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Sample records for only child

  1. The Only Child. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Karen

    Smaller families in general (including the one-child option) are becoming more popular. This ERIC Digest focuses on changing trends in family size, reasons for choosing to have only one child, differences between only children and those with siblings, and the advantages of being an only child. Changing family patterns, economic concerns, and new…

  2. The Paradoxical Status of the Only Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terhune, Kenneth W.

    This paper explores the popular stereotypes and research relating to the single child family. Advantages small families experience include more money available for each child, more attention from parents, healthier children, higher intelligence among the children, and less family tension. Concern over only children centers on their being spoiled…

  3. Only-child and non-only-child exhibit differences in creativity and agreeableness: evidence from behavioral and anatomical structural studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junyi; Hou, Xin; Wei, Dongtao; Wang, Kangcheng; Li, Yadan; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-03-08

    Different family composition and size inevitably make only-children different from non-only-children. Previous studies have focused on the differences in behaviors, such as cognitive function and personality traits, between the only-child and the non-only-child. However, there are few studies that have focused on the topic of whether different family environments influence children's brain structural development and whether behavior differentially has its neural basis between only-child and non-only-child status. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the differences in cognition (e.g., intelligence and creativity) and personality and the anatomical structural differences of gray matter volume (GMV) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) between only-children and non-only-children. The behavioral results revealed that only-children exhibited higher flexibility scores (a dimension of creativity) and lower agreeableness scores (a dimension of personality traits) than non-only-children. Most importantly, the GMV results revealed that there were significant differences in the GMV between only-children and non-only-children that occurred mainly in the brain regions of the supramarginal gyrus, which was positively correlated with flexibility scores; the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which was positively correlated with agreeableness scores; and the parahippocampal gyrus. These findings may suggest that family environment (i.e., only-child vs. non-only-child), may play important roles in the development of the behavior and brain structure of individuals.

  4. The adult who is an only child: achieving separation or individuation.

    PubMed

    Byrd, B; DeRosa, A P; Craig, S S

    1993-08-01

    60 women and 60 men between the ages of 18 and 45 years (M = 30.5, SD = 9.6) were categorized by sex, age, and birth order (only child, firstborn, lastborn) to assess the differences among the adult only-child, the youngest child, and the oldest child in autonomous characteristics and cohesiveness in family interaction. Analysis of the responses on a biographical data sheet, the California Psychological Inventory, and the Family Adaptability Cohesion Scales III showed that main effects for birth order and sex are significant in the process of separation-individuation and that the only child is less autonomous than the oldest child.

  5. Intracranial saccular aneurysm in a child with only persistent headache.

    PubMed

    Güngör, Olcay; Özkaya, Ahmet Kağan; Dilber, Cengiz; Çinar, Celal

    2015-06-01

    Headache is one of the common symptoms of intracranial aneursym. A 5-year-old child lately presented to our pediatric emergency department with persistent headache. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 7×8 mm rounded lesion with slowly heterogeneous low signal in T2 sequence consistent with a partial occluded aneurysm, in the right medial frontal lobe that close to anterior cerebral artery. Intracranial aneurysms are rare in children and they are noncommon without complications as our case.

  6. Boys as Only-Children and Girls as Only-Children--Parental Gendered Expectations of the Only-Child in the Nuclear Chinese Family in Present-Day China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fengshu

    2006-01-01

    Studies on the effect of only-child status on girls' education indicate that the only-child policy has had an unintended consequence of engendering a child-centered culture with a strong belief and shared interest among the urban community in educating the only-child regardless of the child's sex. As the distribution of education by sex is…

  7. The Only Child: Sibling Presence-Absence or Single Parent Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, B. G.; Falk, F.

    First-borns who were only children (onlies) and first-borns who had a sibling were compared on measures of intelligence from late adolescence at 18 years of age to late middle age at 60. The sample was composed of 38 female and 33 male first-born subjects from one- and two-child families. Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence Scale scores at late…

  8. The Little Emperor: Chinese Parents' Assessment of Their Own, Their Partner's and Their Only Child's Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Wu, Chun

    2014-01-01

    This study set out to examine whether Chinese parents, more than people from other nations, over-estimate the intelligence of their son (little emperor) compared to their daughter. In this study, 155 pairs of married couples from mainland China estimated their own, their partner's and their only child's overall intelligence and 13 "multiple…

  9. Kinship Care and "Child-Only" Welfare Grants: Low Participation despite Potential Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Justine G.; Gibson, Priscilla A.; Bauer, Jean W.

    2010-01-01

    Several U.S. social policies identify kinship care as the preferred out-of-home placement. However, financial assistance to defray the cost of kinship caregiving is limited. One option is the child-only welfare grant. This study investigates kinship households' eligibility for, utilization of, and educational benefits associated with these grants.…

  10. Exploring clinical and personality characteristics of adult male internet-only child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Magaletta, Philip R; Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; McLearen, Alix M

    2014-02-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in the number of convicted child pornography offenders, little is known about their potential clinical needs. The few studies that do explore this subgroup of sex offenders suggest clinical heterogeneity compared with other sex offender subgroups. However, research designs used in many studies have limited generalizability, have examined primarily treated or treatment samples, and have not included comparisons with nontreatment, community samples of men. The current study addresses such limitations by using nontreatment samples and multiple comparison groups to examine mean scales score differences on a commonly used clinical and personality assessment, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). The sample, drawn from an admissions cohort of federal offenders, those Internet-only Child Pornography Offenders (ICPOs; n = 35) and those with a history of child molesting exclusively (child molesters, n = 26). They were compared with each other and the male normative sample from the PAI. Results indicate that interpersonal deficits and depression featured most prominently in the profiles of the ICPOs. Consistent with prior research, they also obtained lower scores on aggression and dominance compared with the child molesters and the male normative sample. Implications for future research, training, and clinical practice with incarcerated ICPOs are offered.

  11. Measurement characteristics of the childhood Asthma-Control Test and a shortened, child-only version

    PubMed Central

    Bime, Christian; Gerald, Joe K; Wei, Christine Y; Holbrook, Janet T; Teague, William G; Wise, Robert A; Gerald, Lynn B

    2016-01-01

    The childhood Asthma-Control Test (C-ACT) is validated for assessing asthma control in paediatric asthma. Among children aged 4–11 years, the C-ACT requires the simultaneous presence of both parent and child. There is an unmet need for a tool that can be used to assess asthma control in children when parents or caregivers are not present such as in the school setting. We assessed the psychometric properties and estimated the minimally important difference (MID) of the C-ACT and a modified version, comprising only the child responses (C-ACTc). Asthma patients aged 6–11 years (n=161) from a previously completed multicenter randomised trial were included. Demographic information, spirometry and questionnaire scores were obtained at baseline and during follow-up. Participants or their guardians kept a daily asthma diary. Internal consistency reliabilities of the C-ACT and C-ACTc were 0.76 and 0.67 (Cronbach’s α), respectively. Test–retest reliabilities of the C-ACT and C-ACTc were 0.72 and 0.66 (intra-class correlation), respectively. Significant correlations were noted between C-ACT scores and ACQ scores (Spearman’s correlation r=−0.56, 95% CI (−0.66, −0.44), P<0.001). The strength of the correlation between C-ACTc scores and ACQ scores was weaker (Spearman’s correlation r=−0.46, 95% CI (−0.58, −0.33), P<0.001). We estimated the MID for the C-ACT and C-ACTc to be 2 points and 1 point, respectively. Among asthma patients aged 6–11 years, the C-ACT had good psychometric properties. The psychometric properties of a shortened child-only version (C-ACTc), although acceptable, are not as strong. PMID:27763622

  12. Latent classes of resilience and psychological response among only-child loss parents in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, An-Ni; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Huang, Fei-Fei; Ye, Man; Yao, Shu-Yu; Luo, Yuan-Hui; Li, Zhi-Hua; Zhang, Jie; Su, Pan

    2016-10-28

    Only-child loss parents in China recently gained extensive attention as a newly defined social group. Resilience could be a probable solution out of the psychological dilemma. Using a sample of 185 only-child loss people, this study employed latent class analysis (a) to explore whether different classes of resilience could be identified, (b) to determine socio-demographic characteristics of each class, and (c) to compare the depression and the subjective well-being of each class. The results supported a three-class solution, defined as 'high tenacity-strength but moderate optimism class', 'moderate resilience but low self-efficacy class' and 'low tenacity but moderate adaption-dependence class'. Parents with low income and medical insurance of low reimbursement type and without endowment insurance occupied more proportions in the latter two classes. The latter two classes also had a significant higher depression scores and lower subjective well-being scores than high tenacity-strength but moderate optimism class. Future work should care those socio-economically vulnerable bereaved parents, and an elastic economic assistance policy was needed. To develop targeted resilience interventions, the emphasis of high tenacity-strength but moderate optimism class should be the optimism. Moderate resilience but low self-efficacy class should be self-efficacy, and low tenacity but moderate adaption-dependence class should be tenacity.

  13. Mental Health Condition of the Only-Child: A Study of Urban and Rural High School Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chenying; Munakata, Tsunetsugu; Onuoha, Francis N.

    2005-01-01

    The mental health of the only-child continues to generate interest in research literature. The present study examines the issue in China, where the one-child phenomenon is highest due to deliberate government policy. Subjects are 299 and 333 students in two high-rank high schools in urban Harebin and rural Qing an Xian, respectively (mean age =…

  14. An Empirical Investigation Into the Intellectual, Physical, Psychological, and Social Consequences of Being Reared an Only Child. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doby, John T.; And Others

    Declining family size plus the widespread belief that only children experience adjustment difficulties provided the impetus for this investigation comparing the characteristics of only children with children raised in multiple-sibling families. Results indicated that being reared as an only child actually provided a slight developmental advantage…

  15. The Future of Your Only Child: How to Guide Your Child to a Happy and Successful Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickhardt, Carl E.

    2008-01-01

    One-child households have doubled over the last two decades making it one of the fastest growing family units in America. The author aids families in understanding the common traits of many adult "onlies"--like shyness, perfection, and intolerance--so that they can better prepare for potential outcomes. He also celebrates the positive qualities of…

  16. Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Female Undergraduate Students in Wuhan, China: The Only-Child versus Students with Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shiyue; Chen, Rucheng; Cao, Yue; Li, Jingjing; Zuo, Dan; Yan, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study explored sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of female only-child undergraduates and made a comparison with students with siblings. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effects of only-child on sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices among female undergraduates. Results Of 4,769 female undergraduate students, 41.0% were only-child and 59.0% were students with siblings. Compared with students with siblings, only-child students scored higher on sex-related knowledge, were more inclined to agree with premarital sex, multiple sex partners, one-night stands, extramarital lovers and homosexuality, and were more likely to have a boyfriend and experience sexual intercourse (73.6% vs. 61.4%; 24.0% vs. 14.0%). Only-children were less likely to experience coercion at first sex and have first sexual intercourse with men not their “boyfriends” than children with siblings (3.3% vs. 6.4%; 20.7% vs. 28.8%). There were no significant differences on other risky sexual behaviors (e.g. multiple sex partners and inconsistent condom use) between the only-child students and students with siblings. Conclusions Sexual knowledge, attitudes and some practices of only-child female undergraduates were different from students with siblings. Intervention should be designed according to different requirements of only-children and non-only-children. PMID:24023905

  17. Abnormal degree centrality of functional hubs associated with negative coping in older Chinese adults who lost their only child.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, HuiJuan; Wei, Dongtao; Sun, Jiangzhou; Yang, Junyi; Meng, Jie; Wang, Lihong; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-12-01

    The loss of an only child is a negative life event and may potentially increase the risk of psychiatric disorders. However, the psychological consequences of the loss of an only child and the associated neural mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Degree centrality (DC), derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), was used to examine network communication in 22 older adults who lost their only child and 23 matched controls. The older adults who lost their only child exhibited an ineffective coping style. They also showed decreased distant and local DC in the precuneus and left inferior parietal lobule and decreased distant DC in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Furthermore, the decreased local and distant DC of these regions and the decreased DLPFC-precuneus connectivity strength were negatively correlated with negative coping scores in the loss group but not in the controls. Overall, the results suggested a model that the impaired neural network communication of brain hubs within the default mode network (DMN) and central executive network (CEN) were associated with a negative coping style in older adults who lost their only child. The decreased connectivity of the hubs can be identified as a neural risk factor that is related to future psychopathology.

  18. Only Two Hours? A Qualitative Study of the Challenges Parents Perceive in Restricting Child Television Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Cortney A.; Jordan, Amy B.; Horner, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study examines parents' and children's reaction to the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to limit children's television (TV) viewing to 2 hours a day or less. To better understand the challenges faced by parents who would seek to adhere to the guidelines, we conducted qualitative small group interviews with 60 parent/child dyads…

  19. Arts Involvement Predicts Academic Achievement Only When the Child Has a Musical Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Laura N.; Cordes, Sara; Winner, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    We examined the associations between academic achievement and arts involvement (access to a musical instrument for the child at home, participation in unspecified after-school arts activities) in a sample of 2339 11-12-year-olds surveyed in the USA between 1998 and 2008. We compared the contributions of these variables to other kinds of cognitive…

  20. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  1. Siblings and Child Development: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis of the Literature on Only Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polit, Denise F.; Falbo, Toni

    The present study involved a meta-analysis of 157 studies in which only children were compared with individuals raised with siblings. Findings failed to confirm the persistent negative stereotype of only children as maladjusted and disadvantaged. In fact, results suggested that only children are advantaged with respect to intelligence, educational…

  2. Transcending a devastating loss: the life attitude of mothers who have experienced the death of their only child.

    PubMed

    Talbot, K

    1996-01-01

    This study measured 80 mothers' attitudes about life five or more years after the death of their only child (mean = nine years). Participants completed the Life Attitude Profile-Revised. The five highest and five lowest scoring mothers were interviewed in depth. Discriminant analysis of participant questionnaires revealed that 86% of participants were correctly classified by seven variables as survivors (reinvestors in life) or as remaining in a state of perpetual bereavement. Four of these variables accounted for 39% of the variance in participants' life attitude scores. Interview and questionnaire findings suggest motherhood becomes an integral part of the self and in order to survive after the death of an only child it is necessary not to relinquish this construct. A positive life attitude was found to be an important indicator of adaptation to this unique form of bereavement.

  3. "I Am the Only Child of my Parents:" Perspectives on Future Elder Care for Parents among Chinese only-Children Living overseas.

    PubMed

    Gui, Tianhan; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya

    2016-09-01

    The 1979 One-Child Policy in China created a generation of only children, leading to increased elder care dilemmas for this generation and its aging parents, particularly for young adults studying or working abroad. The current study used in-depth, semi-structured interviews with Chinese young adults who were currently studying or working in Montreal, Canada (N = 20), whose parents still lived in China. The interviews focused on the following topics: elder care patterns of respondents' grandparents; family values and expectations; perceptions of professional long-term care institutions (in China and Canada); and future plans for taking care of aging parents. Respondents described their grandparents' care as following traditional elder care patterns with multiple familial caregivers, which they appreciated as a positive model that defined their own obligations towards parents. Respondents reported being very close to their parents. Some planned to settle down in Canada and bring their parents, others planned to go back to China. Citing the tradition of filial piety, they expected to take care of their parents in the future, but they also considered the dilemmas involved in caring for aging parents without siblings to share the task, potentially requiring them to find compromises between their personal lives and caring for older parents. Those who planned to settle in Canada raised additional concerns about the challenges of bringing over their parents, including acculturation and access to and communication with health and long-term care providers. The results are discussed in the context of contemporary demographic, economic, and policy concerns about aging, family care, and immigration.

  4. Artery-Only Ear Replantation in a Child: A Case Report With Daily Photographic Documentation.

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, Shaun D; Sawyer, Justin D; Adkinson, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Ear replantation poses a significant technical challenge even for the skilled microsurgeon. Many ear amputations result from avulsion and thus have damaged and often diminutive vessels with a paucity of veins. Artery-only replantation is an option for ear salvage, but little is published on the clinical course and appearance after this procedure. Methods: A subtotal ear replantation was performed on a 10-year-old boy without a venous anastomosis. Leech therapy was used to manage venous congestion postoperatively, and daily photography was performed to document the clinical course. Results: Postoperative venous congestion was successfully managed with leech therapy. Four days after the replantation, arterial thrombosis occurred that required a take back and salvage with an interposition vein graft for arterial repair. Native venous drainage and arterial revascularization from skin edges were evident by postoperative day 12, and leeches were discontinued on day 14. The patient required debridement of the posterior ear and superior helix necrotic skin, with burying of the upper portion of the ear in a superior auricular skin flap. The ear was subsequently released from the head, and the exposed portions were covered successfully with a full-thickness skin graft. Conclusions: While arterial and venous anastomoses should always be attempted, arterial-only ear replantation can provide excellent results when venous congestion is properly managed. Daily photography can be a useful tool to monitor subtle skin color changes that may indicate native venous drainage and arterial revascularization.

  5. Artery-Only Ear Replantation in a Child: A Case Report With Daily Photographic Documentation

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, Shaun D.; Sawyer, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Ear replantation poses a significant technical challenge even for the skilled microsurgeon. Many ear amputations result from avulsion and thus have damaged and often diminutive vessels with a paucity of veins. Artery-only replantation is an option for ear salvage, but little is published on the clinical course and appearance after this procedure. Methods: A subtotal ear replantation was performed on a 10-year-old boy without a venous anastomosis. Leech therapy was used to manage venous congestion postoperatively, and daily photography was performed to document the clinical course. Results: Postoperative venous congestion was successfully managed with leech therapy. Four days after the replantation, arterial thrombosis occurred that required a take back and salvage with an interposition vein graft for arterial repair. Native venous drainage and arterial revascularization from skin edges were evident by postoperative day 12, and leeches were discontinued on day 14. The patient required debridement of the posterior ear and superior helix necrotic skin, with burying of the upper portion of the ear in a superior auricular skin flap. The ear was subsequently released from the head, and the exposed portions were covered successfully with a full-thickness skin graft. Conclusions: While arterial and venous anastomoses should always be attempted, arterial-only ear replantation can provide excellent results when venous congestion is properly managed. Daily photography can be a useful tool to monitor subtle skin color changes that may indicate native venous drainage and arterial revascularization. PMID:28101290

  6. Only child syndrome in snakes: Eggs incubated alone produce asocial individuals

    PubMed Central

    Aubret, Fabien; Bignon, Florent; Kok, Philippe J. R.; Blanvillain, Gaëlle

    2016-01-01

    Egg-clustering and communal nesting behaviours provide advantages to offspring. Advantages range from anti-predatory benefits, maintenance of moisture and temperature levels within the nest, preventing the eggs from rolling, to enabling hatching synchrony through embryo communication. It was recently suggested that embryo communication may extend beyond development fine-tuning, and potentially convey information about the quality of the natal environment as well as provide an indication of forthcoming competition amongst siblings, conspecifics or even heterospecifics. Here we show that preventing embryos from communicating not only altered development rates but also strongly influenced post-natal social behaviour in snakes. Clutches of water snakes, Natrix maura, were split evenly into half-clutches and incubated as (1) clusters (i.e. eggs in physical contact with each other) or (2) as single eggs placed in individual goblets (i.e. no physical contact amongst sibling eggs). Single incubated eggs produced less-sociable young snakes than their siblings that were incubated in a cluster: the former were more active, less aggregated and physically contacted each other less often than the latter. Potential long-term effects and evolutionary drivers for this new example of informed dispersal are discussed. PMID:27761007

  7. Only child syndrome in snakes: Eggs incubated alone produce asocial individuals.

    PubMed

    Aubret, Fabien; Bignon, Florent; Kok, Philippe J R; Blanvillain, Gaëlle

    2016-10-20

    Egg-clustering and communal nesting behaviours provide advantages to offspring. Advantages range from anti-predatory benefits, maintenance of moisture and temperature levels within the nest, preventing the eggs from rolling, to enabling hatching synchrony through embryo communication. It was recently suggested that embryo communication may extend beyond development fine-tuning, and potentially convey information about the quality of the natal environment as well as provide an indication of forthcoming competition amongst siblings, conspecifics or even heterospecifics. Here we show that preventing embryos from communicating not only altered development rates but also strongly influenced post-natal social behaviour in snakes. Clutches of water snakes, Natrix maura, were split evenly into half-clutches and incubated as (1) clusters (i.e. eggs in physical contact with each other) or (2) as single eggs placed in individual goblets (i.e. no physical contact amongst sibling eggs). Single incubated eggs produced less-sociable young snakes than their siblings that were incubated in a cluster: the former were more active, less aggregated and physically contacted each other less often than the latter. Potential long-term effects and evolutionary drivers for this new example of informed dispersal are discussed.

  8. Nephrotic-Range Proteinuria and Peripheral Edema in a Child: Not Only Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dolcemascolo, Valentina; Vivarelli, Marina; Colucci, Manuela; Diomedi-Camassei, Francesca; Piras, Rossella; Alberti, Marta; Emma, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is defined by the simultaneous occurrence of hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury due to thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) mainly occurring in renal and cerebral microvessels. Although the most common cause of HUS in children is Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, atypical forms in which Shiga toxin is not the trigger may occur. Research over the last few years has shown that complement dysregulation secondary to mutations of genes coding for proteins involved in the regulation of the alternative pathway of complement account for most forms of atypical HUS (aHUS). Among these, thrombomodulin (THBD) gene mutations, representing 3–5% of all alternative pathway complement component abnormalities, correlate with early disease onset and rapid evolution to end-stage renal failure. aHUS onset is generally sudden, but occasionally the only manifestations of renal TMA are arterial hypertension, proteinuria, and a progressive increase in serum creatinine. Nephrotic syndrome at disease onset is exceptional. We describe the case of an adolescent female who presented with peripheral edema due to nephrotic-range proteinuria with bioptic evidence of TMA. Study of the alternative complement pathway showed a heterozygous missense THBD gene mutation (P501L variant) consistent with aHUS diagnosis. One year later she developed clinical signs of hemolytic anemia. Eculizumab, an anti-C5 monoclonal antibody, was started with rapid improvement. This case report highlights the phenotypic variability in aHUS due to THBD gene mutation. Early diagnosis by renal biopsy followed by genetic screening is required to optimize management in such a rare disease with a severe prognosis. PMID:27904864

  9. 5 CFR 792.218 - Does the law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Does the law apply only to on-site... Employees-What Is the Child Care Subsidy Program Legislation and to Whom Does It Apply? § 792.218 Does the law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families? The...

  10. 5 CFR 792.218 - Does the law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Does the law apply only to on-site... Employees-What Is the Child Care Subsidy Program Legislation and to Whom Does It Apply? § 792.218 Does the law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families? The...

  11. Latent Profiles of Posttraumatic Growth and Their Relation to Differences in Resilience among Only-Child-Lost People in China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Shu-yu; Luo, Yuan-hui; Li, Zhi-hua; Huang, Fei-fei; Li, Hui; Yin, Yi-zhen; Zhang, Jing-ping

    2016-01-01

    Aims Since the early 1980s, the one-child policy has been implemented nationwide in China. A special group called the “only-child-lost family” (OCL family) has emerged and has become a social phenomenon that cannot be ignored. We report latent profiles of posttraumatic growth and their relation to differences in resilience among OCL people in China. Methods A total of 222 OCL people were investigated using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Latent profile analysis was applied to explore PTG latent profiles. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze the socio-demographic variables in each latent profile and the association between profile membership and resilience. Results Three latent profiles were identified and labeled the “high appreciation-power group” (30.6%), the “general moderate growth group” (47.7%) and the “low growth and extreme possibility group” (21.7%). Compared to those in the high appreciation-power group, individuals with monthly income >2000 ($312) were less likely to be in the general moderate growth group (OR = 0.13, P<0.01), whereas individuals with a spouse were less likely to be in the low growth and extreme possibility group (OR = 0.43, P<0.01). Individuals in the “general moderate growth group”(OR = 0.92, P<0.01, 95%CI:0.89–0.94) and the “low growth and extreme possibility” groups (OR = 0.83, P<0.01, 95%CI:0.79–0.87) demonstrated significantly lower levels of resilience compared to the high appreciation-power group. Conclusion The PTG patterns in only-child-lost parents were varied. Promoting resilience may be a way to foster these parents’ PTG. Targeted intervention should be developed based on the characteristics of each latent class, and timely attention must be paid to the mental health of OCL parents who are without a spouse and have low income. PMID:28005990

  12. Higher weight status of only and last-born children. Maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes among 4-8 year olds.

    PubMed

    Mosli, Rana H; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Miller, Alison L

    2015-09-01

    Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behavior, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values < 0.05). The association between youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions.

  13. The Effects of Child-Only Insurance Coverage and Family Coverage on Health Care Access and Use: Recent Findings among Low-Income Children in California

    PubMed Central

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Wier, Megan; Angulo, Veronica; Oman, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare the extent with which child-only and family coverage (child and parent insured) ensure health care access and use for low income children in California and discuss the policy implications of extending the State Children's Health Insurance Program (California's Healthy Families) to uninsured parents of child enrollees. Data Sources/Setting We used secondary data from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), a representative telephone survey. Study Design We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5,521 public health insurance–eligible children and adolescents and their parents to examine the effects of insurance (family coverage, child-only coverage, and no coverage) on measures of health care access and utilization including emergency room visits and hospitalizations. Data Collection We linked the CHIS adult, child, and adolescent datasets, including the adolescent insurance supplement. Findings Among the sampled children, 13 percent were uninsured as were 22 percent of their parents. Children without insurance coverage were more likely than children with child-only coverage to lack a usual source of care and to have decreased use of health care. Children with child-only coverage fared worse than those with family coverage on almost every access indicator, but service utilization was comparable. Conclusions While extending public benefits to parents of children eligible for Healthy Families may not improve child health care utilization beyond the gains that would be obtained by exclusively insuring the children, family coverage would likely improve access to a regular source of care and private sector providers, and reduce perceived discrimination and breaks in coverage. These advantages should be considered by states that are weighing the benefits of expanding health insurance to parents. PMID:16430604

  14. The Prevalence of Only-Child Status Among Children and Adolescents Referred to a Gender Identity Service Versus a Clinical Comparison Group.

    PubMed

    Hughes, S Kathleen; VanderLaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Wasserman, Lori; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2016-07-11

    Several studies indicate that homosexual males have a high proportion of older brothers compared to heterosexual males. Natal males with gender dysphoria who are likely to be homosexual also display this sibship pattern. Until recently, there was little evidence linking homosexuality and/or gender dysphoria in females to unique sibship characteristics. Two studies have indicated that natal female youth clinically referred for gender dysphoria are more likely to be only children (Schagen, Delemarre-van de Waal, Blanchard, & Cohen-Kettenis, 2012; VanderLaan, Blanchard, Wood, & Zucker, 2014). However, these studies did not include control groups of youth clinically referred for other reasons. Thus, it is unclear whether the increased likelihood of only-child status is specific to gender-referred natal females. This study compared only-child status among youth referred to a mental health service for gender dysphoria (778 males, 245 females) versus other reasons (783 males, 281 females). Prehomosexual gender-referred males were less likely to be only children than clinical controls. Contrary to previous findings, gender-referred females were not more likely to be only children, indicating that increased likelihood of only-child status is not specific to gender-referred females, but is characteristic of clinic-referred females more generally.

  15. Parent-only vs. parent-child (family-focused) approaches for weight loss in obese and overweight children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jull, A; Chen, R

    2013-09-01

    Families are recommended as the agents of change for weight loss in overweight and obese children; family approaches are more effective than those that focus on the child alone. However, interventions that focus on parents alone have not been summarized. The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of interventions that compared a parent-only (PO) condition with a parent-child (PC) condition. Four trials using a similar between-group background approaches to overweight and obese children's weight loss met the inclusion criteria, but only one trial reported sufficient data for meta-analysis. Further information was obtained from authors. Meta-analysis showed no significant difference in z-BMI from baseline to end of treatment between the conditions (three trials) or to end of follow up (two trials). The trials were at risk of bias and no single trial was at lower risk of bias than others. There is an absence of high quality evidence regarding the effect of parent-only interventions for weight loss in children compared to parent-child interventions, but current evidence suggests the need for further investigation.

  16. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for young children with anxiety disorders: Comparison of a Child + Parent condition versus a Parent Only condition.

    PubMed

    Waters, Allison M; Ford, Louise A; Wharton, Trisha A; Cobham, Vanessa E

    2009-08-01

    The present study compared the efficacy of a group-based cognitive-behavioural treatment (GCBT) delivered exclusively to parents of young anxious children (between 4 and 8 years of age) with the same intervention delivered to both children and parents, relative to a Wait-list Control condition. Parents of children in the Parent Only condition (N = 25) received 10 weekly sessions of GCBT whereas children and parents in the Parent + Child condition (N = 24) each received 10 weekly sessions of GCBT. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that both active treatment conditions were superior to the Wait-list condition (N = 11), with 55.3% of children in the Parent Only condition and 54.8% of children in the Parent + Child condition no longer meeting criteria for their principal diagnosis at post-treatment. These treatment gains were maintained in both treatment conditions at six-month and 12-month follow-up assessments. There were no significant differences between the two active conditions on other outcome measures including parental psychopathology and parenting style. However, an unexpected finding was that parenting satisfaction and to some extent parenting competence reduced significantly from pre- to post-treatment regardless of the active treatment condition. The present results suggest that GCBT delivered exclusively to parents of young anxious children may be a viable treatment alternative for improving accessibility to efficacious treatments for children with anxiety disorders and for reducing costs associated with mental health care delivery.

  17. Only-Child Status in Relation to Perceived Stress and Studying-Related Life Satisfaction among University Students in China: A Comparison with International Students

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Janet Junqing; Khan, Mobarak Hossain; Jahn, Heiko J.; Kraemer, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objectives University students in general face multiple challenges, which may affect their levels of perceived stress and life satisfaction. Chinese students currently face specific strains due to the One-Child Policy (OCP). The aim of this study was to assess (1) whether the levels of perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction are associated with only-child (OC) status after controlling for demographic and socio-economic characteristics and (2) whether these associations differ between Chinese and international students. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional health survey based on a self-administrated standardised questionnaire was conducted among 1,843 (1,543 Chinese, 300 international) students at two Chinese universities in 2010–2011. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) and Stock and Kraemer’s Studying-related Life Satisfaction Scale were used to measure perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations of OC status with perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction by sex for Chinese students and international students separately. Results The Chinese non-only-children (NOCs) were more likely to come from small cities. Multivariable regression models indicate that the Chinese NOCs were more stressed than OCs (OR = 1.39, 1.11–1.74) with a stronger association in men (OR = 1.48, 1.08–2.02) than women (OR = 1.26, 0.89–1.77). NOCs were also more dissatisfied than their OC fellows in the Chinese subsample (OR = 1.37, 1.09–1.73). Among international students, no associations between OC status and perceived stress or studying-related life satisfaction were found. Conclusions To promote equality between OCs and NOCs at Chinese universities, the causes of more stress and less studying-related life satisfaction among NOCs compared to OCs need further exploration. PMID:26675032

  18. Design of the FRESH study: A randomized controlled trial of a parent-only and parent-child family-based treatment for childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Braden, Abby; Douglas, Jennifer M; Rhee, Kyung E; Strong, David; Rock, Cheryl L; Wilfley, Denise E; Epstein, Leonard; Crow, Scott

    2015-11-01

    Approximately 1 out of 3 children in the United States is overweight or obese. Family-based treatment (FBT) is considered the gold-standard treatment for childhood obesity, but FBT is both staff and cost intensive. Therefore, we developed the FRESH (Family, Responsibility, Education, Support, & Health) study to evaluate the effectiveness of intervening with parents, without child involvement, to facilitate and improve the child's weight status. Targeting parents directly in the treatment of childhood obesity could be a promising approach that is developmentally appropriate for grade-school age children, highly scalable, and may be more cost effective to administer. The current paper describes the FRESH study which was designed to compare the effectiveness of parent-based therapy for pediatric obesity (PBT) to a parent and child (FBT) program for childhood obesity. We assessed weight, diet, physical activity, and parenting, as well as cost-effectiveness, at baseline, post-treatment, and at 6- and 18-month follow-ups. Currently, all participants have been recruited and completed assessment visits, and the initial stages of data analysis are underway. Ultimately, by evaluating a PBT model, we hope to optimize available child obesity treatments and improve their translation into clinical settings.

  19. Design of the FRESH Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Parent-Only and Parent-Child Family-Based Treatment for Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Boutelle, Kerri N.; Braden, Abby; Douglas, Jennifer M.; Rhee, Kyung E.; Strong, David; Rock, Cheryl L.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Epstein, Leonard; Crow, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 1 out of 3 children in the United States is overweight or obese. Family-based weight loss treatment (FBT) is considered the gold-standard treatment for childhood obesity, but FBT is both staff and cost intensive. Therefore, we developed the FRESH (Family, Responsibility, Education, Support, & Health) study to evaluate the effectiveness of intervening with parents, without child involvement, to facilitate and improve the child’s weight status. Targeting parents directly in the treatment of childhood obesity could be a promising approach that is developmentally appropriate for grade-school age children, highly scalable, and may be more cost effective to administer. The current paper describes the FRESH study which was designed to compare the effectiveness of parent-based therapy for pediatric obesity (PBT) to a parent and child (FBT) program for childhood obesity. We assessed weight, diet, physical activity, and parenting, as well as cost-effectiveness, at baseline, post-treatment, and at 6- and 18-monthfollow-ups. Currently, all participants have been recruited and completed assessment visits, and the initial stages of data analysis are underway. Ultimately, by evaluating a PBT model, we hope to optimize available child obesity treatments and improve their translation into clinical settings. PMID:26358536

  20. My Child Only Eats Certain Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Merrill; Kerwin, Mary Louise; Feldstein, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Many young children display some sort of picky eating. Although most children's diets will eventually consist of an adequate number of foods, some children's diets may not change without intervention. Children with limited diets typically have difficulty consuming new foods because they have some stomach discomfort, have limited oral-motor skills,…

  1. The Advocacy or Avoidance of Only Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni

    A brief review of the psychological literature on the characteristics of only children is presented in order to determine if the one-child family should be avoided or advocated. The relevant literature is found to be limited in quantity and conceptualization of the only child. Previous literature is divided into three types of study: those with…

  2. Mother-Child Relationship, Child Fearfulness, and Emerging Attachment: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna

    1998-01-01

    Examined mother-child relationship and child fearfulness at 8-10 months and 13-15 months in relation to child attachment at 13-15 months. Found that the mother-child relationship, and 13-15 months only, predicted child security versus insecurity but not the type of insecurity. Child fearfulness was unrelated to security versus insecurity, but…

  3. Surgical treatment of congenital thoracolumbar spondyloptosis in a 2-year-old child with vertebral column resection and posterior-only circumferential reconstruction of the spine column: case report.

    PubMed

    Gressot, Loyola V; Mata, Javier A; Luerssen, Thomas G; Jea, Andrew

    2015-02-01

    Spondyloptosis refers to complete dislocation of a vertebral body onto another. The L5-S1 level is frequently affected. As this condition is rare, few published reports describing its clinical features and surgical outcomes exist, especially in the pediatric patient population. The authors report the presentation, pathological findings, and radiographic studies of a 2-year-old girl who presented to Texas Children's Hospital with a history since birth of progressive spastic paraparesis. Preoperative CT and MRI showed severe spinal cord compression associated with T11-12 spondyloptosis. The patient underwent a single-stage posterior approach for complete resection of the dysplastic vertebral bodies at the apex of the spinal deformity with reconstruction and stabilization of the vertebral column using a titanium expandable cage and pedicle screws. At the 12-month follow-up, the patient remained neurologically stable without any radiographic evidence of instrumentation failure or loss of alignment. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there have been only 2 other children with congenital thoracolumbar spondyloptosis treated with the above-described strategy. The authors describe their case and review the literature to discuss the aggregate clinical features, surgical strategies, and operative outcomes for congenital thoracolumbar spondyloptosis.

  4. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  5. "Only" and Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallduvi, Enric

    The relationship of the word "only," one of a class of words known as scalar particles, focus adverbs, focus inducers, or focus-sensitive particles, with the "focus" of the sentence is examined. It is suggested, based on analysis of discourse structure, that this "association with focus" is not an inherent property of…

  6. Hands-Only CPR

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific, especially if you’re calling from a mobile phone as that is not associated with a fixed address. Answering the dispatcher’s questions will not delay the arrival of ... save lives with Hands-Only CPR. Check out the Mobile Tour page to see if we're coming ...

  7. English "Si," Only "No."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Victor, Jr.

    The English-only movement is about more than language; underlying it is bigotry against non-White, non-English-speaking immigrants. The term "Hispanic" is itself a Census Bureau creation which ignores the cultural and linguistic differences between such groups as the Mexican, Cuban, and Nicaraguan immigrants. The argument that a single…

  8. For Freshmen Only

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Joseph E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a transition program called "For Freshmen Only." This program serves as a worthwhile service that juniors and seniors can offer incoming freshmen; it offers opportunities for ninth graders to develop positive relationships with upperclassmen; it gives participants a leg up as they entered the more competitive,…

  9. The Child Welfare Cartel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  10. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  11. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  12. Gas only nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Bechtel, William Theodore; Fitts, David Orus; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne

    2002-01-01

    A diffusion flame nozzle gas tip is provided to convert a dual fuel nozzle to a gas only nozzle. The nozzle tip diverts compressor discharge air from the passage feeding the diffusion nozzle air swirl vanes to a region vacated by removal of the dual fuel components, so that the diverted compressor discharge air can flow to and through effusion holes in the end cap plate of the nozzle tip. In a preferred embodiment, the nozzle gas tip defines a cavity for receiving the compressor discharge air from a peripheral passage of the nozzle for flow through the effusion openings defined in the end cap plate.

  13. For Parents Particularly--"Only the Lonely": The Latchkey Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Shirley J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses ways in which call-in hotlines provide assistance to latchkey children. Describes ways in which parents can provide a feeling of safety for latchkey children and cure feelings of loneliness and boredom through structured activities.(RJC)

  14. Male only Systemic Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Rachna; Namjou, Bahram; Li, Shibo; D'Souza, Anil; Tsao, Betty P; Bruner, Ben; James, Judith A.; Scofield, R. Hal

    2010-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is more common among women than men with a ratio of about 10 to 1. We undertook this study to describe familial male SLE within a large cohort of familial SLE. SLE families (two or more patients) were obtained from the Lupus Multiplex Registry and Repository. Genomic DNA and blood samples were obtained using standard methods. Autoantibodies were determined by multiple methods. Medical records were abstracted for SLE clinical data. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed with X and Y centromere specific probes, and a probe specific for the toll-like receptor 7 gene on the X chromosome. Among 523 SLE families, we found five families in which all the SLE patients were male. FISH found no yaa gene equivalent in these families. SLE-unaffected primary female relatives from the five families with only-male SLE patients had a statistically increased rate of positive ANA compared to SLE-unaffected female relatives in other families. White men with SLE were 5 times more likely to have an offspring with SLE than were White women with SLE but there was no difference in this likelihood among Black men. These data suggest genetic susceptibility factors that act only in men. PMID:20472921

  15. After All, Only Millions?

    PubMed Central

    Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An update on the census of species of Archaea and Bacteria published recently in mBio (P. D. Schloss, R. A. Girard, T. Martin, J. Edwards, and J. C. Thrash, mBio 7:e00201-16, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00201-16) showed again that, despite ever-increasing sequencing efforts, the PCR-based retrieval of 16S rRNA genes is approaching saturation. On average, 95% of the genes analyzed today are identical to those present in public databases, with rarefaction analysis indicating that about one-third of the bacterial and archaeal diversity has already been covered. Therefore, despite estimates of up to 1012 microbial species, the option should be considered that the census of Archaea and Bacteria on planet Earth might yield only millions of species after all. PMID:27381294

  16. Well-child visits

    MedlinePlus

    ... listening to heart, breath, and stomach sounds) Heart sounds Infantile reflexes and deep tendon reflexes as the child gets older Neonatal jaundice -- first few visits only Palpation Percussion Standard ophthalmic exam Temperature measurement (see also normal body temperature ) Immunization information: ...

  17. For men only.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    In 1985 the Colombian Family Planning Association PROFAMILIA realized that men did not want to come to its family planning centers simply because they felt intimidated by the feminine atmosphere there. Nor did they dare disclose their problems and sexual questions even to a female professional. The solution was to establish a family planning center, La Clinica del Hombre (Men's Clinic), providing services exclusively for men and staffed with men to provide the necessary privacy. Latin American men's attitudes are changing. In 1985 in Bogota, the majority of men were convinced that a vasectomy was equivalent to castration. In 1993, 300 vasectomies were performed in the clinic each month. The Colombian Family Planning Association is not only providing contraception, but also information on sexual and reproductive education to avoid misunderstanding of the available methods. PROFAMILIA has incorporated a sexuality consultation into its services, so they can deal with husbands and wives separately, without spoiling the couple's relationship. PROFAMILIA now has 7 family planning clinics for men and 48 for women, thanks to the contribution of international donors. The Challenge Grant for Men's Programs, given by an anonymous donor from the United States, helped with the fund-raising to open 3 clinics in the Atlantic Coast Region where needs were vital. The Clinica del Hombre will incorporate a program to treat infertility, in addition to the department of urology, general medicine, ambulatory surgery, and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. In January, 1994, they will begin offering dental and plastic surgery services because, owing to the violence that exists in the country, there are many men whose faces are disfigured and who need to have corrective plastic surgery.

  18. Child Labour: The View from the North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKechnie, Jim; Hobbs, Sandy

    1999-01-01

    Reports British research findings that challenge the bias that child labor is a problem of only economically underdeveloped countries. Argues that child employment is evident within developed countries, but is largely invisible. Addresses positive and negative effects, and challenges to child labor/child work dichotomy. Debates underlying causes…

  19. Child Psychiatry: The Past Quarter Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Leon

    The developments in child psychiatry in the past 25 years have been encouraging but represent only a prelude to the significant work that must be done relatively soon to meet the needs of the contemporary child. Before 1940, the desirability of multidisciplinary study of the child had been well established, and child guidance clinics had appeared.…

  20. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children™ study. Multimedia & Tools Videos, podcasts and widgets. Child Development: What's New Article: Differences in health care, family, ... and share it with the child’s doctor. More Child Development Basics Developmental Screening Screening for Professionals Positive Parenting ...

  1. Children's Interpretation of Ambiguous Focus in Sentences with "Only"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Kevin B.; Liversedge, Simon P.; White, Diane; Filik, Ruth; Jaz, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    We report 3 studies investigating children's and adults' interpretation of ambiguous focus in sentences containing the focus-sensitive quantifier only. In each experiment, child and adult participants compared sentences with only in a preverbal position and counterpart sentences without only against a series of pictures depicting events that…

  2. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael…

  3. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  4. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  5. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  6. Disobedient Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... of growing up and testing adult guidelines and expectations. It is one way for children to learn ... At times, it is due to unreasonable parental expectations. Or it might be related to the child's ...

  7. [Child abuse].

    PubMed

    V Essen, H; Schlickewei, W; Dietz, H-G

    2005-02-01

    Child abuse is most often diagnosed by an emergency doctor on call who sometimes "feels" more than knows what he is confronted with. He should nevertheless always take a medical history and make a physical and radiological examination. X-ray imaging and an ophthalmologic retinal examination are the most important diagnostic steps. Typical findings are multiple and/or dorsal rib fractures, complex skull fractures, physeal fractures, all fractures within the first 12 months, multiple fractures in different localisations and stages of healing, all injuries with uncommon distributions, all patterned bruises, immersion burns, intramural hematoma and every unexplained loss of consciousness. The first step towards victim protection is always the removal of the abused child from its caregivers by admitting it to hospital, as 95% of all cases of reported child abuse take place within the child's family.

  8. [Child labour].

    PubMed

    Marsella, L T; Savastano, L; Saracino, V; Del Vecchio, R

    2005-01-01

    The authors emphasize the violation of children's and adolescents' rights as a result of the exploitation of child labour. Besides the legal aspect, they pointed out the medical features related to the delicate growing process of the child in the phases of development and adaptation of the main organs to hard work. Currently the problem is being supervised by those states that recognize the right for minors to be protected against any kind of physical, mental, spiritual and moral risk.

  9. Parental fear of negative child evaluation in child social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Sina-Simone; Heinrichs, Nina

    2010-12-01

    Parental anxiety has been linked to child anxiety in various studies. However, specific mechanisms responsible for this relationship in the context of child social anxiety are still largely unknown. A potential mediator between parental and child social anxiety may be parental fear of negative child evaluation (FNCE). To investigate this concept, we collected self-reported data from families with 9- to 16-year old children in a non-clinical sample (458 mother-child dyads and 336 father-child dyads). While both paternal and maternal FNCE predicted child social anxiety, only maternal FNCE mediated the association between maternal and child social anxiety. Maternal report of FNCE was also found to mediate the association between maternal social anxiety and general childhood emotional problems but not externalising problems. Overall, this study is the first to identify a mediator variable that may explain the association between mother and child social anxiety in school-age children. The results shed new light on the mechanisms by which fear and anxiety may be transmitted across generations.

  10. Do We Only Die Once?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangemi, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Some individuals believe physical death is the only form of death we experience on this planet. Is such a belief valid? In the Western world, essentially, physical death is seen as the end of life on this planet. It's all over "here." But is physical death really the only form of death experienced while on earth? Physical death is the…

  11. Team 2: AIRS Only Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sung-Yung; Manning, Evan; Blaisdell, John; Susskind, Joel; Barnet, Chris; Goldberg, Mitch; Cho, Chuck; Staelin, Dave; Blackwelll, Bill

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation makes the case for the retrieval of data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). AIRS only retrieval is not only a risk reduction for failure of AMSU, but also important because NWP centers are reluctant to assimilate AMSU twice.

  12. The only woman in town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2012-06-01

    As the only female physics faculty member based at the University of Tokyo - one of Asia's leading institutions - Mio Murao talks to Michael Banks about the challenges Japan faces in getting more women into the subject.

  13. Birth control pills - progestin only

    MedlinePlus

    ... The pill - progestin; Oral contraceptives - progestin; OCP - progestin; Contraception - progestin; BCP - progestin ... Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. The pills with only progestin come in 28-day ...

  14. My Child Is Stealing

    MedlinePlus

    ... a habit with your child or teen, consider speaking with a doctor or therapist to get to ... Can Be Done About a Child Who Steals? Teaching Your Child Self-Control Disciplining Your Child Childhood ...

  15. Office of Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Early Head Start-Child Care Partnerships. Review the profiles. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child Care supports low-income working families through child care financial assistance and ...

  16. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Child Sexual Abuse Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, Family, & Friends Child Sexual Abuse What is child sexual abuse? Child sexual abuse ...

  17. Project CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Helen F.; And Others

    This document described Project CHILD, a program of educational change and curriculum development for disadvantaged prekindergarten and kindergarten children. The historical part of this report indicates that the project began in 1966 with a small-scale study of teacher behavior and children's responses in a few classrooms in a Harlem school…

  18. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... same sex. Peer approval becomes very important. Your child may try new behaviors to be part of "the group." This can also be the time that parents or teachers recognize learning disabilities or ... can get worse as time goes on, so it is important to get help early.

  19. Holographic Read-Only Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, F.; Zhou, G.; Psaltis, D.

    The most successful use of optical memories so far has been as read-only memories (ROM). A main reason for this success has been the availability of inexpensive methods to mass-produce copies of recorded disks. This has made it possible to publish data (audio, video, databases, computer games) and distribute it widely through normal retail channels. In this chapter, we show results of a holographic read-only memory (HROM) of which digital data on a master disk can be copied onto replicate disks efficiently.

  20. Contraction-Only Exercise Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerr, Donald F.; Maples, Arthur B.; Campbell, Craig M.

    1992-01-01

    Standard knee-extension machine modified so subject experiences force only when lifting leg against stack of weights. Exerts little force on leg while being lowered. Hydraulic cylinder and reservoir mounted on frame of exercise machine. Fluid flows freely from cylinder to reservoir during contraction (lifting) but in constricted fashion from reservoir to cylinder during extension (lowering).

  1. IS COMPENSATORY EDUCATION ONLY PALLIATIVE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ELAM, STANLEY M.

    THIS REBUTTAL TO AN ARTICLE ARGUING THAT COMPENSATORY EDUCATION TREATS ONLY THE RESULTS AND NOT THE CAUSES OF DISADVANTAGEMENT MAINTAINS THAT THE SCHOOL PROGRAMS NEVERTHELESS ARE INSTRUMENTAL IN IMPROVING PROBLEMATIC SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS. IT POINTS OUT THAT ALTHOUGH AN UNHEALTHY NATIONAL ECONOMY CAN CAUSE MUCH INDIVIDUAL POVERTY AND…

  2. Maternal ratings of child health and child obesity, variations by mother's race/ethnicity and nativity.

    PubMed

    Baker, Elizabeth H; Altman, Claire E

    2015-05-01

    We examined whether indicators of child health, focusing on obesity, are associated with maternal ratings of child health (MRCH) and its variation by mother's ethnicity/nativity, focusing on Hispanics. The early childhood longitudinal study, kindergarten cohort kindergarten-eighth grade waves (n = 48,814) and nested general linear mixed modeling are used to examine excellent MRCH. The only indicator of child health that varies by mother's ethnicity/nativity for MRCH is child obesity. Child obesity did not influence MRCH for foreign-born Hispanic mothers, especially among less acculturated mothers, though significant differences among immigrants by acculturation were not found. However, among native-born white, black, and Hispanic mothers child obesity was associated with a lower likelihood of excellent MRCH even after controls for socioeconomic characteristics, family characteristics, and other indicators of child health are included. MRCH reflect not only child's actual health, but also the mother's perception of what contributes to poor child health. Our findings suggest that less acculturated foreign-born Hispanic mothers are less likely to associate child obesity with poor child health. Cultural orientations that prefer heavier children or are unlikely to associate child obesity with poor child health may contribute to the higher levels of obesity found among their children.

  3. ’Missionary Style’ Only

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    assume that masturbation is legal and moral for all military members. In some cases the act of masturbation could involve placing one’s own digits...or did the military follow “Missionary Style” Only 6 6 society on the socially accepted act of masturbation ? Either way it appears as both...groups has moved beyond the moral acceptance level issue and simply enjoys masturbation , as much as sodomy, in both societies. So if it is acceptable

  4. Gas only nozzle fuel tip

    DOEpatents

    Bechtel, William Theodore; Fitts, David Orus; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne

    2002-01-01

    A diffusion flame nozzle gas tip is provided to convert a dual fuel nozzle to a gas only nozzle. The nozzle tip diverts compressor discharge air from the passage feeding the diffusion nozzle air swirl vanes to a region vacated by removal of the dual fuel components, so that the diverted compressor discharge air can flow to and through effusion holes in the end cap plate of the nozzle tip. In a preferred embodiment, the nozzle gas tip defines a cavity for receiving the compressor discharge air from a peripheral passage of the nozzle for flow through the effusion openings defined in the end cap plate.

  5. Only six kingdoms of life.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2004-06-22

    There are many more phyla of microbes than of macro-organisms, but microbial biodiversity is poorly understood because most microbes are uncultured. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequences cloned after PCR amplification of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples is a powerful way of exploring our degree of ignorance of major groups. As there are only five eukaryotic kingdoms, two claims using such methods for numerous novel 'kingdom-level' lineages among anaerobic eukaryotes would be remarkable, if true. By reanalysing those data with 167 known species (not merely 8-37), I identified relatives for all 8-10 'mysterious' lineages. All probably belong to one of five already recognized phyla (Amoebozoa, Cercozoa, Apusozoa, Myzozoa, Loukozoa) within the basal kingdom Protozoa, mostly in known classes, sometimes even in known orders, families or genera. This strengthens the idea that the ancestral eukaryote was a mitochondrial aerobe. Analogous claims of novel bacterial divisions or kingdoms may reflect the weak resolution and grossly non-clock-like evolution of ribosomal rRNA, not genuine phylum-level biological disparity. Critical interpretation of environmental DNA sequences suggests that our overall picture of microbial biodiversity at phylum or division level is already rather good and comprehensive and that there are no uncharacterized kingdoms of life. However, immense lower-level diversity remains to be mapped, as does the root of the tree of life.

  6. Places Only Sails Can Go

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV; Heaton, Andrew F.; Garbe, Gregory P.

    2003-01-01

    Solar sails are a near term, low thrust, propellantless propulsion technology suitable for orbital maneuvering, station keeping, and attitude control applications for small payloads. Furthermore, these functions can be highly integrated, reducing mass, cost and complexity. The solar sail concept is based on momentum exchange with solar flux reflected from a large, deployed thin membrane. Thrust performance increases as the square of the distance to the sun. In comparison to conventional chemical systems, there are missions where solar sails are vastly more and less economical. The less attractive applications involve large payloads, outer solar system transfers, and short trip times. However, for inclination changes and station keeping at locations requiring constant thrust, the solar sail is the only economical option for missions of more than a few weeks duration. We compare the location and energies required for these applications between solar sails, advanced electric propulsion, and conventional rockets. We address the effect on mass fraction to understand solar sail mission cost and capability. Finally, the benefit of potential applications to near term science missions is reported.

  7. Only six kingdoms of life.

    PubMed Central

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    There are many more phyla of microbes than of macro-organisms, but microbial biodiversity is poorly understood because most microbes are uncultured. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequences cloned after PCR amplification of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples is a powerful way of exploring our degree of ignorance of major groups. As there are only five eukaryotic kingdoms, two claims using such methods for numerous novel 'kingdom-level' lineages among anaerobic eukaryotes would be remarkable, if true. By reanalysing those data with 167 known species (not merely 8-37), I identified relatives for all 8-10 'mysterious' lineages. All probably belong to one of five already recognized phyla (Amoebozoa, Cercozoa, Apusozoa, Myzozoa, Loukozoa) within the basal kingdom Protozoa, mostly in known classes, sometimes even in known orders, families or genera. This strengthens the idea that the ancestral eukaryote was a mitochondrial aerobe. Analogous claims of novel bacterial divisions or kingdoms may reflect the weak resolution and grossly non-clock-like evolution of ribosomal rRNA, not genuine phylum-level biological disparity. Critical interpretation of environmental DNA sequences suggests that our overall picture of microbial biodiversity at phylum or division level is already rather good and comprehensive and that there are no uncharacterized kingdoms of life. However, immense lower-level diversity remains to be mapped, as does the root of the tree of life. PMID:15306349

  8. Sibling Tutoring and Other Explanations for Intelligence: Discontinuities of Only and Last Borns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni

    This study explores and evaluates the explanations for apparent exception to the family size rule that IQ and family size are inversely related. Three large-scale studies were consistent in placing only children lower than firstborns from two-, three-, and four-child families, and at about the same level as firstborns from a five-child family. The…

  9. Child Care Aware

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aware of America Symposium 2016 Looking for child care? Need resources for your child care business? There are more than 500 local Child Care Resource & Referral (CCR&R) agencies across the United ...

  10. Ileostomy and your child

    MedlinePlus

    ... embarrassment. You may see some changes in your child's behavior at first. Sometimes teenagers have a harder time ... You being open and natural will help your child's behavior stay positive. Help your child learn how to ...

  11. Parenting and socialization of only children in urban China: an example of authoritative parenting.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a semistructured interview of 328 urban Chinese parents regarding their parenting beliefs and practices with respect to their only children. Statistical analyses of the coded parental interviews and peer nomination data from the children show none of the traditional Chinese parenting or child behaviors that have been widely reported in the literature. The parenting of only children in urban China was predominantly authoritative rather than authoritarian. The parenting strategies and beliefs were child-centered, egalitarian, and warmth-oriented rather than control-oriented. Chinese parents encouraged prosocial assertiveness and discouraged behavioral constraint and modesty. The parenting of only children was also gender egalitarian in that there were few gender differences in child social behaviors and little gender differential parenting and socialization of these only children. Together with other recent studies, these findings and conclusions challenge the traditionalist view of Chinese parenting and beliefs and behaviors about child socialization.

  12. The child dream and the child transference.

    PubMed

    De Francisco, D

    1986-01-01

    This paper explores the symbolic meaning of dreams in which children appear with special attention to the way children in dreams symbolize the self, particularly the dependent and developing self. It is suggested that patients' growth in analysis can be monitored by observing what happens to the children in their dreams. This paper also explores the vicissitudes of the child transference, in which the patient treats the analyst as a child. An analysis is described in which the child dream and the child transference played an important role in elucidating the patient's neurotic behaviors. The author contends that the child dream and the child transference are common and clinically useful phenomena, especially important in the analysis of dependency conflicts. An additional thesis of this paper is that the child transference is most likely to be found in instances where a patient played a parental role with one of their parents during childhood.

  13. Child Support Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2001 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of…

  14. Child Support Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 1999 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and…

  15. Child Support Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2000 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of…

  16. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  17. Child Support Report, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the twelve issues of "Child Support Report" newsletter published during 1997. Monthly issues typically explore problems related to child support enforcement, report on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarize research related to child support. Editorials and information…

  18. 5 CFR 1651.6 - Child or children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... identity of the father or mother of a child is in dispute or otherwise unclear (e.g., only one parent is listed on a birth certificate), the purported child must submit to the TSP either: (1) A court order or... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Child or children. 1651.6 Section...

  19. 20 CFR 725.208 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 725.208... Determination of relationship; child. As used in this section, the term “beneficiary” means only a surviving... considered to be the child of a beneficiary if: (a) The courts of the State in which the beneficiary...

  20. 20 CFR 725.208 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 725.208... Determination of relationship; child. As used in this section, the term “beneficiary” means only a surviving... considered to be the child of a beneficiary if: (a) The courts of the State in which the beneficiary...

  1. The Young Child in Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.

    The question of what children need for optimal development is discussed. The "principle of optimum effects" is seen as fundamental: good for children is only good for them in the "right" of optimum proportions. Seven propositions about the needs of children are advanced: (1) The young child has to have a deep sense of safety;…

  2. Only Connect: Readings on Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egoff, Sheila, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 40 articles and essays on English-language children's literature encompasses literary history and criticism, standards, changing tastes, the child's response to books, writers and their writing, illustration, and recent books. Most of the articles and essays were written in the 1960's, but a few important earlier contributions…

  3. Undetected and detected child sexual abuse and child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael

    2012-01-01

    Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences.

  4. Maintaining Work: The Influence of Child Care Subsidies on Child Care-Related Work Disruptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forry, Nicole D.; Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    With the passage of welfare reform, support for low-income parents to not only obtain but also maintain work has become imperative. The role of child care subsidies in supporting parents' job tenure has received little attention in the literature. This article examines the association between receiving a child care subsidy and experiencing a child…

  5. Employer Child Care Providers Stalled, but Optimistic: Fourteenth Annual Status Report on Employer Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2005-01-01

    The ten largest employer child care management organizations, as a group, reported a zero growth rate in 2004. This year of no growth follows two years in which the sector grew by only 4% per year. This contrasts dramatically with the fast expansion period for employer child care, 1996 through 2000, when the sector grew at an annual rate of 10%.…

  6. RELATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS OF PARENT-PERCEIVED CHILD CHARACTERISTICS TO VARIATION IN CHILD FEEDING BEHAVIOR.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Victoria K; Dovey, Terence M; Martin, Clarissa I; Meyer, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relative impact of co-occurring child characteristics on problematic feeding behavior. The aim of the current study was to assess the relative contributions of parent-perceived child characteristics in multivariable models of child feeding behavior. One hundred sixty-one mothers reported on their child's feeding behavior and a number of key child characteristics. These characteristics were entered into controlled multivariable models of child feeding behavior, using child and parent frequency domains of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS; W. Crist et al., 1994) as outcome measures. Child feeding problems were positively associated with food neophobia and external behavioral and social issues, but not with most domains of temperamental difficulty or sensory sensitivity. Feeding problem frequency was associated with externalizing symptoms whereas parental perceptions of problems and coping were associated with social-interaction problems in the child. Population feeding problems appear to be external and interactive problems rather than driven by innate or internalizing factors. The association with externalizing symptoms suggests that feeding problems at this level may fall within a wider profile of challenging behavior; however, the existence of problematic feeding behaviors may constitute a challenge for parents only when the child's social interactions also are seen to be deficient.

  7. 5 CFR 838.1111 - Amounts subject to child abuse judgment enforcement orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amounts subject to child abuse judgment... Under the Child Abuse Accountability Act Availability of Funds § 838.1111 Amounts subject to child abuse... child abuse enforcement orders only if all of the conditions necessary for payment of the...

  8. Male soldier family violence offenders: spouse and child offenders compared to child offenders.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sandra L; Gibbs, Deborah A; Johnson, Ruby E; Rentz, E Danielle; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Walters, Jennifer L Hardison; Sullivan, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    Army data from 2000 to 2004 were used to compare two groups of married, male, Army soldier, first-time family violence offenders: 760 dual offenders (whose initial incident included both child maltreatment and spouse abuse) and 2,209 single offenders (whose initial incident included only child maltreatment). The majority (81%) of dual offenders perpetrated physical spouse abuse; however, dual offenders were less likely than single offenders to perpetrate physical child abuse (16% vs. 42%) or sexual child abuse (1% vs. 11%), but they were more likely to perpetrate emotional child abuse (45% vs. 12%). These findings may be, at least in part, explained in light of the Army Family Advocacy Program policy, which considers spouse offenders as also being emotional child abuse offenders since children may be traumatized by exposure to spouse abuse.

  9. The girl child and law.

    PubMed

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  10. Spleen removal - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity restrictions will depend on: The type of surgery (open or laparoscopic) Your child's age The reason for the operation Ask your doctor about specific activity instructions and ... other pain medicines to use at home if your child needs them.

  11. Cholesterol and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  12. FPG Child Development Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... and 'alternative facts,' science can reliably inform policy. Child development research advises that a sense of security provided ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ...

  13. Your Child's Growth

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... There's a Problem Some parents worry about their child's growth and development. So it can be reassuring to know that ...

  14. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn ... changed; or goes to sleep ) Movement and Physical Development moves in response to sights and sounds rooting ...

  15. Fussy or irritable child

    MedlinePlus

    ... home Irregular day-to-day schedule Using your parenting skills, you should be able to calm your child and make things better. Getting your child on a regular eating, sleeping, and daily schedule can also help.

  16. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be ... friends, neighbors or babysitters. About one-third of abusers are related to the child. Most abusers are ...

  17. Child Dental Health

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  18. Child abuse - physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... way Uses harsh discipline Was abused as a child Alcohol or drug problems Emotional problems or mental illness ... Physical abuse - children References Berkowitz CD, Stewart ST. Child maltreatment. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  19. Surviving Your Child's Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The parent of a young child who required major open heart surgery shares his suggestions for coping with a young child's hospitalization including parent visitation, relating to the hospital staff, getting answers to questions, and utilizing available services. (DB)

  20. Child Behavior Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... a death in the family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening ...

  1. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S

    1982-09-01

    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  2. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  3. Child Study and Observation: Child Development 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna

    This syllabus outlines the structure, objectives, and lesson plans for Child Development 101, a twelve-week course on child study and observation offered at Chaffey Community College. A statement of the educational philosophy upon which the course was developed precedes a list of course objectives, competencies, and the grading system. The bulk of…

  4. Holocaust Child Survivors and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the…

  5. Parent-child relationship disorders. Part II. The vulnerable child syndrome and its relation to parental overprotection.

    PubMed

    Thomasgard, M; Shonkoff, J P; Metz, W P; Edelbrock, C

    1995-08-01

    Parents who are excessively concerned about their child's health are often characterized as being overprotective. We hypothesized that parental overprotection is independent of parental perception of child vulnerability to illness or injury despite their presumed interchangeability. A community-based sample of 892 parents (92% white, 84% married, 88% middle-upper socioeconomic status, 90% mothers) completed a three-part protocol (clinical background data, the Child Vulnerability Scale, and the Parent Protection Scale). Correlates of high parental perception of child vulnerability included a medical condition in the child, a history of life-threatening illness or injury, and the child being seen for a sick visit. Correlates of high parental overprotection included younger age of child and parent. Only 20% of those parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective.

  6. Child marriage in Bangladesh: trends and determinants.

    PubMed

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul; Ying, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the trends and determinants of child marriage among women aged 20-49 in Bangladesh. Data were extracted from the last six nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys conducted during 1993-2011. Simple cross-tabulation and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were adopted. According to the survey conducted in 2011, more than 75% of marriages can be categorized as child marriages. This is a decline of 10 percentage points in the prevalence of child marriage compared with the survey conducted in 1993-1994. Despite some improvements in education and other socioeconomic indicators, Bangladeshi society still faces the relentless practice of early marriage. The mean age at first marriage has increased by only 1.4 years over the last one and half decades, from 14.3 years in 1993-1994 to 15.7 years in 2011. Although the situation on risk of child marriage has improved over time, the pace is sluggish. Both the year-of-birth and year-of-marriage cohorts of women suggest that the likelihood of marrying as a child has decreased significantly in recent years. The risk of child marriage was significantly higher when husbands had no formal education or little education, and when the wives were unemployed or unskilled workers. Muslim women living in rural areas have a greater risk of child marriage. Women's education level was the single most significant negative determinant of child marriage. Thus, the variables identified as important determinants of child marriage are: education of women and their husbands, and women's occupation, place of residence and religion. Programmes to help and motivate girls to stay in school will not only reduce early marriage but will also support overall societal development. The rigid enforcement of the legal minimum age at first marriage could be critical in decreasing child marriage.

  7. The Limping Child

    PubMed Central

    Tredwell, Stephen J.

    1979-01-01

    The challenge of the limping child demands that the primary care physician identify those problems which are urgent, when neglect can harm the child, and to provide appropriate supportive care for those which are not. The approach to the limping child should consider the child's age, whether or not the limp is painful, and certain key physical findings. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7aFig. 7b PMID:21297725

  8. Child Care Services Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    A companion document to the curriculum guide for a secondary level child care services curriculum, this handbook contains a variety of administrative and program resources for the teacher: The vocational curriculum outline for child care services; a calendar of suggested public relations activities; procedures for building child care services…

  9. Child Care Design Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Anita Rui

    This book provides architects, interior designers, developers, and child-care professionals with detailed information on the planning and design of child care centers. Part 1 examines the current state of child care in the United States and offers an overall philosophical concert--the spirit of place--as the framework for all center design. Part 2…

  10. Mother-Child Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Joseph Chilton

    1994-01-01

    Examines the nature of mother-child bonding from the prenatal stage through early infancy, discussing how the mother's actions, even before birth, stimulate her child's senses. Explains the crucial role that physical contact, breastfeeding, and visual stimuli have on mother-child bonding in human and animal newborns. (MDM)

  11. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn Print A A A en español El ... the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a parent's ... When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but ...

  12. Your Child's Checkups

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3- ... 2-Year-Old Your Child's Checkups KidsHealth > ... en español Las revisiones médicas de su hijo From your child's birth to young adulthood, you'll be visiting the ...

  13. Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

    2002-01-01

    Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

  14. Child Care Bulletin, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Marilyn, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document is comprised of six issues of the Child Care Bulletin, a bimonthly publication of the National Child Care Information Center. The January-February issue focuses on involving communities in child care planning. Topics discussed in this issue include: community mobilization strategies, assessing needs and establishing goals, and…

  15. Relationship between child abuse exposure and reported contact with child protection organizations: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Turner, Sarah; Tonmyr, Lil; Hovdestad, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Much of what is known about child abuse in Canada has come from reported cases of child abuse and at-risk samples, which likely represent the most severe cases of child abuse in the country. The objective of the current study is to examine the prevalence of a broad range of child abuse experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to IPV) and investigate how such experiences and sociodemographic variables are related to contact with child protection organizations in Canada using a representative general population sample. Data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health collected from the 10 provinces using a multistage stratified cluster design (n=23,395; household response rate=79.8%; aged 18 years and older). Physical abuse only (16.8%) was the most prevalent child abuse experience reported with the exposure to specific combinations of two or more types of child abuse ranging from 0.4% to 3.7%. Only 7.6% of the adult population with a history of child abuse reported having had contact with child protection organizations. Experiencing all three types of child abuse was associated with the greatest odds of contact with child protection organizations (AOR=15.8; 95% CI=10.1 to 24.6). Physical abuse only was associated with one of the lowest odds of contact with child protection organizations. Preventing child abuse is widely acknowledged as an important, but challenging public health goal. Strategies to increase reporting of child abuse may help to protect children and to connect families with necessary services. One obvious priority would be physical abuse.

  16. Teacher-Child Relationships: Contribution of Teacher and Child Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates potential predictors of teacher-child relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) focusing on child gender, teacher-child ethnicity match, and teacher education. Additionally, the study explores the possible moderation effect of teacher education on the associations between teacher-child relationships and child gender or…

  17. Understanding Online Child Sexual Exploitation Offenses.

    PubMed

    Ly, Thanh; Murphy, Lisa; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2016-08-01

    In the past three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the worldwide availability of Internet access and devices that are able to access online materials. This literature review investigated whether increased accessibility of Internet child pornography (CP) increases the risk of in-person child sexual exploitation. The current review found little to no evidence that availability of the Internet has increased the worldwide incidence or prevalence of in-person child sexual abuse. In fact, during the time period in which the Internet has flourished, international crime statistics have shown a steady decrease of in-person child sexual abuse. The only exception to this trend is an increase in Internet child pornography or luring offenses (e.g., Stats Can, 2014), which involves child abuse by definition. This article reviews the impact of the Internet on child sexual abuse. It also reviews the characteristics of online CP offenders. Treatment of these offenders and prevention of such offenses is also discussed.

  18. Mother-Child Interaction: Links Between Mother and Child Frontal EEG Asymmetry and Negative Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Ann-Bell, Martha

    2017-01-01

    It is well accepted that parent-child interactions are bidirectional by nature, yet not much is known about the psychophysiological activity underlying these interactions. We examined, during a parent-child interaction, how a child’s negativity statistically predicted maternal frontal EEG asymmetry and how a mother’s negativity statistically predicted child frontal EEG asymmetry. Thirty-four mother-child dyads participated in the study. Maternal and child behavior and physiology were measured during a puzzle task. Results indicated that mothers whose children exhibited more challenging behaviors during the dyadic interaction displayed more right (relative to left) asymmetry, as did children whose mothers were high in negativity during the interaction. These findings suggest that mothers and children react to each other’s signals, not only behaviorally but also physiologically. PMID:27354097

  19. 5 CFR 831.671 - Proof of eligibility for a child's annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., a child born to the wife of a married person is presumed to be the child of the wife's husband. This presumption may be rebutted only by clear and convincing evidence that the husband is not the father of...

  20. Child Care and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, David B.; And Others

    The booklet examines child care as a major resource for the prevention of child abuse, and is intended to bring child care and child abuse workers together. An introductory section on child abuse is followed by an update on the family, including historical perspectives and a case study illustrating cooperation of parents and day care staff. A…

  1. Beginning Child Care Fact Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweedie, Pat

    These six fact sheets from Child Care Aware are designed to help parents ease their children's transition to child care. The first fact sheet, "Before Your Child's First Day," discusses tips such as: (1) "prepare your child"; (2) read and look at picture books about child care; and (3) "prepare yourself." The second fact sheet, "First Day Tips,"…

  2. Early Mother-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Agostino, Micheline

    1986-01-01

    This journal issue presents an overview of mother-child interaction during the first year of the child's life. Contents of the first section, which concern the development of the mother-child relationship, focus on the concept of the maternal instinct, mother and child during intrauterine life, birth of the child, the postnatal period (including…

  3. Essential interventions for child health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Child health is a growing concern at the global level, as infectious diseases and preventable conditions claim hundreds of lives of children under the age of five in low-income countries. Approximately 7.6 million children under five years of age died in 2011, calculating to about 19 000 children each day and almost 800 every hour. About 80 percent of the world’s under-five deaths in 2011 occurred in only 25 countries, and about half in only five countries: India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan and China. The implications and burden of such statistics are huge and will have dire consequences if they are not corrected promptly. This paper reviews essential interventions for improving child health, which if implemented properly and according to guidelines have been found to improve child health outcomes, as well as reduce morbidity and mortality rates. It also includes caregivers and delivery strategies for each intervention. Interventions that have been associated with a decrease in mortality and disease rates include exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding strategies, routine immunizations and vaccinations for children, preventative zinc supplementation in children, and vitamin A supplementation in vitamin A deficient populations. PMID:25177974

  4. Child Development and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William C., Ed.

    Previously published articles on child development and learning are collected in this textbook for college students. Topics include cognitive development, achievement behavior, and social development. (SBT)

  5. Mechanisms Linking Interparental Aggression to Child Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Lorber, M F; Maisson, D J N; Slep, A M S; Heyman, R E; Wolff, M S

    2017-01-28

    Research has garnered support for a systemic view of factors affecting child dental caries that accounts for the influence of social factors such as the family environment. Our previous work has demonstrated the association between mother-to-father emotional aggression and child caries. The present study builds on these results by evaluating pathways that might explain this relation. Families (n = 135) completed a multimethod assessment of mother-to-father emotional aggression, child caries, and several hypothesized mediators (i.e., child cariogenic snack and drink intake, child internalizing behaviors, child salivary cortisol and α-amylase reactivity, parental laxness, child oral hygiene maintenance, and parental socialization of child oral hygiene maintenance). Mediation analyses partially supported the role of the child's diet as a mechanism linking mother-to-father emotional aggression and child caries. However, children's neglect of oral hygiene, parental laxness, and child emotional and biological disturbances failed to stand as conduits for this association. Future investigations should expand upon these results to better establish the causal links that could only be suggested by the present cross-sectional findings.

  6. Maternal Employment, Migration, and Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haiyong; Mroz, Thomas A.; van der Klaauw, Wilbert

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the roles of and interrelationships among school inputs and parental inputs in affecting child development through the specification and estimation of a behavioral model of household migration and maternal employment decisions. We integrate information on these decisions with observations on child outcomes over a 13-year period from the NLSY. We find that the impact of our school quality measures diminish by factors of 2 to 4 after accounting for the fact that families may choose where to live in part based on school characteristics and labor market opportunities. The positive statistical relationship between child outcomes and maternal employment reverses sign and remains statistically significant after controlling for its possible endogeneity. Our estimates imply that when parental responses are taken into account, policy changes in school quality end up having only minor impacts on child test scores. PMID:20440376

  7. Impact of integrated child development scheme on child malnutrition in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Arijita; Ghosh, Smritikana

    2016-10-27

    With child malnutrition detected as a persistent problem in most of the developing countries, public policy has been directed towards offering community-based supplementary feeding provision and nutritional information to caregivers. India, being no exception, has initiated these programs as early as 1970s under integrated child development scheme. Using propensity score matching technique on primary data of 390 households in two districts of West Bengal, an Eastern state in India, the study finds that impact of being included in the program and receiving supplementary feeding is insignificant on child stunting measures, though the program can break the intractable barriers of child stunting only when the child successfully receives not only just the supplementary feeding but also his caregiver collects crucial information on nutritional awareness and growth trajectory of the child. Availability of regular eggs in the feeding diet too can reduce protein-related undernutrition. Focusing on just feeding means low depth of other services offered under integrated child development scheme, including pre-school education, nutritional awareness, and hygiene behavior; thus repealing a part of the apparent food-secure population who puts far more importance on the latter services.

  8. IPEDS Data for Graduate-Only Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    A small and diverse segment of the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) universe includes colleges and universities that offer only degrees above the baccalaureate level. These graduate-only institutions are colleges or universities that offer programs in a variety of fields, including acupuncture, medicine, law, theology,…

  9. Abstinence-Only Debate Heating Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    President Bush's proposal to almost double the amount of money the federal government spends on abstinence education to $273 million in fiscal 2005 has raised the stakes in the battle over what to teach children and adolescents about sex. Only a small percentage of Americans believe abstinence-only programs are the best form of sex education for…

  10. Talking to Your Child's Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... help you monitor your child's health explain your child's growth and development and what you can expect diagnose and treat ...

  11. Loss of a child - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Child death - resources; Resources - loss of a child ... The following organizations are good resources for information on the loss of a child: The Compassionate Friends -- www.compassionatefriends.org Bereaved Parents of the USA -- www.bereavedparentsusa. ...

  12. Child Wellness and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  13. Headstart for Every Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Annie L.

    An early learning kit provides a booklet of ten articles on educational head starts for children along with an activity packet for classroom use. The articles deal with: the crucial early school years; emotional preparation of the child; broadening a child's background; selecting toys and games; reading readiness; mathematical skills; learning to…

  14. Bullying and Your Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Christy D.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying happens every day in classrooms and on playgrounds all over the world. Parents, when faced with the fact that their child has become the target of a bully, experience a stream of emotions: anger, fear, the need to protect, and the realization that the child must go back to school or out to play and face the bully again the next day. Many…

  15. Introduction: Understanding Child Labour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miljeteig, Per

    1999-01-01

    Explores contributions from the Urban Childhood Conference for the purpose of developing the child-labor discourse further and indicating the implications of the new understandings for further research and policy development. Highlights the nine articles in this issue, which address child labor at the international level, children's viewpoints,…

  16. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  17. Building the Biocentric Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, David

    2002-01-01

    Advocates an environmentally congruent conception of child development and includes Montessori theory as part of a biocentric view where child development connects to the laws of nature. Explains orientations to the world informing development of a biocentric vision of childhood: mastery, immersion, and engagement. Discusses how mastery and…

  18. Every Child, Every Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.; Gabriel, Rachael E.

    2012-01-01

    We know more now than we ever did before about how to make every child a successful reader, write Allington and Gabriel in this research review. Yet, few students regularly receive the best reading instruction we know how to give. The authors present research supporting their recommendation that every child, every day, should (1) read something he…

  19. Protecting the Hoosier Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Presented are proceedings of a conference designed to provide a statewide forum for the exploration of the issues of child abuse and neglect, to maximize interdisciplinary communication as well as communication between the professional and lay communities of Indiana concerned with child protection, and to develop strategies for future coordinated…

  20. Child Development and Playgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    Four major issues are explored in this study of child development research and its implications for children's playgrounds: (1) theories and philosophies of play; (2) the historical evolution of playgrounds; (3) research on child development, play, and playgrounds; and (4) creating playgrounds that meet children's developmental needs. Discussion…

  1. Child Safety Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Malibu, CA.

    This document presents a set of child safety curriculum guidelines intended to help prevent child victimization and to promote safer living and learning environments for children and adolescents across America. These guidelines were developed to help educators, law enforcement personnel, and members of other youth-serving agencies teach children…

  2. Tutoring Your Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Joanne

    The parents' role as teacher is important to a child's learning process. Parents tutoring their children are advised to remain positive and patient, be aware of the child's feelings, keep the tutoring time short, select a quiet place away from distractions, use games and manipulative objects rather than more abstract experiences, etc. Informal…

  3. Child Care Resource Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Jeanne, Comp.; Pennington, Marnee, Comp.

    "Child Care Resource Materials" is an annotated bibliography of books, films, and filmstrips on various topics related to the education and development of young children. Categories include: learning activities for children; caring for children - infants through adolescents and children with special needs; parent-child relationships; day care -…

  4. Child Transportation Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents nine tips regarding safe infant and child transportation, each tip explained in one to two pages. The tips are as follows: (1) quick safety seat checkup; (2) where should your child ride? (3) how to protect your new baby in the car; (4) what safety seat to use for a big baby or toddler? (5) how should preschool and school…

  5. Parenting and Socialization of Only Children in Urban China: An Example of Authoritative Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a semistructured interview of 328 urban Chinese parents regarding their parenting beliefs and practices with respect to their only children. Statistical analyses of the coded parental interviews and peer nomination data from the children show none of the traditional Chinese parenting or child behaviors that have been widely…

  6. I'm "Only" Bleeding: Education as the Practice of Violence against Children. Counterpoints Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Alan A.

    This book explores the construction of the idea of the child as a product of adult needs and school as a place where children may be confined until they are considered socially useful. Drawing parallels with folk singer Bob Dylan's song, "It's All Right, Ma, I'm Only Bleeding," the book argues that the United States' educational system practices a…

  7. Child prostitution in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lau, Carmen

    2008-06-01

    Child prostitution is an old, global and complex phenomenon, which deprives children of their childhood, human rights and dignity. Child prostitution can be seen as the commercial sexual exploitation of children involving an element of forced labour, and thus can be considered as a contemporary form of slavery. Globally, child prostitution is reported to be a common problem in Central and South America and Asia. Of all the south-east Asian nations, the problem is most prolific in Thailand. In Thailand, there appears to be a long history of child prostitution, and this article explores the factors that underpin the Thai child sex industry and the lessons and implications that can be drawn for health care and nursing around the world.

  8. Angle only tracking with particle flow filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Fred; Huang, Jim

    2011-09-01

    We show the results of numerical experiments for tracking ballistic missiles using only angle measurements. We compare the performance of an extended Kalman filter with a new nonlinear filter using particle flow to compute Bayes' rule. For certain difficult geometries, the particle flow filter is an order of magnitude more accurate than the EKF. Angle only tracking is of interest in several different sensors; for example, passive optics and radars in which range and Doppler data are spoiled by jamming.

  9. Effects of integrated child development and nutrition interventions on child development and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally M; Fernald, Lia C H; Kagawa, Rose M C; Walker, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of studies that examined the effect of interventions combining a child development component with a nutrition one; in some cases the nutrition interventions also included health-promotion components. Only papers with both child development and nutrition outcomes and rated as moderate-to-good quality were included. Eleven efficacy and two nonrandomized trials, and eight program evaluations were identified. Only six trials examined interventions separately and combined. The trials showed nutritional interventions usually benefited nutritional status and sometimes benefited child development. Stimulation consistently benefited child development. There was no significant loss of any effect when interventions were combined, but there was little evidence of synergistic interaction between nutrition and stimulation on child development. Only three trials followed up the children after intervention. All at-scale program evaluations were combined interventions. Five benefited child development, but one did not, and two showed deficits. There was generally little benefit of at-scale programs to nutritional status. We found no rigorous evaluations of adding stimulation to health and nutrition services at scale and there is an urgent need for them. There is also a need to establish quality-control mechanisms for existing scaled-up programs and to determine their long-term effects. There is also a need to determine if there are any sustained benefits for the children after programs finish.

  10. Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supported Research Networks & Programs NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) Sunsetted/For Reference Only Skip sharing on ... is not being updated . The Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), now complete, began as the Study of ...

  11. [Dealing with a "different" child in the delivery room].

    PubMed

    Vernier, Dominique; Boissinot, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Maternity ward staff face complex situations, handling not only births, but sometimes also deaths. When a serious condition is revealed during the prenatal diagnosis, an abortion may be requested, but other parents choose to keep their disabled child. In such cases, healthcare professionals must support parents in learning about this "different" child.

  12. Short-Term Reciprocity in Late Parent-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leopold, Thomas; Raab, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Long-term concepts of parent-child reciprocity assume that the amount of support given and received is only balanced in a generalized fashion over the life course. We argue that reciprocity in parent-child relationships also operates in the short term. Our analysis of short-term reciprocity focuses on concurrent exchange in its main upward and…

  13. Incontinentia Pigmenti: A Rare Genodermatosis in a Male Child

    PubMed Central

    Arunagirinathan, Arulkumaran; Krishnakumar, Revathi; Sangili, Sivaraman

    2015-01-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is rare X-linked dominant disorder. There is no consistent expression of Incontinetia pigmenti in female child, but in male child, they always lead to death in utero. Vesicular, verrucous, hyperpigmented, and atrophic stages are the four stages of Incontinetia Pigmenti and it is uncommon for all stages to be seen in a same case. It is a rare genodermatosis, with only very few cases of male child with Incontinentia pigmenti have been reported. Thus, we report this case due to its extreme rarity and the child showed all the first 3 stages on followup. PMID:25859498

  14. Child Development Associate. Child Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    The purpose of this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, is to help the CDA intern understand the factors and principles which affect the total growth and development of children. Early sections of the module stipulate the module's competency-based objectives, define terms, and suggest procedures by which…

  15. Child Advocacy: Implications for Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Brenda G.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the many diverse activities going on under the child advocacy label in order to determine if there was anything new or different about this phenomenon and to attempt some conceptual ordering of the field. Interviews were conducted with a number of people knowledgeable in children's service, and an attempt…

  16. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies.

  17. Marketing child survival.

    PubMed

    Grant, J P

    1984-01-01

    Growth monitoring charts, packets of oral rehydration salts (ORS), and vaccines, are inexpensive, life-saving, growth-protecting technologies which can enable parents to protect their children against the worst effects of poverty. Similarly, a matrix of current and easily understandable information about pregnancy, breast feeding, weaning, feeding during and immediately after illness, child spacing, and preparing and using home-made oral rehydration solutions, also could empower parents to protect the lives and the health of their children. The question arises as to how can these technologies and this information be put at the disposal of millions of families in the low-income world. The initial task of the Child Survival and Development Revolution is the communication of what is now possible, yet little is known about how to communicate information whose principal value is to the poor. There are 2 large-scale precedents: the Green Revolution, which in many instances succeeded in putting into the hands of thousands of small and large farmers the techniques and the knowledge which enabled them to double and treble the yields from their lands; and the campaign to put the knowledge and the means of family planning at the disposal of many millions of people. There are 2 lessons to be learned from these precedents: they have shown that the way to promote a people's technology and to put information at the disposal of the majority is by mobilizing all possible resources and working through all possible channels both to create the demand and to meet it; and neither the Green Revolution nor the family planning movement rally took off until they were viewed as political and economic priorities and given the full support of the nation's political leadership. Nowhere are these 2 lessons more clearly illustrated than in present-day Indonesia. Because the campaign for family planning was given high personal and political priority by the President, and because 85% of all family

  18. Interviewing Children: A Guide for Child Care and Forensic Practitioners. Wiley Series in Child Care and Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Michelle; Wood, Joanne

    Because a child witness' account is often the only source of information about an alleged incidence of sexual abuse, it becomes imperative to obtain an accurate account from the child so that justice may be achieved. This book provides information on children's linguistic ability in relation to videotaped interviews conducted since the…

  19. Child maltreatment in India.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.

  20. A child with Roberts syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Rabia; Waqar, Sahar; Ahmad, Tahir Masood; Irfan Waheed, Khawaja Ahmad; Sultan, Tipu; Qureshi, Ahmad Usaid

    2011-07-01

    Roberts syndrome is a genetically determined rare birth defect causing, skeletal deformities, particularly symmetrical limb reduction and craniofacial anomalies. For any child with limb and craniofacial bony malformations, this syndrome should be considered in the differentials. Although this syndrome represents only a small proportion of the total number of individuals with limb deficiency, it is important to be identified in order to give accurate genetic counselling including recurrence risk in siblings and possible prenatal diagnosis. This is the case report of a 22 days old male infant who presented with defective development of all four extremities and craniofacial abnormalities. The overall clinical and radiological features were suggestive of Roberts syndrome.

  1. Child effects and child care: Implications for risk and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Snell, Emily K; Hindman, Annemarie H; Belsky, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Evocative effects of child characteristics on the quality and quantity of child care were assessed in two studies using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We focus on the influence of child characteristics on two important aspects of the child care experience: language stimulation provided by caregivers and quantity of care. In Study 1, associations between the developmental status of children aged 15 to 54 months and the language stimulation provided by their caregivers were examined using path models, and longitudinal child effects were detected across the earliest time points of the study. In Study 2, the associations among child behavior, temperament, development, and time in care were examined. Little evidence was found for such child effects on time in care. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of child care on child development and implications for developmental processes, particularly for children at greatest risk for developmental delay or psychopathology.

  2. Cyber child sexual exploitation.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Mahoney, Meghan; Visk, Julie; Morgenbesser, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    A 2-year review of 285 child cyber crime cases reported in the newspaper revealed how the Internet offenders were apprehended, the content of child pornography, and crime classification. A subsample of 100 cases with data on offender occupation revealed 73% of cases involved people in positions of authority. The dynamics of child cyber crime cases direct the implications for nursing practice in terms of evidence-based suspicion for reporting, categorizing the content of Internet images, referral of children for counseling, and treatment of offenders.

  3. Not Only English: Affirming America's Multilingual Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Harvey A., Ed.

    Intended to help teachers of English, language arts, and other subjects interpret "English Only" language issues for students, parents, and school communities, this book addresses various aspects of the controversy. Articles, listed with their authors, are as follows: (1) "The Roots of Language Protectionism" (Harvey A.…

  4. 'It's Only Human Nature': The Sociobiologist's Fairyland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Steven

    1979-01-01

    A proper understanding of the interaction of the biological and the social in the production of humans and their society will only be possible following the recognition that both genes and environment are necessary to the expression of any behavior. (Author/WI)

  5. Only the Best: Hiring Outstanding Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillsbury, Pete

    2005-01-01

    It is apparent that human resources departments and people coordinating the selection of teachers need the financial resources and the tools to select only the very best teachers--those who will maximize student learning and development. All too often district budgets are heavy in the curricular areas, leaving human resources struggling with a…

  6. Learner Code-Switching versus English Only

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a study into the functions of code-switching in EFL classes at a Colombian language school. It was undertaken to decide whether the official "English-only" policy in place in this and other classrooms is pedagogically justified. The results suggest that code-switching may not necessarily be connected to ability…

  7. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, M.S.; Harris, R.V.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  8. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Harris, Robert V.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  9. Qualitative Aspects of Group-Only Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanshaw, Larry G.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to determine how students would describe their group-only cooperative testing experiences in terms of key elements of cooperative learning often cited in the literature. Written comments of 159 graduate students were analyzed and 26 related categories of comments were derived from 495 statements of students enrolled in two…

  10. The English Only Movement: Revisiting Cultural Hegemony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Rebecca S.

    2014-01-01

    Between national and state budget cuts in education and an ever increasing push toward the English Only movement, a rise in dropout rates for Hispanic students is imminent. National data show the percentage of Hispanic students who drop out of high school to be nearly 60% in some states including Michigan, South Dakota, West Virginia, Alabama,…

  11. Complete Versus Lesion-Only Primary PCI

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Gerry P.; Khan, Jamal N.; Greenwood, John P.; Nazir, Sheraz; Dalby, Miles; Curzen, Nick; Hetherington, Simon; Kelly, Damian J.; Blackman, Daniel J.; Ring, Arne; Peebles, Charles; Wong, Joyce; Sasikaran, Thiagarajah; Flather, Marcus; Swanton, Howard; Gershlick, Anthony H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete revascularization may improve outcomes compared with an infarct-related artery (IRA)-only strategy in patients being treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) who have multivessel disease presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, there is concern that non-IRA PCI may cause additional non-IRA myocardial infarction (MI). Objectives This study sought to determine whether in-hospital complete revascularization was associated with increased total infarct size compared with an IRA-only strategy. Methods This multicenter prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint clinical trial evaluated STEMI patients with multivessel disease having PPCI within 12 h of symptom onset. Patients were randomized to either IRA-only PCI or complete in-hospital revascularization. Contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) was performed following PPCI (median day 3) and stress CMR at 9 months. The pre-specified primary endpoint was infarct size on pre-discharge CMR. The study had 80% power to detect a 4% difference in infarct size with 100 patients per group. Results Of the 296 patients in the main trial, 205 participated in the CMR substudy, and 203 patients (98 complete revascularization and 105 IRA-only) completed the pre-discharge CMR. The groups were well-matched. Total infarct size (median, interquartile range) was similar to IRA-only revascularization: 13.5% (6.2% to 21.9%) versus complete revascularization, 12.6% (7.2% to 22.6%) of left ventricular mass, p = 0.57 (95% confidence interval for difference in geometric means 0.82 to 1.41). The complete revascularization group had an increase in non-IRA MI on the pre-discharge CMR (22 of 98 vs. 11 of 105, p = 0.02). There was no difference in total infarct size or ischemic burden between treatment groups at follow-up CMR. Conclusions Multivessel PCI in the setting of STEMI leads to a small increase in CMR-detected non-IRA MI, but

  12. A child health report card: 1992.

    PubMed

    Williams, C L; Wynder, E L

    1993-07-01

    It is because of statistics like the ones included above in the Report Card that the health of our children has become a topic of great concern. These statistics, however, reflect only a small piece of a much larger problem, which includes child poverty, child neglect, child abuse, family disintegration, educational failure, violence, and crime. Indeed the biggest threats to child health have roots in the past and present core of our social and environmental conditions. Improving the health of our children will require innovative and comprehensive approaches that include health education, health services, and family support. The cost of our failure to fund preventive programs in the area of child and family health is significant and mounting. Prenatal care for a pregnant women for 9 months cost about $600; however, medical care for a premature baby for only one day may cost more than four times as much ($2,500). Similar comparisons for the cost of prevention versus treatment are listed in Table 8. It is clear that unless we as a nation place more emphasis on funding preventive medicine, the health of our children will continue to suffer, with grave consequences for the future of our country.

  13. ABC of child abuse. Role of the child psychiatry team.

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    In summary, a child psychiatrist can make an important contribution to the management of child abuse. At least one child psychiatrist in each district should take an interest in this work and should be given the time to do so. As for other professionals, child abuse is an aspect of the work of child psychiatrists that is particularly harrowing and time consuming. Images p452-a PMID:2507011

  14. A Psychodynamic Child Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    Research showing psychodynamic child therapy to be less effective than other forms of child treatment have used outcome measures focusing on symptomatic and behavioral change rather than on psychodynamic processes. A child therapy assessment procedure than measures the psychological functioning of the child in a psychodynamically meaningful way is…

  15. Child Abuse Amendments of 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The booklet presents the report of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor regarding the 1983 Child Abuse Amendments to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment and Adoption Reform Act of 1978. The Amendment expands the definition of child abuse to include abuse by…

  16. Trends in Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The author presents insights from various readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" regarding trends in the world of family child care. Kathleen Reticker of Acre Family Child Care in Lowell, Massachusetts thinks an increasing trend in Family Child Care is the pressure to emulate a Center, instead of seeing family child care as a different model. Over the…

  17. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The stability test prescribed in § 160.171-17(c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test...

  18. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The stability test prescribed in § 160.171-17(c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test...

  19. We Are Not Babysitters: Family Child Care Providers Redefine Work and Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuominen, Mary C.

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with 20 family child care providers of diverse race, ethnicity, immigrant status, and social class, this book explores the social, political, and economic forces and processes that draw women into the work of family child care. The articles dispel not only myths about why women choose to be family child care…

  20. Child Protection in Sport: Implications of an Athlete-Centered Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Gretchen A.; Stirling, Ashley E.

    2008-01-01

    As sport is a highly child-populated domain, the establishment of child-protection measures to reduce the potential for child maltreatment in sport is critical. Concern for the protection of children in sport has a history that is as old as modern sport itself; however, it is only recently that concern has been established about children's…

  1. Mother and Child Depressive Symptoms in Youth with Spina Bifida: Additive, Moderator, and Mediator Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellinger, Kriston B.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Essner, Bonnie S.; Alvarez, Renae

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which parenting behaviors influence the relation between maternal and child depressive symptoms in youth with spina bifida and a comparison sample. Previous research has found that maternal depression not only negatively impacts the mother-child relationship, but also places the child at risk…

  2. Influence of Risk Factors for Child Disruptive Behavior on Parent Attendance at a Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sarah M.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Lochman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Although preventive interventions that include both parent and child components produce stronger effects on disruptive behavior than child-only interventions, engaging parents in behavioral parent training is a significant challenge. This study examined the effects of specific risk factors for child disruptive behavior on parent attendance in…

  3. Whats special in a child's larynx?

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Manoharan; Johnny, J. Carlton

    2015-01-01

    What's special in a child's larynx? Many of us know only a few specialties of the pediatric larynx, but there are much more features, which are unique and often not highlighted. To understand the pediatric larynx, we have reviewed the development, the functions in-utero and new born period and peculiarities. PMID:26015749

  4. Whats special in a child's larynx?

    PubMed

    Prakash, Manoharan; Johnny, J Carlton

    2015-04-01

    What's special in a child's larynx? Many of us know only a few specialties of the pediatric larynx, but there are much more features, which are unique and often not highlighted. To understand the pediatric larynx, we have reviewed the development, the functions in-utero and new born period and peculiarities.

  5. Your Child's Development: 3-5 Days

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days A A A Though only ... the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a ... When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but ...

  6. Recurrent takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a child.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Nayan T; Parent, John J; Hurwitz, Roger A

    2016-02-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy or transient apical ballooning syndrome very rarely presents in children. In all patients with takotsubo, it is estimated that only 3.5% will have recurrence. In this study, we describe a case of recurrent takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a child, likely triggered by status epilepticus.

  7. Primary Pupils' Preconceptions about Child Prenatal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoldosova, Kristina; Prokop, Pavol

    2007-01-01

    The research deals a problem of primary pupils' preconceptions about a child prenatal development. Even the pupils cannot experience the phenomenon and can get only mediate information; their idea about the prenatal development is quite well constructed. The quality of the preconceptions depends mainly upon variety of informational sources kept at…

  8. Horizontal-parallax-only electronic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, T.-C.; Akin, T.; Indebetouw, G.; Kim, T.

    2005-04-01

    The principle of optical scanning holography (OSH) is proposed to acquire horizontal-parallax-only (HPO) holographic information electronically. We first briefly summarize the results of OSH and then discuss how HPO-electronic holographic information can be acquired using OSH. Finally we provide simulations to illustrate and clarify the proposed idea. Although many ideas of HPO-holography have been proposed and studied, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first proposed electronic technique to acquire HPO-holographic information.

  9. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing anticipatory guidance and child maltreatment risk factor screening will be described. The modalities and strengths and weaknesses of community-based prevention programs will be discussed, and providers will be given tools to identify the effectiveness of available community-based programs. At a broader level, the article will describe ways that pediatricians can advocate at the local, state, and national level for policies and programs that support families and children. PMID:25242703

  10. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... C. §2256(8)) defines child pornography as any visual depiction, including any photograph, film, video, picture or ... sexually explicit conduct, where the: Production of the visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging ...

  11. Concussion - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000125.htm Concussion in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Your child was treated for a concussion . This is a mild brain injury that can ...

  12. Caffeine and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Caffeine and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Caffeine and ... 12-ounce (355-milliliter) can of soda. How Caffeine Affects Kids A stimulant that affects kids and ...

  13. Calcium and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... the nutrients needed, talk to your doctor about changing their diet or using vitamin supplements. continue Good ...

  14. Weaning Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... cup, or maybe even just a cuddle. Try changing your daily routine so that you're otherwise ...

  15. Toilet Teaching Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... when traveling, around the birth of a sibling , changing from the crib to the bed, moving to ...

  16. Child Safety Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... contacting the manufacturer, or by looking up safety complaints records on your child's safety seat at www. ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  17. Disciplining Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Give your child one warning (unless it is aggression). If it happens again, send her to the ... are less likely to be consistent. Spanking increases aggression and anger instead of teaching responsibility. Parents may ...

  18. Your Child's Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding ... wear glasses and contacts. Keep these tips in mind for kids who wear glasses: Let kids pick ...

  19. Toilet Training Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... sitting on the potty chair, you may begin teaching your child to go to the bathroom. Keep ... education, patient information, potty training, stool soiling, timing method, toilet training Family Health, Infants and Toddlers January ...

  20. Child Labour in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Michel

    1993-01-01

    The question of child labor in Africa is complicated by the failures of the educational system, family relations, traditional forms of apprenticeship, proliferation of the informal economic sector, and continuing existence of a rural economy. Hazardous working conditions prevail. (SK)

  1. Dental care - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... hygiene. In: Dean JA, ed. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent . 10th ed. St. ... Updated by: Michael Kapner, DDS, general and aesthetic dentistry, Norwalk Medical Center, Norwalk, CT. Review provided by ...

  2. Your Child's Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual loss and whiteness in the pupil. Infantile cataracts can occur in newborns. A cataract is a clouding of the eye's lens. Congenital ... a child more likely to develop retinoblastoma or cataracts, may require kids to have eye exams at ...

  3. Feeding Your Child Athlete

    MedlinePlus

    ... snacks. The child athlete, however, will have higher energy and fluid requirements. Kids and teens who are ... consume more food to keep up with increased energy demands. Most athletes will naturally eat the right ...

  4. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... For all questions please contact the AACAP Communications & Marketing Coordinator, ext. 154. If you need immediate assistance, please dial 911. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. ... {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## { ...

  5. Asthma - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  6. Scoliosis surgery - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... will use steel rods, hooks, screws, or other metal devices to straighten your child's spine and support ... will often be put in to replace them. Metal instruments, such as rods, screws, hooks, or wires ...

  7. Navy Child Care, 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    34 1. Reenlistment or Retention Intentions and Career Satisfaction --------------------------- 34 2. Number ( Present ...about how best to support those families arise. One family support system is the base child-care center. Does the Navy’s present child-care system...problems and experiences of Navy active-duty women. The results of this survey are presented in Chapter II. The second survey was of primary Navy

  8. Wormholes and Child Universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guendelman, E. I.

    Evidence to the case that classical gravitation provides the clue to make sense out of quantum gravity is presented. The key observation is the existence in classical gravitation of child universe solutions or "almost" solutions, "almost" because of some singularity problems. The difficulties of these child universe solutions that are due to their generic singularity problems will be very likely be cured by quantum effects, just like for example "almost" instanton solutions are made relevant in gauge theories with the breaking of conformal invariance. Some well-motivated modifcations of general relativity where these singularity problems are absent even at the classical level are discussed. High energy density excitations, responsible for UV divergences in quantum field theories, including quantum gravity, are likely to be the source of child universes which carry them out of the original space-time. This decoupling could prevent these high UV excitations from having any influence on physical amplitudes. Child universe production could therefore be responsible for UV regularization in quantum field theories which take into account semiclassically gravitational effects. Child universe production in the last stages of black hole evaporation, the prediction of absence of trans-Planckian primordial perturbations, connection to the minimum length hypothesis, and in particular the connection to the maximal curvature hypothesis are discussed. Some discussion of superexcited states in the case these states such as Kaluza-Klein excitations are carried out. Finally, the possibility of obtaining "string like" effects from the wormholes associated with the child universes is discussed.

  9. Dyadic analysis of child and parent trait and state pain catastrophizing in the process of children's pain communication.

    PubMed

    Birnie, Kathryn A; Chambers, Christine T; Chorney, Jill; Fernandez, Conrad V; McGrath, Patrick J

    2016-04-01

    When explored separately, child and parent catastrophic thoughts about child pain show robust negative relations with child pain. The objective of this study was to conduct a dyadic analysis to elucidate intrapersonal and interpersonal influences of child and parent pain catastrophizing on aspects of pain communication, including observed behaviours and perceptions of child pain. A community sample of 171 dyads including children aged 8 to 12 years (89 girls) and parents (135 mothers) rated pain catastrophizing (trait and state versions) and child pain intensity and unpleasantness following a cold pressor task. Child pain tolerance was also assessed. Parent-child interactions during the cold pressor task were coded for parent attending, nonattending, and other talk, and child symptom complaints and other talk. Data were analyzed using the actor-partner interdependence model and hierarchical multiple regressions. Children reporting higher state pain catastrophizing had greater symptom complaints regardless of level of parent state pain catastrophizing. Children reporting low state pain catastrophizing had similar high levels of symptom complaints, but only when parents reported high state pain catastrophizing. Higher child and parent state and/or trait pain catastrophizing predicted their own ratings of higher child pain intensity and unpleasantness, with child state pain catastrophizing additionally predicting parent ratings. Higher pain tolerance was predicted by older child age and lower child state pain catastrophizing. These newly identified interpersonal effects highlight the relevance of the social context to children's pain expressions and parent perceptions of child pain. Both child and parent pain catastrophizing warrant consideration when managing child pain.

  10. Retrospective Analysis of Women with Only Mastalgia

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Mehmet; Küçükerdem, Halime Seda; Can, Hüseyin; Tarcan, Ercüment

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mastalgia is the most common symptom in women, who has gone under breast imaging. 70% of women face with mastalgia at least once in their lifetime. In our study, we aimed to investigate the examinations and the results of the females referred to our outpatient clinics with mastalgia and to determine the frequency of malignancy. Materials and Methods Files of all women patients referred to General Surgery Outpatient Clinics between 01.06.2014–31.05.2015 has been investigated retrospectively. Cases only with breast pain complaint (n=789) out of 2798 women has been included in the study. Women with lump in breast, nipple discharge, redness, breast retraction and pregnant and lactating women were excluded. Breast examination findings, ultrasonography (USG), mammography results, whether biopsies are done or not and diagnoses have been investigated retrospectively. Results Mean age was 42.97±12.36 (16–74) years. 59.7% (n=471) of the women had bilateral mastalgia and 91.1% (n=719) of the breast examinations were found to be normal. USG was required from 664 (84.2%) women and mammography was required from 448 (56.8%) women. Considering diagnoses; fibrocystic changes in 32.3% (n=201), ductal ectasia in 8.8% (n=55), fibroadenomas in 6.1% (n=38), reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in 1.1% (n=7) was observed. Only 1 (0.2%) woman was diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma. Conclusion According to researches, 0.5% of the women with mastalgia were diagnosed with breast cancer. In our study this rate was found as 0.2%. Women with only mastalgia without any abnormality in physical examination should be informed about dealing with pain. PMID:28331753

  11. Can Mom's Vitamin E Head Off Child's Asthma Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163923.html Can Mom's Vitamin E Head Off Child's Asthma Risk? Association only ... Kids born to moms with low levels of vitamin E might be more likely to develop asthma, ...

  12. Why Do Only Some Hyperopes Become Strabismic?

    PubMed Central

    Babinsky, Erin; Candy, T. Rowan

    2013-01-01

    Children with hyperopia greater than +3.5 diopters (D) are at increased risk for developing refractive esotropia. However, only approximately 20% of these hyperopes develop strabismus. This review provides a systematic theoretical analysis of the accommodation and vergence oculomotor systems with a view to understanding factors that could either protect a hyperopic individual or precipitate a strabismus. The goal is to consider factors that may predict refractive esotropia in an individual and therefore help identify the subset of hyperopes who are at the highest risk for this strabismus, warranting the most consideration in a preventive effort PMID:23883788

  13. [Overall child development: beyond pharmacological iodine supplementation].

    PubMed

    Gavilán, Enrique; Jiménez de Gracia, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is a factor that may compromise child development, but is not the only one. Other health determinants, some of them outside the healthcare system, are able to influence development. Fighting iodine deficiency may be a pragmatic and useful strategy if it is found to be not maleficent, beneficial to health, and cost-effective, and does not make us lose the notion that child development goes beyond psychomotor or cognitive performance. This article analyzes such constraints from a critical point of view.

  14. Age-Specific Correlates of Child Growth.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Matthias; Trommlerová, Sofia Karina

    2016-02-01

    Growth faltering describes a widespread phenomenon that height- and weight-for-age of children in developing countries collapse rapidly in the first two years of life. We study age-specific correlates of child nutrition using Demographic and Health Surveys from 56 developing countries to shed light on the potential drivers of growth faltering. Applying nonparametric techniques and exploiting within-mother variation, we find that maternal and household factors predict best the observed shifts and bends in child nutrition age curves. The documented interaction between age and maternal characteristics further underlines the need not only to provide nutritional support during the first years of life but also to improve maternal conditions.

  15. Emergency department evaluation of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Leetch, Aaron N; Woolridge, Dale

    2013-08-01

    Child abuse presents commonly to emergency departments. Emergency providers are confronted with medical, social, and legal dilemmas with each case. A solid understanding of the definitions and risk factors of victims and perpetrators aids in identifying abuse cases. Forensic examination should be performed only after the child is medically stable. Emergency providers are mandatory reporters of a reasonable suspicion of abuse. The role of the emergency provider is to identify abuse, facilitate a thorough investigation, treat medical needs, protect the patient, provide an unbiased medical consultation to law enforcement, and to provide an ethical testimony if called to court.

  16. Like Parent, Like Child

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Lisa A.; Beavers, Daniel P.; Kupper, Lawrence L.; Bernhardt, Amy M.; Heatherton, Todd; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine food and beverage choices of preschool-aged children. Design Semistructured observational study. While pretending to be adults during a role-play scenario, children selected food and beverage items from a miniature grocery store stocked with 73 different products, of which 47 foods and beverages were examined in this analysis. Parents self-reported how frequently they purchased specific grocery items. Setting A behavioral laboratory. Participants One hundred twenty children, aged 2 to 6 years, and 1 parent for each child. Main Outcome Measure Children’s total purchases were classified according to the number of healthier and less healthy products they selected as least healthy, somewhat healthy, and most healthy choices. The same categories were used to classify parents’ self-reported purchases. Results Most of the children (70.8%) purchased foods that were categorized as least healthy choices. Only 13 children (10.8%) had shopping baskets consisting of the healthiest choices. On average, children in the group with the least healthy choices purchased the same number of healthier and less healthy products, whereas children in the group with most healthy choices purchased 5 healthier products for each less healthy product selected. The healthfulness of children’s total purchases were significantly (P=.02) predicted by their parents’ purchasing categorization. Conclusions When presented with a wide array of food products, young children chose combinations of healthier and less healthy foods and beverages. The data suggest that children begin to assimilate and mimic their parents’ food choices at a very young age, even before they are able to fully appreciate the implications of these choices. PMID:18981355

  17. Analysis of sertraline-only overdoses.

    PubMed

    Klein-Schwartz, W; Anderson, B

    1996-09-01

    Sertraline is an antidepressant for which preliminary data suggest a low inherent toxicity. Previously reported case series have included coingestants or had small numbers of patients. This study was undertaken to determine the toxicity of overdoses of sertraline alone. A 2-year retrospective and 6-month prospective study was conducted at a regional poison center. There were 52 patients with a mean age of 19.3 +/- 13.8 years and a mean dose of 727 +/- 686 mg. There were no symptoms in 34 cases. Symptomatic patients experienced mild central nervous system, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal effects. Two patients developed bradycardia which resolved without therapy. While all but 3 of 38 adolescents and adults were treated in a health care facility, 10 of 14 children were managed at home. Gastrointestinal decontamination was performed in 37 cases. No other specific therapy was required. Serious toxicity would not be expected following sertraline-only overdoses.

  18. Secondary progression is not the only explanation.

    PubMed

    Palavra, Filipe; Tur, Carmen; Tintoré, Mar; Rovira, Àlex; Montalban, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. Its presentation is variable and its course and prognosis are unpredictable. Approximately 85% of individuals present a relapsing-remitting form of the disease, but some patients may evolve into a progressive course, accumulating irreversible neurological disability, defining its secondary progressive phase. Despite all the advances that had been reached in terms of diagnosis, many decisions are still taken based only on pure clinical skills. We present the case of a patient that, after being diagnosed with a clinically isolated syndrome many years ago, seemed to be entering in a secondary progressive course, developing a clinical picture dominated by a progressive gait disturbance. Nevertheless, multiple sclerosis heterogeneity asks for some clinical expertise, in order to exclude all other possible causes for patients' complaints. Here we present an important red flag in the differential diagnosis of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

  19. Communication Aid with Human Eyes Only

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Kohei; Yajima, Kenro

    A communication aid with human eyes only is proposed. A set of candidate character is displayed onto computer screen of relatively small and light Head Mount Display: HMD that is mounted on glasses of which user wears on. When user looks at a candidate character with his/hers left eye while right eye picture is taken with small and light web camera that also is mounted on the glasses. The proposed system can selects 81 characters with two layers of 9 by 9 character candidate image. Other than these there is another selective image including control keys and frequently use of sentences. By using image matching between previously acquired template image for each candidate character and the currently acquired image, the proposed system realizes that which character in the candidates is selected. By using blinking and fix one's eye on combine together, the proposed system recognizes that user determines the selected key from the candidates. The blinking detection method employs a morphologic filter to avoid misunderstanding of dark eye detection due to eyebrows and shadows. Thus user can input sentences. User also may edit the sentences and then the sentences are read with Text to Speech: TTS software tool. Thus the system allows support conversations between handicapped and disabled persons without voice and the others peoples because only the function required for conversation is human eyes. Also the proposed system can be used as an input system for wearable computing systems. Test results by the 6 different able persons show that the proposed system does work with acceptable speed, around 1.5 second / character.

  20. Progestin-only contraceptives: effects on weight

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Laureen M; Edelman, Alison; Chen, Mario; Otterness, Conrad; Trussell, James; Helmerhorst, Frans M

    2013-01-01

    Background Progestin-only contraceptives (POCs) are appropriate for many women who cannot or should not take estrogen. Many POCs are long-acting, cost-effective methods of preventing pregnancy. However, concern about weight gain can deter the initiation of contraceptives and cause early discontinuation among users. Objectives The primary objective was to evaluate the association between progestin-only contraceptive use and changes in body weight. Search methods Through May 2013, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP. The 2010 search also included EMBASE. For the initial review, we contacted investigators to identify other trials. Selection criteria All comparative studies were eligible that examined a POC versus another contraceptive method or no contraceptive. The primary outcome was mean change in body weight or mean change in body composition. We also considered the dichotomous outcome of loss or gain of a specified amount of weight. Data collection and analysis Two authors extracted the data. We computed the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous variables. For dichotomous outcomes, the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI was calculated. Main results We found 16 studies; one examined progestin-only pills, one studied the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), four examined an implant, and 10 focused on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). Outcomes examined were changes in body weight only (14 studies), changes in both body weight and body composition (1 study), and changes in body composition only (1 study). We did not conduct meta-analysis due to the various contraceptive methods and weight change measures. Comparison groups did not differ significantly for weight change in 12 studies. However, three studies showed weight change differences for POC users compared to women not using a hormonal method. In one study, weight gain (kg) was greater for the DMPA group

  1. Child Care Gifts to Bolster Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Allen, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Caring for children should not derail potentially excellent future astronomers. It is therefore suggested that a mechanism be created for established astronomers to voluntarily will 10 percent of their estate to a fund that helps aspiring astronomers reduce child care costs. Statistics indicate that many scientists delay child rearing until they have secure jobs. This delay appears to be based on the early relative cost of child care and the perception that time spent raising children negatively impacts job performance and future employability. Having even a portion of child care expenses covered may increase the efficiency of early-career education and productivity of early-career scientific research. It is hoped that some established astronomers may be inspired to contribute by remembering their own lives as aspiring astronomers, while also wishing to add to their legacy. Only an expression of interest is requested here, both from established astronomers who might be interested in taking such a donation pledge, and from aspiring astronomers who feel their careers would be helped by child care assistance.

  2. Progestin-only contraceptives: effects on weight

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Laureen M; Edelman, Alison; Chen-Mok, Mario; Trussell, James; Helmerhorst, Frans M

    2015-01-01

    Background Progestin-only contraceptives (POCs) are appropriate for many women who cannot or should not take estrogen. Many POCs are long-acting, cost-effective methods of preventing pregnancy. However, concern about weight gain can deter the initiation of contraceptives and cause early discontinuation among users. Objectives The primary objective was to evaluate the association between progestin-only contraceptive use and changes in body weight. Search strategy We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP, and contacted investigators to identify other trials. Selection criteria All comparative studies were eligible that examined a POC versus another method or no contraceptive. The primary outcome was mean change in body weight or body composition. Data collection and analysis Two authors extracted the data. We computed the mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous variables and odds ratio with 95% CI for dichotomous variables. Main results We did not conduct meta-analysis due to the various contraceptive methods and weight change measures. Fifteen studies examined progestin-only pills (N=1), Norplant (N=4), and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) (N=10). Comparison groups were similar for weight change in 11 studies. Four studies showed differences in weight or body composition change for POCs compared to no hormonal method. Adolescents using DMPA had a greater increase in body fat (%) versus a group using no hormonal method (mean difference 11.00; 95% CI 2.64 to 19.36). The DMPA group also had a greater decrease in lean body mass (%) (mean difference −4.00; 95% CI −6.93 to −1.07). In another study, weight gain (kg) was greater for the DMPA group than an IUD group (mean difference 2.28, 2.71, 3.17, respectively). The differences were notable within the normal weight and overweight subgroups. One study showed the Norplant (six-capsule) group had greater weight gain (kg) than a non

  3. [Revascularization? Only as the last resort!].

    PubMed

    Slutzky-Goldberg, I; Heling, I

    2013-07-01

    Revascularization has been suggested for treatment of necrotic immature permanent teeth. The desirable outcome of the treatment is continuous growth of the root, maturation of the dentin walls underneath the cervical seal and apical closure. Despite of increasing numbers of case reports, a uniform treatment protocol has not been set. This procedure has many shortcomings of which tooth discoloration is the most prevalent and easy to observe. The severe discoloration is attributed to the use of Mincocycline in the antibiotic dressing, or to the use of MTA for the seal. The maturation of the root is not predictable and does not always occur. The outcome should be evaluated radiographically and clinically. Sensibility testing may not be possible due to the large MTA plug in the root canal. It is recommended only when alternative procedures such as apexificaiton, pulpotomy or pulp capping are impossible. The patient and his parents should be aware of the potential discoloration and must be committed to routine follow ups. Currently, this procedure should be limited to incisor or premolar teeth in which the crown is longer than the root, or the canal's width is larger than that of the dentinal wall.

  4. TGR5, Not Only a Metabolic Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Cong; Chen, Wei-Dong; Wang, Yan-Dong

    2016-01-01

    G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor, Gpbar1 (TGR5), is a member of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. High levels of TGR5 mRNA were detected in several tissues such as small intestine, stomach, liver, lung, especially in placenta and spleen. TGR5 is not only the receptor for bile acids, but also the receptor for multiple selective synthetic agonists such as 6α-ethyl-23(S)-methyl-cholic acid (6-EMCA, INT-777) and a series of 4-benzofuranyloxynicotinamde derivatives to regulate different signaling pathways such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), AKT, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). TGR5, as a metabolic regulator, is involved in energy homeostasis, bile acid homeostasis, as well as glucose metabolism. More recently, our group and others have extended the functions of TGR5 to more than metabolic regulation, which include inflammatory response, cancer and liver regeneration. These findings highlight TGR5 as a potential drug target for different diseases. This review summarizes the basic information of TGR5 and its new functions. PMID:28082913

  5. Ozone the one and only drug.

    PubMed

    Alberto, Pepa Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    Experience based on evidence shows the use of one drug over time.Ozone has great therapeutic properties. Nowadays, hardly anyone questions its effectiveness.We treated 270 patients with discal hernia of one or multiple levels in a minimally invasive way and under fluoroscopic control in real time, between 1 and 7 ml intradiscal and 3 ml periganglionic, in a concentration of 30 mg/ml of a mixture of oxygen and ozone as the one and only drug.A second group was created, out of which 120 patients were treated with physiatric and kinetic treatment (magnetotherapy) prior to any other type of treatment, whether surgical or minimally invasive.The time period was 3 months. All the patients were followed up from April 2004 to July 2008 with the MacNab, VAS and Owestry scales. We obtained 86% of excellent results, 12% satisfactory results, and 2% poor results.To sum up, we can say that ozone therapy has opened up a new future in the medical field.Discussions go on. New effects, new concentrations and the combination with bioenergetic therapies are the future in the treatment for backaches.

  6. Stenogyria - not only in Chiari II malformation.

    PubMed

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika; Duczkowska, Agnieszka; Brągoszewska, Hanna; Duczkowski, Marek; Mierzewska, Hanna

    2014-12-15

    Stenogyria, meaning multiple small compacted gyri separated by shallow sulci, is reported in the literature in association with Chiari II malformation (CM II) which in turn is reported in association with myelomeningocele (MMC). The authors present five cases of stenogyria (and other abnormalities found in CM II, like callosal hypoplasia/dysplasia, agenesis of the anterior commissure, hypoplasia of the falx cerebri) in children without the history of MMC or any other form of open spinal dysraphism. In these cases stenogyria was associated with Chiari I malformation, rhombencephalosynapsis and spina bifida. Stenogyria, which is not a true neuronal migration disorder, should not be mistaken for polymicrogyria which is also present in CM II. It is histologically different from polymicrogyria because the cortex is normally organized. Also on MRI, the general sulcal pattern is preserved in stenogyria, while it is completely distorted in polymicrogyria. The authors conclude that features traditionally attributed to CM II, like stenogyria, occur not only in the population of patients with MMC as opposed to the widely accepted theory.

  7. Comparing state-only expenditures for AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, M J; Ryan, C C

    1988-01-01

    The State AIDS Policy Center at the Inter-governmental Health Policy Project (IHPP) at George Washington University surveyed all 50 states to determine state AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) expenditures, without Medicaid or federal funds, for fiscal 1984-88. During this period, state-only expenditures increased 15-fold, to $156.3 million. Between fiscal 1986-1988, the distribution of state funding for AIDS patient care and support services doubled from 16 to 35 per cent and the number of states supplementing federal funds for testing and counseling increased from eight to 20. Five states continue to account for the largest AIDS appropriations. Of these, California leads in funding research; New York, Florida, and New Jersey have directed funds to provide care and services to IV (intravenous) drug users, prisoners, and children. The average state expenditure per diagnosed AIDS case is $3,323 and an increasing number of states with relatively low case loads are appropriating funds beyond this level. Across states, AIDS expenditures per person average $.65 and $.21 for education, testing and counseling--below the level recommended by the Institute of Medicine for AIDS prevention activities. Some jurisdictions support AIDS activities indirectly by shifting resources, often from their STD (sexually transmitted disease) programs--this trend deserves continuing review given the rise in STD cases and their relationship to diagnosed AIDS. PMID:3126674

  8. Why only some plants emit isoprene.

    PubMed

    Monson, Russell K; Jones, Ryan T; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter

    2013-03-01

    Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is emitted from many plants and it appears to have an adaptive role in protecting leaves from abiotic stress. However, only some species emit isoprene. Isoprene emission has appeared and been lost many times independently during the evolution of plants. As an example, our phylogenetic analysis shows that isoprene emission is likely ancestral within the family Fabaceae (= Leguminosae), but that it has been lost at least 16 times and secondarily gained at least 10 times through independent evolutionary events. Within the division Pteridophyta (ferns), we conservatively estimate that isoprene emissions have been gained five times and lost two times through independent evolutionary events. Within the genus Quercus (oaks), isoprene emissions have been lost from one clade, but replaced by a novel type of light-dependent monoterpene emissions that uses the same metabolic pathways and substrates as isoprene emissions. This novel type of monoterpene emissions has appeared at least twice independently within Quercus, and has been lost from 9% of the individuals within a single population of Quercus suber. Gain and loss of gene function for isoprene synthase is possible through relatively few mutations. Thus, this trait appears frequently in lineages; but, once it appears, the time available for evolutionary radiation into environments that select for the trait is short relative to the time required for mutations capable of producing a non-functional isoprene synthase gene. The high frequency of gains and losses of the trait and its heterogeneous taxonomic distribution in plants may be explained by the relatively few mutations necessary to produce or lose the isoprene synthase gene combined with the assumption that isoprene emission is advantageous in a narrow range of environments and phenotypes.

  9. PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIPS

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Charles H.

    1955-01-01

    Parents and doctors have an obligation to supply children with an emotional diet leading to their eventual maturity. This is as important to the child as is his physical guidance. The proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and vitamins of a child's emotional diet are: (1) the need for security; (2) the need to achieve social adaptability; (3) the need for success; and (4) the need for independence. In helping parents provide their children with these major guideposts along the road of character development toward maturity, physicians have a challenge and opportunity for real service to the humanities—a field of endeavor far behind science in human progress. PMID:14390004

  10. Nurturing a child's spirituality.

    PubMed

    Pfund, R

    2000-01-01

    Nurturing a child's spirituality should be an integral part of holistic care. The concept of spirituality is linked to the child's cognitive, social, psycho-sexual and moral development. Knowledge of childhood spirituality can help to support children coping with traumatic life-events. The expression of beliefs and feelings that encompass spirituality can be facilitated through literature and music and through other strategies. Educators need to empower professionals to have the awareness, emotional resources and skills to ensure that they can be spiritually supportive

  11. Maternal Child Sexual Abuse Is Associated With Lower Maternal Warmth Toward Daughters but Not Sons

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Dorthie; Kim, Ye Ji; Vance, L. Alexander; Robinson, Gabriella; Jovanovic, Tanja; Bradley, Bekh

    2017-01-01

    Mothers with a history of child sexual abuse report less warmth toward their children, but whether this association differs by child gender is unknown. We examined the association of maternal child sexual abuse and warmth across child gender, accounting for depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and child physical abuse. We verbally administered self-report measures to a cross-sectional sample of 154 mothers with a child between 8 and 12 years old. Eighty-five mothers based warmth responses on a son, and 69 on a daughter. We conducted a hierarchical multiple regression, including child gender, maternal child sexual abuse, child physical abuse, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and 4 two-way interaction terms with child gender. Maternal depression predicted decreased warmth, regardless of child gender, and maternal child sexual abuse predicted decreased warmth, but only toward daughters. Given previous research suggesting that maternal warmth predicts child well-being, the current finding may represent an important avenue of intergenerational transmission of risk in girls. PMID:27874726

  12. Maternal Child Sexual Abuse Is Associated With Lower Maternal Warmth Toward Daughters but Not Sons.

    PubMed

    Cross, Dorthie; Kim, Ye Ji; Vance, L Alexander; Robinson, Gabriella; Jovanovic, Tanja; Bradley, Bekh

    2016-01-01

    Mothers with a history of child sexual abuse report less warmth toward their children, but whether this association differs by child gender is unknown. We examined the association of maternal child sexual abuse and warmth across child gender, accounting for depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and child physical abuse. We verbally administered self-report measures to a cross-sectional sample of 154 mothers with a child between 8 and 12 years old. Eighty-five mothers based warmth responses on a son, and 69 on a daughter. We conducted a hierarchical multiple regression, including child gender, maternal child sexual abuse, child physical abuse, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and 4 two-way interaction terms with child gender. Maternal depression predicted decreased warmth, regardless of child gender, and maternal child sexual abuse predicted decreased warmth, but only toward daughters. Given previous research suggesting that maternal warmth predicts child well-being, the current finding may represent an important avenue of intergenerational transmission of risk in girls.

  13. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  14. Kindergarten Child Care Experiences and Child Achievement and Socioemotional Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claessens, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Young children's experiences outside of both home and school are important for their development. As women have entered the labor force, child care has become an increasingly important context for child development. Child care experiences prior to school entry have been well-documented as important influences on children's academic and…

  15. Dateline Child Care: President Unveils Child Care Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Discusses such topics as President Bush's proposed low-income tax credits for child care; the Act for Better Child Care Services; the coming Americanization of child care in Great Britain; and state courts' upholding of church day care licensing exemptions. (BB)

  16. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  17. Concussion - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about concussion - child; Mild brain injury - what to ask your doctor - child ... school people I should tell about my child's concussion? Can my child stay for a full day? ...

  18. When to use the emergency room - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency department - child; Urgent care - child; ER - when to use ... How quickly does your child need care? If your child could die or be ... team come to you right away if you cannot wait, such as for: ...

  19. The day of surgery for your child

    MedlinePlus

    Same-day surgery - child; Ambulatory surgery - child; Surgical procedure - child ... The anesthesia and surgery team will talk with you and your child before surgery. You may meet with them at an appointment before ...

  20. Child Labor in America's History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  1. Birth of a Second Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... seemed so difficult with your first child — breastfeeding, changing diapers, handling illness — will seem like second nature ...

  2. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard to please, aggressiveness Trouble sleeping Vague physical complaints CHILD NEGLECT These are examples of child neglect: ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  3. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 9 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ... bye" starts pointing to objects Movement and Physical Development sits without support, pulls to stand, and walks ...

  4. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions: Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Select Free Subscriptions This survey is powered by SurveyGizmo's online survey software . Please take my survey now Children’s Bureau Child ...

  5. Parent and Child Living Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pushaw, David R.

    1978-01-01

    Parent and child living centers offer a program to improve parenting skills with areas of learning including child growth and development, family management, home care and repair, and personal growth and development. (MM)

  6. Peter Heller's a Child Analysis with Anna Freud: the significance of the case for the history of child psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Midgley, Nick

    2012-02-01

    A Child Analysis with Anna Freud, a collection of Anna Freud's detailed case notes of her treatment of the young Peter Heller between 1929 and 1932, was first published in English in 1990. Not only does this work give us direct access to Anna Freud's ways of thinking and working at a crucial period in the early history of child analysis; it is also one of the few records of an adult reflecting in depth on the experience of being in analysis as a child. Yet to date this work has received little attention in the psychoanalytic literature. In an attempt to redress this neglect, the Heller case study is placed in the context of Anna Freud's emerging ideas about child analysis. In particular, its significance in the development of her psychoanalytic thinking is investigated in the light of her 1927 book, The Technique of Child Analysis.

  7. Child maltreatment: every nurse's business.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline

    2015-03-18

    Every nurse has a responsibility for protecting children, even nurses who do not work directly with children. However, nurses may be reluctant to deal with child maltreatment issues because they do not want to get things wrong or make a situation worse. The aim of this article is to assist nurses in their child protection role. It describes the different types of child maltreatment, the risk factors and potential consequences. The nurse's role in recognising and responding to suspected child maltreatment is discussed.

  8. Child development in developing countries: child rights and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was used to provide information on feeding practices, caregiving, discipline and violence, and the home environment for young children across 28 countries. The findings from the series of studies in this Special Section are the first of their kind because they provide information on the most proximal context for development of the youngest children in the majority world using one of the only data sets to study these contexts across countries. Using the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in particular the Rights to Survival, Development and Protection, findings are explained with implications for international and national-level social policies. Implications are also discussed, with respect to policy makers and the larger international community, who have the obligation to uphold these rights.

  9. Spare the Rod and Save the Child: Observations and Some Positive Recommendations on Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cass, Elie

    1979-01-01

    Parents have the right to their children, but their children have a right to live. The Criminal Code should be amended to oblige parents to prove their innocence. If the Crown can establish that the child was beaten when only parents were present, parents should prove they were not responsible. (Author)

  10. Social Structure and Child Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferriss, Abbott L.

    2006-01-01

    Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…

  11. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 15 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 15 Months A A A Toddlers this age are learning ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Child's Checkup: 15 Months Delayed Speech or Language Development Nutrition Guide for ...

  12. What Works in Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluger, Miriam P., Ed.; Alexander, Gina, Ed.; Curtis, Patrick A., Ed.

    Noting the importance of identifying the effectiveness of child welfare programs for future policy planning, this book examines features of successful programs. The book is presented in six sections: family preservation and family support services, child protective services, out-of-home care, adoption, child care, and adolescent services. Each…

  13. Early Child Care in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Alice; Komlosi, Sandor

    The theoretical conceptions of the child and the socialization processes involved in a socialist pedagogical theory are described in this monograph on early child care in Hungary. In emphasizing the partnership between family and state in the care of the young child, this book traces the central role played by government planning in the midst of…

  14. Child Care Health Connections, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Zamani, Rahman, Ed.; Evinger, Sara, Ed.; Dailey, Lyn, Ed.; Sherman, Marsha, Ed.; Oku, Cheryl, Ed.; Kunitz, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of the six 2002 issues of a bimonthly newsletter on children's health for California's child care professionals. The newsletter provides information on current and emerging health and safety issues relevant to child care providers and links the health, safety, and child care communities. Regular features include columns…

  15. Predictors of Child Caregiver Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Nancy Carnahan; Lowther, Malcolm

    This study examined the relationship between child caregiver commitment and the caregiver's personal characteristics and work experience, the characteristics of the job, and the quality of the child care center. Questionnaires that included several measurement instruments were sent to 381 full-time child caregivers in 94 centers. Caregiver…

  16. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 15 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 15 Months Print A A A en español ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Child's Checkup: 15 ... Speech or Language Development Nutrition Guide for Toddlers Safe Exploring for Toddlers ...

  17. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  18. The "Discovery" of Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfohl, Stephen J.

    1977-01-01

    Surveys the history of social reaction to child abuse, discusses the cultural values promoting the protection of children, points out how much pediatric radiology benefited from its "discovery" of "the battered child syndrome" in the early sixties, and concludes that the labeling of child abusers as "sick" has shielded them from criminal…

  19. A Preventative Child Abuse Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Bette Unger; And Others

    This article describes the Child Development and Parenting Program (CDP), a preventative child abuse program that assists single women who are pregnant or have preschool children to cope constructively with the problems of single parenting. The short-term goals of the program, i.e., providing education in child development and parenting skills and…

  20. Fostering Mother-Child Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Lorraine

    1988-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the replication of the Mother Child Home Program by a Canadian child welfare agency in a rural setting to determine its effectiveness in fostering a positive emotional relationship between mother and child with families at risk of abuse and neglect. (BB)

  1. Child Care and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Unemployment has topped 7% nationally and economists predict it will approach 10% by 2010. Child care programs experience a trickle-down effect: when businesses cut back hours or lay people off, parents cut back child care hours or pull children from programs. "We're seeing more and more families lose their child care assistance and have nowhere…

  2. Campus Child Care News, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Marion F., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document is comprised of the three 1998 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the National Coalition for Campus Child Care Centers (NCCCC) and providing a forum for news, research, and information concerning campus child care centers. The February issue contains stories on the White House Conference on Child Care, registration…

  3. Nurturing the Whole Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Manya; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Ten articles considering ways in which to help in the development of the whole child address play, childhood fears, making children feel loved, how parents can help children learn, decision making, peer pressure, competition, sports, and reading materials for adolescents. (CB)

  4. The Migrant Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Manuel C.

    A migrant child is one who has moved with his family from one school district to another during the preceding 12 months so that a parent or other immediate family member might secure employment in agricultural or fishery activity. In California, the 92,000 migrants living in 48 of the state's 58 counties include Chicanos, Mexican Americans,…

  5. Measuring Child Rhythm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Elinor; Post, Brechtje; Astruc, Lluisa; Prieto, Pilar; Vanrell, Maria del Mar

    2012-01-01

    Interval-based rhythm metrics were applied to the speech of English, Catalan and Spanish 2, 4 and 6 year-olds, and compared with the (adult-directed) speech of their mothers. Results reveal that child speech does not fall into a well-defined rhythmic class: for all three languages, it is more "vocalic" (higher %V) than adult speech and…

  6. Prevent Child Abuse America

    MedlinePlus

    ... corner. Mentor Advocate Donate Parenting Tip of the Week – Know the Protective Factors Last week we wrote about recognizing warning signs of child ... Donate Our Latest Resources Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Knowing the Protective ...

  7. Literacy and Child Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Sandra Josephs

    Fourteen examples of "literacy events" in the reading development of one preschool-age boy are described by the boy's mother, a parent-researcher who conducted a case study of her son's interaction with his literate home environment. Field notes were kept in a household diary, and audiotapes were made of the child's storytelling and…

  8. Child Welfare Policy Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children & Families, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document conveys mandatory policies that have their basis in Federal Law and/or program regulations. It also provides interpretations of Federal Statutes and program regulations initiated by inquiries from State Child Welfare agencies or Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Regional Offices. The manual replaces the Children's…

  9. The Multiply Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, James M., Ed.; Anderson, Robert M., Ed.

    Articles presented in the area of the medical and educational challenge of the multiply handicapped child are an overview of the problem, the increasing challenge, congenital malformations, children whose mothers had rubella, prematurity and deafness, the epidemiology of reproductive casualty, and new education for old problems. Discussions of…

  10. The Gifted Dyslexic Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eide, Brock; Eide, Fernette

    2009-01-01

    A major reason why dyslexia is likely to be missed or mislabeled in an intellectually gifted child is the lack of a specific, clearly recognized definition to enable diagnosis of dyslexia. It's crucial that adults working with gifted students understand that average or even above reading comprehension does not by itself guarantee that a gifted…

  11. Understanding Fatal Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Ralph A.; Gaughan, Daniel C.

    1995-01-01

    Medical, social service, and coroner reports were reviewed for 14 cases of fatal child abuse and neglect identified at a children's hospital from 1988 to 1992. Median age was 6.5 months. Six families had prior protective service involvement (though four of these had involved a sibling). The cause of death in all cases was blunt impact head injury.…

  12. The Child Whisperer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Dane L.

    2012-01-01

    Unquestionably, Maria Montessori's insights into child development were both innate and learned, derived from her many years of working with children. Her work, practices, philosophy, and passion have staying power that, so far, spans a century and are a testament to her dedication and abilities. In this article, the author explains why he sees…

  13. No Child Left Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2003-01-01

    A court case involving a student classified as a child with a disability and her battle to be named valedictorian of her graduating class. Questions the district's determination that this gifted student needed special education and the grade inflation indicated by undue competition for the extra thousandth of a point GPA. (Contains 11 references.)…

  14. Who Is This Child?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    An Idaho education dean recounts a moving encounter with a fatherless first-grader while visiting his grandson in Eugene, Oregon. Envisioning a deadbeat dad and a burned-out mother, he pondered the statistical odds of this child graduating from college. However, the girl's warm welcome from her teacher helped revise his hopes about the little…

  15. Child Psychopathology, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mash, Eric J.; Barkley, Russell A.

    This text integrates state-of-the-art theory and empirical research on a wide range of child and adolescent disorders. Featuring contributions from leading scholars and clinicians, the volume provides comprehensive coverage of the biological, psychological, and social-contextual determinants of childhood problems. Each chapter focuses on a…

  16. Child Study Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polk County Public Schools, Bartow, FL.

    This manual from the Polk County Public Schools in Bartow, Florida, was developed for school personnel and parents to aid in their efforts to develop successful behavioral and academic interventions to enhance the educational outcomes for students. Section 1 describes the child study team which is comprised of an administrator, guidance counselor,…

  17. Feeding the Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mary Ann Harvey, Ed.

    Presented are 35 brief papers on nutrition and handicapped children (particularly mentally retarded children) which were given at nutrition workshops at the Child Development Center of the University of Tennessee. Topics such as the following are examined: interdisciplinary approaches to nutrition services; the relationship of social work,…

  18. The Overscheduled Child?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Before all those extracurricular activities and community-service projects listed on college applications, there were play groups, library hours, Pop Warner football games, swimming lessons, ballet, drama, soccer. Not to mention preparation for high-stakes tests mandated by the No Child Left Behind law, or the mounting minutes, even hours, of…

  19. Your Child's Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be a sign of anxiety , depression , or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) . Nose Picking Nose picking appears to be ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Nosebleeds Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Teaching Your Child Self-Control Temper Tantrums How ...

  20. Child Care Center Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Health and Human Services, Lincoln.

    This guide enumerates regulations for anyone caring for four or more children, from families other than their own, for compensation and on a regular basis, in the state of Nebraska. The purpose of the regulations is to protect and promote the health and safety of children in child care facilities. The first section of the guide lists specific…

  1. Helping Your Overweight Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Currently, at least one child in five is overweight. Although children have fewer health problems from weight than adults, overweight children are at high risk for many health problems including heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and stroke. Several factors are cited as to why children become overweight. Genetics, lack of exercise, and…

  2. Child Development Associate. Musicology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    One of a series of 18, this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module provides a guide to promoting acute hearing and sound discrimination in young children through both group and self-selected music activities. Upon completion of this module the trainee is expected to be able to provide daily music experiences; emphasize enjoyment of and…

  3. Rights of the Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahn, Claude, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This newsletter examines problems and rights of Romani children in East Central Europe, focusing on such topics as: the displaced childhoods of Romani children; snapshots of living conditions in various European countries; Roma child rights; Romani and non-Romani schools in Bulgaria; Romani children's rights to education in Central and Eastern…

  4. Child Lifestyles Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özpolat, Ahmet Ragip

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the effectiveness of parental attitudes, socio-economic status and gender in determining the predictors of child lifestyles. The study group consists of three hundred and fifty (350) eighth grade students studying in the province of Erzincan during the 2012-2013 academic year; the students are selected by…

  5. The Hyperactive Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Linda; Della Corte, Suzanne

    1987-01-01

    The newsletter's main article focuses on hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder. The causes of hyperactivity, which affects 3-5 percent of all children, are elusive but may include neurological immaturity, inherent genetic problems, or fetal exposure to harmful substances. Patterns of behavior that typify a hyperactive child include a short…

  6. Is Every Child Gifted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runco, Mark A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines inclusive views of giftedness. It maintains that productivity requirements should be left out of definitions of giftedness since such requirements assume a gifted child has the expressive skills to support insights and that products can be accurately evaluated. Most important, the insistence on productivity ignores children with potential…

  7. Child Care in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes early learning and care arrangements in Canada and how the country faced the challenges in the development of a National Child Care System. While the provincial/territorial governments are responsible for early learning and care, the federal government has formed health and social programs including some child…

  8. Child Indicators: Dental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewit, Eugene M.; Kerrebrock, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews measures of dental health in children and the evidence on child dental health. Although children's dental health has improved over the past two decades, many poor children do not receive necessary dental health services, and reasons for this failure are summarized. (SLD)

  9. Parent-child Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlich, A. C., Ed.

    This survey investigates 6 major questions: (1) do adolescents and their parents perceive youth as overindulged; (2) are parent-child communication channels open; (3) has understanding between parents and their children broken down; (4) do children identify with their parents; (5) has discipline been permissive; and (6) do adolescents reject the…

  10. Child Care: A Level III Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Community Colleges, Tallahassee.

    This report describes the state-mandated review of Florida's child care programs. Florida's community colleges offer a total of six different degree or certificate programs in child care: Child Development and Education; Child Care Center Management; Child Development Early Intervention; Child Care Provider (discontinued in 98-99); Early Childhood…

  11. Parent-Child Agreement on Parent-to-Child Maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Compier-de Block, Laura H C G; Alink, Lenneke R A; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J M; Elzinga, Bernet M; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2017-01-01

    Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of parent-to-child maltreatment (convergence), and to examine whether parents and children reported equal levels of child maltreatment (absolute differences). Direct and moderating effects of age and gender were examined as potential factors explaining differences between parent and child report. The associations between parent- and child-reported maltreatment were significant for all subtypes, but the strength of the associations was low to moderate. Moreover, children reported more parent-to-child neglect than parents did. Older participants reported more experienced maltreatment than younger participants, without evidence for differences in actual exposure. These findings support the value of multi-informant assessment of child maltreatment to improve accuracy, but also reveal the divergent perspectives of parents and children on child maltreatment.

  12. [HOW TO EXPLORE BIPOLARITY IN CHILD PSYCHIATRY: A DIMENSIONAL SEMIOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Scholl, J-M

    2016-02-01

    Despite its high frequency, bipolarity in childhood is little understood and is often diagnosed only after several years of development, and this during a time when the child's psychosocial future is at stake. A proper diagnosis requires recognition of accurate clinical signs. It is therefore essential to furnish clinicians with precise semiological markers. This paper presents a dimensional semiology for use in anamnesis and in clinical observation of the child. These clinical signs enable the identification of a bipolar manic temperament in the child and/or the identification of various different forms of childhood bipolar and depressive disorder. The relevant differential diagnoses and comorbidities are also presented.

  13. Estimating age: college males versus convicted male child sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Robert; Romero, Sergio; Patrick, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Two samples, male college students and convicted male child sex offenders, are compared on their abilities to accurately estimate the age group of a series of photographs of a sole female ranging in age from 11 to 29. Both samples tend to overestimate the age group of the subject photos, and no significant difference was found between college students and convicted child sex offenders in their ability to estimate the age of females. Both groups are compared demographically, and only limited differences were found. The implications are discussed in regard to theory and prevention of child sexual abuse.

  14. The Relationships between Child Temperament, Teacher-Child Relationships, and Teacher-Child Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oren, Meral; Jones, Ithel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between child temperament, teacher-child relationships, and teacher-child interactions in four preschool classrooms. The preliminary analyses revealed classroom differences for all variables. In all the classrooms except one, the temperament factor Reactivity had positive and high…

  15. The unwanted child.

    PubMed

    Trias, M

    1982-12-01

    The problem of the unwanted child is a most grievous aspect of the complex of negative factors associated with underdevelopment. Although the problem of the unwanted child exists in industrialized countries as well, the incidence is much higher in the 3rd world. In industrialized nations modern contraceptives are widely available, public awareness of them is high, and legal abortion may be an option in the event of contraceptive failure or nonuse. In Colombia alone, nearly 1 million women are living in immediate danger of an unwanted pregnancy. In the 3rd world as a whole there are an estimated 150 million who do not want another pregnancy but who lack access to contraceptive information and services. Research from a variety of sources suggests that being unwanted and unloved can have a lasting effect on a child's development. Sociological research confirms the need to preserve the bond between mother and child. Studies of adopted children have established a clear relationship between their physical and psychological development and the age at which they were adopted. If this affective bond is not established in the early months of life, the negative effects which result may prove difficult to overcome. Yet, however late it comes, adoption is always preferable to the relative deprivation a child experiences when institutionalized. Studies conducted in Eastern Europe comparing children whose parents had requested an abortion but had not been granted permission with a control group of children revealed a pattern of inferior physical development and social adjustment in the 1st group. Intelligence, in addition to its important genetic foundation, requires physical nurturing and psychological stimulation from the surrounding environment, provided during the final months of pregnancy or the 1st few years of life. Religious doctrine postulates that universal maternal instinct allows the mother to overcome her problems, but this is often not the case. Infanticide dates

  16. A Study in Child Care (Case Study from Volume II-A): "They Understand." Day Care Programs Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Brigid

    This day care center, operated by Syracuse University and serving 100 children (birth to 3-year-old), admits only one child per family. The child must be the first or second child in a family where both parents have high school education or less and earn less than $5,000 per year. The program philosophy maintains that quality day care must carry…

  17. Comparison of tree-child phylogenetic networks.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Gabriel; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for the representation of nontreelike evolutionary events, like recombination, hybridization, or lateral gene transfer. While much progress has been made to find practical algorithms for reconstructing a phylogenetic network from a set of sequences, all attempts to endorse a class of phylogenetic networks (strictly extending the class of phylogenetic trees) with a well-founded distance measure have, to the best of our knowledge and with the only exception of the bipartition distance on regular networks, failed so far. In this paper, we present and study a new meaningful class of phylogenetic networks, called tree-child phylogenetic networks, and we provide an injective representation of these networks as multisets of vectors of natural numbers, their path multiplicity vectors. We then use this representation to define a distance on this class that extends the well-known Robinson-Foulds distance for phylogenetic trees and to give an alignment method for pairs of networks in this class. Simple polynomial algorithms for reconstructing a tree-child phylogenetic network from its path multiplicity vectors, for computing the distance between two tree-child phylogenetic networks and for aligning a pair of tree-child phylogenetic networks, are provided. They have been implemented as a Perl package and a Java applet, which can be found at http://bioinfo.uib.es/~recerca/phylonetworks/mudistance/.

  18. Mother-child bonding assessment tools☆

    PubMed Central

    Perrelli, Jaqueline Galdino Albuquerque; Zambaldi, Carla Fonseca; Cantilino, Amaury; Sougey, Everton Botelho

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify and describe research tools used to evaluate bonding between mother and child up to one year of age, as well as to provide information on reliability and validity measures related to these tools. Data source: Research studies available on PUBMED, LILACS, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases with the following descriptors: mother-child relations and mother infant relationship, as well as the expressions validity, reliability and scale. Data synthesis: 23 research studies were selected and fully analyzed. Thirteen evaluation research tools were identified concerning mother and child attachment: seven scales, three questionnaires, two inventories and one observation method. From all tools analyzed, the Prenatal Attachment Inventory presented the higher validity and reliability measures to assess mother and fetus relation during pregnancy. Concerning the puerperal period, better consistency coefficients were found for Maternal Attachment Inventory and Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire. Besides, the last one revealed a higher sensibility to identify amenable and severe disorders in the affective relations between mother and child. Conclusions: The majority of research tools are reliable to study the phenomenon presented, although there are some limitations regarding the construct and criterion related to validity. In addition to this, only two of them are translated into Portuguese and adapted to women and children populations in Brazil, being a decisive gap to scientific production in this area. PMID:25479859

  19. Child Health in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Teresa; Ferreira, Ricardo; Azevedo, Inês

    2016-10-01

    Portugal has experienced rapid decline of neonatal and infant mortality in the last century, similar to that of other western European states. The joint venture of pediatricians and obstetricians with adequate top-down government commissions for maternal and child health for the decision making by health administrators and a well-defined schedule of preventive and managerial measures in the community and in hospitals are the most likely explanations for this success. Another achievement of child health care services is the registry for special diseases. Education of health care workers plays a fundamental role in improving health statistics. Portugal has a reasonable number of doctors, nurses, and health technicians per capita. Quality assurance monitoring systems and implementation of evidence-based clinical guidelines with digital records, including international coding, are essential steps to improve health care systems.

  20. The four cultures: Public engagement with science only, art only, neither, or both museums.

    PubMed

    Shein, Paichi Pat; Li, Yuh-Yuh; Huang, Tai-Chu

    2015-11-01

    This study uses an art-and-science comparative lens to understand the science culture, particularly the public engagement with science museums. A representational Taiwanese sample of 1863 subjects was categorized into "four cultures," who visit science only, art only, neither, or both museums, resulting in six multivariate logistic regression models. Knowledge of science, interests in scientific and social issues, and socio-demographic variables were considered in the models. Adults with children and males prefer science museums, females prefer art museums, and the young and urban intellects show no strong preference, appearing to be open to both science and art museums. The findings show the complex decisions the public make in visiting museums. It is no longer a strictly science or art decision, as framed by Snow's "The Two Cultures" argument; rather, the possibility of visiting both museums has emerged, a phenomenon we describe as cognitive polyphasia.

  1. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues that affect the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families.

  2. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Child passenger safety has dramatically evolved over the past decade; however, motor vehicle crashes continue to be the leading cause of death of children 4 years and older. This policy statement provides 4 evidence-based recommendations for best practices in the choice of a child restraint system to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence: (1) rear-facing car safety seats for most infants up to 2 years of age; (2) forward-facing car safety seats for most children through 4 years of age; (3) belt-positioning booster seats for most children through 8 years of age; and (4) lap-and-shoulder seat belts for all who have outgrown booster seats. In addition, a fifth evidence-based recommendation is for all children younger than 13 years to ride in the rear seats of vehicles. It is important to note that every transition is associated with some decrease in protection; therefore, parents should be encouraged to delay these transitions for as long as possible. These recommendations are presented in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate implementation of the recommendations by pediatricians to their patients and families and should cover most situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. The American Academy of Pediatrics urges all pediatricians to know and promote these recommendations as part of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit.

  3. Girl child and social change.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.

  4. Infant and Young Child Feeding in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabi, Mandana; Frongillo, Edward A.; Avula, Rasmi; Mangasaryan, Nune

    2012-01-01

    Feeding practices are important determinants of growth and development of children. Using infant and young child feeding indicators and complementary feeding guidelines, 7 practices in 28 countries are described, showing substantial variation across countries. Only 25% of 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed, and only half of 6- to…

  5. Girl child and sexual victimisation.

    PubMed

    Krishna, K P

    1995-01-01

    This article offers 12 suggestions for improving the protection of sexually victimized children and discusses the extent, form, causes, and consequences of sexual victimization of female children in India. Female victimization includes child marriage, polygamy, rape, incest, and kidnapping for immoral purposes. A female child is victimized from birth to maturity. Girls are born into a secondary status and married off. If her dowry is meager, a girl is subjected to ridicule, criticism, or denigration. The number of prosecuted sex offenses against girls and the number of reported sex offenses increased during 1980-89. However, most sex offenses are unreported. About 63% of rape cases pertain to girls 16-30 years old. Only 18% of rape cases occur among women over age 30. During 1971-89, kidnapping increased by over 79%. Most kidnapping involves girls 3-16 years old and is connected with prostitution, begging, sexual gratification, unemployment, extreme poverty, broken homes, and antisocial surroundings. One study in 1991 found that 48% of adolescent school girls had been molested. Another study in 1985 found that 54.29% of rape victims were 7-16 years old, and 3.27% were under 7 years old. 53.88% were unmarried, and 45.32% were married. Most of the victims were unemployed, dependents, or students. Most rapists are known by the victims. The rapist and the victims tend to come from middle or lower socioeconomic classes. Brother-sister incest is about 5 times more common than father-daughter incest. The literature suggests that children are sexually abused for pleasure or material gain. A current city study found that 15% of prostitutes were under 15 years old; 24.5% were 16-18 years old. Girls enter prostitution through a temple devdasi life, abduction, regular employment, and initiation by parents and brothel keepers. Marriage victimizes girls who marry at an early age or with a poor dowry.

  6. Disaggregated data to improve child health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The District Health Information System was developed in South Africa to collect aggregated routine data from public health facilities. In Amajuba District, KwaZulu-Natal, ward-based data collection has been initiated to facilitate improved responsiveness to community health needs and improve health outcomes and patient satisfaction. Aim To assess the application of the municipal ward-based health data in the decision-making process to improve child health outcomes. Setting The study was conducted in 25 primary health care service sites in Amajuba. Methods A cross-sectional mixed methods’ approach was used. The study population comprised operational managers, professional nurses, ward-based outreach team leaders and supervisors. Quantitative data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were collected using focus group discussions and analysed using thematic analysis. Results Of the 131 respondents, 83 (67.5%) provided targeted child interventions to a certain or a large extent to improve child health outcomes, but only 74 (57.4%) respondents reported using municipal ward-based health data to a certain or large extent in order to inform their decisions. This discrepancy indicates poor utilisation of local health information for decision-making. Conclusion The study showed that municipal ward-based health data are not fully utilised for making informed decisions to improve child health outcomes. It is imperative to inculcate a culture of evidence-informed decisions that leads to provision of targeted interventions in order to mitigate the challenge of scarcity of resources and to improve child health outcomes. PMID:28155323

  7. Geometry of rear seats and child restraints compared to child anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Bilston, Lynne E; Sagar, Nipun

    2007-10-01

    the recommended age ranges. Analysis of the results from this study indicates that alterations in restraint geometry, particularly shortening the seat cushion, allowing for adjustable upper sash belt anchorages in the rear seat of vehicles, and increasing the height of high back booster seats would substantially improve the fit of restraints for child occupants. This data confirms findings from a recent study that looked only at rear seat cushion depths and provides new data on seat belt and child restraint geometry for child occupants.

  8. Child maltreatment and educational attainment in young adulthood: results from the Ontario Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masako; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the adverse effects of child maltreatment on academic performance; however, most of these studies used selective samples and did not account for potential confounding or mediating factors. We examined the relationship between child physical abuse (PA; severe and non-severe) and sexual abuse (SA) and educational attainment (years of education, failure to graduate from high school) with a Canadian community sample. We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study (N = 1,893), a province-wide longitudinal survey. Potential confounding variables (family socio-demographic and parental capacity) and child-level characteristics were assessed in 1983, and child abuse was determined in 2000-2001 based on retrospective self-report. Results showed that PA and SA were associated with several factors indicative of social disadvantage in childhood. Multilevel regression analyses for years of education revealed a significant estimate for severe PA based on the unadjusted model (-0.60 years, 95% CI = [-0.45, -0.76]); estimates for non-severe PA (0.05 years, CI = [-0.15, 0.26]) and SA (-0.25 years, CI = [-0.09, -0.42]) were not significant. In the adjusted full model, the only association to reach significance was between severe PA and reduced years of education (-0.31 years, CI = [-0.18, -0.44]). Multilevel regression analyses for failure to graduate from high school showed significant unadjusted estimates for severe PA (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.21, 2.58]) and non-severe PA (OR = 1.61, CI = [1.01, 2.57]); SA was not associated with this outcome (OR = 1.40, CI = [0.94, 2.07]). In the adjusted full models, there were no significant associations between child abuse variables and failure to graduate. The magnitude of effect of PA on both outcomes was reduced largely by child individual characteristics. These findings generally support earlier research, indicating the adverse effects of child maltreatment on educational attainment. Of particular note

  9. 'Child-to-Child' in Africa: Towards an Open Learning Strategy. UNESCO-UNICEF Co-operative Programme Digest No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, A. K. B.

    Based on a meeting of experts convened in Lome, Togo in June, 1989, this digest aims to demonstrate what is understood to be the broad potential of the child-to-child approach, which many people think of as being applicable only to health education. The digest contains three main sections. Section A highlights the original cultural references of…

  10. Pilot Evaluation of Outcomes of Combined Parent-Child Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Families at Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runyon, Melissa K.; Deblinger, Esther; Schroeder, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Child physical abuse (CPA) is not only a highly prevalent public health problem, but it has been associated with a wide range of debilitating psychosocial sequelae that may develop during childhood and persist into adulthood. This paper outlines a treatment model, Combined Parent-Child Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CPC-CBT), that addresses the…

  11. Cutaneous manifestations of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Kos, Liborka; Shwayder, Tor

    2006-01-01

    Dermatologists and child abuse are not frequently associated in the minds of most physicians. Yet the most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous. This article reviews cutaneous manifestations of physical abuse, including bruises, lacerations, abrasions, human bites, and burns. It also discusses ways that dermatologists can differentiate abusive injuries from accidental ones as well as from the many dermatologic conditions that can mimic child abuse. Finally, we review what actions the dermatologist should take when suspecting abuse in a patient.

  12. Native American Indian child welfare system change: implementation of a culturally appropriate practice model across three tribal child welfare systems.

    PubMed

    Scannapieco, Maria; Iannone, Mary A

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there are 565 federally recognized tribes in the United States who are independent sovereign nations. These tribes have varying capacities to manage and administer child welfare programs. Most provide some type of child welfare service to the children and families within their tribal land. However, there are no national resources to document the number of children in foster care or the extent of abuse and neglect in the families served by tribal child welfare agencies. Information is only known about those Native American/Alaska Native families and children who are reported to state child protection agencies. Native American children represented 0.9% of all children in the United States in the late 1990s, but they comprised 3.1% of the substitute care population in state-run child welfare systems (Morrison, et al., 2010). Incident rates of child welfare referrals, substantiated referrals, and foster care placement among Native American children and families are relatively high compared to other ethnic groups (Earle & Cross, 2001) but precise interpretation of Native American status is difficult due to variations in child welfare reporting systems (Magruder & Shaw, 2008).

  13. Child Care in 1976: Goals and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provence, Sally

    Goals for future child care services are discussed in this address. It is stressed that social service agencies should consider the family as a unit in providing flexible child care services. Other goals include: (1) tailoring child care programs to parent development as well as child development, (2) insuring that child care workers are motivated…

  14. Struggle for the Soul: John Lawrence Childs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallones, Jared

    2010-01-01

    John Lawrence Childs was born in Eau Claire, Wisconsin on January 11, 1889, the second child of John Nelson Childs and Helen Janette (Nettie) Smith. In childhood Childs absorbed the values of industry, democracy, and a traditional, but socially conscious, religion. Childs was a Methodist and an intensely private person not given to talking about…

  15. 38 CFR 3.57 - Child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of determining entitlement of benefits based on a child's school attendance, the term child of the... exercise parental control and responsibility for the welfare and care of the child. A child of the veteran... benefits. (2) The term person legally responsible for the child's support means a person who is under...

  16. Child Care-Who Needs It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Margaret

    "Child care" is a phrase which has become inextricably linked with the political, economic, and social policies of Australian society. Antagonists and protagonists of child care have put forth arguments against and for child care, respectively, over the past two decades. Supporters of child care have variously viewed child care as a…

  17. Haplotype reconstruction and estimation of haplotype frequencies from nuclear families with only one parent available.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiangdong; Zhang, Qin; Flury, Christine; Simianer, Henner

    2006-01-01

    Recent literature has suggested that haplotype inference through close relatives, especially from nuclear families can be an alternative strategy in determining the linkage phase. In this paper, haplotype reconstruction and estimation of haplotype frequencies via expectation maximization (EM) algorithm including nuclear families with only one parent available is proposed. Parent and his (her) child are treated as parent-child pair with one shared haplotype. This reduces the number of potential haplotype pairs for both parent and child separately, resulting in a higher accuracy of the estimation. In a series of simulations, the comparisons of PHASE, GENEHUNTER, EM-based approach for complete nuclear families and our approach are carried out. In all situations, EM-based approach for trio data is comparable but slightly worse error rate than PHASE, our approach is slightly better and much faster than PHASE for incomplete trios, the performance of GENEHUNTER is very bad in simple nuclear family settings and dramatically decreased with the number of markers being increased. On the other hand, the comparison result of different sampling designs demonstrates that sampling trios is the most efficient design to estimate haplotype frequencies in populations under same genotyping cost.

  18. Is psychiatry only neurology? Or only abnormal psychology? Déjà vu after 100 years.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Jose

    2015-04-01

    Forgetting history, which frequently repeats itself, is a mistake. In General Psychopathology, Jaspers criticised early 20th century psychiatrists, including those who thought psychiatry was only neurology (Wernicke) or only abnormal psychology (Freud), or who did not see the limitations of the medical model in psychiatry (Kraepelin). Jaspers proposed that some psychiatric disorders follow the medical model (Group I), while others are variations of normality (Group III), or comprise schizophrenia and severe mood disorders (Group II). In the early 21st century, the players' names have changed but the game remains the same. The US NIMH is reprising both Wernicke's brain mythology and Kraepelin's marketing promises. The neo-Kraepelinian revolution started at Washington University, became pre-eminent through the DSM-III developed by Spitzer, but reached a dead end with the DSM-5. McHugh, who described four perspectives in psychiatry, is the leading contemporary representative of the Jaspersian diagnostic approach. Other neo-Jaspersians are: Berrios, Wiggins and Schwartz, Ghaemi, Stanghellini, Parnas and Sass. Can psychiatry learn from its mistakes? The current psychiatric language, organised at its three levels, symptoms, syndromes, and disorders, was developed in the 19th century but is obsolete for the 21st century. Scientific advances in Jaspers' Group III disorders require collaborating with researchers in the social and psychological sciences. Jaspers' Group II disorders, redefined by the author as schizophrenia, catatonic syndromes, and severe mood disorders, are the core of psychiatry. Scientific advancement in them is not easy because we are not sure how to delineate between and within them correctly.

  19. Child physical abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Samantha; Christian, Cindy W

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an overview of child physical abuse and neglect, and describes the magnitude of the problem and the triggers and factors that place children at risk for abuse and neglect. After examining the legal and clinical definitions of child abuse and neglect, common clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies are reviewed, including the lifelong poor physical and mental health of victims and evidence-supported treatment interventions. Mandated reporting laws, and facilitating collaboration among child welfare, judicial, and health care systems are considered. Important tools and resources for addressing child maltreatment in clinical practice are discussed, and future approaches posited.

  20. Child neglect: assessment and intervention.

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Neglect is often a neglected form of child maltreatment even though it is the most common and deadliest form of child maltreatment. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) will most likely encounter neglected children in their practice. It is crucial that PNPs recognize child neglect in a timely manner and intervene appropriately. This continuing education article will help PNPs understand and respond to child neglect. Neglect will be defined and risk factors will be discussed. Children who are neglected can experience serious and lifelong consequences. The medical assessment and plan of care for children with concerns of suspected neglect will be discussed.

  1. Skin manifestations of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Ermertcan, Aylin Turel; Ertan, Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.

  2. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

    MedlinePlus

    Pruritus vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching; Yeast infection - child ... vagina or the skin around the vagina. Vaginal yeast infection . Vaginitis . Vaginitis in girls before puberty is ...

  3. The role of parental anxiety sensitivity in parent reports of child anxiety in treatment seeking families.

    PubMed

    Francis, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has examined the contribution of parental anxiety sensitivity to child anxiety, suggesting only a modest relationship between these two variables. No study to date, however, has examined the role of parental anxiety sensitivity in parent reports of the child's anxiety. It was hypothesized that anxiety sensitivity, a cognitive risk factor for the development of anxiety, would be significantly correlated with parents' reports of their child's anxiety, specifically with respect to panic and separation anxiety. The present study employed a sample of 56 treatment-seeking children and their parents. Parent and child reports of the child's anxiety were obtained, and self-reports of anxiety sensitivity were obtained from parent and child. Parent reports of their child's panic and separation anxiety symptoms were significantly related to not only parental anxiety sensitivity (r = .39 and r = .29, respectively) but also the child's self-reported level of anxiety sensitivity (r = .35 and r = .37, respectively). These findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity, a significant predictor of panic symptomatology amongst both adults and children, might be related to parents' perceptions of their child's symptoms of panic and separation anxiety. These findings further suggest taking into consideration parental levels of anxiety sensitivity when interpreting parent reports of child anxiety in clinical settings.

  4. Scurvy in an autistic child: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Gongidi, Preetam; Johnson, Craig; Dinan, David

    2013-10-01

    Scurvy results from a deficiency of vitamin C and is rarely seen in the United States. We describe the MRI findings of a case of scurvy in an autistic child with food-avoidant behavior. Advanced imaging is rarely performed in clinically well-understood disease entities such as scurvy. Typical radiographic findings are well described leading to definitive diagnosis, although the findings can be missed or misinterpreted given the rarity of scurvy in daily practice. To our knowledge, MRI features of scurvy in children in the US have been described in only one case report. This case of scurvy in an autistic child with food-avoidant behavior emphasizes that classic nutritional deficiencies, despite their rarity, must be included in the differential diagnosis of at-risk populations.

  5. Child Neurology Education for Pediatric Residents.

    PubMed

    Albert, Dara V F; Patel, Anup D; Behnam-Terneus, Maria; Sautu, Beatriz Cunill-De; Verbeck, Nicole; McQueen, Alisa; Fromme, H Barrett; Mahan, John D

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the current state of child neurology education during pediatric residency provides adequate preparation for pediatric practice. A survey was sent to recent graduates from 3 pediatric residency programs to assess graduate experience, perceived level of competence, and desire for further education in child neurology. Responses from generalists versus subspecialists were compared. The response rate was 32%, half in general pediatric practice. Only 22% feel very confident in approaching patients with neurologic problems. This may represent the best-case scenario as graduates from these programs had required neurology experiences, whereas review of Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education-accredited residency curricula revealed that the majority of residencies do not. Pediatric neurologic problems are common, and pediatric residency graduates do encounter such problems in practice. The majority of pediatricians report some degree of confidence; however, some clear areas for improvement are apparent.

  6. Cohabitation and Child Wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States—so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children’s wellbeing. Cohabiting families are more likely than married families to be poor, and poverty harms children in many ways. Cohabiting parents also tend to have less formal education—a key indicator of both economic and social resources—than married parents do. And cohabiting parent families don’t have the same legal protections that married parent families have. Most importantly, cohabitation is often a marker of family instability, and family instability is strongly associated with poorer outcomes for children. Children born to cohabiting parents see their parents break up more often than do children born to married parents. In this way, being born into a cohabiting family sets the stage for later instability, and children who are born to cohabiting parents appear to experience enduring deficits of psychosocial wellbeing. On the other hand, stable cohabiting families with two biological parents seem to offer many of the same health, cognitive, and behavioral benefits that stable married biological parent families provide. Turning to stepfamilies, cohabitation’s effects are tied to a child’s age. Among young children, living in a cohabiting stepfamily rather than a married stepfamily is associated with more negative indicators of child wellbeing, but this is not so among adolescents. Thus the link between parental cohabitation and child wellbeing depends on both the type of cohabiting parent family

  7. Mother-child disagreement in reports of child anxiety: effects of child age and maternal anxiety.

    PubMed

    Niditch, Laura A; Varela, R Enrique

    2011-04-01

    The present study examined effects of maternal anxiety, child age, and their interaction on mother-child anxiety reporting disagreement while taking into account the direction of each informant's report relative to the other. Participants were 41 dyads of mothers and clinically anxious children aged 7-13. A hierarchical regression revealed a significant interaction between maternal anxiety and child age (β = .30, p < .05). A graph of this interaction indicated that when maternal anxiety is high and the child is older, maternal report of anxiety is relatively higher, and when maternal anxiety is high and the child is younger, child report of anxiety is relatively higher. When maternal anxiety is low, the reporting discrepancy is relatively stable across age. Results may help explain previous mixed findings regarding effects of age and maternal anxiety on reporting discrepancies. Possible explanations for these results are discussed.

  8. Child health in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Nieto, G Arias; Mutis, F Suescun; Mercer, R; Bonati, M; Choonara, I

    2009-11-01

    Colombia is a country with major problems, mainly a high degree of inequality and an unacceptably high level of violence (both armed military conflict and crime related). There are unacceptably high variations in health and health provision. Despite these difficulties, there are important steps being taken by both the government and independent organisations to try and improve child health and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in relation to poverty, hunger and health issues. The participation of different sectors and stakeholders (including government, non-governmental organisations and other organisations of civil society) is essential to overcome Colombian history and to promote a better place for children.

  9. Advocacy and child neglect.

    PubMed

    Krugman, Scott D

    2014-11-01

    Pediatricians have a unique opportunity to intervene in the lives of children to identify and to prevent neglect. While it remains important to care for individual patients affected by neglect, the ecological model of child neglect requires intervention at the parent, family, community, and societal levels. Pediatricians can improve the outcomes for children by advocating for policies and interventions at each level. Effective advocacy principally requires the willingness to tackle broader issues beyond individual clinical care. Working with local, state, and national organizations, pediatricians can contribute a unified voice to promote evidence-based policies and programs that improve the well-being of children.

  10. Prevalence and Development of Child Delinquency. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.; Espiritu, Rachele C.; Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Petechuk, David

    The number of child delinquents entering the juvenile justice system is increasing, as evidenced by rising arrest rates and court caseloads. Compared with adolescents who become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents between the ages of 7 and 12 have a two- to threefold greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic…

  11. Child-to-Child Evangelism Hits on Parents' Religious Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Rob

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the "child-to-child evangelism" technique designed by evangelist Franklin Graham to convert America's children to his brand of Christianity. Starting in local public schools, Graham put out this plan whereby children could study evangelism techniques over the Internet and then march into their schools to…

  12. Conceptions of Child Growth and Learning. Part One: The Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Evelyn

    1972-01-01

    Child development literature suggests that the child is neither merely a victim of his biological nature nor of his environmental history. Educational programs should, therefore, be built on the concept of a dynamically active learner constantly interacting with his environment. (Author/JF)

  13. Child Delinquency: Early Intervention and Prevention. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.; Petechuk, David

    Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…

  14. 75 FR 38611 - Child Support Enforcement Program; Intergovernmental Child Support

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... families by ensuring that parents support their children even when they live apart. Payment of child... child support enforcement are compounded when parents reside in different jurisdictions and the.... This number does not include cases where a single State established or enforced a support...

  15. Donor conception from the viewpoint of the child: positives, negatives, and promoting the welfare of the child.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, Julianne E

    2015-09-01

    Use of donor egg and donor sperm has made parenthood a possibility for many who could not achieve it through natural conception. The use of donor gametes may also permit prospective parents to mitigate a number of health problems for the hoped-for child. Promoting the welfare of the hoped-for child, however, includes not only the consideration of good physical health but also necessitates consideration of psychological, emotional, and social well-being. This paper will review the impact of donor conception from the viewpoint of the resulting child including the psychological, emotional, and social well-being of donor-conceived children. It will discuss the topic of disclosure and closely consider the expansion of donor conception to older parents from the viewpoint of the child.

  16. Mutuality, severity, and chronicity of violence by Father-Only, Mother-Only, and mutually violent parents as reported by university students in 15 nations.

    PubMed

    Straus, Murray A; Michel-Smith, Yahayra

    2014-04-01

    This article aims to provide a more complete description of the violence between parents experienced by children than is usual in research and to suggest the practicality and importance of doing so. It presents results on the percent of parents in each of three Dyadic Types: Father-Only (the father assaulted the mother and the mother did not assault), Mother-Only (mother assaulted and the father did not assault), and Both-Assault; and on differences between these three types in the chronicity and severity of assaults. Questionnaires were completed by convenience samples of university students in 15 nations (N=11,408). Violence between parents was measured by the short form of the Conflict Tactics Scales. Fourteen percent of the students reported one or more instances of physical violence between their parents, including 6% who reported a severe assault. Cross classification of assaults by the father and the mother to identify Dyadic Types found 25% Father-Only, 22% Mother-Only, and 52% Both-Assaulted. The percentage in each Dyadic Type based on reports by male or female students were similar. They were also consistent with percentages found by previous studies identifying the Dyadic Types of violent couples. In respect to chronicity, when violence between parents occurred, in 82% of the cases, it occurred more than once. Research on children experiencing violence between parents, and prevention and treatment of inter-parental violence, are likely to be enhanced if it takes into account that Both-Violent is the most frequent pattern to which children are exposed and that Mother-Only is about as frequent as Father-Only. Consideration of the severity, and chronicity, of the inter-parental violence needs to replace simply classifying parents as violent. Achieving this is possible using instruments which take only three to five minutes and which can be completed by only one of the parents or by the child.

  17. Latina mothers' influences on child appetite regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices wou...

  18. Anesthesia - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000184.htm Anesthesia - what to ask your doctor - child To use ... with your child's doctor about the type of anesthesia that will be best for your child. Below ...

  19. Grieving the Loss of a Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... child or feeling your child's presence nearby Intense loneliness and isolation—even when around other people—and ... who are grieving Parents are the focus of attention when a child dies, and the grief of ...

  20. Will the Child be Normal? Ask Mother

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Reports that a mother's perception of her newborn infant frequently predicts how well the child will adjust in later childhood. The more positive the mother perceives the child, the more emotionally healthy the child will later become. (SL)

  1. Child abuse by drowning.

    PubMed

    Griest, K J; Zumwalt, R E

    1989-01-01

    Drowning as a form of subtle fatal child abuse is difficult to distinguish from accidental immersion or from sudden unexpected natural death when the circumstances of immersion are concealed. Homicidal drownings are unwitnessed, usually occurring in the home, and the victims are young, either infants or toddlers. Accidental drownings are more likely to involve toddlers or older children in public areas such as swimming pools, drainage ditches, lakes, and rivers. This is especially true in rural areas. In cities, bathtubs remain a major site of accidental childhood drownings. Perpetrators of deliberate drownings often fit the sociopathologic profile of a child abuser. Because there is often a survival interval between immersion and death, pathologic findings consistent with postimmersion syndrome suggest the cause of death. Foreign material in the lungs, if immersion was other than in clear tap water, and injuries of the face are other positive correlating factors. A thorough investigation of the circumstances and cooperation between the investigating agency and the pathologist are essential to determine the correct manner of death in these cases.

  2. Modern-Day Child Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Glind, Hans; Kooijmans, Joost

    2008-01-01

    Child slavery is a contemporary global problem existing since ancient times. The concept of slavery and practices similar to it are defined in a range of international instruments. Children are particularly vulnerable to slavery-like practices, and their special plight is addressed by the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC-in particular…

  3. Infant Child Care. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee

    This ERIC Digest briefly reviews studies of maternal employment, child care settings, and links between children's development and family and child care influences. Studies of maternal employment suggest that infants' positive relationships with caregivers may compensate for insecure attachments with mothers. If future research supports this…

  4. Child Mortality: A Preventable Tragedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seipel, Michael M. O.

    1996-01-01

    Worldwide data reveal that child mortality (ages 1-5) accounts for about 10-15% of all deaths in developing countries, and less than 1% of all deaths in developed countries. Strategies for reducing child mortality include improving health services, improving environmental conditions, enhancing the social conditions of children, and protecting and…

  5. Help Your Child Get Organized

    MedlinePlus

    ... Have your child gather the supplies where the work will take place. As the project progresses, show your child how ... kind way, that you expect your kids to work on these skills and that you'll be there ... the natural place to begin. Get Comfortable in Your Role For ...

  6. Identifying the Gifted Child Humorist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fern, Tami L.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempted to identify gifted child humorists among 1,204 children in grades 3-6. Final identification of 13 gifted child humorists was determined through application of such criteria as funniness, originality, and exemplary performance or product. The influence of intelligence, development, social factors, sex differences, family…

  7. The Shy Child. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyson, Marion C.; Van Trieste, Karen

    This ERIC digest: (1) describes types and manifestations of shyness among children; (2) briefly reviews research on genetic, temperamental, and environmental influences on shyness; (3) distinguishes between normal and problematic shyness; and (4) suggests ways for parents and teachers to help the shy child by accepting the whole child, building…

  8. Child Labour Remains "Massive Problem."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World of Work, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Despite significant progress in efforts to abolish child labor, an alarming number of children are engaged in its worst forms. Although 106 million are engaged in acceptable labor (light work for those above the minimum age for employment), 246 million are involved in child labor that should be abolished (under minimum age, hazardous work). (JOW)

  9. Indian Child Welfare in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull Knife Memorial Coll., Lame Deer, MT.

    This report is based upon a 1985-86 survey conducted by the Dull Knife Memorial College Indian Child Welfare Project. A series of workshops were conducted throughout Montana to acquaint providers of services for abused and neglected Indian children with the requirements of and issues associated with the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.…

  10. Toilet Training the Retarded Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jeffrey K.

    The booklet offers guidelines in both Spanish and English to parents who are toilet training a mentally retarded child. The toilet training process is broken down into tasks that the child must learn, and the importance of positive reinforcement for each successfully accomplished task is emphasized. It is recommended that parents keep charts…

  11. The Child's Experience of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciberras, Emma; Efron, Daryl; Iser, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the agreement between parent- and child-reported quality of life (QoL) and the self-perceptions of children with ADHD. Method: A cross-sectional survey of school-aged children with ADHD and their parents was undertaken. Results: Parents reported their child's QoL as lower than the children rated…

  12. Child Abuse and Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.; Bartlette, Don

    1992-01-01

    Literature indicating high rates of abuse in this population is reviewed, as is literature indicating high rates of developmental disabilities in child victims of abuse. Problems in data collecting practices are noted. Reasons for these children's greater risk for abuse are identified, including child attributes, stress, parent vulnerabilities,…

  13. Subsidizing Success with Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groginsky, Scott; McConnell, Laurie

    1998-01-01

    Examines how states are responding to the increased need for quality child care and the funding issues raised by the costs of such care. Includes sidebars discussing federal child-care proposals, differential reimbursement rates, and programs for families with a stay-at-home parent. (HTH)

  14. Selecting Child Care Administrative Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Offers advice on the selection of child care administrative software. Directors should consider needs, computer experience, budget, time, and temperament, and should also ask lots of questions and test demo versions. Choices range from custom programs and existing business products to child care administrative software packages. Includes directory…

  15. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 6 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 6 Months A A A Notice your baby doing anything new? Big strides in development are happening this month. That's because the left side of the brain ...

  16. Your Child's Development: 2 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 2 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 2 Months A A A Your baby develops from head ... some new skills your baby may have this month: Communication and Language Skills develops more distinct cries ...

  17. Illinois: Child Care Collaboration Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Child Care Collaboration Program promotes collaboration between child care and other early care and education providers, including Early Head Start (EHS), by creating policies to ease blending of funds to extend the day or year of existing services. While no funding is provided through the initiative, participating programs may take…

  18. New Forces Shaping Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1972

    In an address to local, state, regional, and national groups involved with child care, characteristics of some of the programs are explained in an effort to develop a broad based national coalition for a system of universally available child care. Head Start, Title IV-A of the Social Security Act (amended) day care, and church-related day care…

  19. Child Abuse Prevention Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    Intended to heighten public awareness and provide practical information to professionals, this handbook defines and describes child abuse (including sexual abuse) and its associated signs and injuries. The societal and family environments in which child abuse most typically occurs are described, and the California penal code sections pertaining to…

  20. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  1. Child Development and Cultural Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Bettye M.

    1983-01-01

    Each child is to some extent like all children, to some extent like some children, and to some extent like no other child. There are at least three sets of universals that characterize children: (1) they have the same needs and rights; (2) they go through the same developmental stages; and (3) they have essentially the same developmental goals,…

  2. Valuing Your Child Care Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsmeier, Dave; Richards, Dick; Routzong, Ed

    2003-01-01

    Offers guidelines for putting a monetary value on a child care business. Discusses reasons for valuing the business, types of valuations (book, liquidation, and fair market), fair market valuation formulas, the corporate valuation, valuing assets included in a sale, and using experts. Also offers several tips for selling a child care business. (EV)

  3. What Are Good Child Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Evans, V. Jeffery; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Roth, Jodie

    This paper considers the question "What are good child outcomes?" from the perspectives of developmental psychology, economics, and sociology. Section 1 of the paper examines good child outcomes as characteristics of stage-salient tasks of development. Section 2 emphasizes the acquisition of "human capital," the development of productive traits…

  4. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 6 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 6 Months Print A A A en español El desarrollo ... new? Big strides in development are happening this month. That's because the left side of the brain ...

  5. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 9 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 9 Months Print A A A en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 9 meses Nine-month-olds have a new understanding of the world. ...

  6. Your Child's Development: 2 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 2 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 2 Months Print A A A en español El desarrollo ... some new skills your baby may have this month: Communication and Language Skills develops more distinct cries ...

  7. Child Abuse Intervention: Prescriptive Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuchter, Arnold

    Written from a criminal justice perspective, the report on child abuse intervention provides a model system that emphasizes prompt medical treatment for the child and due process for both parents and children. The authors recommend that court action take the form of a civil proceeding whenever possible. Part I provides a framework for the…

  8. Child Abuse: Educator's Responsibilities. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    This document presents the educator with a guide to child abuse. A section defining child abuse examines the issues of physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment. Areas discussed for these types of abuse include abuse indicators, location of injury, history, behavioral indicators, and types of injury. Incestuous and…

  9. Model Child Care Health Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan; Smith, Herberta

    Drawn from a review of policies at over 100 child care programs nationwide, the model health policies presented in this report are intended for adaptation and selective use by out-of-home child care facilities. Following an introduction, the report presents model policy forms with blanks for adding individualized information for the following…

  10. Reading and the Kindergarten Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursuk, Laura

    Kindergarten teachers should be concerned with the development of the child physically, psychologically, and socially. The development of readiness for reading should be part of the child's day-by-day activities in the kindergarten. Structured prereading activities should be conducted in informal, game-like ways. They should involve the active…

  11. Child Development: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, LaVerne Thornton, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on recent publications dealing with factors that influence child growth and development, rather than the developmental processes themselves. Topics include: general sources on child development; physical and perceptual-motor development; cognitive development; social and personality development; and play.…

  12. Young Child. [SITE 2001 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelland, Nicola, Ed.; DeVoogd, Glenn, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on the young child from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: (1) "Young Children and Technology: Building Computer Literacy" (Michael J. Bell and Caroline M. Crawford); (2) "Integrating Technology into the Young Child Lesson Plan"…

  13. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  14. Child Advocacy and Family Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Seymour; Feshbach, Norma Deitch

    This paper discusses the issues involved in achieving a balance between a child's rights to protection and adequate care and a family's rights to privacy and autonomy. The paper advocates a shift from the current norm of privacy concerning parents' child rearing practices towards increased openness and freer community-family communication. In view…

  15. Multicultural Issues in Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    This volume focuses on cultural differences relevant to all child-care-giving settings, including day care, nursery, and preschool programs. Based on respect for cultural pluralism, this concise supplementary text is designed to increase caregiver sensitivity to different cultural child-care practices and values and to improve communication and…

  16. If Your Child is Raped

    MedlinePlus

    ... look for and take samples of the rapist's hair, skin, nails, or bodily fluids from your child's clothes or body. If you think your child has been given a rape drug, a doctor or technician can test for this, too. Pictures of any injuries may ...

  17. Early Child Care in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luscher, Kurt K.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This monograph provides a comprehensive description of the multiple, diverse, and complex systems of child care in Switzerland today. The following topics are discussed: prevailing conceptions of the child-rearing process, the relationship between family and society, socialization, training of personnel, information dissemination, mass media and…

  18. Jamaican American Child Disciplinary Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stephaney

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about child disciplinary practices in Jamaican American families. Literature on child discipline in Jamaica and other Caribbean nations has mainly focused on physical discipline, and no empirical studies have investigated the types of discipline used in the Jamaican American community. The purpose of this study was to describe…

  19. Population education and China: prospects for the one child family.

    PubMed

    Fraser, S E

    1980-01-01

    elderly will be high regardless of the fact that they have few children to support them. Population growth rates are falling as a result of these programs. The following are some of the economic sanctions levied against couples who produce a second child after being rewarded for only having one: deduction from welfare expenses, nonpayment of medical expenses, and no food coupons. China has taken a great social leap forward in promoting the 1 child family and the call for population education and family planning information dissemination has been established in public schools.

  20. Morphosyntactic annotation of CHILDES transcripts*

    PubMed Central

    SAGAE, KENJI; DAVIS, ERIC; LAVIE, ALON; MACWHINNEY, BRIAN; WINTNER, SHULY

    2014-01-01

    Corpora of child language are essential for research in child language acquisition and psycholinguistics. Linguistic annotation of the corpora provides researchers with better means for exploring the development of grammatical constructions and their usage. We describe a project whose goal is to annotate the English section of the CHILDES database with grammatical relations in the form of labeled dependency structures. We have produced a corpus of over 18,800 utterances (approximately 65,000 words) with manually curated gold-standard grammatical relation annotations. Using this corpus, we have developed a highly accurate data-driven parser for the English CHILDES data, which we used to automatically annotate the remainder of the English section of CHILDES. We have also extended the parser to Spanish, and are currently working on supporting more languages. The parser and the manually and automatically annotated data are freely available for research purposes. PMID:20334720

  1. [The place of the child].

    PubMed

    Molenat, F

    2008-08-01

    A child's self-construction and access to his identity depend on the conditions of affective security in which he is raised and his genealogical references, the founders of his own place in society. The quality of the professional care at the different stages of the birth process is confirmed as a major variable in the parents' sense of security, followed by the child's. The drift toward the illusion of a right to a child is tempered by the attention that can be contributed by all healthcare providers who come into contact with couples when they request artificial procreation: recognition of their request, but also of their suffering, so as to separate the child's place from parental projections that may be poorly adjusted to the child's needs.

  2. Characteristics of mother-child conflict and child sex predicting resolution.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jackie A; Boyer, Brittany P; Sang, Samantha A; Wilson, Elizabeth K

    2014-04-01

    Data from 190 mothers and their 5- to 7-year-old children were used to evaluate how characteristics of mother-child conflict discussions contribute to the likelihood of reaching a compromise, a win-loss resolution, or a standoff. Dyads discussed 2 topics they reported having disagreements about that were emotionally arousing. Coders rated global measurements of mothers' emotional responsiveness, intrusiveness, and negativity; children's negativity; and the frequency of mothers' and children's constructive and oppositional comments. Child sex was examined as a moderator of the relation between discussion characteristics and resolution reached. Results indicated that more constructive comments by mothers and children increased the likelihood of reaching a resolution versus a standoff, but only children's constructive comments differentiated between a compromise and a win-loss resolution favoring mothers. Dyads with more emotionally responsive mothers who made fewer oppositional comments were also more likely to reach a compromise versus a win-loss resolution. A significant interaction with child sex revealed that, for boys, the use of more child oppositional comments was associated with a higher likelihood of reaching a standoff versus a compromise. Girls' oppositional comments did not predict resolution type. These results are discussed in terms of the children's developmental level and parents' socialization goals.

  3. Rights of the Child in South Africa: Violence against Girls in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benninger-Budel, Carin

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the nation of South Africa. Noting that the Convention is the only "mainstream" human rights instrument that…

  4. Indicators of Social Well-Being and Elements of Child Welfare in Minnesota Rural Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menanteau-Horta, Dario; Yigzaw, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Analyzed the relationship between elements of child welfare and an index of social well-being in Minnesota counties. Found that all except two rural counties and only two urban counties had negative social well-being scores. Counties with low social well-being scores tended to have larger numbers of child welfare recipients. Findings suggest that…

  5. Knowledge of Child Abuse and Reporting Practices among Early Care and Education Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinehart, Laura; Kenny, Maureen C.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to assess child abuse knowledge and reporting practices of a diverse sample of early care and education (ECE) practitioners. One hundred and thirty-seven practitioners in the state of Florida completed the "Early Childhood Educators Child Abuse Questionnaire." Results revealed that only a minority of participants have…

  6. Developing the Child Care Workforce: Understanding "Fight" or "Flight" Amongst Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretherton, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    The early childhood education and care sector in Australia is undergoing a shift in philosophy. Changes in policy are driving the industry towards a combined early childhood education and care focus, away from one only on child care. This move has implications for the skilling of the child care workforce. This report examines workforce development…

  7. Unvarnished Documentation: A Dialogue between Teacher and Parent in Understanding a Child's "Bad" Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Liana; Turner, Terri

    2014-01-01

    Teachers are often asked to fill out progress reports that include check marks indicating if a child has met certain criteria. While this document offers a superficial glance at knowing a child, it is often the only kind of "assessment" a parent receives. The authors, a daycare teacher and a parent of Rosa, "the mean girl" in…

  8. The Language Development of a Deaf Child with a Cochlear Implant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouvet, Kimberley; Matthijs, Liesbeth; Loots, Gerrit; Taverniers, Miriam; Van Herreweghe, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Hearing parents of deaf or partially deaf infants are confronted with the complex question of communication with their child. This question is complicated further by conflicting advice on how to address the child: in spoken language only, in spoken language supported by signs, or in signed language. This paper studies the linguistic environment…

  9. Special Issues in Child Care: Supporting Infants Prenatally Exposed to Drugs and Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Ginger L.; Mullins, Sharon M.

    2007-01-01

    Infants and children with prenatal drug exposure and/or a caregiver with a substance abuse problem participate in child care centers and homes throughout the United States. Thus, child care providers are in a position to monitor not only the need for physical, cognitive, or behavioral early intervention, but also to collaborate with parents on…

  10. Social Information in Court Decisions of Compulsory Child Adoption in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-David, Vered

    2011-01-01

    Ambiguity over the concepts of "parental capability" and "the child's best interests" in the Israeli adoption law, and a lack of sufficient professional knowledge can lead to bias in the professional decision-making process regarding child adoption. This study investigates the idea that judges do not use only legal…

  11. What Criteria Do Child Protective Services Investigators Use to Substantiate Exposure to Domestic Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohey, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether child protective services investigators apply a recognizable set of criteria to substantiate batterers and victims of battering for exposing their children to domestic violence. Although domestic violence occurred in 35% of the 1,248 substantiated incidents of child maltreatment, only 31…

  12. Self Reported Awareness of Child Maltreatment among School Professionals in Saudi Arabia: Impact of CRC Ratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Inam, Sarah S.; AlEissa, Majid A.; Noor, Ismail K.; Almuneef, Maha A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying…

  13. Trojan Ponies: Undermining the Establishment Clause in the Name of "Child Benefit Theory."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurau-Gray, Lisa H.

    1998-01-01

    Two cases illustrate that whenever the schools or courts abandon the Establishment Clause and embrace "child benefit theory," religious schoolchildren are the only winners. Application of "child benefit theory" has engendered religious strife, increased public funds for religious schools, increased sectarian control of public…

  14. What Can Education Teach Child Mental Health Services? Practitioners' Perceptions of Training and Joint Working

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vostanis, Panos; O'Reilly, Michelle; Taylor, Helen; Day, Crispin; Street, Cathy; Wolpert, Miranda; Edwards, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The importance of joint working between educational and child mental health professionals is well documented but there are numerous challenges and only limited training models. While the evidence base and training programmes for educationalists regarding child mental health is growing, training mental health professionals about education is more…

  15. Evaluation Research in Child Welfare: Improving Outcomes through University-Public Agency Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine, Ed.; Zlotnik, Joan Levy, Ed.

    While research shows that trained social workers were better prepared to produce more effective outcomes in child welfare than those with other degrees, only an estimated 3 to 28 percent of the public child welfare workforce comprised trained social workers. A social work effort to promote workforce development and to promote professional social…

  16. Associations between Intensity of Child Welfare Involvement and Child Development among Young Children in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Landsverk, John; Zhang, Jinjin; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine developmental and behavioral status of children in child welfare (CW) over time, by intensity of CW involvement using a national probability sample. Methods: As part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), data were collected on 1,049 children 12-47 months old investigated by CW agencies for…

  17. Beyond absenteeism: father incarceration and child development.

    PubMed

    Geller, Amanda; Cooper, Carey E; Garfinkel, Irwin; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Mincy, Ronald B

    2012-02-01

    High rates of incarceration among American men, coupled with high rates of fatherhood among men in prison, have motivated recent research on the effects of parental imprisonment on children's development. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the relationship between paternal incarceration and developmental outcomes for approximately 3,000 urban children. We estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models that control not only for fathers' basic demographic characteristics and a rich set of potential confounders, but also for several measures of pre-incarceration child development and family fixed effects. We find significant increases in aggressive behaviors and some evidence of increased attention problems among children whose fathers are incarcerated. The estimated effects of paternal incarceration are stronger than those of other forms of father absence, suggesting that children with incarcerated fathers may require specialized support from caretakers, teachers, and social service providers. The estimated effects are stronger for children who lived with their fathers prior to incarceration but are also significant for children of nonresident fathers, suggesting that incarceration places children at risk through family hardships including and beyond parent-child separation.

  18. [Coercive Measures in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Rabe, Silke C; Fegert, Jörg M; Krüger, Ulrich; Kölch, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Coercive Measures in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry To keep the use of coercive measures in child and adolescent psychiatry low or reduce them completely, there needs to be a specific knowledge of the starting point. The study provides an overview of the current situation using a systematic literature review of published studies from the European and the outer European regions between 2005 and 2015. In summary only twelve publications addressed the topic, differentiated in four studies from inner and eight studies from outer European countries. In the studies from Europe, girls in their late adolescence experienced coercive measures more often, whereas the outer European studies identified more boys in early school age. Regarding the diagnoses of the respective patients, no distinct trend could be identified, as coercive measures were applied with a range of different diagnoses. In the European studies, coercive measures were more often used with children and adolescents fitting in the ICD-10-category F9. Results point to a lack of empirical studies concerning coercive measures in the context of child and adolescent psychiatry. Besides, clinical practice between the countries varies tremendously, resulting in difficulties comparing the findings. One possibility to address these issues might be a central register for every kind of coercive measure, as it was introduced in Baden-Württemberg lately and is currently in development for North Rhine-Westphalia.

  19. Intergenerational and socioeconomic gradients of child obesity.

    PubMed

    Costa-Font, Joan; Gil, Joan

    2013-09-01

    Can the rise in obesity among children be attributed to the intergenerational transmission of parental influences? Does this trend affect the influence of parent's socioeconomic status on obesity? This paper documents evidence of an emerging social gradient of obesity in pre-school children resulting from a combination of both socio-economic status and less intensive childcare associated with maternal employment, when different forms of intergenerational transmission are controlled for. We also estimate and decompose income related inequalities in child obesity. We take advantage of a uniquely constructed dataset from Spain that contains records form 13,358 individuals for a time period (years 2003-2006) in which a significant spike in the growth of child obesity was observed. Our results suggest robust evidence of both socioeconomic and intergenerational gradients. Results are suggestive of a high income effect in child obesity, alongside evidence that income inequalities have doubled in just three years with a pure income effect accounting for as much as 72-66% of these income inequality estimates, even when intergenerational transmission is accounted for. Although, intergenerational transmission does not appear to be gender specific, when accounted for, mother's labour market participation only explains obesity among boys but not among girls. Hence, it appears income and parental influences are the central determinants of obesity among children.

  20. Pattern of burns in child abuse.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Peter; Palmer, John; Garvey, Richard; Atweh, Nabil; Fidler, Philip

    2007-03-01

    Cases of burns from child abuse are low because of under-reporting, low index of suspicion, or lack of verity proof. Although the reported incidence of child abuse by burns is 4 to 39 per cent, less than one-half are substantiated. We retrospectively reviewed all burns in children less than 6 years old admitted to our burn center within an 8-year period (1997-2003). Of the 155 children less than 6 years old admitted with burns within the study period, only six cases (3.8%) were confirmed as occurring from abuse. Scald injury was the most common cause of accidental and abuse burns. Burns by child abuse occur mostly from tap water (50%) and usually in children less than 2 years old. Whenever the extremities were involved, the left side was always included. In extreme cases, however, multiple areas of the body were involved with intervening spared sites. The perpetrator was the mother's boyfriend in all cases. Burns in children less than 2 years old left in the care of the mother's boyfriend, involving the left extremity (or extremities), and caused by tap water should prompt the clinician to more actively confirm or exclude abuse.

  1. Multisensory Integration and Child Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Dionne-Dostie, Emmanuelle; Paquette, Natacha; Lassonde, Maryse; Gallagher, Anne

    2015-01-01

    A considerable number of cognitive processes depend on the integration of multisensory information. The brain integrates this information, providing a complete representation of our surrounding world and giving us the ability to react optimally to the environment. Infancy is a period of great changes in brain structure and function that are reflected by the increase of processing capacities of the developing child. However, it is unclear if the optimal use of multisensory information is present early in childhood or develops only later, with experience. The first part of this review has focused on the typical development of multisensory integration (MSI). We have described the two hypotheses on the developmental process of MSI in neurotypical infants and children, and have introduced MSI and its neuroanatomic correlates. The second section has discussed the neurodevelopmental trajectory of MSI in cognitively-challenged infants and children. A few studies have brought to light various difficulties to integrate sensory information in children with a neurodevelopmental disorder. Consequently, we have exposed certain possible neurophysiological relationships between MSI deficits and neurodevelopmental disorders, especially dyslexia and attention deficit disorder with/without hyperactivity. PMID:25679116

  2. A thalassemic child becomes adult.

    PubMed

    Galanello, Renzo

    2003-03-01

    In the last decades, treatment of patients with beta-thalassemia has changed considerably, with advances in red cell transfusion and the introduction of iron chelation therapy. This progress has greatly increased the probability for a thalassemic child to reach adult age with a good quality of life. At present, the prognosis for thalassemia major patients is "open-ended". Compliance with the conventional treatment and psychological support are critical to obtain good results. The expectancy of a long survival of good quality encourages the patients to plan their future life, having a job, a family and often children. Optimal treatment of thalassemia major is expensive and for this reason, unfortunately, available only for a minority of patients in the world. Despite the significant advances, other progresses are expected to further improve survival and quality of life. The major aim is the cure of the disease, increasing the possibility of bone marrow transplantation using HLA-matched unrelated donors, and hopefully, in the future, gene therapy. However, even the conventional treatment and in particular iron chelation is expected to improve. Efforts should be made by the Western countries, and by the international health and economic organizations to provide continuous and concrete support for achieving a high standard of management for thalassemia in all places of the world.

  3. Parent-child and triadic antecedents of children's social competence: cultural specificity, shared process.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq

    2010-03-01

    Guided by theories of cultural participation, the authors examined mother-child, father-child, and triadic interactive behaviors in 141 Israeli and Palestinian couples and their firstborn child at 5 and 33 months as antecedents of children's social competence. Four parent-child measures (parent sensitivity, child social engagement, parental control, dyadic reciprocity) and two family-level measures (cohesion and rigidity) were coded at each age. Children's social competence was observed at child-care locations. Cultural differences were observed for parent sensitivity and child social engagement, and the large cultural differences in sensitivity observed in infancy were attenuated by the toddler age. Interactive behaviors correlated with culture-specific parenting practices, child-rearing goals, and sex-role attitudes. Mother-child reciprocity in infancy and child engagement with father and family-level cohesion at both time points predicted social competence. Maternal sensitivity in infancy facilitated social competence only among Israeli children. Paternal control in toddlerhood interfered with Israeli children's social functioning but contributed to competence among Palestinians. Results underscore the links between early relational experiences and children's adaptation to the social milieu.

  4. Maternal education and child healthcare in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Huq, Mohammed Nazmul; Tasnim, Tarana

    2008-01-01

    Child health is one of the important indicators for describing mortality conditions, health progress and the overall social and economic well being of a country. During the last 15 years, although Bangladesh has achieved a significant reduction in the child mortality rate, the levels still remain very high. The utilization of qualified providers does not lead to the desired level; only a third relies on qualified providers. This study is mainly aimed at investigating the influence of maternal education on health status and the utilization of child healthcare services in Bangladesh. This study is based on the data of the Household Income Expenditure Survey (HIES) conducted by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) during 2000. The analysis of the findings reveals that 19.4% of the children under five reported sickness during 30 days prior to the survey date. Moreover, approximately one out of every thirteen children suffers from diarrhoea in the country. It is striking to note that a significant portion of the parents relied on unqualified or traditional providers for the children's healthcare because of low cost, easy accessibility and familiarity of the services. The study suggests that maternal education is a powerful and significant determinant of child health status in Bangladesh. Maternal education also positively affects the number of children receiving vaccination. In order to improve the health condition of children in Bangladesh maternal education should be given top priority. The public policies should not just focus on education alone, but also consider other factors, such as access to health facilities and quality of services. Health awareness campaign should be strengthened as part of the public health promotion efforts. More emphasis should also be given to government-NGO (Non Government Organization) partnerships that make vaccination programs successful and, thereby, reduce the incidence of preventable diseases.

  5. Using Structural Equation Modeling to Understand Child and Parent Perceptions of Asthma Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Annett, Robert D.; Turner, Charles; Brody, Janet L.; Sedillo, Donna; Dalen, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    Objective Using structural equation modeling, test a conceptual model of associations between constructs predicting parent and child asthma quality of life. Methods Children with a confirmed asthma diagnosis and their parents completed measures of health status and independently reported on psychological functioning, family functioning, and quality of life. Results Measurement and structural models for predicting parent and child quality of life provided a good fit of data to the conceptual model. Parent and child independent reports of quality of life are dependent upon family functioning and child psychological functioning. Long-term asthma symptom control is the only health status variable that impacts quality of life. Conclusions With minor modifications, both parent and child data fit the conceptual model. Child psychological functioning and long-term asthma control jointly contribute to quality of life outcomes. Findings suggest that both acute and long-term asthma health status outcomes have different determinants. PMID:20026568

  6. Child Care Aware: A Guide to Promoting Professional Development in Family Child Care. Lessons Learned from Child Care Aware Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombro, Amy Laura

    This guide is designed to help educators and community leaders plan and implement professional development initiatives for family child care providers at the community level, and is based on Dayton Hudson Corporation's 1992 Child Care Aware (CCA) campaign to educate child care consumers about quality family child care. Part 1 provides an overview…

  7. An overview of child physical abuse: developing an integrated parent-child cognitive-behavioral treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Runyon, Melissa K; Deblinger, Esther; Ryan, Erika E; Thakkar-Kolar, Reena

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews and summarizes the extant literature regarding child physical abuse (CPA). Literature is summarized that describes the wide range of short- and long-term effects of CPA on children as well as the documented characteristics of parents/caregivers who engage in physically abusive parenting practices. Although the reviewed research documents that interventions geared only toward the parent have been found to produce significant improvements with respect to parenting abilities, parent-child interactions, and children's behavior problems, there is a paucity of research examining the efficacy of interventions developed specifically to target the child's emotional and behavioral difficulties. Based on the few studies that have shown emotional and behavioral gains for children who have participated in treatment, an integrated parent-child cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) approach is proposed here to address the complex issues presented by both parent and child in CPA cases. The direct participation of the child in treatment also may improve our ability to target posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive symptoms as well as anger control and dysfunctional abuse attributions in the children themselves. Implications for practice, public policy, and research are also addressed.

  8. Aspects of abuse: recognizing and responding to child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Allison M; Kissoon, Natalie; Greene, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem and toxic stress impacting at least 1 in 8 children by the age of 18 years. Maltreatment can take the form of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment. While some children may experience only one form of maltreatment, others may survive multiple forms, and in some cases particularly complex forms of maltreatment such as torture and medical child abuse. When considering maltreatment, providers should be adept at obtaining a thorough history not only from the parent but when appropriate also from the patient. The most common form of child maltreatment is neglect, which encompasses nutritional and medical neglect, as well as other forms such as physical and emotional neglect. Talking with caregivers about stressors and barriers to care may give insight into the etiology for neglect and is an opportunity for the provider to offer or refer for needed assistance. Familiarity with injury patterns and distribution in the context of developmental milestones and injury mechanisms is critical to the recognition of physical abuse. While most anogenital exam results of child victims of sexual abuse are normal, knowing the normal variations for the female genitalia, and thereby recognizing abnormal findings, is important not only forensically but also more importantly for patient care. Pattern recognition does not only apply to specific injuries or constellation of injuries but also applies to patterns of behavior. Harmful patterns of behavior include psychological maltreatment and medical child abuse, both of which cause significant harm to patients. As health professionals serving children and families, pediatric providers are in a unique position to identify suspected maltreatment and intervene through the health care system in order to manage the physical and psychological consequences of maltreatment and to promote the safety and well-being of children and youth by making referrals to child protective

  9. Foster Care and Child Health.

    PubMed

    McDavid, Lolita M

    2015-10-01

    Children in foster care need more from health providers than routine well-child care. The changes in legislation that were designed to prevent children from languishing in foster care also necessitate a plan that works with the child, the biological family, and the foster family in ensuring the best outcome for the child. This approach acknowledges that most foster children will return to the biological family. Recent research on the effect of adverse childhood experiences across all socioeconomic categories points to the need for specifically designed, focused, and coordinated health and mental health services for children in foster care.

  10. Incest and Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe

    1982-01-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485

  11. Incest and child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Collins, J L; Hamlin, W T; Minor, M A; Knasel, A L

    1982-06-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed.

  12. Child pornography and the internet.

    PubMed

    Temporini, Humberto

    2012-12-01

    The dramatic increase in child pornography offenses over the past 10 years is directly related to the availability of such material on the Internet. Child pornography can be found on the Web, in newsgroups, and on peer-to-peer networks (the most common source at present). Offenders are a heterogeneous group, with different motivations and levels of risk. The possibility of crossover to a contact sexual offense exists, depending on the presence of other risk factors. Possession of child pornography without a history of contact offenses does not appear to increase the risk of future contact reoffending.

  13. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry.

  14. Child Pornography. An Exploratory Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    The Sexual Exploitation of Children. New York: St Martins Press, 1986. Fields, Howa’-4 "Supreme Court, 6-3, Sans Possossiron of Child Porn ...Court, 6-3, Bans Possession of Child Porn ," Publishers Weekly 237, no.18 (May 4, 1990) 10. 27 See: O’Brien, 65-78; Seth L. Goldstein, "Investigating...15, (1973). 3 New York v. Ferber, 458 U.S. 757, (1982). 4 Howard Fields, "Supreme Court, 6-3, Bans Possession of Child Porn ,’" Publishers Weekly 237

  15. Perception of Primary School Teachers Regarding Impact of Child Labour on Universalization of Education at Primary Level at District Bannu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Sayyed Farooq; Ghazi, S. R.; Khan, Muhammad Saqib; Irfanullah

    2016-01-01

    Child labour has emerged as a serious, widespread and rapid growing problem in many parts of the world. Child labour is a socio-economic issue, which not only wrecks the social growth but also damages the moral fabrics of our society. The on hand paper not only highlights this very issue but also have a close look at its major inverse affect on…

  16. Maternal and child dietary diversity are associated in Bangladesh, Vietnam, and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Avula, Rasmi; Ruel, Marie T; Saha, Kuntal K; Ali, Disha; Tran, Lan Mai; Frongillo, Edward A; Menon, Purnima; Rawat, Rahul

    2013-07-01

    Dietary diversity (DD) reflects micronutrient adequacy of the diet and is associated with better child growth. Emerging evidence suggests that maternal and child DD are associated. This could have measurement and programmatic implications. Data on mother-child (6-24 mo) dyads in Bangladesh, Vietnam, and Ethiopia were used to examine agreement and association between maternal and child DD and identify determinants of maternal and child DD. The DD scores were derived from a 24-h recall of intake of foods from 7 groups. Multivariable regression was used to examine for the association, adjusting for covariates at child, maternal, and household levels. There was mother/child agreement for staple foods across the 3 countries but disagreement for flesh foods, dairy, fruits, and vegetables. A strong positive association was seen between maternal and child DD; a difference of one food group in mother's consumption was associated with a difference of 0.29, 033, and 0.24 groups in child's consumption in Bangladesh, Vietnam, and Ethiopia, respectively. The odds of achieving minimum DD (≥4 groups) were higher among children whose mother consumed 4 groups compared with ≤3 food groups [Bangladesh: OR = 2.73 (95% CI: 1.76, 4.25); Vietnam: OR = 2.30 (95% CI: 1.45, 3.43); Ethiopia: OR = 5.11 (95% CI: 2.36, 11.04)]. Maternal education was associated with both maternal and child DD; food security and socioeconomic status were associated only with maternal DD. Given the disagreements in mother/child intake for nutrient-rich foods, both maternal and child DD should be measured in surveys. Behavior change communications should focus on promoting both mother and child DD and encouraging mothers to feed young children all family foods, not just a subset.

  17. Everyday Child Language Learning Early Intervention Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    The language intervention model developed and evaluated at the Center on Everyday Child Language Learning (CECLL) is described. The model includes 4 components: interest-based child learning opportunities, the everyday family and community activities that are sources of interest-based child learning, the methods for increasing child participation…

  18. Substantiated Reports of Child Maltreatment From the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008: Examining Child and Household Characteristics and Child Functional Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Katz, Laurence Y; Tonmyr, Lil; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identifying child and household characteristics that are associated with specific child maltreatment types and child functional impairment are important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. Our objectives were to examine the distribution of several child and household characteristics among substantiated child maltreatment types in Canada; to determine if a specific child maltreatment type relative to all other types was associated with increased odds of child functional impairment; and to determine which child and household characteristics were associated with child functional impairment. Method: Data were from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (collection 2008) from 112 child welfare sites across Canada (n = 6163 children). Results: Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment were highly prevalent among children aged 10 to 15 years. For single types of child maltreatment, the highest prevalence of single-parent homes (50.6%), social assistance (43.0%), running out of money regularly (30.7%), and unsafe housing (30.9%) were reported for substantiated cases of neglect. Being male, older age, living in a single-parent home, household running out of money, moving 2 or more times in the past year, and household overcrowding were associated with increased odds of child functional impairment. Conclusions: More work is warranted to determine if providing particular resources for single-parent families, financial counselling, and facilitating adequate and stable housing for families with child maltreatment histories or at risk for child maltreatment could be effective for improving child functional outcomes. PMID:26175390

  19. 38 CFR 3.210 - Child's relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... birth as outlined in § 3.209, evidence of the marriage of the veteran to the natural parent of the child... show that the child is otherwise legitimate by State laws together with evidence of birth as outlined... legitimacy. (b) Illegitimate child. As to the mother of an illegitimate child, proof of birth is all that...

  20. Family Child Care Licensing Study, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollestelle, Kay; Koch, Pauline D.

    This report presents the findings of the 2003 national survey of state child care regulatory agencies to update and expand family child care regulatory information published in the 2002 study. Data on small family child care homes and group or large family child care homes are organized into the following 23 categories: (1) number of regulated…

  1. Family Child Care Licensing Study, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings of the 2001 national survey of state child care regulatory agencies to update and expand family child care regulatory information published in the 2000 study. Data on small family child care homes and group or large family child care homes are organized into the following 23 categories: (1) number of regulated…

  2. The Family Child Care Licensing Study, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings of the 1999 national survey of state child care regulatory agencies to update and expand family child care regulatory information published in the 1998 study. Data on small family child care homes and group or large family child care homes are organized in 22 categories: (1) number of regulated homes; (2)…

  3. Family Child Care Licensing Study, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Nia, Comp.

    This report presents the findings of the 2000 national survey of state child care regulatory agencies to update and expand family child care regulatory information published in the 1999 study. Data on small family child care homes and group or large family child care homes are organized in 23 categories: (1) number of regulated homes; (2)…

  4. Family Child Care Licensing Study, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings of the 2002 national survey of state child care regulatory agencies to update and expand family child care regulatory information published in the 2001 study. Data on small family child care homes and group or large family child care homes are organized into the following 23 categories: (1) number of regulated…

  5. Pathways and Partnerships for Child Care Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Child Care, 2011

    2011-01-01

    More than 12 million American children regularly rely on child care to support their healthy development and school success. Of these, over 1.6 million children receive a child care subsidy from the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) program each month. In addition, CCDF helps leverage child care investments from the Temporary Assistance for…

  6. Infant Frontal Asymmetry Predicts Child Emotional Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licata, Maria; Paulus, Markus; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Meinhardt, Jorg; Sodian, Beate

    2015-01-01

    While factors influencing maternal emotional availability (EA) have been well investigated, little is known about the development of child EA. The present longitudinal study investigated the role of frontal brain asymmetry in young children with regard to child EA (child responsiveness and involvement) in mother-child interaction in a sample of 28…

  7. Recognizing Child Maltreatment in Bangladesh. Brief Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Naila Z.; Lynch, Margaret A.

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the range of cases of child abuse and neglect already being identified by professionals in Bangladesh. Also discusses the larger paradoxes revolving around child protection related to sociocultural practices and economic factors, including early marriage of girls, domestic child workers, and child labor in export factories. (CR)

  8. Child Neglect: State of Knowledge. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polansky, Norman A.; And Others

    The discussion of child neglect considers the following topics: definition, prevalence, etiology, identification and case finding, sequelae, prevention, and treatment. The differences between child neglect and child abuse and between the legal and professional definitions of child neglect are pointed out, and an operational definition is provided.…

  9. 38 CFR 3.210 - Child's relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Child's relationship. 3... Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.210 Child's relationship. (a) Legitimate child. Where it is necessary to determine the legitimacy of a child, evidence...

  10. 20 CFR 229.47 - Child's benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Child's benefit. 229.47 Section 229.47... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.47 Child's benefit. If a child is included in the computation of the overall minimum, a child's benefit of 50 percent times the...

  11. 20 CFR 229.47 - Child's benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Child's benefit. 229.47 Section 229.47... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.47 Child's benefit. If a child is included in the computation of the overall minimum, a child's benefit of 50 percent times the...

  12. 20 CFR 229.47 - Child's benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Child's benefit. 229.47 Section 229.47... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.47 Child's benefit. If a child is included in the computation of the overall minimum, a child's benefit of 50 percent times the...

  13. 20 CFR 229.47 - Child's benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Child's benefit. 229.47 Section 229.47... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.47 Child's benefit. If a child is included in the computation of the overall minimum, a child's benefit of 50 percent times the...

  14. 20 CFR 229.47 - Child's benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Child's benefit. 229.47 Section 229.47... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.47 Child's benefit. If a child is included in the computation of the overall minimum, a child's benefit of 50 percent times the...

  15. Law: protection of the unborn child.

    PubMed

    Finch, J

    1983-04-20

    (Preservation) Act "no person shall be found guilty of an offence under this section unless it is proved that the act which caused the death of the child was not done in good faith for the purpose only of preserving the life of the mother." At times it is incorrectly bandied about that the child must be at least 28 weeks old before he/she is to be regarded as capable of being born alive. This misconception stems from a misreading of section 1, paragraph 2, of the 1929 Act. It may seem strange to those whose knowledge of abortion law is confined to the 1967 Act that no mention of it has been made thus far. The purpose of this discussion was to sketch the legal background vital to an understanding of the 1967 Act, which will be examined in a subsequent article.

  16. 45 CFR 98.20 - A child's eligibility for child care services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false A child's eligibility for child care services. 98.20 Section 98.20 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Eligibility for Services § 98.20 A child's eligibility for child...

  17. 45 CFR 98.20 - A child's eligibility for child care services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false A child's eligibility for child care services. 98.20 Section 98.20 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Eligibility for Services § 98.20 A child's eligibility for child...

  18. 45 CFR 98.20 - A child's eligibility for child care services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false A child's eligibility for child care services. 98.20 Section 98.20 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Eligibility for Services § 98.20 A child's eligibility for child...

  19. 45 CFR 98.20 - A child's eligibility for child care services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false A child's eligibility for child care services. 98.20 Section 98.20 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Eligibility for Services § 98.20 A child's eligibility for child...

  20. Employer Child Care Languishes--Awaiting Economic Upturn--Status Report #13 on Employer Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Considers economic factors in the development of employer child care, noting the expansion of two large child care provision corporations despite slow economic growth and changes for smaller child care providers. Quotes program administrators on trends in employer child care services and provides a list of the 14 largest employer child care…

  1. Children with Sickle-Cell Anemia: Parental Relations, Parent-Child Relations, and Child Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…

  2. 45 CFR 98.20 - A child's eligibility for child care services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false A child's eligibility for child care services. 98.20 Section 98.20 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Eligibility for Services § 98.20 A child's eligibility for child...

  3. Is Geography Knowledge Useful in a Child's Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Daryl R.

    The usefulness of geography knowledge in a child's education is philosophically analyzed from two perspectives: (1) what geography knowledge should U.S. schools be teaching?; and (2) is there agreement about what types of geographical knowledge U.S. schools should teach? Only geographical knowledge that will be useful in life should be taught to…

  4. Teaching the Mentally Handicapped Child: Challenges Teachers Are Facing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, M. A. J.; Williams, E. E.

    2005-01-01

    This research study focused on the special nature (i.e. different from mainstream education) of special education and the experiences of teachers with regard to the challenges they face in teaching the mentally handicapped child. Special schoolteachers have the responsibility to offer not only good, but also highly individualized and goal-directed…

  5. Children's Rights; Toward the Liberation of the Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Paul; And Others

    The six essays included in this volume apply the philosophy that only those children who are reared in complete freedom will grow up whole and free, and attack the institutions which can shape and distort the lives of children--schools, courts, and the family. The introduction discusses the dilemmas of those who would free the child within society…

  6. New parvovirus in child with unexplained diarrhea, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Phan, Tung G; Sdiri-Loulizi, Khira; Aouni, Mahjoub; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Pothier, Pierre; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric

    2014-11-01

    A divergent parvovirus genome was the only eukaryotic viral sequence detected in feces of a Tunisian child with unexplained diarrhea. Tusavirus 1 shared 44% and 39% identity with the nonstructural protein 1 and viral protein 1, respectively, of the closest genome, Kilham rat parvovirus, indicating presence of a new human viral species in the Protoparvovirus genus.

  7. The Influence of Child-Directed Speech in Early Trilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Contexts of limited input such as trilingual families where a language is not spoken in the wider community but only by a reduced number of speakers in the home provide a unique opportunity to examine closely the relationship between a child's input and what she learns to say. Barnes reported on the relationship between maternal input and a…

  8. Nurturing the Future: Implementing Internships in Child Care Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterangelo, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    One way that child care programs can help prepare future professionals in the field is to offer opportunities for the student to gain real life experience in a program. This is where internships are indispensable. An internship will help a novice develop their skills under the watchful eye of a more seasoned mentor. With internships, not only is…

  9. Playtime Is Science: Implementing a Parent/Child Activity Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprung, Barbara; And Others

    A program of science activities for children in the early childhood years and their parents is offered. The three different formats of the Playtime Is Science program are adaptable to a variety of settings and schedules. The Parent/Child Activity Program includes one parents-only session in which participants learn that routine chores involve…

  10. The Relationship of Welfare Receipt to Child Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Anne K.; Moore, Kristin A.

    Receipt of welfare is often negatively correlated with children's outcomes. However, because virtually all children who live in households that receive public assistance are poor, the question arises whether poor child outcomes are truly an effect of welfare, have only a spurious relationship to welfare receipt, or are a result of welfare…

  11. A Mechanism for Gratitude Development in a Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Most scholars consider gratitude as a moral emotion, with only few seeing it as a character trait. As a result, no systematic mechanism has ever been attempted to develop gratitude in children. Given the social issue of widespread lack of gratitude in the one-child generations of China, this article attempts to outline a mechanism of parental…

  12. Trends in child mortality in India.

    PubMed

    Behl, A S

    2013-01-08

    To assess Indias recent trends in child mortality rates and disparities and identify ways to reduce child mortality and wealth-related health disparities, we analyzed three years of data from Indias National Family Health Survey related to child mortality. Nationally, declines in average child mortality were statistically significant, but declines in inequality were not. Urban areas had lower child mortality rates than rural areas but higher inequalities. Interstate differences in child mortality rates were significant, with rates in the highest-mortality states four to six times higher than in the lowest-mortality states. However, child mortality in most states declined.

  13. Effects of parent-only childhood obesity prevention programs on BMIz and body image in rural preteens.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Galen; Paul, Lynn; Bailey, Sandra J; Ashe, Carrie Benke; Martz, Jill; Lynch, Wesley

    2016-03-01

    This experiment compared body image (BI) and BMI changes resulting from two parent-only obesity prevention interventions aimed at 8-12 year olds. Parents in the experimental intervention attended ten face-to-face educational sessions, while parents in the minimal (control) intervention received similar mailed information. Parent-child dyads (N=150) were semi-randomly assigned to intervention groups. Children were assessed before, after, and 6 months following the interventions; children did not attend experimental intervention sessions. Child BI assessments included weight and size perception, weight management goals, body esteem, and appearance attitudes. Significant effects included small decreases in BMIz scores and overweight dissatisfaction, as well as improvements in aspects of body esteem and appearance attitudes. Some BI effects were gender-specific. Decreases in overweight dissatisfaction were greater following the experimental treatment. Neither treatment reduced body size misperception. Thus, parent-only obesity prevention interventions can reduce body weight and body image concerns among rural preteens.

  14. Some personal views on pediatrics and not only...

    PubMed

    Pagava, K

    2014-05-01

    In the paper there are presented author's personal views on youth education, medical education, child and adolescent physiology, some other common medical and pediatric issues. The role of the physician as an educator of the child is underlined. The pediatrician must be the main advisor to the society, school and family in the matter of youth education, contribute to their optimal self-realization. The importance of moral values, gender peculiarities and cultural codes are emphasized. The imprinting of cultural codes should be considered as a biological basis of patriotism. The effectiveness of the implementation of healthy life style is discussed. The opinion regarding the protection of youth from potentially negative effects on their development and behavior is expressed. It would be purposeful to give more consideration to the fundamental research, particularly to the problem of age-related morphological and functional peculiarities of the growing organism in the conditions of norm and pathology. One should have in mind the importance of research of the combination of harmful factors for the organism. The elaboration of empathic and optimistic attitudes should be considered as the very important goals of medical education. The differential usage of clinical guidelines is discussed. It is mentioned the purposefulness of more wide application of fuzzy logic approaches in medicine. The items of rare diseases, individualized medicine, alternative medicine and bacteriophage therapy are discussed as well.

  15. Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder

    MedlinePlus

    ... to view results Return to Home Page Copyright ©2016 - American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. All Rights Reserved. Contact Us | Disclaimer | Privacy Statement Developed by Armstrong Enterprise Communication {1} ##LOC[OK]## {1} ##LOC[OK]## ## ...

  16. Treatment of the Hyperactive Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wunderlich, Ray C.

    1973-01-01

    Described individually are the following forms of medical treatment for the hyperactive child: stimulants, tranquilizers, megavitamins, corticosteroids, antihistamines, anticonvulsants, food elimination, air filtration, allergic desensitization, perceptual motor training, and behavioral counseling. (DB)

  17. School age child development (image)

    MedlinePlus

    School age child development is a range from 6 to 12 years of age. During this time period observable differences in height, ... peers. As always, safety is important in school age children and proper safety rules should be enforced ...

  18. Preparing Your Child for Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding ... condition and share the information with the family. Reading and sharing information is an excellent coping mechanism. ...

  19. If Your Child is Raped

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Parents Need to Know Child Abuse Self-Defense Emergency Contraception Abuse Am I in a Healthy ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  20. Preparing Your Child for Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... the truth as your child can understand. Handle Fears Many kids fear that an operation will be painful. It can ... will make it feel better. Common surgery-related fears of young children are the possibility of separation ...

  1. Vitamin D and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... and some who are breastfed but also receive formula) may need supplements to get the recommended amount ... make sure your child gets the right amount. Formulas sold in the United States have at least ...

  2. Maternal and Child Health Bureau

    MedlinePlus

    ... women's health, perinatal and infant health, child health, adolescent health, and children with special health care needs. Read More  Programs & Initiatives Highlights programs including Autism, Home Visiting, Title ...

  3. Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chats with Experts Clinical Trials Share Child and Adolescent Mental Health Overview Teen Depression Study: Understanding Depression ... Continue reading Recruitment Begins for Landmark Study of Adolescent Brain Development September 13, 2016 • Press Release The ...

  4. When your child has diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... Use low-fat milk, cheese, or yogurt. If dairy products are making the diarrhea worse or causing gas ... child may need to stop eating or drinking dairy products for a few days. Children should be allowed ...

  5. Alternative Medicine and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding ... botanicals, probiotics, amino acids, and other dietary supplements. Mind and body practices include a wide variety of ...

  6. Does Your Child Have Glaucoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate In This Section Does Your Child Have Glaucoma? email Send this article to a friend by ... a pediatric ophthalmologist. Signs and Symptoms of Childhood Glaucoma What to watch for in children under the ...

  7. Strength Training and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... considering strength-training programs: An instructor-to-child ratio of no more than 1 to 10. The ... major muscle groups of the upper and lower body and core. Kids should start with no load ( ...

  8. Your child and the flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal. Most children will feel better when the temperature drops by even 1 degree. A lukewarm bath ... the child also is given medicine -- otherwise the temperature might bounce right back up. Do NOT use ...

  9. Protecting Your Child's Privacy Online

    MedlinePlus

    ... parent, you have control over the personal information companies collect online from your kids under 13. The ... example, you may get an email from a company letting you know your child has started the ...

  10. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  11. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    MedlinePlus

    ... For all questions please contact the AACAP Communications & Marketing Coordinator, ext. 154. If you need immediate assistance, please dial 911. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. ... {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## { ...

  12. Strength Training and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Strength Training and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Strength ... help prevent injuries and speed up recovery. About Strength Training Strength training is the practice of using ...

  13. Acute child and mother psychophysiological responses and subsequent PTSD symptoms following a child's traumatic event.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Sarah A; Christopher, Norman C; van Dulmen, Manfred H M; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between acute cortisol responses to trauma and subsequent PTSD symptoms (PTSS) in children and their biological mothers. Urinary cortisol levels were assessed in 54 children aged 8-18 upon admission to a level-1 trauma center. Six weeks posttrauma, 15-hour urine samples were collected from children and their mothers. Depression and PTSS were assessed at 6 weeks (N = 44) and 7 months (N = 38) posttrauma. Higher child in-hospital cortisol significantly predicted 6-week child PTSS. This was true only for boys at 7 months. In mothers, lower 6-week cortisol levels significantly predicted 7-month PTSS. Results extend findings of differing directions of acute hormonal predictors of PTSS in adults versus children to a sample of genetically related individuals.

  14. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse.

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    The role of imaging in cases of child abuse is to identify the extent of physical injury when abuse is present and to elucidate all imaging findings that point to alternative diagnoses. Effective diagnostic imaging of child abuse rests on high-quality technology as well as a full appreciation of the clinical and pathologic alterations occurring in abused children. This statement is a revision of the previous policy published in 2000.

  15. [The abused and neglected child in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Tonella, A; Zuppinger, K

    1994-12-27

    Pediatricians form part of children's and young people's most important extra-familial relations. They are thus especially well placed: first, to discover abuse of any kind, and second to put in motion the first years of measures of assistance for the children and their families. The first years of life are decisive for effective prevention of abuse and neglect, and for the development of a healthy personality. In this part of life, pediatricians are virtually the only "social outposts". Nevertheless, in Swiss pediatrics the concept of child protection is still in the initial stages. While we should warmly welcome the fact this problem was at last the main theme of an annual meeting, it must be remembered that this was only the first time. For a long time now no one has doubted that in our, thus far socially privileged country, a frighteningly large number of children and adolescents are victims of abuse. Since the publication of the report "Mauvais traitements des enfants en Suisse" (1992) a representative questionnaire to parents has shown that in this country and now, as before, over a third of parents use corporal punishment on their children. It has been calculated that e.g. 21,800 babies aged between 0 and 2.5 years are beaten, 4800 of them even with implements. There are no data on psychological and sexual maltreatment. Despite this shocking incidence of abuse, only a total of 72 cases (6% of all recorded cases) were reported over one year by pediatric practitioners in the "1989 prospective study". We cannot accept that this reflects a lack of social concern. Many other shortcomings appear to be involved: lack of briefing on the problems of child abuse during medical training, post-graduate and continuing studies, inadequate arrangements for interdisciplinary work, discouragement and early delegation to pseudo-experts, distrust of the efficacy of available aids (but sometimes overestimation of one's own possibilities) and last but not least, a still highly

  16. THE THORNY CHILD

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, James L.

    1962-01-01

    Too many physicians—and parents—hide behind the overworked excuse that “Johnny is just going through a stage.” If the remark is inaccurate a great disservice can be done to both mother and child, and ultimately to society. The well oriented physician would no more permit a young mother to unwittingly feel “guilty” because her two-year-old “little stinker” behaves like a two-year-old little stinker than he would casually reassure when a ten-year-old behaves as though he were two. Actually much of the unpleasant behavior of children is quite normal. If physicians would help all young mothers to recognize this without dismissing abnormal behavior, it would do much to avert the overwhelming sense of inadequacy that so many modern young mothers feel—especially with their first baby. If they can be made comfortable with their first the others usually come easily. Many physicians who care for children are not trained in the rudiments of developmental behavior. By means of a simple outline and drawing of “the thorny child” even the least of the experts can better understand some of the chronologic variations in developmental behavior. PMID:13885463

  17. Housing and child health.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, Michael; Baten, Ahmareen; Rosenthal, David G; Hoshino, Risa; Tohn, Ellen; Jacobs, David E

    2013-09-01

    The connection between housing and health is well established. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the child's home, such as cleanliness, moisture, pests, noise, accessibility, injury risks, and other forms of housing environmental quality, all have the potential to influence multiple aspects of the health and development of children. Basic sanitation, reduced household crowding, other improvements in housing and expanded, and improved housing regulations have led to advances in children's health. For example, lead poisoning prevention policies have profoundly reduced childhood lead exposure in the United States. This and many other successes highlight the health benefits for families, particularly children, by targeting interventions that reduce or eliminate harmful exposures in the home. Additionally, parental mental health problems, food insecurity, domestic violence, and the presence of guns in children's homes all are largely experienced by children in their homes, which are not as yet considered part of the Healthy Homes agenda. There is a large movement and now a regulatory structure being put in place for healthy housing, which is becoming closely wedded with environmental health, public health, and the practice of pediatrics. The importance of homes in children's lives, history of healthy homes, asthma, and exposures to lead, carbon monoxide, secondhand/thirdhand smoke, radon, allergy triggers is discussed, as well as how changes in ambient temperature, increased humidity, poor ventilation, water quality, infectious diseases, housing structure, guns, electronic media, family structure, and domestic violence all affect children's health.

  18. An Observational Approach to Testing Bi-Directional Parent-Child Interactions as Influential to Child Eating and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Defne; Skouteris, Helen; Dell'Aquila, Daniela; Aksan, Nazan; McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity among children has been on the rise globally for the past few decades. Previous research has centred mainly on self/parent-reported measures examining only uni-directional parental feeding styles and practices. Recent discussions in the literature have raised the importance of bi-directional parent-child interactions in influencing…

  19. How to Talk to a School Age Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... that you are angry with her. • Understand that young children may only be able to deal with a little bit of information at a time, and may ask more questions over time. • Ask your child age- ...

  20. Bacillus pumilus Septic Arthritis in a Healthy Child

    PubMed Central

    Shivamurthy, V. M.; Gantt, Soren; Reilly, Christopher; Tilley, Peter; Guzman, Jaime; Tucker, Lori

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of septic arthritis caused by a Bacillus species, B. pumilus, occurring in a healthy child. This organism rarely causes serious infections and has only been described in newborns and immunocompromised individuals or as a skin infection. This child developed an indolent joint swelling after a minor skin injury, and symptoms were initially thought most consistent with chronic arthritis. The case demonstrates that clinicians should consider joint infection in children presenting with acute monoarticular swelling, even without prominent systemic features. PMID:27366165