicle. The second part examines the mechanics of the structural units at the respective levels. Finally a framework for extracellular matrix mechanics is proposed to support the goal to establish a comprehensive structure-function relationship. The framework describes the integration of the mechanisms of reinforcement by the structural units at the

  10. A reductionist perspective on quantum statistical mechanics: Coarse-graining of path integrals.

    PubMed

    Sinitskiy, Anton V; Voth, Gregory A

    2015-09-01

    Computational modeling of the condensed phase based on classical statistical mechanics has been rapidly developing over the last few decades and has yielded important information on various systems containing up to millions of atoms. However, if a system of interest contains important quantum effects, well-developed classical techniques cannot be used. One way of treating finite temperature quantum systems at equilibrium has been based on Feynman's imaginary time path integral approach and the ensuing quantum-classical isomorphism. This isomorphism is exact only in the limit of infinitely many classical quasiparticles representing each physical quantum particle. In this work, we present a reductionist perspective on this problem based on the emerging methodology of coarse-graining. This perspective allows for the representations of one quantum particle with only two classical-like quasiparticles and their conjugate momenta. One of these coupled quasiparticles is the centroid particle of the quantum path integral quasiparticle distribution. Only this quasiparticle feels the potential energy function. The other quasiparticle directly provides the observable averages of quantum mechanical operators. The theory offers a simplified perspective on quantum statistical mechanics, revealing its most reductionist connection to classical statistical physics. By doing so, it can facilitate a simpler representation of certain quantum effects in complex molecular environments.

  11. Assessing the imaging capabilities of radial mechanical and electronic echo-endoscopes using the resolution integral.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Scott; Janeczko, Anna; Ellis, William; Plevris, John N; Pye, Stephen D

    2014-08-01

    Over the past decade there have been significant advances in endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) technology. Although there is an expectation that new technology will deliver improved image quality, there are few methods or phantoms available for assessing the capabilities of mechanical and electronic EUS systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of assessing the imaging capability of available EUS technologies using measurements of the resolution integral made with an Edinburgh Pipe Phantom. Various radial EUS echo-endoscopes and probes were assessed using an Edinburgh Pipe Phantom. Measurements of the resolution integral (R), depth of field (LR) and characteristic resolution (DR) were made at all operating frequencies. The mean R value for Fuji miniprobes was 16.0. The GF-UM20 and GF-UM2000 mechanical radial scopes had mean R values of 24.0 and 28.5, respectively. The two electronic radial echo-endoscopes had similar mean R values of 34.3 and 34.6 for the Olympus GF-UE260 and Fujinon EG-530 UR scopes, respectively. Despite being older technology, the mechanical GF-UM2000 scope had superior characteristic resolution (DR), but could not compare with the depths of field (LR) delivered by the current generation of electronic radial scopes, especially at the standard operating frequencies of 7.5 and 12 MHz.

  12. A reductionist perspective on quantum statistical mechanics: Coarse-graining of path integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Sinitskiy, Anton V.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2015-09-07

    Computational modeling of the condensed phase based on classical statistical mechanics has been rapidly developing over the last few decades and has yielded important information on various systems containing up to millions of atoms. However, if a system of interest contains important quantum effects, well-developed classical techniques cannot be used. One way of treating finite temperature quantum systems at equilibrium has been based on Feynman’s imaginary time path integral approach and the ensuing quantum-classical isomorphism. This isomorphism is exact only in the limit of infinitely many classical quasiparticles representing each physical quantum particle. In this work, we present a reductionist perspective on this problem based on the emerging methodology of coarse-graining. This perspective allows for the representations of one quantum particle with only two classical-like quasiparticles and their conjugate momenta. One of these coupled quasiparticles is the centroid particle of the quantum path integral quasiparticle distribution. Only this quasiparticle feels the potential energy function. The other quasiparticle directly provides the observable averages of quantum mechanical operators. The theory offers a simplified perspective on quantum statistical mechanics, revealing its most reductionist connection to classical statistical physics. By doing so, it can facilitate a simpler representation of certain quantum effects in complex molecular environments.

  13. A reductionist perspective on quantum statistical mechanics: Coarse-graining of path integrals.

    PubMed

    Sinitskiy, Anton V; Voth, Gregory A

    2015-09-01

    Computational modeling of the condensed phase based on classical statistical mechanics has been rapidly developing over the last few decades and has yielded important information on various systems containing up to millions of atoms. However, if a system of interest contains important quantum effects, well-developed classical techniques cannot be used. One way of treating finite temperature quantum systems at equilibrium has been based on Feynman's imaginary time path integral approach and the ensuing quantum-classical isomorphism. This isomorphism is exact only in the limit of infinitely many classical quasiparticles representing each physical quantum particle. In this work, we present a reductionist perspective on this problem based on the emerging methodology of coarse-graining. This perspective allows for the representations of one quantum particle with only two classical-like quasiparticles and their conjugate momenta. One of these coupled quasiparticles is the centroid particle of the quantum path integral quasiparticle distribution. Only this quasiparticle feels the potential energy function. The other quasiparticle directly provides the observable averages of quantum mechanical operators. The theory offers a simplified perspective on quantum statistical mechanics, revealing its most reductionist connection to classical statistical physics. By doing so, it can facilitate a simpler representation of certain quantum effects in complex molecular environments. PMID:26342356

  14. Understanding the TERS Effect with On-line Tunneling and Force Feedback Using Multiprobe AFM/NSOM with Raman Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Aaron; Dekhter, Rimma; Hamra, Patricia; Bar-David, Yossi; Taha, Hesham

    Tip enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) has evolved in several directions over the past years. The data from this variety of methodologies has now accumulated to the point that there is a reasonable possibility of evolving an understanding of the underlying cause of the resulting effects that could be the origin of the various TERS enhancement processes. The objective of this presentation is to use the results thus far with atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes with noble metal coating, etching, transparent gold nanoparticles with and without a second nanoparticle [Wang and Schultz, ANALYST 138, 3150 (2013)] and tunneling feedback probes [R. Zhang et. al., NATURE 4 9 8, 8 2 (2013)]. We attempt at understanding this complex of results with AFM/NSOM multiprobe techniques. Results indicate that TERS is dominated by complex quantum interactions. This produces a highly confined and broadband plasmon field with all k vectors for effective excitation. Normal force tuning fork feedback with exposed tip probes provides an excellent means to investigate these effects with TERS probes that we have shown can circumvent the vexing problem of jump to contact prevalent in conventional AFM methodology and permit on-line switching between tunneling and AFM feedback modes of operation.

  15. Visualization and Phospholipid Identification (VaLID): online integrated search engine capable of identifying and visualizing glycerophospholipids with given mass

    PubMed Central

    Figeys, Daniel; Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Establishing phospholipid identities in large lipidomic datasets is a labour-intensive process. Where genomics and proteomics capitalize on sequence-based signatures, glycerophospholipids lack easily definable molecular fingerprints. Carbon chain length, degree of unsaturation, linkage, and polar head group identity must be calculated from mass to charge (m/z) ratios under defined mass spectrometry (MS) conditions. Given increasing MS sensitivity, many m/z values are not represented in existing prediction engines. To address this need, Visualization and Phospholipid Identification is a web-based application that returns all theoretically possible phospholipids for any m/z value and MS condition. Visualization algorithms produce multiple chemical structure files for each species. Curated lipids detected by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Training Program in Neurodegenerative Lipidomics are provided as high-resolution structures. Availability: VaLID is available through the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Training Program in Neurodegenerative Lipidomics resources web site at https://www.med.uottawa.ca/lipidomics/resources.html. Contacts: lipawrd@uottawa.ca Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23162086

  16. An integrated mechanical design concept for the final focusingregion for the HIF point design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.; Sabbi, G.-L.; Barnard, J.J.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Chun,J.; Schmidt, J.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Abbott, R.P.; Callahan, D.A.; Latkowski, J.F.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.R.; Pemberton, S.J.; Rose, D.V.; Sharp, W.M.; Welch, D.R.

    2002-11-21

    A design study was undertaken to develop a ''first cut'' integrated mechanical design concept of the final focusing region for a conceptual IFE power plant that considers the major issues which must be addressed in an integrated driver and chamber system. The conceptual design in this study requires a total of 120 beamlines located in two conical arrays attached on the sides of the target chamber 180 degrees apart. Each beamline consists of four large-aperture superconducting quadrupole magnets and a dipole magnet. The major interface issues include radiation shielding and thermal insulation of the superconducting magnets; reaction of electromagnetic loads between the quadrupoles; alignment of the magnets; isolation of the vacuum regions in the target chamber from the beamline, and assembly and maintenance.

  17. Cortical mechanisms for trans-saccadic memory and integration of multiple object features

    PubMed Central

    Prime, Steven L.; Vesia, Michael; Crawford, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Constructing an internal representation of the world from successive visual fixations, i.e. separated by saccadic eye movements, is known as trans-saccadic perception. Research on trans-saccadic perception (TSP) has been traditionally aimed at resolving the problems of memory capacity and visual integration across saccades. In this paper, we review this literature on TSP with a focus on research showing that egocentric measures of the saccadic eye movement can be used to integrate simple object features across saccades, and that the memory capacity for items retained across saccades, like visual working memory, is restricted to about three to four items. We also review recent transcranial magnetic stimulation experiments which suggest that the right parietal eye field and frontal eye fields play a key functional role in spatial updating of objects in TSP. We conclude by speculating on possible cortical mechanisms for governing egocentric spatial updating of multiple objects in TSP. PMID:21242142

  18. Mechatronic Scanning System with Integrated Micro Electro Mechanical System Position Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrov, Vladimir; Chakarov, Dimitar; Shulev, Assen; Tsveov, Mihail

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a study of a mechatronic scanning system for application in the microbiology, microelectronics research, chemistry, etc. is presented. Integrated silicon micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) position sensor is used for monitoring the displacement of the scanning system. The utilized silicon MEMS sensors with sidewall embedded piezoresistors possess a number of key advantages such as high sensitivity, low noise and extremely low temperature dependence. Design of 2D scanning system with a travel range of 22 × 22 μm2 has been presented in present work. This system includes a Compliant Transmission Mechanism, (CTM) designed as a complex elastic mechanism, comprising four parallelograms. Computer aided desigh (CAD) model and finite element analysis (FEA) of the Compliant Transmission Mechanism mechanisms have been carried out. A prototype of the scanning system is fabricated, based on CAD model. An experimental set-up of an optical system and a correlation technique for digital image processing have been used for testing the scanning system prototype. Results of the experimental investigations of the prototyped scanning system are also presented.

  19. Dynamic, mechanical integration between nucleus and cell- where physics meets biology.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Richard B; Neelam, Srujana; Lele, Tanmay P

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear motions like rotation, translation and deformation suggest that the nucleus is acted upon by mechanical forces. Molecular linkages with the cytoskeleton are thought to transfer forces to the nuclear surface. We developed an approach to apply reproducible, known mechanical forces to the nucleus in spread adherent cells and quantified the elastic response of the mechanically integrated nucleus-cell. The method is sensitive to molecular perturbations and revealed new insight into the function of the LINC complex. While these experiments revealed elastic behaviors, turnover of the cytoskeleton by assembly/disassembly and binding/unbinding of linkages are expected to dissipate any stored mechanical energy in the nucleus or the cytoskeleton. Experiments investigating nuclear forces over longer time scales demonstrated the mechanical principle that expansive/compressive stresses on the nuclear surface arise from the movement of the cell boundaries to shape and position the nucleus. Such forces can shape the nucleus to conform to cell shapes during cell movements with or without myosin activity.

  20. Data Integration Reveals Key Homeostatic Mechanisms Following Low Dose Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, Susan C.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Sowa, Marianne B.; Stenoien, David L.; Weber, Thomas J.; Morgan, William F.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to define pathways regulated by low dose radiation to understand how biological systems respond to subtle perturbations in their environment and prioritize pathways for human health assessment. Using an in vitro 3-D human full thickness skin model, we have examined the temporal response of dermal and epidermal layers to 10 cGy X-ray using transcriptomic, proteomic, phosphoproteomic and metabolomic platforms. Bioinformatics analysis of each dataset independently revealed potential signaling mechanisms affected by low dose radiation, and integrating data shed additional insight into the mechanisms regulating low dose responses in human tissue. We examined direct interactions among datasets (top down approach) and defined several hubs as significant regulators, including transcription factors (YY1, MYC and CREB1), kinases (CDK2, PLK1) and a protease (MMP2). These data indicate a shift in response across time - with an increase in DNA repair, tissue remodeling and repression of cell proliferation acutely (24 – 72 hr). Pathway-based integration (bottom up approach) identified common molecular and pathway responses to low dose radiation, including oxidative stress, nitric oxide signaling and transcriptional regulation through the SP1 factor that would not have been identified by the individual data sets. Significant regulation of key downstream metabolites of nitrative stress were measured within these pathways. Among the features identified in our study, the regulation of MMP2 and SP1 were experimentally validated. Our results demonstrate the advantage of data integration to broadly define the pathways and networks that represent the mechanisms by which complex biological systems respond to perturbation.

  1. Second international symposium on the mechanical integrity of process piping: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.R.; Aller, J.E.; Becht, C. IV; Reynolds, J.T.; Salot, W.J.; Sanders, B.J.; Springer, S.P.

    1996-07-01

    The mechanical integrity of process piping continues to be a major concern for companies in the petroleum refining, chemical, and other process industries. According to a 1993 report, 41% of the 170 largest industry losses in the hydrocarbon process industry resulted from failures of piping systems. This volume contains 30 papers divided into the following topical sections: Design, specifications, and erection; Materials of construction; Inspection and monitoring; Risk and reliability; Regulations and codes; and Fabrication, repair, and modification. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  2. Mechanical System Reliability and Cost Integration Using a Sequential Linear Approximation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowal, Michael T.

    1997-01-01

    The development of new products is dependent on product designs that incorporate high levels of reliability along with a design that meets predetermined levels of system cost. Additional constraints on the product include explicit and implicit performance requirements. Existing reliability and cost prediction methods result in no direct linkage between variables affecting these two dominant product attributes. A methodology to integrate reliability and cost estimates using a sequential linear approximation method is proposed. The sequential linear approximation method utilizes probability of failure sensitivities determined from probabilistic reliability methods as well a manufacturing cost sensitivities. The application of the sequential linear approximation method to a mechanical system is demonstrated.

  3. Online process monitoring at quasi-simultaneous laser transmission welding using a 3D-scanner with integrated pyrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmailzl, A.; Steger, S.; Dostalek, M.; Hierl, S.

    2016-03-01

    Quasi-simultaneous laser transmission welding is a well-known joining technique for thermoplastics and mainly used in the automotive as well as in the medical industry. For process control usually the so called set-path monitoring is used, where the weld is specified as "good" if the irradiation time is inside a defined confidence interval. However, the detection of small-sized gaps or thermal damaged zones is not possible with this technique. The analyzation of the weld seam temperature during welding offers the possibility to overcome this problem. In this approach a 3D-scanner is used instead of a scanner with flat-field optic. By using a pyrometer in combination with a 3D-scanner no color-corrected optic is needed in order to provide that laser- and detection-spot are concentric. Experimental studies on polyethylene T-joints have shown that the quality of the signal is adequate, despite the use of an optical setup with a long working distance and a small optical aperture. The effects on temperature are studied for defects like a gap in the joining zone. Therefore a notch was milled into the absorbent polymer. In case of producing housings for electronic parts the effect of an electrical wire between the joining partners is also investigated. Both defects can be identified by a local temperature deviation even at a feed rate of four meters per second. Furthermore a strategy for signal-processing is demonstrated. By this, remaining defects can be identified. Consequently an online detection of local defects is possible, which makes a dynamic process control feasible.

  4. Petrochemical industry standards activity aimed at improving the mechanical integrity of process piping

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.T.

    1996-07-01

    This paper will cover numerous changes being made to existing standards and several new standards being created, all focusing on increasing mechanical integrity of petrochemical industry process piping. Those new standards include ones for (1) Risk-Based Inspection (2) Fitness for Service Analysis, (3) Positive Material Identification, and (4) In-service Inspection and Maintenance for Process Piping. A progress report is included for the Process Industry Practices (PIP) being created to consolidate individual company piping standards into one consistent industry set. And finally, recent initiatives toward standards cooperation/coordination between the American Petroleum Institute(API), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), International Standards Organization (ISO) and National Board are highlighted.

  5. Integrating mechanical and biological control of cell proliferation through bioinspired multieffector materials.

    PubMed

    Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Tatkiewicz, Witold I; Vazquez, Esther; García-Fruitós, Elena; Ratera, Imma; Veciana, Jaume; Villaverde, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In nature, cells respond to complex mechanical and biological stimuli whose understanding is required for tissue construction in regenerative medicine. However, the full replication of such bimodal effector networks is far to be reached. Engineering substrate roughness and architecture allows regulating cell adhesion, positioning, proliferation, differentiation and survival, and the external supply of soluble protein factors (mainly growth factors and hormones) has been long applied to promote growth and differentiation. Further, bioinspired scaffolds are progressively engineered as reservoirs for the in situ sustained release of soluble protein factors from functional topographies. We review here how research progresses toward the design of integrative, holistic scaffold platforms based on the exploration of individual mechanical and biological effectors and their further combination. PMID:25816885

  6. Integrating mechanical and biological control of cell proliferation through bioinspired multieffector materials.

    PubMed

    Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Tatkiewicz, Witold I; Vazquez, Esther; García-Fruitós, Elena; Ratera, Imma; Veciana, Jaume; Villaverde, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In nature, cells respond to complex mechanical and biological stimuli whose understanding is required for tissue construction in regenerative medicine. However, the full replication of such bimodal effector networks is far to be reached. Engineering substrate roughness and architecture allows regulating cell adhesion, positioning, proliferation, differentiation and survival, and the external supply of soluble protein factors (mainly growth factors and hormones) has been long applied to promote growth and differentiation. Further, bioinspired scaffolds are progressively engineered as reservoirs for the in situ sustained release of soluble protein factors from functional topographies. We review here how research progresses toward the design of integrative, holistic scaffold platforms based on the exploration of individual mechanical and biological effectors and their further combination.

  7. 14-3-3, an integrator of cell mechanics and cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Douglas N

    2010-11-01

    One of the goals of understanding cytokinesis is to uncover the molecular regulation of the cellular mechanical properties that drive cell shape change. Such regulatory pathways are likely to be used at multiple stages of a cell's life, but are highly featured during cell division. Recently, we demonstrated that 14-3-3 (encoded by a single gene in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum) serves to integrate key cytoskeletal components-microtubules, Rac and myosin II-to control cell mechanics and cytokinesis. As 14-3-3 proteins are frequently altered in a variety of human tumors, we extend these observations to suggest possible additional roles for how 14-3-3 proteins may contribute to tumorigenesis. PMID:21686271

  8. The integrity of lexical acquisition mechanisms in autism spectrum disorders: A research review.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Sudha; Luyster, Rhiannon J

    2016-08-01

    Research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has rapidly expanded in recent years, yielding important developments in both theory and practice. While we have gained important insights into how children with ASD differ from typically developing (TD) children in terms of phenotypic features, less has been learned about if and how development in ASD differs from typical development in terms of underlying mechanisms of change. This article aims to provide a review of processes subserving lexical development in ASD, with the goal of identifying contributing factors to the heterogeneity of language outcomes in ASD. The focus is on available evidence of the integrity or disruption of these mechanisms in ASD, as well as their significance for vocabulary development; topics include early speech perception and preference, speech segmentation, word learning, and category formation. Significant gaps in the literature are identified and future directions are suggested. Autism Res 2016, 9: 810-828. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. COMBINE*: An integrated opto-mechanical tool for laser performance modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehak, M.; Di Nicola, J. M.

    2015-02-01

    Accurate modeling of thermal, mechanical and optical processes is important for achieving reliable, high-performance high energy lasers such as those at the National Ignition Facility [1] (NIF). The need for this capability is even more critical for high average power, high repetition rate applications. Modeling the effects of stresses and temperature fields on optical properties allows for optimal design of optical components and more generally of the architecture of the laser system itself. Stresses change the indices of refractions and induce inhomogeneities and anisotropy. We present a modern, integrated analysis tool that efficiently produces reliable results that are used in our laser propagation tools such as VBL [5]. COMBINE is built on and supplants the existing legacy tools developed for the previous generations of lasers at LLNL but also uses commercially available mechanical finite element codes ANSYS or COMSOL (including computational fluid dynamics). The COMBINE code computes birefringence and wave front distortions due to mechanical stresses on lenses and slabs of arbitrary geometry. The stresses calculated typically originate from mounting support, vacuum load, gravity, heat absorption and/or attending cooling. Of particular importance are the depolarization and detuning effects of nonlinear crystals due to thermal loading. Results are given in the form of Jones matrices, depolarization maps and wave front distributions. An incremental evaluation of Jones matrices and ray propagation in a 3D mesh with a stress and temperature field is performed. Wavefront and depolarization maps are available at the optical aperture and at slices within the optical element. The suite is validated, user friendly, supported, documented and amenable to collaborative development. * COMBINE stands for Code for Opto-Mechanical Birefringence Integrated Numerical Evaluations.

  10. Influence of the material removal mechanisms on hole integrity in ultrasonic machining of structural ceramics.

    PubMed

    Nath, Chandra; Lim, G C; Zheng, H Y

    2012-07-01

    Micro-chipping via micro-cracks, due to rapid mechanical indentations by abrasive grits, is the fundamental mechanism of material removal during ultrasonic machining (USM) of hard-brittle materials like ceramics and glass. This study aims mainly to investigate the adverse effects of this inherent removal phenomena on the hole integrity such as entrance chipping, wall roughness and subsurface damage. It also presents the material removal mechanism happens in the gap between the tool periphery and the hole wall (called 'lateral gap'). To do so, experiments were conducted for drilling holes on three advanced structural ceramics, namely, silicon carbide, zirconia, and alumina. Earlier published basic studies on the initiation of different crack modes and their growth characteristics are employed to explain the experimental findings in this USM study. It is realized that the radial and the lateral cracks formed due to adjacent abrasives, which are under the tool face, extends towards radial direction of the hole resulting in entrance chipping. Additionally, the angle penetration and the rolling actions of the abrasives, which are at the periphery of the tool, contribute to the entrance chipping. Later on, in the 'lateral gap', the sliding (or abrasion) and the rolling mechanisms by the larger abrasives take part to material removal. However, they unfavorably produce micro-cracks in the radial direction resulting in surface and subsurface damages, which are ultimately responsible for higher wall-surface roughness. Since the size of micro-cracks in brittle materials is grit size dependent according to the earlier studied physics, it is realized that such nature of the hole integrity during USM can only be minimized by employing smaller grit size, but cannot fully be eliminated.

  11. Online Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolezalek, Holly

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the trend of trainers who are getting degrees through online courses delivered via the Internet. Addresses accreditation issues and what to ask before enrolling in online degree programs. (JOW)

  12. Design and validation of a novel bioreactor principle to combine online micro-computed tomography monitoring and mechanical loading in bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Hagenmüller, Henri; Hitz, Marco; Merkle, Hans P; Meinel, Lorenz; Müller, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical loading plays an important role in bone remodeling in vivo and, therefore, has been suggested as a key parameter in stem cell-based engineering of bone-like tissue in vitro. However, the optimization of loading protocols during stem cell differentiation and subsequent bone-like tissue formation is challenged by multiple input factors, which are difficult to control and validate. These include the variable cellular performance of cells harvested from different patients, nonstandardized culture media components, the choice of the biomaterial forming the scaffold, and its morphology, impacting a broader validity of mechanical stimulation regimens. To standardize the cell culture of bone-like tissue constructs, we suggest the involvement of time-lapsed feedback loops. For this purpose we present a prototype bioreactor that combines online, nondestructive monitoring using micro-computed tomography and direct mechanical loading of three-dimensional tissue engineering constructs. Validation of this system showed displacement steps down to 1 microm and cyclic sinusoidal loadings of up to 10 Hz. Load detection resolution was 0.01 N, and micro-computed tomography data were of high quality. For the first time, the developed bioreactor links time-lapsed, nondestructive, and dynamic imaging with mechanical stimulation, designed for cell culture under sterile conditions. This system is believed to substantially improve today's experimental options to study and optimize osteogenic stem cell culture and differentiation at the interface with mechanical stimulation.

  13. Design and validation of a novel bioreactor principle to combine online micro-computed tomography monitoring and mechanical loading in bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenmüller, Henri; Hitz, Marco; Merkle, Hans P.; Meinel, Lorenz; Müller, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical loading plays an important role in bone remodeling in vivo and, therefore, has been suggested as a key parameter in stem cell-based engineering of bone-like tissue in vitro. However, the optimization of loading protocols during stem cell differentiation and subsequent bone-like tissue formation is challenged by multiple input factors, which are difficult to control and validate. These include the variable cellular performance of cells harvested from different patients, nonstandardized culture media components, the choice of the biomaterial forming the scaffold, and its morphology, impacting a broader validity of mechanical stimulation regimens. To standardize the cell culture of bone-like tissue constructs, we suggest the involvement of time-lapsed feedback loops. For this purpose we present a prototype bioreactor that combines online, nondestructive monitoring using micro-computed tomography and direct mechanical loading of three-dimensional tissue engineering constructs. Validation of this system showed displacement steps down to 1 μm and cyclic sinusoidal loadings of up to 10 Hz. Load detection resolution was 0.01 N, and micro-computed tomography data were of high quality. For the first time, the developed bioreactor links time-lapsed, nondestructive, and dynamic imaging with mechanical stimulation, designed for cell culture under sterile conditions. This system is believed to substantially improve today's experimental options to study and optimize osteogenic stem cell culture and differentiation at the interface with mechanical stimulation.

  14. Materials and noncoplanar mesh designs for integrated circuits with linear elastic responses to extreme mechanical deformations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Song, Jizhou; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Hoon-Sik; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Liu, Zhuangjian; Huang, Yonggang Y.; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Zhang, Yong-wei; Rogers, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic systems that offer elastic mechanical responses to high-strain deformations are of growing interest because of their ability to enable new biomedical devices and other applications whose requirements are impossible to satisfy with conventional wafer-based technologies or even with those that offer simple bendability. This article introduces materials and mechanical design strategies for classes of electronic circuits that offer extremely high stretchability, enabling them to accommodate even demanding configurations such as corkscrew twists with tight pitch (e.g., 90° in ≈1 cm) and linear stretching to “rubber-band” levels of strain (e.g., up to ≈140%). The use of single crystalline silicon nanomaterials for the semiconductor provides performance in stretchable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits approaching that of conventional devices with comparable feature sizes formed on silicon wafers. Comprehensive theoretical studies of the mechanics reveal the way in which the structural designs enable these extreme mechanical properties without fracturing the intrinsically brittle active materials or even inducing significant changes in their electrical properties. The results, as demonstrated through electrical measurements of arrays of transistors, CMOS inverters, ring oscillators, and differential amplifiers, suggest a valuable route to high-performance stretchable electronics. PMID:19015528

  15. Core-shell nanofibers: Integrating the bioactivity of gelatin and the mechanical property of polyvinyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Merkle, Valerie M; Zeng, Like; Slepian, Marvin J; Wu, Xiaoyi

    2014-04-01

    Coaxial electrospinning is used to fabricate nanofibers with gelatin in the shell and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in the core in order to derive mechanical strength from PVA and bioactivity from gelatin. At a 1:1 PVA/gelatin mass ratio, the core-shell nanofiber scaffolds display a Young's modulus of 168.6 ± 36.5 MPa and a tensile strength of 5.42 ± 1.95 MPa, which are significantly higher than those of the scaffolds composed solely of gelatin or PVA. The Young's modulus and tensile strength of the core-shell nanofibers are further improved by reducing the PVA/gelatin mass ratio from 1:1 to 1:3. The mechanical analysis of the core-shell nanofibers suggests that the presence of the gelatin shell may improve the molecular alignment of the PVA core, transforming the semi-crystalline, plastic PVA into a more crystallized, elastic PVA, and enhancing the mechanical properties of the core. Lastly, the PVA/gelatin core-shell nanofibers possess cellular viability, proliferation, and adhesion similar to these of the gelatin nanofibers, and show significantly higher proliferation and adhesion than the PVA nanofibers. Taken together, the coaxial electrospinning of nanofibers with a core-shell structure permits integration of the bioactivity of gelatin and the mechanical strength of PVA in single fibers.

  16. An Integrated Signaling-Encryption Mechanism to Reduce Error Propagation in Wireless Communications: Performance Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Olama, Mohammed M; Matalgah, Mustafa M; Bobrek, Miljko

    2015-01-01

    Traditional encryption techniques require packet overhead, produce processing time delay, and suffer from severe quality of service deterioration due to fades and interference in wireless channels. These issues reduce the effective transmission data rate (throughput) considerably in wireless communications, where data rate with limited bandwidth is the main constraint. In this paper, performance evaluation analyses are conducted for an integrated signaling-encryption mechanism that is secure and enables improved throughput and probability of bit-error in wireless channels. This mechanism eliminates the drawbacks stated herein by encrypting only a small portion of an entire transmitted frame, while the rest is not subject to traditional encryption but goes through a signaling process (designed transformation) with the plaintext of the portion selected for encryption. We also propose to incorporate error correction coding solely on the small encrypted portion of the data to drastically improve the overall bit-error rate performance while not noticeably increasing the required bit-rate. We focus on validating the signaling-encryption mechanism utilizing Hamming and convolutional error correction coding by conducting an end-to-end system-level simulation-based study. The average probability of bit-error and throughput of the encryption mechanism are evaluated over standard Gaussian and Rayleigh fading-type channels and compared to the ones of the conventional advanced encryption standard (AES).

  17. A MEMS XY-stage integrating compliant mechanism for nanopositioning at sub-nanometer resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Xiang; Clancy, Tyler; Wu, Xuezhong; Sun, Yu; Liu, Xinyu

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based XY-stage integrating compliant motion amplification mechanism for nanopositioning at sub nanometer resolution. The MEMS stage is driven by bidirectional Z-beam electrothermal actuators that generate large output forces to actuate the motion amplification mechanism. The motion amplification mechanisms are used in their inverse (motion reduction) mode to convert micrometer input displacements (from the Z-beam actuators) into nanometer output displacements at a constant motion reduction ratio with good linearity. This unique design significantly enhances the positioning resolution of the XY-stage. An analytical model is developed to predict output displacements of the XY-stage as a function of the input voltages applied to the Z-beam actuators, and the predicted results agree with the experimental results. Capacitive displacement sensors are arranged along both X- and Y-axes for measuring the input displacements of the amplification mechanisms, enabling closed-loop nanopositioning control of the XY-stage. The device calibration results show that, within an actuation voltage of  ±15 V, the MEMS stage offers a motion range close to  ±1 μm and a displacement resolution better than 0.3 nm \\sqrt{\\text{Hz}} -1.

  18. Immune function across generations: integrating mechanism and evolutionary process in maternal antibody transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Grindstaff, Jennifer L; Brodie, Edmund D; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2003-01-01

    The past 30 years of immunological research have revealed much about the proximate mechanisms of maternal antibody transmission and utilization, but have not adequately addressed how these issues are related to evolutionary and ecological theory. Much remains to be learned about individual differences within a species in maternal antibody transmission as well as differences among species in transmission or utilization of antibodies. Similarly, maternal-effects theory has generally neglected the mechanisms by which mothers influence offspring phenotype. Although the environmental cues that generate maternal effects and the consequent effects for offspring phenotype are often well characterized, the intermediary physiological and developmental steps through which the maternal effect is transmitted are generally unknown. Integration of the proximate mechanisms of maternal antibody transmission with evolutionary theory on maternal effects affords an important opportunity to unite mechanism and process by focusing on the links between genetics, environment and physiology, with the ultimate goal of explaining differences among individuals and species in the transfer of immune function from one generation to the next. PMID:14667346

  19. Integrating technology, curriculum, and online resources: A multilevel model study of impacts on science teachers and students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lei

    This scale-up study investigated the impact of a teacher technology tool (Curriculum Customization Service, CCS), curriculum, and online resources on earth science teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and practices and on students' achievement and engagement with science learning. Participants included 73 teachers and over 2,000 ninth-grade students within five public school districts in the western U.S. To assess the impact on teachers, changes between pre- and postsurveys were examined. Results suggest that the CCS tool appeared to significantly increase both teachers' awareness of other earth science teachers' practices and teachers' frequency of using interactive resources in their lesson planning and classroom teaching. A standard multiple regression model was developed. In addition to "District," "Training condition" (whether or not teachers received CCS training) appeared to predict teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and practices. Teachers who received CCS training tended to have lower postsurvey scores than their peers who had no CCS training. Overall, usage of the CCS tool tended to be low, and there were differences among school districts. To assess the impact on students, changes were examined between pre- and postsurveys of (1) knowledge assessment and (2) students' engagement with science learning. Students showed pre- to postsurvey improvements in knowledge assessment, with small to medium effect sizes. A nesting effect (students clustered within teachers) in the Earth's Dynamic Geosphere (EDG) knowledge assessment was identified and addressed by fitting a two-level hierarchical linear model (HLM). In addition, significant school district differences existed for student post-knowledge assessment scores. On the student engagement questionnaire, students tended to be neutral or to slightly disagree that science learning was important in terms of using science in daily life, stimulating their thinking, discovering science concepts, and satisfying their own

  20. Integrating Cost-effective Rollover Protective Structure Installation in High School Agricultural Mechanics: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Joan; Vincent, Stacy; Watson, Jennifer; Westneat, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This study with three Appalachian county agricultural education programs examined the feasibility, effectiveness, and impact of integrating a cost-effective rollover protective structure (CROPS) project into high school agricultural mechanics classes. The project aimed to (1) reduce the exposure to tractor overturn hazards in three rural counties through the installation of CROPS on seven tractors within the Cumberland Plateau in the east region; (2) increase awareness in the targeted rural communities of cost-effective ROPS designs developed by the National Institution for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to encourage ROPS installations that decrease the costs of a retrofit; (3) test the feasibility of integration of CROPS construction and installations procedures into the required agricultural mechanics classes in these agricultural education programs; and (4) explore barriers to the implementation of this project in high school agricultural education programs. Eighty-two rural students and three agricultural educators participated in assembly and installation instruction. Data included hazard exposure demographic data, knowledge and awareness of CROPS plans, and pre-post knowledge of construction and assessment of final CROPS installation. Findings demonstrated the feasibility and utility of a CROPS education program in a professionally supervised secondary educational setting. The project promoted farm safety and awareness of availability and interest in the NIOSH Cost-effective ROPS plans. Seven CROPS were constructed and installed. New curriculum and knowledge measures also resulted from the work. Lessons learned and recommendations for a phase 2 implementation and further research are included. PMID:25906273

  1. Integration of large chemical kinetic mechanisms via exponential methods with Krylov approximations to Jacobian matrix functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2012-06-01

    Recent trends in hydrocarbon fuel research indicate that the number of species and reactions in chemical kinetic mechanisms is rapidly increasing in an effort to provide predictive capabilities for fuels of practical interest. In order to cope with the computational cost associated with the time integration of stiff, large chemical systems, a novel approach is proposed. The approach combines an exponential integrator and Krylov subspace approximations to the exponential function of the Jacobian matrix. The components of the approach are described in detail and applied to the ignition of stoichiometric methane-air and iso-octane-air mixtures, here described by two widely adopted chemical kinetic mechanisms. The approach is found to be robust even at relatively large time steps and the global error displays a nominal third-order convergence. The performance of the approach is improved by utilising an adaptive algorithm for the selection of the Krylov subspace size, which guarantees an approximation to the matrix exponential within user-defined error tolerance. The Krylov projection of the Jacobian matrix onto a low-dimensional space is interpreted as a local model reduction with a well-defined error control strategy. Finally, the performance of the approach is discussed with regard to the optimal selection of the parameters governing the accuracy of its individual components.

  2. Integrating Cost-effective Rollover Protective Structure Installation in High School Agricultural Mechanics: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Joan; Vincent, Stacy; Watson, Jennifer; Westneat, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This study with three Appalachian county agricultural education programs examined the feasibility, effectiveness, and impact of integrating a cost-effective rollover protective structure (CROPS) project into high school agricultural mechanics classes. The project aimed to (1) reduce the exposure to tractor overturn hazards in three rural counties through the installation of CROPS on seven tractors within the Cumberland Plateau in the east region; (2) increase awareness in the targeted rural communities of cost-effective ROPS designs developed by the National Institution for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to encourage ROPS installations that decrease the costs of a retrofit; (3) test the feasibility of integration of CROPS construction and installations procedures into the required agricultural mechanics classes in these agricultural education programs; and (4) explore barriers to the implementation of this project in high school agricultural education programs. Eighty-two rural students and three agricultural educators participated in assembly and installation instruction. Data included hazard exposure demographic data, knowledge and awareness of CROPS plans, and pre-post knowledge of construction and assessment of final CROPS installation. Findings demonstrated the feasibility and utility of a CROPS education program in a professionally supervised secondary educational setting. The project promoted farm safety and awareness of availability and interest in the NIOSH Cost-effective ROPS plans. Seven CROPS were constructed and installed. New curriculum and knowledge measures also resulted from the work. Lessons learned and recommendations for a phase 2 implementation and further research are included.

  3. Neural mechanisms underlying the integration of situational information into attribution outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Brosch, Tobias; Schiller, Daniela; Mojdehbakhsh, Rachel; Uleman, James S.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    When forming impressions and trying to figure out why other people behave the way they do, we should take into account not only dispositional factors (i.e. personality traits) but also situational constraints as potential causes for a behavior. However, in their attributions, people often ignore the importance of situational factors. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the integration of situational information into attributions, we decomposed the attribution process by separately presenting information about behaviors and about the situational circumstances in which they occur. After reading the information, participants judged whether dispositional or situational causes explained the behavior (attribution), and how much they liked the person described in the scenario (affective evaluation). The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed increased blood oxygenation-level-dependent activation during the encoding of situational information when the resulting attribution was situational, relative to when the attribution was dispositional, potentially reflecting a controlled process that integrates situational information into attributions. Interestingly, attributions were strongly linked to subsequent affective evaluations, with the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex emerging as potential substrate of the integration of attributions and affective evaluations. Our findings demonstrate how top-down control processes regulate impression formation when situational information is taken into account to understand others. PMID:23446840

  4. Neurocognitive mechanisms of perception-action coordination: a review and theoretical integration.

    PubMed

    Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2014-10-01

    The present analysis aims at a theoretical integration of, and a systems-neuroscience perspective on, a variety of historical and contemporary views on perception-action coordination (PAC). We set out to determine the common principles or lawful linkages between sensory and motor systems that explain how perception is action-oriented and how action is perceptually guided. To this end, we analyze the key ingredients to such an integrated framework, examine the architecture of dual-system conjectures of PAC, and endeavor in an historical analysis of the key characteristics, mechanisms, and phenomena of PACs. This analysis will reveal that dual-systems views are in need of fundamental re-thinking, and its elements will be amalgamated with current views on action-oriented predictive processing into a novel integrative theoretical framework (IMPPACT: Impetus, Motivation, and Prediction in Perception-Action Coordination theory). From this framework and its neurocognitive architecture we derive a number of non-trivial predictions regarding conative, motive-driven PAC. We end by presenting a brief outlook on how IMPPACT might present novel insights into certain pathologies and into action expertise.

  5. Neural mechanisms underlying the integration of situational information into attribution outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brosch, Tobias; Schiller, Daniela; Mojdehbakhsh, Rachel; Uleman, James S; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2013-08-01

    When forming impressions and trying to figure out why other people behave the way they do, we should take into account not only dispositional factors (i.e., personality traits) but also situational constraints as potential causes for a behavior. However, in their attributions, people often ignore the importance of situational factors. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the integration of situational information into attributions, we decomposed the attribution process by separately presenting information about behaviors and about the situational circumstances in which they occur. After reading the information, participants judged whether dispositional or situational causes explained the behavior (attribution), and how much they liked the person described in the scenario (affective evaluation). The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed increased blood oxygenation-level-dependent activation during the encoding of situational information when the resulting attribution was situational, relative to when the attribution was dispositional, potentially reflecting a controlled process that integrates situational information into attributions. Interestingly, attributions were strongly linked to subsequent affective evaluations, with the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex emerging as potential substrate of the integration of attributions and affective evaluations. Our findings demonstrate how top-down control processes regulate impression formation when situational information is taken into account to understand others.

  6. Neural mechanisms underlying the integration of situational information into attribution outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brosch, Tobias; Schiller, Daniela; Mojdehbakhsh, Rachel; Uleman, James S; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2013-08-01

    When forming impressions and trying to figure out why other people behave the way they do, we should take into account not only dispositional factors (i.e., personality traits) but also situational constraints as potential causes for a behavior. However, in their attributions, people often ignore the importance of situational factors. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the integration of situational information into attributions, we decomposed the attribution process by separately presenting information about behaviors and about the situational circumstances in which they occur. After reading the information, participants judged whether dispositional or situational causes explained the behavior (attribution), and how much they liked the person described in the scenario (affective evaluation). The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed increased blood oxygenation-level-dependent activation during the encoding of situational information when the resulting attribution was situational, relative to when the attribution was dispositional, potentially reflecting a controlled process that integrates situational information into attributions. Interestingly, attributions were strongly linked to subsequent affective evaluations, with the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex emerging as potential substrate of the integration of attributions and affective evaluations. Our findings demonstrate how top-down control processes regulate impression formation when situational information is taken into account to understand others. PMID:23446840

  7. Advantages of microscope-integrated intraoperative online optical coherence tomography: usage in Boston keratoprosthesis type I surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebelmann, Sebastian; Steven, Philipp; Hos, Deniz; Hüttmann, Gereon; Lankenau, Eva; Bachmann, Björn; Cursiefen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro) type I is a technique to treat patients with corneal diseases that are not amenable to conventional keratoplasty. Correct assembly and central implantation of the prosthesis are crucial for postoperative visual recovery. This study investigates the potential benefit of intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) to monitor KPro surgery. Retrospective case series are presented for two patients who underwent Boston KPro type I implantation. The surgery in both patients was monitored intraoperatively using a commercially available intraoperative OCT (iOCT) device mounted on a surgical microscope. Microscope-integrated intraoperative OCT was able to evaluate the correct assembly and implantation of the KPro. All parts of the prosthesis were visible, and interfaces between the corneal graft and titanium backplate or anterior optics were clearly depictable. Moreover, iOCT visualized a gap between the backplate and graft in one case, and in the other case, a gap between the anterior optic and graft. Neither gap was visible with a conventional surgical microscope. The gap between the anterior optic and the graft could easily be corrected. Microscope-integrated iOCT delivers enhanced information, adding to the normal surgical microscope view during KPro surgery. Correct assembly can be controlled as well as the correct placement of the Boston KPro into the anterior chamber.

  8. The development and validation of a technology-integrated learning environments instrument to measure the contributions of online communications to prospective science teachers' learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo, Sunhee

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Technology-Integrated Learning Environments Survey (TILES) instrument to assess prospective science teachers' perceptions of their online learning environments and to provide psychometric evidence of validity and reliability for the instrument. First, the original draft instrument development started with defining the three constructs of pedagogy, technology, and practice from the hypothetical Technology-Integrated Learning Environments model. Second, 63 initial items with a five-point Likert-type scale were generated to represent the three constructs. Third, each of the initial items was reviewed for clarity and appropriateness of item content by an expert panel consisting of one faculty and four graduate students in science education. Fourth, based on the panel's judgments, 40 items were selected for the first draft instrument and revised to clearly represent the contents of the corresponding construct. Fifth, the first instrument was administered to 43 prospective elementary science teachers in two sections of SCIED 458-Teaching Elementary School Science at The Pennsylvania State University at the end (14th week) of spring semester 2000. Sixth, item analysis was conducted to select internally consistent items constituting each of the pedagogy, technology, and practice constructs. Seventh, internal consistency reliability was assessed across the three constructs. The second draft instrument development started with the extension of the Technology-Integrated Learning Environments model to fit online communications learning environments in prospective science teacher education. An online communications learning environment was hypothesized to have a hierarchical structure in that two underlying subconstructs resided in each of the three constructs: reflection and collaboration in pedagogy, multiple ideas and time flexibility in technology, and feedback and autonomy in practice. At the eighth step of the TILES instrument

  9. Mechanisms of spectral and temporal integration in the mustached bat inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Wenstrup, Jeffrey James; Nataraj, Kiran; Sanchez, Jason Tait

    2012-01-01

    This review describes mechanisms and circuitry underlying combination-sensitive response properties in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. Combination-sensitive neurons, performing a type of auditory spectro-temporal integration, respond to specific, properly timed combinations of spectral elements in vocal signals and other acoustic stimuli. While these neurons are known to occur in the auditory forebrain of many vertebrate species, the work described here establishes their origin in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. Focusing on the mustached bat, we review several major findings: (1) Combination-sensitive responses involve facilitatory interactions, inhibitory interactions, or both when activated by distinct spectral elements in complex sounds. (2) Combination-sensitive responses are created in distinct stages: inhibition arises mainly in lateral lemniscal nuclei of the auditory brainstem, while facilitation arises in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the midbrain. (3) Spectral integration underlying combination-sensitive responses requires a low-frequency input tuned well below a neuron's characteristic frequency (ChF). Low-ChF neurons in the auditory brainstem project to high-ChF regions in brainstem or IC to create combination sensitivity. (4) At their sites of origin, both facilitatory and inhibitory combination-sensitive interactions depend on glycinergic inputs and are eliminated by glycine receptor blockade. Surprisingly, facilitatory interactions in IC depend almost exclusively on glycinergic inputs and are largely independent of glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs. (5) The medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), the lateral lemniscal nuclei, and the IC play critical roles in creating combination-sensitive responses. We propose that these mechanisms, based on work in the mustached bat, apply to a broad range of mammals and other vertebrates that depend on temporally sensitive integration of information across the audible spectrum. PMID:23109917

  10. The dynamical integrity concept for interpreting/ predicting experimental behaviour: from macro- to nano-mechanics.

    PubMed

    Lenci, Stefano; Rega, Giuseppe; Ruzziconi, Laura

    2013-06-28

    The dynamical integrity, a new concept proposed by J.M.T. Thompson, and developed by the authors, is used to interpret experimental results. After reviewing the main issues involved in this analysis, including the proposal of a new integrity measure able to capture in an easy way the safe part of basins, attention is dedicated to two experiments, a rotating pendulum and a micro-electro-mechanical system, where the theoretical predictions are not fulfilled. These mechanical systems, the former at the macro-scale and the latter at the micro-scale, permit a comparative analysis of different mechanical and dynamical behaviours. The fact that in both cases the dynamical integrity permits one to justify the difference between experimental and theoretical results, which is the main achievement of this paper, shows the effectiveness of this new approach and suggests its use in practical situations. The men of experiment are like the ant, they only collect and use; the reasoners resemble spiders, who make cobwebs out of their own substance. But the bee takes the middle course: it gathers its material from the flowers of the garden and field, but transforms and digests it by a power of its own. Not unlike this is the true business of philosophy (science); for it neither relies solely or chiefly on the powers of the mind, nor does it take the matter which it gathers from natural history and mechanical experiments and lay up in the memory whole, as it finds it, but lays it up in the understanding altered and digested. Therefore, from a closer and purer league between these two faculties, the experimental and the rational (such as has never been made), much may be hoped. (Francis Bacon 1561-1626) But are we sure of our observational facts? Scientific men are rather fond of saying pontifically that one ought to be quite sure of one's observational facts before embarking on theory. Fortunately those who give this advice do not practice what they preach. Observation and theory get

  11. The dynamical integrity concept for interpreting/ predicting experimental behaviour: from macro- to nano-mechanics.

    PubMed

    Lenci, Stefano; Rega, Giuseppe; Ruzziconi, Laura

    2013-06-28

    The dynamical integrity, a new concept proposed by J.M.T. Thompson, and developed by the authors, is used to interpret experimental results. After reviewing the main issues involved in this analysis, including the proposal of a new integrity measure able to capture in an easy way the safe part of basins, attention is dedicated to two experiments, a rotating pendulum and a micro-electro-mechanical system, where the theoretical predictions are not fulfilled. These mechanical systems, the former at the macro-scale and the latter at the micro-scale, permit a comparative analysis of different mechanical and dynamical behaviours. The fact that in both cases the dynamical integrity permits one to justify the difference between experimental and theoretical results, which is the main achievement of this paper, shows the effectiveness of this new approach and suggests its use in practical situations. The men of experiment are like the ant, they only collect and use; the reasoners resemble spiders, who make cobwebs out of their own substance. But the bee takes the middle course: it gathers its material from the flowers of the garden and field, but transforms and digests it by a power of its own. Not unlike this is the true business of philosophy (science); for it neither relies solely or chiefly on the powers of the mind, nor does it take the matter which it gathers from natural history and mechanical experiments and lay up in the memory whole, as it finds it, but lays it up in the understanding altered and digested. Therefore, from a closer and purer league between these two faculties, the experimental and the rational (such as has never been made), much may be hoped. (Francis Bacon 1561-1626) But are we sure of our observational facts? Scientific men are rather fond of saying pontifically that one ought to be quite sure of one's observational facts before embarking on theory. Fortunately those who give this advice do not practice what they preach. Observation and theory get

  12. Short-term BOD (BODst) as a parameter for on-line monitoring of biological treatment process; Part II: instrumentation of integrated flow injection analysis (FIA) system for BODst estimation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Olsson, Gustaf; Mattiasson, Bo

    2004-10-15

    An instrument with integrated flow injection analysis (FIA) system has been developed for on-line monitoring a process for conversion of biomass under field condition. The instrument consists of a newly designed biosensor for easy renewal of the bio-receptor without disassembling the sensor, a FIA controller for controlling the analysis operations, and a computer-based data acquisition system for data recording and processing. The instrument performed a sequence operations automatically including preparation of sample in the desired concentration, sample loading, sample injection, signal recording, data processing, and self-cleaning of the system. This makes the instrument being an interesting and promising device for on-line process monitoring.

  13. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers, Volumes 1, 2

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyaya, Belle R.; Hines, J. Wesley; Lu, Baofu

    2005-06-03

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001 September 2004. Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance.Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. Development of advanced signal processing methods using

  14. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 4 of 6: ON-LINE, NON-DESTRUCTIVE MECHANICAL PROPERTY MEASUREMENT USING LASER-ULTRASOUND

    SciTech Connect

    Andre' Moreau; Martin Lord; Daniel Levesqure; Marc Dubois; Jean Bussiere; Jean-Pierre Monchalin; Christian Padioleau; Guy Lamouche; Teodor Veres; Martin Viens; Harold Hebert; Pierre Basseras; Cheng-Kuei Jen

    2001-03-31

    The goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility to measure the mechanical properties, such as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, strain hardening exponent and plastic strain ratio parameters, of low carbon steel sheets on the production line using laser ultrasound. The ultrasound generated by the developed apparatus travels mostly back and forth in the thickness of the steel sheet. By measuring the time delay between two echoes, and the relative amplitude of these two echoes, one can measure ultrasound velocity and attenuation. These are governed by the microstructure: grain size, crystallographic texture, dislocations, etc. Thus, by recording the time behavior of the ultrasonic signal, one can extract microstructural information. These microstructural information together with the modified Hall-Petch equation allow measurement of the mechanical properties. Through laboratory investigations with a laboratory laser ultrasound system, followed by the installation of a prototype system at LTV Steel Company's No.1 Inspection Line in Cleveland, all target mechanical properties of ultra low carbon (ULC), low carbon (LC) and high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel sample lots were measured meeting or nearly meeting all the target accuracies. Thus, the project realized its goal to demonstrate that the mechanical properties of low carbon steel sheets can be measured on-line using laser ultrasound

  15. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers.

    SciTech Connect

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001-September 2004. (1) Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. (2) Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance. (3) Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. (4) Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. (5) Development of advanced signal

  16. Integrated Radiation Transport and Thermo-Mechanics Simulation of a PWR Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Clarno, Kevin T; Hamilton, Steven P; Philip, Bobby; Sampath, Rahul S; Allu, Srikanth; Berrill, Mark A; Barai, Pallab; Banfield, James E

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Multi-Physics (AMP) Nuclear Fuel Performance code (AMPFuel) is focused on predicting the temperature and strain within a nuclear fuel assembly to evaluate the performance and safety of existing and advanced nuclear fuel bundles within existing and advanced nuclear reactors. AMPFuel was extended to include an integrated nuclear fuel assembly capability for (one-way) coupled radiation transport and nuclear fuel assembly thermo-mechanics. This capability is the initial step towards incorporating an improved predictive nuclear fuel assembly modeling capability to accurately account for source terms, such as the neutron flux distribution, coolant conditions, and assembly mechanical stresses, of traditional (single-pin) nuclear fuel performance simulation. AMPFuel was used to model an entire 17 x 17 Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assembly with many of the features resolved in three dimensions (for thermo-mechanics and/or neutronics), including the fuel, gap, and cladding of each of the 264 fuel pins, the 25 guide tubes, top and bottom structural regions, and the upper and lower (neutron) reflector regions. The final full-assembly calculation was executed on Jaguar (Cray XT5) at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility using 40,000 cores in under 10 hours to model over 162 billion degrees of freedom for 10 loading steps.

  17. The influence mechanism of processing holes on the flexural properties of biomimetic integrated honeycomb plates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Liu, Chang; Chen, Jinxiang; Zhang, Jiandong; Gu, Yueyan; Zhao, Yong

    2016-12-01

    The influence mechanism of processing holes on the flexural properties of fully integrated honeycomb plates (FIHPs) was analyzed using the finite element method (FEM), and the results were compared with experimental data, yielding the following findings: 1) Processing holes under tensile stress have a significant impact on the mechanical properties of FIHPs, which is particularly obvious when initial imperfections are formed during sample preparation. 2) A proposed design technique based on changing the shape of the processing holes from circular to elliptical effectively reduces the stress concentration when such holes must exist in skin or components under tension, and this method motivates a design concept for experimental tests of FIHPs bearing dynamic or fatigue loads. 3) The flexural failure modes of FIHPs were confirmed via FEM analysis, and the mechanism by which trabeculae in FIHPs can effectively prevent cracks from emerging and cause cracks to develop along certain paths was ascertained. Therefore, this paper provides a theoretical basis for the design of processing holes in bionic honeycomb plates and other similar components in practical engineering applications. PMID:27612774

  18. The influence mechanism of processing holes on the flexural properties of biomimetic integrated honeycomb plates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Liu, Chang; Chen, Jinxiang; Zhang, Jiandong; Gu, Yueyan; Zhao, Yong

    2016-12-01

    The influence mechanism of processing holes on the flexural properties of fully integrated honeycomb plates (FIHPs) was analyzed using the finite element method (FEM), and the results were compared with experimental data, yielding the following findings: 1) Processing holes under tensile stress have a significant impact on the mechanical properties of FIHPs, which is particularly obvious when initial imperfections are formed during sample preparation. 2) A proposed design technique based on changing the shape of the processing holes from circular to elliptical effectively reduces the stress concentration when such holes must exist in skin or components under tension, and this method motivates a design concept for experimental tests of FIHPs bearing dynamic or fatigue loads. 3) The flexural failure modes of FIHPs were confirmed via FEM analysis, and the mechanism by which trabeculae in FIHPs can effectively prevent cracks from emerging and cause cracks to develop along certain paths was ascertained. Therefore, this paper provides a theoretical basis for the design of processing holes in bionic honeycomb plates and other similar components in practical engineering applications.

  19. Dynamic Acoustic Radiation Force Retains Bone Structural and Mechanical Integrity in a Functional Disuse Osteopenia Model

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Sardar M. Z.; Qin, Yi-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Disuse osteopenia and bone loss have been extensively reported in long duration space mission and long term bed rest. The pathology of the bone loss is similar to osteoporosis but highly confined to weight bearing bones. The current anabolic and/or anti-resorptive drugs have systemic effects and are costly over extended time, with concerns of long term fracture risk. This study use Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS) as a non-invasive acoustic force and anabolic stimulus to countermeasure disuse induced bone loss. Four-month old C57BL/6 mice were randomized to five groups, 1) age-matched (AM), 2) non-suspended sham (NS), 3) nonsuspended –LIPUS (NU), 4) suspended sham (SS), and 5) suspended-LIPUS (SU) groups. After four weeks of suspension, µCT analyses showed significant decreases in trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (−36%, p<0.005), bone tissue mineral density (TMD) (−3%, p<0.05), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (−12.5%, p<0.005), and increase in bone surface/bone volume (+BS/BV) (+16%, p<0.005), relative to age-matched (AM). Application of LIPUS for 20 min/day for 5 days/week, significantly increased TMD (+3%, p<0.05), Tb.Th (+6%, p<0.05), and decreased BS/BV (−10%, p<0.005), relative to suspension alone (SS) mice. Histomorphometry analyses showed a breakdown of bone microstructure under disuse conditions consist with µCT results. In comparison to SS mice, LIPUS treated bone showed increased structural integrity with increased bone formation rates at metaphysical endosteal and trabecular surfaces (+0.104±0.07 vs 0.031±0.30 µm3/µm2/d) relative to SS. Four-point bending mechanical tests of disused SS femurs showed reduced elastic modulus (−53%, p<0.05), yield (−33%, p<0.05) and ultimate strength (−45%, p<0.05) at the femoral diaphysis relative to AM bone. LIPUS stimulation mitigated the adverse effects of disuse on bone elastic modulus (+42%, p<0.05), yield strength (+29%, p<0.05), and ultimate strength (+39%, p<0.05) relative to SS

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 8yr INTEGRAL/IBIS soft gamma-ray source obs. (Bird+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, A. J.; Bazzano, A.; Malizia, A.; Fiocchi, M.; Sguera, V.; Bassani, L.; Hill, A. B.; Ubertini, P.; Winkler, C.

    2016-04-01

    Here we report an all-sky soft gamma-ray source catalog based on IBIS observations performed during the first 1000 orbits of INTEGRAL. The database for the construction of the source list consists of all good-quality data available, from the launch in 2002, up to the end of 2010. This corresponds to ~110Ms of scientific public observations, with a concentrated coverage on the Galactic Plane and extragalactic deep exposures. This new catalog includes 939 sources above a 4.5σ significance threshold detected in the 17-100keV energy band, of which 120 sources represent previously undiscovered soft gamma-ray emitters. The source positions are determined, mean fluxes are provided in two main energy bands, and these are both reported together with the overall source exposure. Indicative levels of variability are provided, and outburst times and durations are given for transient sources. A comparison is made with previous IBIS catalogs and catalogs from other similar missions. (2 data files).

  1. Derivation of the Schrodinger Equation from the Hamilton-Jacobi Equation in Feynman's Path Integral Formulation of Quantum Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown how the time-dependent Schrodinger equation may be simply derived from the dynamical postulate of Feynman's path integral formulation of quantum mechanics and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of classical mechanics. Schrodinger's own published derivations of quantum wave equations, the first of which was also based on the Hamilton-Jacobi…

  2. Human fear extinction and return of fear using reconsolidation update mechanisms: The contribution of on-line expectancy ratings

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Victor Taylor; Anderson, Kemp M.; Kwon, Cliffe; Bosshardt, Lauren; Jovanovic, Tanja; Bradley, Bekh; Norrholm, Seth Davin

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of the reconsolidation of conditioned fear memories has been suggested as a non-pharmacological means of preventing the return of learned fear in human populations. A reconsolidation update paradigm was developed in which a reconsolidation window is opened by a single isolated retrieval trial of a previously reinforced CS+ which is then followed by Extinction Training within that window. However, follow-up studies in humans using multi-methods fear conditioning indices (e.g., fear-potentiated startle, skin conductance, US-expectancy) have failed to replicate the retrieval + extinction effects. In the present study, we further investigated the retrieval + extinction reconsolidation update paradigm by directly comparing the acquisition, extinction, and return of fear-potentiated startle in the absence or presence of US-expectancy measures (using a trial-by-trial response keypad) with and without retrieval of a previously acquired CS-US association. Participants were fear conditioned to two visual cue CS+'s, one of which was presented as a single, isolated retrieval trial before Extinction Training and one that was extinguished as usual. The results show that the inclusion of US-expectancy measures strengthens the CS–US association to provide enhanced fear conditioning and maintenance of fear memories over the experimental sessions. In addition, in the groups that used on-line US-expectancy measures, the retrieval + extinction procedure reduced reinstatement of fear-potentiated startle to both previously reinforced CS+'s, as compared to the extinction as usual group. PMID:24183839

  3. User Interface Requirements for Web-Based Integrated Care Pathways: Evidence from the Evaluation of an Online Care Pathway Investigation Tool.

    PubMed

    Balatsoukas, Panos; Williams, Richard; Davies, Colin; Ainsworth, John; Buchan, Iain

    2015-11-01

    Integrated care pathways (ICPs) define a chronological sequence of steps, most commonly diagnostic or treatment, to be followed in providing care for patients. Care pathways help to ensure quality standards are met and to reduce variation in practice. Although research on the computerisation of ICP progresses, there is still little knowledge on what are the requirements for designing user-friendly and usable electronic care pathways, or how users (normally health care professionals) interact with interfaces that support design, analysis and visualisation of ICPs. The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to address this gap by evaluating the usability of a novel web-based tool called COCPIT (Collaborative Online Care Pathway Investigation Tool). COCPIT supports the design, analysis and visualisation of ICPs at the population level. In order to address the aim of this study, an evaluation methodology was designed based on heuristic evaluations and a mixed method usability test. The results showed that modular visualisation and direct manipulation of information related to the design and analysis of ICPs is useful for engaging and stimulating users. However, designers should pay attention to issues related to the visibility of the system status and the match between the system and the real world, especially in relation to the display of statistical information about care pathways and the editing of clinical information within a care pathway. The paper concludes with recommendations for interface design.

  4. User Interface Requirements for Web-Based Integrated Care Pathways: Evidence from the Evaluation of an Online Care Pathway Investigation Tool.

    PubMed

    Balatsoukas, Panos; Williams, Richard; Davies, Colin; Ainsworth, John; Buchan, Iain

    2015-11-01

    Integrated care pathways (ICPs) define a chronological sequence of steps, most commonly diagnostic or treatment, to be followed in providing care for patients. Care pathways help to ensure quality standards are met and to reduce variation in practice. Although research on the computerisation of ICP progresses, there is still little knowledge on what are the requirements for designing user-friendly and usable electronic care pathways, or how users (normally health care professionals) interact with interfaces that support design, analysis and visualisation of ICPs. The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to address this gap by evaluating the usability of a novel web-based tool called COCPIT (Collaborative Online Care Pathway Investigation Tool). COCPIT supports the design, analysis and visualisation of ICPs at the population level. In order to address the aim of this study, an evaluation methodology was designed based on heuristic evaluations and a mixed method usability test. The results showed that modular visualisation and direct manipulation of information related to the design and analysis of ICPs is useful for engaging and stimulating users. However, designers should pay attention to issues related to the visibility of the system status and the match between the system and the real world, especially in relation to the display of statistical information about care pathways and the editing of clinical information within a care pathway. The paper concludes with recommendations for interface design. PMID:26446014

  5. New measuring concepts using integrated online analysis of color and monochrome digital high-speed camera sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renz, Harald

    1997-05-01

    digital image data. An integrated software solution (MOTION HRC ImageServer) for interfacing the camera will be presented: it controls the recording and the transfer of the images to a PC and contains tools for sequence processing, display, storage and database handling. A corresponding viewing software enables a comfortable visualization of film sequences from standard desktop pc's, replacing the presentation of 16 mm films or video tapes. The new analysis software MOTION LC was designed in cooperation with the automotive industry specially for the use with high speed video cameras. It automizes all necessary steps to measure the positions of signalled points within an image sequence and to derive calibrated trajectories. These tools now allow new integrated analyzing concept, with a very fast processing time starting with the test up to the print out of result diagrams. The system supports a lot of image sources and shows an open interface for data in- and output.

  6. PC-based pseudo-model following discrete integral variable structure control of positions in slider-crank mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Chin-Wen

    2007-04-01

    This paper proposes a pseudo-model following (PMF) discrete integral variable structure control (DIVSC) scheme to control the position of a slider crank coupled with a pseudo-model (PM) synchronous motor. Applying the Grey modeling method, the reference model and plant are on-line converted to pseudo-reference model and accumulated model, respectively. The advantage is that the least data and memory are used in this modeling procedure. The DIVSC is introduced to guide the model following motion. The integral controller is used to reduce the steady-state error. The switching controller is used to finish the sliding motion. The two existing condition of the discrete sliding mode are introduced in this paper, too. Finally, the position control of the slider crank is used to show the performance of the proposed control scheme. The simulation and experimental results show the robustness and the practicability.

  7. Integrated Redox Proteomics and Metabolomics of Mitochondria to Identify Mechanisms of Cd Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Go, Young-Mi; Roede, James R.; Orr, Michael; Liang, Yongliang; Jones, Dean P.

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) exposure contributes to human diseases affecting liver, kidney, lung, and other organ systems, but mechanisms underlying the pleotropic nature of these toxicities are poorly understood. Cd accumulates in humans from dietary, environmental (including cigarette smoke), and occupational sources, and has a twenty-year biologic half-life. Our previous mouse and cell studies showed that environmental low-dose Cd exposure altered protein redox states resulting in stimulation of inflammatory signaling and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton system, suggesting that Cd could impact multiple mechanisms of disease. In the current study, we investigated the effects of acute Cd exposure on the redox proteome and metabolome of mouse liver mitochondria to gain insight into associated toxicological mechanisms and functions. We analyzed redox states of liver mitochondrial proteins by redox proteomics using isotope coded affinity tag (ICAT) combined mass spectrometry. Redox ICAT identified 2687 cysteine-containing peptides (peptidyl Cys) of which 1667 peptidyl Cys (657 proteins) were detected in both control and Cd-exposed samples. Of these, 46% (1247 peptidyl Cys, 547 proteins) were oxidized by Cd more than 1.5-fold relative to controls. Bioinformatics analysis using MetaCore software showed that Cd affected 86 pathways, including 24 Cys in proteins functioning in branched chain amino acid (BCAA) and 14 Cys in proteins functioning in fatty acid (acylcarnitine/carnitine) metabolism. Consistently, high-resolution metabolomics data showed that Cd treatment altered levels of BCAA and carnitine metabolites. Together, these results show that mitochondrial protein redox and metabolites are targets in Cd-induced hepatotoxicity. The results further indicate that redox proteomics and metabolomics can be used in an integrated systems approach to investigate complex disease mechanisms. PMID:24496640

  8. Integrated modeling and field study of potential mechanisms forinduced seismicity at The Geysers Goethermal Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Majer, Ernie; Oldenburg, Curt; Peterson, John; Vasco, Don

    2006-06-07

    In this paper, we present progress made in a study aimed atincreasing the understanding of the relative contributions of differentmechanisms that may be causing the seismicity occurring at The Geysersgeothermal field, California. The approach we take is to integrate: (1)coupled reservoir geomechanical numerical modeling, (2) data fromrecently upgraded and expanded NCPA/Calpine/LBNL seismic arrays, and (3)tens of years of archival InSAR data from monthly satellite passes. Wehave conducted a coupled reservoir geomechanical analysis to studypotential mechanisms induced by steam production. Our simulation resultscorroborate co-locations of hypocenter field observations of inducedseismicity and their correlation with steam production as reported in theliterature. Seismic and InSAR data are being collected and processed foruse in constraining the coupled reservoir geomechanicalmodel.

  9. SCARLET I: Mechanization solutions for deployable concentrator optics integrated with rigid array technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wachholz, James J.; Murphy, David M.

    1996-01-01

    The SCARLET I (Solar Concentrator Army with Refractive Linear Element Technology) solar array wing was designed and built to demonstrate, in flight, the feasibility of integrating deployable concentrator optics within the design envelope of typical rigid array technology. Innovative mechanism designs were used throughout the array, and a full series of qualification tests were successfully performed in anticipation of a flight on the Multiple Experiment Transporter to Earth Orbit and Return (METEOR) spacecraft. Even though the Conestoga launch vehicle was unable to place the spacecraft in orbit, the program effort was successful in achieving the milestones of analytical and design development functional validation, and flight qualification, thus leading to a future flight evaluation for the SCARLET technology.

  10. Integrated mechanism for the generation of the 5' junctions of LINE inserts.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Katsumi; Kajikawa, Masaki; Okada, Norihiro

    2014-12-01

    To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the integration of long interspersed elements (LINEs), we characterized the 5' ends of more than 200 LINE de novo retrotransposition events into chicken DT40 or human HeLa cells. Human L1 inserts produced 15-bp target-site duplications (TSDs) and zebrafish ZfL2-1 inserts produced 5-bp TSDs in DT40 cells, suggesting that TSD length depends on the LINE species. Further analysis of 5' junctions revealed that the 5'-end-joining pathways of LINEs can be divided into two fundamental types-annealing or direct. We also found that the generation of 5' inversions depends on host and LINE species. These results led us to propose a new model for 5'-end joining, the type of which is determined by the extent of exposure of 3' overhangs generated after the second-strand cleavage and by the involvement of host factors.

  11. Integrated mechanism for the generation of the 5' junctions of LINE inserts.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Katsumi; Kajikawa, Masaki; Okada, Norihiro

    2014-12-01

    To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the integration of long interspersed elements (LINEs), we characterized the 5' ends of more than 200 LINE de novo retrotransposition events into chicken DT40 or human HeLa cells. Human L1 inserts produced 15-bp target-site duplications (TSDs) and zebrafish ZfL2-1 inserts produced 5-bp TSDs in DT40 cells, suggesting that TSD length depends on the LINE species. Further analysis of 5' junctions revealed that the 5'-end-joining pathways of LINEs can be divided into two fundamental types-annealing or direct. We also found that the generation of 5' inversions depends on host and LINE species. These results led us to propose a new model for 5'-end joining, the type of which is determined by the extent of exposure of 3' overhangs generated after the second-strand cleavage and by the involvement of host factors. PMID:25378331

  12. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate.

  13. A bilateral integrative health-care knowledge service mechanism based on 'MedGrid'.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Jiang, Zuhua; Zhen, Lu; Su, Hai

    2008-04-01

    Current health-care organizations are encountering impression of paucity of medical knowledge. This paper classifies medical knowledge with new scopes. The discovery of health-care 'knowledge flow' initiates a bilateral integrative health-care knowledge service, and we make medical knowledge 'flow' around and gain comprehensive effectiveness through six operations (such as knowledge refreshing...). Seizing the active demand of Chinese health-care revolution, this paper presents 'MedGrid', which is a platform with medical ontology and knowledge contents service. Each level and detailed contents are described on MedGrid info-structure. Moreover, a new diagnosis and treatment mechanism are formed by technically connecting with electronic health-care records (EHRs). PMID:18325488

  14. Time travel paradoxes, path integrals, and the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Allen

    2004-06-01

    We consider two approaches to evading paradoxes in quantum mechanics with closed timelike curves. In a model similar to Politzer’s, assuming pure states and using path integrals, we show that the problems of paradoxes and of unitarity violation are related; preserving unitarity avoids paradoxes by modifying the time evolution so that improbable events become certain. Deutsch has argued, using the density matrix, that paradoxes do not occur in the “many worlds interpretation.” We find that in this approach account must be taken of the resolution time of the device that detects objects emerging from a wormhole or other time machine. When this is done one finds that this approach is viable only if macroscopic objects traversing a wormhole interact with it so strongly that they are broken into microscopic fragments.

  15. SCARLET I: Mechanization solutions for deployable concentrator optics integrated with rigid array technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wachholz, J.J.; Murphy, D.M.

    1996-05-01

    The SCARLET I (Solar Concentrator Army with Refractive Linear Element Technology) solar array wing was designed and built to demonstrate, in flight, the feasibility of integrating deployable concentrator optics within the design envelope of typical rigid array technology. Innovative mechanism designs were used throughout the array, and a full series of qualification tests were successfully performed in anticipation of a flight on the Multiple Experiment Transporter to Earth Orbit and Return (METEOR) spacecraft. Even though the Conestoga launch vehicle was unable to place the spacecraft in orbit, the program effort was successful in achieving the milestones of analytical and design development functional validation, and flight qualification, thus leading to a future flight evaluation for the SCARLET technology.

  16. Prototype of integrated pseudo-dynamic crosstalk network for cancer molecular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shinq-Jen; Chen, Wei-Yong; Chou, Chia-Hsien; Wu, Cheng-Tao

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we attempted to solve two important challenges in systems biology. First, although the Michaelis-Menten (MM) model provides local kinetic information, it is hard to generalize MM models to model a large system because increasingly large amounts of experimental data are necessary for the parameter identification. In addition, it is not possible to develop an MM model that provides information about the strength of the interactions in the system. Second, although the dynamic simulation of various signal transduction pathways is important in cancer research, it is impossible to theoretically derive a mathematical model to describe the cancer molecular mechanism. Predictive computational approaches can be used to analyze the dynamics of a system and to determine the dysfunction of a regulatory process. In this report, we first propose a pseudo-dynamic pathway to describe protein interactions in an MM system. We then discuss the dynamic behavior of two large-scale systems (antigrowth-signal-induced cell cycle and apoptotic-signal-transduction mechanism). These two systems were constructed through the in-series and organic integration, respectively, of MM modules with Petri net modules; moreover, more than 30% additional reactions were added during this integration step. We then described an extremely large multi-stream system (growth signal transduction); however, the analysis of this system to obtain dynamic predictions is critical but appears impossible. Thus, we introduced a fuzzy concept that can be used to develop a physically realizable model prototype. In the future, through step-by-step in vivo modifications, researchers will be able to develop a complete model of cancer metabolism to achieve accurate predictions. PMID:23454229

  17. Computational and numerical aspects of using the integral equation method for adhesive layer fracture mechanics analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Giurgiutiu, V.; Ionita, A.; Dillard, D.A.; Graffeo, J.K.

    1996-12-31

    Fracture mechanics analysis of adhesively bonded joints has attracted considerable attention in recent years. A possible approach to the analysis of adhesive layer cracks is to study a brittle adhesive between 2 elastic half-planes representing the substrates. A 2-material 3-region elasticity problem is set up and has to be solved. A modeling technique based on the work of Fleck, Hutchinson, and Suo is used. Two complex potential problems using Muskelishvili`s formulation are set up for the 3-region, 2-material model: (a) a distribution of edge dislocations is employed to simulate the crack and its near field; and (b) a crack-free problem is used to simulate the effect of the external loading applied in the far field. Superposition of the two problems is followed by matching tractions and displacements at the bimaterial boundaries. The Cauchy principal value integral is used to treat the singularities. Imposing the traction-free boundary conditions over the entire crack length yielded a linear system of two integral equations. The parameters of the problem are Dundurs` elastic mismatch coefficients, {alpha} and {beta}, and the ratio c/H representing the geometric position of the crack in the adhesive layer.

  18. Integrative Genome-Scale Analysis Identifies Epigenetic Mechanisms of Transcriptional Deregulation in Unfavorable Neuroblastomas.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Bender, Sebastian; Saadati, Maral; Dreidax, Daniel; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Shao, Chunxuan; Herrmann, Carl; Wiesenfarth, Manuel; Parzonka, Martha; Wehrmann, Lea; Fischer, Matthias; Duffy, David J; Bell, Emma; Torkov, Alica; Schmezer, Peter; Plass, Christoph; Höfer, Thomas; Benner, Axel; Pfister, Stefan M; Westermann, Frank

    2016-09-15

    The broad clinical spectrum of neuroblastoma ranges from spontaneous regression to rapid progression despite intensive multimodal therapy. This diversity is not fully explained by known genetic aberrations, suggesting the possibility of epigenetic involvement in pathogenesis. In pursuit of this hypothesis, we took an integrative approach to analyze the methylomes, transcriptomes, and copy number variations in 105 cases of neuroblastoma, complemented by primary tumor- and cell line-derived global histone modification analyses and epigenetic drug treatment in vitro We found that DNA methylation patterns identify divergent patient subgroups with respect to survival and clinicobiologic variables, including amplified MYCN Transcriptome integration and histone modification-based definition of enhancer elements revealed intragenic enhancer methylation as a mechanism for high-risk-associated transcriptional deregulation. Furthermore, in high-risk neuroblastomas, we obtained evidence for cooperation between PRC2 activity and DNA methylation in blocking tumor-suppressive differentiation programs. Notably, these programs could be re-activated by combination treatments, which targeted both PRC2 and DNA methylation. Overall, our results illuminate how epigenetic deregulation contributes to neuroblastoma pathogenesis, with novel implications for its diagnosis and therapy. Cancer Res; 76(18); 5523-37. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27635046

  19. Quantitative Integration of Ndt with Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics for the Assessment of Fracture Risk in Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, J. H.; Cioclov, D.; Dobmann, G.; Boller, C.

    2010-02-01

    In the context of probabilistic paradigm of fracture risk assessment in structural components a computer simulation rationale is presented which has at the base the integration of Quantitative Non-destructive Inspection and Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics. In this study the static failure under static loading is assessed in the format known as Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD). The fracture risk is evaluated in probabilistic terms. The superposed probabilistic pattern over the deterministic one is implemented via Monte-Carlo sampling. The probabilistic fracture simulation yields a more informative analysis in terms of probability of failure. The ability to simulate the influence of the quality and reliability of non-destructive inspection (NDI) is an important feature of this approach. It is achieved by integrating, algorithmically, probabilistic FAD analysis and the Probability of Detection (POD). The POD information can only be applied in a probabilistic analysis and leads to a refinement of the assessment. By this means, it can be ascertained the decrease of probability of failure when POD-characterized NDI is applied. Therefore, this procedure can be used as a tool for inspection based life time conceptions. In this paper results of sensitivity analyses are presented with the aim to outline, in terms of non-failure probabilities, the benefits of applying NDI, in various qualities, in comparison with the situation when NDI is lacking. A better substantiation is enabled of both the component reliability management and the costs-effectiveness of NDI timing.

  20. Integrating a piezoelectric actuator with mechanical and hydraulic devices to control camless engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercorelli, Paolo; Werner, Nils

    2016-10-01

    The paper deals with some interdisciplinary aspects and problems concerning the actuation control which occur in the integration of a piezoelectric structure in an aggregate actuator consisting of a piezoelectric, a stroke ratio displacement, a mechanical and a hydraulic part. Problems like compensation of the piezo hysteresis effect, scaling force-position to obtain an adequate displacement of the actuator and finally the control of such a complex aggregate system are considered and solved. Even though this work considers a particular application, the solutions proposed in the paper are quite general. In fact, the considered technical aspects occurring in systems which utilize piezoelectric technologies can be used in a variegated gamma of actuators integrating piezoelectric technologies. A cascade controller is proposed to combine a Feedforward action with an internal and an external PI-Controller. The Feedforward Controller is based on the model of the whole actuator, so particular attention is paid to the model structure. The resulting Feedforward action is an adaptive one to compensate hydraulic pressure faults. Real measurements are shown.

  1. Mechanism of cell integration on biomaterial implant surfaces in the presence of bacterial contamination.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chongxia; van der Mei, Henny C; Kuijer, Roel; Busscher, Henk J; Rochford, Edward T J

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial contamination during biomaterial implantation is often unavoidable, yielding a combat between cells and bacteria. Here we aim to determine the modulatory function of bacterial components on stem-cell, fibroblast, and osteoblast adhesion to a titanium alloy, including the role of toll-like-receptors (TLRs). Presence of heat-sacrificed Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced dose and cell-type dependent responses. Stem-cells were most sensitive to bacterial presence, demonstrating decreased adhesion number yet increased adhesion effort with a relatively large focal adhesion contact area. Blocking TLRs had no effect on stem-cell adhesion in presence of S. aureus, but blocking both TLR2 and TLR4 induced an increased adhesion effort in presence of E. coli. Neither lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, nor bacterial DNA provoked the same cell response as did whole bacteria. Herewith we suggest a new mechanism as to how biomaterials are integrated by cells despite the unavoidable presence of bacterial contamination. Stimulation of host cell integration of implant surfaces may open a new window to design new biomaterials with enhanced healing, thereby reducing the risk of biomaterial-associated infection of both "hardware-based" implants as well as of tissue-engineered constructs, known to suffer from similarly high infection risks as currently prevailing in "hardware-based" implants. PMID:25966819

  2. Maintaining information online in discrete time; rethinking working memory processes.

    PubMed

    Stephane, Massoud

    2012-06-21

    Linguistic operations occur with verbal information maintained online for a discrete time. It is posited that online maintenance of information is accomplished by verbal working memory (WM), a system that is: (a) independent from the linguistic operations carried out with the information (specialized), and (b) consists of a holding place where information is held in a phonological code (phonological loop) and a rehearsal mechanism that refreshes the phonological loop. This model does not account for the serial position effects associated with information maintenance and additional models are needed to explain the latter effects, which leaves us with a disjointed understanding of online maintenance of information. In this study, 36 middle-aged, healthy subjects (33 males and 3 females) were required to maintain linguistic information (letters) online. The letters called upon different cognitive operations (orthographic; orthographic and phonetic; or orthographic, phonetic and semantic). It was found that online maintenance capacity depends on the cognitive operations associated with the letters and on their serial position. Additionally, the cognitive operation effect on online maintenance was modulated by the serial position. These data favor a model for WM consisting of a simple holding place where verbal information maintenance depends on what the information is used for. We will discuss an integrated model for online information maintenance that accounts for the serial position effects.

  3. Human fear extinction and return of fear using reconsolidation update mechanisms: the contribution of on-line expectancy ratings.

    PubMed

    Warren, Victor Taylor; Anderson, Kemp M; Kwon, Cliffe; Bosshardt, Lauren; Jovanovic, Tanja; Bradley, Bekh; Norrholm, Seth Davin

    2014-09-01

    Disruption of the reconsolidation of conditioned fear memories has been suggested as a non-pharmacological means of preventing the return of learned fear in human populations. A reconsolidation update paradigm was developed in which a reconsolidation window is opened by a single isolated retrieval trial of a previously reinforced CS+ which is then followed by Extinction Training within that window. However, follow-up studies in humans using multi-methods fear conditioning indices (e.g., fear-potentiated startle, skin conductance, US-expectancy) have failed to replicate the retrieval+extinction effects. In the present study, we further investigated the retrieval+extinction reconsolidation update paradigm by directly comparing the acquisition, extinction, and return of fear-potentiated startle in the absence or presence of US-expectancy measures (using a trial-by-trial response keypad) with and without retrieval of a previously acquired CS-US association. Participants were fear conditioned to two visual cue CS+'s, one of which was presented as a single, isolated retrieval trial before Extinction Training and one that was extinguished as usual. The results show that the inclusion of US-expectancy measures strengthens the CS-US association to provide enhanced fear conditioning and maintenance of fear memories over the experimental sessions. In addition, in the groups that used on-line US-expectancy measures, the retrieval+extinction procedure reduced reinstatement of fear-potentiated startle to both previously reinforced CS+'s, as compared to the extinction as usual group.

  4. Laboratory Earth Under the Lens: Diachronic Evaluation of an Integrated Graduate-Level On-Line Earth System Science Course Series for K-12 Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, R.; Gosselin, D. C.; Haney, C.; Larson-Miller, C.; Bonnstetter, R.; Mandryk, C.

    2012-12-01

    Wilcoxan Signed Ranks Test is included in the battery of assessments to ensure that the courses achieve a statistically significant increase in participants' beliefs about their personal science teaching efficacy. The research design also includes the analysis of concept maps and content mastery assignments to assist in documentation of a teacher's transition from mastery of novice to expert knowledge. Content-based, course-specific pre and post knowledge surveys are included in the battery of assessments. In the analysis of on-line discussions, the project employs a textual analysis technique outlined in "The Rhetoric of Social Intervention," (RSI) (Opt and Gring 2009). RSI provides a promising analytical framework, especially when examining the development of understanding of scientific topics with societal implications, such as sustainability and climate change. The session provides a description of the integrated research design and data collection and analysis in the first year of this project.

  5. Language Learning Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Two programs that have been successful at integrating a number of suitable conditions for learning a foreign language in the online environment are Spanish at Rio Salado Community College in Tempe, Arizona, and French at Coastline Community College in Fountain Valley, California. Discussion includes instructional delivery; course lab experience;…

  6. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics: Engineered hierarchies of integrable potentials and related orthogonal polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Balondo Iyela, Daddy; Govaerts, Jan; Hounkonnou, M. Norbert

    2013-09-15

    Within the context of supersymmetric quantum mechanics and its related hierarchies of integrable quantum Hamiltonians and potentials, a general programme is outlined and applied to its first two simplest illustrations. Going beyond the usual restriction of shape invariance for intertwined potentials, it is suggested to require a similar relation for Hamiltonians in the hierarchy separated by an arbitrary number of levels, N. By requiring further that these two Hamiltonians be in fact identical up to an overall shift in energy, a periodic structure is installed in the hierarchy which should allow for its resolution. Specific classes of orthogonal polynomials characteristic of such periodic hierarchies are thereby generated, while the methods of supersymmetric quantum mechanics then lead to generalised Rodrigues formulae and recursion relations for such polynomials. The approach also offers the practical prospect of quantum modelling through the engineering of quantum potentials from experimental energy spectra. In this paper, these ideas are presented and solved explicitly for the cases N= 1 and N= 2. The latter case is related to the generalised Laguerre polynomials, for which indeed new results are thereby obtained. In the context of dressing chains and deformed polynomial Heisenberg algebras, some partial results for N⩾ 3 also exist in the literature, which should be relevant to a complete study of the N⩾ 3 general periodic hierarchies.

  7. The mechanical ground support equipment for the AIV and calibration of the AGILE integrated payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifoglio, Massimo; Traci, Alessandro; Gianotti, Fulvio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Di Cocco, Guido; Labanti, Claudio; Celesti, Enrico; Mauri, Alessandro

    2004-10-01

    AGILE is an ASI (Italian Space Agency) Small Space Mission for high energy astrophysics in the range 30 MeV - 50 GeV which is planned to be launched in 2005. Mechanical equipments are required for the Assembly, Integration and Verification (AIV) of the various subsystems together, forming the Payload complement. Furthermore, the calibration of the AGILE's performances requires to test with a beam line and with discrete X and γ ray sources the instrument response as a function of the energy of the incoming photons and particles and of their inclination with respect to the instrument axis. These AIV and Calibration activities lead to require an ad hoc Mechanical Ground Support Equipment (MGSE) which is able to move the instrument up and down, left and right as well as to rotate the instrument around the vertical axes and to tilt it by an angle between 0 and 180° with reference to the direction of the beam. We present here the MGSE we have designed in order to provide these functionalities with the required performances, and taking into account the working environment of the AIV and calibration sites.

  8. Integrated Information and Prospects for Gliding Mechanism of the Pathogenic Bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Makoto; Hamaguchi, Tasuku

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae forms a membrane protrusion at a cell pole and is known to adhere to solid surfaces, including animal cells, and can glide on these surfaces with a speed up to 1 μm per second. Notably, gliding appears to be involved in the infectious process in addition to providing the bacteria with a means of escaping the host's immune systems. However, the genome of M. pneumoniae does not encode any of the known genes found in other bacterial motility systems or any conventional motor proteins that are responsible for eukaryotic motility. Thus, further analysis of the mechanism underlying M. pneumoniae gliding is warranted. The gliding machinery formed as the membrane protrusion can be divided into the surface and internal structures. On the surface, P1 adhesin, a 170 kDa transmembrane protein forms an adhesin complex with other two proteins. The internal structure features a terminal button, paired plates, and a bowl (wheel) complex. In total, the organelle is composed of more than 15 proteins. By integrating the currently available information by genetics, microscopy, and structural analyses, we have suggested a working model for the architecture of the organelle. Furthermore, in this article, we suggest and discuss a possible mechanism of gliding based on the structural model, in which the force generated around the bowl complex transmits through the paired plates, reaching the adhesin complex, resulting in the repeated catch of sialylated oligosaccharides on the host surface by the adhesin complex. PMID:27446003

  9. Integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis of rat testis: Mechanism of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qingyu; Luo, Lianzhong; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Shen, Heqing

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a widespread metalloid in environment, whose exposure has been associated with a broad spectrum of toxic effects. However, a global view of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity is still lack, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Our results revealed that arsenic exposure decreased testosterone level and reduced sperm quality in rats. By conducting an integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis, the present study aims to investigate the global influence of arsenic exposure on the proteome and metabolome in rat testis. The abundance of 70 proteins (36 up-regulated and 34 down-regulated) and 13 metabolites (8 increased and 5 decreased) were found to be significantly altered by arsenic treatment. Among these, 19 proteins and 2 metabolites were specifically related to male reproductive system development and function, including spermatogenesis, sperm function and fertilization, fertility, internal genitalia development, and mating behavior. It is further proposed that arsenic mainly impaired spermatogenesis and fertilization via aberrant modulation of these male reproduction-related proteins and metabolites, which may be mediated by the ERK/AKT/NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will aid our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity, and from such studies useful biomarkers indicative of arsenic exposure could be discovered.

  10. Integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis of rat testis: Mechanism of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qingyu; Luo, Lianzhong; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Shen, Heqing

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is a widespread metalloid in environment, whose exposure has been associated with a broad spectrum of toxic effects. However, a global view of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity is still lack, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Our results revealed that arsenic exposure decreased testosterone level and reduced sperm quality in rats. By conducting an integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis, the present study aims to investigate the global influence of arsenic exposure on the proteome and metabolome in rat testis. The abundance of 70 proteins (36 up-regulated and 34 down-regulated) and 13 metabolites (8 increased and 5 decreased) were found to be significantly altered by arsenic treatment. Among these, 19 proteins and 2 metabolites were specifically related to male reproductive system development and function, including spermatogenesis, sperm function and fertilization, fertility, internal genitalia development, and mating behavior. It is further proposed that arsenic mainly impaired spermatogenesis and fertilization via aberrant modulation of these male reproduction-related proteins and metabolites, which may be mediated by the ERK/AKT/NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will aid our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity, and from such studies useful biomarkers indicative of arsenic exposure could be discovered. PMID:27585557

  11. Integrated Information and Prospects for Gliding Mechanism of the Pathogenic Bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Makoto; Hamaguchi, Tasuku

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae forms a membrane protrusion at a cell pole and is known to adhere to solid surfaces, including animal cells, and can glide on these surfaces with a speed up to 1 μm per second. Notably, gliding appears to be involved in the infectious process in addition to providing the bacteria with a means of escaping the host's immune systems. However, the genome of M. pneumoniae does not encode any of the known genes found in other bacterial motility systems or any conventional motor proteins that are responsible for eukaryotic motility. Thus, further analysis of the mechanism underlying M. pneumoniae gliding is warranted. The gliding machinery formed as the membrane protrusion can be divided into the surface and internal structures. On the surface, P1 adhesin, a 170 kDa transmembrane protein forms an adhesin complex with other two proteins. The internal structure features a terminal button, paired plates, and a bowl (wheel) complex. In total, the organelle is composed of more than 15 proteins. By integrating the currently available information by genetics, microscopy, and structural analyses, we have suggested a working model for the architecture of the organelle. Furthermore, in this article, we suggest and discuss a possible mechanism of gliding based on the structural model, in which the force generated around the bowl complex transmits through the paired plates, reaching the adhesin complex, resulting in the repeated catch of sialylated oligosaccharides on the host surface by the adhesin complex. PMID:27446003

  12. Non-monotonic Temporal-Weighting Indicates a Dynamically Modulated Evidence-Integration Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bronfman, Zohar Z; Brezis, Noam; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Perceptual decisions are thought to be mediated by a mechanism of sequential sampling and integration of noisy evidence whose temporal weighting profile affects the decision quality. To examine temporal weighting, participants were presented with two brightness-fluctuating disks for 1, 2 or 3 seconds and were requested to choose the overall brighter disk at the end of each trial. By employing a signal-perturbation method, which deploys across trials a set of systematically controlled temporal dispersions of the same overall signal, we were able to quantify the participants' temporal weighting profile. Results indicate that, for intervals of 1 or 2 sec, participants exhibit a primacy-bias. However, for longer stimuli (3-sec) the temporal weighting profile is non-monotonic, with concurrent primacy and recency, which is inconsistent with the predictions of previously suggested computational models of perceptual decision-making (drift-diffusion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes). We propose a novel, dynamic variant of the leaky-competing accumulator model as a potential account for this finding, and we discuss potential neural mechanisms. PMID:26866598

  13. Non-monotonic Temporal-Weighting Indicates a Dynamically Modulated Evidence-Integration Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Usher, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual decisions are thought to be mediated by a mechanism of sequential sampling and integration of noisy evidence whose temporal weighting profile affects the decision quality. To examine temporal weighting, participants were presented with two brightness-fluctuating disks for 1, 2 or 3 seconds and were requested to choose the overall brighter disk at the end of each trial. By employing a signal-perturbation method, which deploys across trials a set of systematically controlled temporal dispersions of the same overall signal, we were able to quantify the participants’ temporal weighting profile. Results indicate that, for intervals of 1 or 2 sec, participants exhibit a primacy-bias. However, for longer stimuli (3-sec) the temporal weighting profile is non-monotonic, with concurrent primacy and recency, which is inconsistent with the predictions of previously suggested computational models of perceptual decision-making (drift-diffusion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes). We propose a novel, dynamic variant of the leaky-competing accumulator model as a potential account for this finding, and we discuss potential neural mechanisms. PMID:26866598

  14. Integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis of rat testis: Mechanism of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qingyu; Luo, Lianzhong; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Shen, Heqing

    2016-09-02

    Arsenic is a widespread metalloid in environment, whose exposure has been associated with a broad spectrum of toxic effects. However, a global view of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity is still lack, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Our results revealed that arsenic exposure decreased testosterone level and reduced sperm quality in rats. By conducting an integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis, the present study aims to investigate the global influence of arsenic exposure on the proteome and metabolome in rat testis. The abundance of 70 proteins (36 up-regulated and 34 down-regulated) and 13 metabolites (8 increased and 5 decreased) were found to be significantly altered by arsenic treatment. Among these, 19 proteins and 2 metabolites were specifically related to male reproductive system development and function, including spermatogenesis, sperm function and fertilization, fertility, internal genitalia development, and mating behavior. It is further proposed that arsenic mainly impaired spermatogenesis and fertilization via aberrant modulation of these male reproduction-related proteins and metabolites, which may be mediated by the ERK/AKT/NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will aid our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity, and from such studies useful biomarkers indicative of arsenic exposure could be discovered.

  15. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate. Of primary interest is the influence of the ICF walls on developing an effective air sealing strategy and selecting an appropriate heating and cooling equipment type and capacity. The domestic water heating system is analyzed for costs and savings to investigate options for higher efficiency electric water heating. A method to ensure mechanical ventilation air flows is examined. The final solution package includes high-R mass walls, very low infiltration rates, multi-stage heat pump heating, solar thermal domestic hot water system, and energy recovery ventilation. This solution package can be used for homes to exceed 2012 International Energy Conservation Code requirements throughout all climate zones and achieves the DOE Challenge Home certification.

  16. Integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis of rat testis: Mechanism of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qingyu; Luo, Lianzhong; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Shen, Heqing

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is a widespread metalloid in environment, whose exposure has been associated with a broad spectrum of toxic effects. However, a global view of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity is still lack, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Our results revealed that arsenic exposure decreased testosterone level and reduced sperm quality in rats. By conducting an integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis, the present study aims to investigate the global influence of arsenic exposure on the proteome and metabolome in rat testis. The abundance of 70 proteins (36 up-regulated and 34 down-regulated) and 13 metabolites (8 increased and 5 decreased) were found to be significantly altered by arsenic treatment. Among these, 19 proteins and 2 metabolites were specifically related to male reproductive system development and function, including spermatogenesis, sperm function and fertilization, fertility, internal genitalia development, and mating behavior. It is further proposed that arsenic mainly impaired spermatogenesis and fertilization via aberrant modulation of these male reproduction-related proteins and metabolites, which may be mediated by the ERK/AKT/NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will aid our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity, and from such studies useful biomarkers indicative of arsenic exposure could be discovered. PMID:27585557

  17. Non-monotonic Temporal-Weighting Indicates a Dynamically Modulated Evidence-Integration Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bronfman, Zohar Z; Brezis, Noam; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Perceptual decisions are thought to be mediated by a mechanism of sequential sampling and integration of noisy evidence whose temporal weighting profile affects the decision quality. To examine temporal weighting, participants were presented with two brightness-fluctuating disks for 1, 2 or 3 seconds and were requested to choose the overall brighter disk at the end of each trial. By employing a signal-perturbation method, which deploys across trials a set of systematically controlled temporal dispersions of the same overall signal, we were able to quantify the participants' temporal weighting profile. Results indicate that, for intervals of 1 or 2 sec, participants exhibit a primacy-bias. However, for longer stimuli (3-sec) the temporal weighting profile is non-monotonic, with concurrent primacy and recency, which is inconsistent with the predictions of previously suggested computational models of perceptual decision-making (drift-diffusion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes). We propose a novel, dynamic variant of the leaky-competing accumulator model as a potential account for this finding, and we discuss potential neural mechanisms.

  18. A new mechanism to ensure integration during LINE retrotransposition: a suggestion from analyses of the 5' extra nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Katsumi; Okada, Norihiro

    2012-09-01

    Long interspersed elements (LINEs) are transposable elements that exist in the chromosomal DNA of most eukaryotes; as such, they have a large impact on the genome evolution of their hosts. LINEs mobilize by a mechanism called retrotransposition in which the LINE RNA is reverse-transcribed into DNA and then integrated into the host chromosome. The integration of the 3' end of the LINE element simultaneously occurs with the initiation of reverse transcription; this process is called target-primed reverse transcription and is one of the important characteristics of LINEs. However, the molecular mechanism of the integration of the 5' end is not well understood. Here, we show that, in cultured cells, the integrants of the zebrafish ZfL2-2 LINE produce extra nucleotides at their 5' ends, and the extra nucleotides originate from their flanking sequences. We also found that, in cultured cells, some integrants of the human L1 LINE and, in their native hosts, some endogenous elements of two other LINEs also contain 5' extra nucleotides of similar origin, suggesting that the mechanism for generation of the 5' extra nucleotides is universal among various LINEs. From these data, we propose a general mechanism for 5' integration in LINE retrotransposition.

  19. A new mechanism to ensure integration during LINE retrotransposition: a suggestion from analyses of the 5' extra nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Katsumi; Okada, Norihiro

    2012-09-01

    Long interspersed elements (LINEs) are transposable elements that exist in the chromosomal DNA of most eukaryotes; as such, they have a large impact on the genome evolution of their hosts. LINEs mobilize by a mechanism called retrotransposition in which the LINE RNA is reverse-transcribed into DNA and then integrated into the host chromosome. The integration of the 3' end of the LINE element simultaneously occurs with the initiation of reverse transcription; this process is called target-primed reverse transcription and is one of the important characteristics of LINEs. However, the molecular mechanism of the integration of the 5' end is not well understood. Here, we show that, in cultured cells, the integrants of the zebrafish ZfL2-2 LINE produce extra nucleotides at their 5' ends, and the extra nucleotides originate from their flanking sequences. We also found that, in cultured cells, some integrants of the human L1 LINE and, in their native hosts, some endogenous elements of two other LINEs also contain 5' extra nucleotides of similar origin, suggesting that the mechanism for generation of the 5' extra nucleotides is universal among various LINEs. From these data, we propose a general mechanism for 5' integration in LINE retrotransposition. PMID:22405943

  20. Neural mechanism of oculomotor horizontal velocity-to- position temporal integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksay, Emre R. F.

    Storage of briefly presented information in ``working'' memory correlates with persistent firing in the brain. Persistent activity in response to transient stimulation is a form of neural temporal integration. Here, the mechanism of temporal integration was explored in the oculomotor velocity-to-position neural integrator (VPNI), where persistent activity is used to maintain eye position and fixation. Extracellular and intracellular electrophysiology, single-cell dye- labeling, and pharmacological inactivation were performed in awake behaving goldfish while monitoring eye motion with the scleral search-coil method. Neurons identified within a compact subnucleus in the medulla designated as Area I are part of the VPNI for horizontal eye movements. Neurons fired tonically during fixations, with tonic rate higher for lateral eye positions and no discharge below a threshold position value. Dye-labeled somata were localized in a 350 micron extent of the inferior reticular formation. Axons either projected ipsilaterally to abducens motoneurons, or crossed the midline and projected toward the contralateral Area I and abducens. Bilateral inactivation of Area I induced inability to maintain eccentric gaze. During intracellular recording, step changes in eye position and firing rate were accompanied by steps in underlying membrane potential. Steps remained when neurons were hyperpolarized below action potential threshold. Perturbation with brief intracellular current pulses only induced transient changes in firing rate and potential. Membrane potential fluctuations were greater during more depolarized steps. These results suggest that steps are generated by synaptic input changes rather than intrinsic properties like membrane multistability. Spiking of unilateral pairs was positively correlated with 0-10 ms lag. Bilateral pairs were negatively correlated with 0-10 ms lag. These results are consistent with excitatory connections between unilateral pairs and inhibitory

  1. Integrated automated nanomanipulation and real-time cellular surface imaging for mechanical properties characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami, Sohrab; Zareian, Ramin; Jalili, Nader

    2012-10-01

    Surface microscopy of individual biological cells is essential for determining the patterns of cell migration to study the tumor formation or metastasis. This paper presents a correlated and effective theoretical and experimental technique to automatically address the biophysical and mechanical properties and acquire live images of biological cells which are of interest in studying cancer. In the theoretical part, a distributed-parameters model as the comprehensive representation of the microcantilever is presented along with a model of the contact force as a function of the indentation depth and mechanical properties of the biological sample. Analysis of the transfer function of the whole system in the frequency domain is carried out to characterize the stiffness and damping coefficients of the sample. In the experimental section, unlike the conventional atomic force microscope techniques basically using the laser for determining the deflection of microcantilever's tip, a piezoresistive microcantilever serving as a force sensor is implemented to produce the appropriate voltage and measure the deflection of the microcantilever. A micromanipulator robotic system is integrated with the MATLAB® and programmed in such a way to automatically control the microcantilever mounted on the tip of the micromanipulator to achieve the topography of biological samples including the human corneal cells. For this purpose, the human primary corneal fibroblasts are extracted and adhered on a sterilized culture dish and prepared to attain their topographical image. The proposed methodology herein allows an approach to obtain 2D quality images of cells being comparatively cost effective and extendable to obtain 3D images of individual cells. The characterized mechanical properties of the human corneal cell are furthermore established by comparing and validating the phase shift of the theoretical and experimental results of the frequency response.

  2. Best Practices for Online Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandzol, John R.; Grandzol, Christian J.

    2006-01-01

    This integrative review of literature on online educational best practices is intended to provide a quick reference for those interested in designing online business courses and programs. Primarily American in its perspective, this review may be helpful for business schools seeking optimal online course designs that foster quality learning…

  3. Elevating Engagement and Community in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthbertson, William; Falcone, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Community, while inherent in assumptions about online education, rarely materializes as an integral component of the experience. Misconceptions and misguided motivations can derail participation and engagement in the online setting. Creating a successful online community is dependent on knowing what works in the face-to-face environment and…

  4. CD44 regulates vascular endothelial barrier integrity via a PECAM-1 dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Kelly M; Michaud, Michael; Canosa, Sandra; Madri, Joseph A

    2013-07-01

    Vascular integrity is a critical parameter in normal growth and development. Loss of appropriate vascular barrier function is present in various immune- and injury-mediated pathological conditions. CD44 is an adhesion molecule expressed by multiple cell types, including endothelial cells (EC). The goal of the present study was to examine how loss of CD44 affected vascular permeability. Using C57BL/6 WT and CD44-KO mice, we found no significant permeability to Evan's Blue in either strain at baseline. However, there was significantly increased histamine-induced permeability in CD44-deficient mice compared to WT counterparts. Similar results were observed in vitro, where CD44-deficient endothelial monolayers were also impermeable to 40kD-FITC dextran in the absence of vasoactive challenge, but exhibited enhanced and prolonged permeability following histamine. However, CD44-KO monolayers have reduced baseline barrier strength by electrical resistance, which correlated with increased permeability, at baseline, to smaller molecular weight 4-kD FITC-dextran, suggesting weakly formed endothelial junctions. The CD44-KO EC displayed several characteristics consistent with impaired barrier function/dysfunctional EC junctions, including differential expression, phosphorylation, and localization of endothelial junction proteins, increased matrix metalloprotease expression, and altered cellular morphology. Reduced platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) expression by CD44-KO EC in vivo and in vitro was also observed. Reconstitution of murine CD44 or PECAM-1 restored these defects to near WT status, suggesting CD44 regulates vascular permeability and integrity through a PECAM-1 dependent mechanism.

  5. Online Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garman, Nancy; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The first of four articles describes the move by the European Space Agency to eliminate connect time charges on its online retrieval system. The remaining articles describe the pricing structure of DIALOG, compare the two pricing schemes, and discuss online pricing from the user's point of view. (CLB)

  6. Thermal-mechanical performance modeling of thorium-plutonium oxide fuel and comparison with on-line irradiation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insulander Björk, Klara; Kekkonen, Laura

    2015-12-01

    Thorium-plutonium Mixed OXide (Th-MOX) fuel is considered for use in light water reactors fuel due to some inherent benefits over conventional fuel types in terms of neutronic properties. The good material properties of ThO2 also suggest benefits in terms of thermal-mechanical fuel performance, but the use of Th-MOX fuel for commercial power production demands that its thermal-mechanical behavior can be accurately predicted using a well validated fuel performance code. Given the scant operational experience with Th-MOX fuel, no such code is available today. This article describes the first phase of the development of such a code, based on the well-established code FRAPCON 3.4, and in particular the correlations reviewed and chosen for the fuel material properties. The results of fuel temperature calculations with the code in its current state of development are shown and compared with data from a Th-MOX test irradiation campaign which is underway in the Halden research reactor. The results are good for fresh fuel, whereas experimental complications make it difficult to judge the adequacy of the code for simulations of irradiated fuel.

  7. Integrated field and numerical modeling investigation of crustal flow mechanisms and trajectories in migmatite domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Donna; Teyssier, Christian; Rey, Patrice

    2016-04-01

    Integrated field-based and modeling studies provide information about the driving mechanisms and internal dynamics of migmatite domes, which are important structures for understanding the rheology of the lithosphere in orogens. Dome-forming processes range from extension (isostasy) driven flow to density (buoyancy) driven systems. Vertical flow (up or down) is on the scale of tens of km. End-member buoyancy-driven domes are typically Archean (e.g., Pilbara, Australia). Extension-driven systems include the migmatite domes in metamorphic core complexes of the northern North American Cordillera, as well as some domes in Variscan core complexes. The Entia dome of central Australia is a possible hybrid dome in which extension and density inversion were both involved in dome formation. The Entia is a "double dome", comprised of a steep high-strain zone bordered by high melt-fraction migmatite (subdomes). Field and numerical modeling studies show that these are characteristics of extension-driven domes, which form when flowing deep crust ascends beneath normal faults in the upper crust. Entia dome migmatite shows abundant evidence for extension, in addition to sequences of cascading, cuspate folds (well displayed in amphibolite) that are not present in the carapace of the dome, that do not have a consistent axial planar fabric, and that developed primarily at subsolidus conditions. We propose that these folds developed in mafic layers that had a density contrast with granodioritic migmatite, and that they formed during sinking of a denser layer above the rising migmatite subdomes. Extension-driven flow of partially molten (granodioritic) crust was therefore accompanied by sinking of a dense, mafic, mid-crustal layer, resulting in complex P-T-d paths of different lithologic units within the dome. This scenario is consistent with field and 2D modeling results, which together show how a combination of structural geology, metamorphic petrology, and modeling can illuminate the

  8. On the integration of the baroreflex control mechanism in a heterogeneous model of the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Blanco, P J; Trenhago, P R; Fernandes, L G; Feijóo, R A

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present work is to describe the integration of a mathematical model for the baroreceptor reflex mechanism to provide regulatory action into a dimensionally heterogeneous (3D-1D-0D) closed-loop model of the cardiovascular system. Such heterogeneous model comprises a 1D description of the arterial tree, a 0D network for the venous, cardiac and pulmonary circulations and 3D patient-specific geometries for vascular districts of interest. Thus, the detailed topological description of the arterial network allows us to perform vasomotor control actions in a differentiated way, while gaining insight about the effects of the baroreflex regulation over hemodynamic quantities of interest throughout the entire network. Two examples of application are presented. Firstly, we simulate the hemorrhage in the abdominal aorta artery and analyze the action of the baroreflex over the system. Secondly, the self-regulated closed-loop model is applied to study the influence of the control action in the hemodynamic environment that determines the blood flow pattern in a cerebral aneurism in the presence of a regurgitating aortic valve. PMID:25365656

  9. Integrity of the osteocyte bone cell network in osteoporotic fracture: Implications for mechanical load adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuliwaba, J. S.; Truong, L.; Codrington, J. D.; Fazzalari, N. L.

    2010-06-01

    The human skeleton has the ability to modify its material composition and structure to accommodate loads through adaptive modelling and remodelling. The osteocyte cell network is now considered to be central to the regulation of skeletal homeostasis; however, very little is known of the integrity of the osteocyte cell network in osteoporotic fragility fracture. This study was designed to characterise osteocyte morphology, the extent of osteocyte cell apoptosis and expression of sclerostin protein (a negative regulator of bone formation) in trabecular bone from the intertrochanteric region of the proximal femur, for postmenopausal women with fragility hip fracture compared to age-matched women who had not sustained fragility fracture. Osteocyte morphology (osteocyte, empty lacunar, and total lacunar densities) and the degree of osteocyte apoptosis (percent caspase-3 positive osteocyte lacunae) were similar between the fracture patients and non-fracture women. The fragility hip fracture patients had a lower proportion of sclerostin-positive osteocyte lacunae in comparison to sclerostin-negative osteocyte lacunae, in contrast to similar percent sclerostin-positive/sclerostin-negative lacunae for non-fracture women. The unexpected finding of decreased sclerostin expression in trabecular bone osteocytes from fracture cases may be indicative of elevated bone turnover and under-mineralisation, characteristic of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Further, altered osteocytic expression of sclerostin may be involved in the mechano-responsiveness of bone. Optimal function of the osteocyte cell network is likely to be a critical determinant of bone strength, acting via mechanical load adaptation, and thus contributing to osteoporotic fracture risk.

  10. Androgen modulation of social decision-making mechanisms in the brain: an integrative and embodied perspective

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Gonçalo A.; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from their role in reproduction androgens also respond to social challenges and this response has been seen as a way to regulate the expression of behavior according to the perceived social environment (Challenge hypothesis, Wingfield et al., 1990). This hypothesis implies that social decision-making mechanisms localized in the central nervous system (CNS) are open to the influence of peripheral hormones that ultimately are under the control of the CNS through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Therefore, two puzzling questions emerge at two different levels of biological analysis: (1) Why does the brain, which perceives the social environment and regulates androgen production in the gonad, need feedback information from the gonad to adjust its social decision-making processes? (2) How does the brain regulate gonadal androgen responses to social challenges and how do these feedback into the brain? In this paper, we will address these two questions using the integrative approach proposed by Niko Tinbergen, who proposed that a full understanding of behavior requires its analysis at both proximate (physiology, ontogeny) and ultimate (ecology, evolution) levels. PMID:25100938

  11. Androgen modulation of social decision-making mechanisms in the brain: an integrative and embodied perspective.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gonçalo A; Oliveira, Rui F

    2014-01-01

    Apart from their role in reproduction androgens also respond to social challenges and this response has been seen as a way to regulate the expression of behavior according to the perceived social environment (Challenge hypothesis, Wingfield et al., 1990). This hypothesis implies that social decision-making mechanisms localized in the central nervous system (CNS) are open to the influence of peripheral hormones that ultimately are under the control of the CNS through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Therefore, two puzzling questions emerge at two different levels of biological analysis: (1) Why does the brain, which perceives the social environment and regulates androgen production in the gonad, need feedback information from the gonad to adjust its social decision-making processes? (2) How does the brain regulate gonadal androgen responses to social challenges and how do these feedback into the brain? In this paper, we will address these two questions using the integrative approach proposed by Niko Tinbergen, who proposed that a full understanding of behavior requires its analysis at both proximate (physiology, ontogeny) and ultimate (ecology, evolution) levels.

  12. Integrative functional genomics identifies regulatory mechanisms at coronary artery disease loci

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Clint L.; Pjanic, Milos; Wang, Ting; Nguyen, Trieu; Cohain, Ariella; Lee, Jonathan D.; Perisic, Ljubica; Hedin, Ulf; Kundu, Ramendra K.; Majmudar, Deshna; Kim, Juyong B.; Wang, Oliver; Betsholtz, Christer; Ruusalepp, Arno; Franzén, Oscar; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Schadt, Eric E.; Björkegren, Johan L.M.; Quertermous, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity, driven by both genetic and environmental risk factors. Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies have identified >150 loci associated with CAD and myocardial infarction susceptibility in humans. A majority of these variants reside in non-coding regions and are co-inherited with hundreds of candidate regulatory variants, presenting a challenge to elucidate their functions. Herein, we use integrative genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic profiling of perturbed human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and tissues to begin to identify causal regulatory variation and mechanisms responsible for CAD associations. Using these genome-wide maps, we prioritize 64 candidate variants and perform allele-specific binding and expression analyses at seven top candidate loci: 9p21.3, SMAD3, PDGFD, IL6R, BMP1, CCDC97/TGFB1 and LMOD1. We validate our findings in expression quantitative trait loci cohorts, which together reveal new links between CAD associations and regulatory function in the appropriate disease context. PMID:27386823

  13. High level resistance against rhizomania disease by simultaneously integrating two distinct defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Ourania I; Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Skaracis, George N

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of achieving durable resistance against rhizomania disease of sugar beet, the employment of different sources of resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus was pursued. To this purpose, Nicotiana benthamiana transgenic plants that simultaneously produce dsRNA originating from a conserved region of the BNYVV replicase gene and the HrpZ(Psph) protein in a secreted form (SP/HrpZ(Psph)) were produced. The integration and expression of both transgenes as well as proper production of the harpin protein were verified in all primary transformants and selfed progeny (T1, T2). Transgenic resistance was assessed by BNYVV-challenge inoculation on T2 progeny by scoring disease symptoms and DAS-ELISA at 20 and 30 dpi. Transgenic lines possessing single transformation events for both transgenes as well as wild type plants were included in inoculation experiments. Transgenic plants were highly resistant to virus infection, whereas in some cases immunity was achieved. In all cases, the resistant phenotype of transgenic plants carrying both transgenes was superior in comparison with the ones carrying a single transgene. Collectively, our findings demonstrate, for a first time, that the combination of two entirely different resistance mechanisms provide high level resistance or even immunity against the virus. Such a novel approach is anticipated to prevent a rapid virus adaptation that could potentially lead to the emergence of isolates with resistance breaking properties.

  14. [Formation Mechanism of Aerobic Granular Sludge and Removal Efficiencies in Integrated ABR-CSTR Reactor].

    PubMed

    Wu, Kai-cheng; Wu, Peng; Xu, Yue-zhong; Li, Yue-han; Shen, Yao-liang

    2015-08-01

    Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) was altered to make an integrated anaerobic-aerobic reactor. The research investigated the mechanism of aerobic sludge granulation, under the condition of continuous-flow. The last two compartments of the ABR were altered into aeration tank and sedimentation tank respectively with seeded sludge of anaerobic granular sludge in anaerobic zone and conventional activated sludge in aerobic zone. The HRT was gradually decreased in sedimentation tank from 2.0 h to 0.75 h and organic loading rate was increased from 1.5 kg x (M3 x d)(-1) to 2.0 kg x (M3 x d)(-1) while the C/N of 2 was controlled in aerobic zone. When the system operated for 110 days, the mature granular sludge in aerobic zone were characterized by compact structure, excellent sedimentation performance (average sedimentation rate was 20.8 m x h(-1)) and slight yellow color. The system performed well in nitrogen and phosphorus removal under the conditions of setting time of 0.75 h and organic loading rate of 2.0 kg (m3 x d)(-1) in aerobic zone, the removal efficiencies of COD, NH4+ -N, TP and TN were 90%, 80%, 65% and 45%, respectively. The results showed that the increasing selection pressure and the high organic loading rate were the main propulsions of the aerobic sludge granulation.

  15. An integrative approach to understanding microbial diversity: from intracellular mechanisms to community structure

    PubMed Central

    Gudelj, Ivana; Weitz, Joshua S; Ferenci, Tom; Claire Horner-Devine, M; Marx, Christopher J; Meyer, Justin R; Forde, Samantha E

    2010-01-01

    Trade-offs have been put forward as essential to the generation and maintenance of diversity. However, variation in trade-offs is often determined at the molecular level, outside the scope of conventional ecological inquiry. In this study, we propose that understanding the intracellular basis for trade-offs in microbial systems can aid in predicting and interpreting patterns of diversity. First, we show how laboratory experiments and mathematical models have unveiled the hidden intracellular mechanisms underlying trade-offs key to microbial diversity: (i) metabolic and regulatory trade-offs in bacteria and yeast; (ii) life-history trade-offs in bacterial viruses. Next, we examine recent studies of marine microbes that have taken steps toward reconciling the molecular and the ecological views of trade-offs, despite the challenges in doing so in natural settings. Finally, we suggest avenues for research where mathematical modelling, experiments and studies of natural microbial communities provide a unique opportunity to integrate studies of diversity across multiple scales. PMID:20576029

  16. Integrated force method - Compatibility conditions of structural mechanics for finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Berke, Laszlo; Gallagher, Richard H.

    1991-01-01

    The equilibrium equations and the compatibility conditions are fundamental to the analyses of structures. However, anyone who undertakes even a cursory generic study of the compatibility conditions can discover, with little effort, that historically this facet of structural mechanics had not been adequately researched by the profession. Now the compatibility conditions (CC's) have been researched and are understood to a great extent. For finite element discretizations, the CC's are banded and can be divided into three distinct categories: (1) the interface CC's, (2) the cluster or field CC's, and (3) the external CC's. The generation of CC's requires the separating of a local region, then writing the deformation displacement relation (ddr) for the region, and finally, the eliminating of the displacements from the ddr. The procedure to generate all three types of CC's is presented and illustrated through examples of finite element models. The uniqueness of the CC's thus generated is shown. The utilization of CC's has resulted in the novel integrated force method (IFM). The solution that is obtained by the IFM converges with a significantly fewer number of elements, compared to the stiffness and the hybrid methods.

  17. Integrative functional genomics identifies regulatory mechanisms at coronary artery disease loci.

    PubMed

    Miller, Clint L; Pjanic, Milos; Wang, Ting; Nguyen, Trieu; Cohain, Ariella; Lee, Jonathan D; Perisic, Ljubica; Hedin, Ulf; Kundu, Ramendra K; Majmudar, Deshna; Kim, Juyong B; Wang, Oliver; Betsholtz, Christer; Ruusalepp, Arno; Franzén, Oscar; Assimes, Themistocles L; Montgomery, Stephen B; Schadt, Eric E; Björkegren, Johan L M; Quertermous, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity, driven by both genetic and environmental risk factors. Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies have identified >150 loci associated with CAD and myocardial infarction susceptibility in humans. A majority of these variants reside in non-coding regions and are co-inherited with hundreds of candidate regulatory variants, presenting a challenge to elucidate their functions. Herein, we use integrative genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic profiling of perturbed human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and tissues to begin to identify causal regulatory variation and mechanisms responsible for CAD associations. Using these genome-wide maps, we prioritize 64 candidate variants and perform allele-specific binding and expression analyses at seven top candidate loci: 9p21.3, SMAD3, PDGFD, IL6R, BMP1, CCDC97/TGFB1 and LMOD1. We validate our findings in expression quantitative trait loci cohorts, which together reveal new links between CAD associations and regulatory function in the appropriate disease context. PMID:27386823

  18. High level resistance against rhizomania disease by simultaneously integrating two distinct defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Ourania I; Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Skaracis, George N

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of achieving durable resistance against rhizomania disease of sugar beet, the employment of different sources of resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus was pursued. To this purpose, Nicotiana benthamiana transgenic plants that simultaneously produce dsRNA originating from a conserved region of the BNYVV replicase gene and the HrpZ(Psph) protein in a secreted form (SP/HrpZ(Psph)) were produced. The integration and expression of both transgenes as well as proper production of the harpin protein were verified in all primary transformants and selfed progeny (T1, T2). Transgenic resistance was assessed by BNYVV-challenge inoculation on T2 progeny by scoring disease symptoms and DAS-ELISA at 20 and 30 dpi. Transgenic lines possessing single transformation events for both transgenes as well as wild type plants were included in inoculation experiments. Transgenic plants were highly resistant to virus infection, whereas in some cases immunity was achieved. In all cases, the resistant phenotype of transgenic plants carrying both transgenes was superior in comparison with the ones carrying a single transgene. Collectively, our findings demonstrate, for a first time, that the combination of two entirely different resistance mechanisms provide high level resistance or even immunity against the virus. Such a novel approach is anticipated to prevent a rapid virus adaptation that could potentially lead to the emergence of isolates with resistance breaking properties. PMID:23284692

  19. Androgen modulation of social decision-making mechanisms in the brain: an integrative and embodied perspective.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gonçalo A; Oliveira, Rui F

    2014-01-01

    Apart from their role in reproduction androgens also respond to social challenges and this response has been seen as a way to regulate the expression of behavior according to the perceived social environment (Challenge hypothesis, Wingfield et al., 1990). This hypothesis implies that social decision-making mechanisms localized in the central nervous system (CNS) are open to the influence of peripheral hormones that ultimately are under the control of the CNS through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Therefore, two puzzling questions emerge at two different levels of biological analysis: (1) Why does the brain, which perceives the social environment and regulates androgen production in the gonad, need feedback information from the gonad to adjust its social decision-making processes? (2) How does the brain regulate gonadal androgen responses to social challenges and how do these feedback into the brain? In this paper, we will address these two questions using the integrative approach proposed by Niko Tinbergen, who proposed that a full understanding of behavior requires its analysis at both proximate (physiology, ontogeny) and ultimate (ecology, evolution) levels. PMID:25100938

  20. High-Temperature Mechanical Integrity of Cu-Sn SLID Wafer-Level Bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Thi-Thuy; Hoivik, Nils; Wang, Kaiying; Aasmundtveit, Knut E.; Vardøy, Astrid-Sofie B.

    2015-11-01

    Wafer-level Cu-Sn SLID (Solid-Liquid Interdiffusion)-bonded devices have been evaluated at high temperature. The bonding process was performed at 553 K (280 °C) and the mechanical integrity of the bonded samples was investigated at elevated temperatures. The die shear strength of Cu-Sn systems shows a constant behavior (42 MPa) for shear tests performed from room temperature [RT—298 K (25 °C)] to 573 K ( to 300 °C). This confirms experimentally the high-temperature stability of Cu-Sn SLID bonding predicted from phase diagrams. The fractography of sheared samples indicates brittle-fracture mode for all samples shear tested from RT to 573 K (300 °C). The two dominating failure modes are Adhesive fracture between the Ti-W adhesion layer and the Si, and interface fracture at the original bond interface. This indicates that the bonding material itself is stronger than the observed shear strength values, and since these interfaces can be improved with process optimization even stronger bonds can be achieved. The presented work offers fundamental evidence of the Cu-Sn SLID bonding process for operating microelectronics and MEMS at high temperature.

  1. Integrated network modelling for identifying microbial mechanisms of particulate organic carbon accumulation in coastal marine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Karlie; Turk, Valentina; Mozetič, Patricija; Tinta, Tinkara; Malfatti, Francesca; Hannah, David; Krause, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Accumulation of particulate organic carbon (POC) has the potential to change the structure and function of marine ecosystems. High abidance of POC can develop into aggregates, known as marine snow or mucus aggregates that can impair essential marine ecosystem functioning and services. Currently marine POC formation, accumulation and sedimentation processes are being explored as potential pathways to remove CO2 from the atmosphere by CO2 sequestration via fixation into biomass by phytoplankton. However, the current ability of scientists, environmental managers and regulators to analyse and predict high POC concentrations is restricted by the limited understanding of the dynamic nature of the microbial mechanisms regulating POC accumulation events in marine environments. We present a proof of concept study that applies a novel Bayesian Networks (BN) approach to integrate relevant biological and physical-chemical variables across spatial and temporal scales in order to identify the interactions of the main contributing microbial mechanisms regulating POC accumulation in the northern Adriatic Sea. Where previous models have characterised only the POC formed, the BN approach provides a probabilistic framework for predicting the occurrence of POC accumulation by linking biotic factors with prevailing environmental conditions. In this paper the BN was used to test three scenarios (diatom, nanoflagellate, and dinoflagellate blooms). The scenarios predicted diatom blooms to produce high chlorophyll a at the water surface while nanoflagellate blooms were predicted to occur at lower depths (> 6m) in the water column and produce lower chlorophyll a concentrations. A sensitivity analysis identified the variables with the greatest influence on POC accumulation being the enzymes protease and alkaline phosphatase, which highlights the importance of microbial community interactions. The developed proof of concept BN model allows for the first time to quantify the impacts of

  2. Mechanisms of Percept-Percept and Image-Percept Integration in Vision: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalvit, Silvia; Eimer, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the detection of a visual target can be guided not only by the temporal integration of two percepts, but also by integrating a percept and an image held in working memory. Behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures were obtained in a target detection task that required temporal integration of 2…

  3. Gaseous Chemistry and Aerosol Mechanism Developments for Version 3.5.1 of the Online Regional Model, WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect

    Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Lowe, Douglas; Utembe, Steve; Allan, James D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Fast, Jerome D.; Hodnebrog, Oivind; H. Denier van der Gon; McFiggans, Gordon

    2014-11-08

    We have made a number of developments in the regional coupled model WRF-Chem, with the aim of making the model more suitable for prediction of atmospheric composition and of interactions between air quality and weather. We have worked on the European domain, with a particular focus on making the model suitable for the study of night time chemistry and oxidation by the nitrate radical in the UK atmosphere. A reduced form of the Common Reactive Intermediates gas-phase chemical mechanism (CRIv2-R5) has been implemented to enable more explicit simulation of VOC degradation. N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry has been added to the existing sectional MOSAIC aerosol module, and coupled to both the CRIv2-R5 and existing CBM-Z gas phase scheme. Modifications have also been made to the sea-spray aerosol emission representation, allowing the inclusion of primary organic material in sea-spray aerosol. Driven by appropriate emissions, wind fields and chemical boundary conditions, implementation of the different developments is illustrated in order to demonstrate the impact that these changes have in the North-West European domain. These developments are now part of the freely available WRF-Chem distribution.

  4. An analysis of a large dataset on immigrant integration in Spain. The Statistical Mechanics perspective on Social Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barra, Adriano; Contucci, Pierluigi; Sandell, Rickard; Vernia, Cecilia

    2014-02-01

    How does immigrant integration in a country change with immigration density? Guided by a statistical mechanics perspective we propose a novel approach to this problem. The analysis focuses on classical integration quantifiers such as the percentage of jobs (temporary and permanent) given to immigrants, mixed marriages, and newborns with parents of mixed origin. We find that the average values of different quantifiers may exhibit either linear or non-linear growth on immigrant density and we suggest that social action, a concept identified by Max Weber, causes the observed non-linearity. Using the statistical mechanics notion of interaction to quantitatively emulate social action, a unified mathematical model for integration is proposed and it is shown to explain both growth behaviors observed. The linear theory instead, ignoring the possibility of interaction effects would underestimate the quantifiers up to 30% when immigrant densities are low, and overestimate them as much when densities are high. The capacity to quantitatively isolate different types of integration mechanisms makes our framework a suitable tool in the quest for more efficient integration policies.

  5. An analysis of a large dataset on immigrant integration in Spain. The Statistical Mechanics perspective on Social Action

    PubMed Central

    Barra, Adriano; Contucci, Pierluigi; Sandell, Rickard; Vernia, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    How does immigrant integration in a country change with immigration density? Guided by a statistical mechanics perspective we propose a novel approach to this problem. The analysis focuses on classical integration quantifiers such as the percentage of jobs (temporary and permanent) given to immigrants, mixed marriages, and newborns with parents of mixed origin. We find that the average values of different quantifiers may exhibit either linear or non-linear growth on immigrant density and we suggest that social action, a concept identified by Max Weber, causes the observed non-linearity. Using the statistical mechanics notion of interaction to quantitatively emulate social action, a unified mathematical model for integration is proposed and it is shown to explain both growth behaviors observed. The linear theory instead, ignoring the possibility of interaction effects would underestimate the quantifiers up to 30% when immigrant densities are low, and overestimate them as much when densities are high. The capacity to quantitatively isolate different types of integration mechanisms makes our framework a suitable tool in the quest for more efficient integration policies. PMID:24566475

  6. Development Mechanism of an Integrated Model for Training of a Specialist and Conceptual-Theoretical Activity of a Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marasulov, Akhmat; Saipov, Amangeldi; ?rymbayeva, Kulimkhan; Zhiyentayeva, Begaim; Demeuov, Akhan; Konakbaeva, Ulzhamal; Bekbolatova, Akbota

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the methodological-theoretical construction bases for development mechanism of an integrated model for a specialist's training and teacher's conceptual-theoretical activity. Using the methods of generalization of teaching experience, pedagogical modeling and forecasting, the authors determine the urgent problems…

  7. The effects of actomyosin disruptors on the mechanical integrity of the avian crystalline lens

    PubMed Central

    Won, Gah-Jone; Fudge, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Actin and myosin within the crystalline lens maintain the structural integrity of lens fiber cells and form a hexagonal lattice cradling the posterior surface of the lens. The actomyosin network was pharmacologically disrupted to examine the effects on lenticular biomechanics and optical quality. Methods: One lens of 7-day-old White Leghorn chickens was treated with 10 µM of a disruptor and the other with 0.01% dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle). Actin, myosin, and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) disruptors were used. The stiffness and the optical quality of the control and treated lenses were measured. Western blotting and confocal imaging were used to confirm that treatment led to a disruption of the actomyosin network. The times for the lenses to recover stiffness to match the control values were also measured. Results: Disruptor-treated lenses were significantly less stiff than their controls (p≤0.0274 for all disruptors). The disruptors led to changes in the relative protein amounts as well as the distributions of proteins within the lattice. However, the disruptors did not affect the clarity of the lenses (p≥0.4696 for all disruptors), nor did they affect spherical aberration (p = 0.02245). The effects of all three disruptors were reversible, with lenses recovering from treatment with actin, myosin, and MLCK disruptors after 4 h, 1 h, and 8 min, respectively. Conclusions: Cytoskeletal protein disruptors led to a decreased stiffness of the lens, and the effects were reversible. Optical quality was mostly unaffected, but the long-term consequences remain unclear. Our results raise the possibility that the mechanical properties of the avian lens may be actively regulated in vivo via adjustments to the actomyosin lattice. PMID:25684975

  8. Altering the cellular mechanical force balance results in integrated changes in cell, cytoskeletal and nuclear shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, J. R.; Karp, S.; Ingber, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Studies were carried out with capillary endothelial cells cultured on fibronectin (FN)-coated dishes in order to analyze the mechanism of cell and nuclear shape control by extracellular matrix (ECM). To examine the role of the cytoskeleton in shape determination independent of changes in transmembrane osmotic pressure, membranes of adherent cells were permeabilized with saponin (25 micrograms/ml) using a buffer that maintains the functional integrity of contractile microfilaments. Real-time videomicroscopic studies revealed that addition of 250 microM ATP resulted in time-dependent retraction and rounding of permeabilized cells and nuclei in a manner similar to that observed in intact living cells following detachment using trypsin-EDTA. Computerized image analysis confirmed that permeabilized cells remained essentially rigid in the absence of ATP and that retraction was stimulated in a dose-dependent manner as the concentration of ATP was raised from 10 to 250 microM. Maximal rounding occurred by 30 min with projected cell and nuclear areas being reduced by 69 and 41%, respectively. ATP-induced rounding was also accompanied by a redistribution of microfilaments resulting in formation of a dense net of F-actin surrounding retracted nuclei. Importantly, ATP-stimulated changes in cell, cytoskeletal, and nuclear form were prevented in permeabilized cells using a synthetic myosin peptide (IRICRKG) that has been previously shown to inhibit actomyosin filament sliding in muscle. In contrast, both the rate and extent of cell and nuclear rounding were increased in permeabilized cells exposed to ATP when the soluble FN peptide, GRGDSP, was used to dislodge immobilized FN from cell surface integrin receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  9. A Study of the Predictive Relationship between Online Social Presence and ONLE Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Chih-Hsiung; Yen, Cherng-Jyh; Blocher, J. Michael; Chan, Junn-Yih

    2012-01-01

    Open Network Learning Environments (ONLE) are online networks that afford learners the opportunity to participate in creative content endeavors, personalized identity projections, networked mechanism management, and effective collaborative community integration by applying Web 2.0 tools in open environments. It supports social interaction by…

  10. Mechanical integrity of a carbon nanotube/copper-based through-silicon via for 3D integrated circuits: a multi-scale modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Ibrahim; Ladani, Leila

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)/copper (Cu) composite material is proposed to replace Cu-based through-silicon vias (TSVs) in micro-electronic packages. The proposed material is believed to offer extraordinary mechanical and electrical properties and the presence of CNTs in Cu is believed to overcome issues associated with miniaturization of Cu interconnects, such as electromigration. This study introduces a multi-scale modeling of the proposed TSV in order to evaluate its mechanical integrity under mechanical and thermo-mechanical loading conditions. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to determine CNT/Cu interface adhesion properties. A cohesive zone model (CZM) was found to be most appropriate to model the interface adhesion, and CZM parameters at the nanoscale were determined using MD simulation. CZM parameters were then used in the finite element analysis in order to understand the mechanical and thermo-mechanical behavior of composite TSV at micro-scale. From the results, CNT/Cu separation does not take place prior to plastic deformation of Cu in bending, and separation does not take place when standard thermal cycling is applied. Further investigation is recommended in order to alleviate the increased plastic deformation in Cu at the CNT/Cu interface in both loading conditions.

  11. Mechanical integrity of a carbon nanotube/copper-based through-silicon via for 3D integrated circuits: a multi-scale modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Awad, Ibrahim; Ladani, Leila

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)/copper (Cu) composite material is proposed to replace Cu-based through-silicon vias (TSVs) in micro-electronic packages. The proposed material is believed to offer extraordinary mechanical and electrical properties and the presence of CNTs in Cu is believed to overcome issues associated with miniaturization of Cu interconnects, such as electromigration. This study introduces a multi-scale modeling of the proposed TSV in order to evaluate its mechanical integrity under mechanical and thermo-mechanical loading conditions. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to determine CNT/Cu interface adhesion properties. A cohesive zone model (CZM) was found to be most appropriate to model the interface adhesion, and CZM parameters at the nanoscale were determined using MD simulation. CZM parameters were then used in the finite element analysis in order to understand the mechanical and thermo-mechanical behavior of composite TSV at micro-scale. From the results, CNT/Cu separation does not take place prior to plastic deformation of Cu in bending, and separation does not take place when standard thermal cycling is applied. Further investigation is recommended in order to alleviate the increased plastic deformation in Cu at the CNT/Cu interface in both loading conditions.

  12. Mechanical integrity of a carbon nanotube/copper-based through-silicon via for 3D integrated circuits: a multi-scale modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Awad, Ibrahim; Ladani, Leila

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)/copper (Cu) composite material is proposed to replace Cu-based through-silicon vias (TSVs) in micro-electronic packages. The proposed material is believed to offer extraordinary mechanical and electrical properties and the presence of CNTs in Cu is believed to overcome issues associated with miniaturization of Cu interconnects, such as electromigration. This study introduces a multi-scale modeling of the proposed TSV in order to evaluate its mechanical integrity under mechanical and thermo-mechanical loading conditions. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to determine CNT/Cu interface adhesion properties. A cohesive zone model (CZM) was found to be most appropriate to model the interface adhesion, and CZM parameters at the nanoscale were determined using MD simulation. CZM parameters were then used in the finite element analysis in order to understand the mechanical and thermo-mechanical behavior of composite TSV at micro-scale. From the results, CNT/Cu separation does not take place prior to plastic deformation of Cu in bending, and separation does not take place when standard thermal cycling is applied. Further investigation is recommended in order to alleviate the increased plastic deformation in Cu at the CNT/Cu interface in both loading conditions. PMID:26559788

  13. Effects of an Online Rational Emotive Curriculum on Primary School Students' Tendencies for Online and Real-World Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Ho, H. C.; Song, Y. J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between online and real-world aggressive behavior among primary school students as well as the effects of an online rational emotive curriculum on reducing the tendency of students to display aggression online and in the real-world. We developed an online information literacy course integrated with rational…

  14. From microgravity to osmotic conditions: mechanical integration of plant cells in response to stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtaszek, Przemyslaw; Kasprowicz, Anna; Michalak, Michal; Janczara, Renata; Volkmann, Dieter; Baluska, Frantisek

    Chemical reactions and interactions between molecules are commonly thought of as being at the basis of Life. Research of recent years, however, is more and more evidently indicating that physical forces are profoundly affecting the functioning of life at all levels of its organiza-tion. To detect and to respond to such forces, plant cells need to be integrated mechanically. Cell walls are the outermost functional zone of plant cells. They surround the individual cells, and also form a part of the apoplast. In cell suspensions, cell walls are embedded in the cul-ture medium which can be considered as a superapoplast. Through physical and chemical interactions they provide a basis for the structural and functional cell wall-plasma membrane-cytoskeleton (WMC) continuum spanning the whole cell. Here, the working of WMC contin-uum, and the participation of signalling molecules, like NO, would be presented in the context of plant responses to stress. In addition, the effects of the changing composition of WMC continuum will be considered, with particular attention paid to the modifications of the WMC components. Plant cells are normally adapted to changing osmotic conditions, resulting from variable wa-ter availability. The appearance of the osmotic stress activates adaptory mechanisms. If the strength of osmotic stress grows relatively slowly over longer period of time, the cells are able to adapt to conditions that are lethal to non-adapted cells. During stepwise adaptation of tobacco BY-2 suspension cells to the presence of various osmotically active agents, cells diverged into independent, osmoticum type-specific lines. In response to ionic agents (NaCl, KCl), the adhe-sive properties were increased and randomly dividing cells formed clumps, while cells adapted to nonionic osmotica (mannitol, sorbitol, PEG) revealed ordered pattern of precisely positioned cell divisions, resulting in the formation of long cell files. Changes in the growth patterns were accompanied by

  15. Polynomial integrals of reversible mechanical systems with a two-dimensional torus as the configuration space

    SciTech Connect

    Denisova, N V; Kozlov, Valerii V

    2000-02-28

    The problem considered here is that of finding conditions ensuring that a reversible Hamiltonian system has integrals polynomial in momenta. The kinetic energy is a zero-curvature Riemannian metric and the potential a smooth function on a two-dimensional torus. It is known that the existence of integrals of degrees 1 and 2 is related to the existence of cyclic coordinates and the separation of variables. The following conjecture is also well known: if there exists an integral of degree n independent of the energy integral, then there exists an additional integral of degree 1 or 2. In the present paper this result is established for n = 3 (which generalizes a theorem of Byalyi), and for n = 4, 5, and 6 this is proved under some additional assumptions about the spectrum of the potential.

  16. Development of a Versatile Laser Ultrasonic System and Application to On-Line Measurement for Process Control of Wall Thickness and Eccentrictiy of Steel Seamless Mechanical Tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, R.A.; Kercel, S.W.; Damiano, B.; Bingham, P.R.; Gee, T.F.; Tucker, R.W.; Moore, M.R.; Hileman, M.; Emery, M.; Lenarduzzi, R.; Hardy, J.E.; Weaver, K.; Crutcher, R.; Kolarik, R.V., II; Vandervaart, R.H.

    2002-04-24

    Researchers at the Timken Company conceived a project to develop an on-line instrument for wall thickness measurement of steel seamless mechanical tubing based on laser ultrasonic technology. The instrument, which has been installed and tested at a piercing mill, provides data on tube eccentricity and concentricity. Such measurements permit fine-tuning of manufacturing processes to eliminate excess material in the tube wall and therefore provide a more precisely dimensioned product for their customers. The resulting process energy savings are substantial, as is lowered environmental burden. The expected savings are $85.8 million per year in seamless mechanical tube piercing alone. Applied across the industry, this measurement has a potential of reducing energy consumption by 6 x 10{sup 12} BTU per year, greenhouse gas emissions by 0.3 million metric tons carbon equivalent per year, and toxic waste by 0.255 million pounds per year. The principal technical contributors to the project were the Timken Company, Industrial Materials Institute (IMI, a contractor to Timken), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Timken provided mill access as well as process and metallurgical understanding. Timken researchers had previously developed fundamental ultrasonic analysis methods on which this project is based. IMI developed and fabricated the laser ultrasonic generation and receiver systems. ORNL developed Bayesian and wavelet based real-time signal processing, spread-spectrum wireless communication, and explored feature extraction and pattern recognition methods. The resulting instrument has successfully measured production tubes at one of Timken's piercing mills. This report concentrates on ORNL's contribution through the CRADA mechanism. The three components of ORNL's contribution were met with mixed success. The real-time signal-processing task accomplished its goal of improvement in detecting time of flight information with a minimum of false data. The signal processing

  17. Temporal averaging across multiple response options: insight into the mechanisms underlying integration.

    PubMed

    De Corte, Benjamin J; Matell, Matthew S

    2016-03-01

    Rats trained on a dual-duration, dual-modality peak-interval procedure (e.g., tone = 10 s/light = 20 s) often show unimodal response distributions with peaks that fall in between the anchor durations when both cues are presented as a simultaneous compound. Two hypotheses can explain this finding. According to the averaging hypothesis, rats integrate the anchor durations into an average during compound trials, with each duration being weighted by its respective reinforcement probability. According to the simultaneous temporal processing hypothesis, rats time both durations veridically and simultaneously during compound trials and respond continuously across both durations, thereby producing a unimodal response distribution with a peak falling in between the anchor durations. In the present compounding experiment, rats were trained to associate a tone and light with two different durations (e.g., 5 and 20 s, respectively). However, in contrast to previous experiments, each cue was also associated with a distinct response requirement (e.g., left nosepoke for tone/right nosepoke for light). On the majority of compound trials, responding on a given nosepoke fell close to its respective duration, but was shifted in the direction of the other cue's duration, suggesting rats timed an average of the two durations. However, more weight appeared to be given to the duration associated with the manipulandum on which the rat responded, rather than the duration associated with a higher reinforcement probability as predicted by the averaging hypothesis. Group differences were also observed, with rats trained to associate the tone and light with the short and long durations, respectively, being more likely to show these shifts than the counterbalanced modality-duration group (i.e., light-short/tone-long). This parallels group differences observed in past studies and suggest that cue weighting in response to stimulus compounds is influenced by the modality-duration relationship of

  18. Integration and Validation in Hybrid-Online Teacher Preparation: A Case Study of Persistence in a Native American Special Education Licensure Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Donna Rose

    2013-01-01

    This study explored persistence through the experience of professional studies students in a special education licensure program. The context of the study was a graduate level teacher preparation program delivered in a hybrid format of face-to-face and online learning environments. The goal of the program was to prepare teachers from a Native…

  19. DSSTOX: NEW ON-LINE RESOURCE FOR PUBLISHING AND INTEGRATING STANDARDIZED STRUCTURE-INCLUSIVE TOXICITY DATABASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    DSSTox: New On-line Resource for Publishing Structure-Standardized Toxicity Databases

    Ann M Richard1, Jamie Burch2, ClarLynda Williams3
    1Nat. Health and Environ. Effects Res. Lb, US EP& Ret Triangle Park, NC 27711; 2EPA-NC
    Central Univ Student COOP, US EPA, lies. Tri...

  20. Assessment of the Use of Online Comunities to Integrate Educational Processes Development Teams: An Experience in Popular Health Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barilli, Elomar Castilho; de Freitas Barretto, Stenio; Lima, Carla Moura; Menezes, Marco Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This paper is intended to share the results of the assessment of the use of the Online Work Community (OWC), developed in the Moodle technology that was used as an instrument to facilitate the educational and operational processes, intended to share problems and proposals for solution among the 470 members of the development teams, made up of…

  1. Integrated Micro/nanoengineered Functional Biomaterials for Cell Mechanics and Mechanobiology: A Materials Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials in the last two decades has empowered materials scientists and bioengineers to precisely control different aspects of the in vitro cell microenvironment. Following a philosophy of reductionism, many studies using synthetic functional biomaterials have revealed instructive roles of individual extracellular biophysical and biochemical cues in regulating cellular behaviors. Development of integrated micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials to study complex and emergent biological phenomena has also thrived rapidly in recent years, revealing adaptive and integrated cellular behaviors closely relevant to human physiological and pathological conditions. Working at the interface between materials science and engineering, biology, and medicine, we are now at the beginning of a great exploration using micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials for both fundamental biology study and clinical and biomedical applications such as regenerative medicine and drug screening. In this review, we present an overview of state of the art micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials that can control precisely individual aspects of cell-microenvironment interactions and highlight them as well-controlled platforms for mechanistic studies of mechano-sensitive and -responsive cellular behaviors and integrative biology research. We also discuss the recent exciting trend where micro/nanoengineered biomaterials are integrated into miniaturized biological and biomimetic systems for dynamic multiparametric microenvironmental control of emergent and integrated cellular behaviors. The impact of integrated micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials for future in vitro studies of regenerative medicine, cell biology, as well as human development and disease models are discussed. PMID:24339188

  2. Integrated micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials for cell mechanics and mechanobiology: a materials perspective.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yue; Fu, Jianping

    2014-03-12

    The rapid development of micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials in the last two decades has empowered materials scientists and bioengineers to precisely control different aspects of the in vitro cell microenvironment. Following a philosophy of reductionism, many studies using synthetic functional biomaterials have revealed instructive roles of individual extracellular biophysical and biochemical cues in regulating cellular behaviors. Development of integrated micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials to study complex and emergent biological phenomena has also thrived rapidly in recent years, revealing adaptive and integrated cellular behaviors closely relevant to human physiological and pathological conditions. Working at the interface between materials science and engineering, biology, and medicine, we are now at the beginning of a great exploration using micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials for both fundamental biology study and clinical and biomedical applications such as regenerative medicine and drug screening. In this review, an overview of state of the art micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials that can control precisely individual aspects of cell-microenvironment interactions is presented and they are highlighted them as well-controlled platforms for mechanistic studies of mechano-sensitive and -responsive cellular behaviors and integrative biology research. The recent exciting trend where micro/nanoengineered biomaterials are integrated into miniaturized biological and biomimetic systems for dynamic multiparametric microenvironmental control of emergent and integrated cellular behaviors is also discussed. The impact of integrated micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials for future in vitro studies of regenerative medicine, cell biology, as well as human development and disease models are discussed.

  3. Integrated micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials for cell mechanics and mechanobiology: a materials perspective.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yue; Fu, Jianping

    2014-03-12

    The rapid development of micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials in the last two decades has empowered materials scientists and bioengineers to precisely control different aspects of the in vitro cell microenvironment. Following a philosophy of reductionism, many studies using synthetic functional biomaterials have revealed instructive roles of individual extracellular biophysical and biochemical cues in regulating cellular behaviors. Development of integrated micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials to study complex and emergent biological phenomena has also thrived rapidly in recent years, revealing adaptive and integrated cellular behaviors closely relevant to human physiological and pathological conditions. Working at the interface between materials science and engineering, biology, and medicine, we are now at the beginning of a great exploration using micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials for both fundamental biology study and clinical and biomedical applications such as regenerative medicine and drug screening. In this review, an overview of state of the art micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials that can control precisely individual aspects of cell-microenvironment interactions is presented and they are highlighted them as well-controlled platforms for mechanistic studies of mechano-sensitive and -responsive cellular behaviors and integrative biology research. The recent exciting trend where micro/nanoengineered biomaterials are integrated into miniaturized biological and biomimetic systems for dynamic multiparametric microenvironmental control of emergent and integrated cellular behaviors is also discussed. The impact of integrated micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials for future in vitro studies of regenerative medicine, cell biology, as well as human development and disease models are discussed. PMID:24339188

  4. Short-time asymptotics of a rigorous path integral for N = 1 supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a Riemannian manifold

    SciTech Connect

    Fine, Dana S.; Sawin, Stephen

    2014-06-15

    Following Feynman's prescription for constructing a path integral representation of the propagator of a quantum theory, a short-time approximation to the propagator for imaginary-time, N = 1 supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a compact, even-dimensional Riemannian manifold is constructed. The path integral is interpreted as the limit of products, determined by a partition of a finite time interval, of this approximate propagator. The limit under refinements of the partition is shown to converge uniformly to the heat kernel for the Laplace-de Rham operator on forms. A version of the steepest descent approximation to the path integral is obtained, and shown to give the expected short-time behavior of the supertrace of the heat kernel.

  5. Model coupling methodology for thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical numerical simulations in integrated assessment of long-term site behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, Thomas; De Lucia, Marco; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The integrated assessment of long-term site behaviour taking into account a high spatial resolution at reservoir scale requires a sophisticated methodology to represent coupled thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical processes of relevance. Our coupling methodology considers the time-dependent occurrence and significance of multi-phase flow processes, mechanical effects and geochemical reactions (Kempka et al., 2014). Hereby, a simplified hydro-chemical coupling procedure was developed (Klein et al., 2013) and validated against fully coupled hydro-chemical simulations (De Lucia et al., 2015). The numerical simulation results elaborated for the pilot site Ketzin demonstrate that mechanical reservoir, caprock and fault integrity are maintained during the time of operation and that after 10,000 years CO2 dissolution is the dominating trapping mechanism and mineralization occurs on the order of 10 % to 25 % with negligible changes to porosity and permeability. De Lucia, M., Kempka, T., Kühn, M. A coupling alternative to reactive transport simulations for long-term prediction of chemical reactions in heterogeneous CO2 storage systems (2014) Geosci Model Dev Discuss 7:6217-6261. doi:10.5194/gmdd-7-6217-2014. Kempka, T., De Lucia, M., Kühn, M. Geomechanical integrity verification and mineral trapping quantification for the Ketzin CO2 storage pilot site by coupled numerical simulations (2014) Energy Procedia 63:3330-3338, doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.361. Klein E, De Lucia M, Kempka T, Kühn M. Evaluation of longterm mineral trapping at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage: an integrative approach using geo-chemical modelling and reservoir simulation. Int J Greenh Gas Con 2013; 19:720-730. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.05.014.

  6. An integrated acoustic and dielectrophoretic particle manipulation in a microfluidic device for particle wash and separation fabricated by mechanical machining.

    PubMed

    Çetin, Barbaros; Özer, Mehmet Bülent; Çağatay, Erdem; Büyükkoçak, Süleyman

    2016-01-01

    In this study, acoustophoresis and dielectrophoresis are utilized in an integrated manner to combine the two different operations on a single polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip in sequential manner, namely, particle wash (buffer exchange) and particle separation. In the washing step, particles are washed with buffer solution with low conductivity for dielectrophoretic based separation to avoid the adverse effects of Joule heating. Acoustic waves generated by piezoelectric material are utilized for washing, which creates standing waves along the whole width of the channel. Coupled electro-mechanical acoustic 3D multi-physics analysis showed that the position and orientation of the piezoelectric actuators are critical for successful operation. A unique mold is designed for the precise alignment of the piezoelectric materials and 3D side-wall electrodes for a highly reproducible fabrication. To achieve the throughput matching of acoustophoresis and dielectrophoresis in the integration, 3D side-wall electrodes are used. The integrated device is fabricated by PDMS molding. The mold of the integrated device is fabricated using high-precision mechanical machining. With a unique mold design, the placements of the two piezoelectric materials and the 3D sidewall electrodes are accomplished during the molding process. It is shown that the proposed device can handle the wash and dielectrophoretic separation successfully. PMID:26865905

  7. An integrated acoustic and dielectrophoretic particle manipulation in a microfluidic device for particle wash and separation fabricated by mechanical machining.

    PubMed

    Çetin, Barbaros; Özer, Mehmet Bülent; Çağatay, Erdem; Büyükkoçak, Süleyman

    2016-01-01

    In this study, acoustophoresis and dielectrophoresis are utilized in an integrated manner to combine the two different operations on a single polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip in sequential manner, namely, particle wash (buffer exchange) and particle separation. In the washing step, particles are washed with buffer solution with low conductivity for dielectrophoretic based separation to avoid the adverse effects of Joule heating. Acoustic waves generated by piezoelectric material are utilized for washing, which creates standing waves along the whole width of the channel. Coupled electro-mechanical acoustic 3D multi-physics analysis showed that the position and orientation of the piezoelectric actuators are critical for successful operation. A unique mold is designed for the precise alignment of the piezoelectric materials and 3D side-wall electrodes for a highly reproducible fabrication. To achieve the throughput matching of acoustophoresis and dielectrophoresis in the integration, 3D side-wall electrodes are used. The integrated device is fabricated by PDMS molding. The mold of the integrated device is fabricated using high-precision mechanical machining. With a unique mold design, the placements of the two piezoelectric materials and the 3D sidewall electrodes are accomplished during the molding process. It is shown that the proposed device can handle the wash and dielectrophoretic separation successfully.

  8. Polymer guided-wave integrated optics: an enabling technology for micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornak, Lawrence A.; Brown, Kolin S.; Taylor, B. J.; Barr, J. C.

    1997-04-01

    Efficient merging of optical, microelectromechanical (MEM) and microelectronic systems offers significant potential for achieving the microoptoelectromechanical (MOEM) system functionality necessary to meet the performance needs of a number of emerging display, sensing, communications, and control applications. Central to realization of this potential will be the development of a set o microoptical components and processes suitable for co-integration with MEMS devices and support microelectronics. The resulting MEMS 'optical toolbox' will provide the generic building blocks with which photonic functions can be achieved within MOEM systems. An extensive set of bulk and surface micromachined microoptical components supporting free-space optical beam manipulation for optical display, scan, and sense functions is currently under investigation by a number of research groups. Integrated waveguide components have ben less developed within the surface micromachined MEMS environment yet offer substantial opportunities for extending MOEM integrated system capability. This paper explores issues confronting the integration of waveguide technologies within the surface micromachined MEMS environment. Specific focus is placed on initial efforts developing processes for guided wave polymer optics cointegration with the multi-user MEMS process service surface micromachining process. Efforts studying the cointegration of polyimide waveguides with MEMS for integrated optical metrology and state feedback applications will be highlighted.

  9. Online 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Morris

    This paper examines the co-existence of online and CD-ROM technologies in terms of their existing pricing structures, marketing strategies, functionality, and future roles. "Fixed Price Unlimited Usage" (FPUU) pricing and flat-rate pricing are discussed as viable alternatives to current pricing practices. In addition, it is argued that the…

  10. Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Edward H.; Pilati, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Distance education, which began as correspondence courses in the nineteenth century and grew into educational television during the twentieth century, evolved into learning on the Web by the mid-1990s. Accompanying the rise in online learning has been a similar rise in organizations and publications dedicated to serving the needs of online…

  11. Integrated Program of Multidisciplinary Education and Research in Mechanics and Physics of Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapusta, N.

    2011-12-01

    Studying earthquake source processes is a multidisciplinary endeavor involving a number of subjects, from geophysics to engineering. As a solid mechanician interested in understanding earthquakes through physics-based computational modeling and comparison with observations, I need to educate and attract students from diverse areas. My CAREER award has provided the crucial support for the initiation of this effort. Applying for the award made me to go through careful initial planning in consultation with my colleagues and administration from two divisions, an important component of the eventual success of my path to tenure. Then, the long-term support directed at my program as a whole - and not a specific year-long task or subject area - allowed for the flexibility required for a start-up of a multidisciplinary undertaking. My research is directed towards formulating realistic fault models that incorporate state-of-the-art experimental studies, field observations, and analytical models. The goal is to compare the model response - in terms of long-term fault behavior that includes both sequences of simulated earthquakes and aseismic phenomena - with observations, to identify appropriate constitutive laws and parameter ranges. CAREER funding has enabled my group to develop a sophisticated 3D modeling approach that we have used to understand patterns of seismic and aseismic fault slip on the Sunda megathrust in Sumatra, investigate the effect of variable hydraulic properties on fault behavior, with application to Chi-Chi and Tohoku earthquake, create a model of the Parkfield segment of the San Andreas fault that reproduces both long-term and short-term features of the M6 earthquake sequence there, and design experiments with laboratory earthquakes, among several other studies. A critical ingredient in this research program has been the fully integrated educational component that allowed me, on the one hand, to expose students from different backgrounds to the

  12. Quantum Mechanics for Everyone: Hands-On Activities Integrated with Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zollman, Dean A.; Rebello, N. Sanjay; Hogg, Kirsten

    2002-01-01

    Explains a hands-on approach to teaching quantum mechanics that challenges the belief shared by many physics instructors that quantum mechanics is a very abstract subject that cannot be understood until students have learned much of the classical physics. (Contains 23 references.) (Author/YDS)

  13. How Effective Are Clinical Pathways With and Without Online Peer-Review? An Analysis of Bone Metastases Pathway in a Large, Integrated National Cancer Institute-Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center Network

    SciTech Connect

    Beriwal, Sushil; Rajagopalan, Malolan S.; Flickinger, John C.; Rakfal, Susan M.; Rodgers, Edwin; Heron, Dwight E.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Clinical pathways are an important tool used to manage the quality in health care by standardizing processes. This study evaluated the impact of the implementation of a peer-reviewed clinical pathway in a large, integrated National Cancer Institute-Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center Network. Methods: In 2003, we implemented a clinical pathway for the management of bone metastases with palliative radiation therapy. In 2009, we required the entry of management decisions into an online tool that records pathway choices. The pathway specified 1 or 5 fractions for symptomatic bone metastases with the option of 10-14 fractions for certain clinical situations. The data were obtained from 13 integrated sites (3 central academic, 10 community locations) from 2003 through 2010. Results: In this study, 7905 sites were treated with 64% of courses delivered in community practice and 36% in academic locations. Academic practices were more likely than community practices to treat with 1-5 fractions (63% vs. 23%; p < 0.0001). The number of delivered fractions decreased gradually from 2003 to 2010 for both academic and community practices (p < 0.0001); however, greater numbers of fractions were selected more often in community practices (p < 0.0001). Using multivariate logistic regression, we found that a significantly greater selection of 1-5 fractions developed after implementation online pathway monitoring (2009) with an odds ratio of 1.2 (confidence interval, 1.1-1.4) for community and 1.3 (confidence interval, 1.1-1.6) for academic practices. The mean number of fractions also decreased after online peer review from 6.3 to 6.0 for academic (p = 0.07) and 9.4 to 9.0 for community practices (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: This is one of the first studies to examine the efficacy of a clinical pathway for radiation oncology in an integrated cancer network. Clinical pathway implementation appears to be effective in changing patterns of care, particularly with online clinical

  14. Developing a 'thick skin': a paradoxical role for mechanical tension in maintaining epidermal integrity?

    PubMed

    Galletti, Roberta; Verger, Stéphane; Hamant, Olivier; Ingram, Gwyneth C

    2016-09-15

    Plant aerial epidermal tissues, like animal epithelia, act as load-bearing layers and hence play pivotal roles in development. The presence of tension in the epidermis has morphogenetic implications for organ shapes but it also constantly threatens the integrity of this tissue. Here, we explore the multi-scale relationship between tension and cell adhesion in the plant epidermis, and we examine how tensile stress perception may act as a regulatory input to preserve epidermal tissue integrity and thus normal morphogenesis. From this, we identify parallels between plant epidermal and animal epithelial tissues and highlight a list of unexplored questions for future research. PMID:27624830

  15. Synaptic integration mechanisms. Theoretical and experimental investigation of temporal postsynaptic interactions between excitatory and inhibitory inputs.

    PubMed Central

    Segev, I; Parnas, I

    1983-01-01

    The effect of temporal activation of two closely adjacent synaptic inputs upon the postsynaptic output (voltage amplitude and time integral) is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that (a) under certain conditions, maximal nonlinearity in the summation of postsynaptic potentials is obtained with asynchronous activation of the two synaptic inputs rather than with simultaneous activation; (b) the time integral of the voltage is more sensitive to the timing of the synaptic inputs than is the voltage amplitude; (c) an input, which by the classical definition is inhibitory, under defined conditions can and does increase the amplitude (and area) of an excitatory synaptic potential, and thus acts as an excitatory input. PMID:6824752

  16. [< Catch me if you can >: how the structural and functional integrity of eukaryotic RNA molecules is monitored by surveillance mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Leporé, Nathalie; Lafontaine, Denis L J

    2010-03-01

    Cellular RNAs are invariably organized in ribonucleoprotein particles, or RNPs, regardless of their size, structure or function. RNPs are monitored by active surveillance mechanisms for their structural and functional integrity at every single step of their "life". A limited number of key endoRNase and/or exoRNase activities are recruited to multiple metabolic pathways by specific adaptors. These trans-acting factors are often endowed with synthesis activities in the formation of mature RNA termini, as well as degradation and surveillance activities. Quality control mechanisms are robust because they are partially redundant. The actual mechanisms that discriminate aberrant RNAs from normal RNAs are still loosely defined. Surveillance is essential to cellular homeostasis and has been linked to several human diseases.

  17. Collaborative Peer Tutoring as a Mechanism for the Integration of First-Year Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    For high-profile Division-I student-athletes, the academic success journey is often overshadowed by athletic participation, providing both researchers and practitioners an incomplete picture of student-athlete academic success. There exists little literature on the phenomenon of student-athlete integration, a process suggested to enhance chances…

  18. Using Integrative Graphic Assignments to Promote Deep Learning of the Market Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gareth P.; Kelly, Brian D.; Peterson, Dean J.; Bean, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Economics faculty expect that students have an integrated understanding of economic theory upon graduation and that they grasp and appreciate how all elements of markets naturally move to equilibrium. Through assessment activities, the authors discovered that their students were not developing that knowledge, so they turned to learning theory to…

  19. Two new integrable cases of two-dimensional quantum mechanics with a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marikhin, V. G.

    2016-04-01

    Two integrable cases of two-dimensional Schrödinger equation with a magnetic field are proposed. Using the polar coordinates and the symmetrical gauge, we will obtain solutions of these equations through biconfluent and confluent Heun functions. The quantization rules will be derived for both systems under consideration.

  20. Integrated approach to explore the mechanisms of aromatase inhibition and recovery in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aromatase, a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, is a key enzyme in estradiol synthesis that catalyzes the aromatization of androgens into estrogens in ovaries. Here, we used an integrated approach to assess the mechanistic basis of the direct effects of aromatase inhibiti...

  1. Linearization of dynamical systems using integrals of the motion. [for celestial mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szebehely, V.

    1976-01-01

    A method is presented which transforms certain nonlinear differential equations of dynamics into linear equations by introducing an independent variable and utilizing the integrals of motion. As examples of special interest, the linearizations of unperturbed and perturbed Keplerian motions are discussed.

  2. Mechanical forces as information: an integrated approach to plant and animal development

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Hernández, Valeria; Rueda, Denisse; Caballero, Lorena; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Benítez, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical forces such as tension and compression act throughout growth and development of multicellular organisms. These forces not only affect the size and shape of the cells and tissues but are capable of modifying the expression of genes and the localization of molecular components within the cell, in the plasma membrane, and in the plant cell wall. The magnitude and direction of these physical forces change with cellular and tissue properties such as elasticity. Thus, mechanical forces and the mesoscopic fields that emerge from their local action constitute important sources of positional information. Moreover, physical and biochemical processes interact in non-linear ways during tissue and organ growth in plants and animals. In this review we discuss how such mechanical forces are generated, transmitted, and sensed in these two lineages of multicellular organisms to yield long-range positional information. In order to do so we first outline a potentially common basis for studying patterning and mechanosensing that relies on the structural principle of tensegrity, and discuss how tensegral structures might arise in plants and animals. We then provide some examples of morphogenesis in which mechanical forces appear to act as positional information during development, offering a possible explanation for ubiquitous processes, such as the formation of periodic structures. Such examples, we argue, can be interpreted in terms of tensegral phenomena. Finally, we discuss the hypothesis of mechanically isotropic points as a potentially generic mechanism for the localization and maintenance of stem-cell niches in multicellular organisms. This comparative approach aims to help uncovering generic mechanisms of morphogenesis and thus reach a better understanding of the evolution and development of multicellular phenotypes, focusing on the role of physical forces in these processes. PMID:24959170

  3. Mechanical forces as information: an integrated approach to plant and animal development.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Valeria; Rueda, Denisse; Caballero, Lorena; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R; Benítez, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical forces such as tension and compression act throughout growth and development of multicellular organisms. These forces not only affect the size and shape of the cells and tissues but are capable of modifying the expression of genes and the localization of molecular components within the cell, in the plasma membrane, and in the plant cell wall. The magnitude and direction of these physical forces change with cellular and tissue properties such as elasticity. Thus, mechanical forces and the mesoscopic fields that emerge from their local action constitute important sources of positional information. Moreover, physical and biochemical processes interact in non-linear ways during tissue and organ growth in plants and animals. In this review we discuss how such mechanical forces are generated, transmitted, and sensed in these two lineages of multicellular organisms to yield long-range positional information. In order to do so we first outline a potentially common basis for studying patterning and mechanosensing that relies on the structural principle of tensegrity, and discuss how tensegral structures might arise in plants and animals. We then provide some examples of morphogenesis in which mechanical forces appear to act as positional information during development, offering a possible explanation for ubiquitous processes, such as the formation of periodic structures. Such examples, we argue, can be interpreted in terms of tensegral phenomena. Finally, we discuss the hypothesis of mechanically isotropic points as a potentially generic mechanism for the localization and maintenance of stem-cell niches in multicellular organisms. This comparative approach aims to help uncovering generic mechanisms of morphogenesis and thus reach a better understanding of the evolution and development of multicellular phenotypes, focusing on the role of physical forces in these processes. PMID:24959170

  4. Injection ionization mechanism of current instability during switching off an integrated field controlled thyristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grekhov, I. V.; Gusin, D. V.; Ivanov, B. V.; Rozhkov, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    The process of switching off an integrated field-controlled thyristor chip operating in a circuit with inductive load has been experimentally and theoretically analyzed. It was established by independent measurements of the anode and cathode emitter currents that the electron injection in all unit cells of the structure cannot be instantaneously interrupted under real conditions due to the shunting of the controlled emitters through the external circuit; the maximum current that can be switched off in this mode was also determined. A numerical simulation has revealed instability of the current distribution over the operation region, which facilitates its emergency localization, and has shown an urgent need to reduce stray inductances and resistances in the chips and shunting circuit when designing high-voltage integrated thyristors and related power modules.

  5. Ionic mechanisms subserving mechanosensory transduction and neural integration in statocyst hair cells of Hermissenda

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    The neural processing of gravitational-produced sensory stimulation of statocyst hair cells in the nudibranch mollusk Hermissenda was studied. The goal in these studies was to understand how: gravireceptor neurons sense or transduce gravitational forces, gravitational stimulation is integrated so as to produce a graded receptor potential, and ultimately the generation of an action potential, and various neural adaptation phenomena which hair cells exhibit arise. The approach to these problems was primarily electrophysical.

  6. Design of integrated readout circuit with enhanced capacitance mechanism for dual-band infrared detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tai-Ping; Lu, Yi-Chuan; Shieh, Hsiu-Li; Shiu, Shiuan-Shuo; Liu, Yi-Ting; Tang, Shiang-Feng; Lin, Wen-Jen

    2011-10-01

    This study proposes a solution for an excessive dark current by a sharing capacitor, which avoids output signal distortion due to integration voltage saturation. Integration capacitance can be changed by adding a switch in the pixel circuit, which will increase the capacitance by two times the original. This circuit also provides output functions of either single-band or dual-band by switching to different sensor. This integrated readout circuit design adopts the TSMC 0.35um 2P4M CMOS 5V process, run on a 5V power supply and operated at a 3MHz clock rate. The dual-band pixel circuit uses an interlace structure, the pixel circuit areas of the two wavelengths are both 30um x 30um. The mid-wave and long-wave sensor currents are from 1nA to 2nA and 6nA to 8nA, respectively, and output swing is 2.8V.

  7. Synaptic mechanisms for auditory-vocal integration and the correction of vocal errors.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Richard

    2004-06-01

    A central goal of neuroscience is to understand the cellular mechanisms enabling the cultural transmission of behaviors, such as speech and music. Birdsong is a rare non-human instance of a culturally transmitted vocal behavior. The songbird's brain provides a powerful system in which to study the cellular mechanisms underlying auditory-guided vocal learning. Identifying those mechanisms requires an analysis of synaptic function, because the synapse is the fundamental organizational unit of the neuronal networks that mediate behavior. Intracellular recordings provide a powerful method for simultaneously probing the activities of a single neuron and the synaptic networks in which that cell is embedded. This chapter details initial steps in the in vivo intracellular analysis of the synaptic connectivity of neurons important to singing and song learning. Our analysis is focused upon HVC and involves studies of interneurons as well as projection neurons of the two major output pathways of HVC. We test predictions derived from several models of how such learning may take place, including contributions from "comparator" and "corollary discharge" auditory feedback cancellation mechanisms. Our studies in anesthetized animals and brain slices provide insight into the synaptic properties of HVC that might be well suited for these mechanisms, although extrapolation to synaptic behavior in the awake, singing bird must be made with caution. We suggest that future work must extend the analysis of synaptic properties into the intact brain of the songbird, preferably as the bird learns to sing. PMID:15313791

  8. Mechanisms of Attentional Biases towards Threat in the Anxiety Disorders: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Cisler, Josh M.; Koster, Ernst H. W.

    2009-01-01

    A wealth of research demonstrates attentional biases toward threat in the anxiety disorders. Several models have been advanced to explain these biases in anxiety, yet the mechanisms comprising and mediating the biases remain unclear. In the present article, we review evidence regarding the mechanisms of attentional biases through careful examination of the components of attentional bias, the mechanisms underlying these components, and the stage of information processing during which the biases occur. Facilitated attention, difficulty in disengagement, and attentional avoidance comprise the components of attentional bias. A threat detection mechanism likely underlies facilitated attention, a process that may be neurally centered around the amygdala. Attentional control ability likely underlies difficulty in disengagement, emotion regulation goals likely underly attentional avoidance, and both of these processes may be neurally centered around prefrontal cortex functioning. The threat detection mechanism may be a mostly automatic process, attentional avoidance may be a mostly strategic process, and difficulty in disengagement may be a mixture of automatic and strategic processing. Recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:20005616

  9. An integrated muscle mechanic-fluid dynamic model of lamprey swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chia-Yu; Tytell, Eric; Fauci, Lisa

    2009-11-01

    In an effort towards a detailed understanding of the generation and control of vertebrate locomotion, including the role of the CPG and its interactions with reflexive feedback, muscle mechanics, and external fluid dynamics, we study a simple vertebrate, the lamprey. Lamprey body undulations are a result of a wave of neural activation that passes from head to tail, causing a wave of muscle activation. These active forces are mediated by passive structural forces. We present recent results from a model that fully couples a viscous, incompressible fluid with nonlinear muscle mechanics. We measure the dependence of the phase lag between activation wave and mechanical wave as a function of model parameters, such as body stiffness and muscle strength. Simulation results are compared to experiments utilizing both real and synthetic lamprey.

  10. Multiphysics and multiscale modelling, data-model fusion and integration of organ physiology in the clinic: ventricular cardiac mechanics.

    PubMed

    Chabiniok, Radomir; Wang, Vicky Y; Hadjicharalambous, Myrianthi; Asner, Liya; Lee, Jack; Sermesant, Maxime; Kuhl, Ellen; Young, Alistair A; Moireau, Philippe; Nash, Martyn P; Chapelle, Dominique; Nordsletten, David A

    2016-04-01

    With heart and cardiovascular diseases continually challenging healthcare systems worldwide, translating basic research on cardiac (patho)physiology into clinical care is essential. Exacerbating this already extensive challenge is the complexity of the heart, relying on its hierarchical structure and function to maintain cardiovascular flow. Computational modelling has been proposed and actively pursued as a tool for accelerating research and translation. Allowing exploration of the relationships between physics, multiscale mechanisms and function, computational modelling provides a platform for improving our understanding of the heart. Further integration of experimental and clinical data through data assimilation and parameter estimation techniques is bringing computational models closer to use in routine clinical practice. This article reviews developments in computational cardiac modelling and how their integration with medical imaging data is providing new pathways for translational cardiac modelling.

  11. Multiphysics and multiscale modelling, data-model fusion and integration of organ physiology in the clinic: ventricular cardiac mechanics.

    PubMed

    Chabiniok, Radomir; Wang, Vicky Y; Hadjicharalambous, Myrianthi; Asner, Liya; Lee, Jack; Sermesant, Maxime; Kuhl, Ellen; Young, Alistair A; Moireau, Philippe; Nash, Martyn P; Chapelle, Dominique; Nordsletten, David A

    2016-04-01

    With heart and cardiovascular diseases continually challenging healthcare systems worldwide, translating basic research on cardiac (patho)physiology into clinical care is essential. Exacerbating this already extensive challenge is the complexity of the heart, relying on its hierarchical structure and function to maintain cardiovascular flow. Computational modelling has been proposed and actively pursued as a tool for accelerating research and translation. Allowing exploration of the relationships between physics, multiscale mechanisms and function, computational modelling provides a platform for improving our understanding of the heart. Further integration of experimental and clinical data through data assimilation and parameter estimation techniques is bringing computational models closer to use in routine clinical practice. This article reviews developments in computational cardiac modelling and how their integration with medical imaging data is providing new pathways for translational cardiac modelling. PMID:27051509

  12. Multiphysics and multiscale modelling, data–model fusion and integration of organ physiology in the clinic: ventricular cardiac mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Chabiniok, Radomir; Wang, Vicky Y.; Hadjicharalambous, Myrianthi; Asner, Liya; Lee, Jack; Sermesant, Maxime; Kuhl, Ellen; Young, Alistair A.; Moireau, Philippe; Nash, Martyn P.; Chapelle, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    With heart and cardiovascular diseases continually challenging healthcare systems worldwide, translating basic research on cardiac (patho)physiology into clinical care is essential. Exacerbating this already extensive challenge is the complexity of the heart, relying on its hierarchical structure and function to maintain cardiovascular flow. Computational modelling has been proposed and actively pursued as a tool for accelerating research and translation. Allowing exploration of the relationships between physics, multiscale mechanisms and function, computational modelling provides a platform for improving our understanding of the heart. Further integration of experimental and clinical data through data assimilation and parameter estimation techniques is bringing computational models closer to use in routine clinical practice. This article reviews developments in computational cardiac modelling and how their integration with medical imaging data is providing new pathways for translational cardiac modelling. PMID:27051509

  13. Meeting the expectation of industry: an integrated approach for the teaching of mechanics and electronics to design students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Guy A.; Southee, Darren J.; Page, Tom

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines the traditional engineering-based provision delivered to Product Design and Technology (B.Sc.) undergraduates at the Loughborough Design School and questions its relevancy against the increasing expectations of industry. The paper reviews final-year design projects to understand the level of transference of engineering-based knowledge into design practice and highlights areas of opportunity for improved teaching and learning. The paper discusses the development and implementation of an integrated approach to the teaching of Mechanics and Electronics to formalise and reinforce the key learning process of transference within the design context. The paper concludes with observations from the delivery of this integrated teaching and offers insights from student and academic perspectives for the further improvement of engineering-based teaching and learning.

  14. Implementing and Evaluating Online Service Learning Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Marilyn M.; Rutti, Raina M.; Hervani, Aref Agahei; LaBonte, Joanne; Sarkarat, Sy

    2015-01-01

    As online learning proliferates, professors must adapt traditional projects for an asynchronous environment. Service learning is an effective teaching style fostering interactive learning through integration of classroom activities into communities. While prior studies have documented the appropriateness of service learning in online courses,…

  15. Graduate Inquiry: Social Capital in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    As colleges and universities increase their online course offerings, student social experiences in online learning environments require further examination, specifically for nonresidential students who may already be less integrated into college social networks. A social capital framework was used to guide this qualitative study of 17…

  16. Mechano-sensitivity of cardiac pacemaker function: Pathophysiological relevance, experimental implications, and conceptual integration with other mechanisms of rhythmicity

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, T. Alexander; Kohl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    – in analogy to the above terminology – this might be considered a ‘mechanics-clock’. In this review, we discuss possible roles of mechano-sensitive mechanisms for the entrainment of membrane current dynamics and calcium-handling. This can occur directly via stretch-activation of mechano-sensitive ion channels in the sarcolemma and/or in intracellular membrane compartments, as well as by modulation of ‘standard’ components of the ‘membrane-’ or ‘calcium-clock’. Together, these mechanisms allow rapid adaptation to changes in haemodynamic load, on a beat-by-beat basis. Additional relevance arises from the fact that mechano-sensitivity of pacemaking may help to explain pacemaker dysfunction in mechanically over- or under-loaded tissue. As the combined contributions of the various underlying oscillatory mechanisms are integrated at the pacemaker cell level into a single output – a train of pacemaker action potentials – we will not adhere to a metaphor that implies separate time-keeping units (‘clocks’), and rather focus on cardiac pacemaking as the result of interactions of a set of coupled oscillators, whose individual contributions vary depending on the pathophysiological context. We conclude by considering the utility and limitations of viewing the pacemaker as a coupled system of voltage-, calcium-, and mechanics-modulated oscillators that, by integrating a multitude of inputs, offers the high level of functional redundancy that is vitally important for cardiac automaticity. PMID:23046620

  17. Hyaluronic Acid-Based Hydrogels Containing Covalently Integrated Drug Depots: Implication for Controlling Inflammation in Mechanically Stressed Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Longxi; Tong, Zhixiang; Chen, Yingchao; Pochan, Darrin J.; Sabanayagam, Chandran R.; Jia, Xinqiao

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic hydrogels containing covalently-integrated soft and deformable drug depots capable of releasing therapeutic molecules in response to mechanical forces are attractive candidates for the treatment of degenerated tissues that are normally load bearing. Herein, radically crosslinkable block copolymer micelles (xBCM) assembled from an amphiphilic block copolymer consisting of hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) partially modified with 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, and hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acryclate) (PnBA) were employed as the drug depots and the microscopic crosslinkers for the preparation of hyaluronic acid (HA)-based, hydrogels. HA hydrogels containing covalently integrated micelles (HAxBCM) were prepared by radical polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA)-modified HA (HAGMA) in the presence of xBCMs. When micelles prepared from the parent PAA-b-PnBA without any polymerizable double bonds were used, hydrogels containing physically entrapped micelles (HApBCM) were obtained. The addition of xBCMs to a HAGMA precursor solution accelerated the gelation kinetics and altered the hydrogel mechanical properties. The resultant HAxBCM gels exhibit an elastic modulus of 847 ± 43 Pa and a compressive modulus of 9.2 ± 0.7 kPa. Diffusion analysis of Nile Red (NR)-labeled xBCMs employing fluorescence correlation spectroscopy confirmed the covalent immobilization of xBCMs in HA networks. Covalent integration of dexamethasone (DEX)-loaded xBCMs in HA gels significantly reduced the initial burst release and provided sustained release over a prolonged period. Importantly, DEX release from HAxBCM gels was accelerated by intermittently-applied external compression in a strain-dependent manner. Culturing macrophages in the presence of DEX-releasing HAxBCM gels significantly reduced cellular production of inflammatory cytokines. Incorporating mechano-responsive modules in synthetic matrices offers a novel strategy to harvest mechanical stress present in the healing wounds

  18. Hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels containing covalently integrated drug depots: implication for controlling inflammation in mechanically stressed tissues.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Longxi; Tong, Zhixiang; Chen, Yingchao; Pochan, Darrin J; Sabanayagam, Chandran R; Jia, Xinqiao

    2013-11-11

    Synthetic hydrogels containing covalently integrated soft and deformable drug depots capable of releasing therapeutic molecules in response to mechanical forces are attractive candidates for the treatment of degenerated tissues that are normally load bearing. Herein, radically cross-linkable block copolymer micelles (xBCM) assembled from an amphiphilic block copolymer consisting of hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) partially modified with 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, and hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acryclate) (PnBA) were employed as the drug depots and the microscopic cross-linkers for the preparation of hyaluronic acid (HA)-based, hydrogels. HA hydrogels containing covalently integrated micelles (HAxBCM) were prepared by radical polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA)-modified HA (HAGMA) in the presence of xBCMs. When micelles prepared from the parent PAA-b-PnBA without any polymerizable double bonds were used, hydrogels containing physically entrapped micelles (HApBCM) were obtained. The addition of xBCMs to a HAGMA precursor solution accelerated the gelation kinetics and altered the hydrogel mechanical properties. The resultant HAxBCM gels exhibit an elastic modulus of 847 ± 43 Pa and a compressive modulus of 9.2 ± 0.7 kPa. Diffusion analysis of Nile Red (NR)-labeled xBCMs employing fluorescence correlation spectroscopy confirmed the covalent immobilization of xBCMs in HA networks. Covalent integration of dexamethasone (DEX)-loaded xBCMs in HA gels significantly reduced the initial burst release and provided sustained release over a prolonged period. Importantly, DEX release from HAxBCM gels was accelerated by intermittently applied external compression in a strain-dependent manner. Culturing macrophages in the presence of DEX-releasing HAxBCM gels significantly reduced cellular production of inflammatory cytokines. Incorporating mechano-responsive modules in synthetic matrices offers a novel strategy to harvest mechanical stress present in the healing

  19. Something Old, Something New: Integrating Engineering Practice into the Teaching of Engineering Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Gregory R.; Cooper, Stephen C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a multifaceted method for teaching engineering mechanics to satisfy several desiderata. This approach includes design projects, group work, basic competency exams, computational environments for simulating and visualizing phenomena, multimedia instructional tools, hands-on experiences, and student presentations. Describes the materials…

  20. An Integrated Microfabricated Device for Dual Microdialysis and On-line ESI Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Complex Biological Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Fan; Lin, Yuehe ); Wen, Jian Y.; Matson, Dean W. ); Smith, Richard D. )

    1999-05-01

    A microfabricated dual-microdialysis device in a single integrated microfabricated platform was constructed using laser micromachining techniques for the rapid fractionation and cleanup of complex biological samples. Results suggest the potential for integration of such microfabricated devices with other sample manipulations for the rapid ESI-MS analysis of complex biological samples.