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Sample records for ontario swine herds

  1. Association between the genetic similarity of the open reading frame 5 sequence of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and the similarity in clinical signs of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Ontario swine herds.

    PubMed

    Rosendal, Thomas; Dewey, Cate; Friendship, Robert; Wootton, Sarah; Young, Beth; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2014-10-01

    A study of Ontario swine farms positive for Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) tested the association between genetic similarity of the virus and similarity of clinical signs reported by the herd owner. Herds were included if a positive result of polymerase chain reaction for PRRSV at the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, was found between September 2004 and August 2007. Nucleotide-sequence similarity and clinical similarity, as determined from a telephone survey, were calculated for all pairs of herds. The Mantel test indicated that clinical similarity and sequence similarity were weakly correlated for most clinical signs. The generalized additive model indicated that virus homology with 2 vaccine viruses affected the association between sequence similarity and clinical similarity. When the data for herds with vaccine-like virus were removed from the dataset there was a significant association between virus similarity and similarity of the reported presence of abortion, stillbirth, preweaning mortality, and sow/boar mortality. Ownership similarity was also found to be associated with virus similarity and with similarity of the reported presence of sows being off-feed, nursery respiratory disease, nursery mortality, finisher respiratory disease, and finisher mortality. These results indicate that clinical signs of PRRS are associated with PRRSV genotype and that herd ownership is associated with both of these.

  2. An Epizootic of Swine Influenza in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, S. E.; Josephson, G. K. A.; Key, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    A swine influenza virus (H1N1) was isolated for the first time in Ontario from pigs one week to one and one-half years old during an epizootic which occurred between January and May 1981. Each herd outbreak was characterized by the sudden onset of marked respiratory distress, usually affecting the entire herd, accompanied by paroxysmal coughing, anorexia, prostration and temperatures as high as 41.5°C and lasting for five to seven days. Morbidity was nearly 100%; mortality was less than 1%. Hematology, bacteriology and postmortem studies were conducted on 18 pigs from 11 farms. A lymphopenia and acute hematological inflammatory cellular responses characterized by neutrophilia with a left shift, hyperfibrinogenemia and a decreased plasma protein: fibrinogen ratio were found in 50% of the pigs. The cranial lobes of the lung were collapsed and red due to a bilateral cranioventral pneumonia which affected the cranial, middle, accessory and cranioventral aspects of the caudal lobes. Histologically, there was a necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis with a neutrophilic cellular exudate. Pasteurella multocida was the species of bacterium most frequently isolated from the lung; however, mixed cultures of P. multocida frequently combined with Corynebacterium pyogenes and other species were usually identified in the lung and other organs of pigs submitted dead. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:17422266

  3. Detection of a Novel Porcine Parvovirus in Chinese Swine Herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine whether the recently reported novel porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) is prevalent in China, a set of PPV4 specific primers were designed and used for the molecular survey of PPV4 among clinical samples. The results indicated a positive detection for PPV4 in Chinese swine herds of 1.84% ...

  4. Patterns of stillbirth and dystocia in Ontario cow-calf herds.

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, J J; Allen, O B; Martin, S W; Alves, D M

    1992-01-01

    The association between a number of individual animal and herd level factors and calving problems in beef cows and heifers were examined. Data were from the 1987 calving season for a subset of 123 herds which maintained individual-animal records, from a sample of 180 randomly selected Ontario cow-calf herds. The median herd dystocia rate was 5.8% and 24.4% of herds had no dystocias. The median herd stillbirth rate was 2.8%, and 33.3% of herds had no stillbirths. Dystocias and stillbirths were much more common in heifers than in cows. Separate statistical models of dystocia and stillbirth for cows and heifers were created. Dystocia in cows was associated with calf sex, previous calving assistance and large breed type and birth weight. Variations in 1987 cow herd dystocia rates were associated with calving season, location and density, and the herd dystocia rate in 1986. Dystocia in heifers was associated with large breed type and calf birth weight. Herd-level management practices associated with increased heifer dystocia rates included breeding heifers to calve earlier than cows and rearing heifers together with the cow herd. Stillbirths for both cows and heifers were associated with calving assistance, particularly hard assistance. Herd-level management and other factors were unassociated with stillbirths. PMID:1586893

  5. 9 CFR 85.8 - Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. 85.8 Section 85.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. Swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd, and... are from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd; (2) The date of the herd's last...

  6. 9 CFR 85.8 - Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. 85.8 Section 85.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. Swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd, and... are from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd; (2) The date of the herd's last...

  7. 9 CFR 85.8 - Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. 85.8 Section 85.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. Swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd, and... are from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd; (2) The date of the herd's last...

  8. 9 CFR 85.8 - Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. 85.8 Section 85.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. Swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd, and... are from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd; (2) The date of the herd's last...

  9. 9 CFR 85.8 - Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. 85.8 Section 85.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. Swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd, and... are from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd; (2) The date of the herd's last...

  10. Piglet preweaning mortality in a commercial swine herd in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuntapaitoon, Morakot; Tummaruk, Padet

    2015-12-01

    In the modern swine industry, the number of piglets born alive per litter is dramatically increasing due to genetic improvement of litter traits. However, knowledge on post-partum management is inadequate to reduce piglet preweaning mortality. The present study aimed to investigate piglet preweaning mortality in a commercial swine herd in Thailand in relation to the number of littermate pigs and piglet birth weight. Data included 11,154 litters from 3574 sows farrowed from January 2009 to December 2012. Littermate pig was defined as the number of piglets after cross-fostering. Number of littermate pigs was classified as 1-7, 8-10, 11-12, and 13-15 piglets per litter. Mean birth weight of the piglets was classified as low (<1.30 kg), medium (1.30-1.79 kg), and high (≥1.80 kg). Piglet preweaning mortality was calculated, logged transformed, and analyzed by general linear mixed models. On average, piglet preweaning mortality was 14.5 % (median = 10.0 %). Piglet preweaning mortality in the litter with 13-15 littermate pigs (24.1 %) was significantly higher than the litter with 1-7 (11.9 %, P < 0.001), 8-10 (11.8 %, P < 0.001), and 11-12 (14.6 %, P < 0.001) littermate pigs. The litters with a low piglet birth weight had a higher piglet preweaning mortality rate (18.8 %) than the litters with a medium (15.7 %, P < 0.001) and a high piglet birth weight (12.1 %, P < 0.001). In conclusion, to reduce piglet preweaning mortality in commercial swine herds, special care needs to be taken in litters with more than 13 littermate pigs and with piglets with birth weight below 1.30 kg.

  11. Environmental source of mycobacteriosis in a California swine herd.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, I A; Hird, D W

    1989-01-01

    Between July 1985 and April 1986, mycobacterial lymphadenitis was recorded in six of 2407 slaughter pigs from a commercial swine herd in which the majority of pigs were raised in confinement. Records showed that all six affected pigs had access to dirt-floored pens at least 81 days prior to slaughter. The mycobacteriosis lesion rate for pigs exposed to dirt pens was 9.4% while in nonexposed pigs the lesion rate was zero. The risk associated with movement of pigs from concrete floored pens to dirt pens was evaluated by a field trial. In the field trial, two litters (5 of 15 pigs) exposed to dirt pens at 12-24 days of age but none of nine nonexposed litters (39 pigs) developed lesions. Mycobacterium avium-complex bacteria were recovered from both exposed litters (9 of 15 pigs) but from none of nine nonexposed litters. Serovars of M. avium-complex isolated from trial pigs included 1, 4, 8, 9, the dual serovar 4/8, and an untypable serovar. Incense-cedar bark (Calocedrus decurrens) used as a flooring material in the pens was demonstrated to be a potential source of M. avium-complex serovar 9. The dual serovar 4/8 and an untypable M. avium-complex were isolated from the dirt-floored pens. No evidence of cross-transmission of M. avium-complex infection was detected. The sporadic pattern of mycobacteriosis observed in the herd probably resulted from infrequent exposure to a common environmental source. PMID:2914225

  12. Comparison of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Isolates Recovered from Pigs in Apparently Healthy Multiplier Herds with Isolates from Herds with Swine Dysentery.

    PubMed

    La, Tom; Rohde, Judith; Phillips, Nyree Dale; Hampson, David J

    2016-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is a mucohaemorrhagic colitis of grower/finisher pigs classically resulting from infection by the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. This study aimed to determine whether B. hyodysenteriae isolates from pigs in three healthy German multiplier herds supplying gilts to other farms differed from isolates from nine German production herds with SD. Isolates were subjected to whole genomic sequencing, and in silico multilocus sequence typing showed that those from the three multiplier herds were of previously undescribed sequence types (ST132, ST133 and ST134), with all isolates from the same herd having the same ST. All isolates were examined for the presence of 332 genes encoding predicted virulence or virulence lifestyle associated factors, and these were well conserved. Isolates from one multiplier herd were atypical in being weakly haemolytic: they had 10 amino acid substitutions in the haemolysin III protein and five in the haemolysin activation protein compared to reference strain WA1, and had a disruption in the promoter site of the hlyA gene. These changes likely contribute to the weakly haemolytic phenotype and putative lack of virulence. These same isolates also had nine base pair insertions in the iron metabolism genes bitB and bitC and lacked five of six plasmid genes that previously have been associated with colonisation. Other overall differences between isolates from the different herds were in genes from three of five outer membrane proteins, which were not found in all the isolates, and in members of a block of six plasmid genes. Isolates from three herds with SD had all six plasmid genes, while isolates lacking some of these genes were found in the three healthy herds-but also in isolates from six herds with SD. Other differences in genes of unknown function or in gene expression may contribute to variation in virulence; alternatively, superior husbandry and better general health may have made pigs in the

  13. Comparison of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Isolates Recovered from Pigs in Apparently Healthy Multiplier Herds with Isolates from Herds with Swine Dysentery.

    PubMed

    La, Tom; Rohde, Judith; Phillips, Nyree Dale; Hampson, David J

    2016-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is a mucohaemorrhagic colitis of grower/finisher pigs classically resulting from infection by the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. This study aimed to determine whether B. hyodysenteriae isolates from pigs in three healthy German multiplier herds supplying gilts to other farms differed from isolates from nine German production herds with SD. Isolates were subjected to whole genomic sequencing, and in silico multilocus sequence typing showed that those from the three multiplier herds were of previously undescribed sequence types (ST132, ST133 and ST134), with all isolates from the same herd having the same ST. All isolates were examined for the presence of 332 genes encoding predicted virulence or virulence lifestyle associated factors, and these were well conserved. Isolates from one multiplier herd were atypical in being weakly haemolytic: they had 10 amino acid substitutions in the haemolysin III protein and five in the haemolysin activation protein compared to reference strain WA1, and had a disruption in the promoter site of the hlyA gene. These changes likely contribute to the weakly haemolytic phenotype and putative lack of virulence. These same isolates also had nine base pair insertions in the iron metabolism genes bitB and bitC and lacked five of six plasmid genes that previously have been associated with colonisation. Other overall differences between isolates from the different herds were in genes from three of five outer membrane proteins, which were not found in all the isolates, and in members of a block of six plasmid genes. Isolates from three herds with SD had all six plasmid genes, while isolates lacking some of these genes were found in the three healthy herds-but also in isolates from six herds with SD. Other differences in genes of unknown function or in gene expression may contribute to variation in virulence; alternatively, superior husbandry and better general health may have made pigs in the

  14. Comparison of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Isolates Recovered from Pigs in Apparently Healthy Multiplier Herds with Isolates from Herds with Swine Dysentery

    PubMed Central

    La, Tom; Rohde, Judith; Phillips, Nyree Dale; Hampson, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is a mucohaemorrhagic colitis of grower/finisher pigs classically resulting from infection by the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. This study aimed to determine whether B. hyodysenteriae isolates from pigs in three healthy German multiplier herds supplying gilts to other farms differed from isolates from nine German production herds with SD. Isolates were subjected to whole genomic sequencing, and in silico multilocus sequence typing showed that those from the three multiplier herds were of previously undescribed sequence types (ST132, ST133 and ST134), with all isolates from the same herd having the same ST. All isolates were examined for the presence of 332 genes encoding predicted virulence or virulence lifestyle associated factors, and these were well conserved. Isolates from one multiplier herd were atypical in being weakly haemolytic: they had 10 amino acid substitutions in the haemolysin III protein and five in the haemolysin activation protein compared to reference strain WA1, and had a disruption in the promoter site of the hlyA gene. These changes likely contribute to the weakly haemolytic phenotype and putative lack of virulence. These same isolates also had nine base pair insertions in the iron metabolism genes bitB and bitC and lacked five of six plasmid genes that previously have been associated with colonisation. Other overall differences between isolates from the different herds were in genes from three of five outer membrane proteins, which were not found in all the isolates, and in members of a block of six plasmid genes. Isolates from three herds with SD had all six plasmid genes, while isolates lacking some of these genes were found in the three healthy herds—but also in isolates from six herds with SD. Other differences in genes of unknown function or in gene expression may contribute to variation in virulence; alternatively, superior husbandry and better general health may have made pigs in

  15. Outbreak investigation of porcine epidemic diarrhea in swine in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Pasma, Tim; Furness, Mary Catherine; Alves, David; Aubry, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus was first diagnosed in Ontario in January of 2014. An outbreak investigation was conducted and it was hypothesized that feed containing spray-dried porcine plasma contaminated with the virus was a risk factor in the introduction and spread of the disease in Ontario. PMID:26740705

  16. Prevalence of seroreactors to the 104-kilodalton hemolysin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in swine herds.

    PubMed Central

    Devenish, J; Rosendal, S; Bossé, J T; Wilkie, B N; Johnson, R

    1990-01-01

    A rabbit homologous polyclonal antiserum to the 104-kilodalton hemolysin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 strain CM-5 was specifically produced and used in an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect swine serum antibodies to this potentially important virulence factor. Sera from pigs experimentally infected with the most common disease-producing serotypes (serotypes 1, 2, 5, and 7) of A. pleuropneumoniae produced positive results in this ELISA. Of 144 serum samples collected from 10 herds free of pleuropneumonia and 155 serum samples from 11 herds with a history of the disease, 68 (47%) and 148 (95%), respectively, were found positive by the ELISA. In addition, pigs naturally infected with Actinobacillus suis produced antibodies which seroreacted in this ELISA. The results indicated that a high proportion of swine have antibodies seroreactive with the 104-kilodalton hemolysin produced by A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:2332472

  17. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated from Swine Herds in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mirajkar, Nandita S; Davies, Peter R; Gebhart, Connie J

    2016-08-01

    Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered "Brachyspira hampsonii," have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility trends of four Brachyspira species originating from U.S. swine herds and to investigate their associations with the bacterial species, genotypes, and epidemiological origins of the isolates. We evaluated the susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae, B. hampsonii, Brachyspira pilosicoli, and Brachyspira murdochii to tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, and tylosin by broth microdilution and that to carbadox by agar dilution. In general, Brachyspira species showed high susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, and carbadox, heterogeneous susceptibility to doxycycline, and low susceptibility to lincomycin and tylosin. A trend of decreasing antimicrobial susceptibility by species was observed (B. hampsonii > B. hyodysenteriae > B. murdochii > B. pilosicoli). In general, Brachyspira isolates from the United States were more susceptible to these antimicrobials than were isolates from other countries. Decreased antimicrobial susceptibility was associated with the genotype, stage of production, and production system from which the isolate originated, which highlights the roles of biosecurity and husbandry in disease prevention and control. Finally, this study also highlights the urgent need for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved clinical breakpoints for Brachyspira species, to facilitate informed therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:27252458

  18. Prevalence and types of birth defects in Ontario swine determined by mail survey.

    PubMed Central

    Partlow, G D; Fisher, K R; Page, P D; MacMillan, K; Walker, A F

    1993-01-01

    Preweaning mortality in piglets constitutes a major loss to the swine industry. Congenital defects account for a small but significant proportion of these losses. To implement appropriate strategies to reduce such losses, it is necessary to identify the specific causes and their relative importance. Consequently, a mail survey of swine production in Ontario was carried out to determine the prevalence and types of birth defects. Statistical comparisons of the prevalence of overall defects were made between accurate and estimate records, breeds (cross vs. purebred), size of operation (number of sows) and geographic location. The mean litter size of 11 pigs born per sow was not significantly different for those with accurate versus estimate records, but the difference in the prevalence of defective pigs (live and dead) was significant (accurate 3.1% vs. estimate 4.1%). Splayleg (spraddleleg) was the most common defect. The next four defects for both groups were belly rupture, other rupture, ridglings and other, but not in the same ranking. Purebred and small farm operations (< 25 sows) had a significantly higher prevalence of birth defects for estimated data only. Geographic location had no effect. Further work is required to determine whether recording prevalence of birth defects in Ontario swine will provide a useful monitor of environmental stress. The study provides a baseline for the prevalence and type of defects in Ontario swine. PMID:8490809

  19. The Successful Management of Leptospirosa hardjo Infection in a Beef Herd in Northern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Kingscote, Barbara F.; Proulx, Julien

    1986-01-01

    Abortion, premature calving, hemolytic anemia and fatal hematuria were associated with high levels (titer > 10−4) of antibody to Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo and with isolation of hardjo in a herd of 265 beef cattle in the Great Clay Belt of northern Ontario. This herd was bred by artificial insemination, after heat detection by vasectomized bulls. The antibody prevalence rate in the herd was 54 to 60% over a five year period. The rate tended to reach 100% by age three years and to be below 5% in yearlings, which were raised in isolation from older cattle. Hardjo was isolated from the urine of a cow that aborted in the eighth month of pregnancy, and from kidneys of yearling steers which had been exposed to an older cow. Maternal antibody levels in calves paralleled those in their dams, protecting calves while they were being naturally exposed to infection, thus contributing to the achievement of balance between host and parasite. A controlled vaccination trial was conducted in 50 initially seronegative yearling steers and heifers. Serological response to vaccine was limited to a maximum agglutinin titer of 10−2 in 8% of vaccinated cattle. Vaccination reduced the infection rate from 86% in the controls to 46% in the treated group, indirectly reducing the number of calves for which colostral antibody against hardjo would be available. A vaccination program was not implemented in the herd. Hardjo infection appeared to die out over a period of six years following the initial five year study period, with antibody prevalence falling from 60% to 0.7% and reactors persisting only in two eight year old cows. Decline in infection was coincident with changes in management which protected heifers from exposure to infection until their third pregnancy, and which probably lowered the reservoir of infection by increased culling from older age classes. PMID:17422716

  20. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in commercial swine herds is associated with disinfectant and zinc usage.

    PubMed

    Slifierz, Mackenzie Jonathan; Friendship, Robert M; Weese, J Scott

    2015-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) originating from swine is concerning for public health, but an understanding of the emergence and persistence of MRSA in nursery herds is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine whether MRSA in nursery pigs is associated with particular herd-level parameters, including the use of antimicrobials, disinfectants, and heavy metals, which may be driving the selection and persistence of antimicrobial resistance. Nasal cultures for MRSA were completed for 390 pigs from 26 farms at the end of the suckling phase and again at 3 weeks postweaning. Herd-level information was collected, and a random subset of MRSA isolates was screened for resistance to zinc and quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Multivariate analysis revealed that in-feed concentrations of zinc (P < 0.001) and frequent disinfection of nursery pens (P < 0.001) are associated with MRSA shedding in nursery pigs. Furthermore, 62.5% (25/40) of MRSA isolates carried the zinc resistance gene czrC and demonstrated decreased susceptibility to zinc. All MRSA isolates carried at least 1 QAC resistance gene. The most common genotype was qacG qacH smr, which occurred in 32.5% (13/40) of isolates. Seven isolates (17.5%) demonstrated a significant tolerance to benzalkonium chloride, indicating a potential to survive commercial QAC exposure in the presence of organic matter. Overall, these findings indicate that high levels of in-feed zinc and QAC-based disinfectants are important drivers in the selection and persistence of MRSA in commercial swine herds, and these agents may be coselecting for other antimicrobial resistance genes.

  1. Exploring the characteristics and dynamics of Ontario dairy herds experiencing increases in bulk milk somatic cell count during the summer.

    PubMed

    Shock, D A; LeBlanc, S J; Leslie, K E; Hand, K; Godkin, M A; Coe, J B; Kelton, D F

    2015-06-01

    Regionally aggregated bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) data from around the world shows a repeatable cyclicity, with the highest levels experienced during warm, humid seasons. No studies have evaluated this seasonal phenomenon at the herd level. The objectives of this study were to define summer seasonality in BMSCC on an individual herd basis, and subsequently to describe the characteristics and dynamics of herds with increased BMSCC in the summer. The data used for this analysis were from all dairy farms in Ontario, Canada, between January 2000 and December 2011 (n≈4,000 to 6,000 herds/yr). Bulk milk data were obtained from the milk marketing board and consisted of bulk milk production, components (fat, protein, lactose, other solids), and quality (BMSCC, bacterial count, inhibitor presence, freezing point), total milk quota of the farm, and milk quota and incentive fill percentage. A time-series linear mixed model, with random slopes and intercepts, was constructed using sine and cosine terms as predictors to describe seasonality, with herd as a random effect. For each herd, seasonality was described with reference to 1 cosine function of variable amplitude and phase shift. The predicted months of maximal and minimal BMSCC were then calculated. Herds were assigned as low, medium, and high summer increase (LSI, MSI, and HSI, respectively) based on percentiles of amplitude in BMSCC change for each of the 4 seasons. Using these seasonality classifications, 2 transitional repeated measures logistic regression models were built to assess the characteristics of MSI and HSI herds, using LSI herds as controls. Based on the analyses performed, a history of summer BMSCC increases increased the odds of experiencing a subsequent increase. As herd size decreased, the odds of experiencing HSI to MSI in BMSCC increased. Herds with more variability in daily BMSCC were at higher odds of experiencing MSI and HSI in BMSCC, as were herds with lower annual mean BMSCC. Finally

  2. Exploring the characteristics and dynamics of Ontario dairy herds experiencing increases in bulk milk somatic cell count during the summer.

    PubMed

    Shock, D A; LeBlanc, S J; Leslie, K E; Hand, K; Godkin, M A; Coe, J B; Kelton, D F

    2015-06-01

    Regionally aggregated bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) data from around the world shows a repeatable cyclicity, with the highest levels experienced during warm, humid seasons. No studies have evaluated this seasonal phenomenon at the herd level. The objectives of this study were to define summer seasonality in BMSCC on an individual herd basis, and subsequently to describe the characteristics and dynamics of herds with increased BMSCC in the summer. The data used for this analysis were from all dairy farms in Ontario, Canada, between January 2000 and December 2011 (n≈4,000 to 6,000 herds/yr). Bulk milk data were obtained from the milk marketing board and consisted of bulk milk production, components (fat, protein, lactose, other solids), and quality (BMSCC, bacterial count, inhibitor presence, freezing point), total milk quota of the farm, and milk quota and incentive fill percentage. A time-series linear mixed model, with random slopes and intercepts, was constructed using sine and cosine terms as predictors to describe seasonality, with herd as a random effect. For each herd, seasonality was described with reference to 1 cosine function of variable amplitude and phase shift. The predicted months of maximal and minimal BMSCC were then calculated. Herds were assigned as low, medium, and high summer increase (LSI, MSI, and HSI, respectively) based on percentiles of amplitude in BMSCC change for each of the 4 seasons. Using these seasonality classifications, 2 transitional repeated measures logistic regression models were built to assess the characteristics of MSI and HSI herds, using LSI herds as controls. Based on the analyses performed, a history of summer BMSCC increases increased the odds of experiencing a subsequent increase. As herd size decreased, the odds of experiencing HSI to MSI in BMSCC increased. Herds with more variability in daily BMSCC were at higher odds of experiencing MSI and HSI in BMSCC, as were herds with lower annual mean BMSCC. Finally

  3. A Reduction in Litter Size on an Ontario Swine Farm

    PubMed Central

    Friendship, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    In a 200 sow herd, the litter size fell from an average of 10.5 pigs born alive per litter from January to June, to an average of 9.2 for the remainder of the year. Management changes during the first part of the year resulted in half the sows weaning litters at three weeks of age and half the sows weaning at four weeks of age instead of at six weeks as was previously done. The subsequent litter size was 9.3 pigs born alive per litter for three-week weaned sows compared to 10.0 for four-week weaning. The management of gilt breeding was also altered by the necessity to breed groups of 12 gilts in one-week periods of time and therefore a higher proportion of gilts may have been mated on their first estrus instead of their second or third estrus as had been the case. The difference in litter size of first parity sows between the first six months and the second six months was 1.1 pigs. Parvovirus infection may have been a factor contributing to the reduction in litter size amongst first parity sows; two groups of first parity sows experienced an increase in mummified piglets, a reduced far rowing rate, and smaller litter size. However, no attempt was made at diagnosing an infectious agent. Parity distribution remained relatively unchanged during the year and was not associated with the drop in litter size. PMID:17422742

  4. Evaluation of recombinant Bhlp29.7 as an ELISA antigen for detecting pig herds with swine dysentery.

    PubMed

    La, Tom; Phillips, Nyree D; Hampson, David J

    2009-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) results from infection of the porcine large intestine with the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Diagnosis of SD traditionally has relied on detecting the spirochaete in the faeces of acutely affected pigs. To date simple and reliable serological assays that can be applied as a diagnostic tool at the herd level have not been available. In the current study a recombinant histidine tagged 29.7 kDa lipoprotein of B. hyodysenteriae (His6-Bhlp29.7) was used as an ELISA plate-coating antigen. Sera (n=1121) from slaughter-aged pigs on 19 farms were tested in this ELISA. Following optimization of the ELISA conditions using hyperimmune control sera, a set of 464 sera from slaughter-aged pigs from five herds where SD did not occur was tested. From these results a suitable cut-off value for herd negativity was defined as the mean optical density reading plus three standard deviations. Testing of 337 pig sera from six farms with SD then showed that the sensitivity of the test at the herd level was 100%, with all six farms having one or more serum samples exceeding the cut-off value for negativity. Finally, 320 sera from eight herds suspected of having SD were examined. Four of these herds were shown to have pigs with titres consistent with SD. The true health status of the other four herds that were serologically negative could not be confirmed. In conclusion, when used on sets of 40 sera from slaughter-aged pigs the His6-Bhlp29.7 ELISA as established proved to be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of SD at the herd level.

  5. A survey of biological productivity of Prince Edward Island swine herds.

    PubMed Central

    Van Til, L D; Dohoo, I R; Spangler, E; Ogilvie, T H

    1991-01-01

    Sow and feeder pig productivity were measured on a random sample of 32 Prince Edward Island swine farms (each producing over 1000 market hogs per year). Productivity parameters could be arranged in a hierarchy, with the highest level on farrow-finish operations represented by pigs weaned per sow per year. The 17 farrow-finish farms in this study averaged 19.6 (+/- 2.2 SD) pigs weaned per sow per year. Large variation between farms was observed with a range from 16.2 to 24.9 pigs weaned per sow per year. The major opportunities for improving productivity, as compared to reviewed targets, lie in reducing the average weaning age, reducing preweaning mortality, and reducing non-productive sow days per parity. The 14 feeder operations were characterized by 0.58 +/- 0.07 kg average daily gain. Average daily gain was negatively correlated with mortality (r = -0.662, p = 0.010), suggesting that herds that achieved a high rate of gain also had lower mortality. PMID:1884298

  6. Distribution and genetic characterization of Enterovirus G and Sapelovirus A in six Spanish swine herds.

    PubMed

    Vilar, M J; Peralta, B; García-Bocanegra, I; Simon-Grifé, M; Bensaid, A; Casal, J; Segalés, J; Pina-Pedrero, S

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of Enterovirus G (EV-G) and Sapelovirus A (PSV-1) was investigated in Spanish swine herds by means of cross-sectional studies. Faecal samples from clinically healthy pigs were collected from six farms, and analysed by RT-PCR. The results indicated a high prevalence of EV-G detected in nearly all the animals older than 3 weeks of age. Otherwise, PSV-1 was only detected in 3-week-old piglets from one of the farms. Genetic analyses performed in the VP1 region of the EV-G indicated circulation of diverse strains in the same farm, related to genotypes G1, G2, G3, G4, G6, G9, G12, G13 and G14. Moreover, co-infection of several PSV-1 variants in the same animal was evident, typical of viral quasispecies. Evolutionary pressure analysis indicated that microevolution of PSV-1 seems to be driven by negative selection. This study gives further insights in the epidemiology of EV-G and PSV-1.

  7. Emergence and characterisation of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in Hungarian swine herds.

    PubMed

    Bálint, Adám; Kiss, István; Bányai, Krisztián; Biksi, Imre; Szentpáli-Gavallér, Katalin; Magyar, Tibor; Jankovics, István; Rózsa, Mónika; Szalai, Bálint; Takács, Mária; Tóth, Adám György; Dán, Adám

    2013-03-01

    In 2010, two novel porcine H1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from pigs with influenza-like illness in Hungarian swine herds. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of these strains revealed that they shared molecular features with the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus strains, which emerged globally during 2009. The PB2, HA and NA genes contained unique amino acid changes compared to the available new H1N1 influenza virus sequences of pig origin. Furthermore, the investigated strains could be separated with respect to parallel amino acid substitutions affecting the polymerase genes (PB2, PB1 and PA) and the nucleoprotein (NP) gene, supporting the proposed complementarities between these proteins, all required for the viral fitness. Molecular characterisation of two Hungarian human pandemic H1N1 isolates was also performed, so that we could compare contemporaneous strains of different host species origins. Shared molecular motifs in various genes of animal and human influenza strains suggested that the Hungarian porcine strains could have originated from humans through direct interspecies transmission. This study is among the few that support the natural human-to-pig transmission of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.

  8. Sampling and Pooling Methods for Capturing Herd Level Antibiotic Resistance in Swine Feces using qPCR and CFU Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Mellerup, Anders; Ståhl, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to define the sampling level and method combination that captures antibiotic resistance at pig herd level utilizing qPCR antibiotic resistance gene quantification and culture-based quantification of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria. Fourteen qPCR assays for commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were developed, and used to quantify antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA from swine fecal samples that were obtained using different sampling and pooling methods. In parallel, the number of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria was determined in the same swine fecal samples. The results showed that the qPCR assays were capable of detecting differences in antibiotic resistance levels in individual animals that the coliform bacteria colony forming units (CFU) could not. Also, the qPCR assays more accurately quantified antibiotic resistance genes when comparing individual sampling and pooling methods. qPCR on pooled samples was found to be a good representative for the general resistance level in a pig herd compared to the coliform CFU counts. It had significantly reduced relative standard deviations compared to coliform CFU counts in the same samples, and therefore differences in antibiotic resistance levels between samples were more readily detected. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe sampling and pooling methods for qPCR quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA extracted from swine feces. PMID:26114765

  9. Sampling and Pooling Methods for Capturing Herd Level Antibiotic Resistance in Swine Feces using qPCR and CFU Approaches.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Gunilla Veslemøy; Mellerup, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Ståhl, Marie; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Angen, Øystein

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to define the sampling level and method combination that captures antibiotic resistance at pig herd level utilizing qPCR antibiotic resistance gene quantification and culture-based quantification of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria. Fourteen qPCR assays for commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were developed, and used to quantify antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA from swine fecal samples that were obtained using different sampling and pooling methods. In parallel, the number of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria was determined in the same swine fecal samples. The results showed that the qPCR assays were capable of detecting differences in antibiotic resistance levels in individual animals that the coliform bacteria colony forming units (CFU) could not. Also, the qPCR assays more accurately quantified antibiotic resistance genes when comparing individual sampling and pooling methods. qPCR on pooled samples was found to be a good representative for the general resistance level in a pig herd compared to the coliform CFU counts. It had significantly reduced relative standard deviations compared to coliform CFU counts in the same samples, and therefore differences in antibiotic resistance levels between samples were more readily detected. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe sampling and pooling methods for qPCR quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA extracted from swine feces.

  10. Detection and molecular characterization of swine hepatitis E virus in North Carolina swine herds and their faecal wastes.

    PubMed

    Kase, Julie A; Correa, Maria T; Sobsey, Mark D

    2009-06-01

    Recent findings of almost genetically indistinguishable swine and human strains, have suggested swine play a role in the transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV). The extent to which HEV may be present and persist in the faecal waste generated from intensive swine operations is largely unknown. The fate of swine waste liquid is often land application, possibly resulting in unintentional seepage into groundwater or run-off into surface waters, hence validating concerns of human exposure risks. Freshly passed swine faeces, barn flush liquid waste, and lagoon liquid from production sites in North Carolina were surveyed periodically for HEV using RT-PCR primers located in ORF2. On three farms where HEV RNA was detected in swine faeces, it was also found in stored liquid waste on several occasions. HEV presence was related to swine age but not to animal management and waste management procedures, which varied amongst the farms. Seasonal patterns of HEV prevalence could not be established as viral RNA was isolated at all time points from two farms. Phylogenetic analysis of 212 bases of the genomic RNA indicated that isolates resembled the known US swine and human strains (percentage nucleic acid homology 91 to 94%), with one amino acid substitution. PMID:19240360

  11. Airborne antibiotic resistant and nonresistant bacteria and fungi recovered from two swine herd confined animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Shawn G; Green, Christopher F; Tarwater, Patrick M; Scarpino, Pasquale V

    2004-11-01

    Inhalation of microorganisms could be a health concern for workers inside and downwind of animal confinement units. Using the Andersen two-stage viable microbial particle sizing sampler, air samples were collected from locations upwind, inside, and downwind during two visits to two swine herd confined animal feeding operations. Six samples were taken at each location on each site. Bacteria isolated from each site were then tested for antibiotic resistance using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Resistant bacterial forms were found inside and downwind of the swine confinement facilities, indicating that resistant organisms were being produced in and released from these facilities. Resistance to a battery of antibiotics including ampicillin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline, penicillin, tetracycline, and tylosin was found in the following bioaerosols: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and fecal coliforms. The major conclusion reached by this study was that bacteria were recovered inside and downwind of these facilities in levels that previous studies had stated could cause a potential human health hazard.

  12. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and identification of commonly occurring haplotypes using sequence specific low and high resolution primers.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Jungersen, Gregers; Sorensen, Maria Rathmann; Ho, Chak-Sum; Vadekær, Dorte Fink

    2014-12-15

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genomic region (SLA) is extremely polymorphic comprising high numbers of different alleles, many encoding a distinct MHC class I molecule, which binds and presents endogenous peptides to circulating T cells of the immune system. Upon recognition of such peptide-MHC complexes (pMHC) naïve T cells can become activated and respond to a given pathogen leading to its elimination and the generation of memory cells. Hence SLA plays a crucial role in maintaining overall adaptive immunologic resistance to pathogens. Knowing which SLA alleles that are commonly occurring can be of great importance in regard to future vaccine development and the establishment of immune protection in swine through broad coverage, highly specific, subunit based vaccination against viruses such as swine influenza, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, foot-and-mouth-disease virus and others. Here we present the use of low- and high-resolution PCR-based typing methods to identify individual and commonly occurring SLA class I alleles in Danish swine. A total of 101 animals from seven different herds were tested, and by low resolution typing the top four most frequent SLA class I alleles were those of the allele groups SLA-3*04XX, SLA-1*08XX, SLA-2*02XX, and SLA-1*07XX, respectively. Customised high resolution primers were used to identify specific alleles within the above mentioned allele groups as well as within the SLA-2*05XX allele group. Our studies also suggest the most common haplotype in Danish pigs to be Lr-4.0 expressing the SLA-1*04XX, SLA-2*04XX, and SLA-3*04XX allele combination.

  13. Swine herds achieve high performance by culling low lifetime efficiency sows in early parity.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Ariko; McTaggart, Iain; Koketsu, Yuzo

    2011-11-01

    Sow lifetime performance and by-parity performance were analyzed using a 3 by 3 factorial design, comprising 3 herd productivity groups and 3 sow efficiency groups. Data was obtained from 101 Japanese herds, totaling 173,526 parity records of 34,929 sows, for the years 2001 to 2006. Sows were categorized into 3 groups based on the lower and upper 25th percentiles of the annualized lifetime pigs born alive: low lifetime efficiency sows (LE sows), intermediate lifetime efficiency sows or high lifetime efficiency sows. Herds were grouped on the basis of the upper and lower 25th percentiles of pigs weaned per mated female per year, averaged over 6 years: high-, intermediate- or low-performing herds. Mixed-effects models were used for comparisons. LE sows in high-performing herds had 57.8 fewer lifetime nonproductive days and 0.5 earlier parity at removal than those in low-performing herds (P<0.05). The number of pigs born alive of LE sows continuously decreased from parity 1 to 5, whereas those of high lifetime efficiency sows gradually increased from parity 1 to 4 before decreasing up to parity ≥ 6 (P<0.05). In conclusion, the LE sows have a performance pattern of decreasing number of pigs born alive across parity. The present study also indicates that high-performing herds culled potential LE sows earlier than the other herds.

  14. Network analysis of swine shipments in Ontario, Canada, to support disease spread modelling and risk-based disease management.

    PubMed

    Dorjee, S; Revie, C W; Poljak, Z; McNab, W B; Sanchez, J

    2013-10-01

    Understanding contact networks are important for modelling and managing the spread and control of communicable diseases in populations. This study characterizes the swine shipment network of a multi-site production system in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Data were extracted from a company's database listing swine shipments among 251 swine farms, including 20 sow, 69 nursery and 162 finishing farms, for the 2-year period of 2006 to 2007. Several network metrics were generated. The number of shipments per week between pairs of farms ranged from 1 to 6. The medians (and ranges) of out-degree were: sow 6 (1-21), nursery 8 (0-25), and finishing 0 (0-4), over the entire 2-year study period. Corresponding estimates for in-degree of nursery and finishing farms were 3 (0-9) and 3 (0-12) respectively. Outgoing and incoming infection chains (OIC and IIC), were also measured. The medians (ranges) of the monthly OIC and IIC were 0 (0-8) and 0 (0-6), respectively, with very similar measures observed for 2-week intervals. Nursery farms exhibited high measures of centrality. This indicates that they pose greater risks of disease spread in the network. Therefore, they should be given a high priority for disease prevention and control measures affecting all age groups alike. The network demonstrated scale-free and small-world topologies as observed in other livestock shipment studies. This heterogeneity in contacts among farm types and network topologies should be incorporated in simulation models to improve their validity. In conclusion, this study provided useful epidemiological information and parameters for the control and modelling of disease spread among swine farms, for the first time from Ontario, Canada.

  15. A benefit cost analysis of dry-cow mastitis therapy in Ontario dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    McNab, W. Bruce; Meek, Alan H.

    1991-01-01

    Data collected from 297 dairy farms in Ontario were analyzed to investigate the economic consequences of using dry-cow antibiotic therapy, and to demonstrate the elements of an economic evaluation. Benefit/cost ratios ranged from 0.5 to 31.0 depending on the methods used to assess the benefits of therapy. In general, within the assumptions outlined in this analysis, dry-cow therapy was found to be economically advantageous. However, many factors can influence milk production and somatic cell counts. In this observational study, it is possible that some such factors were confounded with the use of dry-cow therapy, and may have biased the estimates of economic impact. PMID:17423801

  16. [Prevalence of herd specific factors and limb disorders, and their associations in intensive swine production].

    PubMed

    Lahrmann, Karl Heinz; Steinberg, Christina; Dahms, Susanne; Heller, Peter

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal observational study in 180 pig breeding herds was performed to calculate prevalences of herd specific factors as well as typical limb disorders and to estimate their associations in a 2-step regression analysis. Regarding herd size, genetics, feeding and weight gain herds were distributed almost equal. The population density and the hygiene status were considered proper in most herds. In the farrowing units partially slatted floors of metal or plastic with slats > 9 mm, in the weaning units fully slatted floors of plastic, and in the rearing units fully slatted floors of concrete were most common. Less than 6% of the farms housed their pigs on solid concrete with straw bedding. Herd prevalences of fault floors varied between 18 and 43%. As a herd health problem (morbidity > 25%) claw hematomas and limb abrasions in just 1-week old piglets, overgrown claws and bursa swellings in weaned pigs, and bursa swellings in rearing pigs were wide spread. Leg deformations by osteopathy or arthritis occurred only sporadically. In the risk analysis claw hematomas of piglets were associated with slatted floors, particulary with slats < 10 mm. Abrasions were associated with concrete and rough floor surfaces at all. Overgrown claws and bursa swellings in weaned and in rearing pigs were associated with damaged, slippery or rough floor surfaces. Other associations were not detected. The quality of floor might be more important than the type of housing.

  17. Risk factors for herds to test positive for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-antibodies with a commercial milk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in Ontario and western Canada.

    PubMed

    Sorge, Ulrike S; Lissemore, Kerry; Godkin, Ann; Jansen, Jocelyn; Hendrick, Steven; Wells, Scott; Kelton, David F

    2012-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify risk factors associated with i) a Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-antibody milk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAP milk ELISA)-positive herd status, and ii) the within-herd MAP milk ELISA-positive prevalence in Canadian dairy herds. This prospective cohort study was conducted between 2005 and 2009 on 226 herds in Ontario and western Canada, which participated in a voluntary risk assessment (RA)-based Johne's disease control program. Two MAP milk ELISA and risk assessments and a previsit survey were available per herd. The overall farm RA scores alone could not be used to predict whether a herd would test positive for MAP antibodies. However, the results of this study indicated that increasing the likelihood of exposing calves to MAP through certain management practices, as assessed with the RA, increased the likelihood of a herd being test-positive for MAP antibodies. PMID:23450860

  18. Risk factors for herds to test positive for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-antibodies with a commercial milk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in Ontario and western Canada

    PubMed Central

    Sorge, Ulrike S.; Lissemore, Kerry; Godkin, Ann; Jansen, Jocelyn; Hendrick, Steven; Wells, Scott; Kelton, David F.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify risk factors associated with i) a Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-antibody milk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAP milk ELISA)-positive herd status, and ii) the within-herd MAP milk ELISA-positive prevalence in Canadian dairy herds. This prospective cohort study was conducted between 2005 and 2009 on 226 herds in Ontario and western Canada, which participated in a voluntary risk assessment (RA)-based Johne’s disease control program. Two MAP milk ELISA and risk assessments and a previsit survey were available per herd. The overall farm RA scores alone could not be used to predict whether a herd would test positive for MAP antibodies. However, the results of this study indicated that increasing the likelihood of exposing calves to MAP through certain management practices, as assessed with the RA, increased the likelihood of a herd being test-positive for MAP antibodies. PMID:23450860

  19. Evidence for porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) in Brazilian swine herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Porcine bocaviruses were recently identified among swine co-infected with PCV2 (2,3) and suffering an acute-onset disease of high mortality in the United States, in pigs with PMWS in Sweden (1), and in pigs with reproductive and neurological disease in China (4). Parvoviruses are smal...

  20. [Aujeszky's disease: sanitation of swine herds in enzootically infected areas using labelled vaccines].

    PubMed

    Pittler, H; Rojahn, A

    1990-01-01

    Both in the Federal Republic of Germany and in some neighbouring countries the epizootic situation of Aujeszky's disease has been unsatisfactory for a long time, especially in areas with a high pig density. New findings on vaccines with certain protein deletions have recently indicated the possibility that the disease might be eradicated even in vaccinated herds. By using labelled vaccines it seems possible to distinguish the carriers of vaccine virus antibodies from the carriers of field virus antibodies and to eliminate the animals infected with field virus, while leaving the other animals in the herd and protecting them from infection by vaccination. This procedure would also be practicable in epizootically infected areas and would be less expensive than eradicating the disease on the basis of serological tests without using vaccines. A skeleton of an eradication programme, which was discussed and agreed with scientific experts and with the Federal Laender, as well as rough estimates of costs are being presented.

  1. Epizootic Infection of a Minimal Disease Swine Herd with a Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Orr, James P.; Althouse, Elizabeth; Dulac, Gilles C.; Durham, Peter J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A totally confined, farrow-to-finish, closed, minimal disease herd of pigs experienced high death and reproductive losses during a disease outbreak lasting five weeks, and during the ensuing three months. The losses were caused by infection of pigs of all ages with a herpesvirus, with devastating effects on the lungs of immature pigs and on the reproductive performance of the sows. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:17422946

  2. Prevalence and diversity of toxigenic Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile among swine herds in the midwest.

    PubMed

    Baker, Ashley A; Davis, Ellen; Rehberger, Thomas; Rosener, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile are associated with scours in the neonatal piglet and are an economic concern in swine production. The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence and diversity of C. perfringens and C. difficile isolates obtained from scouring neonatal piglets in a large integrated production system, as well as in smaller independently owned regional farms. Rectal swabs were collected from 333 pigs at 11 sites in an integrated swine production system and from an additional 180 pigs at 16 regional farms located throughout the Midwest. C. perfringens was isolated from 89.8% of the pigs swabbed at the integrated sites, and C. difficile was isolated from 57.7% of these pigs. Of the pigs from the regional farms sampled, 95.6% were positive for isolation of C. perfringens and 27.2% were positive for C. difficile. Toxigenic isolates were typed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR, and were placed in four dendrograms for C. perfringens and C. difficile populations isolated from the integrated sites and regional farms. Diversity indices showed that there was greater diversity in C. difficile populations and in populations isolated from the regional farms. A subset of isolates from the C. difficile dendrograms were further toxinotyped by amplification of the pathogenicity locus and subsequent digestion by HincII, AccI, and EcoRI. Of the 45 isolates typed, 44 were determined to be toxinotype V. The results of this study illustrate the diversity of C. perfringens and C. difficile isolates and the prevalence of these pathogens in swine production sites.

  3. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Porcine circovirus-2 in swine feces in a Porcine circovirus disease-affected commercial herd and a nonaffected commercial herd

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Kathleen A.; Harding, John C.S.; Parker, Sarah; Krakowka, Steven; Allan, Gordon; Ellis, John A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined if pigs in a Porcine circovirus disease (PCVD)-affected herd (n = 100) had shed more Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) in their feces than pigs in a PCVD-nonaffected herd (n = 101), and if differences in shedding among production stages within and between the herds existed. The PCV-2 shedding was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The highest median PCV-2 shedding was found in the nursery of the PCVD-affected herd and in the grower of the PCVD-nonaffected herd. The PCV-2 shedding was significantly higher in earlier stages (newly weaned, nursery, and pregrower) in the PCVD-affected herd (Wilcoxon rank sum; P < 0.001) compared with the PCVD-nonaffected herd. Porcine circovirus-2 DNA was not detected in a significant proportion of lactating sows (parity ≥ 3) in the PCVD-nonaffected herd (Fisher’s exact test; P = 0.001). The results of this study suggest there may be an association between the presence of PCV-2 in the feces of lactating sows and increased PCV-2 shedding in younger pigs. PMID:19252710

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the U.S. swine herd using sera collected during the National Animal Health Monitoring Survey (Swine 2006)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sera and data on swine management practices was collected during the voluntary survey of 185 grower/finisher swine production sites located in 16 states accounting for >90% of U.S. swine production . A total of 6,238 sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a commercial ELISA assay; all posit...

  5. Detection of Porcine Parvovirus 2 (Ungulate Tetraparvovirus 3) Specific Antibodies and Examination of the Serological Profile of an Infected Swine Herd

    PubMed Central

    Cságola, Attila; Zádori, Zoltán; Mészáros, István; Tuboly, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus 2 (PPV2) is a member of a recently discovered group of swine parvoviruses occurring worldwide. It is frequently detected in lung samples suggesting some pathological role of the virus in diseases. To study this possibility an indirect ELISA was developed to detect PPV2 specific antibodies and to examine the serological profile of an infected swine herd where 185 serum samples collected from different age groups including sows were analyzed. According to the results maternal antibody levels decreased until 14 days of age and PPV2 specific antibodies started to rise between 28 to 43 days of age when respiratory signs were also observed in the examined swine herd. At 57 days of age the clinical signs disappeared and a rapid increase of PPV2 specific antibody levels could be measured simultaneously, peaking at 57 days of age. The viraemic status of different age groups was determined by qPCR using serum samples. At least a low level of viraemia was measured in every age group, but higher copy number of PPV2 was only detected at 57 days of age and the level decreased in older age groups. The changes in virus load and antibody levels together with the onset and decrease of clinical signs suggested that PPV2 had a role in the development of respiratory signs. PMID:26974825

  6. Detection of Porcine Parvovirus 2 (Ungulate Tetraparvovirus 3) Specific Antibodies and Examination of the Serological Profile of an Infected Swine Herd.

    PubMed

    Cságola, Attila; Zádori, Zoltán; Mészáros, István; Tuboly, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus 2 (PPV2) is a member of a recently discovered group of swine parvoviruses occurring worldwide. It is frequently detected in lung samples suggesting some pathological role of the virus in diseases. To study this possibility an indirect ELISA was developed to detect PPV2 specific antibodies and to examine the serological profile of an infected swine herd where 185 serum samples collected from different age groups including sows were analyzed. According to the results maternal antibody levels decreased until 14 days of age and PPV2 specific antibodies started to rise between 28 to 43 days of age when respiratory signs were also observed in the examined swine herd. At 57 days of age the clinical signs disappeared and a rapid increase of PPV2 specific antibody levels could be measured simultaneously, peaking at 57 days of age. The viraemic status of different age groups was determined by qPCR using serum samples. At least a low level of viraemia was measured in every age group, but higher copy number of PPV2 was only detected at 57 days of age and the level decreased in older age groups. The changes in virus load and antibody levels together with the onset and decrease of clinical signs suggested that PPV2 had a role in the development of respiratory signs. PMID:26974825

  7. Herd characteristics and cow-level factors associated with Prototheca mastitis on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pieper, L; Godkin, A; Roesler, U; Polleichtner, A; Slavic, D; Leslie, K E; Kelton, D F

    2012-10-01

    Prototheca spp. are algae that cause incurable acute or chronic mastitis in dairy cows. The aim of this case-control study was the identification of cow- and herd-level risk factors for this unusual mastitis pathogen. Aseptically collected composite milk samples from 2,428 milking cows in 23 case and 23 control herds were collected between January and May 2011. A questionnaire was administered to the producers, and cow-level production and demographic data were gathered. In 58 of 64 isolates, Prototheca spp. and Prototheca zopfii genotypes were differentiated using PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. All isolates were identified as Prototheca zopfii genotype 2. The mean within-herd prevalence for Prototheca spp. was 5.1% (range 0.0-12.5%). Case herds had a significantly lower herd-level prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and a higher prevalence of yeasts than did control herds. The final logistic regression model for herd-level risk factors included use of intramammary injections of a non-intramammary drug [odds ratio (OR) = 136.8], the number of different injectable antibiotic products being used (OR = 2.82), the use of any dry cow teat sealant (external OR = 80.0; internal OR = 34.2), and having treated 3 or more displaced abomasums in the last 12 mo OR = 44.7). The final logistic regression model for cow-level risk factors included second or greater lactation (OR = 4.40) and the logarithm of the lactation-average somatic cell count (OR = 2.99). Unsanitary or repeated intramammary infusions, antibiotic treatment, and off-label use of injectable drugs in the udder might promote Prototheca udder infection. PMID:22884347

  8. [Transmission of agents of the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) between swine herds: a review. Part 2--Pathogen transmission via semen, air and living/nonliving vectors].

    PubMed

    Woeste, K; Grosse Beilage, E

    2007-10-01

    The transmission of PRDC-pathogens (PRRSV, influenza virus A, PCV2, M. hyopneumoniae, A. pleuropneumoniae) between swine herds, which was summarized in the first part of the review, mainly occurs via pig movement. The risk of pathogen transmission by insemination with contaminated semen plays only a relevant role in the infection with PRRSV and PCV2. A risk of the aerogen transmission of pathogens between herds within a distance of 2 to 3 km is described for M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV. Evidence for the other pathogens is not investigated. The PRDC-pathogens are frequently detected in wild boar populations. Therefore, the transmission between wild boars and domestic pigs seems possible by close contacts. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae can be transmitted by contaminated clothes and boots, but the use of sanitation protocols appears to limit their spread. Live vectors like rodents or birds seemed to have no special importance for the transmission of PRDC-pathogens. PMID:17970334

  9. Characterization of feed intake patterns during lactation in commercial swine herds.

    PubMed

    Koketsu, Y; Dial, G D; Pettigrew, J E; Marsh, W E; King, V L

    1996-06-01

    This study created and used a data-base containing 25,719 farrowing and 19,393 subsequent litter records abstracted from the PigCHAMP records of 30 commercial farms and daily feed intake records of 25,040 of these lactating sows. Each lactation feed record was categorized into one of six patterns: RAPID, rapid increase in feed intake following farrowing; MAJOR, major drop in feed intake during lactation; MINOR, minor drop; LLL, low feed intake throughout lactation; LHH, low feed intake during the first week then increasing for the remainder of lactation; and GRADUAL, gradual increase in feed intake throughout lactation. At the herd level, patterns RAPID, MAJOR, MINOR, LLL, LHH, and GRADUAL were observed in 22.8%, 32.9%, 27.8%, 1.0%, 8%, and 14.7% of sows, respectively. On a sow basis, across all feed intake records of all farms, patterns RAPID, MAJOR, MINOR, LLL, LHH, and GRADUAL were observed at frequencies of 17.8%, 38.3%, 25.8%, 1.2%, 1.5%, and 15.4%, respectively. Using logistic regression, the risk factors affecting the occurrence of MAJOR and MINOR patterns were lower parity, thicker backfat, higher room temperature, and greater feed intake during early lactation. Average daily feed intake and the day of peak intake were 5.2 (1.4 SD) kg/sow and 12.6 (4.6 SD) d after farrowing. Regression coefficients of factors affecting ADFI derived from multiple regression analyses were 247 g for parity, 9 g for weaning litter weight (kg), -13 g for room temperature (degree C), 62 g for lactation length (d), and -.4 g for energy density (kcal/kg). This study demonstrated substantial individual sow and farm variation in overall feed intake and pattern of feed intake during lactation. It also identified key risk factors (i.e., parity, lactation length, room temperature, weaning litter weights, energy density) for ADFI and pattern of feed intake on commercial farms.

  10. Identifying questions in the American Association of Swine Veterinarian's PRRS risk assessment survey that are important for retrospectively classifying swine herds according to whether they reported clinical PRRS outbreaks in the previous 3 years.

    PubMed

    Holtkamp, Derald J; Lin, Hui; Wang, Chong; O'Connor, Annette M

    2012-09-01

    The American Association of Swine Veterinarian's (AASV) Production Animal Disease Risk Assessment Program (PADRAP) is a web-based program that offers a set of risk assessment surveys being used by veterinarians who are members of the AASV. Members use PADRAP to help producers systematically assess risk factors that may be associated with clinical outcomes. As assessments are performed the completed surveys are added to the dataset maintained at the Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine. One of the surveys included in PADRAP is the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) Risk Assessment for the Breeding Herd. The aim of the study was to categorize questions in version 2 of the PRRS Risk Assessment for the Breeding Herd survey as important or unimportant for classifying herds according to whether they reported clinical PRRS outbreaks in the previous 3 years. The results elucidate the relative importance of risk factors and areas of risk factors for clinical outcomes and removing unimportant questions may reduce the time required to complete the survey without affecting the quality of information obtained. Surveys from 896 sow herd sites in the United States and Canada completed between March 2005 and March 2009 were included in the analysis. The survey contained a large number of questions with a complex correlation structure among the questions. Responses for several questions were dependent upon responses to others. To address these issues, an approach was developed using a series of statistical methods including random forest, principle component analysis, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to classify the herds using the questions in the survey as explanatory variables. Questions were ranked by importance and systematically excluded from least important to most important. The questions excluded, without significantly affecting the performance of the model for classifying herds were identified as

  11. Comparison of disease trends in the Ontario swine population using active practitioner-based surveillance and passive laboratory-based surveillance (2007–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Amezcua, Rocio; Pearl, David L.; Friendship, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    A concern about emerging swine diseases led to a pilot study to determine the feasibility of an active surveillance system referred to as the Ontario Swine Veterinary-based Surveillance System (OSVS). The OSVS recorded the incidence of various syndromes and investigated potential outbreaks. However, validation of the disease patterns observed was needed. The objective of this study was to compare the disease patterns observed in the OSVS system with submission data obtained from a regional diagnostic laboratory — the Animal Health Laboratory (AHL). Higher rates of submission were reported to the OSVS compared with AHL records. However, OSVS and AHL data captured similar trends of disease. The OSVS data captured potential outbreaks that were not reflected in the laboratory data. Validation of active and passive syndromic surveillance data is necessary, and efforts should be made to integrate these types of data sources. PMID:24155479

  12. Knowledge of zoonoses among those affiliated with the ontario Swine industry: a questionnaire administered to selected producers, allied personnel, and veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Dawn M; Dewey, Catherine E; Rajić, Andrijana; Poljak, Zvonimir; Young, Beth

    2010-02-01

    Zoonoses are diseases caused by infectious agents that are transmitted from animals to humans. Some zoonoses have been associated with the pig and pork industry. To ensure the safety of pigs and pork and to improve public health it is essential to understand the level of knowledge of those affiliated with the swine industry. The purpose of our study was to assess the knowledge of and attitude toward zoonotic and other microbial hazards among targeted groups of stakeholders associated with the Ontario swine industry. A postal questionnaire was sent to 409 individuals representing producers, veterinarians, and allied industry personnel. The questionnaire included seven dichotomous and Likert-scale type questions on microbial hazards, addressing topics on familiarity, concern, presence, antimicrobial resistance, and knowledge transfer. The overall response rate was 53% (218/409). More respondents were concerned about the zoonotic potential of Salmonella spp. (53-94%) and swine influenza virus (64-75%) than other hazards. The group of veterinarians were more familiar (>89%) with all microbial hazards than other occupation groups. Additionally, antimicrobial resistance was reported as a problem by more (60%) veterinarians than producers (20%). Educational efforts should focus on preferred methods of knowledge transfer (e.g., producer meetings, magazine) to update swine industry personnel about zoonoses in an attempt to improve food safety and public health. PMID:19895261

  13. Associations between feed and water antimicrobial use in farrow-to-finish swine herds and antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli from grow-finish pigs.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, Leigh B; Waldner, Cheryl L; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Dowling, Patricia M; Harding, John C S

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli (n = 1439), isolated from the feces of apparently healthy grow-finish pigs in 20 herds, were tested for susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials. Logistic regression models were developed for each resistance that was observed in more than 5% of the isolates. Each production phase's (suckling, nursery, grow-finish pigs or sows) antimicrobial exposure rate, through feed or water, was considered as a risk factor. Management variables were evaluated as potential confounders. Six resistance outcomes were associated with an antimicrobial use risk factor and four included exposures of pigs outside the grow-finish phase. In the case of sulfamethoxazole, the odds of resistance increased 2.3 times for every 100,000 pig-days of nursery pig exposure to sulfonamides. Thus, swine producers and veterinarians must be aware that antimicrobial use in pigs distant from market could have food safety repercussions. Five resistance outcomes were associated with exposure to an unrelated antimicrobial class. Most notably, the odds of sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol resistance were each six times higher in herds reporting high (more than 500/1,000 pig-days) grow-finish pig, macrolide exposure compared to herds with no macrolide use in grow-finish pigs. Therefore, the potential for co-selection should be considered in antimicrobial use decisions. This study emphasizes the importance of judicious antimicrobial use in pork production.

  14. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  15. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  16. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  17. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  18. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  19. Impact of Season, Demographic and Environmental Factors on Salmonella Occurrence in Raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Swine Farms and Conservation Areas in Southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Bondo, Kristin J; Pearl, David L; Janecko, Nicol; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Parmley, Jane; Jardine, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella has been detected in the feces of many wildlife species, including raccoons (Procyon lotor), but little is known about the epidemiology of Salmonella in wildlife living in different habitat types. Our objective was to investigate demographic, temporal, and climatic factors associated with the carriage of Salmonella in raccoons and their environment on swine farms and conservation areas. Using a repeated cross-sectional study design, we collected fecal samples from raccoons and environmental samples (soil, manure pits, dumpsters) on 5 swine farms and 5 conservation areas in Ontario, Canada once every five weeks from May to November, 2011-2013. Salmonella was detected in 26% (279/1093; 95% CI 22.9-28.2) of raccoon fecal samples, 6% (88/1609; 95% CI 4.5-6.8) of soil samples, 30% (21/69; 95% CI 20.0-42.7) of manure pit samples, and 23% (7/31; 95% CI 9.6-41.0) of dumpster samples. Of samples testing positive for Salmonella, antimicrobial resistance was detected in 5% (14/279; 95% CI 2.8-8.3) of raccoon fecal, 8% (7/89; 95% CI 3.2-15.5) of soil, 10% (2/21; 95% CI 1.2-30.4) of manure pit, and 0/7 dumpster samples. Using multi-level multivariable logistic regression analyses, we found location type (swine farm or conservation area) was not a significant explanatory variable for Salmonella occurrence in raccoon feces or soil (p > 0.05). However, detection of Salmonella in raccoon feces was associated with rainfall, season, and sex with various interaction effects among these variables. We detected a variety of Salmonella serovars that infect humans and livestock in the feces of raccoons indicating that raccoons living near humans, regardless of location type, may play a role in the epidemiology of salmonellosis in livestock and humans in southwestern Ontario.

  20. Impact of Season, Demographic and Environmental Factors on Salmonella Occurrence in Raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Swine Farms and Conservation Areas in Southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Bondo, Kristin J; Pearl, David L; Janecko, Nicol; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Parmley, Jane; Jardine, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella has been detected in the feces of many wildlife species, including raccoons (Procyon lotor), but little is known about the epidemiology of Salmonella in wildlife living in different habitat types. Our objective was to investigate demographic, temporal, and climatic factors associated with the carriage of Salmonella in raccoons and their environment on swine farms and conservation areas. Using a repeated cross-sectional study design, we collected fecal samples from raccoons and environmental samples (soil, manure pits, dumpsters) on 5 swine farms and 5 conservation areas in Ontario, Canada once every five weeks from May to November, 2011-2013. Salmonella was detected in 26% (279/1093; 95% CI 22.9-28.2) of raccoon fecal samples, 6% (88/1609; 95% CI 4.5-6.8) of soil samples, 30% (21/69; 95% CI 20.0-42.7) of manure pit samples, and 23% (7/31; 95% CI 9.6-41.0) of dumpster samples. Of samples testing positive for Salmonella, antimicrobial resistance was detected in 5% (14/279; 95% CI 2.8-8.3) of raccoon fecal, 8% (7/89; 95% CI 3.2-15.5) of soil, 10% (2/21; 95% CI 1.2-30.4) of manure pit, and 0/7 dumpster samples. Using multi-level multivariable logistic regression analyses, we found location type (swine farm or conservation area) was not a significant explanatory variable for Salmonella occurrence in raccoon feces or soil (p > 0.05). However, detection of Salmonella in raccoon feces was associated with rainfall, season, and sex with various interaction effects among these variables. We detected a variety of Salmonella serovars that infect humans and livestock in the feces of raccoons indicating that raccoons living near humans, regardless of location type, may play a role in the epidemiology of salmonellosis in livestock and humans in southwestern Ontario. PMID:27611198

  1. Descriptive analysis and spatial epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) for swine sites participating in area regional control and elimination programs from 3 regions of Ontario.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Andreia G; Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert; Carpenter, Jane; Hand, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe demographics, basic biosecurity practices, ownership structure, and prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in swine sites located in 3 regions in Ontario, and investigate the presence of spatial clustering and clusters of PRRS positive sites in the 3 regions. A total of 370 swine sites were enrolled in Area Regional Control and Elimination projects in Niagara, Watford, and Perth from 2010 to 2013. Demographics, biosecurity, and site ownership data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and site locations were obtained from an industry organization. Status was assigned on the basis of available diagnostic tests and/or assessment by site veterinarians. Spatial dependence was investigated using the D-function, the spatial scan statistic test and the spatial relative risk method. Results showed that the use of strict all-in all-out (AIAO) pig flow and shower before entry are uncommon biosecurity practices in swine sites, but a larger proportion of sites reported having a Danish entry. The prevalence of PRRS in the 3 regions ranged from 17% to 48% and localized high and low risk clusters were detected. Sites enrolled in the PRRS control projects were characterized by membership in multiple and overlapping ownership structures and networks, which complicates the way the results of monitoring and disease management measures are communicated to the target population.

  2. Descriptive analysis and spatial epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) for swine sites participating in area regional control and elimination programs from 3 regions of Ontario.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Andreia G; Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert; Carpenter, Jane; Hand, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe demographics, basic biosecurity practices, ownership structure, and prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in swine sites located in 3 regions in Ontario, and investigate the presence of spatial clustering and clusters of PRRS positive sites in the 3 regions. A total of 370 swine sites were enrolled in Area Regional Control and Elimination projects in Niagara, Watford, and Perth from 2010 to 2013. Demographics, biosecurity, and site ownership data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and site locations were obtained from an industry organization. Status was assigned on the basis of available diagnostic tests and/or assessment by site veterinarians. Spatial dependence was investigated using the D-function, the spatial scan statistic test and the spatial relative risk method. Results showed that the use of strict all-in all-out (AIAO) pig flow and shower before entry are uncommon biosecurity practices in swine sites, but a larger proportion of sites reported having a Danish entry. The prevalence of PRRS in the 3 regions ranged from 17% to 48% and localized high and low risk clusters were detected. Sites enrolled in the PRRS control projects were characterized by membership in multiple and overlapping ownership structures and networks, which complicates the way the results of monitoring and disease management measures are communicated to the target population. PMID:26424906

  3. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative...

  4. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative...

  5. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative...

  6. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative...

  7. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative...

  8. Genetic and pathobiologic characterization of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza viruses from a naturally infected swine herd.

    PubMed

    Weingartl, Hana M; Berhane, Yohannes; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Neufeld, James; Kehler, Helen; Emburry-Hyatt, Carissa; Hooper-McGreevy, Kathleen; Kasloff, Samantha; Dalman, Brett; Bystrom, Jan; Alexandersen, Soren; Li, Yan; Pasick, John

    2010-03-01

    Since its initial identification in Mexico and the United States, concerns have been raised that the novel H1N1 influenza virus might cause a pandemic of severity comparable to that of the 1918 pandemic. In late April 2009, viruses phylogenetically related to pandemic H1N1 influenza virus were isolated from an outbreak on a Canadian pig farm. This outbreak also had epidemiological links to a suspected human case. Experimental infections carried out in pigs using one of the swine isolates from this outbreak and the human isolate A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009 showed differences in virus recovery from the lower respiratory tract. Virus was consistently isolated from the lungs of pigs infected with A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009, while only one pig infected with A/swine/Alberta/OTH-33-8/2008 yielded live virus from the lung, despite comparable amounts of viral RNA and antigen in both groups of pigs. Clinical disease resembled other influenza virus infections in swine, albeit with somewhat prolonged virus antigen detection and delayed viral-RNA clearance from the lungs. There was also a noteworthy amount of genotypic variability among the viruses isolated from the pigs on the farm. This, along with the somewhat irregular pathobiological characteristics observed in experimentally infected animals, suggests that although the virus may be of swine origin, significant viral evolution may still be ongoing.

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance in Generic Escherichia coli Isolates from Wild Small Mammals Living in Swine Farm, Residential, Landfill, and Natural Environments in Southern Ontario, Canada▿

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Samantha E.; Boerlin, Patrick; Janecko, Nicol; Lumsden, John S.; Barker, Ian K.; Pearl, David L.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Jardine, Claire

    2011-01-01

    To assess the impacts of different types of human activity on the development of resistant bacteria in the feces of wild small mammals, we compared the prevalences and patterns of antimicrobial resistance and resistance genes in generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica isolates from fecal samples collected from wild small mammals living in four environments: swine farms, residential areas, landfills, and natural habitats. Resistance to antimicrobials was observed in E. coli isolates from animals in all environments: 25/52 (48%) animals trapped at swine farms, 6/69 (9%) animals trapped in residential areas, 3/20 (15%) animals trapped at landfills, and 1/22 (5%) animals trapped in natural habitats. Animals trapped on farms were significantly more likely to carry E. coli isolates with resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, sulfisoxazole, and streptomycin than animals trapped in residential areas. The resistance genes sul2, aadA, and tet(A) were significantly more likely to be detected in E. coli isolates from animals trapped on farms than from those trapped in residential areas. Three S. enterica serotypes (Give, Typhimurium, and Newport) were recovered from the feces of 4/302 (1%) wild small mammals. All Salmonella isolates were pansusceptible. Our results show that swine farm origin is significantly associated with the presence of resistant bacteria and resistance genes in wild small mammals in southern Ontario, Canada. However, resistant fecal bacteria were found in small mammals living in all environments studied, indicating that environmental exposure to antimicrobials, antimicrobial residues, resistant bacteria, or resistance genes is widespread. PMID:21131524

  10. Impact of Season, Demographic and Environmental Factors on Salmonella Occurrence in Raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Swine Farms and Conservation Areas in Southern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Pearl, David L.; Janecko, Nicol; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Parmley, Jane; Jardine, Claire M.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella has been detected in the feces of many wildlife species, including raccoons (Procyon lotor), but little is known about the epidemiology of Salmonella in wildlife living in different habitat types. Our objective was to investigate demographic, temporal, and climatic factors associated with the carriage of Salmonella in raccoons and their environment on swine farms and conservation areas. Using a repeated cross-sectional study design, we collected fecal samples from raccoons and environmental samples (soil, manure pits, dumpsters) on 5 swine farms and 5 conservation areas in Ontario, Canada once every five weeks from May to November, 2011–2013. Salmonella was detected in 26% (279/1093; 95% CI 22.9–28.2) of raccoon fecal samples, 6% (88/1609; 95% CI 4.5–6.8) of soil samples, 30% (21/69; 95% CI 20.0–42.7) of manure pit samples, and 23% (7/31; 95% CI 9.6–41.0) of dumpster samples. Of samples testing positive for Salmonella, antimicrobial resistance was detected in 5% (14/279; 95% CI 2.8–8.3) of raccoon fecal, 8% (7/89; 95% CI 3.2–15.5) of soil, 10% (2/21; 95% CI 1.2–30.4) of manure pit, and 0/7 dumpster samples. Using multi-level multivariable logistic regression analyses, we found location type (swine farm or conservation area) was not a significant explanatory variable for Salmonella occurrence in raccoon feces or soil (p > 0.05). However, detection of Salmonella in raccoon feces was associated with rainfall, season, and sex with various interaction effects among these variables. We detected a variety of Salmonella serovars that infect humans and livestock in the feces of raccoons indicating that raccoons living near humans, regardless of location type, may play a role in the epidemiology of salmonellosis in livestock and humans in southwestern Ontario. PMID:27611198

  11. Study of Full-Length Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus Genomes with Envelope Gene Polymorphism in a Specific-Pathogen-Free Large White Swine Herd

    PubMed Central

    Bösch, Steffi; Arnauld, Claire; Jestin, André

    2000-01-01

    Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) swine appear to be the most appropriate candidate for pig to human xenotransplantation. Still, the risk of endogenous retrovirus transmission represents a major obstacle, since two human-tropic porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) had been characterized in vitro (P. Le Tissier, J. P. Stoye, Y. Takeuchi, C. Patience, and R. A. Weiss, Nature 389:681–682, 1997). Here we addressed the question of PERV distribution in a French Large White SPF pig herd in vivo. First, PCR screening for previously described PERV envelope genes envA, envB, and envC (D. E. Akiyoshi, M. Denaro, H. Zhu, J. L. Greenstein, P. Banerjee, and J. A. Fishman, J. Virol. 72:4503–4507, 1998; Le Tissier et al., op. cit.). demonstrated ubiquity of envA and envB sequences, whereas envC genes were absent in some animals. On this basis, selective out-breeding of pigs of remote origin might be a means to reduce proviral load in organ donors. Second, we investigated PERV genome carriage in envC negative swine. Eleven distinct full-length PERV transcripts were isolated. The sequence of the complete envelope open reading frame was determined. The deduced amino acid sequences revealed the existence of four clones with functional and five clones with defective PERV PK-15 A- and B-like envelope sequences. The occurrence of easily detectable levels of PERV variants in different pig tissues in vivo heightens the need to assess PERV transmission in xenotransplantation animal models. PMID:10954559

  12. Introduction to Swine Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Kevin

    This packet contains an instructor guide and student reference for a course in introduction to swine production. The curriculum contains the following seven lessons: (1) introduction to the swine industry; (2) breeds of swine; (3) principles of swine selection; (4) production systems; (5) herd health; (6) herd management; and (6) industry…

  13. Recoding classical swine fever virus (CSFV) structural glycoprotein E2 produces complete virus attenuation in swine and protects infected animals against disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling classical swine fever (CSF) involves vaccination in endemic regions and preemptive slaughter of infected swine herds during epidemics. Generally, live attenuated vaccines induce solid immunity. Using diverse approaches, reverse genetics has been useful in developing classical swine fever...

  14. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because they... determined by the meat or breeding value of the animals. Animals may be appraised in groups, provided...

  15. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because they... determined by the meat or breeding value of the animals. Animals may be appraised in groups, provided...

  16. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  17. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  18. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  19. Multiple-class antimicrobial resistance surveillance in swine Escherichia coli F4, Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis isolates from Ontario and the impact of the 2004-2006 Porcine Circovirus type-2 Associated Disease outbreak.

    PubMed

    Glass-Kaastra, Shiona K; Pearl, David L; Reid-Smith, Richard; McEwen, Beverly; Slavic, Durda; Fairles, Jim; McEwen, Scott A

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this work was to describe trends in multiple-class antimicrobial resistance present in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli F4, Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis from Ontario swine 1998-2010. Temporal changes in multiple-class resistance varied by the pathogens examined; significant yearly changes were apparent for the E. coli and P. multocida data. Although not present in the E. coli data, significant increases in multiple-class resistance within P. multocida isolates occurred from 2003 to 2005, coinciding with the expected increase in antimicrobials used to treat clinical signs of Porcine Circovirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) before it was confirmed. Prospective temporal scan statistics for multiple-class resistance suggest that significant clusters of increased resistance may have been found in the spring of 2004; months before the identification of the PCVAD outbreak in the fall of 2004.

  20. One-Health Simulation Modelling: A Case Study of Influenza Spread between Human and Swine Populations using NAADSM.

    PubMed

    Dorjee, S; Revie, C W; Poljak, Z; McNab, W B; Sanchez, J

    2016-02-01

    The circulation of zoonotic influenza A viruses including pH1N1 2009 and H5N1 continue to present a constant threat to animal and human populations. Recently, an H3N2 variant spread from pigs to humans and between humans in limited numbers. Accordingly, this research investigated a range of scenarios of the transmission dynamics of pH1N1 2009 virus at the swine-human interface while accounting for different percentages of swine workers initially immune. Furthermore, the feasibility of using NAADSM (North American Animal Disease Spread Model) applied as a one-health simulation model was assessed. The study population included 488 swine herds and 29, 707 households of people within a county in Ontario, Canada. Households were categorized as follows: (i) rural households with swine workers, (ii) rural households without swine workers, and (iii) urban households without swine workers. Forty-eight scenarios were investigated, based on the combination of six scenarios around the transmissibility of the virus at the interface and four vaccination coverage levels of swine workers (0-60%), all under two settings of either swine or human origin of the virus. Outcomes were assessed in terms of stochastic 'die-out' fraction, size and time to peak epidemic day, overall size and duration of the outbreaks. The modelled outcomes indicated that minimizing influenza transmissibility at the interface and targeted vaccination of swine workers had significant beneficial effects. Our results indicate that NAADSM can be used as a framework to model the spread and control of contagious zoonotic diseases among animal and human populations, under certain simplifying assumptions. Further evaluation of the model is required. In addition to these specific findings, this study serves as a benchmark that can provide useful input to a future one-health influenza modelling studies. Some pertinent information gaps were also identified. Enhanced surveillance and the collection of high

  1. The Isolation of Trypanosomes from Cattle in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Julian, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    A method for the recovery by blood culture of a T. theilieri-like flagellate from cattle is described. In Ontario, 54% of 156 cows in 15 herds were found to have parasitemia. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:4254891

  2. 78 FR 9028 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... approach to managing swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. Swine brucellosis and pseudorabies have been eliminated from commercial swine herds within the United States,...

  3. 76 FR 28885 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... restrictions on the interstate movement of breeding swine from Texas. DATES: This interim rule is effective on... herd testing, market swine testing, or statistical analysis. Breeding swine originating from a... interstate movement of breeding swine from Texas. Immediate Action Immediate action is warranted to...

  4. Swine Worker Precautions During Suspected Outbreaks of Influenza in Swine.

    PubMed

    Paccha, Blanca; Neira-Ramirez, Victor; Gibbs, Shawn; Torremorell, Montserrat; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2016-05-01

    To assess the behavior and precautions that swine workers take during suspected influenza outbreaks in swine, six commercial swine farms in the Midwest U.S. region were visited when influenza outbreaks were suspected in herds during the fall/winter of 2012-2013. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and type of task performed by swine workers were recorded based on farm representative reports. Between one to two workers were working on the day of each visit and spent approximately 25 minutes performing work-related tasks that placed them in close contact with the swine. The most common tasks reported were walking the aisles (27%), handling pigs (21%), and handling equipment (21%). The most common PPE were boots (100%), heavy rubber gloves (75%), and dedicated nondisposable clothing (74%). Use of N95 respirators was reported at three farms. Hand hygiene practices were common in most of the farms, but reportedly performed for only 20% to 25% of tasks. PMID:27263180

  5. Vesicular exanthema of swine.

    PubMed

    Smith, A W; Akers, T G

    1976-10-01

    Vesicular exanthema of swine (VES) was first recognized in 1932. At the time, eradication measures and, later, quarantine procedures were instituted and extension of the disease to surrounding farms appeared to have been prevented. Between 1932 and 1936, however, seemingly unrelated epizootics continued among swine herds being fed raw garbage. In 1936, VES disappeared only to reappear in 1939. The disease was contained within California until 1952, at which time it spread to all the major swine producing areas of the United States. The disease was eradicated in 1959, through the enforcement of laws prohibiting the feeding of raw garbage to swine. Other than the association with raw garbage, a reservoir for VES virus (VESV) was never found. In 1972, a virus isolated from California sea lions--and thus named the San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV)--proved to be distinguishable from VESV. When SMSV was injected into swine, clinical signs of vesicular exanthema developed, leading to the conclusion that, for all practical purposes, SMSV and VESV were the same. To date, 5 species of marine mammals and 2 species of terrestrial mammals, including feral swine, have been shown to possess antibodies to 1 or more of the 4 distinct SMSV serotypes. Current evidence suggests that SMSV infections occur among both terrestrial and marine mammals inhabiting the California coastal zones. This and the practice of shipping frozen meats known to contain SMSV to mink ranches in Utah point to the possibility that domestic swine in the United States are occasionally being exposed to SMSV. Although marine mammals are a source of SMSV, the primary virus reservoir is thought to be 1 or more submammalian marine species common to the southern California coastline. Such a primary reservoir presumably is the source of a new SMSV serotypes infecting marine mammals and may have been the original source of the VESV serotypes that infected swine through the intermediary of raw garbage.

  6. Simulating the epidemiological and economic effects of an African swine fever epidemic in industrialized swine populations.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten; Christensen, Hanne; Toft, Nils; Boklund, Anette

    2016-09-25

    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a considerable impact on animal health and is currently one of the most important emerging diseases of domestic pigs. ASF was introduced into Georgia in 2007 and subsequently spread to the Russian Federation and several Eastern European countries. Consequently, there is a non-negligible risk of ASF spread towards Western Europe. Therefore it is important to develop tools to improve our understanding of the spread and control of ASF for contingency planning. A stochastic and dynamic spatial spread model (DTU-DADS) was adjusted to simulate the spread of ASF virus between domestic swine herds exemplified by the Danish swine population. ASF was simulated to spread via animal movement, low- or medium-risk contacts and local spread. Each epidemic was initiated in a randomly selected herd - either in a nucleus herd, a sow herd, a randomly selected herd or in multiple herds simultaneously. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on input parameters. Given the inputs and assumptions of the model, epidemics of ASF in Denmark are predicted to be small, affecting about 14 herds in the worst-case scenario. The duration of an epidemic is predicted to vary from 1 to 76days. Substantial economic damages are predicted, with median direct costs and export losses of €12 and €349 million, respectively, when epidemics were initiated in multiple herds. Each infectious herd resulted in 0 to 2 new infected herds varying from 0 to 5 new infected herds, depending on the index herd type. PMID:27599924

  7. Identification of Human H1N2 and Human-Swine Reassortant H1N2 and H1N1 Influenza A Viruses among Pigs in Ontario, Canada (2003 to 2005)†

    PubMed Central

    Karasin, Alexander I.; Carman, Suzanne; Olsen, Christopher W.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2003, three novel genotypes of H1 influenza viruses have been recovered from Canadian pigs, including a wholly human H1N2 virus and human-swine reassortants. These isolates demonstrate that human-lineage H1N2 viruses are infectious for pigs and that viruses with a human PB1/swine PA/swine PB2 polymerase complex can replicate in pigs. PMID:16517910

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica Swine Isolate KM22.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tracy L; Shore, Sarah M; Bayles, Darrell O; Register, Karen B; Kingsley, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22 has been used in experimental infections of swine as a model of clinical B. bronchiseptica infections within swine herds and to study host-to-host transmission. Here we report the draft genome sequence of KM22. PMID:25013141

  9. Draft genome sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22 has been used in experimental infections of swine as a model of clinical B. bronchiseptica infections within swine herds and to study host-to-host transmission. Here we report the draft genome sequence of KM22....

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica Swine Isolate KM22.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tracy L; Shore, Sarah M; Bayles, Darrell O; Register, Karen B; Kingsley, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22 has been used in experimental infections of swine as a model of clinical B. bronchiseptica infections within swine herds and to study host-to-host transmission. Here we report the draft genome sequence of KM22.

  11. Association Between PRRSV ORF5 Genetic Distance and Differences in Space, Time, Ownership and Animal Sources Among Commercial Pig Herds.

    PubMed

    Rosendal, T; Dewey, C; Friendship, R; Wootton, S; Young, B; Poljak, Z

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate associations between genetic distance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) detected in Ontario swine herds, and the distance between the herds with respect to space, time, ownership and animal sources. PRRSV sequence data between September 2004 and August 2007 were obtained from the Animal Health Laboratory of the University of Guelph. Geographical coordinates were obtained from the Ontario Pork marketing board, and network information about ownership and animal suppliers was obtained using a telephone interview. The matrices of sequence, spatial, temporal and network distances were generated and were analysed using the Mantel test, and using linear-mixed models with P-values based on random permutations. A total of 438 PRRSV isolates from 329 premises and 232 ownerships were originally included; 57 of the isolates were considered vaccine type. The Mantel correlation test indicated that there was positive correlation between sequence distance and geographic distance (r = 0.11, P = 0.001), as well as sequence distance and temporal distance (r = 0.03, P = 0.03), with similar results reported after adjusting for the ownership distance. Mantel correlogram suggested existence of spatial correlation up to ~30 km distance. Multivariable linear-mixed model for association between genetic distance and space-time distance was characterized by the three-way interaction among space, time and ownership (P < 0.001). It suggested that positive association between sequence similarity and spatial proximity exists in herds under different ownerships, but its magnitude is very small. In contrast, for pairs of herds under identical ownership, the spatial association was more complex. This could be a consequence of interactions within ownerships, or alternatively decisions made about sampling of herds for diagnostic purposes. Of the networks evaluated, ownership (P < 0.001) and gilt supplier (P < 0

  12. Swine influenza virus vaccine research and technology: What does the future hold and what are our next steps?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine influenza represents a problem for the health of pigs and the economic health of the swine industry due to real and perceived public health risks. This is largely driven by the diversity of influenza A viruses (IAV) in swine herds. Antigenic drift (mutations) and shifts (reassortments) by in...

  13. Coxiella burnetii seropositivity and associated risk factors in goats in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Meadows, S; Jones-Bitton, A; McEwen, S; Jansen, J; Menzies, P

    2015-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium, and infection in goats with this bacterium can result in abortion, stillbirth or birth of non-viable kids. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the seroprevalence and risk factors for C. burnetii exposure in Ontario goats. Sera were collected between August 2010 and February 2012, and tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IDEXX). Overall, 63.2% (48/76, 95% CI=51.9-73.4) of farms had one or more seropositive goats. A higher farm-level seroprevalence of 78.6% (33/42) was found on dairy goat farms, compared to 44.1% (15/34) on meat goat farms (p<0.01). At the overall individual-animal level, 32.5% (714/2195, 95% CI=30.6-34.5) of goats were seropositive. Similarly, a higher individual-level seroprevalence was identified for dairy goats (43.7%, 633/1447) compared to meat goats (10.8%, 81/748) (p<0.001). A mixed multivariable logistic model that controlled for farm-level clustering identified risk factors associated with seropositivity (p<0.05). Increases in the female herd size (logarithmic scale) were associated with increased odds of seropositivity, while increases in male herd size had a negative association with seropositivity. If other sheep or goat farms were located in a 5-km radius, goats had 5.6 times (95% CI=1.01-30.8) times the odds of seropositivity compared to those that were not. Relative to goats from farms where all kidding pen hygiene was practiced (adding bedding, removing birth materials and disinfection after kidding), goats from farms which only added bedding and removed birth materials had a higher odds of seropositivity (OR=19.3, 95% CI=1.1-330.4), as did goats from farms which practiced none of these measures (OR=161.0, 95% CI=2.4-10822.2). An interaction term revealed kidding outdoors when there were no swine on farm had a protective effect on seropositivity compared to kidding indoors, or kidding outdoors with swine on the farm. These

  14. Short communication: Bulk milk somatic cell penalties in herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement programs.

    PubMed

    Hand, K J; Godkin, M A; Kelton, D F

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of somatic cell count (SCC) monitoring at the cow level through Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) programs on the risk of bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) penalties. For the year 2009, BTSCC for all producers in Ontario were examined, for a total of 2,898 DHI herds, 1,186 non-DHI herds, and 48,250 BTSCC records. Two penalty levels were examined, where BTSCC exceeded 499,000 (P500) and 399,000 (P400) cells/mL. Data were modeled first to determine the odds of a BTSCC exceeding a set penalty threshold and second to determine the odds of incurring a penalty under the Ontario Milk Act. All data were modeled as a generalized mixed model with a binary link function. Random effects included herd, fixed effects included season of BTSCC (summer, May to September, and winter, October to April), total milk shipped per month (L), fat paid per month (kg), protein paid per month (kg), and participation or not in the DHI program. The likelihood of a BTSCC exceeding a penalty threshold in a non-DHI herd compared with a DHI herd was significantly greater than 1 at both penalty levels, where the odds ratios were estimated to be 1.42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19 to 1.69] and 1.38 (95% CI: 1.25 to 1.54) for P500 and P400, respectively. The likelihood of incurring a BTSCC penalty (where 3 out of 4 consecutive BTSCC exceeded penalty thresholds) was not significantly different at P500; however, it was significantly different for P400, where the odds ratio was estimated to be 1.42 (95% CI: 1.12 to 1.81).

  15. Widespread distribution of hepatitis E virus in Spanish pig herds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a serious health problem in developing countries and is also increasingly reported in industrialized regions. HEV is considered a zoonotic agent and strains isolated from swine and human sources are genetically similar. Thus, HEV is of increasing importance to both public and animal health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution of HEV in a large population of pigs from herds located in different autonomous regions throughout Spain. Results The presence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies was analyzed in 1141 swine serum samples (corresponding to 381 pigs younger than 6 months and 760 pigs older than 6 months) collected from 85 herds. Herds were located in 6 provinces in 4 autonomous regions throughout Spain. At least one pig tested positive for anti-HEV IgG in over 80% of herds. Of individual pigs, 20.4% (233/1141) were positive for anti-HEV IgG, with the prevalence being higher in adult pigs than in those under 6 months (30.2% vs. 15.5%). A subset of serum samples taken at 2- to 5-week intervals showed that seroprevalence dropped between 3 and 11 weeks of age, and then rose significantly by the 15th week. Pigs were also examined for the presence of HEV-RNA by RT-PCR. Of pigs tested for the presence of HEV-RNA 18.8% (64/341) were positive, with at least one pig in almost half of the herds testing positive. HEV-RNA amplicons from several positive pigs were sequenced and all were of genotype 3. Conclusions HEV was found to be widely distributed among swine farms across Spain, with the prevalence being highest among animals older than 6 months. These results indicate that HEV infection either is or is likely to become endemic in the Spanish swine population. PMID:21999141

  16. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the United States since 2005 Prevention Treatment Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit Button Past Newsletters Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English Español ...

  17. Camelid herd health.

    PubMed

    Jones, Meredyth; Boileau, Melanie

    2009-07-01

    The area of herd health is particularly important when considering camelid operations because of the high frequency of travel for exhibition, breeding, and boarding. This article outlines the considerations for routine husbandry, facility and animal maintenance, and infectious disease control in the form of biosecurity, vaccination, and health testing that should be included in any farm's herd-health plan. Veterinary input into the design of programs for biosecurity and infectious disease prevention is critical and requires an active veterinary client-patient relationship with identification of the goals of the operation. Risk assessments should be made based on farm activities and should be the foundation for herd-health program design.

  18. Vaccine herd effect.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.

  19. Community Immunity (Herd Immunity)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ​Community Immunity ("Herd" Immunity) Vaccines can prevent outbreaks of disease and save ... disease is contained. This is known as "community immunity." In the illustration below, the top box depicts ...

  20. Production impact & time to stability in sow herds infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV).

    PubMed

    Goede, Dane; Morrison, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    PEDV was first detected in United States in May, 2013. The virus spread through the swine industry and was reported in 30 US states by June, 2014 (Morrison and Goede, 2014). There are limited data describing the impact on production in sow farms. Veterinarians attempt to control the virus in sow herds with a program that stimulates herd immunity. There are no data on how long it takes with this control program to achieve a stable state of consistently produce weaned pigs that are not infected with the virus. This study involved participants and data from an existing program called the Swine Health Monitoring Project. Veterinarians were invited to share production data from 429 herds infected with PEDV. These data, in conjunction with diagnostic reports, were used to estimate the time required for the herd to produce PEDV PCR negative pigs and the production loss. Of the 429 infected herds that achieved the stable state of weaning PEDV PCR negative pigs, the median time was 28 weeks, ranging from 7 to 64 weeks. A median of 2.7 piglets/inventoried sow were not weaned and the average time required to recover to baseline production was 10 weeks in 183 herds. Herd infected in quarters 3 or 4 of the year had approximately twice the negative impact. These data are valuable for veterinarians in advising clients on the anticipated impact and time to re-achieve a stable state with regards to PEDV.

  1. Factors associated with herd-level PRRSV infection and age-time to seroconversion in farrow-to-finish herds.

    PubMed

    Fablet, C; Marois-Créhan, C; Grasland, B; Simon, G; Rose, N

    2016-08-30

    Factors associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection were investigated in 109 herds. Serums from four batches of pigs (4, 10, 16 and 22 weeks, 15 pigs/batch) were tested by ELISA for PRRSV antibodies. Infection by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza A viruses (swIAV) and PCV2 were detected by specific serological or PCR tests. Data related to herd characteristics, biosecurity, management housing and climatic conditions were collected during a herd visit. Factors associated with the herd's PRRSV seropositive status were identified by logistic regression. Large herd size, the lack of disinsectisation in the gestation facilities, on-farm semen collection, a short time-period for gilt quarantine and a low temperature setpoint for the ventilation controller in the fattening room significantly increased the odds of a herd being seropositive for PRRSV. Infection by Mhp and H1N2 swIAV were associated with a PRRSV seropositive status. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the factors associated with the age-time to seroconversion in infected herds. Joint housing for the gilts and sows when lactating, a large nursery pen, a small number of pens per fattening room and lack of all-in all-out management in the fattening section significantly reduced the age-time to seroconversion. A small range of temperatures controlling ventilation rate in the nursery room was also associated with time to PRRSV seroconversion. Infection by Mhp and a high PCV2 infection pressure were associated with a shorter time to seroconversion. Biosecurity measures minimising the risk of introducing PRRSV into the herd, management practices reducing contacts between animals from different batches and within batches and favourable climatic conditions should be implemented to better control PRRSV infection. PMID:27527759

  2. Indirect effects by meningococcal vaccines: herd protection versus herd immunity.

    PubMed

    Bröker, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The term "herd immunity" for the indirect effect of meningococcal conjugate vaccines is inaccurate. A more appropriate term is "herd protection," because this term correctly describes the public effects imparted by vaccination campaigns against the meningococcus.

  3. Education: Ontario's Preoccupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, W. G.

    Written as an abridged companion volume to the seven-volume series, Ontario's Educative Society, this book shares the objective of exploring the development of education in Ontario since World War II. The material is presented within an historical framework and uses a broad definition of education which includes organizations and activities beyond…

  4. Aboriginal Languages in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaby, Barbara J.

    This report outlines the basic characteristics of native languages in Ontario, the degree to which they are being maintained, and the aspirations of native people for their future development. The report covers only the Algonquian and Iroquoian families of languages spoken in Ontario for many generations and still spoken at present, including…

  5. Understanding Herd Immunity.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, C J E; Ferrari, M; Graham, A L; Grenfell, B T

    2015-12-01

    Individual immunity is a powerful force affecting host health and pathogen evolution. Importantly, the effects of individual immunity also scale up to affect pathogen transmission dynamics and the success of vaccination campaigns for entire host populations. Population-scale immunity is often termed 'herd immunity'. Here we outline how individual immunity maps to population outcomes and discuss implications for control of infectious diseases. Particular immunological characteristics may be more or less likely to result in a population level signature of herd immunity; we detail this and also discuss other population-level outcomes that might emerge from individual-level immunity.

  6. Epidemiology of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs: a survey of Ontario Pork Producers, 1981.

    PubMed Central

    Rosendal, S; Mitchell, W R

    1983-01-01

    Information about factors associated with the spread and the effect of pleuropneumonia was obtained from 418 pork producers in Ontario, who returned a mailed questionnaire. The overall herd prevalence of pleuropneumonia was 23.2%. The prevalence among herds with feeder pigs only was 34.3% and 16% among sow herds. The chance of pleuropneumonia breaking out in a herd was increased with increased traffic of pigs into the herd. The source of supplementary stock had an important effect on the chance of pleuropneumonia occurring. The highest risk resulted from introducing stock from salesbarns and the lowest from stock of health status known to the purchaser and supplied by one breeder only. Mortality, primarily among feeder pigs, and unthriftiness were the major effects of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae infection. Stress, such as crowding or inclement climatic conditions, was associated with outbreaks of pleuropneumonia. This would suggest that the infection with H. pleuropneumoniae can be subclinical until stress precipitates the disease. PMID:6831302

  7. Swine origin influenza (swine flu).

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Meghna R; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S K

    2009-08-01

    Swine origin influenza was first recognized in the border area of Mexico and United States in April 2009 and during a short span of two months became the first pandemic. The currently circulating strain of swine origin influenza virus of the H1N1 strain has undergone triple reassortment and contains genes from the avian, swine and human viruses. It is transmitted by droplets or fomites. Incubation period is 2 to 7 days. Common clinical symptoms are indistinguishable by any viral respiratory illness, and include fever, cough, sore throat and myalgia. A feature seen more frequently with swine origin influenza is GI upset. Less than 10% of patients require hospitalization. Patients at risk of developing severe disease are - younger than five years, elderly, pregnant women, with chronic systemic illnesses, adolescents on aspirin. Of the severe manifestations of swine origin influenza, pneumonia and respiratory failure are the most common. Unusual symptoms reported are conjunctivitis, parotitis, hemophagocytic syndrome. Infants may present with fever and lethargy with no respiratory symptoms. Diagnosis is based on RT PCR, Viral culture or increasing neutralizing antibodies. Principle of treatment consist of isolation, universal precautions, good infection control practices, supportive care and use of antiviral drugs. Antiviral drugs effective against H1N1 virus include: oseltamivir and zamanavir. With good supportive care case fatality is less than 1%. Preventive measures include: social distancing, practicing respiratory etiquette, hand hygiene and use of chemoprohylaxis with antiviral drugs. Vaccine against H1N1 is not available at present, but will be available in near future.

  8. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. isolated from grower-finisher pigs in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Norma P.; Friendship, Robert M.; Dewey, Cate E.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in 80 Ontario grower-finisher pig herds. Ninety-nine percent of the isolates yielded Campylobacter, C. coli being the most common species detected. Control of this microorganism must rely on careful food processing and storage of pork, rather than on an on-farm approach. PMID:17542372

  9. Monensin might protect Ontario, Canada dairy cows from paratuberculosis milk-ELISA positivity.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Steven H; Duffield, Todd F; Leslie, Ken E; Lissemore, Kerry D; Archambault, Marie; Bagg, Randy; Dick, Paul; Kelton, David F

    2006-10-17

    Our objective was to define the role of monensin sodium in protecting cows from being milk-ELISA positive for paratuberculosis in Ontario, Canada dairy herds. In total, 4933 dairy cows from 94 herds were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Forty-four of the enrolled herds were selected purposively by their herd veterinarian and another 50 herds were randomly selected from a local milk production-recording agency. A herd-management survey was completed on each farm during the months of May through August 2003. During this same time-period, composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows and tested with a milk-ELISA for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Analyses were stratified according to the paratuberculosis history of the herds. In the 48 herds in which paratuberculosis had not been diagnosed before, the use of calf hutches and monensin in milking cows were both associated with reduced odds of a cow testing positive (OR=0.19 and 0.21, respectively). In the 46 herds with a prior history of paratuberculosis, feeding monensin to the breeding-age heifers was associated with decreased odds of a cow testing positive (OR=0.54). Monensin use might be associated with milk-ELISA positivity, but its impact on the transmission of paratuberculosis remains unknown.

  10. Association between in-transit loss, internal trailer temperature, and distance traveled by Ontario market hogs.

    PubMed

    Haley, Charles; Dewey, Catherine E; Widowski, Tina; Friendship, Robert

    2008-10-01

    An observational study was conducted from July to October 2004 to determine the association between in-transit losses of swine and internal trailer temperature after controlling for loading density, trip distance, herd size, and random trip effect. A convenience sample of 3 trucking companies was used to collect temperature, relative humidity, and global positioning data for 104 trips that delivered 21,834 pigs from 371 producers to Ontario abattoirs. The association between in-transit loss and trailer temperature was determined using the 90th percentiles of internal temperature for each trip. Average loading density was 0.36 m2/100 kg pig (range 0.28 to 0.50 m2/100 kg pig). Average in-transit loss was 0.12%; however, 94% of producers experienced no losses. As the 90th percentile of internal trailer temperature increased from a range of 8.6 degrees C to 23.3 degrees C to a range of 23.4 degrees C to 26.1degreesC, average in-transit loss ratio increased approximately 3-fold, with an additional 2-fold increase as the range increased from 26.2 degrees C to 28.9 degrees C to 29.0 degrees C to 30.5 degrees C. As the 90th percentile of temperature increased by 1degreesC over the full range of temperatures in this study, in-transit loss was expected to increase 1.26 times. The in-transit loss was expected to decrease 0.81 times for each 50-km increase in distance traveled between the farm and the abattoir. PMID:19086369

  11. A prospective study of sow mortality in breeding herds.

    PubMed

    Chagnon, M; D'Allaire, S; Drolet, R

    1991-04-01

    This investigation was conducted to study the incidence and the causes of sow mortality in breeding herds. Data were obtained from 24 swine breeding herds with an average inventory of 3755 sows and served gilts for the total sample. Producers were involved for 12 consecutive months and agreed to submit to the diagnostic laboratory every dead or moribund sow and served gilt. The average herd death rate was 3.3% +/- 0.5 (SEM), but varied considerably among herds, ranging from 0% to 9.2%. A total of 137 sows and mated gilts died during the year, and these females had produced an average of 4.2 litters +/- 0.2 (SEM). The number of deaths was significantly higher during the months of July, August and October. The peripartum period appeared to be when sows were most at risk, with 42% of all deaths occurring during this short period of the reproductive cycle. The three major causes of death were heart failure (31.4%), torsions and accidents of abdominal organs (15.3%) and cystitis-pyelonephritis (8.0%). Other causes included endometritis (6.6%), uterine prolapses (6.6%), pneumonia (3.6%), gastric ulcers (3.6%), downer sow syndrome (2.2%), miscellaneous (8.0%) and unknown (14.6%).

  12. Antimicrobial dispensing by Ontario dairy veterinarians

    PubMed Central

    Léger, David F.; Newby, Nathalie C.; Reid-Smith, Richard; Anderson, Neil; Pearl, David L.; Lissemore, Kerry D.; Kelton, David F.

    2015-01-01

    This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was designed to capture the demographics of dairy practitioners in Ontario and to describe aspects of antimicrobial dispensing on-farm and over-the-counter by these veterinarians. The information collected revealed that the prescription status of a drug and the level of veterinary-client-patient relationship were important elements of dispensing policies. Over-the-counter dispensing records were incomplete, while only a small proportion of on-farm dispensing records contained pertinent information and directions as required by the Veterinarians Act. While respondents recognized that antimicrobial use in dairy herds could lead to resistance in cattle, few indicated that this was a significant public health issue. Veterinarians can play a key role in antimicrobial stewardship, part of which is the provision of complete written dispensing instructions to producers for antimicrobial use in dairy cattle. PMID:26130834

  13. Antimicrobial dispensing by Ontario dairy veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Léger, David F; Newby, Nathalie C; Reid-Smith, Richard; Anderson, Neil; Pearl, David L; Lissemore, Kerry D; Kelton, David F

    2015-07-01

    This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was designed to capture the demographics of dairy practitioners in Ontario and to describe aspects of antimicrobial dispensing on-farm and over-the-counter by these veterinarians. The information collected revealed that the prescription status of a drug and the level of veterinary-client-patient relationship were important elements of dispensing policies. Over-the-counter dispensing records were incomplete, while only a small proportion of on-farm dispensing records contained pertinent information and directions as required by the Veterinarians Act. While respondents recognized that antimicrobial use in dairy herds could lead to resistance in cattle, few indicated that this was a significant public health issue. Veterinarians can play a key role in antimicrobial stewardship, part of which is the provision of complete written dispensing instructions to producers for antimicrobial use in dairy cattle. PMID:26130834

  14. Swine Outbreak of Pandemic Influenza A Virus on a Canadian Research Farm Supports Human-to-Swine Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Keenliside, Julia; Wilkinson, Craig; Webby, Richard; Lu, Patricia; Sorensen, Ole; Fonseca, Kevin; Barman, Subrata; Rubrum, Adam; Stigger, Evelyn; Marrie, Thomas J.; Marshall, Frank; Spady, Donald W.; Hu, Jia; Loeb, Mark; Russell, Margaret L.; Babiuk, Lorne A.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Swine outbreaks of pandemic influenza A (pH1N1) suggest human introduction of the virus into herds. This study investigates a pH1N1 outbreak occurring on a swine research farm with 37 humans and 1300 swine in Alberta, Canada, from 12 June through 4 July 2009. Methods. The staff was surveyed about symptoms, vaccinations, and livestock exposures. Clinical findings were recorded, and viral testing and molecular characterization of isolates from humans and swine were performed. Human serological testing and performance of the human influenza-like illness (ILI) case definition were also studied. Results. Humans were infected before swine. Seven of 37 humans developed ILI, and 2 (including the index case) were positive for pH1N1 by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Swine were positive for pH1N1 by RT-PCR 6 days after contact with the human index case and developed symptoms within 24 h of their positive viral test results. Molecular characterization of the entire viral genomes from both species showed minor nucleotide heterogeneity, with 1 amino acid change each in the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes. Sixty-seven percent of humans with positive serological test results and 94% of swine with positive swab specimens had few or no symptoms. Compared with serological testing, the human ILI case definition had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 33.3%. The only factor associated with seropositivity was working in the swine nursery. Conclusions. Epidemiologic data support human-to-swine transmission, and molecular characterization confirms that virtually identical viruses infected humans and swine in this outbreak. Both species had mild illness and recovered without sequelae. PMID:21148514

  15. Feral swine virome is dominated by single-stranded DNA viruses and contains a novel Orthopneumovirus which circulates both in feral and domestic swine.

    PubMed

    Hause, Ben M; Padmanabhan, Aiswaria; Pedersen, Kerri; Gidlewski, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Feral swine are known reservoirs for various pathogens that can adversely affect domestic animals. To assess the viral ecology of feral swine in the USA, metagenomic sequencing was performed on 100 pooled nasal swabs. The virome was dominated by small, ssDNA viruses belonging to the families Circoviridae, Anelloviridae and Parvovirinae. Only four RNA viruses were identified: porcine kobuvirus, porcine sapelovirus, atypical porcine pestivirus and a novel Orthopneumovirus, provisionally named swine orthopneumovirus (SOV). SOV shared ~90 % nucleotide identity to murine pneumonia virus (MPV) and canine pneumovirus. A modified, commercially available ELISA for MPV found that approximately 30 % of both feral and domestic swine sera were positive for antibodies cross-reactive with MPV. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR identified two (2 %) and four (5.0 %) positive nasal swab pools from feral and domestic swine, respectively, confirming that SOV circulates in both herds. PMID:27417702

  16. Epidemiology, geographical distribution, and economic consequences of swine zoonoses: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Uddin Khan, Salah; Atanasova, Kalina R; Krueger, Whitney S; Ramirez, Alejandro; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-12-01

    We sought to review the epidemiology, international geographical distribution, and economic consequences of selected swine zoonoses. We performed literature searches in two stages. First, we identified the zoonotic pathogens associated with swine. Second, we identified specific swine-associated zoonotic pathogen reports for those pathogens from January 1980 to October 2012. Swine-associated emerging diseases were more prevalent in the countries of North America, South America, and Europe. Multiple factors were associated with the increase of swine zoonoses in humans including: the density of pigs, poor water sources and environmental conditions for swine husbandry, the transmissibility of the pathogen, occupational exposure to pigs, poor human sanitation, and personal hygiene. Swine zoonoses often lead to severe economic consequences related to the threat of novel pathogens to humans, drop in public demand for pork, forced culling of swine herds, and international trade sanctions. Due to the complexity of swine-associated pathogen ecology, designing effective interventions for early detection of disease, their prevention, and mitigation requires an interdisciplinary collaborative "One Health" approach from veterinarians, environmental and public health professionals, and the swine industry.

  17. Epidemiology, geographical distribution, and economic consequences of swine zoonoses: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Uddin Khan, Salah; Atanasova, Kalina R; Krueger, Whitney S; Ramirez, Alejandro; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-01-01

    We sought to review the epidemiology, international geographical distribution, and economic consequences of selected swine zoonoses. We performed literature searches in two stages. First, we identified the zoonotic pathogens associated with swine. Second, we identified specific swine-associated zoonotic pathogen reports for those pathogens from January 1980 to October 2012. Swine-associated emerging diseases were more prevalent in the countries of North America, South America, and Europe. Multiple factors were associated with the increase of swine zoonoses in humans including: the density of pigs, poor water sources and environmental conditions for swine husbandry, the transmissibility of the pathogen, occupational exposure to pigs, poor human sanitation, and personal hygiene. Swine zoonoses often lead to severe economic consequences related to the threat of novel pathogens to humans, drop in public demand for pork, forced culling of swine herds, and international trade sanctions. Due to the complexity of swine-associated pathogen ecology, designing effective interventions for early detection of disease, their prevention, and mitigation requires an interdisciplinary collaborative “One Health” approach from veterinarians, environmental and public health professionals, and the swine industry. PMID:26038451

  18. Herd immunity and herd effect: new insights and definitions.

    PubMed

    John, T J; Samuel, R

    2000-01-01

    The term herd immunity has been used by various authors to conform to different definitions. Earlier this situation had been identified but not corrected. We propose that it should have precise meaning for which purpose a new definition is offered: "the proportion of subjects with immunity in a given population". This definition dissociates herd immunity from the indirect protection observed in the unimmunised segment of a population in which a large proportion is immunised, for which the term 'herd effect' is proposed. It is defined as: "the reduction of infection or disease in the unimmunised segment as a result of immunising a proportion of the population". Herd immunity can be measured by testing a sample of the population for the presence of the chosen immune parameter. Herd effect can be measured by quantifying the decline in incidence in the unimmunised segment of a population in which an immunisation programme is instituted. Herd immunity applies to immunisation or infection, human to human transmitted or otherwise. On the other hand, herd effect applies to immunisation or other health interventions which reduce the probability of transmission, confined to infections transmitted human to human, directly or via vector. The induced herd immunity of a given vaccine exhibits geographic variation as it depends upon coverage and efficacy of the vaccine, both of which can vary geographically. Herd effect is determined by herd immunity as well as the force of transmission of the corresponding infection. Clear understanding of these phenomena and their relationships will help improve the design of effective and efficient immunisation programmes aimed at control, elimination or eradication of vaccine preventable infectious diseases.

  19. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolated from apparently healthy pig herds following an evaluation of a prototype commercial serological ELISA.

    PubMed

    Hampson, David J; La, Tom; Phillips, Nyree D; Holyoake, Patricia K

    2016-08-15

    Swine dysentery (SD) is a disease mainly of grower/finisher pigs characterised by severe mucohaemorrhagic colitis. The classical aetiological agent is the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, although "Brachyspira hampsonii" and Brachyspira suanatina also cause SD. This study reports on the unexpected isolation of B. hyodysenteriae from pigs in apparently healthy herds that gave positive reactions when tested with a prototype commercial serological ELISA for detecting herds infected with B. hyodysenteriae (Priocheck(®)Brachyspira porcine Ab ELISA). The ELISA was tested with sera collected at abattoirs from 1770 slaughtered pigs from 30 Australian herds, including 12 with a history of SD and18 that were considered by their consulting veterinarians to be healthy. The latter herds had no history of SD and did not routinely use antimicrobials that may have masked the disease. Based on the recommended ELISA cut-off value, 25 herds were recorded as showing evidence of infection, including 11 of 12 herds that were considered infected by the submitters and 14 of the 18 "healthy" herds. When faecal or colonic wall samples from 11 of the 14 "false positive" herds subsequently were culturing 6-24 months after the original ELISA testing was completed, different strains of B. hyodysenteriae were isolated from six herds, including a high-health status breeding herd. The existence of apparently healthy herds that are colonised by B. hyodysenteriae has major implications for the control of SD. Had the ELISA not been trialled it is unlikely that colonic samples from these herds would have been cultured and the colonisation identified. PMID:27374902

  20. Ontario Hydro and SGML.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockley, Ann

    1993-01-01

    Describes how an analysis of Ontario Hydro's conversion of 20,000 pages of paper manuals to online documentation established the scope of the project, provided a set of design criteria, and recommended the use of Standard Generalized Markup Language to create the new documentation and the purchase of the "Dinatext" program to produce it. (SR)

  1. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  2. SIMS Replications in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Howard

    Replication of the Second International Mathematics Study (SIMS) in Ontario, Canada, is described and assessed. The curriculum and testing program covers numerical methods, geometry, and algebra. Whereas classical studies focused on mean scores of a system's students and on percentages of teachers for opportunity to learn (OTL), SIMS aggregates…

  3. Swine: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating swine in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the main points in evaluating market hogs and breeding swine and provides an example class of swine. Section 2,…

  4. Reproductive management practices and performance of Canadian dairy herds using automated activity-monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Neves, R C; LeBlanc, S J

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the characteristics and motivations of producers who had implemented automated activity-monitoring (AAM) systems and to compare herd reproductive performance before and after the implementation of an AAM system and between herds with AAM and herds managing reproduction based on timed artificial insemination (TAI) or based on other programs. Freestall dairy herds located in Ontario and the western provinces of Canada and enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement were surveyed through a mail questionnaire between April and July 2010. The data describe the characteristics and reproductive management practices of herds using AAM systems. A total of 505 questionnaires (29%) were returned. On average, 21-d pregnancy risk, conception risk, and 21-d insemination risk did not differ between herds managing reproduction based on an AAM system (18, 39, and 50%, respectively) or a TAI-based program (17, 38, and 49%, respectively). Herds that implemented an AAM system had a significant increase in annual pregnancy risk, from 15 to 17%, and insemination risk increased from 42 to 50%, whereas conception risk was unchanged (37 and 35%) following adoption of the system. The majority of respondents with AAM systems first used the system to manage reproduction in lactating cows. Most herds with AAM were performing artificial insemination twice per day, most commonly with an interval from the estrus alarm to artificial insemination of 7 to 12 h. The most commonly reported reason to adopt an AAM system was a desire to improve reproductive performance. These results support the findings from randomized trials that AAM-based programs can yield comparable reproductive performance to TAI-based programs.

  5. Evaluation of the Johne's disease risk assessment and management plan on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor J; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David F

    2015-10-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a production-limiting gastrointestinal disease in cattle. To minimize the effects of JD, the Ontario dairy industry launched the Ontario Johne's Education and Management Assistance Program in 2010. As part of the program, trained veterinarians conducted a risk assessment and management plan (RAMP), an on-farm questionnaire where high RAMP scores are associated with high risk of JD transmission. Subsequently, veterinarians recommended farm-specific management practices for JD prevention. Milk or serum ELISA results from the milking herd were used to determine the herd ELISA status (HES) and within-herd prevalence. After 3.5 yr of implementation of the program, the aim of this study was to evaluate the associations among RAMP scores, HES, and recommendations. Data from 2,103 herds were available for the analyses. A zero-inflated negative binomial model for the prediction of the number of ELISA-positive animals per farm was built. The model included individual RAMP questions about purchasing animals in the logistic portion, indicating risks for between-herd transmission, and purchasing bulls, birth of calves outside the designated calving area, colostrum and milk feeding management, and adult cow environmental hygiene in the negative binomial portion, indicating risk factors for within-herd transmission. However, farms which fed low-risk milk compared with milk replacer had fewer seropositive animals. The model additionally included the JD herd history in the negative binomial and the logistic portion, indicating that herds with a JD herd history were more likely to have at least 1 positive animal and to have a higher number of positive animals. Generally, a positive association was noted between RAMP scores and the odds of receiving a recommendation for the respective risk area; however, the relationship was not always linear. For general JD risk and calving area risk, seropositive herds had higher odds of receiving recommendations compared

  6. Evaluation of the Johne's disease risk assessment and management plan on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor J; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David F

    2015-10-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a production-limiting gastrointestinal disease in cattle. To minimize the effects of JD, the Ontario dairy industry launched the Ontario Johne's Education and Management Assistance Program in 2010. As part of the program, trained veterinarians conducted a risk assessment and management plan (RAMP), an on-farm questionnaire where high RAMP scores are associated with high risk of JD transmission. Subsequently, veterinarians recommended farm-specific management practices for JD prevention. Milk or serum ELISA results from the milking herd were used to determine the herd ELISA status (HES) and within-herd prevalence. After 3.5 yr of implementation of the program, the aim of this study was to evaluate the associations among RAMP scores, HES, and recommendations. Data from 2,103 herds were available for the analyses. A zero-inflated negative binomial model for the prediction of the number of ELISA-positive animals per farm was built. The model included individual RAMP questions about purchasing animals in the logistic portion, indicating risks for between-herd transmission, and purchasing bulls, birth of calves outside the designated calving area, colostrum and milk feeding management, and adult cow environmental hygiene in the negative binomial portion, indicating risk factors for within-herd transmission. However, farms which fed low-risk milk compared with milk replacer had fewer seropositive animals. The model additionally included the JD herd history in the negative binomial and the logistic portion, indicating that herds with a JD herd history were more likely to have at least 1 positive animal and to have a higher number of positive animals. Generally, a positive association was noted between RAMP scores and the odds of receiving a recommendation for the respective risk area; however, the relationship was not always linear. For general JD risk and calving area risk, seropositive herds had higher odds of receiving recommendations compared

  7. Evaluation of dairy bulls in Ontario for calving ease of offspring.

    PubMed

    Cady, R A; Burnside, E B

    1982-11-01

    The first sire evaluations for calving ease for bulls used in Ontario were published in May, 1981. Evaluations used calving records collected by Ontario Dairy Herd Improvement Association from all supervised herds from May, 1980, to April, 1981. A total of 34,240 records including herd, breed, sire, and cow identification, date of calving, and information about cow size, parity, sex of calf, mortality, and dystocia score were collected. After editing, 28,947 records were available from 1,178 Holstein bulls. Dystocia scores were 1) unobserved or unassisted, 2) easy pull, 3) hard pull, and 4) surgery. Stillbirths represented 5.5% of births coded 1 and 2, 25.1% of births coded hard pull, and 50.7% of surgical births. Analysis of variance showed that cow size, sex of calf, parity, and season (May to September and October to April) affected dystocia scores. Variance components were estimated prior to evaluation by Henderson's new method and resulted in a heritability of .08. Sire evaluation was by best linear unbiased prediction and included the relationship matrix. The prediction model included herd-year-season, dam size-parity-sex, and sire effects. Ninety-one sires had evaluations with a Repeatability of at least 55% and records in at least 20 herd-year-seasons.

  8. Helminth parasites of intermingling axis deer, wild swine and domestic cattle from the island of Molokai, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, M E; Davidson, W R

    1989-04-01

    Helminth infections of axis deer (Cervus axis), wild swine (Sus scrofa) and domestic cattle (Bos taurus) were studied among intermingling herds on the Puu-O-Hoku Ranch, Molokai, Hawaii. Twenty-four species of helminths were collected from the 10 deer, 10 swine and 10 cattle. Capillaria bovis, Cooperia punctata, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus axei infected both axis deer and cattle, whereas Gongylonema pulchrum infected both axis deer and wild swine. None of the species of helminths occurred in both wild swine and cattle nor was any species found in all three hosts. Wild swine and domestic cattle supported separate and distinct helminth communities. In contrast, the helminth community of axis deer appeared to be derived from the helminth communities of cattle and wild swine and consisted only of those species capable of parasitizing either a broad range of ruminants or many mammalian taxa.

  9. Comparison of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Inactivated Swine Influenza Virus Vaccine in Weaned Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humoral and cellular immune responses to inactivated swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccine were evaluated and compared. Fifty 3-week-old weaned pigs from a herd free of SIV and PRRSV were randomly divided into the non-vaccinated control group and vaccinated group containing 25 pigs each. Pigs were va...

  10. Comparison of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Inactivated Swine Influenza Virus Vaccine in Weaned Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare humoral and cellular immune responses to inactivated swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccine. Methods: Fifty 3-week-old weaned pigs from a herd free of SIV and PRRSV were randomly divided into the non-vaccinated control group and vaccinated group containing 25 pigs each....

  11. 78 FR 58512 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Swine Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ..., contact Dr. Troy Bigelow, Swine Health Veterinarian, NCAHP, VS, APHIS, 210 Walnut Street, Room 891, Des... Services (VS) Form 7-1), and recordkeeping; for part 85, a Permit to Move Restricted Animals (VS Form 1-27... appraisal and indemnity claim form (VS Form 1-23), a herd management plan, and a report of net...

  12. Novel Human-like Influenza A Viruses Circulate in Swine in Mexico and Chile

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Martha; Culhane, Marie R.; Rovira, Albert; Torremorell, Montserrat; Guerrero, Pedro; Norambuena, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Further understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of influenza A viruses circulating in swine (IAV-S) is important for the development of effective vaccines and our knowledge of pandemic threats. Until recently, very little was known of IAV-S diversity in Latin America, owing to a lack of surveillance. Methods: To address this gap, we sequenced and conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 69 hemagglutinin (HA) sequences from IAV-S isolates collected in swine in Mexico and Chile during 2010-2014, including the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes. Results: Our analysis identified multiple IAV-S lineages that appear to have been circulating undetected in swine for decades, including four novel IAV-S lineages of human seasonal virus origin that have not been previously identified in any swine populations globally. We also found evidence of repeated introductions of pandemic H1N1 viruses from humans into swine in Mexico and Chile since 2009, and incursions of H1 and H3 viruses from North American swine into Mexico. Discussion: Overall, our findings indicate that at least 12 genetically distinct HA lineages circulate in Latin American swine herds, only two of which have been found in North American swine herds. Human-to-swine transmission, spatial migration via swine movements, and genomic reassortment are the key evolutionary mechanisms that generate this viral diversity. Additional antigenic characterization and whole-genome sequencing is greatly needed to understand the diversity and independent evolution of IAV-S in Latin America.  PMID:26345598

  13. Short communication: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk of dairy cows and effect of swine population density.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, C; Cremonesi, P; Bertocchi, L; Zanoni, M G; Barberio, A; Drigo, I; Varisco, G; Castiglioni, B; Bronzo, V; Moroni, P

    2016-03-01

    The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has recently frequently been reported in dairy cattle, usually with low prevalence. The livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) ST398 is especially involved in cases of subclinical and clinical mastitis. Swine carry LA-MRSA without clinical symptoms and are considered its reservoir and shedder. People exposed to swine are particularly at risk of LA-MRSA colonization. Environments with relevant livestock density are a demonstrated risk factor for humans to be carriers of a LA-MRSA. This work investigated dairy farms located in an area with a high livestock density, mainly represented by swine. Bulk tank milk samples from 224 dairy farms were collected, and their status was defined as MRSA-positive or MRSA-negative based on culture on chromogenic medium. The number of fattening swine and of fattening swine herds was calculated in an area of 3 km around each dairy farm through georeferencing. The probability of a Staphylococcus aureus-positive dairy farm to be MRSA positive based on the extent of potential infective pressure due to swine density was calculated. Both the number of swine herds and the number of swine were associated with the MRSA status of dairy herds. The 9 MRSA isolated were typed by multi-locus sequence typing and spa-typing, and characterized for their virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance profiles. The ST and spa-types detected are consistent with those present in the Italian swine population. Virulence and resistance profiles are mostly consistent with the types detected. This work provides the first evidence of the epidemiological challenge exerted by the density of the swine population on MRSA in dairy cows.

  14. 9 CFR 55.24 - Herd status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... available for testing (i.e., a trace animal from a known positive herd died and was not tested) or for other... with program requirements for animal identification, animal testing, and recordkeeping, the herd will... requirements of the CWD Herd Certification Program. The herd plan will require testing of all animals that...

  15. 9 CFR 55.24 - Herd status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... available for testing (i.e., a trace animal from a known positive herd died and was not tested) or for other... with program requirements for animal identification, animal testing, and recordkeeping, the herd will... requirements of the CWD Herd Certification Program. The herd plan will require testing of all animals that...

  16. 9 CFR 55.24 - Herd status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... available for testing (i.e., a trace animal from a known positive herd died and was not tested) or for other... with program requirements for animal identification, animal testing, and recordkeeping, the herd will... requirements of the CWD Herd Certification Program. The herd plan will require testing of all animals that...

  17. Bat Rabies in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Beauregard, M.; Stewart, R. C.

    1964-01-01

    Rabies has been diagnosed for the first time in the bat population of Ontario. In the course of a study involving 72 bats from 24 counties of the province, five big brown bats (E. fuscus) were found to be infected with rabies through the mouse inoculation test. At the present time, it does not look as if bats have been connected with the epizootic of sylvatic rabies in Ontario. La rage est apparue pour la première fois chez les chauves-souris en Ontario. Au cours d'une étude qui a porté sur 72 de ces animaux provenant de 24 comtés de la province, l'inoculation d'animaux de laboratoire a permis confirmer la présence de la maladie chez cinq grosses chauves-souris brunes (E. fuscus). A date, il ne semble toutefois pas que les chauves-souris soient impliquées dans l'épizootie de rage sylvatique qui sévit en Orntario. PMID:17649490

  18. Parameter Values for Epidemiological Models of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Swine.

    PubMed

    Kinsley, Amy C; Patterson, Gilbert; VanderWaal, Kimberly L; Craft, Meggan E; Perez, Andres M

    2016-01-01

    In the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) incursion, response strategies are required to control, contain, and eradicate the pathogen as efficiently as possible. Infectious disease simulation models are widely used tools that mimic disease dispersion in a population and that can be useful in the design and support of prevention and mitigation activities. However, there are often gaps in evidence-based research to supply models with quantities that are necessary to accurately reflect the system of interest. The objective of this study was to quantify values associated with the duration of the stages of FMD infection (latent period, subclinical period, incubation period, and duration of infection), probability of transmission (within-herd and between-herd via spatial spread), and diagnosis of a vesicular disease within a herd using a meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed literature and expert opinion. The latent period ranged from 1 to 7 days and incubation period ranged from 1 to 9 days; both were influenced by strain. In contrast, the subclinical period ranged from 0 to 6 days and was influenced by sampling method only. The duration of infection ranged from 1 to 10 days. The probability of spatial spread between an infected and fully susceptible swine farm was estimated as greatest within 5 km of the infected farm, highlighting the importance of possible long-range transmission through the movement of infected animals. Finally, while most swine practitioners are confident in their ability to detect a vesicular disease in an average sized swine herd, a small proportion expect that up to half of the herd would need to show clinical signs before detection via passive surveillance would occur. The results of this study will be useful in within- and between-herd simulation models to develop efficient response strategies in the event an FMD in swine populations of disease-free countries or regions.

  19. Parameter Values for Epidemiological Models of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Kinsley, Amy C.; Patterson, Gilbert; VanderWaal, Kimberly L.; Craft, Meggan E.; Perez, Andres M.

    2016-01-01

    In the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) incursion, response strategies are required to control, contain, and eradicate the pathogen as efficiently as possible. Infectious disease simulation models are widely used tools that mimic disease dispersion in a population and that can be useful in the design and support of prevention and mitigation activities. However, there are often gaps in evidence-based research to supply models with quantities that are necessary to accurately reflect the system of interest. The objective of this study was to quantify values associated with the duration of the stages of FMD infection (latent period, subclinical period, incubation period, and duration of infection), probability of transmission (within-herd and between-herd via spatial spread), and diagnosis of a vesicular disease within a herd using a meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed literature and expert opinion. The latent period ranged from 1 to 7 days and incubation period ranged from 1 to 9 days; both were influenced by strain. In contrast, the subclinical period ranged from 0 to 6 days and was influenced by sampling method only. The duration of infection ranged from 1 to 10 days. The probability of spatial spread between an infected and fully susceptible swine farm was estimated as greatest within 5 km of the infected farm, highlighting the importance of possible long-range transmission through the movement of infected animals. Finally, while most swine practitioners are confident in their ability to detect a vesicular disease in an average sized swine herd, a small proportion expect that up to half of the herd would need to show clinical signs before detection via passive surveillance would occur. The results of this study will be useful in within- and between-herd simulation models to develop efficient response strategies in the event an FMD in swine populations of disease-free countries or regions. PMID:27314002

  20. Faecal shedding and strain diversity of Listeria monocytogenes in healthy ruminants and swine in Northern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, Jon I; Oporto, Beatriz; Aduriz, Gorka; Juste, Ramón A; Hurtado, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Background Listeria monocytogenes is among the most important foodborne bacterial pathogens due to the high mortality rate and severity of the infection. L. monocytogenes is a ubiquitous organism occasionally present in the intestinal tract of various animal species and faecal shedding by asymptomatically infected livestock poses a risk for contamination of farm environments and raw food at the pre-harvest stages. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and strain diversity of L. monocytogenes in healthy ruminants and swine herds. Results Faecal samples from 30 animals per herd were collected from 343 herds (120 sheep, 124 beef cattle, 82 dairy cattle and 17 swine) in the Basque Country and screened in pools by an automated enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay (VIDAS®) to estimate the prevalence of positive herds. Positive samples were subcultured onto the selective and differential agar ALOA and biochemically confirmed. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 46.3% of dairy cattle, 30.6% beef cattle and 14.2% sheep herds, but not from swine. Within-herd prevalence investigated by individually analysing 197 sheep and 221 cattle detected 1.5% of faecal shedders in sheep and 21.3% in cattle. Serotyping of 114 isolates identified complex 4b as the most prevalent (84.2%), followed by 1/2a (13.2%), and PFGE analysis of 68 isolates showed a highly diverse L. monocytogenes population in ruminant herds. Conclusion These results suggested that cattle represent a potentially important reservoir for L. monocytogenes in the Basque Country, and highlighted the complexity of pathogen control at the farm level. PMID:19133125

  1. Congenital cataracts in an Ayrshire herd: a herd case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An Ayrshire dairy herd was investigated for occurrence of ocular abnormalities in new-born calves. Ophthalmic examinations were performed on all the animals in the herd and 26% of them were diagnosed with bilateral cataracts. Cataracts varied in extent and severity but the majority were restricted to the lens nucleus. Epidemiological analysis showed the prevalence was higher in male animals and lower in animals born to heifers. A family tree was designed but no genetic impact of dam lines was evident. Sire data was incomplete and could therefore not be included. Based on the information provided by the farmer there was no obvious environmental or nutritional cause of these cataracts. However, data records were incomplete and further investigation/monitoring of the herd would be needed to establish a cause and enable a better insight into the aetiology of this disease in cattle. PMID:24460638

  2. Bayesian zero-inflated predictive modelling of herd-level Salmonella prevalence for risk-based surveillance.

    PubMed

    Benschop, J; Spencer, S; Alban, L; Stevenson, M; French, N

    2010-11-01

    The national control programme for Salmonella in Danish swine herds introduced in 1993 has led to a large decrease in pork-associated human cases of salmonellosis. The pork industry is increasingly focused on the cost-effectiveness of surveillance while maintaining consumer confidence in the pork food supply. Using national control programme data from 2003 and 2004, we developed a zero-inflated binomial model to predict which farms were most at risk of Salmonella. We preferentially sampled these high-risk farms using two sampling schemes based on model predictions resulting from a farm's covariate pattern and its random effect. Zero-inflated binomial modelling allows assessment of similarities and differences between factors that affect herd infection status (introduction), and those that affect the seroprevalence in infected herds (persistence and spread). Both large (producing greater than 5000 pigs per annum), and small herds (producing less than 2000 pigs per annum) were at significantly higher risk for infection and subsequent seroprevalence, when compared with medium sized herds (producing between 2000 and 5000 pigs per annum). When compared with herds being located elsewhere, being located in the south of Jutland significantly decreased the risk of herd infection, but increased the risk of a pig from an infected herd being seropositive. The model suggested that many of the herds where Salmonella was not detected were infected, but at a low prevalence. Using cost and sensitivity, we compared the results of our model based sampling schemes with those under the standard sampling scheme, based on herd size, and the recently introduced risk-based approach. Model-based results were less sensitive but show significant cost savings. Further model refinements, sampling schemes and the methods to evaluate their performance are important areas for future work, and these should continue to occur in direct consultation with Danish authorities.

  3. Brucella suis infection associated with feral swine hunting - three states, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    2009-06-12

    Historically, brucellosis from Brucella suis infection occurred among workers in swine slaughterhouses. In 1972, the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Brucellosis Eradication Program was expanded to cover swine herds. Subsequent elimination of brucellosis in commercial swine resulted in a decrease in B. suis-associated illness in humans. Currently, swine-associated brucellosis in humans in the United States is predominantly associated with exposure to infected feral swine (i.e., wild boar or wild hogs). In May and July 2008, CDC was contacted by the state health departments in South Carolina and Pennsylvania regarding two cases of brucellosis possibly linked to feral swine hunts. Both state health departments contacted the state health department in Florida, where the hunts took place. The subsequent investigation, conducted jointly by the three state health departments and CDC, determined that the two patients had confirmed brucellosis from B. suis infection and the brother of one patient had probable brucellosis. All three exposures were associated with feral swine hunting, and at least two patients did not have symptoms until 4-6 months after exposure. The findings from this investigation suggest that clinicians treating patients with unexplained febrile illness should consider brucellosis in the differential diagnosis and obtain a thorough history of travel (e.g., to enzootic areas), food consumption, occupation, and recreational activities, including feral swine hunting. Cross-agency collaboration by state health departments and agriculture agencies is needed on brucellosis investigations to reduce the risk for illness through contact with infected animals.

  4. Clinical Telemedicine Utilization in Ontario over the Ontario Telemedicine Network

    PubMed Central

    Hogenbirk, John C.; Warry, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Northern Ontario is a region in Canada with approximately 775,000 people in communities scattered across 803,000 km2. The Ontario Telemedicine Network (OTN) facilitates access to medical care in areas that are often underserved. We assessed how OTN utilization differed throughout the province. Materials and Methods: We used OTN medical service utilization data collected through the Ontario Health Insurance Plan and provided by the Ministry of Health and Long Term Care. Using census subdivisions grouped by Northern and Southern Ontario as well as urban and rural areas, we calculated utilization rates per fiscal year and total from 2008/2009 to 2013/2014. We also used billing codes to calculate utilization by therapeutic area of care. Results: There were 652,337 OTN patient visits in Ontario from 2008/2009 to 2013/2014. Median annual utilization rates per 1,000 people were higher in northern areas (rural, 52.0; urban, 32.1) than in southern areas (rural, 6.1; urban, 3.1). The majority of usage in Ontario was in mental health and addictions (61.8%). Utilization in other areas of care such as surgery, oncology, and internal medicine was highest in the rural north, whereas primary care use was highest in the urban south. Conclusions: Utilization was higher and therapeutic areas of care were more diverse in rural Northern Ontario than in other parts of the province. Utilization was also higher in urban Northern Ontario than in Southern Ontario. This suggests that telemedicine is being used to improve access to medical care services, especially in sparsely populated regions of the province. PMID:26544163

  5. Swine immune system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probably no area of veterinary medicine has seen a greater explosion in knowledge then the immune system and its implications in disease and vaccination. In this chapter on the Swine Immune System for the 10th Edition of Diseases of Swine we expand on the information provided in past editions by in...

  6. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) isolates of swine origin form robust biofilms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. One hypothesis to explain the high prevalence of MRSA in swine herds is the ability of these organisms to exist as biofilms. To invest...

  7. Modeling risk of occupational zoonotic influenza infection in swine workers.

    PubMed

    Paccha, Blanca; Jones, Rachael M; Gibbs, Shawn; Kane, Michael J; Torremorell, Montserrat; Neira-Ramirez, Victor; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2016-08-01

    Zoonotic transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) between swine and workers in swine production facilities may play a role in the emergence of novel influenza strains with pandemic potential. Guidelines to prevent transmission of influenza to swine workers have been developed but there is a need for evidence-based decision-making about protective measures such as respiratory protection. A mathematical model was applied to estimate the risk of occupational IAV exposure to swine workers by contact and airborne transmission, and to evaluate the use of respirators to reduce transmission.  The Markov model was used to simulate the transport and exposure of workers to IAV in a swine facility. A dose-response function was used to estimate the risk of infection. This approach is similar to methods previously used to estimate the risk of infection in human health care settings. This study uses concentration of virus in air from field measurements collected during outbreaks of influenza in commercial swine facilities, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction.  It was found that spending 25 min working in a barn during an influenza outbreak in a swine herd could be sufficient to cause zoonotic infection in a worker. However, this risk estimate was sensitive to estimates of viral infectivity to humans. Wearing an excellent fitting N95 respirator reduced this risk, but with high aerosol levels the predicted risk of infection remained high under certain assumptions.  The results of this analysis indicate that under the conditions studied, swine workers are at risk of zoonotic influenza infection. The use of an N95 respirator could reduce such risk. These findings have implications for risk assessment and preventive programs targeting swine workers. The exact level of risk remains uncertain, since our model may have overestimated the viability or infectivity of IAV. Additionally, the potential for partial immunity in swine workers associated with repeated low

  8. Blastomycosis in Northwestern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Lynn

    1985-01-01

    Nine cases of blastomycosis were seen at the Sioux Lookout Zone Hospital in northwestern Ontario from 1970 to 1983. Although this region has been described as a focus of endemic infection, little published information is available. Seven male and two female Canadian Indians, aged 4-54 years, acquired the infection. Three children were infected; a mother and her son became ill one month apart. All cases presented as progressive pulmonary disease and no extrapulmonary involvement was found. Delay in diagnosis ranged from 11 days to eight weeks, with a mean of 31 days. Patients generally responded favorably to treatment with amphotericin B. Epidemiologic data suggest that environmental, geographic, occupational and recreational determinants are necessary factors in disease acquisition. PMID:21279155

  9. Ontario Teachers' Deprofessionalization and Proletarianization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filson, Glen

    1988-01-01

    Discusses teachers' class location in capitalist societies in terms of major sociological perspectives. Identifies corporate capitalist class categories that distinguish professionals from proletarians, and applies these categories to Ontario teachers at different occupational levels. (44 references) (SV)

  10. Poly I:C adjuvanted inactivated swine influenza vaccine induces heterologous protective immunity in pigs.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Milton; Wang, Zhao; Sreenivasan, Chithra C; Hause, Ben M; Gourapura J Renukaradhya; Li, Feng; Francis, David H; Kaushik, Radhey S; Khatri, Mahesh

    2015-01-15

    Swine influenza is widely prevalent in swine herds in North America and Europe causing enormous economic losses and a public health threat. Pigs can be infected by both avian and mammalian influenza viruses and are sources of generation of reassortant influenza viruses capable of causing pandemics in humans. Current commercial vaccines provide satisfactory immunity against homologous viruses; however, protection against heterologous viruses is not adequate. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of an intranasal Poly I:C adjuvanted UV inactivated bivalent swine influenza vaccine consisting of Swine/OH/24366/07 H1N1 and Swine/CO/99 H3N2, referred as PAV, in maternal antibody positive pigs against an antigenic variant and a heterologous swine influenza virus challenge. Groups of three-week-old commercial-grade pigs were immunized intranasally with PAV or a commercial vaccine (CV) twice at 2 weeks intervals. Three weeks after the second immunization, pigs were challenged with the antigenic variant Swine/MN/08 H1N1 (MN08) and the heterologous Swine/NC/10 H1N2 (NC10) influenza virus. Antibodies in serum and respiratory tract, lung lesions, virus shedding in nasal secretions and virus load in lungs were assessed. Intranasal administration of PAV induced challenge viruses specific-hemagglutination inhibition- and IgG antibodies in the serum and IgA and IgG antibodies in the respiratory tract. Importantly, intranasal administration of PAV provided protection against the antigenic variant MN08 and the heterologous NC10 swine influenza viruses as evidenced by significant reductions in lung virus load, gross lung lesions and significantly reduced shedding of challenge viruses in nasal secretions. These results indicate that Poly I:C or its homologues may be effective as vaccine adjuvants capable of generating cross-protective immunity against antigenic variants/heterologous swine influenza viruses in pigs.

  11. Comparing ELISA test-positive prevalence, risk factors and management recommendations for Johne's disease prevention between organic and conventional dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David

    2015-11-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic, infectious disease in cattle. Between 2010 and 2013, a voluntary JD control program was successfully launched in Ontario, Canada, including a Risk Assessment and Management Plan (RAMP) and JD ELISA testing of the entire milking herd. Over the last decade, the organic dairy sector has been growing. However, organic farming regulations and philosophies may influence the risk for JD transmission on Ontario organic dairy farms. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in JD ELISA test positive prevalence, risk factors for JD and recommendations for JD prevention between organic and conventional dairy herds in Ontario. RAMP results (i.e. RAMP scores and recommendations) and ELISA results were available for 2103 dairy herds, including 42 organic herds. If available, additional data on milk production, milk quality, and herd characteristics were gathered. Organic and conventional herds had a similar herd-level JD ELISA test-positive prevalence (26.2% and 27.2%, respectively). Organic herds (4.2%) had a higher within-herd JD ELISA test-positive prevalence compared to conventional herds (2.3%) if they had at least one JD test-positive animal on the farm. Organic farms had lower risk scores for biosecurity (9 points lower), and higher scores in the calving (7 points higher) and the calf-rearing management areas (4 points higher). After accounting for RAMP score, organic farms received fewer recommendations for the calving management area (Odds Ratio=0.41) and more recommendations in the adult cow management area (Odds Ratio=2.70). A zero-inflated negative binomial model was built with purchase of animals and the herd size included in the logistic portion of the model. Herd type (organic or conventional), colostrum and milk feeding practices, average bulk tank somatic cell count, and presence of non-Holstein breeds were included in the negative binomial portion of the model. Organic farms had a higher number of

  12. Comparing ELISA test-positive prevalence, risk factors and management recommendations for Johne's disease prevention between organic and conventional dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David

    2015-11-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic, infectious disease in cattle. Between 2010 and 2013, a voluntary JD control program was successfully launched in Ontario, Canada, including a Risk Assessment and Management Plan (RAMP) and JD ELISA testing of the entire milking herd. Over the last decade, the organic dairy sector has been growing. However, organic farming regulations and philosophies may influence the risk for JD transmission on Ontario organic dairy farms. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in JD ELISA test positive prevalence, risk factors for JD and recommendations for JD prevention between organic and conventional dairy herds in Ontario. RAMP results (i.e. RAMP scores and recommendations) and ELISA results were available for 2103 dairy herds, including 42 organic herds. If available, additional data on milk production, milk quality, and herd characteristics were gathered. Organic and conventional herds had a similar herd-level JD ELISA test-positive prevalence (26.2% and 27.2%, respectively). Organic herds (4.2%) had a higher within-herd JD ELISA test-positive prevalence compared to conventional herds (2.3%) if they had at least one JD test-positive animal on the farm. Organic farms had lower risk scores for biosecurity (9 points lower), and higher scores in the calving (7 points higher) and the calf-rearing management areas (4 points higher). After accounting for RAMP score, organic farms received fewer recommendations for the calving management area (Odds Ratio=0.41) and more recommendations in the adult cow management area (Odds Ratio=2.70). A zero-inflated negative binomial model was built with purchase of animals and the herd size included in the logistic portion of the model. Herd type (organic or conventional), colostrum and milk feeding practices, average bulk tank somatic cell count, and presence of non-Holstein breeds were included in the negative binomial portion of the model. Organic farms had a higher number of

  13. Swine Fecal Metagenomics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metagenomic approaches are providing rapid and more robust means to investigate the composition and functional genetic potential of complex microbial communities. In this study, we utilized a metagenomic approach to further understand the functional diversity of the swine gut. To...

  14. Swine influenza viruses: an Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Ki; Pascua, Phillippe Noriel Q; Song, Min-Suk

    2013-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) are respiratory viral pathogens of pigs that are capable of causing serious global public health concerns in human. Because of their dual susceptibility to mammalian and avian influenza A viruses, pigs are the leading intermediate hosts for genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission and serve as reservoirs of antigenically divergent human viruses from which zoonotic stains with pandemic potential may arise. Pandemic influenza viruses emerging after the 1918 Spanish flu have originated in asia. Although distinct lineages of North American and European SIVs of the H1N1, H3N2, and HiN2 subtypes have been widely studied, less is known about the porcine viruses that are circulating among pig populations throughout Asia. The current review understanding of Contemporary viruses, human infection with SIVs, and the potential threat of novel pandemic strains are described, Furthermore, to best use the limited resources that are available for comprehensive genetic assessment of influenza, consensus efforts among Asian nations to increase epidemiosurveillance of swine herds is also strongly promoted.

  15. "Herd immunity": a rough guide.

    PubMed

    Fine, Paul; Eames, Ken; Heymann, David L

    2011-04-01

    The term "herd immunity" is widely used but carries a variety of meanings. Some authors use it to describe the proportion immune among individuals in a population. Others use it with reference to a particular threshold proportion of immune individuals that should lead to a decline in incidence of infection. Still others use it to refer to a pattern of immunity that should protect a population from invasion of a new infection. A common implication of the term is that the risk of infection among susceptible individuals in a population is reduced by the presence and proximity of immune individuals (this is sometimes referred to as "indirect protection" or a "herd effect"). We provide brief historical, epidemiologic, theoretical, and pragmatic public health perspectives on this concept.

  16. Herd Immunity: A Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Alam, M J; Rahman, M F

    2016-04-01

    Immunization is a means of protecting the greatest number of people. By reducing the number of susceptible in the community, it augments "herd immunity" making the infection more difficult to spread. It also reduces the risk for those individuals who have escaped vaccination or those who have not developed satisfactory protection. It is well to bear in mind that immunizations are not at all 100 per cent effective, particularly when an individual is exposed to a large dose of pathogenic organisms.

  17. Controlling Herds of Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.

    2006-01-01

    A document poses, and suggests a program of research for answering, questions of how to achieve autonomous operation of herds of cooperative robots to be used in exploration and/or colonization of remote planets. In a typical scenario, a flock of mobile sensory robots would be deployed in a previously unexplored region, one of the robots would be designated the leader, and the leader would issue commands to move the robots to different locations or aim sensors at different targets to maximize scientific return. It would be necessary to provide for this hierarchical, cooperative behavior even in the face of such unpredictable factors as terrain obstacles. A potential-fields approach is proposed as a theoretical basis for developing methods of autonomous command and guidance of a herd. A survival-of-the-fittest approach is suggested as a theoretical basis for selection, mutation, and adaptation of a description of (1) the body, joints, sensors, actuators, and control computer of each robot, and (2) the connectivity of each robot with the rest of the herd, such that the herd could be regarded as consisting of a set of artificial creatures that evolve to adapt to a previously unknown environment. A distributed simulation environment has been developed to test the proposed approaches in the Titan environment. One blimp guides three surface sondes via a potential field approach. The results of the simulation demonstrate that the method used for control is feasible, even if significant uncertainty exists in the dynamics and environmental models, and that the control architecture provides the autonomy needed to enable surface science data collection.

  18. Detection by Reverse Transcription-PCR and Genetic Characterization of Field Isolates of Swine Hepatitis E Virus from Pigs in Different Geographic Regions of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Huang, F. F.; Haqshenas, G.; Guenette, D. K.; Halbur, P. G.; Schommer, S. K.; Pierson, F. W.; Toth, T.E.; Meng, X. J.

    2002-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important public health concern in many developing countries. HEV is also endemic in some industrialized counties, including the United States. With our recent discovery of swine HEV in pigs that is genetically closely related to human HEV, hepatitis E is now considered a zoonotic disease. Human strains of HEV are genetically heterogenic. So far in the United States, only one strain of swine HEV has been identified and characterized from a pig. To determine the extent of genetic variations and the nature of swine HEV infections in U.S. pigs, we developed a universal reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay that is capable of detecting genetically divergent strains of HEV. By using this universal RT-PCR assay, we tested fecal and serum samples of pigs of 2 to 4 months of age from 37 different U.S. swine farms for the presence of swine HEV RNA. Thirty-four of the 96 pigs (35%) and 20 of the 37 swine herds (54%) tested were positive for swine HEV RNA. The sequences of a 348-bp region within the ORF2 gene of 27 swine HEV isolates from different geographic regions were determined. Sequence analyses revealed that the 27 U.S. swine HEV isolates shared 88 to 100% nucleotide sequence identities with each other and 89 to 98% identities with the prototype U.S. strain of swine HEV. These U.S. swine HEV isolates are only distantly related to the Taiwanese strains of swine HEV, with about 74 to 78% nucleotide sequence identities; to most known human strains of HEV worldwide, with <79% sequence identities; and to avian HEV, with 54 to 56% sequence identities. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the U.S. swine HEV isolates identified in this study clustered in the same genotype with the prototype U.S. swine HEV and the two U.S. strains of human HEV. The data from this study indicated that swine HEV is widespread and enzoonotic in U.S. swine herds and that, as is with human HEV, swine HEV isolates from different geographic regions of the world are

  19. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) isolates of swine origin form robust biofilms.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tracy L; Shore, Sarah M; Smith, Tara C; Frana, Timothy S; Fraena, Timothy S

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. Mechanisms contributing to the persistent carriage and high prevalence rates of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) strains in swine herds and production facilities have not been investigated. One explanation for the high prevalence of MRSA in swine herds is the ability of these organisms to exist as biofilms. In this report, the ability of swine LA-MRSA strains, including ST398, ST9, and ST5, to form biofilms was quantified and compared to several swine and human isolates. The contribution of known biofilm matrix components, polysaccharides, proteins and extracellular DNA (eDNA), was tested in all strains as well. All MRSA swine isolates formed robust biofilms similar to human clinical isolates. The addition of Dispersin B had no inhibitory effect on swine MRSA isolates when added at the initiation of biofilm growth or after pre-established mature biofilms formed. In contrast, the addition of proteinase K inhibited biofilm formation in all strains when added at the initiation of biofilm growth and was able to disperse pre-established mature biofilms. Of the LA-MRSA strains tested, we found ST398 strains to be the most sensitive to both inhibition of biofilm formation and dispersal of pre-formed biofilms by DNaseI. Collectively, these findings provide a critical first step in designing strategies to control or eliminate MRSA in swine herds.

  20. The new classification system for slaughter-pig herds in the Danish Salmonella surveillance-and-control program.

    PubMed

    Alban, Lis; Stege, Helle; Dahl, Jan

    2002-02-14

    The Danish surveillance-and-control program for Salmonella in slaughter pigs was introduced in 1995. The key element of the program is a quick and correct identification of herds with high seroprevalence. After 5 years, the classification scheme was evaluated--and a revision was made. Data from two Salmonella screenings including a total of 1902 slaughter pig herds were used. For each herd, information was available on Salmonella status based on both microbiology and serology. Based on analyses of these data, suitable changes in the scheme were identified and their effect estimated by use of data from the Danish Salmonella Database including all herds in 2000. The classification scheme has been adjusted on the following points. (1) The sampling has been simplified into 60, 75, or 100 samples per herd per year depending on herd size. This means more-precise estimates for the seroprevalence among smaller herds. (2) Herds with an annual kill herds. A herd with an increasing seroprevalence will be assigned to a higher Salmonella level more-quickly under the new scheme. (5) A herd will be assigned monthly to one of three levels. The limit between Levels 1 and 2 has been set to >or=index 40, and the limit between Levels 2 and 3 to >or=index 70. If the Danish swine producers are interested, a Level 0 may be introduced (consisting of seronegative herds as an indication of a negligible Salmonella prevalence). The classification scheme was introduced in August 2001.

  1. High turnover drives prolonged persistence of influenza in managed pig herds

    PubMed Central

    Aguas, Ricardo; Riley, Steven; Loeffen, Willie L. A.; Wood, James L. N.; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs have long been hypothesized to play a central role in the emergence of novel human influenza A virus (IAV) strains, by serving as mixing vessels for mammalian and avian variants. However, the key issue of viral persistence in swine populations at different scales is ill understood. We address this gap using epidemiological models calibrated against seroprevalence data from Dutch finishing pigs to estimate the ‘critical herd size’ (CHS) for IAV persistence. We then examine the viral phylogenetic evidence for persistence by comparing human and swine IAV. Models suggest a CHS of approximately 3000 pigs above which influenza was likely to persist, i.e. orders of magnitude lower than persistence thresholds for IAV and other acute viruses in humans. At national and regional scales, we found much stronger empirical signatures of prolonged persistence of IAV in swine compared with human populations. These striking levels of persistence in small populations are driven by the high recruitment rate of susceptible piglets, and have significant implications for management of swine and for overall patterns of genetic diversity of IAV. PMID:27358277

  2. Origins of rainbow smelt in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.

    1983-01-01

    The first rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) to enter Lake Ontario were probably migrants from an anadromous strain introduced into New York's Finger Lakes. Since the upper Great Lakes were originally stocked with a landlocked strain from Green Lake, Maine, subsequent migration to Lake Ontario from Lake Erie makes Lake Ontario unique among the Great Lakes in probably having received introductions from two distinct populations.

  3. Reforming Ontario Early Learning: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Thomas; Date, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we address the reformation of Ontario early learning. Over the next 3 years, all 4- and 5-year-olds in Ontario (Canada) will be able to attend full-day early learning with child care, before and after school provided by the Government of Ontario Ministry of Education. The benefits of such a change are both academic and societal and are…

  4. Swine Dysentery: Aetiology, Pathogenicity, Determinants of Transmission and the Fight against the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Martínez-Lobo, Francisco Javier; Arguello, Héctor; Carvajal, Ana; Rubio, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Swine Dysentery (SD) is a severe mucohaemorhagic enteric disease of pigs caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, which has a large impact on pig production and causes important losses due to mortality and sub-optimal performance. Although B. hyodysenteriae has been traditionally considered a pathogen mainly transmitted by direct contact, through the introduction of subclinically infected animals into a previously uninfected herd, recent findings position B. hyodysenteriae as a potential threat for indirect transmission between farms. This article summarizes the knowledge available on the etiological agent of SD and its virulence traits, and reviews the determinants of SD transmission. The between-herds and within-herd transmission routes are addressed. The factors affecting disease transmission are thoroughly discussed, i.e., environmental survival of the pathogen, husbandry factors (production system, production stage, farm management), role of vectors, diet influence and interaction of the microorganism with gut microbiota. Finally, prophylactic and therapeutic approaches to fight against the disease are briefly described. PMID:23665849

  5. Swine dysentery: aetiology, pathogenicity, determinants of transmission and the fight against the disease.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Martínez-Lobo, Francisco Javier; Arguello, Héctor; Carvajal, Ana; Rubio, Pedro

    2013-05-10

    Swine Dysentery (SD) is a severe mucohaemorhagic enteric disease of pigs caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, which has a large impact on pig production and causes important losses due to mortality and sub-optimal performance. Although B. hyodysenteriae has been traditionally considered a pathogen mainly transmitted by direct contact, through the introduction of subclinically infected animals into a previously uninfected herd, recent findings position B. hyodysenteriae as a potential threat for indirect transmission between farms. This article summarizes the knowledge available on the etiological agent of SD and its virulence traits, and reviews the determinants of SD transmission. The between-herds and within-herd transmission routes are addressed. The factors affecting disease transmission are thoroughly discussed, i.e., environmental survival of the pathogen, husbandry factors (production system, production stage, farm management), role of vectors, diet influence and interaction of the microorganism with gut microbiota. Finally, prophylactic and therapeutic approaches to fight against the disease are briefly described.

  6. Collective Bargaining in Ontario, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drory, Asher; Badgley, Susan

    This report highlights negotiations and trends occurring in the major collective bargaining in the province of Ontario, Canada in 1972. Bargaining during the year was centered primarily on non-manufacturing industries and in the public sector. Major issues negotiated were wages, improved working conditions, job security, and length of work week.…

  7. Ontario. Reference Series No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Ontario and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, history, agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, manufacturing, transportation, energy, arts and culture, sports and recreation, and people and…

  8. Herd immunity: recent uses in vaccine assessment.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Guilherme

    2008-12-01

    Human communities defend themselves against specific infectious agents in a way that extends beyond the simple sum of the immune status of its individuals. By analogy with individual immunity to specific agents, the community level of immunity may vary from complete susceptibility to full protection. Herd immunity has been used to name this community property, which is the result of evolution through natural selection, leading to relationships between two species, typical of prey-predator systems. Varying uses of the term herd immunity led to the use of other expressions, such as herd protection, herd effect and community immunity. Knowledge derived from observational studies and models on herd immunity has supported decisions on the choice of vaccines and vaccination strategies for the benefit of populations. This knowledge is most likely to be extended in the future, with far-reaching effects.

  9. Use of herd information for predicting Salmonella status in pig herds.

    PubMed

    Baptista, F M; Alban, L; Nielsen, L R; Domingos, I; Pomba, C; Almeida, V

    2010-11-01

    Salmonella surveillance-and-control programs in pigs are highly resource demanding, so alternative cost-effective approaches are desirable. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a tool for predicting the Salmonella test status in pig herds based on herd information collected from 108 industrial farrow-to-finish pig herds in Portugal. A questionnaire including known risk factors for Salmonella was used. A factor analysis model was developed to identify relevant factors that were then tested for association with Salmonella status. Three factors were identified and labelled: general biosecurity (factor 1), herd size (factor 2) and sanitary gap implementation (factor 3). Based on the loadings in factor 1 and factor 3, herds were classified according to their biosecurity practices. In total, 59% of the herds had a good level of biosecurity (interpreted as a loading below zero in factor 1) and 37% of the farms had good biosecurity and implemented sanitary gap (loading below zero in factor 1 and loading above zero in factor 3). This implied that they, among other things, implemented preventive measures for visitors and workers entering the herd, controlled biological vectors, had hygiene procedures in place, water quality assessment, and sanitary gap in the fattening and growing sections. In total, 50 herds were tested for Salmonella. Logistic regression analysis showed that factor 1 was significantly associated with Salmonella test status (P = 0.04). Herds with poor biosecurity had a higher probability of testing Salmonella positive compared with herds with good biosecurity. This study shows the potential for using herd information to classify herds according to their Salmonella status in the absence of good testing options. The method might be used as a potentially cost-effective tool for future development of risk-based approaches to surveillance, targeting interventions to high-risk herds or differentiating sampling strategies in herds with different

  10. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  11. Agriculture. Swine Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for swine, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  12. Salmonella enterica infections in Spanish swine fattening units.

    PubMed

    García-Feliz, C; Collazos, J A; Carvajal, A; Vidal, A B; Aladueña, A; Ramiro, R; de la Fuente, M; Echeita, M A; Rubio, P

    2007-01-01

    The present study is the first conducted in Spain to estimate the bacteriological herd prevalence of Salmonella enterica in fattening units and to describe the Salmonella serovar diversity on these farms using a sample representative of the entire swine population. For this purpose, 10 faecal samples were collected from 10 different pens containing pigs close to market weight in a total of 232 fattening units. Total sample size was proportionally distributed according to the fattener census in each of the regions of the country and all the samples were examined by culture of 25 g of faecal material. One hundred (43.1%) farms had at least one Salmonella-positive sample (95% CI: 37-49.1%). Salmonella enterica was detected in 290 (12.5%) pooled faecal floor samples (95% CI: 11.2-13.8%). The apparent herd prevalence of salmonellosis was similar among multi-site, finishing and farrow to finish farms. Overall, 24 different serovars were identified, with S. Typhimurium, S. Rissen and S. Derby being the most common both at herd and sample level. Results of phage typing were available for the 91 isolates of S. Typhimurium. A total number of 10 different phage types were identified, with DT 193 being the most frequent. Phage types DT 104, DT 104b and DT U302, which have been associated with several multi-resistant patterns, accounted for 23% and 29% of the Typhimurium total isolates or Typhimurium infected farms respectively.

  13. History and epidemiology of Swine influenza in Europe.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ian H

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, swine influenza is considered one of the most important primary pathogens of swine respiratory disease and infection is primarily with H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 influenza A viruses. The antigenetic characteristics of these viruses distinguish them from others circulating at a global level in pigs. These viruses have remained endemic in European pig populations but significant differences in the circulation of these strains occur at a regional level across Europe. The dynamic of co-circulation of viruses, impact of prior immunity, husbandry practices and other local factors all contribute to the complex epidemiology. Surveillance programmes in European pigs did not reveal the presence of pandemic H1N1 virus prior to its detection in humans in 2009 but there is evidence that the virus can be maintained in European pigs even when there are relatively good levels of herd immunity to other H1 viruses. Evidence for the pig as a 'mixing vessel' of influenza viruses of non-swine-origin has been demonstrated in Europe on several occasions. Furthermore significant and highly variable genetic diversity occurs at the whole genome level for all virus subtypes and this has contributed to changing patterns of virus epidemiology over time.

  14. Short communication: variance estimates among herds stratified by individual herd heritability.

    PubMed

    Dechow, C D; Norman, H D; Pelensky, C A

    2008-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare (co)variance parameter estimates among subsets of data that were pooled from herds with high, medium, or low individual herd heritability estimates and to compare individual herd heritability estimates to REML heritability estimates for pooled data sets. A regression model was applied to milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, and somatic cell score (SCS) records from 20,902 herds to generate individual-herd heritability estimates. Herds representing the 5th percentile or less (P5), 47th through the 53rd percentile (P50), and the 95th percentile or higher (P95) for herd heritability were randomly selected. Yield or SCS from the selected herds were pooled for each percentile group and treated as separate traits. Records from P5, P50, and P95 were then analyzed with a 3-trait animal model. Heritability estimates were 23, 31, 26, and 8% higher in P95 than in P5 for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, and SCS, respectively. The regression techniques successfully stratified individual herds by heritability, and additive genetic variance increased progressively, whereas permanent environmental variance decreased progressively as herd heritability increased.

  15. Pediatric fire deaths in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yingming Amy; Bridgman-Acker, Karen; Edwards, Jim; Lauwers, Albert Edward

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify the predictors of residential fire deaths in the Ontario pediatric population using systematically collected data from the Office of the Chief Coroner. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Ontario. Participants Children younger than 16 years of age who died in accidental residential fires in Ontario between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2006. Main outcome measures The study retrospectively reviewed the coroner’s case files for 60 subjects who qualified according to the selection criteria. Reviewed documents included the coroner’s investigation statements, autopsy reports, toxicology reports, fire marshal’s reports, police reports, and Children’s Aid Society (CAS) reports. Information on a range of demographic, behavioural, social, and environmental factors was collected. Statistical tests, including relative risk, relative risk confidence intervals, and χ2 tests were performed to determine the correlation between factors of interest and to establish their significance. Results Thirty-nine fire events resulting in 60 deaths occurred between 2001 and 2006. Fire play and electrical failures were the top 2 causes of residential fires. More fires occurred during the night (midnight to 9 am) than during the day (9 am to midnight). Nighttime fires were most commonly due to electrical failures or unattended candles, whereas daytime fires were primarily caused by unsupervised fire play and stove fires. Smoke alarms were present at 32 of 39 fire events (82%), but overall alarm functionality was only 54%. Children from families with a history of CAS involvement were approximately 32 times more likely to die in fires. Conclusion Risk factors for pediatric fire death in Ontario include smoke alarm functionality, fire play, fire escape behaviour, and CAS involvement. Efforts to prevent residential fire deaths should target these populations and risk factors, and primary care physicians should consider education around these

  16. "Uberizing" home care in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Wojtak, Anne; Stark, Linda

    2016-07-01

    This article looks at home care in Ontario and its role as a foundation for a sustainable healthcare system in the future. Beginning with the history and evolution of the service delivery model, it examines current challenges and opportunities to unleash the potential of home care within a more integrated model for patient-centred care for the future. An in-depth look at how to better coordinate, integrate, and fund care for patients is highlighted.

  17. "Uberizing" home care in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Wojtak, Anne; Stark, Linda

    2016-07-01

    This article looks at home care in Ontario and its role as a foundation for a sustainable healthcare system in the future. Beginning with the history and evolution of the service delivery model, it examines current challenges and opportunities to unleash the potential of home care within a more integrated model for patient-centred care for the future. An in-depth look at how to better coordinate, integrate, and fund care for patients is highlighted. PMID:27269814

  18. [Multiresistant Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in a Dutch sow herd].

    PubMed

    Duinhof, T F; Dierikx, C M; Koene, M G J; van Bergen, M A P; Mevius, D J; Veldman, K T; van Beers-Schreurs, H M G; de Winne, R T J A

    This case study describes the isolation ofa multiresistant strain ofBrachyspira hyodysenteriae in April 2007 in a Dutch sow herd with recurrent diarrhoea. Examination of faecal samples taken from 7-month-old breeding gilts with diarrhoea revealed the presence of resistance against tiamulin, lincomycin, tylosin, doxycycline, and tylvalosin (the active substance in Aivlosin) in four of five samples. Tiamulin resistance has not been reported in The Netherlands before. The repeated use of tiamulin on the affected farm was assumed to be the main cause of the development of resistance to the drug. The farmer was advised to adopt a medication strategy and to implement management practices that would prevent an ongoing cycle of infection on the farm. It is important that the Dutch swine industry appreciates that tiamulin-resistant strains of B. hyodysenteriae may be found on other farms as well. The appropriate and prudent use of antibiotics is essential in order to prevent the development of resistance against the last option left to cure B. hyodysenteriae infections: valnemulin.

  19. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    PubMed

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  20. Plaque assay for African swine fever virus on swine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bustos, M J; Nogal, M L; Revilla, Y; Carrascosa, A L

    2002-07-01

    A plaque assay developed to detect the infection of African Swine Fever Virus on swine macrophages is described. Plaques were generated by all of the virus isolates tested. The method is suitable not only for virus titration but also for the selection of clones in protocols for isolation/purification of recombinant viruses.

  1. Feral swine contact with domestic swine: a serologic survey and assessment of potential for disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, A Christy; Henke, Scott E; Campbell, Tyler A; Hewitt, David G; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2009-04-01

    Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are present in 38 of the 50 United States, and their populations continue to expand. Domestic swine are widely regarded as vulnerable to diseases harbored by feral swine. Our objectives were to determine antibody prevalence for selected pathogens in Texas feral swine populations and identify contact events between feral and domestic swine. Overall prevalence of antibodies against brucellosis and pseudorabies virus was 11% and 30%, respectively. Antibodies to porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus were detected in 3% of feral swine from southern Texas. All samples tested negative for antibodies to classical swine fever virus. To determine the frequency of contact events between feral swine and domestic swine in neighboring facilities, we analyzed movement data from 37 adult feral swine that were trapped < or =10 km from domestic swine facilities and equipped with geographic positioning system collars. Seven of the 37 feral swine had contact (relocated within 100 m) with domestic swine. We found that contact between feral swine and domestic swine occurred predominantly at night. Additionally, we analyzed 60 consecutive days of experimental track plots around pens that contained domestic swine and empty control pens, and found greater visitation by feral swine to the domestic swine pens. Our data demonstrate that feral swine have direct contact with domestic swine, which presents opportunity for disease transmission.

  2. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine...

  3. Variability in Risk Assessment and Management Plan (RAMP) scores completed as part of the Ontario Johne's Education and Management Assistance Program(2010-2013).

    PubMed

    Pieper, Laura; DeVries, Trevor J; Sorge, Ulrike S; Godkin, Ann; Hand, Karen J; Perkins, Nicole R; Imada, Jamie; Kelton, David F

    2015-04-01

    As a proactive measure toward controlling the nontreatable and contagious Johne's disease in cattle, the Ontario dairy industry launched the voluntary Ontario Johne's Education and Management Assistance Program in 2010. The objective of this study was to describe the results of the first 4 yr of the program and to investigate the variability in Risk Assessment and Management Plan (RAMP) scores associated with the county, veterinary clinic, and veterinarian. Of 4,158 Ontario dairy farms, 2,153 (51.8%) participated in the program between January 2010 and August 2013. For this study, RAMP scores and whole-herd milk or serum ELISA results were available from 2,103 farms. Herd-level ELISA-positive prevalence (herds with one or more test-positive cows were considered positive) was 27.2%. Linear mixed model analysis revealed that the greatest RAMP score variability was at the veterinarian level (24.2%), with relatively little variability at the county and veterinary clinic levels. Consequently, the annual RAMP should be done by the same veterinarian to avoid misleading or discouraging results. PMID:25648804

  4. In Vivo Validation of Predicted and Conserved T Cell Epitopes in a Swine Influenza Model.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Andres H; Loving, Crystal; Moise, Leonard; Terry, Frances E; Brockmeier, Susan L; Hughes, Holly R; Martin, William D; De Groot, Anne S

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza is a highly contagious respiratory viral infection in pigs that is responsible for significant financial losses to pig farmers annually. Current measures to protect herds from infection include: inactivated whole-virus vaccines, subunit vaccines, and alpha replicon-based vaccines. As is true for influenza vaccines for humans, these strategies do not provide broad protection against the diverse strains of influenza A virus (IAV) currently circulating in U.S. swine. Improved approaches to developing swine influenza vaccines are needed. Here, we used immunoinformatics tools to identify class I and II T cell epitopes highly conserved in seven representative strains of IAV in U.S. swine and predicted to bind to Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) alleles prevalent in commercial swine. Epitope-specific interferon-gamma (IFNγ) recall responses to pooled peptides and whole virus were detected in pigs immunized with multi-epitope plasmid DNA vaccines encoding strings of class I and II putative epitopes. In a retrospective analysis of the IFNγ responses to individual peptides compared to predictions specific to the SLA alleles of cohort pigs, we evaluated the predictive performance of PigMatrix and demonstrated its ability to distinguish non-immunogenic from immunogenic peptides and to identify promiscuous class II epitopes. Overall, this study confirms the capacity of PigMatrix to predict immunogenic T cell epitopes and demonstrate its potential for use in the design of epitope-driven vaccines for swine. Additional studies that match the SLA haplotype of animals with the study epitopes will be required to evaluate the degree of immune protection conferred by epitope-driven DNA vaccines in pigs. PMID:27411061

  5. In Vivo Validation of Predicted and Conserved T Cell Epitopes in a Swine Influenza Model

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Andres H.; Loving, Crystal; Moise, Leonard; Terry, Frances E.; Brockmeier, Susan L.; Hughes, Holly R.; Martin, William D.; De Groot, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza is a highly contagious respiratory viral infection in pigs that is responsible for significant financial losses to pig farmers annually. Current measures to protect herds from infection include: inactivated whole-virus vaccines, subunit vaccines, and alpha replicon-based vaccines. As is true for influenza vaccines for humans, these strategies do not provide broad protection against the diverse strains of influenza A virus (IAV) currently circulating in U.S. swine. Improved approaches to developing swine influenza vaccines are needed. Here, we used immunoinformatics tools to identify class I and II T cell epitopes highly conserved in seven representative strains of IAV in U.S. swine and predicted to bind to Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) alleles prevalent in commercial swine. Epitope-specific interferon-gamma (IFNγ) recall responses to pooled peptides and whole virus were detected in pigs immunized with multi-epitope plasmid DNA vaccines encoding strings of class I and II putative epitopes. In a retrospective analysis of the IFNγ responses to individual peptides compared to predictions specific to the SLA alleles of cohort pigs, we evaluated the predictive performance of PigMatrix and demonstrated its ability to distinguish non-immunogenic from immunogenic peptides and to identify promiscuous class II epitopes. Overall, this study confirms the capacity of PigMatrix to predict immunogenic T cell epitopes and demonstrate its potential for use in the design of epitope-driven vaccines for swine. Additional studies that match the SLA haplotype of animals with the study epitopes will be required to evaluate the degree of immune protection conferred by epitope-driven DNA vaccines in pigs. PMID:27411061

  6. Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) and its transmission characteristics: a study of the New Zealand designated pathogen-free herd.

    PubMed

    Garkavenko, O; Wynyard, S; Nathu, D; Simond, D; Muzina, M; Muzina, Z; Scobie, L; Hector, R D; Croxson, M C; Tan, P; Elliott, B R

    2008-01-01

    Previously a strategy for monitoring of pigs intended for cell transplantation was developed and successfully applied to several representative herds in New Zealand. A designated pathogen-free (DPF) herd has been chosen as a good candidate for xenotransplantation. This herd has previously tested free of infectious agents relevant to xenotransplantation and we present here an in depth study of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) transmission. A panel of assays that describes the constraints for the transmission of PERV has been suggested. It includes a) infectivity test in coculture of DPF pig primary cells with both human and pig target cell lines; b) RT activity in supernatant of stimulated primary cells from DPF pigs; c) viral load in donor's blood plasma; d) PERV proviral copy number in DPF pig genome; e) PERV class C prevalence in the herd and its recombination potential. There was no evidence of PERV transmission from DPF pig tissue to either pig or human cells. Additionally, there was no evidence of PERV RNA present in pig blood plasma. PERV copy number differs in individual pigs from as low as 3 copies to 30 copies and the presence of PERV-C varied between animals and breeds. In all DPF pigs tested, a specific locus for PERV-C potentially associated with the recombination of PERV in miniature swine was absent. Presented data on the PERV transmission allows us to classify the DPF potential donors as "null" or noninfectious pigs.

  7. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they...

  8. Libraries in Ontario: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/ontario.html Libraries in Ontario To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Barrie Royal Victoria Regional Health Centre Health Library 201 Georgian Drive Barrie, ON L4M 6M2 CANADA ...

  9. Educational Information in Ontario: A Government Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, B. M.

    The Ontario Ministry of Education's role in funding educational research, and its procedures for the dissemination of educational research information are described. Two ministry initiatives are discussed in detail: the establishment of the Educational Information System for Ontario (EISO), a computerized search and retrieval service to access…

  10. Behaviour Assessment in Ontario Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tess; Klinger, D.; Shulha, L.

    2006-01-01

    Curriculum reform in Ontario secondary schools proposed that the assessment of student achievement be separated into academic achievement and non-academic achievement or the behaviours that can influence academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' assessment practices of non-academic achievement in Ontario' s grade 9…

  11. Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Paul Z.

    2012-01-01

    TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

  12. Ontario's Challenge: Denominational Rights in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinga, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Denominational rights in education have a long and controversial history within Canada. Ontario has struggled with denomination rights and continues to face the challenges posed by accommodating denominational rights. This paper examines those challenges and considers the future of denominational rights in Ontario, in light of John Tory's 2007…

  13. Genotyping of Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses from a Family of Miniature Swine

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Gary; Wood, James; Suling, Kristen; Arn, Scott; Sachs, David H.; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Patience, Clive

    2004-01-01

    The identification of animals in an inbred miniature swine herd that consistently fail to produce replication- competent humantropic porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) has prompted studies on the biology of PERV in transmitter and nontransmitter animals. We analyzed PERV RNA transcript profiles in a family of inbred miniature swine (SLAd/d haplotype) in which individual members differed in their capacity to generate humantropic and ecotropic (i.e., pigtropic) virus. We identified unique HaeIII and HpaII gag restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profiles resulting from single nucleotide polymorphisms in blood cells; these were found only in animals that produced humantropic PERV. These HaeIII and HpaII gag RFLP profiles proved to be components of humantropic PERV as they were transmitted to 293 human target cells in vitro. The humantropic HaeIII and HpaII gag RFLP genotypes in the family of study were not present in other miniature swine in the herd that produced humantropic PERV, indicating that these RFLP profiles relate specifically to this family's lineage. PMID:14671113

  14. Hepatitis E virus in swine and effluent samples from slaughterhouses in Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Debora Regina Lopes; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; de Oliveira, Jaqueline Mendes; Marchevsky, Renato Sérgio; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2011-04-21

    Hepatitis E is an infectious disease which virus (HEV) is highly disseminated in swine herd populations. Sporadic acute human hepatitis E cases have been associated to genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV also reported in swine populations of endemic and non-endemic areas. With the aim to evaluate the incidence of animals with current infection of HEV, 115 bile samples were collected from three slaughterhouses under inspection by Animal Sanitary Protection Agency of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In parallel, effluent samples were collected from six sewage pipe exit sites of two slaughterhouses. HEV RNA was detected in 11 out of 115 (9.6%) bile samples collected and three waste samples from one slaughterhouse. Viral loads observed for bile samples varied from 10(1)-10(5) genome copies/mL and for effluent samples mean load was 10(2) genome copies/mL. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis classified samples within genotype 3 subtype 3b closely related to the sample obtained from the first reported autochthonous human case and samples from swine of commercial herds in Brazil. Our data demonstrates that although most animals achieve slaughter age (around 20 weeks old) already immune to HEV, a significant number of animals are with current infection at commercial age. Further studies should be addressed to consider risk analysis and possible evaluation of inspection regulations considering food safety measures regarding hepatitis E zoonotic aspect in Brazil.

  15. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs and farm workers on conventional and antibiotic-free swine farms in the USA.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tara C; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Abley, Melanie J; Harper, Abby L; Forshey, Brett M; Male, Michael J; Martin, H Wayne; Molla, Bayleyegn Z; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Thakur, Siddhartha; Thiruvengadam, Madhumathi; Davies, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    Much uncertainty remains about the origin and public health implications of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA). This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and prevalence of MRSA in general and LA-MRSA in particular in pigs and farm workers in five states. We collected nasal swabs from pigs and farm workers at 45 swine herds (21 antibiotic-free herds; 24 conventional herds) in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, North Carolina and Ohio. MRSA was isolated from 50 of 1085 pigs (4.6%) and 31 of 148 (20.9%) of farm workers. MRSA-positive pigs and people were clustered in four conventional swine farms in Iowa and Illinois. Based on genotyping, spa type t034, a common livestock associated variant, was predominant among both human and swine isolates. These results confirm the presence of LA-MRSA in pigs and swine farm workers in the USA, but the prevalence found is relatively low compared with European studies.

  16. The classical swine fever epidemic 1997-1998 in The Netherlands: descriptive epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Elber, A R; Stegeman, A; Moser, H; Ekker, H M; Smak, J A; Pluimers, F H

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the severe epidemic of classical swine fever (CSF) in The Netherlands in 1997-1998 under a policy of non-vaccination, intensive surveillance, pre-emptive slaughter and stamping out in an area which has one of the highest pig and herd densities in Europe. The primary outbreak was detected on 4 February 1997 on a mixed sow and finishing pig herd. A total of 429 outbreaks was observed during the epidemic, and approximately 700,000 pigs from these herds were slaughtered. Among these outbreaks were two artificial insemination centres, which resulted in a CSF-suspect declaration of 1680 pig herds (mainly located in the southern part of The Netherlands). The time between introduction of CSF virus (CSFV) into the country and diagnosis of CSF in the primary outbreak was estimated to be approximately 6 weeks. It is presumed that CSFV was spread from The Netherlands to Italy and Spain via shipment of infected piglets in the beginning of February 1997, before the establishment of a total stand-still of transportation. In June 1997, CSFV is presumed to be introduced into Belgium from The Netherlands. Pre-emptive slaughter of herds that had been in contact with infected herds or were located in close vicinity of infected herds, was carried out around the first two outbreaks. However, this policy was not further exercised till mid-April 1997, when pre-emptive slaughter became a standard operational procedure for the rest of the epidemic. In total, 1286 pig herds were pre-emptively slaughtered. (approximately 1.1 million pigs). A total of 44 outbreaks (10%) was detected via pre-emptive slaughter. When there were clinical signs, the observed symptoms in infected herds were mainly atypical: fever, apathy, ataxia or a combination of these signs. In 322 out of 429 outbreaks (75%), detection was bases on clinical signs observed: 32% was detected by the farmer, 25% by the veterinary practitioner, 10% of the outbreaks by tracing teams and 8% by

  17. [Overview of acupuncture development in Ontario Canada].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Wu, Bin-jiang

    2012-04-01

    The history of acupuncture in Ontario, Canada was traced, and the current status as welI as the prospection were introduced in this paper. Statistics showed that the history of acupuncture in Ontario started in the 1880s, and it was only popular in China Town and Chinese community. In the 1970s, it gradually merged into the mainstream of the society, and entered into a growing period. With the tide of Chinese immigration in the 1980s and 1990s, acupuncture matured rapidly. In 2006, the "Traditional Chinese Medicine Act" was passed in Ontario, it was considered as a milestone in the history of acupuncture. At present, just like the other 23 health care professions, acupuncture has already be included into the legislation system, and become a component of Ontario's health care system. At the same time, the law and regulation may also promote the establishment of "pure Chinese Medicine" in Ontario.

  18. Within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in endemically infected dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L R

    2013-10-01

    In this study within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin was investigated in three age groups (calves, young stock, adult cows) during five herd visits at 3-month intervals of 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A total of 10162 paired faecal cultures and antibody measurements were used to calculate the age and temporal dynamics of seroprevalence and prevalence of positive faecal cultures. Faecal culture-positive prevalence was generally low. It was highest (5.4%) in calves during December to February. Seroprevalence varied from 0% to 70% between herds, but was generally more stable in young stock and adult cows than in calves. Hierarchical mixed-model results showed that seroprevalence was associated with the bacteriological status in calves and cows, but not in young stock. These results can be used to develop and validate theoretical infection dynamics models and to design effective control programmes for Salmonella Dublin in dairy herds.

  19. Benchmarking dairy herd health status using routinely recorded herd summary data.

    PubMed

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2016-02-01

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to nongenetic factors, such as the environment. More rapid improvement of dairy cattle health may be attainable if herd health programs incorporate environmental and managerial aspects. More than 1,100 herd characteristics are regularly recorded on farm test-days. We combined these data with producer-recorded health event data, and parametric and nonparametric models were used to benchmark herd and cow health status. Health events were grouped into 3 categories for analyses: mastitis, reproductive, and metabolic. Both herd incidence and individual incidence were used as dependent variables. Models implemented included stepwise logistic regression, support vector machines, and random forests. At both the herd and individual levels, random forest models attained the highest accuracy for predicting health status in all health event categories when evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracy (SD) ranged from 0.61 (0.04) to 0.63 (0.04) when using random forest models at the herd level. Accuracy of prediction (SD) at the individual cow level ranged from 0.87 (0.06) to 0.93 (0.001) with random forest models. Highly significant variables and key words from logistic regression and random forest models were also investigated. All models identified several of the same key factors for each health event category, including movement out of the herd, size of the herd, and weather-related variables. We concluded that benchmarking health status using routinely collected herd data is feasible. Nonparametric models were better suited to handle this complex data with numerous variables. These data mining techniques were able to perform prediction of health status and could add evidence to personal experience in herd

  20. Benchmarking dairy herd health status using routinely recorded herd summary data.

    PubMed

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2016-02-01

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to nongenetic factors, such as the environment. More rapid improvement of dairy cattle health may be attainable if herd health programs incorporate environmental and managerial aspects. More than 1,100 herd characteristics are regularly recorded on farm test-days. We combined these data with producer-recorded health event data, and parametric and nonparametric models were used to benchmark herd and cow health status. Health events were grouped into 3 categories for analyses: mastitis, reproductive, and metabolic. Both herd incidence and individual incidence were used as dependent variables. Models implemented included stepwise logistic regression, support vector machines, and random forests. At both the herd and individual levels, random forest models attained the highest accuracy for predicting health status in all health event categories when evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracy (SD) ranged from 0.61 (0.04) to 0.63 (0.04) when using random forest models at the herd level. Accuracy of prediction (SD) at the individual cow level ranged from 0.87 (0.06) to 0.93 (0.001) with random forest models. Highly significant variables and key words from logistic regression and random forest models were also investigated. All models identified several of the same key factors for each health event category, including movement out of the herd, size of the herd, and weather-related variables. We concluded that benchmarking health status using routinely collected herd data is feasible. Nonparametric models were better suited to handle this complex data with numerous variables. These data mining techniques were able to perform prediction of health status and could add evidence to personal experience in herd

  1. Controlling disease outbreaks in wildlife using limited culling: modelling classical swine fever incursions in wild pigs in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Disease modelling is one approach for providing new insights into wildlife disease epidemiology. This paper describes a spatio-temporal, stochastic, susceptible- exposed-infected-recovered process model that simulates the potential spread of classical swine fever through a documented, large and free living wild pig population following a simulated incursion. The study area (300 000 km2) was in northern Australia. Published data on wild pig ecology from Australia, and international Classical Swine Fever data was used to parameterise the model. Sensitivity analyses revealed that herd density (best estimate 1-3 pigs km-2), daily herd movement distances (best estimate approximately 1 km), probability of infection transmission between herds (best estimate 0.75) and disease related herd mortality (best estimate 42%) were highly influential on epidemic size but that extraordinary movements of pigs and the yearly home range size of a pig herd were not. CSF generally established (98% of simulations) following a single point introduction. CSF spread at approximately 9 km2 per day with low incidence rates (< 2 herds per day) in an epidemic wave along contiguous habitat for several years, before dying out (when the epidemic arrived at the end of a contiguous sub-population or at a low density wild pig area). The low incidence rate indicates that surveillance for wildlife disease epidemics caused by short lived infections will be most efficient when surveillance is based on detection and investigation of clinical events, although this may not always be practical. Epidemics could be contained and eradicated with culling (aerial shooting) or vaccination when these were adequately implemented. It was apparent that the spatial structure, ecology and behaviour of wild populations must be accounted for during disease management in wildlife. An important finding was that it may only be necessary to cull or vaccinate relatively small proportions of a population to successfully contain

  2. Serratia marcescens mastitis in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D J; Kirk, J H; Walker, R D; Bosworth, Q W

    1990-04-01

    Serratia marcescens caused clinical mastitis in 5 cows and nonclinical mastitis in 21 cows of a 190-cow herd. Repeated bacteriologic culture of specimens from the cows, postmilking teat dip, environment, and equipment was performed. Serratia marcescens was not isolated from the dip, environment, or equipment. Progress of the infection in cows was monitored for 10 months. Some cows remained infected with S marcescens for at least 10 months. Economic loss estimates were based on Dairy Herd Improvement Association linear score reports. The average nonclinical loss was about $22/cow. PMID:2184155

  3. Gill diseases of cultured salmonids in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Daoust, P Y; Ferguson, H W

    1983-01-01

    Between 1977 and 1981, the Fish Pathology Laboratory of the Ontario Veterinary College received 239 cases from trout farms of southern Ontario, 51 (21.3%) of which had diseased gills. Branchial lesions in 86.3% of these 51 cases were characterized by marked lamellar epithelial hyperplasia with epithelial hypertrophy and lamellar fusion. Filamentous bacteria were seen on the surface of the branchial filaments and lamellae in 68.6% of the cases. Our observations highlight the importance of gill diseases as a production problem of farmed salmonids in southern Ontario. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:6416657

  4. An analysis of herding behavior in security analysts’ networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, YongJie; Feng, Xu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we build undirected weighted networks to study herding behavior among analysts and to analyze the characteristics and the structure of these networks. We then construct a new indicator based on the average degree of nodes and the average weighted clustering coefficient to research the various types of herding behavior. Our findings suggest that every industry has, to a certain degree, herding behavior among analysts. While there is obvious uninformed herding behavior in real estate and certain other industries, industries such as mining and nonferrous metals have informed herding behavior caused by analysts’ similar reactions to public information. Furthermore, we relate the two types of herding behavior to stock price and find that uninformed herding behavior has a positive effect on market prices, whereas informed herding behavior has a negative effect.

  5. A Novel Pathogenic Mammalian Orthoreovirus from Diarrheic Pigs and Swine Blood Meal in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Thimmasandra Narayanappa, Athmaram; Sooryanarain, Harini; Deventhiran, Jagadeeswaran; Cao, Dianjun; Ammayappan Venkatachalam, Backiyalakshmi; Kambiranda, Devaiah; LeRoith, Tanya; Heffron, Connie Lynn; Lindstrom, Nicole; Hall, Karen; Jobst, Peter; Sexton, Cary; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since May 2013, outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea have devastated the U.S. swine industry, causing immense economic losses. Two different swine enteric coronaviruses (porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and Delta coronavirus) have been isolated from the affected swine population. The disease has been reported from at least 32 states of the United States and other countries, including Mexico, Peru, Dominican Republic, Canada, Columbia, Ecuador, and Ukraine, with repeated outbreaks in previously infected herds. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a novel mammalian orthoreovirus 3 (MRV3) from diarrheic feces of piglets from these outbreaks in three states and ring-dried swine blood meal from multiple sources. MRV3 could not be isolated from healthy or pigs that had recovered from epidemic diarrhea from four states. Several MRV3 isolates were obtained from chloroform-extracted pig feces or blood meal in cell cultures or developing chicken embryos. Biological characterization of two representative isolates revealed trypsin resistance and thermostability at 90°C. NextGen sequencing of ultrapurified viruses indicated a strong homology of the S1 segment to mammalian and bat MRV3. Neonatal piglets experimentally infected with these viruses or a chloroform extract of swine blood meal developed severe diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis with 100% mortality within 3 days postinfection. Therefore, the novel porcine MRV3 may contribute to enteric disease along with other swine enteric viruses. The role of MRV3 in the current outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea in the United States remains to be determined, but the pathogenic nature of the virus warrants further investigations on its epidemiology and prevalence. PMID:25991685

  6. [The leukocyte count is a valuable parameter for detecting classical swine fever].

    PubMed

    Stegeman, J A; Bouma, A; Elbers, A R; Verheijden, J H

    2000-09-01

    In this paper we describe a study of the use of the white blood cell count (wbcc) as a parameter for detecting outbreaks of Classical Swine Fever (CSF). Meta-analysis of the results of challenge experiments revealed that oronasal infection of SPF-pigs with the virulent CSF virus (CSFV) strains Brescia or NL9201 resulted in a significant decrease in the average white blood cell count during the first week after inoculation of the virus. Challenge of conventional finishing pigs and sows with the moderately virulent strain Paderborn also resulted in a significant decrease in the average wbcc. However, this decrease was not observed after inoculation of SPF pigs with the mildly virulent CSFV strains Henken, Zoelen, or Bergen. The usefulness of clinical inspection in combination with wbcc to detect CSF outbreaks in the field was examined using the results of 214 EDTA blood specimens collected from 22 infected herds and 7250 EDTA blood specimens collected from 1450 non-infected herds. Half of the infected herds had been infected with the moderately virulent CSFV strain Venhorst (closely related to strain Paderborn) during the 1997-98 epidemic in the Netherlands. The other half had been infected with the moderately virulent CSFV strain Loraine. Using these data as a starting point, 1000 samples of one to ten specimens were generated by Monte Carlo simulation. These simulated samples and the samples of the non-infected herds were analysed by use of Receiver Operating Characteristic curves. On the basis of that analysis, the optimal number of animals whose wbcc needed to be determined to detect a CSF outbreak was five. With this number of animals, in conjunction with the threshold of 8000 white blood cells per mm3 (meaning that a herd is designated as CSF suspect if one or more of the five specimens has a white blood cell count of 8000 leukocytes/mm3 or less), the test procedure had a herd sensitivity (HSE) of 94.5% and a herd specificity (HSP) of 97.2%). The HSE is defined

  7. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis infection in swine associated with peat used for bedding.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Agdestein, Angelika; Lium, Bjørn; Jørgensen, Anne; Djønne, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is an environmental bacterium causing opportunistic infections in swine, resulting in economic losses. Additionally, the zoonotic aspect of such infections is of concern. In the southeastern region of Norway in 2009 and 2010, an increase in condemnation of pig carcasses with tuberculous lesions was seen at the meat inspection. The use of peat as bedding in the herds was suspected to be a common factor, and a project examining pigs and environmental samples from the herds was initiated. Lesions detected at meat inspection in pigs originating from 15 herds were sampled. Environmental samples including peat from six of the herds and from three peat production facilities were additionally collected. Samples were analysed by culture and isolates genotyped by MLVA analysis. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis was detected in 35 out of 46 pigs, in 16 out of 20 samples of peat, and in one sample of sawdust. MLVA analysis demonstrated identical isolates from peat and pigs within the same farms. Polyclonal infection was demonstrated by analysis of multiple isolates from the same pig. To conclude, the increase in condemnation of porcine carcasses at slaughter due to mycobacteriosis seemed to be related to untreated peat used as bedding.

  8. Control of swine pseudorabies in China: Opportunities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Luo, Yuzi; Wang, Chun-Hua; Yuan, Jin; Li, Na; Song, Kun; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2016-02-01

    Pseudorabies (PR), also known as Aujeszky's disease (AD), is caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV) or called suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1). It is an economically significant viral disease of pigs and other animals. Although the disease has been eradicated in commercial swine populations of some countries using gE-deleted vaccines and differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) strategy, PR continues to be one of the most important diseases of pigs in many countries, particularly in regions with dense pig populations, including China. This article reviews the current situation of PR in China, including epidemiology, diagnostic assays, control strategies and challenges of the disease. PR has been endemic in most provinces of China largely due to the lack of appropriate compulsory vaccination campaigns of pigs, sufficient awareness and biosecurity measures, although gE-deleted vaccines based on the Bartha-K61 strain and regional DIVA-based eradication programs have been widely used in the past decades. Notably, since 2011, an emerging variant PRV with enhanced pathogenicity has become prevalent in vaccinated swine herds in many regions of China and the disease situation is worsening. Control and eventual eradication of PR remain a big challenge in China, and strengthened control measures based on updated DIVA strategy are urgently needed toward national eradication of PR.

  9. Optimal Use of Vaccines for Control of Influenza A Virus in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Sandbulte, Matthew R.; Spickler, Anna R.; Zaabel, Pamela K.; Roth, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) is one of the most important infectious disease agents of swine in North America. In addition to the economic burden of IAV-S to the swine industry, the zoonotic potential of IAV-S sometimes leads to serious public health concerns. Adjuvanted, inactivated vaccines have been licensed in the United States for over 20 years, and there is also widespread usage of autogenous/custom IAV-S vaccines. Vaccination induces neutralizing antibodies and protection against infection with very similar strains. However, IAV-S strains are so diverse and prone to mutation that these vaccines often have disappointing efficacy in the field. This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd. We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future. We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs. Improvements in IAV-S immunization strategies, in both the short term and long term, will benefit swine health and productivity and potentially reduce risks to public health. PMID:26344946

  10. Serological Evidence of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Infections in Greek Swine.

    PubMed

    Kyriakis, C S; Papatsiros, V G; Athanasiou, L V; Valiakos, G; Brown, I H; Simon, G; Van Reeth, K; Tsiodras, S; Spyrou, V; Billinis, C

    2016-08-01

    The introduction of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza virus in pigs changed the epidemiology of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine in Europe and the rest of the world. Previously, three IAV subtypes were found in the European pig population: an avian-like H1N1 and two reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses with human-origin haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase proteins and internal genes of avian decent. These viruses pose antigenically distinct HAs, which allow the retrospective diagnosis of infection in serological investigations. However, cross-reactions between the HA of pH1N1 and the HAs of the other circulating H1 IAVs complicate serological diagnosis. The prevalence of IAVs in Greek swine has been poorly investigated. In this study, we examined and compared haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titres against previously established IAVs and pH1N1 in 908 swine sera from 88 herds, collected before and after the 2009 pandemic. While we confirmed the historic presence of the three IAVs established in European swine, we also found that 4% of the pig sera examined after 2009 had HI antibodies only against the pH1N1 virus. Our results indicate that pH1N1 is circulating in Greek pigs and stress out the importance of a vigorous virological surveillance programme. PMID:26477456

  11. Serological Evidence of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Infections in Greek Swine.

    PubMed

    Kyriakis, C S; Papatsiros, V G; Athanasiou, L V; Valiakos, G; Brown, I H; Simon, G; Van Reeth, K; Tsiodras, S; Spyrou, V; Billinis, C

    2016-08-01

    The introduction of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza virus in pigs changed the epidemiology of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine in Europe and the rest of the world. Previously, three IAV subtypes were found in the European pig population: an avian-like H1N1 and two reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses with human-origin haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase proteins and internal genes of avian decent. These viruses pose antigenically distinct HAs, which allow the retrospective diagnosis of infection in serological investigations. However, cross-reactions between the HA of pH1N1 and the HAs of the other circulating H1 IAVs complicate serological diagnosis. The prevalence of IAVs in Greek swine has been poorly investigated. In this study, we examined and compared haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titres against previously established IAVs and pH1N1 in 908 swine sera from 88 herds, collected before and after the 2009 pandemic. While we confirmed the historic presence of the three IAVs established in European swine, we also found that 4% of the pig sera examined after 2009 had HI antibodies only against the pH1N1 virus. Our results indicate that pH1N1 is circulating in Greek pigs and stress out the importance of a vigorous virological surveillance programme.

  12. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd management areas shall be established for the maintenance of wild horse and burro herds. In delineating...

  13. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd management areas shall be established for the maintenance of wild horse and burro herds. In delineating...

  14. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd management areas shall be established for the maintenance of wild horse and burro herds. In delineating...

  15. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd management areas shall be established for the maintenance of wild horse and burro herds. In delineating...

  16. The Goggle-Eyed Carpenters of Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Andy

    1979-01-01

    Describes a woodworking program for elementary school students in Ontario, Canada. Briefly discusses program benefits in areas such as maculinizing the curriculum, providing opportunities for object manipulation and exercise of fine muscle control, and counteracting sex-role stereotypes. (JMB)

  17. Inorganic arsenic toxicosis in a beef herd.

    PubMed

    Faires, Meredith C

    2004-04-01

    Over a 44-day period, 4 of 5 affected calves in a 170-head herd of beef cattle died after exhibiting clinical signs of lethargy, ataxia, anorexia, and diarrhea. Histopathological examination of tissues and toxicological analysis of a suspicious powder discovered in the pasture confirmed arsenic trioxide toxicosis.

  18. Vaccination and herd immunity to infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Roy M.; May, Robert M.

    1985-11-01

    An understanding of the relationship between the transmission dynamics of infectious agents and herd immunity provides a template for the design of effective control programmes based on mass immunization. Mathematical models of the spread and persistence of infection provide important insights into the problem of how best to protect the community against disease.

  19. Control of Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at herd level.

    PubMed

    Skjerve, E; Lium, B; Nielsen, B; Nesbakken, T

    1998-12-22

    A higher herd prevalence of antibodies (ELISA) to Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 was found in conventional slaughter production (86.0% seropositive herds) than in conventional farrow-to-finish herds (53.1% seropositive herds). The herd prevalence of antibodies to Y. enterocolitica in multiplying herds (56.1%) was similar to the level in the conventional farrow-to-finish herds. An epidemiological study in conventional pig herds demonstrated that farrow-to-finish production (odds ratio, OR = 0.15) was an important protective factor. Using under-pressure ventilation (OR = 0.33) and manual feeding of slaughter pigs (OR = 0.44) also lowered the herd prevalence. The most expressed risk factor was using an own farm vehicle for transport of slaughter pigs to abattoirs (OR = 12.92). Separation between clean and unclean section in herds (OR = 2.67), daily observations of a cat with kittens on the farm (OR = 2.41) and using straw bedding for slaughter pigs (OR = 2.25) were other factors that increased the risk. In conclusion, the epidemiological data suggest that it is possible to reduce the herd prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 by minimising contact between infected herds and non-infected herds. Further, attempts to reduce the prevalence at the top levels of the breeding pyramids may be beneficial for the industry as a whole. The meat industry may use serological tests as a tool to lower the prevalence in the pig population by limiting the contact between seropositive and seronegative herds. However, because of the high prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in pig herds, a strict slaughter hygiene will remain an important means to reduce carcass contamination with Y. enterocolitica O:3 as well as other pathogenic micro-organisms. PMID:9926996

  20. Outbreak of Salmonella Thompson infection in a Swedish dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, S; Johnsson, A; Aspan, A; Bergström, K; Kallay, T B; Szanto, E

    2008-11-15

    Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from a faecal sample from a cow in a Swedish dairy herd after calving. When investigations were undertaken in the herd, Salmonella Thompson was isolated from heifers on a separate pasture, and when these heifers were brought into the herd S Thompson spread rapidly. Control strategies managed to rid the herd of the S Typhimurium infection and the prevalence of S Thompson was at first substantially reduced. There was a rapid increase in its prevalence when the animals were let out to pasture and this development eventually led to the depopulation of the entire herd. PMID:19011246

  1. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent or treat swine flu. There is a vaccine available to protect against swine flu. You can help prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like influenza by Covering your nose and mouth with a ...

  2. Herd-level risk factors for infection with bovine leukemia virus in Canadian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nekouei, Omid; VanLeeuwen, John; Sanchez, Javier; Kelton, David; Tiwari, Ashwani; Keefe, Greg

    2015-05-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important infection of dairy cattle worldwide, which is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The prevalence of infection in Canadian dairy herds is high and continues to increase; however, there has not been a national program to control BLV. This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify potentially important risk factors for BLV infection on Canadian dairy herds, which is a prerequisite to developing an effective control program. During 1998-2003, based on a stratified two-stage random sampling process, 315 dairy farms from seven provinces of Canada were selected. Within each farm, 9-45 cows were bled and tested with a commercial serum ELISA kit for BLV antibodies. A comprehensive questionnaire, targeting potentially important herd-level management indicators, was successfully administered in 272 herds. A zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression model was fit to the resulting data to assess the potential associations between BLV seropositivity and a variety of herd-level factors. Seventy-eight percent of the herds were identified as BLV-positive (had one or more test positive animals). In the negative-binomial part of the final ZINB model, herds with clinical cases of leukosis during the 12 months prior to sampling, as well as herds which purchased animals with unknown BLV infection status in the last five years, had a significantly larger proportion of BLV positive animals. Based on a significant interaction between two of the risk factors, changing gloves between cows during pregnancy examination was not statistically associated with lower proportion of infected cows compared with not changing gloves, in the western Canadian provinces. In the logistic part of the model, herds from eastern Canadian provinces and those not purchasing cows in the last five years had increased odds of being free from BLV. The high prevalence of infection across Canada should be addressed through the development and

  3. Associations between herd size, rate of expansion and production, breeding policy and reproduction in spring-calving dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Jago, J G; Berry, D P

    2011-08-01

    Dairy herd size is expected to increase in many European countries, given the recent policy changes within the European Union. Managing more cows may have implications for herd performance in the post-quota era. The objective of this study was to characterise spring-calving herds according to size and rate of expansion, and to determine trends in breeding policy, reproduction and production performance, which will inform industry of the likely implications of herd expansion. Performance data from milk recording herds comprising 775,795 lactations from 2,555 herds for the years 2004 to 2008 inclusive were available from the Irish Cattle Breeding Federation. Herds were classified into Small (average of 37 cows), Medium (average of 54 cows) and Large (average of 87 cows) and separately into herds that were not expanding (Nil expansion), herds expanding on average by three cows per year (Slow expansion) and herds expanding on average by eight cows per year (Rapid expansion). There was no association between rate of expansion and 305-day fat and protein yield. However, 305-day milk yield decreased and milk protein and fat percentage increased with increasing rate of expansion. There were no associations between herd size and milk production except for protein and fat percentage, which increased with increasing herd size. Average parity number of the cows decreased as rate of expansion increased and tended to decrease as herd size increased. In rapidly expanding herds, cow numbers were increased by purchasing more cattle. The proportion of dairy sires relative to beef sires used in the breeding programme of expanding herds increased and there was more dairy crossbreeding, albeit at a low rate. Similarly, large herds were using more dairy sires and fewer beef sires. Expanding herds and large herds had superior reproductive performance relative to non-expanding and small herds. Animals in expanding herds calved for the first time at a younger age, had a shorter calving

  4. UPDATE ON SWINE DISEASE AND GENOMICS RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review will summarize advances in swine genomics and how it has altered approaches for swine disease and vaccination research. The swine has been a major biomedical model species, for transplantation, heart disease, allergies and asthma, as well as normal neonatal development and reproductive p...

  5. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change,...

  6. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change,...

  7. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  8. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  9. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  10. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change,...

  11. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  12. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  13. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change,...

  14. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change,...

  15. Scrapie in swine: a diagnostic challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A naturally occurring prion disease has not been recognized in swine, but the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy does transmit to swine by experimental routes. Swine are thought to have a robust species barrier when exposed to the naturally occurring prion diseases of other species, but the s...

  16. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... paragraph (c) of this section, all breeding swine shall be tested for and show negative test results to... Uniform Methods and Rules, chapter 2, part II, G, 1, 2, and 3. (c) Breeding swine exported to a country that does not require breeding swine from the United States to be tested for brucellosis need...

  17. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... paragraph (c) of this section, all breeding swine shall be tested for and show negative test results to... Uniform Methods and Rules, chapter 2, part II, G, 1, 2, and 3. (c) Breeding swine exported to a country that does not require breeding swine from the United States to be tested for brucellosis need...

  18. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... paragraph (c) of this section, all breeding swine shall be tested for and show negative test results to... Uniform Methods and Rules, chapter 2, part II, G, 1, 2, and 3. (c) Breeding swine exported to a country that does not require breeding swine from the United States to be tested for brucellosis need...

  19. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  20. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Influenza Viruses Circulating within European Swine between 2009 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Simon J.; Langat, Pinky; Reid, Scott M.; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Cotten, Matthew; Kelly, Michael; Van Reeth, Kristien; Qiu, Yu; Simon, Gaëlle; Bonin, Emilie; Foni, Emanuela; Chiapponi, Chiara; Larsen, Lars; Hjulsager, Charlotte; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Urbaniak, Kinga; Dürrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Huovilainen, Anita; Davidson, Irit; Dán, Ádám; Loeffen, Willie; Edwards, Stephanie; Bublot, Michel; Vila, Thais; Maldonado, Jaime; Valls, Laura; Brown, Ian H.; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2015-01-01

    China and North America, no equivalent study has yet been reported for Europe. Surveillance of swine herds across Europe between 2009 and 2013 revealed that the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus is established in European swine, increasing the number of circulating lineages in the region and increasing the possibility of the emergence of a genotype with human pandemic potential. It also has implications for veterinary health, making prevention through vaccination more challenging. The identification of a genotype similar to the A(H3N2)v genotype, causing zoonoses at North American agricultural fairs, underlines the importance of continued genomic characterization in European swine. PMID:26202246

  1. Transformation of Swine Manure and Algal Consortia to Value-added Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharara, Mahmoud A.

    The swine production sector is projected to grow globally. In the past, this growth manifested itself in increased herd sizes and geographically concentrated production. Although economically sound, these trends had negative consequences on surrounding ecosystems. Over-application of manure resulted in water quality degradation, while long-term storage of manure slurries was found to promote release of potent GHG emissions. There is a need for innovative approaches for swine manure management that are compatible with current scales of production, and increasingly strict environmental regulations. This study aims to investigate the potential for incorporating gasification as part of a novel swine manure management system which utilizes liquid-solid separation and periphytic algal consortia as a phycoremediation vector for the liquid slurry. The gasification of swine manure solids, and algal biomass solids generate both a gaseous fuel product (producer gas) in addition to a biochar co-product. First, the decomposition kinetics for both feedstock, i.e., swine manure solids, and algal solids, were quantified using thermogravimetry at different heating rates (1 ~ 40°C min-1) under different atmospheres (nitrogen, and air). Pyrolysis kinetics were determined for manure solids from two farms with different manure management systems. Similarly, the pyrolysis kinetics were determined for phycoremediation algae grown on swine manure slurries. Modeling algal solids pyrolysis as first-order independent parallel reactions was sufficient to describe sample devolatilization. Combustion of swine manure solids blended with algal solids, at different ratios, showed no synergistic effects. Gasification of phycoremediation algal biomass was studied using a bench-scale auger gasification system at temperatures between 760 and 960°C. The temperature profile suggested a stratification of reaction zones common to fixed-bed reactors. The producer gas heating value ranged between 2.2 MJ m

  2. Continual Reintroduction of Human Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Viruses into Swine in the United States, 2009 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Jered; Killian, Mary Lea; Janas-Martindale, Alicia; Vincent, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The diversity of influenza A viruses in swine (swIAVs) presents an important pandemic threat. Knowledge of the human-swine interface is particularly important for understanding how viruses with pandemic potential evolve in swine hosts. Through phylogenetic analysis of contemporary swIAVs in the United States, we demonstrate that human-to-swine transmission of pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) viruses has occurred continuously in the years following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and has been an important contributor to the genetic diversity of U.S. swIAVs. Although pandemic H1 and N1 segments had been largely removed from the U.S. swine population by 2013 via reassortment with other swIAVs, these antigens reemerged following multiple human-to-swine transmission events during the 2013-2014 seasonal epidemic. These findings indicate that the six internal gene segments from pH1N1 viruses are likely to be sustained long term in the U.S. swine population, with periodic reemergence of pandemic hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) segments in association with seasonal pH1N1 epidemics in humans. Vaccinating U.S. swine workers may reduce infection of both humans and swine and in turn limit the role of humans as sources of influenza virus diversity in pigs. IMPORTANCE Swine are important hosts in the evolution of influenza A viruses with pandemic potential. Here, we analyze influenza virus sequence data generated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's national surveillance system to identify the central role of humans in the reemergence of pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza viruses in U.S. swine herds in 2014. These findings emphasize the important role of humans as continuous sources of influenza virus diversity in swine and indicate that influenza viruses with pandemic HA and NA segments are likely to continue to reemerge in U.S. swine in association with seasonal pH1N1 epidemics in humans. PMID:25833052

  3. Spillback transmission of European H1N1 avian-like swine influenza viruses to turkeys: A strain-dependent possibility?

    PubMed

    Bonfante, Francesco; Fusaro, Alice; Tassoni, Luca; Patrono, Livia Victoria; Milani, Adelaide; Maniero, Silvia; Salviato, Annalisa; Terregino, Calogero

    2016-04-15

    In 1979, an avian influenza virus of the H1N1 subtype began to circulate in European swine herds, rapidly replacing classical swine H1N1 viruses. Spill-back transmissions to turkeys were recorded occasionally, but they might have been underreported due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection and the lack of specific surveillance. In our study, we evaluated the infectivity and transmissibility in turkeys of seven strains of H1N1 avian-like swine viruses isolated from 1979 to 2006, and compared them with their closest progenitor A/duck/Bavaria/1/77 (H1N1), to establish whether the adaptation to pigs has gradually decreased their fitness in turkeys. Our data indicate that the circulation of European H1N1 in pigs might have impaired the possibility of infecting turkeys. Nevertheless, the two swine-origin strains, which showed the ability to replicate and transmit in turkeys, possess typical swine-like genetic traits, not different from the rest of the tested isolates, suggesting replication of avian-like swine H1N1 viruses in turkeys as a strain-dependent polygenic feature.

  4. Herd-level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in French cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Marsot, Maud; Béral, Marina; Scoizec, Axelle; Mathevon, Yoann; Durand, Benoit; Courcoul, Aurélie

    2016-09-01

    Although officially free of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), France has been experiencing a slight increase in the incidence and geographical spread of the infection. Eradication of bTB requires determining the infection risk factors. Although several studies identifying bTB risk factors have been conducted in the United Kingdom and Spain, no information is currently available regarding bTB risk factors in French cattle. The objective of this work was thus to study the factors associated with the risk of bTB in cattle herds in three French administrative divisions (départements of Ardennes, Côte d'Or and Dordogne). A case-control study was conducted to compare herds having experienced a bTB outbreak between 2012 and early 2014 with randomly selected control herds of the three study départements. A questionnaire of farming practices, inter-herd contacts (e.g. at pasture or via vehicles or materials), and the presence of other domestic species was carried out in the selected herds. Data on other variables of interest included animal movements between farms and potential contacts between cattle and wildlife (e.g. badger and wild boar abundances) were also collected. Multivariable logistic regression and multimodel inference methods were used to assess risk factors related to bTB. A total of 216 herds (72 cases and 144 controls) were analyzed. The two main risk factors were the presence of a recent neighboring outbreak, being defined as a neighboring herd at pasture reported as infected in the past two years (odds ratio (OR)=3.6; population attributable fraction (PAF)=30.7%) and the presence of a farm building for cattle housing or for feed storage located at more than 300-m from inhabited areas (OR=2.3; PAF=27.6%). Another risk factor was related to sharing water points at pasture with a recent neighboring outbreak. Results illustrated the multifactorial nature of bTB dynamics. The risk factors related to recently infected neighboring herds could be attributable to

  5. Herd-level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in French cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Marsot, Maud; Béral, Marina; Scoizec, Axelle; Mathevon, Yoann; Durand, Benoit; Courcoul, Aurélie

    2016-09-01

    Although officially free of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), France has been experiencing a slight increase in the incidence and geographical spread of the infection. Eradication of bTB requires determining the infection risk factors. Although several studies identifying bTB risk factors have been conducted in the United Kingdom and Spain, no information is currently available regarding bTB risk factors in French cattle. The objective of this work was thus to study the factors associated with the risk of bTB in cattle herds in three French administrative divisions (départements of Ardennes, Côte d'Or and Dordogne). A case-control study was conducted to compare herds having experienced a bTB outbreak between 2012 and early 2014 with randomly selected control herds of the three study départements. A questionnaire of farming practices, inter-herd contacts (e.g. at pasture or via vehicles or materials), and the presence of other domestic species was carried out in the selected herds. Data on other variables of interest included animal movements between farms and potential contacts between cattle and wildlife (e.g. badger and wild boar abundances) were also collected. Multivariable logistic regression and multimodel inference methods were used to assess risk factors related to bTB. A total of 216 herds (72 cases and 144 controls) were analyzed. The two main risk factors were the presence of a recent neighboring outbreak, being defined as a neighboring herd at pasture reported as infected in the past two years (odds ratio (OR)=3.6; population attributable fraction (PAF)=30.7%) and the presence of a farm building for cattle housing or for feed storage located at more than 300-m from inhabited areas (OR=2.3; PAF=27.6%). Another risk factor was related to sharing water points at pasture with a recent neighboring outbreak. Results illustrated the multifactorial nature of bTB dynamics. The risk factors related to recently infected neighboring herds could be attributable to

  6. [Herd immunity and effectiveness of vaccination].

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Andrzej; Stefanoff, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of vaccinations is discussed in relation to vaccine efficacy and effectiveness of vaccination programs. The types of epidemiological studies used in the assessment of vaccine effectiveness are presented, and most common sources of bias in such studies are listed. Basic formulas for calculation of vaccine effectiveness are given as applied for cohort and case-control studies. The definitions and ways of estimation of indicators of herd immunity as applied to the analysis of the effectiveness of vaccinations are presented.

  7. [Planned dairy herd health. I: General philosophy].

    PubMed

    Lourens, D C; Coubrough, R I

    1985-09-01

    A dairy herd health programme may be defined as a planned and co-ordinated approach which aims at achieving and maintaining optimal herd health, production and reproduction, the implementation of which is governed by sound economic principles. The object of this article is to present and discuss some facets of the background philosophy of the concept of herd health, and look at some of the pitfalls and shortcomings of their application in practice. In terms of production levels achieved in other developed countries, South Africa lags behind. While factors such as climate, environment, feed quality, and basic livestock potential may play a role in this difference, the single most important factor is undoubtedly the managemental approach. Modern livestock production requires a shift in emphasis of veterinary involvement towards a herd approach which promotes increased cost-effective production. The veterinarian forms part of a production team which, apart from himself, includes the farmer, farm labour and the animal scientist. The veterinarian has a key role in this endeavour. Through his basic training he is well equipped to serve as a co-ordinator of the massive flow of information being generated. To do this effectively he must be able to work with, advise and communicate with people at various levels of management as well as with the labour force. While optimal co-operation of each team member is cardinal to the success of such a programme, no progress will be made unless the farmer is convinced of the viability of the undertaking, and indeed has the managerial skills to implement any directive or recommendation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4078844

  8. Engineered Swine Models of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Adrienne L.; Carlson, Daniel F.; Largaespada, David A.; Hackett, Perry B.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs in cancer modeling are immense. In this review, we discuss how pigs have been and can be used as a biomedical models for cancer research, with an emphasis on current technologies. We have focused on applications of precision genetics that can provide models that mimic human cancer predisposition syndromes. In particular, we describe the advantages of targeted gene-editing using custom endonucleases, specifically TALENs and CRISPRs, and transposon systems, to make novel pig models of cancer with broad preclinical applications. PMID:27242889

  9. Engineered Swine Models of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Watson, Adrienne L; Carlson, Daniel F; Largaespada, David A; Hackett, Perry B; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs in cancer modeling are immense. In this review, we discuss how pigs have been and can be used as a biomedical models for cancer research, with an emphasis on current technologies. We have focused on applications of precision genetics that can provide models that mimic human cancer predisposition syndromes. In particular, we describe the advantages of targeted gene-editing using custom endonucleases, specifically TALENs and CRISPRs, and transposon systems, to make novel pig models of cancer with broad preclinical applications. PMID:27242889

  10. Infection by Brazilian and Dutch swine hepatitis E virus strains induces haematological changes in Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described as an emerging pathogen in Brazil and seems to be widely disseminated among swine herds. An autochthonous human case of acute hepatitis E was recently reported. To obtain a better understanding of the phenotypic profiles of both human and swine HEV strains, a experimental study was conducted using the animal model, Macaca fascicularis. Methods Six cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were inoculated intravenously with swine HEV genotype 3 that was isolated from naturally and experimentally infected pigs in Brazil and the Netherlands. Two other monkeys were inoculated with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from Brazilian and Argentinean patients with locally acquired acute and fulminant hepatitis E. The haematological, biochemical, and virological parameters of all animals were monitored for 67 days. Results Subclinical hepatitis was observed in all monkeys after inoculation with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from the infected swine and human patients. HEV RNA was detected in the serum and/or faeces of 6 out of the 8 cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 53 days after inoculation. The mild inflammation of liver tissues and elevations of discrete liver enzymes were observed. Seroconversions to anti-HEV IgM and/or IgG were detected in 7 animals. Reactivities to anti-HEV IgA were also detected in the salivary samples of 3 animals. Interestingly, all of the infected monkeys showed severe lymphopenia and a trend toward monocytosis, which coincided with elevations in alanine aminotransferase and antibody titres. Conclusions The ability of HEV to cross the species barrier was confirmed for both the swine (Brazilian and Dutch) and human (Argentinean) strains, thus reinforcing the zoonotic risk of hepatitis E in South America. Cynomolgus monkeys that were infected with HEV genotype 3 developed subclinical hepatitis that was associated with haematological changes. Haematological approaches should be considered in

  11. Swine in biomedical research. Vol. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: hemodynamic characteristics of the conscious resting pig; cardiovascular and metabolic responses to acute and chronic exercise in swine (ILLEGIBLE) a large animal model for studies (ILLEGIBLE) effects of heparin-protamine interaction in swine - intravenous vs. intraarterial; swine as animal models in cardiovascular research; studies of coronary thrombosis in swine with von Willebrand's disease; role of plasma intermediate and low density lipoproteins in early atherogenesis in hyperlipidemic swine; swine as a model in renal physiology and nephrology; the pig as a model for studying kidney disease in man; hypertension of renal origin and the effects of Captopril in miniature pigs; porcine natural killer/killer cell system; the behavior of pig lymphocyte populations in vivo; a review of spontaneous and experimental porcine eperythrozoonosis; and Sinclair swine melanoma.

  12. Detection of African swine fever, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine oral fluids by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Grau, Frederic R; Schroeder, Megan E; Mulhern, Erin L; McIntosh, Michael T; Bounpheng, Mangkey A

    2015-03-01

    African swine fever (ASF), classical swine fever (CSF), and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are highly contagious animal diseases of significant economic importance. Pigs infected with ASF and CSF viruses (ASFV and CSFV) develop clinical signs that may be indistinguishable from other diseases. Likewise, various causes of vesicular disease can mimic clinical signs caused by the FMD virus (FMDV). Early detection is critical to limiting the impact and spread of these disease outbreaks, and the ability to perform herd-level surveillance for all 3 diseases rapidly and cost effectively using a single diagnostic sample and test is highly desirable. This study assessed the feasibility of simultaneous ASFV, CSFV, and FMDV detection by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR) in swine oral fluids collected through the use of chewing ropes. Animal groups were experimentally infected independently with each virus, observed for clinical signs, and oral fluids collected and tested throughout the course of infection. All animal groups chewed on the ropes readily before and after onset of clinical signs and before onset of lameness or serious clinical signs. ASFV was detected as early as 3 days postinoculation (dpi), 2-3 days before onset of clinical disease; CSFV was detected at 5 dpi, coincident with onset of clinical disease; and FMDV was detected as early as 1 dpi, 1 day before the onset of clinical disease. Equivalent results were observed in 4 independent studies and demonstrate the feasibility of oral fluids and mRT-qPCR for surveillance of ASF, CSF, and FMD in swine populations. PMID:25776540

  13. Detection of African swine fever, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine oral fluids by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Grau, Frederic R; Schroeder, Megan E; Mulhern, Erin L; McIntosh, Michael T; Bounpheng, Mangkey A

    2015-03-01

    African swine fever (ASF), classical swine fever (CSF), and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are highly contagious animal diseases of significant economic importance. Pigs infected with ASF and CSF viruses (ASFV and CSFV) develop clinical signs that may be indistinguishable from other diseases. Likewise, various causes of vesicular disease can mimic clinical signs caused by the FMD virus (FMDV). Early detection is critical to limiting the impact and spread of these disease outbreaks, and the ability to perform herd-level surveillance for all 3 diseases rapidly and cost effectively using a single diagnostic sample and test is highly desirable. This study assessed the feasibility of simultaneous ASFV, CSFV, and FMDV detection by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR) in swine oral fluids collected through the use of chewing ropes. Animal groups were experimentally infected independently with each virus, observed for clinical signs, and oral fluids collected and tested throughout the course of infection. All animal groups chewed on the ropes readily before and after onset of clinical signs and before onset of lameness or serious clinical signs. ASFV was detected as early as 3 days postinoculation (dpi), 2-3 days before onset of clinical disease; CSFV was detected at 5 dpi, coincident with onset of clinical disease; and FMDV was detected as early as 1 dpi, 1 day before the onset of clinical disease. Equivalent results were observed in 4 independent studies and demonstrate the feasibility of oral fluids and mRT-qPCR for surveillance of ASF, CSF, and FMD in swine populations.

  14. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or...

  15. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or...

  16. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or...

  17. Lessons learned from Ontario wind energy disputes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, Stewart; Mabee, Warren; Baxter, Jamie; Christidis, Tanya; Driver, Liz; Hill, Stephen; McMurtry, J. J.; Tomkow, Melody

    2016-02-01

    Issues concerning the social acceptance of wind energy are major challenges for policy-makers, communities and wind developers. They also impact the legitimacy of societal decisions to pursue wind energy. Here we set out to identify and assess the factors that lead to wind energy disputes in Ontario, Canada, a region of the world that has experienced a rapid increase in the development of wind energy. Based on our expertise as a group comprising social scientists, a community representative and a wind industry advocate engaged in the Ontario wind energy situation, we explore and suggest recommendations based on four key factors: socially mediated health concerns, the distribution of financial benefits, lack of meaningful engagement and failure to treat landscape concerns seriously. Ontario's recent change from a feed-in-tariff-based renewable electricity procurement process to a competitive bid process, albeit with more attention to community engagement, will only partially address these concerns.

  18. Paratuberculosis on small ruminant dairy farms in Ontario, Canada: A survey of management practices.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms. PMID:27152042

  19. Prevalence of paratuberculosis in the dairy goat and dairy sheep industries in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Toft, Nils; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in the small ruminant dairy industries in Ontario, Canada. Blood and feces were sampled from 580 goats and 397 sheep (lactating and 2 y of age or older) that were randomly selected from 29 randomly selected dairy goat herds and 21 convenience-selected dairy sheep flocks. Fecal samples were analyzed using bacterial culture (BD BACTEC MGIT 960) and polymerase chain reaction (Tetracore); serum samples were tested with the Prionics Parachek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using 3-test latent class Bayesian models, true farm-level prevalence was estimated to be 83.0% [95% probability interval (PI): 62.6% to 98.1%] for dairy goats and 66.8% (95% PI: 41.6% to 91.4%) for dairy sheep. The within-farm true prevalence for dairy goats was 35.2% (95% PI: 23.0% to 49.8%) and for dairy sheep was 48.3% (95% PI: 27.6% to 74.3%). These data indicate that a paratuberculosis control program for small ruminants is needed in Ontario. PMID:26834269

  20. Prevalence of paratuberculosis in the dairy goat and dairy sheep industries in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Cathy A.; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Toft, Nils; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in the small ruminant dairy industries in Ontario, Canada. Blood and feces were sampled from 580 goats and 397 sheep (lactating and 2 y of age or older) that were randomly selected from 29 randomly selected dairy goat herds and 21 convenience-selected dairy sheep flocks. Fecal samples were analyzed using bacterial culture (BD BACTEC MGIT 960) and polymerase chain reaction (Tetracore); serum samples were tested with the Prionics Parachek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using 3-test latent class Bayesian models, true farm-level prevalence was estimated to be 83.0% [95% probability interval (PI): 62.6% to 98.1%] for dairy goats and 66.8% (95% PI: 41.6% to 91.4%) for dairy sheep. The within-farm true prevalence for dairy goats was 35.2% (95% PI: 23.0% to 49.8%) and for dairy sheep was 48.3% (95% PI: 27.6% to 74.3%). These data indicate that a paratuberculosis control program for small ruminants is needed in Ontario. PMID:26834269

  1. Paratuberculosis on small ruminant dairy farms in Ontario, Canada: A survey of management practices.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms.

  2. Prevalence of paratuberculosis in the dairy goat and dairy sheep industries in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Toft, Nils; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in the small ruminant dairy industries in Ontario, Canada. Blood and feces were sampled from 580 goats and 397 sheep (lactating and 2 y of age or older) that were randomly selected from 29 randomly selected dairy goat herds and 21 convenience-selected dairy sheep flocks. Fecal samples were analyzed using bacterial culture (BD BACTEC MGIT 960) and polymerase chain reaction (Tetracore); serum samples were tested with the Prionics Parachek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using 3-test latent class Bayesian models, true farm-level prevalence was estimated to be 83.0% [95% probability interval (PI): 62.6% to 98.1%] for dairy goats and 66.8% (95% PI: 41.6% to 91.4%) for dairy sheep. The within-farm true prevalence for dairy goats was 35.2% (95% PI: 23.0% to 49.8%) and for dairy sheep was 48.3% (95% PI: 27.6% to 74.3%). These data indicate that a paratuberculosis control program for small ruminants is needed in Ontario.

  3. Paratuberculosis on small ruminant dairy farms in Ontario, Canada: A survey of management practices

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Cathy A.; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms. PMID:27152042

  4. Maternally Derived Immunity Extends Swine Influenza A Virus Persistence within Farrow-to-Finish Pig Farms: Insights from a Stochastic Event-Driven Metapopulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Cador, Charlie; Rose, Nicolas; Willem, Lander; Andraud, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Swine Influenza A Viruses (swIAVs) have been shown to persist in farrow-to-finish pig herds with repeated outbreaks in successive batches, increasing the risk for respiratory disorders in affected animals and being a threat for public health. Although the general routes of swIAV transmission (i.e. direct contact and exposure to aerosols) were clearly identified, the transmission process between batches is still not fully understood. Maternally derived antibodies (MDAs) were stressed as a possible factor favoring within-herd swIAV persistence. However, the relationship between MDAs and the global spread among the different subpopulations in the herds is still lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to understand the mechanisms induced by MDAs in relation with swIAV spread and persistence in farrow-to-finish pig herds. A metapopulation model has been developed representing the population dynamics considering two subpopulations—breeding sows and growing pigs—managed according to batch-rearing system. This model was coupled with a swIAV-specific epidemiological model, accounting for partial passive immunity protection in neonatal piglets and an immunity boost in re-infected animals. Airborne transmission was included by a between-room transmission rate related to the current prevalence of shedding pigs. Maternally derived partial immunity in piglets was found to extend the duration of the epidemics within their batch, allowing for efficient between-batch transmission and resulting in longer swIAV persistence at the herd level. These results should be taken into account in the design of control programmes for the spread and persistence of swIAV in swine herds. PMID:27662592

  5. Structural vulnerability of the French swine industry trade network to the spread of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Rautureau, S; Dufour, B; Durand, B

    2012-07-01

    The networks generated by live animal movements are the principal vector for the propagation of infectious agents between farms, and their topology strongly affects how fast a disease may spread. The structural characteristics of networks may thus provide indicators of network vulnerability to the spread of infectious disease. This study applied social network analysis methods to describe the French swine trade network. Initial analysis involved calculating several parameters to characterize networks and then identifying high-risk subgroups of holdings for different time scales. Holding-specific centrality measurements ('degree', 'betweenness' and 'ingoing infection chain'), which summarize the place and the role of holdings in the network, were compared according to the production type. In addition, network components and communities, areas where connectedness is particularly high and could influence the speed and the extent of a disease, were identified and analysed. Dealer holdings stood out because of their high centrality values suggesting that these holdings may control the flow of animals in part of the network. Herds with growing units had higher values for degree and betweenness centrality, representing central positions for both spreading and receiving disease, whereas herds with finishing units had higher values for in-degree and ingoing infection chain centrality values and appeared more vulnerable with many contacts through live animal movements and thus at potentially higher risk for introduction of contagious diseases. This reflects the dynamics of the swine trade with downward movements along the production chain. But, the significant heterogeneity of farms with several production units did not reveal any particular type of production for targeting disease surveillance or control. Besides, no giant strong connected component was observed, the network being rather organized according to communities of small or medium size (<20% of network size

  6. The Financial Position of Universities in Ontario: 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto. Research Div.

    A report on the financial position of Ontario universities continues and extends a pattern of analysis that has been developed over many years by the Council of Ontario Universities. It reviews trends over time and makes comparisons, among different sectors in Ontario and with other jurisdictions, to put into perspective the adequacy of funding…

  7. Opening Doors to Nursing Degrees: A Proposal from Ontario's Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colleges Ontario, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Ontario needs to expand nursing education options to improve access to the nursing profession, create better pathways amongst all nursing occupations, and build Ontario's capacity to meet the province's long-term nursing needs. Ontario's colleges are capable of playing a larger role within a long-term provincial strategy for sustaining and…

  8. Statistical Analysis of Regional Surface Water Quality in Southeastern Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodo, Byron A.

    1992-01-01

    Historical records from Ontario's Provincial Water Quality Monitoring Network for rivers and streams were analyzed to assess the feasibility of mapping regional water quality patterns in southeastern Ontario, spanning the Precambrian Shield and the St. Lawrence Lowlands. The study served as a model for much of Ontario. (54 references) (Author/MDH)

  9. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  10. Monitoring wood shaving litter and animal products for polychlorophenols residues, Ontario, Canada 1978-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R.; Stonefield, K.I.; Luyken, H.

    1988-03-01

    Timber is extensively treated with the wood preservative pesticides collectively called the polychlorophenols (PxCP) which include tri-(T3CP), tetra-(T4CP), and pentachlorophenol (P5CP). These treatments are intended to protect lumber against the attacks of wood eating or boring insects and the wood decaying and staining fungi. Wood shavings are a by-product of the lumber industry that have been utilized widely in agriculture for many years as a major bedding litter for poultry, swine, and cattle and a minor litter for other domestic animals. Complaints were lodged within the Province of Ontario of off-flavors in locally produced poultry meat. Many local poultry producers reported having difficulties with (1) the fertility of their breeding flocks and (2) the ineffectiveness of vaccines among poultry raised on wood shavings but which disappeared when raised on cereal straw. An Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food service was offered whereby producers could have their wood shavings analyzed and receive guidance on the advisability of use. This paper reports on this service started in 1978 for wood shavings, and on a follow-up monitoring program to determine residues of PxCP in domestic animal products.

  11. Toxoplasmosis: a serological survey in Ontario wildlife.

    PubMed

    Quinn, P J; Ramsden, R O; Johnston, D H

    1976-10-01

    Sera from seven species of wild animals in Ontario were examined for antibody to Toxoplasma gondii using the Sabin-Feldman dye test. Of 158 sera tested, 53% of the red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 56% of the striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), 78% of the coyotes (Canis latrans), 33% of the black bears (Ursus americanus), 18% of the short tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and none of the field voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) had antibody. Antibody to T. gondii was present in sera from wild animals captured throughout southern Ontario. A positive linear correlation between prevalence of toxoplasmosis and age of fox pups was calculated (p < 0.005). PMID:16502687

  12. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds.

    PubMed

    Holm, Signe A; Sörensen, Camilla R L; Thamsborg, Stig M; Enemark, Heidi L

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.

  13. The relationship between antibody status to bovine corona virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and disease incidence, reproduction and herd characteristics in dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine corona virus (BCV) affects cattle worldwide. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of these infections on general health and reproduction parameters measurable on herd level and to explore the association between antibody status and some herd characteristics. Methods We collected a pooled milk sample from five primiparous cows from 79 Swedish dairy herds in September 2006. The samples were analysed for immunoglobulin G antibodies to BCV and BRSV with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Herd level data from 1 September 2005 to 30 August 2006 were accessed retrospectively. The location of the herds was mapped using a geographical information system. Results Ten herds were antibody negative to both viruses and were compared with 69 herds positive to BCV or BRSV or both. Positive herds had a higher (P = 0.001) bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) compared with negative herds. The medians for all other analyzed health and reproductive parameters were consistently in favour of the herds negative to both viruses although the differences were not statistically significant. A higher proportion (P = 0.01) of herds used professional technicians for artificial insemination, rather than farm personnel, amongst the 33 herds negative to BCV compared with the 46 positive herds. Conclusions Our result shows that herds that were antibody positive to BCV and/or BRSV had a higher BMSCC compared with herds negative to BCV and BRSV. There was also tendency that negative herds had a better general herd health compared with positive. A higher proportion amongst the BCV negative herds used external technicians for AI instead of farm personnel, indicating that it is possible to avoid infection although having regular visits. Negative herds were located in close proximity to positive herds, indicating that local spread and airborne transmission between herds might not be of great importance and that herds can

  14. Transforming Ontario's Apprenticeship Training System: Supplying the Tradespersons Needed for Sustained Growth--A Proposal from Ontario's Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colleges Ontario, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Ontario's colleges share the provincial government's belief that apprenticeship must play a greater role in addressing skills shortages and contributing to innovative, high-performance workplaces that enhance Ontario's competitiveness. Given the severity of the economic downturn, Ontario faces an immediate, serious challenge as apprenticeship…

  15. Energy conservation in swine buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.D.; Friday, W.H.

    1980-05-01

    Saving energy in confinement swine buildings can be achieved by conserving existing animal heat through both proper building construction and control of the environment. Environmental management practices considered include building insulation and modifications, heating and cooling system selection, ventilation system adjustments, and proper building temperature. (MCW)

  16. Swine Influenza Virus: Emerging Understandings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America [1]. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...

  17. Genetic Characterization of H1N1 and H1N2 Influenza A Viruses Circulating in Ontario Pigs in 2012.

    PubMed

    Grgić, Helena; Costa, Marcio; Friendship, Robert M; Carman, Susy; Nagy, Éva; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize H1N1 and H1N2 influenza A virus isolates detected during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pig herds in Ontario (Canada) in 2012. Six influenza viruses were included in analysis using full genome sequencing based on the 454 platform. In five H1N1 isolates, all eight segments were genetically related to 2009 pandemic virus (A(H1N1)pdm09). One H1N2 isolate had hemagglutinin (HA), polymerase A (PA) and non-structural (NS) genes closely related to A(H1N1)pdm09, and neuraminidase (NA), matrix (M), polymerase B1 (PB1), polymerase B2 (PB2), and nucleoprotein (NP) genes originating from a triple-reassortant H3N2 virus (tr H3N2). The HA gene of five Ontario H1 isolates exhibited high identity of 99% with the human A(H1N1)pdm09 [A/Mexico/InDRE4487/09] from Mexico, while one Ontario H1N1 isolate had only 96.9% identity with this Mexican virus. Each of the five Ontario H1N1 viruses had between one and four amino acid (aa) changes within five antigenic sites, while one Ontario H1N2 virus had two aa changes within two antigenic sites. Such aa changes in antigenic sites could have an effect on antibody recognition and ultimately have implications for immunization practices. According to aa sequence analysis of the M2 protein, Ontario H1N1 and H1N2 viruses can be expected to offer resistance to adamantane derivatives, but not to neuraminidase inhibitors. PMID:26030614

  18. Genetic Characterization of H1N1 and H1N2 Influenza A Viruses Circulating in Ontario Pigs in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Grgić, Helena; Costa, Marcio; Friendship, Robert M.; Carman, Susy; Nagy, Éva; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize H1N1 and H1N2 influenza A virus isolates detected during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pig herds in Ontario (Canada) in 2012. Six influenza viruses were included in analysis using full genome sequencing based on the 454 platform. In five H1N1 isolates, all eight segments were genetically related to 2009 pandemic virus (A(H1N1)pdm09). One H1N2 isolate had hemagglutinin (HA), polymerase A (PA) and non-structural (NS) genes closely related to A(H1N1)pdm09, and neuraminidase (NA), matrix (M), polymerase B1 (PB1), polymerase B2 (PB2), and nucleoprotein (NP) genes originating from a triple-reassortant H3N2 virus (tr H3N2). The HA gene of five Ontario H1 isolates exhibited high identity of 99% with the human A(H1N1)pdm09 [A/Mexico/InDRE4487/09] from Mexico, while one Ontario H1N1 isolate had only 96.9% identity with this Mexican virus. Each of the five Ontario H1N1 viruses had between one and four amino acid (aa) changes within five antigenic sites, while one Ontario H1N2 virus had two aa changes within two antigenic sites. Such aa changes in antigenic sites could have an effect on antibody recognition and ultimately have implications for immunization practices. According to aa sequence analysis of the M2 protein, Ontario H1N1 and H1N2 viruses can be expected to offer resistance to adamantane derivatives, but not to neuraminidase inhibitors. PMID:26030614

  19. Genetic Characterization of H1N1 and H1N2 Influenza A Viruses Circulating in Ontario Pigs in 2012.

    PubMed

    Grgić, Helena; Costa, Marcio; Friendship, Robert M; Carman, Susy; Nagy, Éva; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize H1N1 and H1N2 influenza A virus isolates detected during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pig herds in Ontario (Canada) in 2012. Six influenza viruses were included in analysis using full genome sequencing based on the 454 platform. In five H1N1 isolates, all eight segments were genetically related to 2009 pandemic virus (A(H1N1)pdm09). One H1N2 isolate had hemagglutinin (HA), polymerase A (PA) and non-structural (NS) genes closely related to A(H1N1)pdm09, and neuraminidase (NA), matrix (M), polymerase B1 (PB1), polymerase B2 (PB2), and nucleoprotein (NP) genes originating from a triple-reassortant H3N2 virus (tr H3N2). The HA gene of five Ontario H1 isolates exhibited high identity of 99% with the human A(H1N1)pdm09 [A/Mexico/InDRE4487/09] from Mexico, while one Ontario H1N1 isolate had only 96.9% identity with this Mexican virus. Each of the five Ontario H1N1 viruses had between one and four amino acid (aa) changes within five antigenic sites, while one Ontario H1N2 virus had two aa changes within two antigenic sites. Such aa changes in antigenic sites could have an effect on antibody recognition and ultimately have implications for immunization practices. According to aa sequence analysis of the M2 protein, Ontario H1N1 and H1N2 viruses can be expected to offer resistance to adamantane derivatives, but not to neuraminidase inhibitors.

  20. A Financial Market Model Incorporating Herd Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wray, Christopher M; Bishop, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction model based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new model of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is modelled using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space model, corresponding to agents' accumulating information over a bounded state-space), and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of model parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of model price returns in terms of the model parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space model corresponding to agents' accumulating information over an unbounded state-space), numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the model is compared to both the distribution of historical stock returns and the market

  1. A Financial Market Model Incorporating Herd Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction model based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new model of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is modelled using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space model, corresponding to agents’ accumulating information over a bounded state-space), and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of model parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of model price returns in terms of the model parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space model corresponding to agents’ accumulating information over an unbounded state-space), numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the model is compared to both the distribution of historical stock returns and the

  2. A Financial Market Model Incorporating Herd Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wray, Christopher M; Bishop, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction model based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new model of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is modelled using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space model, corresponding to agents' accumulating information over a bounded state-space), and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of model parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of model price returns in terms of the model parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space model corresponding to agents' accumulating information over an unbounded state-space), numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the model is compared to both the distribution of historical stock returns and the market

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of HERD calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Chen, G. M.; Dong, Y. W.; Lu, J. G.; Quan, Z.; Wang, L.; Wang, Z. G.; Wu, B. B.; Zhang, S. N.

    2014-07-01

    The High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility onboard China's Space Station is planned for operation starting around 2020 for about 10 years. It is designed as a next generation space facility focused on indirect dark matter search, precise cosmic ray spectrum and composition measurements up to the knee energy, and high energy gamma-ray monitoring and survey. The calorimeter plays an essential role in the main scientific objectives of HERD. A 3-D cubic calorimeter filled with high granularity crystals as active material is a very promising choice for the calorimeter. HERD is mainly composed of a 3-D calorimeter (CALO) surrounded by silicon trackers (TK) from all five sides except the bottom. CALO is made of 9261 cubes of LYSO crystals, corresponding to about 55 radiation lengths and 3 nuclear interaction lengths, respectively. Here the simulation results of the performance of CALO with GEANT4 and FLUKA are presented: 1) the total absorption CALO and its absorption depth for precise energy measurements (energy resolution: 1% for electrons and gammarays beyond 100 GeV, 20% for protons from 100 GeV to 1 PeV); 2) its granularity for particle identification (electron/proton separation power better than 10-5); 3) the homogenous geometry for detecting particles arriving from every unblocked direction for large effective geometrical factor (<3 m2sr for electron and diffuse gammarays, >2 m2sr for cosmic ray nuclei); 4) expected observational results such as gamma-ray line spectrum from dark matter annihilation and spectrum measurement of various cosmic ray chemical components.

  4. Evaluation of Primary Binding Assays for Presumptive Serodiagnosis of Swine Brucellosis in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, P. Silva; Vigliocco, A. M.; Ramondino, R. F.; Marticorena, D.; Bissi, E.; Briones, G.; Gorchs, C.; Gall, D.; Nielsen, K.

    2000-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IELISA), a competitive ELISA (CELISA), and a fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) for the presumptive serological diagnosis of swine brucellosis were evaluated using two populations of swine sera: sera from brucellosis-free Canadian herds and sera from Argentina selected based on positive reactions in the buffered antigen plate agglutination test (BPAT) and the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) test. In addition, sera from adult swine from which Brucella suis was isolated at least once for each farm of origin were evaluated. The IELISA, CELISA, and FPA specificity values were 99.9, 99.5, and 98.3%, respectively, and the IELISA, CELISA, and FPA sensitivity values relative to the BPAT and the 2-ME test were 98.9, 96.6, and 93.8%, respectively. Actual sensitivity was assessed by using 37 sera from individual pigs from which B. suis was cultured, and the values obtained were as follows: BPAT, 86.5%; 2-ME test, 81.1%; IELISA, 86.5%; CELISA, 78.5%; and FPA, 80.0%. PMID:10973463

  5. The Status of Benthos in Lake Ontario

    EPA Science Inventory

    The benthic community of Lake Ontario was dominated by an amphipod (Diporeia spp.) prior to the 1990’s. Two dreissenid mussel species D. polymorpha (zebra) and D. bugensis (quagga) were introduced in 1989 and 1991 via ballast water exchange. D. bugensis was observed as deep as 85...

  6. Ontario's Old Growth: A Learner's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stabb, Mark

    This handbook was written in response to an identified need for more public information on Ontario's old growth forests. It is meant to be taken into old growth stands, where the learner can see, touch, and study the natural ingredients of old growth forests. Much of the handbook is a guide to forest history, helping the learner to discover…

  7. Smokeless Tobacco Use among Ontario Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlaf, Edward M.; Smart, Reginald G.

    1988-01-01

    Estimated use and characteristics of users of smokeless tobacco among probability sample of 4,267 Ontario (Canada) teenagers. Results indicated that smokeless tobacco use was not common, varying from one to three percent depending on age and gender, but was more likely to occur among smokers (10% to 32%). Group most prone to use was young smoking…

  8. Marketing the College Brand in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holgerson, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Since inception of the Ontario college system in 1967, the quality of a diploma or certificate in comparison to a university degree has been perceived as an inferior rather than alternative academic credential. As public institutions, community colleges are mandated to respond to regional labour force needs, and to provide graduates who will…

  9. Ontario's Student Voice Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This article describes in some detail aspects of the Student Voice initiative funded and championed by Ontario's Ministry of Education since 2008. The project enables thousands of students to make their voices heard in meaningful ways and to participate in student-led research. Some students from grades 7 to 12 become members of the Student…

  10. OPLIN: The Ontario Public Library Information Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Bonnie

    1988-01-01

    Describes a network for interlibrary loans among public libraries in Ontario which includes microcomputer workstations, online searching of remote databases for verification and locations, and the use of electronic mail. The discussion covers the pilot project, its evaluation, cost effectiveness, extension of the network, and future plans.…

  11. Teachers' Collective Bargaining in Ontario: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Alan M.

    Laws regarding Ontario teachers' collective bargaining have implications for continuing education. "Continuing education" here means a system of education that serves everyone irrespective of age and to which access at any time is a right. Teacher collective bargaining laws are important in a system of continuing education because these laws…

  12. Factors Influencing Educational Opportunity in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    2008-01-01

    The province of Ontario, Canada, has always claimed a stellar system of education. Unfortunately, this claim has gradually lost its validity as funding has slipped with the associated slide of quality. No longer can the province claim to enable an education system second to none. The discussion in this article is based on the reality that an…

  13. The Ontario Public Library: Review and Reorganization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowron, Albert

    In 1975 a study of the Ontario (Canada) public library system was undertaken in order to develop plans for organizing, financing, and coordinating public libraries in the next ten years. From published reports, interviews, letters, and examination of facilities and available data, information was collected on provincial and county library…

  14. Indians of Ontario (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The booklet presents an historical review and a description of the 2 cultural groups of Indians--Iroquoian and Algonkian--which inhabited Ontario in pre-European times. According to the document, the Iroquoian culture evolved over a period of at least 2000 years in the fertile land of the eastern Great Lakes region; the Algonkians inhabited the…

  15. Future looks bleak for many Ontario hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Charlotte

    1995-01-01

    Ontario will soon begin to experience some of the hospital closures that are already well known in many other provinces. A recent report called for the closure of 12 hospitals in Metropolitan Toronto and a 13% cut in the number of hospital beds. Strong campaigns against some of the proposed closures are already being mounted.

  16. The Whiteness of Literacy Practice in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Kleut, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 2008, the Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Education in Canada released a DVD that was one in a series designed to train literacy teachers in what the Ministry referred to as "high-yield" comprehension strategies. Using the lens of Critical Race Theory, this article analyses the picture book used in the…

  17. Employer-Supported Child Care in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services, Toronto.

    Six case studies describing current employer-supported child care services in Ontario are presented. The studies describe the PLADEC Day Care Center of the Kingston Psychiatric Hospital, the day care center at the Chedoke-McMaster Hospitals in Hamilton, the Early Learning Centre at Durham College in Oshawa, the Hydrokids day care center at the…

  18. Local capacity for groundwater protection in Ontario.

    PubMed

    De Loë, Rob C; Di Giantomasso, Sandra E; Kreutzwiser, Reid D

    2002-02-01

    Preventing groundwater contamination is vastly cheaper than remediation. Recognizing this, attention in water and land management agencies in North America increasingly turn to groundwater protection. Local agencies, such as municipalities and watershed management districts, are vital to successful groundwater protection, but they face daunting challenges. In the United States, senior governments have recognized these challenges and provide considerable support for local agencies. In Ontario, Canada, local agencies are, to a much greater extent, on their own. The aims in this paper are to analyze factors that shape local capacity for groundwater protection, focusing on Ontario, and to recommend avenues for capacity building. Interrelationships among five dimensions of capacity (technical, financial, institutional, social, and political) are explored through an analysis of three smaller Ontario communities: City of Guelph (population 93,400), Town of Orangeville (population 22,188), and Town of Erin (population 11,000). Size clearly influences capacity for groundwater protection. However, other considerations unrelated to size appear to be as important. These other factors include the ability to form horizontal and vertical linkages with external agencies, political leadership and commitment, and citizen involvement. Thus, smaller communities in Ontario (and other jurisdictions with limited senior government support) would do well to focus on these areas at the same time as they develop their technical, financial, and institutional capacity.

  19. Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…

  20. Using routinely recorded herd data to predict and benchmark herd and cow health status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health using producer-recorded data is feasible. Estimates of heritability are low, indicating that genetic progress will be slow. Improvement of health traits may also be possible with the incorporation of environmental and managerial aspects into herd health pro...

  1. Genetic Parameter Estimation in Seedstock Swine Population for Growth Performances

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Gwan; Cho, Chung Il; Choi, Im Soo; Lee, Seung Soo; Choi, Tae Jeong; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Park, Byoung Ho; Choy, Yun Ho

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters that are to be used for across-herd genetic evaluations of seed stock pigs at GGP level. Performance data with pedigree information collected from swine breeder farms in Korea were provided by Korea Animal Improvement Association (AIAK). Performance data were composed of final body weights at test days and ultrasound measures of back fat thickness (BF), rib eye area (EMA) and retail cut percentage (RCP). Breeds of swine tested were Landrace, Yorkshire and Duroc. Days to 90 kg body weight (DAYS90) were estimated with linear function of age and ADG calculated from body weights at test days. Ultrasound measures were taken with A-mode ultrasound scanners by trained technicians. Number of performance records after censoring outliers and keeping records pigs only born from year 2000 were of 78,068 Duroc pigs, 101,821 Landrace pigs and 281,421 Yorkshire pigs. Models included contemporary groups defined by the same herd and the same seasons of births of the same year, which was regarded as fixed along with the effect of sex for all traits and body weight at test day as a linear covariate for ultrasound measures. REML estimation was processed with REMLF90 program. Heritability estimates were 0.40, 0.32, 0.21 0.39 for DAYS90, ADG, BF, EMA, RCP, respectively for Duroc population. Respective heritability estimates for Landrace population were 0.43, 0.41, 0.22, and 0.43 and for Yorkshire population were 0.36, 0.38, 0.22, and 0.42. Genetic correlation coefficients of DAYS90 with BF, EMA, or RCP were estimated to be 0.00 to 0.09, −0.15 to −0.25, 0.22 to 0.28, respectively for three breeds populations. Genetic correlation coefficients estimated between BF and EMA was −0.33 to −0.39. Genetic correlation coefficient estimated between BF and RCP was high and negative (−0.78 to −0.85) but the environmental correlation coefficients between these two traits was medium and negative (near −0.35), which describes

  2. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  3. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, NEWCASTLE DISEASE, HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND...

  4. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  5. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  6. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  7. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  8. Controlling herding in minority game systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji-Qiang; Huang, Zi-Gang; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Su, Riqi; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation takes place in various types of real-world complex systems such as urban traffic, social services institutions, economical and ecosystems. Mathematically, the dynamical process of resource allocation can be modeled as minority games. Spontaneous evolution of the resource allocation dynamics, however, often leads to a harmful herding behavior accompanied by strong fluctuations in which a large majority of agents crowd temporarily for a few resources, leaving many others unused. Developing effective control methods to suppress and eliminate herding is an important but open problem. Here we develop a pinning control method, that the fluctuations of the system consist of intrinsic and systematic components allows us to design a control scheme with separated control variables. A striking finding is the universal existence of an optimal pinning fraction to minimize the variance of the system, regardless of the pinning patterns and the network topology. We carry out a generally applicable theory to explain the emergence of optimal pinning and to predict the dependence of the optimal pinning fraction on the network topology. Our work represents a general framework to deal with the broader problem of controlling collective dynamics in complex systems with potential applications in social, economical and political systems. PMID:26883398

  9. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  10. Controlling herding in minority game systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji-Qiang; Huang, Zi-Gang; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Su, Riqi; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Resource allocation takes place in various types of real-world complex systems such as urban traffic, social services institutions, economical and ecosystems. Mathematically, the dynamical process of resource allocation can be modeled as minority games. Spontaneous evolution of the resource allocation dynamics, however, often leads to a harmful herding behavior accompanied by strong fluctuations in which a large majority of agents crowd temporarily for a few resources, leaving many others unused. Developing effective control methods to suppress and eliminate herding is an important but open problem. Here we develop a pinning control method, that the fluctuations of the system consist of intrinsic and systematic components allows us to design a control scheme with separated control variables. A striking finding is the universal existence of an optimal pinning fraction to minimize the variance of the system, regardless of the pinning patterns and the network topology. We carry out a generally applicable theory to explain the emergence of optimal pinning and to predict the dependence of the optimal pinning fraction on the network topology. Our work represents a general framework to deal with the broader problem of controlling collective dynamics in complex systems with potential applications in social, economical and political systems.

  11. 9 CFR 77.35 - Interstate movement from accredited herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.35 Interstate movement from accredited herds. (a) Qualifications. To be... § 77.33(f) must have tested negative to at least two consecutive official tuberculosis tests, conducted... accredited herd may be moved interstate without further tuberculosis testing only if it is accompanied by...

  12. 9 CFR 77.35 - Interstate movement from accredited herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.35 Interstate movement from accredited herds. (a) Qualifications. To be... § 77.33(f) must have tested negative to at least two consecutive official tuberculosis tests, conducted... accredited herd may be moved interstate without further tuberculosis testing only if it is accompanied by...

  13. 9 CFR 77.35 - Interstate movement from accredited herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.35 Interstate movement from accredited herds. (a) Qualifications. To be... § 77.33(f) must have tested negative to at least two consecutive official tuberculosis tests, conducted... accredited herd may be moved interstate without further tuberculosis testing only if it is accompanied by...

  14. 9 CFR 77.35 - Interstate movement from accredited herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.35 Interstate movement from accredited herds. (a) Qualifications. To be... § 77.33(f) must have tested negative to at least two consecutive official tuberculosis tests, conducted... accredited herd may be moved interstate without further tuberculosis testing only if it is...

  15. 9 CFR 77.35 - Interstate movement from accredited herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.35 Interstate movement from accredited herds. (a) Qualifications. To be... § 77.33(f) must have tested negative to at least two consecutive official tuberculosis tests, conducted... accredited herd may be moved interstate without further tuberculosis testing only if it is accompanied by...

  16. Genetic value of herd life adjusted for milk production.

    PubMed

    Allaire, F R; Gibson, J P

    1992-05-01

    Cow herd life adjusted for lactational milk production was investigated as a genetic trait in the breeding objective. Under a simple model, the relative economic weight of milk to adjusted herd life on a per genetic standard deviation basis was equal to CVY/dCVL where CVY and CVL are the genetic coefficients of variation of milk production and adjusted herd life, respectively, and d is the depreciation per year per cow divided by the total fixed costs per year per cow. The relative economic value of milk to adjusted herd life at the prices and parameters for North America was about 3.2. An increase of 100-kg milk was equivalent to 2.2 mo of adjusted herd life. Three to 7% lower economic gain is expected when only improved milk production is sought compared with a breeding objective that included both production and adjusted herd life for relative value changed +/- 20%. A favorable economic gain to cost ratio probably exists for herd life used as a genetic trait to supplement milk in the breeding objective. Cow survival records are inexpensive, and herd life evaluations from such records may not extend the generation interval when such an evaluation is used in bull sire selection.

  17. Feral swine disturbance at important archaeological sites.

    PubMed

    Engeman, Richard M; Couturier, Kathy J; Felix, Rodney K; Avery, Michael L

    2013-06-01

    Feral swine are well known as environmentally destructive invasive animals in many areas around the world, where they degrade native habitats, harm rare plant and animal species, damage agricultural interests, and spread disease. We provide the first quantification of their potential as agents of disturbance at archaeological sites. Our study was conducted in south-central Florida at Avon Park Air Force Range, a base comprising over 40,000 ha and containing many archaeological sites. To determine the identifiable prevalence of feral swine disturbance, we examined 36 sites registered with the Florida State Historic Preservation Office and also eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). Moreover, we evaluated the extent of swine disturbance at a prehistoric site of extraordinary significance to Florida's prehistory, "Dead Cow." Fifteen of the 36 NRHP-eligible sites (42 %) had some level of swine disturbance, including 14 of 30 (47 %) sites known to have artifacts within 20 cm of the surface (well within swine rooting depths). At the Dead Cow site, we documented disturbance at 74 % of shovel test points. Sites with shallow artifact depositions appeared highly vulnerable to disturbance by feral swine, threatening destruction of artifact stratigraphy and provenience. Our observations likely are a minimal representation of accumulated damage. These irreplaceable sites tell the area's land use story across the millennia. That they are under threat from feral swine should serve broad notice of potential threats that feral swine may pose to archaeological sites globally, making effective swine management imperative for site protection.

  18. Swine in biomedical research. V. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the history of pigs; conceptual and operational history of the development of miniature swine; breeding program and population standards of the Gottingen miniature swine; moral, social and scientific aspects of the use of swine in research; fertility in gilts inseminated with frozen boar semen stored at -196 C for eight years; ultrastructure of piglet liver; porcine models in surgical research; anesthesia in swine; pulse monitoring, intravascular and instramuscular injection sites in pigs; collagen biosynthesis and collagen content as a measure of dermal healing in experimental wounds in domestic swine; methods for hair removal; swine as a cardiac surgical model; bone marrow transplantation in miniature swine; technical aspects of small intestinal transplantation in young pigs; models; the pig in studies of diarrhea pathophysiology; use of swine to validate airflow perturbation device for airways resistance measurements in humans; swine as a model for human diabetes; and the weanling Yorkshire pig as an animal model for measuring percutaneous penetration.

  19. Swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) diversity in Sinclair and Hanford swine.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chak-Sum; Martens, Gregory W; Amoss, Max S; Gomez-Raya, Luis; Beattie, Craig W; Smith, Douglas M

    2010-03-01

    The swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) haplotype B is associated with increased penetrance of the tumor traits in Sinclair swine cutaneous melanoma (SSCM). We established a series of SinclairxHanford swine crosses to facilitate genetic mapping of the tumor-associated loci. In this study, the SLA diversity in the founding animals was characterized for effective selection of maximum tumor penetrance in the pedigrees. Using the sequence-based typing (SBT) method we identified a total of 29 alleles at five polymorphic SLA loci (SLA-1, SLA-3, SLA-2, DRB1 and DQB1) representing six class I and five class II haplotypes. We subsequently developed a rapid PCR-based typing assay using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) to efficiently follow the SLA types of the crossbred progeny. In a total of 469 animals we identified three crossovers within the class I region and three between the class I and class II regions, which corresponded to recombination frequencies of 0.39% and 0.56%, respectively. We also confirmed the presence of two expressed SLA-1 loci in three of the class I haplotypes and were able to determine the relative chromosomal arrangement of the duplicated loci in two haplotypes. This study furthers our understanding of the allelic architecture and polymorphism of the SLA system and will facilitate the mapping of loci associated with the expression of SSCM.

  20. A mathematical model of Staphylococcus aureus control in dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Zadoks, R. N.; Allore, H. G.; Hagenaars, T. J.; Barkema, H. W.; Schukken, Y. H.

    2002-01-01

    An ordinary differential equation model was developed to simulate dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Data to estimate model parameters were obtained from an 18-month observational study in three commercial dairy herds. A deterministic simulation model was constructed to estimate values of the basic (R0) and effective (Rt) reproductive number in each herd, and to examine the effect of management on mastitis control. In all herds R0 was below the threshold value 1, indicating control of contagious transmission. Rt was higher than R0 because recovered individuals were more susceptible to infection than individuals without prior infection history. Disease dynamics in two herds were well described by the model. Treatment of subclinical mastitis and prevention of influx of infected individuals contributed to decrease of S. aureus prevalence. For one herd, the model failed to mimic field observations. Explanations for the discrepancy are given in a discussion of current knowledge and model assumptions. PMID:12403116

  1. Why herd size matters - mitigating the effects of livestock crashes.

    PubMed

    Næss, Marius Warg; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Analysing the effect of pastoral risk management strategies provides insights into a system of subsistence that have persevered in marginal areas for hundreds to thousands of years and may shed light into the future of around 200 million households in the face of climate change. This study investigated the efficiency of herd accumulation as a buffer strategy by analysing changes in livestock holdings during an environmental crisis in the Saami reindeer husbandry in Norway. We found a positive relationship between: (1) pre- and post-collapse herd size; and (2) pre-collapse herd size and the number of animals lost during the collapse, indicating that herd accumulation is an effective but costly strategy. Policies that fail to incorporate the risk-beneficial aspect of herd accumulation will have a limited effect and may indeed fail entirely. In the context of climate change, official policies that incorporate pastoral risk management strategies may be the only solution for ensuring their continued existence.

  2. The use of ELISAs for monitoring exposure of pig herds to Brachyspira hyodysenteriae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Swine dysentery (SD), a mucohaemorrhagic diarrhoeal disease of pigs, results from infection of the large intestine with the spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. ELISA systems using whole spirochaete cells (WC) and the B. hyodysenteriae outer membrane lipoprotein Bhlp29.7 previously have been established as potential diagnostic tools for SD. However, their true value in identifying infected herds remains unclear. The present study aimed to compare the performance of whole-cell and Bhlp29.7 based ELISAs in detecting specific immunoglobulin class IgG and IgM to B. hyodysenteriae in growing pigs, and additionally evaluated whether meat juice could serve as a source of specific antibodies. Results Levels of circulating IgG and IgM reacting with WC spirochaete preparations and recombinant Bhlp29.7 peaked 4-6 weeks post-infection in the experimentally challenged pigs, and remained elevated in the present study. In a cohort of pigs on an infected farm levels of antibody directed against both antigens showed a progressive increase with time. However, other than for the level of IgG against WC antigen, a significant increase in antibody levels also was observed in a cohort of pigs on a non-infected farm. In addition, assays using meat juice had 100% specificity and equivalent sensitivity to those based on serum, and likewise the best performance was achieved using the WC IgG ELISA. Conclusions IgG ELISAs using either WC or Bhlp29.7 as plate-coating antigens were shown to be useful for monitoring the dynamics of B. hyodysenteriae infection in grower pigs. Of the two antigens, the WC preparation tended to give better discrimination between pigs from infected and non-infected farms. Testing of meat juice was shown to have potential for identifying infected herds. PMID:22248341

  3. Impact of Mated Female Nonproductive Days in Breeding Herd after Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jung-Da; Lin, Chuen-Fu; Chung, Wen-Bin; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Lin, Chao-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an important pathogen that has a significant economic impact on the swine industry by imposing a high rate of mortality in suckling piglets. However, limited information on the productivity values of gilts and sows infected with PEDV is available. Here, we evaluate the productivity index in gilts and sows during the 1-year period before (19 January 2013 to 18 January 2014) and after (19 January 2014 to 18 January 2015) a PEDV outbreak from a 2000-sow breeding herd in Taiwan. The farrowing rate (FR), return rate (RR), total pigs born per litter (TB), pigs born alive per litter (BA), weaning pigs per litter (WPL), pre-weaning mortality, percentage of sows mated by 7 days after weaning, weaning to first service interval (WFSI), mated female nonproductive days (NPDs), replacement rate of sows and sow culling rate were compared using productive records. The FR (-9.6%), RR (+9.8%), TB (-1.6), BA (-1.1), WPL (-1.1), sows mated by 7 days after weaning (-6.9%), WFSI (+0.8 days), NPDs (+6.9 days) and sow culling rate (+7.2%) were significantly different between the 1-year pre-PEDV outbreak period and the post-PEDV outbreak period. Impacts of the PEDV infection on the reproductive performance were more severe in pregnant gilts than in sows. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the outbreak of PEDV caused an increase in the rate of NPDs in breeding herds. PMID:26771383

  4. Deep structure beneath Lake Ontario: crustal-scale Greeneville subdivisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forsyth, D. A.; Zelt, Colin A.; White, D. J.; Easton, R. M.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.

    1994-01-01

    Lake Ontario marine seismic data reveal major Grenville crustal subdivisions beneath central and southern Lake Ontario separated by interpreted shear zones that extend to the lower crust. A shear zone bounded transition between the Elzevir and Frontenac terranes exposed north of Lake Ontario is linked to a seismically defined shear zone beneath central Lake Ontario by prominent aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies, easterly dipping wide-angle reflections, and fractures in Paleozoic strata. We suggest the central Lake Ontario zone represents crustal-scale deformation along an Elzevir–Frontenac boundary zone that extends from outcrop to the south shore of Lake Ontario.Seismic images from Lake Ontario and the exposed western Central Metasedimentary Belt are dominated by crustal-scale shear zones and reflection geometries featuring arcuate reflections truncated at their bases by apparent east-dipping linear reflections. The images show that zones analogous to the interpreted Grenville Front Tectonic Zone are also present within the Central Metasedimentary Belt and support models of northwest-directed crustal shortening for Grenvillian deep crustal deformation beneath most of southeastern Ontario.A Precambrian basement high, the Iroquoian high, is defined by a thinning of generally horizontal Paleozoic strata over a crestal area above the basement shear zone beneath central Lake Ontario. The Iroquoian high helps explain the peninsular extension into Lake Ontario forming Prince Edward County, the occurrence of Precambrian inlier outcrops in Prince Edward County, and Paleozoic fractures forming the Clarendon–Linden structure in New York.

  5. Modelling the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a beef cattle herd and its impact on herd productivity.

    PubMed

    Damman, Alix; Viet, Anne-France; Arnoux, Sandie; Guerrier-Chatellet, Marie-Claude; Petit, Etienne; Ezanno, Pauline

    2015-02-24

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of disease introductions through fenceline contact with neighboring herds and the purchase of infected cattle, and (3) the risk of individual pregnant cattle generating persistently infected (PI) calves based on their stage in gestation. The model predicted the highest losses from BVDV during the first 3 years after disease was introduced into a naive herd. During the endemic phase, the impact of BVDV on the yearly herd productivity was much lower due to herd immunity. However, cumulative losses over 10 years in an endemic situation greatly surpassed the losses that occurred during the acute phase. A sensitivity analysis of key model parameters revealed that herd size, the duration of breeding, grazing, and selling periods, renewal rate of breeding females, and the level of numerical productivity expected by the farmer had a significant influence on the predicted losses. This model provides a valuable framework for evaluating the impact of BVDV and the efficacy of different control strategies in beef cow-calf herds.

  6. Neutralizing DNA Aptamers against Swine Influenza H3N2 Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Wongphatcharachai, Manoosak; Wang, Ping; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Webby, Richard J.; Gramer, Marie R.; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2013-01-01

    Triple reassortant influenza A viruses (IAVs) of swine, particularly the North American H3N2 subtype, circulate in swine herds and may reassort and result in the emergence of novel zoonotic strains. Current diagnostic tools rely on isolation of the viruses, followed by serotyping by hemagglutination or genome sequencing, both of which can be expensive and time-consuming. Thus, novel subtype-specific ligands and methods are needed for rapid testing and subtyping of IAVs in the field. To address this need, we selected DNA aptamers against the recombinant HA protein from swine IAV H3 cluster IV using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Four candidate aptamers (HA68, HA7, HA2a, and HA2b) were identified and characterized. The dissociation constants (Kd) of aptamers HA68, HA7, HA2a, and HA2b against recombinant H3 protein were 7.1, 22.3, 16.0, and 3.7 nM, respectively. The binding site of HA68 to H3 was identified to be between nucleotide residues 8 and 40. All aptamers inhibited H3 hemagglutination. HA68 was highly specific to all four lineages within the North American H3N2 subtype. Further, the other three aptamers specifically identified live viruses belonging to the phylogenetic clusters I, II/III, and IV especially the virus that closely related to the recent H3N2 variant (H3N2v). Aptamer HA68 was also able to bind and detect H3N2v isolated from recent human cases. In conclusion, we provide subtype-specific aptamers against H3N2 IAVs of swine that can now be used in rapid detection and typing protocols for field applications. PMID:23077124

  7. An Assessment of the Expected Cost-Effectiveness of Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccines in Ontario, Canada Using a Static Model.

    PubMed

    Chit, Ayman; Roiz, Julie; Aballea, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Ontario, Canada, immunizes against influenza using a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) under a Universal Influenza Immunization Program (UIIP). The UIIP offers IIV3 free-of-charge to all Ontarians over 6 months of age. A newly approved quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) offers wider protection against influenza B disease. We explored the expected cost-utility and budget impact of replacing IIV3 with IIV4, within the context of Ontario's UIIP, using a probabilistic and static cost-utility model. Wherever possible, epidemiological and cost data were obtained from Ontario sources. Canadian or U.S. sources were used when Ontario data were not available. Vaccine efficacy for IIV3 was obtained from the literature. IIV4 efficacy was derived from meta-analysis of strain-specific vaccine efficacy. Conservatively, herd protection was not considered. In the base case, we used IIV3 and IIV4 prices of $5.5/dose and $7/dose, respectively. We conducted a sensitivity analysis on the price of IIV4, as well as standard univariate and multivariate statistical uncertainty analyses. Over a typical influenza season, relative to IIV3, IIV4 is expected to avert an additional 2,516 influenza cases, 1,683 influenza-associated medical visits, 27 influenza-associated hospitalizations, and 5 influenza-associated deaths. From a societal perspective, IIV4 would generate 76 more Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and a net societal budget impact of $4,784,112. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio for this comparison was $63,773/QALY. IIV4 remains cost-effective up to a 53% price premium over IIV3. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that IIV4 was cost-effective with a probability of 65% for a threshold of $100,000/QALY gained. IIV4 is expected to achieve reductions in influenza-related morbidity and mortality compared to IIV3. Despite not accounting for herd protection, IIV4 is still expected to be a cost-effective alternative to IIV3 up to a price premium

  8. Connectedness among herds of beef cattle bred under natural service

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A procedure to measure connectedness among herds was applied to a beef cattle population bred by natural service. It consists of two steps: (a) computing coefficients of determination (CDs) of comparisons among herds; and (b) building sets of connected herds. Methods The CDs of comparisons among herds were calculated using a sampling-based method that estimates empirical variances of true and predicted breeding values from a simulated n-sample. Once the CD matrix was estimated, a clustering method that can handle a large number of comparisons was applied to build compact clusters of connected herds of the Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle. Since in this breed, natural service is predominant and there are almost no links with reference sires, to estimate CDs, an animal model was used taking into consideration all pedigree information and, especially, the connections with dams. A sensitivity analysis was performed to contrast single-trait sire and animal model evaluations with different heritabilities, multiple-trait animal model evaluations with different degrees of genetic correlations and models with maternal effects. Results Using a sire model, the percentage of connected herds was very low even for highly heritable traits whereas with an animal model, most of the herds of the breed were well connected and high CD values were obtained among them, especially for highly heritable traits (the mean of average CD per herd was 0.535 for a simulated heritability of 0.40). For the lowly heritable traits, the average CD increased from 0.310 in the single-trait evaluation to 0.319 and 0.354 in the multi-trait evaluation with moderate and high genetic correlations, respectively. In models with maternal effects, the average CD per herd for the direct effects was similar to that from single-trait evaluations. For the maternal effects, the average CD per herd increased if the maternal effects had a high genetic correlation with the direct effects, but the percentage

  9. Integrated Ecosystem Assessment: Lake Ontario Water Management

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Mark B.; Singkran, Nuanchan; Mills, Katherine E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Ecosystem management requires organizing, synthesizing, and projecting information at a large scale while simultaneously addressing public interests, dynamic ecological properties, and a continuum of physicochemical conditions. We compared the impacts of seven water level management plans for Lake Ontario on a set of environmental attributes of public relevance. Methodology and Findings Our assessment method was developed with a set of established impact assessment tools (checklists, classifications, matrices, simulations, representative taxa, and performance relations) and the concept of archetypal geomorphic shoreline classes. We considered each environmental attribute and shoreline class in its typical and essential form and predicted how water level change would interact with defining properties. The analysis indicated that about half the shoreline of Lake Ontario is potentially sensitive to water level change with a small portion being highly sensitive. The current water management plan may be best for maintaining the environmental resources. In contrast, a natural water regime plan designed for greatest environmental benefits most often had adverse impacts, impacted most shoreline classes, and the largest portion of the lake coast. Plans that balanced multiple objectives and avoided hydrologic extremes were found to be similar relative to the environment, low on adverse impacts, and had many minor impacts across many shoreline classes. Significance The Lake Ontario ecosystem assessment provided information that can inform decisions about water management and the environment. No approach and set of methods will perfectly and unarguably accomplish integrated ecosystem assessment. For managing water levels in Lake Ontario, we found that there are no uniformly good and bad options for environmental conservation. The scientific challenge was selecting a set of tools and practices to present broad, relevant, unbiased, and accessible information to guide

  10. Chronic copper toxicity in a dairy herd

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, David J.; Schiefer, H. Bruno; Blakley, Barry R.

    1990-01-01

    The addition of excessive copper to a commercially prepared dairy ration caused chronic copper toxicity in a dairy herd. A formulation error by a feed company resulted in copper levels of 800 to 1,000 mg/kg in the “as fed concentrate,” amounting to about 400-500 mg copper/kg of the whole ration. Five animals died with typical signs of acute copper toxicity, including intravascular hemolysis and methemoglobinemia. A further 39 cows died on the farm from a combination of debilitation and secondary infectious causes, and 215 were sent to slaughter because of debilitation and poor milk production. The mortality of calves born to dams that had been fed the toxic concentrate was approximately 50%. We postulate that dairy cows, particularly pregnant cows, may be more susceptible to copper toxicity than other cattle, and suggest reexamination of the presently allowable maximum levels of copper supplementation of diets for dairy cattle. PMID:17423660

  11. Relationship between individual herd-heritability estimates and sire misidentification rate.

    PubMed

    Dechow, C D; Norman, H D; Zwald, N R; Cowan, C M; Meland, O M

    2008-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate heritabilities within herds participating in Dairy Herd Improvement and determine the relationship of the individual herd heritability with sire misidentification rate. Individual herd heritabilities for milk, fat, and protein yield and somatic cell score (SCS) were calculated with daughter-dam regression and daughter-sire predicted transmitting ability (PTA) regression using 4,712,166 records from 16,336 herds available for August 2000 evaluations and 7,084,953 records from 20,920 herds available for August 2006 evaluations. Herd heritabilities were estimated using regression models that included fixed breed, age within parity, herd-year-season of calving, dam records nested within state, sire PTA within state, and an interaction between sire PTA and herd variance; random regression coefficients were dam records within herd and sire PTA within herd. Average daughter-dam herd heritability estimates ranged from 0.21 (SCS in 2000) to 0.73 (protein percentage in 2006), whereas daughter-sire herd heritability ranged from 0.10 (SCS in 2000) to 0.42 (protein percentage in 2006). Verification of sire identification with DNA marker analysis was provided by Accelerated Genetics and Alta Genetics Inc. Daughter-sire herd heritability was more strongly correlated with sire misidentification rate than daughter-dam herd heritability. The correlation between the first principal component for all measures of herd heritability and sire misidentification rate was -0.38 (176 herds) and -0.50 (230 herds) in 2000 and 2006, respectively. Herd heritability can be estimated with simple regression techniques for several thousand herds simultaneously. The herd heritability estimates were correlated negatively with sire misidentification rates and could be used to identify herds that provide inaccurate data for progeny testing.

  12. Hydrocarbon entrapment in Trenton of southern Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Trevail, R.A.

    1984-12-01

    Middle Ordovician Trenton strata in southern Ontario are represented by a generally transgressive sequence that reflects a wide spectrum of carbonate environments from tidal flat, through lagoon and shoal, into deeper shelf carbonates. Virtually all Ordovician production in Ontario is associated with structural deformation related to rejuvenation of a Precambrian fracture framework triggered by orogenic events in the nearby Appalachian orogene. The reservoirs are characterized by the replacement of original bioclastic limestone beds by more or less discontinuous lenses of fine to medium-grained, light to medium-brown crystalline dolostone. Pools generally are linear, following the trend of the associated fracture. Six of the 18 known Ordovician pools in Ontario are located in Essex County. A detailed study of the geology and reservoirs confirmed the close association of fracturing, dolomitization, and hydrocarbon entrapment. Representative samples of well cuttings from 20 wells were analyzed by XRD (x-ray defraction) to determine calcite-dolomite ratios. As expected, low ratios were present in the producing reservoirs. Partially dolomitized zones were revealed in wells in close proximity to fractures. Formation water originating in the underlying Cambrian sandstones was probably the main dolomitizing agent as it migrated up through the fracture. Dolomitization enhanced already existing porosity within the bioclastic zones.

  13. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: A complication of swine flu.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Ajit Kumar; Gupta, Anubhav; Aiyer, Palash; Jhajhria, Narender Singh; Grover, Vijay; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in swine flu, or H1N1 influenza A infection, is a rare phenomenon and only few cases have been reported in children. We describe a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in adult infected with swine flu.

  14. Advances in Swine Biomedical Model Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swine has been a major biomedical model species, for transplantation, heart disease, allergies and asthma, as well as normal neonatal development and reproductive physiology. Swine have been used extensively for studies of infectious disease processes and analyses of preventative strategies, inc...

  15. Summary of Control Issues for Swine Influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple subtypes of endemic swine influenza virus (SIV) co-circulate in the U.S. and Canada (H3N2, H1N1, and H1N2 with a triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) constellation derived from swine, avian and human influenza viruses). As a result of reassortment events and antigenic drift, four H1 SIV...

  16. 75 FR 16641 - Swine Contract Library

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... II of the P&S Act to include Subtitle B--Swine Packer Marketing Contracts. The 1999 Act mandated the creation and maintenance of a library of marketing contracts offered by certain packers to producers for... example marketing contracts with GIPSA along with monthly estimates of the number of swine to be...

  17. The role of infrasounds in maintaining whale herds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Roger S.

    2001-05-01

    For whales and dolphins a basic social unit is the herd. In several species, herds have been observed to maintain the same speed, direction, and membership overnight, and while swimming in waters of near-zero visibility-evidence that individuals can stay together using nonvisual cues. The most likely such cue is sound. If whale herds are held together with sound, yet we define herds as groups of whales seen moving together, then we are using visual criteria to judge what is an acoustic phenomenon, and our conclusions about a most basic unit of cetacean social structure, the herd, are at least incomplete, and, quite possibly, worthless. By calling herds, heards, we remind ourselves that sound controls herd size. We then consider that some whale infrasound can propagate across deep water at useful intensities (even in today's ship-noise-polluted ocean) for thousands of kilometers. The distance to which blue and fin whale sounds propagate before falling below background noise is given, and the possible advantages these whales obtain from such sounds is explored. The conclusion is that by sharing information on food finds infrasonically, fin and blue whales may have developed a way to divide up the food resources of an entire ocean.

  18. Specific pathogen-free pig herds also free from Campylobacter?

    PubMed

    Kolstoe, E M; Iversen, T; Østensvik, Ø; Abdelghani, A; Secic, I; Nesbakken, T

    2015-03-01

    As Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) pig herds are designed and managed to prevent specific pig diseases, it might be feasible to expand the list of micro-organisms also including zoonotic pathogens such as Campylobacter coli as this agent has its origin in pigs. In a previous survey, 15 of 16 of SPF herds were found free from human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. Accordingly, three nucleus and seven multiplying herds were surveyed for Campylobacter to investigate whether the Norwegian SPF pig pyramid also might be free from this agent. In conclusion, the intervention of Campylobacter at the herd level might be possible as four of 10 SPF herds tested negative in two sets of samples from both autumn 2008 and summer/early autumn 2010. The four negative herds were all located in remote areas several kilometres away from conventional pig farming while the positive SPF farms were all situated in neighbourhoods with conventional pig production. It seems more difficult to control Campylobacter than some specific animal disease agents and another significant zoonotic agent, Y. enterocolitica, in pig herds.

  19. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6 Section 166.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding...

  20. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6 Section 166.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding...

  1. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  2. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two swine of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  3. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two swine of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  4. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two swine of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  5. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  6. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  7. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  8. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  9. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  10. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  11. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  12. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  13. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  14. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  15. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  16. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  17. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  18. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  19. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  20. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  1. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  2. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  3. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  4. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  5. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  6. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  7. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  8. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  9. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  10. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  11. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  12. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  13. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  14. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  15. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  16. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Marketing Act (7 U.S.C. 1636). (g) How can I review information from the swine contract library? The... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a)...

  17. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... review information from the swine contract library? The information will be available on the Internet on... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a)...

  18. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  19. Survey of facility and management characteristics of large, Upper Midwest dairy herds clustered by Dairy Herd Improvement records.

    PubMed

    Brotzman, R L; Döpfer, D; Foy, M R; Hess, J P; Nordlund, K V; Bennett, T B; Cook, N B

    2015-11-01

    A survey of management practices was conducted to investigate potential associations with groupings of herds formed by cluster analysis (CA) of Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) data of 557 Upper Midwest herds of 200 cows or greater. Differences in herd management practices were identified between the groups, despite underlying similarities; for example, freestall housing and milking in a parlor. Group 6 comprised larger herds with a high proportion of primiparous cows and most frequently utilized practices promoting increased production [e.g., 84.4% used recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST)], decreased lameness (e.g., 96.9% used routine hoof trimming for cows), and improved efficiency in reproduction [e.g., 93.8% synchronized the first breeding in cows (SYNCH)] and labor (e.g., mean ± SD, 67 ± 19 cows per 50-h per week full-time equivalent worker). Group 1 had the best mean DHI performances and followed most closely group 6 for the rate of adoption of intensive management practices while tending to outperform group 6 despite a generally smaller mean herd size (e.g., 42.3 ± 3.6 kg vs. 39.9 ± 3.6 kg of energy-corrected milk production; 608 ± 352 cows vs. 1,716 ± 1,405 cows). Group 2 were smaller herds with relatively high levels of performance that used less intensive management (e.g., 100% milked twice daily) and less technology (33.3 vs. 73.0% of group 1 used rbST). Group 4 were smaller but poorer-performing herds with low turnover and least frequently used intensive management practices (e.g., 39.1% SYNCH; 30.4% allowed mature, high-producing cows access to pasture). Group 5 used modern technologies and practices associated with improved production, yet had the least desirable mean DHI performance of all 6 groups. This group had the lowest proportion of deep loose-bedded stalls (only 52.2% used sand bedding) and the highest proportion (34.8%) of herds not using routine hoof trimming. The survey of group 3 herds did not reveal strong trends in management. The

  20. Herd-level relationship between antimicrobial use and presence or absence of antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative bovine mastitis pathogens on Canadian dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Saini, Vineet; McClure, J T; Scholl, Daniel T; DeVries, Trevor J; Barkema, Herman W

    2013-08-01

    Concurrent data on antimicrobial use (AMU) and resistance are needed to contain antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria. The present study examined a herd-level association between AMU and AMR in Escherichia coli (n=394) and Klebsiella species (n=139) isolated from bovine intramammary infections and mastitis cases on 89 dairy farms in 4 regions of Canada [Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and Maritime Provinces (Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick)]. Antimicrobial use data were collected using inventory of empty antimicrobial containers and antimicrobial drug use rate was calculated to quantify herd-level AMU. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using Sensititre National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) gram-negative MIC plate (Trek Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH). Isolates were classified as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant. Intermediate and resistant category isolates were combined to form an AMR category, and multivariable logistic regression models were built to determine herd-level odds of AMR to tetracycline, ampicillin, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination, sulfisoxazole, streptomycin and kanamycin in E. coli isolates. In the case of Klebsiella species isolates, logistic regression models were built for tetracycline and sulfisoxazole; however, no associations between AMU and AMR in Klebsiella species were observed. Ampicillin-intermediate or -resistant E. coli isolates were associated with herds that used intramammarily administered cloxacillin, penicillin-novobiocin combination, and cephapirin used for dry cow therapy [odds ratios (OR)=26, 32, and 189, respectively], and intramammary ceftiofur administered for lactating cow therapy and systemically administered penicillin (OR=162 and 2.7, respectively). Use of systemically administered penicillin on a dairy farm was associated with tetracycline and streptomycin-intermediate or -resistant E. coli isolates (OR=5

  1. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985–1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980 s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = −0.91, P < 0.01, n = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the State of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977–1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35–0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985–1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978–1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the Lake, may be achieved.

  2. Farmers' Use of Publications. Report of a Survey of Ontario Farmers' Receipt and Use of Three Technical Publications of the Ontario Department of Agriculture and Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Donald J.

    A survey was conducted to determine the extent of Ontario farmers' receipt, use and perception of three publications of the Ontario Department of Agriculture and Food--"Field Crop Recommendations for Ontario,""Guide to Chemical Weed Control" and "Dairy Husbandry in Ontario." A questionnaire was mailed in May 1969 to a two percent random sample…

  3. Control of a Reassortant Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus Outbreak in an Intensive Swine Breeding Farm: Effect of Vaccination and Enhanced Farm Management Practices

    PubMed Central

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Beato, Maria Serena; Angeloni, Giorgia; Monne, Isabella; Buniolo, Filippo; Zuliani, Federica; Morini, Matteo; Castellan, Alberto; Bonfanti, Lebana; Marangon, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses in swine cause considerable economic losses and raise concerns about their zoonotic potential. The current paucity of thorough empirical assessments of influenza A virus infection levels in swine herds under different control interventions hinders our understanding of their effectiveness. Between 2012 and 2013, recurrent outbreaks of respiratory disease caused by a reassortant pandemic 2009 H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus were registered in a swine breeding farm in North-East Italy, providing the opportunity to assess an outbreak response plan based on vaccination and enhanced farm management. All sows/gilts were vaccinated with a H1N1pdm-specific vaccine, biosecurity was enhanced, weaning cycles were lengthened, and cross-fostering of piglets was banned. All tested piglets had maternally-derived antibodies at 30 days of age and were detectable in 5.3% of ~90 day-old piglets. There was a significant reduction in H1N1pdm RT-PCR detections after the intervention. Although our study could not fully determine the extent to which the observed trends in seropositivity or RT-PCR positivity among piglets were due to the intervention or to the natural course of the disease in the herd, we provided suggestive evidence that the applied measures were useful in controlling the outbreak, even without an all-in/all-out system, while keeping farm productivity at full. PMID:25932349

  4. Impacts of climate change on Ontario`s forests. Forest research information paper number 143

    SciTech Connect

    Buse, L.J.; Colombo, S.J.

    1998-12-31

    Reviews literature concerning the effects of global climate change on forest plants and communities, and provides opinions on the potential impacts that climate change may have on Ontario forests. Sections of the review discuss the following: The climate of Ontario in the 21st century as predicted by climate models; forest hydrology in relation to climate change; insects and climate change; impacts on fungi in the forest ecosystem; impacts on forest fires and their management; plant physiological responses; genetic implications of climate change; forest vegetation dynamics; the use of models in global climate change studies; and forest management responses to climate change.

  5. Copper toxicity in a New Zealand dairy herd

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic copper toxicity was diagnosed in a Jersey herd in the Waikato region of New Zealand following an investigation into the deaths of six cattle from a herd of 250 dry cows. Clinical signs and post-mortem examination results were consistent with a hepatopathy, and high concentrations of copper in liver and blood samples of clinically affected animals confirmed copper toxicity. Liver copper concentrations and serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were both raised in a group of healthy animals sampled at random from the affected herd, indicating an ongoing risk to the remaining cattle; these animals all had serum copper concentrations within normal limits. Serum samples and liver biopsies were also collected and assayed for copper from animals within two other dairy herds on the same farm; combined results from all three herds showed poor correlation between serum and liver copper concentrations. To reduce liver copper concentrations the affected herd was drenched with 0.5 g ammonium molybdate and 1 g sodium sulphate per cow for five days, and the herd was given no supplementary feed or mineral supplements. Liver biopsies were repeated 44 days after the initial biopsies (approximately 1 month after the end of the drenching program); these showed a significant 37.3% decrease in liver copper concentrations (P <0.02). Also there were no further deaths after the start of the drenching program. Since there was no control group it is impossible to quantify the effect of the drenching program in this case, and dietary changes were also made that would have depleted liver copper stores. Historical analysis of the diet was difficult due to poor record keeping, but multiple sources of copper contributed to a long term copper over supplementation of the herd; the biggest source of copper was a mineral supplement. The farmer perceived this herd to have problems with copper deficiency prior to the diagnosis of copper toxicity, so this case demonstrates the importance of

  6. Genetic evolution of recently emerged novel human-like swine H3 influenza A viruses (IAV) in United States swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major cause of respiratory disease in swine. IAV transmission from humans to swine is a major contributor to swine IAV diversity. In 2012, a novel H3N2 with an HA (hu-H3) and NA derived from human seasonal H3N2 was detected in United States (US) swine. The h...

  7. Making contact: rooting out the potential for exposure of commercial production swine facilities to feral swine in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Engeman, Richard; Betsill, Carl; Ray, Tom

    2011-03-01

    Despite North Carolina's long history with feral swine, populations were low or absent in eastern counties until the 1990s. Feral swine populations have since grown in these counties which also contain a high density of commercial production swine (CPS) facilities. Sixteen of the highest swine producing U.S. counties also populated with feral swine are in North Carolina. Disconcertingly, since 2009, positive tests for exposure to swine brucellosis or pseudorabies virus have been found for feral swine. We surveyed 120 CSP facilities across four eastern counties to document the level and perception of feral swine activity around CSP facilities and to identify disease transmission potential to commercial stock. Nearly all facility operators (97%) recognized feral swine were in their counties. Far fewer said they had feral swine activity nearby (18%). Our inspections found higher presence than perceived with feral swine sign at 19% of facilities where operators said they had never observed feral swine or their sign. Nearly 90% expressed concern about feral to domestic disease transmission, yet only two facilities had grain bins or feeders fenced against wildlife access. Due to increasing feral swine populations, recent evidence of disease in feral populations, the importance of swine production to North Carolina's economy and the national pork industry, and potential for feral-domestic contact, we believe feral swine pose an increasing disease transmission threat warranting a stringent look at biosecurity and feral swine management at North Carolina CPS facilities.

  8. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with abortion in cow-calf herds from Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldner, C L

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify herd management and cow characteristics that are associated with abortion in cow-calf herds in Western Canada. Reproductive events were closely monitored in 29,713 cows in 203 herds from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through the calving season in 2002. Herd management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score, and previous reproductive history were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and detailed individual animal records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was assessed in fall of 2001 by the herd veterinarian. Cows most likely to abort were replacement heifers, cows that were more than 10 years of age, cows with a body condition score of less than or equal to or 5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, or with twin pregnancies. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were less likely to abort than cows from community pastures that were not vaccinated. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also more likely to abort than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Adverse calving-associated events such as severe dystocia, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour of birth were also associated with an increased risk of abortion the subsequent calving season after accounting for all other factors.

  9. Small-scale pig farmers’ behavior, silent release of African swine fever virus and consequences for disease spread

    PubMed Central

    Costard, Solenne; Zagmutt, Francisco J.; Porphyre, Thibaud; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2015-01-01

    The expanding distribution of African swine fever (ASF) is threatening the pig industry worldwide. Most outbreaks occur in backyard and small-scale herds, where poor farmers often attempt to limit the disease’s economic consequences by the emergency sale of their pigs. The risk of African swine fever virus (ASFV) release via this emergency sale was investigated. Simulation modeling was used to study ASFV transmission in backyard and small-scale farms as well as the emergency sale of pigs, and the potential impact of improving farmers and traders’ clinical diagnosis ability–its timeliness and/or accuracy–was assessed. The risk of ASFV release was shown to be high, and improving farmers’ clinical diagnosis ability does not appear sufficient to effectively reduce this risk. Estimates obtained also showed that the distribution of herd size within the backyard and small-scale sectors influences the relative contribution of these farms to the risk of release of infected pigs. These findings can inform surveillance and control programs. PMID:26610850

  10. Completion of the swine genome will simplify the production of swine as a large animal biomedical model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anatomic and physiological similarities to the human make swine an excellent large animal model for human health and disease. Methods Cloning from a modified somatic cell, which can be determined in cells prior to making the animal, is the only method available for the production of targeted modifications in swine. Results Since some strains of swine are similar in size to humans, technologies that have been developed for swine can be readily adapted to humans and vice versa. Here the importance of swine as a biomedical model, current technologies to produce genetically enhanced swine, current biomedical models, and how the completion of the swine genome will promote swine as a biomedical model are discussed. Conclusions The completion of the swine genome will enhance the continued use and development of swine as models of human health, syndromes and conditions. PMID:23151353

  11. [Herd immunity against poliomyelitis in children in the Moscow Region].

    PubMed

    Seĭbil', V B; Malyshkina, L P; Tamazian, G V; Konopleva, T N; Uspenskaia, E S

    2009-01-01

    Herd immunity against poliomyelitis was studied in 1391 children and adolescents from 10 towns of the Moscow Region. It was ascertained that the values of herd immunity against poliomyelitis virus type 1 were high everywhere and those of herd immunity against poliomyelitis virus type 2 were high and very high in 9 towns and below the WHO minimum levels (80%). The values of herd immunity against poliomyelitis virus type 3; they were lower than the required minimum in 2 towns and very low in 2 other towns arouse alarm. The study of strain-specific antibodies to vaccine-derived and wild polioviruses has demonstrated that wild poliomyelitis viruses have not circulated in the areas of the examinees in the past decade.

  12. Clinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Ontario: frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Sargeant, J M; Scott, H M; Leslie, K E; Ireland, M J; Bashiri, A

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy herds in Ontario. The study group consisted of 65 dairy farms involved in a 2-year observational study, which included recording all clinical mastitis cases and milk sampling of quarters with clinical mastitis. Lactational incidence risks of 9.8% for abnormal milk only, 8.2% for abnormal milk with a hard or swollen udder, and 4.4% for abnormal milk plus systemic signs of illness related to mastitis were calculated for 2840 cows and heifers. Overall, 19.8% of cows experienced one or more cases of clinical mastitis during location. Teat injuries occurred in 2.1% of lactations. Standard bacteriology was performed on pretreatment milk samples from 834 cows with clinical mastitis. The bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (6.7%), Streptococcus agalactiae (0.7%), other Streptococcus spp. (14.1%), coliforms (17.2%), gram-positive bacilli (5.5%), Corynebacterium bovis (1.7%), and other Staphylococcus spp. (28.7%). There was no growth in 17.7% of samples, and 8.3% of samples were contaminated. Clinical mastitis is a common disease in dairy cows in Ontario; approximately 1 in 5 cow lactations have at lease one episode of clinical mastitis. There is, however, considerable variation in the incidence of clinical mastitis among farms. The majority of 1st cases of clinical mastitis occur early in lactation, and the risk of clinical mastitis increases with increasing parity. Environmental, contagious, and minor pathogens were all associated with cases of clinical mastitis. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. PMID:9442950

  13. [The PRRSV-serumneutralization test detects gaps in herd immunity].

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Jens; Alex, Michaela; Janowetz, Britta; Müller, Silvia; Schuh, Christina; Niemeyer, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) appears in two genotypes (EU and US), for both genotypes attenuated live-vaccines are available. A cross-sectional study in 38 Bavarian sow herds was performed to assess the level of neutralizing antibodies. Per herd 38 blood samples were collected (10 weaned piglets, 10 gilts and 6 sows of 1./2., 3J4. and 5/6. parity, respectively). Sera were tested by ELISA, serumneutralization test (SNT) against EU- and US-vaccine virus, and pooled sera were tested by real-time RT-PCR. Herds were classified by the last vaccination of sows as "Vacc EU" "Vacc US"and "nv (non-vaccinated) and by detection of PRRSV-US and vaccination of piglets were not included as variables. Sows of group (2) Vacc EU/EU- showed the highest EU-SNT-titers irrespective of parity. Groups (5) Vacc US/EU+ and (1) Vacc EU/EU+ followed in descending order. Significantly lower SNT-titers in (1) Vacc EU/EU+ were especially observed in sows of 1/2. Parity (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). Very low SNT-titers were observed in the three remaining groups (3) nv/EU+, (4) nv/EU- and (6) Vacc US/EU-. In US-vaccinated herds detection of PRRSV-EU coincided with strong ELISA-reactivity in all animal groups. In EU-vaccinated herds this was only observed for weaned piglets. Sows showed a strong ELISA-reactivity irrespective of detection of PRRSV-EU. The value of the ELISA is restricted to the certification of PRRSV-free herds. The EU-SNT reflects the level of herd immunity at least against vaccine virus; it indicates gaps in herd immunity.

  14. Facts & Figures, 1999: A Compendium of Statistics on Ontario Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This is the sixth edition of statistical and graphical information on the Ontario (Canada) university system. The report contains six sections: (1) Ontario population data, which includes population projections to 2021, income and employment rates by educational attainment, and university participation rates; (2) applicant/registrant data, which…

  15. Ontario's Policy Framework for Environmental Education: Indoctrination and Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardy, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Outdoor educators should find little to like in the Ontario government's new policy framework for environmental education. Released in February 2009, the document, titled "Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow," relies heavily on the 2007 Report of the Working Group on Environmental Education in Ontario, "Shaping Our Schools, Shaping Our Future," also…

  16. Change and Challenge: Ontario's Collaborative Baccalaureate Nursing Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Dale

    2007-01-01

    There is no formal mandate for or tradition of inter-sectoral collaboration between community colleges and universities in Ontario. Following a regulatory change introduced by the College of Nurses of Ontario in 1998, all Registered Nurse educational preparation was restructured to the baccalaureate degree level through province-wide adoption of a…

  17. Effectiveness of the Revised Ontario School Record System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Edward H.; Elwood, Bryan C.

    Results of a study conducted for the Ministry of Education (Ontario) and designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Ontario School Record System (OSR) as revised in 1973 are reported in this paper. In order to evaluate the OSR's effectiveness, the study team examined educators', parents and students' perceived needs for student information,…

  18. Inventory of Physical Facilities of Ontario Universities, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report presents the results of the latest in a series of triennial surveys conducted by the Council of Ontario Universities (COU) (Ontario, Canada) in order to monitor the existing university space inventory and changes in space requirements as determined by the COU Building Blocks space formula. Section 1, "Introduction," discusses the…

  19. 1. ONTARIO MINE IS LOCATED ALONG FAR RIGHT ROADWAY APPROXIMATELY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ONTARIO MINE IS LOCATED ALONG FAR RIGHT ROADWAY APPROXIMATELY 100 YARDS FROM CAMERA POSITION. TAILING PILE DOWN SLOPE AND WEST OF CAMERA POSITION IN ID-31-C-44. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Ontario Mine, Northwest side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  20. 3. ONTARIO MINE. ADIT ENTRANCE WITH TIN ROOF. TIP TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ONTARIO MINE. ADIT ENTRANCE WITH TIN ROOF. TIP TOP IS LOCATED IN LINE WITH 'Y' BRANCH AND THE TAILING PILE FOR TIP TOP IS VISIBLE JUST TO RIGHT OF IT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Ontario Mine, Northwest side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  1. Pedagogical over Punitive: The Academic Integrity Websites of Ontario Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This study is a snapshot of how Ontario universities are currently promoting academic integrity (AI) online. Rather than concentrating on policies, this paper uses a semiotic methodology to consider how the websites of Ontario's publicly funded universities present AI through language and image. The paper begins by surveying each website and…

  2. The Scientisation of Schooling in Ontario, 1910-1934

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milewski, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the science of education that was formed in Ontario between the years 1910 and 1934. It is substantiated through the use of archival material such as curriculum documents, statutes, annual reports, the published proceedings of the Ontario Educational Association (OEA) and a close reading of the "Science of Education" manual…

  3. Dementia in Ontario: Prevalence and Health Services Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tranmer, J. E.; Croxford, R.; Coyte, P. C.

    2003-01-01

    To understand the impact of ongoing reform of mental health and dementia care in Ontario, an examination of prevalence and health services utilization rates is needed. However, there exists a gap in current prevalence and health services research specific to dementia care in Ontario. The objective of this study was to address these concerns using…

  4. Education Governance Reform in Ontario: Neoliberalism in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattler, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between neoliberal ideology and the discourse and practice of education governance reform in Ontario over the last two decades. It focuses on changes in education governance introduced by successive Ontario governments: the NDP government from 1990 to 1995, the Progressive Conservative government from 1995 to…

  5. Recognizing a Centre of Excellence in Ontario's Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwin, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    The term "Centre of Excellence" is increasingly used by Ontario's colleges with the expectation of portraying a superior level of proficiency, expertise, or investment in a particular academic discipline or program cluster. This paper proposes that the term Centre of Excellence should have a clearer definition so that when one of Ontario's…

  6. Religious Observance Accommodation in Ontario Universities. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Carole Ann

    This paper highlights the religious accommodations that Ontario (Canada) universities have undertaken to create an inclusive, supportive learning community for all students, faculty, and staff. It outlines the demographic changes and public policy surrounding religious accommodation issues in Canada and in Ontario in particular, focusing on the…

  7. Air Quality in the Central Ontario Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gbor, P. K.; Meng, F.; Singh, R.; Galvez, O.; Sloan, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Central Ontario Region (COR) is the most densely populated area in Canada. With a population of 7.3 million, it contains 23% of the total population of Canada. It extends from the extreme south west end of Ontario to the eastern end of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and includes the Niagara, Hamilton and Waterloo Regions,. The air quality of this region is frequently severely impaired in the summer months. In the larger metropolitan areas (Toronto and Hamilton) air pollution is a concern throughout the year. Local health authorities attribute about 1000 premature deaths per year in the GTA alone to air pollution. Average air pollution levels in Ontario have decreased significantly during the past 30 years, despite significant growth in both population and industry. The concentrations of SO2 and CO have decreased by over 80% and the concentration of NOX has decreased by about 50% over the past 26 years. Currently, the concentrations of NOX, CO, SO2 and VOCs in the COR are well below the Provincial and Federal air quality criteria. Ozone, PM2.5 and PM10, however, remain above the Provincial guidelines, so smog still remains a problem. The pollutants in the atmosphere of the COR are caused by both local emissions and long range transport. The COR contributes over 50% of the NOx, VOC and CO emissions in Ontario. Over 58% of NOX and CO emissions in the COR are due to mobile sources while about 50% of VOC and PM emissions are due to area sources. The proximity of the COR to the Canada-U.S. border makes it vulnerable to long range transport of pollutants stemming from the much larger population in the United States. The Canadian government, industries and non-governmental organizations are all taking steps to help reduce the level of pollution in Canada. The Canadian federal government also participates in extensive consultations and cooperative programs with the United States designed to reduce the mutually detrimental effects of cross-border pollution. These

  8. Trace element content of northern Ontario peat

    SciTech Connect

    Glooschenko, W.A.; Capoblanco, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    Peat samples were collected at 0-20- and 20-40-cm depths from several peatland ecosystems located in northern Ontario, Canada. Analysis was made for the trace metals Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Hg. Concentration values in general were in the low ppm range and did not significantly differ in terms of peatland type or depth except for Pb. This element was signficantly higher in surface peats in bogs and fens. Concentration of metals in peats found in the study were equivalent to those in US coals, suggesting caution during combustion in terms of potential atmospheric input of metals.

  9. Evaluation of network RTK in southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeidi, Amir

    Network Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) has become popular in the past decade as an efficient method of precise, real-time positioning. Its relatively low cost and ease-of-use makes it a good candidate to replace static relative Global Positioning System (GPS) in, e.g., land surveying. A lack of previous studies aroused the interest of the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) to request York University to complete a comprehensive study of the performance of network RTK in southern Ontario and whether it is a suitable method for MTO control surveying. Extensive fieldwork campaigns in the winter of 2010 and summer of 2011 were carried out and ˜300 hours of static and ˜50 hours of kinematic network RTK data were collected from three different service providers. A set of metrics were defined to characterize the performance of network RTK: availability, time-to-first-fix, precision, accuracy, solution integrity and moving average filtering. The data were used to characterize the horizontal performance of network RTK services and the results along with a set of guidelines and specifications were provided (Saeidi et al., 2011; Bisnath et al., 2012). This thesis presents the horizontal network RTK performance evaluation, as well as the vertical and kinematic performance. The aforementioned metrics are used to evaluate the quality of network RTK in southern Ontario, and to compare to similar services available in other locations. The result have revealed expected ˜2-3 cm (95%) precision for the horizontal and vertical components; however, large horizontal and vertical biases were observed, which can be as high as 4 cm. The solution integrity has shown that typically, 3σ solution uncertainties are larger than the actual errors, unless large biases exist. Moving average filtering has confirmed that due to large outliers and spikes in the solutions, 1 second observation periods are not sufficient to provide a precise solution; larger observation windows should be used, e

  10. Lake Ontario geological and geophysical data sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Wold, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    A bibliography of various geological and geophysical data sources was compiled as part of an overall effort to evaluate the status of research on the Great Lakes.  We hope that such a summary will be a catalyst for additional work and be an aid in planning future work.  Our presentation has two forms: maps showing the locations of the different data types and a bibliography which lists the references from the maps and additional relevant papers.  The charts shown in this map summarize the data source for Lake Ontario.

  11. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information

    PubMed Central

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany’s leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information. PMID:26204451

  12. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    PubMed

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information.

  13. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    PubMed

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information. PMID:26204451

  14. Herd-level risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in dairy herds from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, L L; Miranda, I C S; Hein, H E; Neto, W Santiago; Costa, E F; Marks, F S; Rodenbusch, C R; Canal, C W; Corbellini, L G

    2013-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in 300 randomly selected dairy herds which were tested for antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) using a commercial indirect ELISA kit (SVANOVA). Results from the analysis were interpreted according to the Swedish BVDV control scheme. The testing revealed 129 (43%) BTM BVDV antibody-positive herds. Use of artificial insemination (AI) and herd size were significantly associated with BVDV serological status (P<0.05). Dairy herds that use AI had 2.82 increased odds of BVDV-seropositivity (95% CI: 1.02-7.24). Since the semen used in the studied population come from known selected sires, it was hypothesized that AI technicians should represent an important risk factor because the increasing number of visitors in the farm can introduce the virus through the clothes, shoes and contaminated equipment.

  15. Increased airways responsiveness in swine farmers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C; Hurst, T S; Cockcroft, D W; Dosman, J A

    1991-04-01

    A respiratory questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and an examination of airways responsiveness were conducted on 20 swine farmers and 20 control subjects. The swine farmers represented almost the complete work force from 13 Hutterite colonies and had worked in confinement buildings with more than 2,000 swine (3,270 +/- 1,221 swine) for at least four hours (6.6 +/- 1.8 hours) per day for more than two years (10.5 +/- 7.5 years). The control subjects were randomly selected from outdoor city workers from the city of Saskatoon and were matched for gender, age (+/- 2 years), and smoking status. Eleven swine farmers (55 percent) had chronic cough, compared with three (15 percent) of the control subjects (p less than 0.01). Eight (40 percent) of the swine farmers had symptoms of wheezing, compared with three (15 percent) of the control subjects (p less than 0.05). The FEV1 was significantly lower in swine farmers (97.2 +/- 11.5 percent predicted) than in control subjects (106.0 +/- 12.0 percent of predicted) (p less than 0.05). Airways responsiveness was measured by methacholine challenge with doubling concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 256 mg/ml. The provocation concentrations resulting in a reduction of 10 percent (PC10) and 20 percent (PC20) in FEV1 were lower in swine farmers than in control subjects (PC10, 77.2 +/- 78.8 mg/ml vs 180.8 +/- 96.5 mg/ml; p less than 0.01; and PC20, 154.5 +/- 99.9 mg/ml vs 229.6 +/- 66.8 mg/ml; p less than 0.05). Twelve swine farmers (60 percent) had PC20 of less than 256 mg/ml, compared with three (15 percent) of the control workers (p less than 0.01). Fewer swine farmers demonstrated atopy as measured by skin prick tests than did control workers (21 percent vs 56 percent; p less than 0.05). These findings suggested that occupational exposure in swine confinement buildings is associated with mild increases of nonspecific, nonatopic airways responsiveness in swine farmers. PMID:2009799

  16. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    PubMed

    Singh, Nishtha; Singh, Sheetu; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Singh, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric values did not show deterioration. We conclude that swine flu pulmonary fibrosis is not a progressive condition. PMID:27051116

  17. Classical swine fever in China: a minireview.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuzi; Li, Su; Sun, Yuan; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2014-08-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is an OIE-listed, highly contagious, often fatal disease of swine worldwide. Currently, the disease is controlled by prophylactic vaccination in China and many other countries using the modified live vaccines derived from C-strain, which was developed in China in the mid-1950s. This minireview summarizes the epidemiology, diagnostic assays, control and challenges of CSF in China. Though CSF is essentially under control, complete eradication of CSF in China remains a challenging task and needs long-term, joint efforts of stakeholders.

  18. Dynamics of suspended sediment plumes in Lake Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pluhowski, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Enhancement of ERTS-1 imagery yielded excellent quality 35-mm color slides and prints of several prominent turbidity plumes in Lake Ontario. Selected ERTS-1 frames of the Welland Canal and Genesee River plumes will be used to develop time-lapse sequences showing the impact of wind stress on each plume. Unusually high lake levels during the spring resulted in extensive beach erosion along the entire Lake Ontario shoreline. The resulting high concentrations of suspended matter generated highly turbid (up to 420 JTU) nearshore conditions that appeared milky white in the imagery obtained April 12 and 29th, 1973. During the shipping season, both the Welland Canal and a diversion channel at Port Dalhousie, Ontario, produced readily identifiable turbidity plumes in Lake Ontario. However, in the winter neither plume was visible in the ERTS-1 imagery suggesting sharply lower sediment discharge into Lake Ontario from these sources.

  19. Insights into the increasing virulence of the swine-origin pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wei; Chen, Dijun; Xiong, Min; Zhu, Jiping; Lin, Xian; Wang, Lun; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Lingling; Zhang, Hongyu; Chen, Huanchun; Chen, Ming; Jin, Meilin

    2013-01-01

    Pandemic H1N1/2009 viruses have been stabilized in swine herds, and some strains display higher pathogenicity than the human-origin isolates. In this study, high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is applied to explore the systemic transcriptome responses of the mouse lungs infected by swine (Jia6/10) and human (LN/09) H1N1/2009 viruses. The transcriptome data show that Jia6/10 activates stronger virus-sensing signals, such as the toll-like receptor, RIG-I like receptor and NOD-like receptor signalings, as well as a stronger NF-κB and JAK-STAT signals, which play significant roles in inducing innate immunity. Most cytokines and interferon-stimulated genes show higher expression lever in Jia/06 infected groups. Meanwhile, virus Jia6/10 activates stronger production of reactive oxygen species, which might further promote higher mutation rate of the virus genome. Collectively, our data reveal that the swine-origin pandemic H1N1/2009 virus elicits a stronger innate immune reaction and pro-oxidation stimulation, which might relate closely to the increasing pathogenicity.

  20. Brownfield site development -- The Ontario context

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.B.

    1997-12-31

    The provincial government of Ontario recently promulgated new guidelines to deal with contamination on sites. One of the purposes of the guideline was to bolster development of contaminated sites by clarifying the regulatory process for redeveloping a contaminated site and to provide several clean-up options based on newer scientific information. These clean-up options include stratified clean-ups and site specific risk based criteria. The applications of the previous guideline were at times cumbersome for industries and land developers which may have impeded development of the Brownfield. This paper compares the changes between the old and the new regulatory clean-up guidelines and presents the differences in approach. This paper also presents the results from interviews with several industries and property developers and assesses their view on the regulatory change as well as their desire to develop Brownfields in Ontario. This information determines if the change in regulatory process has really encouraged development. Results from the interviews with proponents indicated that the new guidelines are a much better approach but still contain barriers such as liability issues. Furthermore, the regulatory approval process has been transferred from the provincial government to the local governments. As a result the local governments are applying the guidelines differently across the province.

  1. Dynamics of suspended sediment in Lake Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pluhowski, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The suspended sediment plumes generated by the Welland Canal and the Genesee River are identifiable in most band 5 frames received from ERTS-1. In descending order of value for plume detection in Lake Ontario are bands 4, 6, and 7. Little or no information content relative to plume detection is available in band 7. The Oswego River plume was not visible during low flow periods; however, it was identifiable immediately following storms. Increased suspended sediment loading emanating from storm runoff increases turbidity levels to the point where the plume becomes visible in the ERTS-1 imagery. Despite the fact that it is detectable from high altitude (60,000 feet) photography, the Niagara River plume was not visible in any of the ERTS-1 frames. Numerous examples of shoreline erosion were evident in the December 7, 1972, imagery of western Lake Ontario. Near shore lake circulation patterns are usually apparent whenever turbidity plumes are sensed by the satellite.

  2. Experimental infection with H1N1 European swine influenza virus protects pigs from an infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 human influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Busquets, Núria; Segalés, Joaquim; Córdoba, Lorena; Mussá, Tufaria; Crisci, Elisa; Martín-Valls, Gerard E; Simon-Grifé, Meritxell; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Pérez-Maíllo, Monica; Núñez, Jose I; Abad, Francesc X; Fraile, Lorenzo; Pina, Sonia; Majó, Natalia; Bensaid, Albert; Domingo, Mariano; Montoya, María

    2010-01-01

    The recent pandemic caused by human influenza virus A(H1N1) 2009 contains ancestral gene segments from North American and Eurasian swine lineages as well as from avian and human influenza lineages. The emergence of this A(H1N1) 2009 poses a potential global threat for human health and the fact that it can infect other species, like pigs, favours a possible encounter with other influenza viruses circulating in swine herds. In Europe, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes of swine influenza virus currently have a high prevalence in commercial farms. To better assess the risk posed by the A(H1N1) 2009 in the actual situation of swine farms, we sought to analyze whether a previous infection with a circulating European avian-like swine A/Swine/Spain/53207/2004 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as SwH1N1) generated or not cross-protective immunity against a subsequent infection with the new human pandemic A/Catalonia/63/2009 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as pH1N1) 21 days apart. Pigs infected only with pH1N1 had mild to moderate pathological findings, consisting on broncho-interstitial pneumonia. However, pigs inoculated with SwH1N1 virus and subsequently infected with pH1N1 had very mild lung lesions, apparently attributed to the remaining lesions caused by SwH1N1 infection. These later pigs also exhibited boosted levels of specific antibodies. Finally, animals firstly infected with SwH1N1 virus and latter infected with pH1N1 exhibited undetectable viral RNA load in nasal swabs and lungs after challenge with pH1N1, indicating a cross-protective effect between both strains.

  3. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Variant Influenza Viruses: Background and CDC Risk Assessment and Reporting Language: ... Background CDC Assessment Reporting Background On Variant Influenza Viruses Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. ...

  4. Solar heated swine farrowing shed. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    A swine farrowing shed that uses energy for heat is described. The design of the shed incorporates solar collector glazing, a rock bed storage, and two ventilation fans. The results of solar calculations are presented.

  5. 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159679.html 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico Genetic analysis pinpoints source of the pandemic influenza ... in pigs in a small region of central Mexico, a new study reports. Researchers used genetic analysis ...

  6. Network, cluster and risk factor analyses for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome using data from swine sites participating in a disease control program.

    PubMed

    Arruda, A G; Friendship, R; Carpenter, J; Hand, K; Poljak, Z

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe networks of Ontario swine sites and their service providers (including trucking, feed, semen, gilt and boar companies); to categorize swine sites into clusters based on site-level centrality measures, and to investigate risk factors for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) using information gathered from the above-mentioned analyses. All 816 sites included in the current study were enrolled in the PRRS area regional control and elimination projects in Ontario. Demographics, biosecurity and network data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and PRRS status was determined on the basis of available diagnostic tests and assessment by site veterinarians. Two-mode networks were transformed into one-mode dichotomized networks. Cluster and risk factor analyses were conducted separately for breeding and growing pig sites. In addition to the clusters obtained from cluster analyses, other explanatory variables of interest included: production type, type of animal flow, use of a shower facility, and number of neighboring swine sites within 3km. Unadjusted univariable analyses were followed by two types of adjusted models (adjusted for production systems): a generalizing estimation equation model (GEE) and a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Results showed that the gilt network was the most fragmented network, followed by the boar and truck networks. Considering all networks simultaneously, approximately 94% of all swine sites were indirectly connected. Unadjusted risk factor analyses showed significant associations between almost all predictors of interest and PRRS positivity, but these disappeared once production system was taken into consideration. Finally, the vast majority of the variation on PRRS status was explained by production system according to GLMM, which shows the highly correlated nature of the data, and raises the point that interventions at this level could potentially have high

  7. Prevalence of classical swine fever virus in domestic pigs in South Korea: 1999-2011.

    PubMed

    Song, J-Y; Lim, S I; Jeoung, H Y; Choi, E-J; Hyun, B-H; Kim, B; Kim, J; Shin, Y-K; Dela Pena, R C; Kim, J B; Joo, H; An, D J

    2013-12-01

    The major policy for eradication of classical swine fever (CSF) in South Korea has focused on the implementation of compulsory vaccination of the susceptible pig population. A vaccine strain of CSF virus, the LOM strain, is used to maintain high herd seroconversion, a practice complementary to the 'stamping-out policy' and restriction of animal movement during disease outbreaks. To survey for the prevalence of CSF in domestic pigs in South Korea over the past 13 years (1999-2011), we tested 4 193 782 and 1 162 645 samples for antibodies and antigens, respectively. Whereas seropositivity for CSF antibodies has been maintained at over 95% in the mainland, in Jeju Island, where no-vaccination has been administered since 1999, seroprevalence has been below 1% during the last 3 years of study (2009-2011). The highest number of outbreaks in South Korea occurred in 2002 and 2003; since then, outbreaks have decreased each year, with the last CSF outbreak recorded in 2009. No outbreaks have occurred during the past 3 years, and a high level of herd immunity has been maintained in the mainland pig population for 8 years; therefore, South Korea could now switch to a no-vaccination policy throughout the country. However, the constant threat of the re-emergence of the disease in the susceptible pig population should be the main consideration in planning and carrying out the last phase of the CSF eradication process.

  8. Novel swine-origin influenza A virus in humans: another pandemic knocking at the door.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Martin; Doerr, Hans Wilhem; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2009-08-01

    Influenza A viruses represent a continuous pandemic threat. In April 2009, a novel influenza A virus, the so-called swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV), was identified in Mexico. Although S-OIV originates from triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) that has been circulating in North American pig herds since the end of the 1990s, S-OIV is readily transmitted between humans but is not epidemic in pigs. After its discovery, S-OIV rapidly spread throughout the world within few weeks. In this review, we sum up the current situation and put it into the context of the current state of knowledge of influenza and influenza pandemics. Some indications suggest that a pandemic may be mild but even "mild" pandemics can result in millions of deaths. However, no reasonable forecasts how this pandemic may develop can be made at this time. Despite stockpiling by many countries and WHO, antiviral drugs will be limited in case of pandemic and resistances may emerge. Effective vaccines are regarded to be crucial for the control of influenza pandemics. However, production capacities are restricted and development/production of a S-OIV vaccine will interfere with manufacturing of seasonal influenza vaccines. The authors are convinced that S-OIV should be taken seriously as pandemic threat and underestimation of the menace by S-OIV to be by far more dangerous than its overestimation.

  9. An Assessment of the Expected Cost-Effectiveness of Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccines in Ontario, Canada Using a Static Model

    PubMed Central

    Chit, Ayman; Roiz, Julie; Aballea, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Ontario, Canada, immunizes against influenza using a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) under a Universal Influenza Immunization Program (UIIP). The UIIP offers IIV3 free-of-charge to all Ontarians over 6 months of age. A newly approved quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) offers wider protection against influenza B disease. We explored the expected cost-utility and budget impact of replacing IIV3 with IIV4, within the context of Ontario’s UIIP, using a probabilistic and static cost-utility model. Wherever possible, epidemiological and cost data were obtained from Ontario sources. Canadian or U.S. sources were used when Ontario data were not available. Vaccine efficacy for IIV3 was obtained from the literature. IIV4 efficacy was derived from meta-analysis of strain-specific vaccine efficacy. Conservatively, herd protection was not considered. In the base case, we used IIV3 and IIV4 prices of $5.5/dose and $7/dose, respectively. We conducted a sensitivity analysis on the price of IIV4, as well as standard univariate and multivariate statistical uncertainty analyses. Over a typical influenza season, relative to IIV3, IIV4 is expected to avert an additional 2,516 influenza cases, 1,683 influenza-associated medical visits, 27 influenza-associated hospitalizations, and 5 influenza-associated deaths. From a societal perspective, IIV4 would generate 76 more Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and a net societal budget impact of $4,784,112. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio for this comparison was $63,773/QALY. IIV4 remains cost-effective up to a 53% price premium over IIV3. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that IIV4 was cost-effective with a probability of 65% for a threshold of $100,000/QALY gained. IIV4 is expected to achieve reductions in influenza-related morbidity and mortality compared to IIV3. Despite not accounting for herd protection, IIV4 is still expected to be a cost-effective alternative to IIV3 up to a price

  10. Evaluating the effect of Focus Farms on Ontario dairy producers' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior toward control of Johne's disease.

    PubMed

    Roche, S M; Jones-Bitton, A; Meehan, M; Von Massow, M; Kelton, D F

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated a participatory-based, experiential learning program, Ontario Focus Farms (FF), which aimed to change dairy producer behavior to control Johne's disease (JD) in Ontario, Canada. The goals were to (1) assess the effect of FF on participating dairy producers' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior with regard to JD control; (2) compare changes in these factors among FF participants to changes among a group of nonparticipating dairy producers; and (3) describe the characteristics of producers who made at least one on-farm management change. Pre- and post-FF intervention questionnaires collected data on respondents' knowledge, attitudes, behavior, herd production, and demographic information; before and after JD-risk assessments were used to assess respondents' on-farm risk of JD transmission. Overall, 176 dairy producers participated in the FF process; 39.8% (70/176) of FF and 14.6% (52/357) of control participants responded to both the pre- and postintervention questionnaires. Upon comparison, FF respondents were more likely to be younger, have larger herds, and have higher management scores. The proportion of FF participants who reported making at least one on-farm change (81%) was significantly higher than that of control respondents (38%). Overall, FF respondents significantly changed their risk score in 4 out of 5 risk areas and had an average reduction of 13 points in their overall risk score between before and after risk assessments. Control respondents' risk assessment scores did not significantly change during the study period. In a JD knowledge assessment, FF and control respondents exhibited a moderate knowledge score before the intervention period, with median scores of 75.9% (22/29) in each group. The FF respondents significantly increased their score at the postintervention assessment, with a median of 82.8% (24/29); control-respondent scores did not significantly change. Both FF and control respondents held strong positive attitudes

  11. Evaluating the effect of Focus Farms on Ontario dairy producers' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior toward control of Johne's disease.

    PubMed

    Roche, S M; Jones-Bitton, A; Meehan, M; Von Massow, M; Kelton, D F

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated a participatory-based, experiential learning program, Ontario Focus Farms (FF), which aimed to change dairy producer behavior to control Johne's disease (JD) in Ontario, Canada. The goals were to (1) assess the effect of FF on participating dairy producers' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior with regard to JD control; (2) compare changes in these factors among FF participants to changes among a group of nonparticipating dairy producers; and (3) describe the characteristics of producers who made at least one on-farm management change. Pre- and post-FF intervention questionnaires collected data on respondents' knowledge, attitudes, behavior, herd production, and demographic information; before and after JD-risk assessments were used to assess respondents' on-farm risk of JD transmission. Overall, 176 dairy producers participated in the FF process; 39.8% (70/176) of FF and 14.6% (52/357) of control participants responded to both the pre- and postintervention questionnaires. Upon comparison, FF respondents were more likely to be younger, have larger herds, and have higher management scores. The proportion of FF participants who reported making at least one on-farm change (81%) was significantly higher than that of control respondents (38%). Overall, FF respondents significantly changed their risk score in 4 out of 5 risk areas and had an average reduction of 13 points in their overall risk score between before and after risk assessments. Control respondents' risk assessment scores did not significantly change during the study period. In a JD knowledge assessment, FF and control respondents exhibited a moderate knowledge score before the intervention period, with median scores of 75.9% (22/29) in each group. The FF respondents significantly increased their score at the postintervention assessment, with a median of 82.8% (24/29); control-respondent scores did not significantly change. Both FF and control respondents held strong positive attitudes

  12. Geochemical fate of arsenic in swine litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quazi, S.; Makris, K.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Punamiya, P.

    2007-12-01

    Swine diet is often supplemented by organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone to treat diseases and to promote growth. Recent data reported roxarsone degradation under anaerobic conditions in poultry litter, but no such data exist for swine wastes typically stored in unprotected lagoons in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). However, serious environmental health risk may arise upon significant arsenic (As) release into solution. The problem may be exacerbated under certain environmental conditions where organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone transform into the more toxic inorganic As, posing serious health risk to the surrounding ecosystem. The objective of this study were to analyze swine wastes collected from 19 randomly selected CAFOs in the USA for As concentrations, and to determine the geochemical fate of As in the swine waste suspensions. Swine wastes were analyzed for total-recoverable, total soluble, and water-extractable As, which were measured by ICP-MS. Speciation of As was performed following a well-established hyphenated technique using HPLC- ICPMS. Swine waste suspensions differed in solids contents; thus, the particulate matters with varying As concentrations were spiked with roxarsone and incubated under dark/light and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Findings show the prevalence of inorganic As [As(V)] in swine waste suspension solutions. Roxarsone underwent degradation to both organoarsenicals, such as p-ASA, as well as inorganic arsenate and to a number of unidentified metabolites. Roxarsone degradation kinetics was influenced by the solids content and the air conditions (anaerobic/aerobic) of the swine waste suspensions. Maximum degradation rates were observed under anaerobic conditions, in suspensions which were low in solids content. Roxarsone degradation was primarily microbially-mediated, but in certain cases abiotic degradation was also observed, which were significantly slower.

  13. The Efficacy of Key Performance Indicators in Ontario Universities as Perceived by Key Informants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    The Ontario Ministry of Education and Training's Task Force on University Accountability first proposed key performance indicators (KPIs) for colleges and universities in Ontario in the early 1990s. The three main KPIs for Ontario universities are the rates of (1) graduation, (2) employment, and (3) Ontario Student Assistance Program loan default.…

  14. Swine in biomedical research. V. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the effect of dietary fiber on growing pigs; preparation of a cerebral perfusion model in the pig - anatomic considerations; a review of the utilization of lactose, glucose, sucrose, and cornstarch by neonatal piglets reared artificially; histology of piglet liver, swine hematology; use of swine as a model of musculoskeletal growth in animals; boar and human sperm as cellular models for membrane phospholipiid biosynthesis and degradation; a stereotaxic atlas of the developing swine (Sus Scrofa) forebrain; the effect of ethanol on liver mitochondrial Ca++-uptake; control of feed intake in pigs; the pig as a model of abberations associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; whey and cholesterol in swine; vitamin and mineral nutrition and malnutrition; cadmium absorption, distribution and excretion in young and adult minature swine; a piglet model for infant total parenteral nutrition studies; swine in perinatal research; the endocrine pancreas of the fetal pig; cardiovascular physiology of the pig fetus; and the effect of sow's milk versus formula on the superior mesenteric blood flow of newborn piglets.

  15. Reassortment patterns in Swine influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Khiabanian, Hossein; Trifonov, Vladimir; Rabadan, Raul

    2009-10-07

    Three human influenza pandemics occurred in the twentieth century, in 1918, 1957, and 1968. Influenza pandemic strains are the results of emerging viruses from non-human reservoirs to which humans have little or no immunity. At least two of these pandemic strains, in 1957 and in 1968, were the results of reassortments between human and avian viruses. Also, many cases of swine influenza viruses have reportedly infected humans, in particular, the recent H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin, isolated in Mexico and the United States. Pigs are documented to allow productive replication of human, avian, and swine influenza viruses. Thus it has been conjectured that pigs are the "mixing vessel" that create the avian-human reassortant strains, causing the human pandemics. Hence, studying the process and patterns of viral reassortment, especially in pigs, is a key to better understanding of human influenza pandemics. In the last few years, databases containing sequences of influenza A viruses, including swine viruses, collected since 1918 from diverse geographical locations, have been developed and made publicly available. In this paper, we study an ensemble of swine influenza viruses to analyze the reassortment phenomena through several statistical techniques. The reassortment patterns in swine viruses prove to be similar to the previous results found in human viruses, both in vitro and in vivo, that the surface glycoprotein coding segments reassort most often. Moreover, we find that one of the polymerase segments (PB1), reassorted in the strains responsible for the last two human pandemics, also reassorts frequently.

  16. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and Swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Van Reeth, Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S; Brown, Ian H; Loeffen, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013) aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.

  17. Swine flu: a Birmingham experience.

    PubMed

    Scriven, James; Mcewen, Ruth; Mistry, Sanjay; Green, Chris; Osman, Husam; Bailey, Mark; Ellis, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    By the beginning of July 2009 the West Midlands had seen more cases of novel H1N1 influenza (swine flu) than any other region in the U.K. Over a three-week period almost 850 people presented to Heartlands Hospital with flu-like symptoms. Of those admitted 52 adults were subsequently confirmed as having H1N1 infection. Most were younger than 30 and not from traditional influenza risk groups. The main risk factor for severe disease was asthma, and to a lesser extent pregnancy and obesity. Seven patients were admitted to intensive care and five developed an acute lung injury requiring prolonged admission. Two patients required extra corporeal membrane oxygenation and one died. Despite increased workload normal clinical services were unaffected. The hospital was not closed to admissions nor was it paralysed by staff absence. With a predicted second wave expected at the end of 2009, efforts to maintain effective community assessment remain crucial.

  18. Technical indicators of financial performance in the dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, E; Ostergaard, S; Krogh, M A; Enevoldsen, C

    2008-02-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was used to predict the long-term financial performance related to the technical performance of dairy herds. The indicators addressed were derived from data collected routinely in the herd. They indicated technical performance that can be affected by the farmer or the consultant, and they were derived from expected cause-effect relations between technical performance and financial performance at the herd level. The study included the indicators shape of lactation curve, reproduction efficiency, heifer management, variation between cows in lactation curve persistency, mortality in cows and calves, dynamics of body condition, and somatic cell counts. Each indicator was defined by 2 or 3 levels, and 2- and 3-factor interactions were included in the simulation experiment, which included 72 scenarios. Each scenario was replicated 200 times, and the resulting gross margin per cow was analyzed as the measure of financial performance. The potential effects of the selected indicators on the gross margin were estimated by means of an ANOVA. The final model allowed estimation of the financial value of specific changes within the key performance indicators. This study indicated that improving the shape of the herd-level lactation curve by 1 quartile was associated with an increase in gross margin of euro 227 per cow year. This represents 53% of the additional available gross margin associated with all the management changes included in the study. The improved herd-level lactation curve increased the gross margin 2.6 times more than improved reproduction efficiency, which again increased the gross margin 2.6 to 5.9 times more than improved management related to heifers, body condition score, mortality, and somatic cell counts. These results were implemented in a simple "metamodel" that used data extracted from ordinary management software to predict herd-specific financial performance related to major management changes. The metamodel was derived from

  19. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  20. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  1. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  2. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  3. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  4. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  5. Pathogenesis and transmission studies: non-swine influenza A viruses in the swine host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract Influenza A virus (IAV) causes disease in poultry, pigs, and people with wild waterfowl being the natural reservoir. IAV strains have been periodically transmitted between swine and humans in both directions and avian IAV have also sporadically infected swine. If an individual is infected w...

  6. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota. PMID:26414105

  7. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  8. Mutations in the classical swine fever virus NS4B protein affects virulence in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NS4B is one of the non-structural proteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), the etiological agent of a severe, highly lethal disease of swine. Protein domain analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of the NS4B protein of highly pathogenic CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) identified a Toll/Inte...

  9. Predicting the level of herd infection for outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in vaccinated herds.

    PubMed

    Hutber, A M; Kitching, R P; Conway, D A

    1999-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious virus infection of sheep, goats, cattle, pigs and other, non-domesticated species of artiodactyls, and causes both clinical and subclinical infection according to the natural or acquired immunity of the host. Within vaccinated dairy herds FMD may appear as an acute, mild or subclinical infection, dependent upon the immune status of the herd, the level of challenge and the efficacy of the vaccine used. In the large dairy herds of Saudi Arabia, sub-clinical FMD was on a number of occasions, found to have spread amongst the cattle before signs of disease were seen. Such undetected transmission resulted in a large incidence on the first day of diagnosis and curtailed the impact of post-outbreak vaccination (PoV). First day incidence (FDI) for these herds was found to correlate with the final cumulative incidence of clinical disease. Since FDI is available at the start of an outbreak it can be used as a predictive tool for the eventual outcome of an FMD outbreak. During the past 11 years 47 % of dairy herds examined in Saudi Arabia have experienced FMD initially as sub-clinical disease. For the remaining 53 %, waning vaccinal protection did not suppress clinical disease in the initially infected animals, and these showed severe rather than mild signs. Hence, in such herds there was a very low initial level of subclinical infection, so PoV was more effective, and the timing of PoV was found to give a good correlation with cumulative herd incidence: an early PoV resulted in low prevalence of clinically infected animals whilst late PoV permitted high prevalence. PoV timing can thereby be used in tandem with FDI as a predictive tool for future outbreaks, estimating the final cumulative incidence (or prevalence) of clinical FMD cases.

  10. Pyrantel resistance in two herds of donkey in the UK.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Edwina; Burden, Faith; Elsheikha, Hany M

    2015-01-30

    Resistance to currently available anthelmintics is a serious phenomenon which is prevalent globally. Cyathostomins are one of the major parasites, and are of primary concern in donkeys. There have been reports of emerging resistance to pyrantel, but the status of pyrantel resistance in donkey populations in the UK is largely unknown. This report investigates pyrantel resistance in two geographically isolated donkey herds in the South West of England. The first herd had suspected pyrantel resistance, with already established resistance to other anthelmintics. In the second herd the efficacy of pyrantel was not suspected at the time the study took place. Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT) was carried out, revealing large scale resistance. Eighty one percent of the first herd and 73% of the second herd had a FEC of less than 95% after treatment, and anthelmintic resistance was confirmed using the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology guidelines. These findings indicate that anthelmintic resistance to pyrantel exists in both tested donkey populations and illustrate the continuing development of resistance through different classes of chemotherapeutics.

  11. Detection of Clostridium difficile in small and medium-sized wild Mammals in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire M; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Rousseau, Joyce; Weese, J Scott

    2013-04-01

    We sampled 325 small and medium-sized wild mammals in Ontario, Canada in 2007 and 2010 to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Clostridium difficile in wild mammals living in proximity to captive wildlife and livestock. Clostridium difficile was isolated from five of 109 animals (4.6%) on four of 25 farms (16%), but was not isolated from any of the 216 samples from raccoons (Procyon lotor) living on the grounds of the Toronto Zoo. The positive animals included two raccoons from one beef farm, one raccoon from a different beef farm, one raccoon from a swine farm, and a shrew (Blarina brevicauda) from a dairy farm. None had evidence of gastrointestinal disease. Three of the five isolates were toxinotype variants (II, IV, and XIII) that are rarely identified in humans and domestic animals. The other two were toxinotype 0, a common toxinotype in humans and animals; however, all five isolates were of different ribotypes. None of the recovered ribotypes were recognized as ribotypes present in the authors' reference library of over 3,000 human and domestic animal C. difficile isolates. Neither the public health nor the animal health relevance of these findings is clear. It is not known whether C. difficile is a pathogen of small and medium-sized wild mammals, although the susceptibility of various laboratory species suggests it could cause disease. PMID:23568920

  12. Epidemiology of Enterovirus D68 in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Peci, Adriana; Winter, Anne-Luise; Warshawsky, Bryna; Booth, Tim F.; Eshaghi, AliReza; Li, Aimin; Perusini, Stephen; Olsha, Romy; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Kristjanson, Erik; Gubbay, Jonathan B.

    2015-01-01

    In August 2014, children’s hospitals in Kansas City, Missouri and Chicago, Illinois notified the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) about increased numbers of pediatric patients hospitalized with severe respiratory illness (SRI). In response to CDC reports, Public Health Ontario Laboratories (PHOL) launched an investigation of patients being tested for enterovirus D-68 (EV-D68) in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this investigation was to enhance our understanding of EV-D68 epidemiology and clinical features. Data for this study included specimens submitted for EV-D68 testing at PHOL from September 1, 2014 to October 31, 2014. Comparisons were made between patients who tested positive for the virus (cases) and those testing negative (controls). EV-D68 was identified in 153/907 (16.8%) of patients tested. In the logistic regression model adjusting for age, sex, setting and time to specimen collection, individuals younger than 20 years of age were more likely to be diagnosed with EV-D68 compared to those 20 and over, with peak positivity at ages 5–9 years. Cases were not more likely to be hospitalized than controls. Cases were more likely to be identified in September than October (OR 8.07; 95% CI 5.15 to 12.64). Routine viral culture and multiplex PCR were inadequate methods to identify EV-D68 due to poor sensitivity and inability to differentiate EV-D68 from other enterovirus serotypes or rhinovirus. Testing for EV-D68 in Ontario from July to December, 2014 detected the presence of EV-D68 virus among young children during September-October, 2014, with most cases detected in September. There was no difference in hospitalization status between cases and controls. In order to better understand the epidemiology of this virus, surveillance for EV-D68 should include testing of symptomatic individuals from all treatment settings and patient age groups, with collection and analysis of comprehensive clinical and epidemiological data. PMID:26599365

  13. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  14. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI = 0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI = 1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI = 1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  15. Risk factors for cattle presenting with a confirmed bTB lesion at slaughter, from herds with no evidence of within-herd transmission.

    PubMed

    Clegg, T A; Good, M; More, S J

    2016-04-01

    There has been a national bovine tuberculosis (bTB) eradication programme (BTBEP) in Ireland for many years. All cattle herds are tested at least annually using the Single Intradermal Comparative Tuberculin Test (SICTT). Further, abattoir surveillance is conducted on all animals at the time of slaughter. In the Irish BTBEP, a substantial number of confirmed bTB lesions are detected in non-reactor animals, to SICTT, from Officially Tuberculosis Free (OTF) herds at slaughter. In this study we investigate risk factors for non-reactor animals from OTF herds presenting with a confirmed bTB lesion at slaughter, but with no evidence of within-herd transmission. A case-control study was conducted, with animal as the unit of interest. The case animals were all SICTT non-reactor animals slaughtered in 2012, with a confirmed bTB lesion identified during routine abattoir surveillance and with no evidence of within-herd transmission. Control animals were selected from all SICTT non-reactor animals slaughtered in 2012 from OTF herds where no bTB lesion was found. Four controls matched by age (±1 year) and location (county) were randomly selected for each case. A conditional logistic regression model was developed for univariable and multivariable analysis. The final multivariable model included: number of movements, herd type, herd-size, inconclusive reactor status at any previous test, abattoir and time spent in a herd restricted for bTB. The odds of being a case increased with the number of times an animal had moved herds. Animals from suckler herds were significantly more likely to be a case compared to those from beef herds. The odds of being a case decreased with herd-size and increased as the time spent in a restricted herd increased. There were three key conclusions from this study. Firstly, the main risk factors for animals presenting with a confirmed bTB lesion at slaughter were: previous bTB exposure history, previous inconclusive reactor result at the SICTT, the

  16. Aspects of bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhoea virus herd-level seroprevalence and vaccination in dairy and beef herds in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infections with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus cause diseases of cattle with a worldwide distribution. The primary objective of the present study was to describe aspects of herd-level BoHV-1 and BVDV seroprevalence (based on testing of pooled sera) and control on farms in Northern Ireland, including vaccine usage. An indirect antibody ELISA test (SVANOVA, Biotech AB, Uppsala, Sweden) was applied to serum pools which were constructed from serum samples taken for a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 500 Northern Irish dairy and beef cow herds in 2010, for which vaccination status was determined by telephone survey. The herd-level seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in Northern Ireland was estimated in non-vaccinating herds and associations between possible risk factors (herd type and herd size (quartiles)) and herd-level prevalence were determined using chi-squared analysis. Results The herd-level seroprevalence (of BoHV-1 and BVDV) in non-vaccinating herds was 77.3% (95% CI: 73.6–80.9%) and 98.4% (95% CI: 97.3–99.5%) respectively in the cross-sectional study. A significant difference existed in BoHV-1 herd-level seroprevalence between dairy and beef herds (74.7% vs 86.5% respectively; p < 0.02) though not for BVDV seroprevalence (98.5% vs 98.3% respectively; p > 0.91). A significant association was found between herd size (quartiles) and herd-level classification for BoHV-1 herd-level seroprevalence based on cut-off percentage positivity (COPP) (p < 0.01) while no such association was found for BVDV (p = 0.22). 15.5% and 23.8% of farmers used BoHV-1 and BVDV vaccines, respectively. BoHV-1 vaccine was used in 30% of dairy herds and in 11% of beef herds, while BVDV vaccine was used in 46% and 16% of dairy and beef herds, respectively. Conclusions The results from this study indicate that the true herd-level seroprevalences to bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine virus diarrhoea virus in non

  17. Representative stability classification near Lake Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Caiazza, R.; Bedford, C.

    1994-12-31

    USEPA guidance for air quality modeling specifies Pasquill-Gifford stability categories using near-surface wind speed and subjective insolation observations. In areas where there are no major discontinuities, this approach is acceptable. However, where there are discontinuities, e.g. adjacent to major water bodies, adjustments should be made to account for the discontinuity. The Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) has sponsored a multi-year project to develop a comprehensive system of air pollution meteorology techniques for input to air quality models used near Lake Ontario. The monitoring projects reveal that there are numerous lake-induced regimes that affect wind fields and stability classification. In this work differences in stability classification techniques are analyzed.

  18. Feminism and women's health professions in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Adams, Tracey L; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Historically, prevailing gender ideologies were an important element in both the exclusionary strategies employed by male occupational groups and the countervailing responses by female groups. The way in which evolving gender ideologies, and feminism in particular, influence the continuing struggle for greater status and recognition by female professions, however, remains to be fully explored. In this paper, we examine the impact and the role of feminism and feminist ideologies within three female professional projects: nursing, dental hygiene and midwifery in Ontario. We argue that feminism provides an ideology of opposition that enables leaders in these professions to battle against professional inequalities by laying bare the gender inequalities that underlie them. Framing their struggles in feminist terms, female professions also seek recognition for the uniquely female contribution they make to the health care division of labour. At the same time, there exists a tension between ideals of feminism and ideals of professionalism, that has the potential to undermine female professional projects.

  19. Mortality from stomach cancer in Ontario miners.

    PubMed Central

    Kusiak, R A; Ritchie, A C; Springer, J; Muller, J

    1993-01-01

    An excess of mortality from stomach cancer has been found in Ontario gold miners (observed (obs) 104, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 152, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 125-185) and no excess of stomach cancer could be detected in other miners in Ontario (obs 74, SMR 102, 95% CI 80-128). The excess of stomach cancer appeared five to 19 years after the miners began gold mining in Ontario. In that interval, similar patterns of excess mortality from stomach cancer were found in miners born in north America (obs 14, SMR 268, CI 147-450) and in miners born outside north America (obs 12, SMR 280, 95% CI 145-489). Twenty or more years after the miners began mining gold, an excess of mortality from stomach cancer was found in gold miners born outside of north American (obs 41, SMR 160, 95% CI 115-218) but not in gold miners born in north America (obs 37, SMR 113, 95% CI 80-156). The excess of stomach cancer in gold miners under the age of 60 (obs 45, SMR 167, 95% CI 122-223) seems larger than the excess in gold miners between the ages of 60 and 74 (obs 59, SMR 143, 95% CI 109-184). Exposures to arsenic, chromium, mineral fibre, diesel emissions, and aluminium powder were considered as possible explanations of the excess of stomach cancer in Ontario gold miners. Exposure to diesel emissions and aluminium powder was rejected as gold miners and uranium miners were exposed to both agents but an excess of stomach cancer was noted only in gold miners. The association between the excess of stomach cancer and the time since the miner began mining gold suggested that duration of exposure to dust in gold mines ought to be weighted according to the time since the exposure to dust occurred and that an appropriate time weighting function would be one in the interval five to 19 years after each year of exposure to dust and zero otherwise. A statistically significant association between the relative risk of mortality from stomach cancer and the time weighted duration of exposure to

  20. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  1. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  2. Risk factors for herd breakdown with bovine tuberculosis in 148 cattle herds in the south west of England.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Villaescusa, A M; Medley, G F; Mason, S; Green, L E

    2010-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The disease has a long latent period, heterogenous spread, can infect many species and can persist in the environment. In the UK, the rate of herd breakdowns (HBD) with bTB is increasing. A retrospective cohort study of 148 cattle herds was set up to investigate risk factors for HBD from October 2001 to November 2004. Herds were selected from farms located in the randomised badger culling trial (RBCT) and comprised holdings (24%) that were restocked with cattle after the foot and mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in 2001 and holdings (76%) that were continuously stocked throughout the FMD epidemic. Farmers were interviewed between June 2003 and February 2004. Questions on herd and farm management were asked for the period October 2001 to June 2003. Data on herd testing for bTB were sourced from the VetNet database and historic data from 1995 were used in the analysis. A discrete time survival analysis was used to examine factors associated with the risk of HBD. By the end of the study period, November 2004, 50% of study herds had experienced a HBD with bTB at least once. Farms that were restocked for less than 1 year after FMD had a reduced risk of HBD (P<0.01) compared with continuously stocked farms in the same year. This reduced risk did not persist after 1 year of restocking. Feeding vitamin and mineral lick supplements compared with not feeding these supplements also reduced the risk of HBD. Factors associated with an increased risk of HBD were storing manure and slurry indoors or in a closed container, spreading manure all year round, herds with dairy cattle compared with herds without dairy cattle, increasing herd size, purchase of cattle from markets, location of the farm in the proactive area of the RBCT compared with survey only and location of farms in Somerset and North Devon. The lower risk of HBD in the first year after restocking but not the second or third year suggests that removal of all

  3. Epidemiology of myasthenia gravis in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Breiner, Ari; Widdifield, Jessica; Katzberg, Hans D; Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Tu, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Incidence and prevalence estimates in myasthenia gravis have varied widely. Recent studies based on administrative health data have large sample sizes but lack rigorous validation of MG cases, and have not examined the North American population. Our aim was to explore trends in MG incidence and prevalence for the years 1996-2013 in the province of Ontario, Canada (population 13.5 million). We employed a previously validated algorithm to identify MG cases. Linking with census data allowed for the calculation of crude- and age/sex-standardized incidence and prevalence rates for the years 1996-2013. The regional distribution of MG cases throughout the province was examined. Mean age at the first myasthenia gravis encounter was 60.2 ± 17.1 years. In 2013, there were 3611 prevalent cases in Ontario, and the crude prevalence rate was 32.0/100,000 population. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates rose consistently over time from 16.3/100,000 (15.4-17.1) in 1996 to 26.3/100,000 (25.4-27.3) in 2013. Standardized incidence rates remained stable between 1996 (2.7/100,000; 95% CL 2.3-3.0) and 2013 (2.3/100,000; 2.1-2.6). Incidence was highest in younger women and older men, and geographic variation was evident throughout the province. In conclusion, this large epidemiological study shows rising myasthenia gravis prevalence with stable incidence over time, which is likely reflective of patients living longer, possibly due to improved disease treatment. Our findings provide accurate information on the Canadian epidemiology of myasthenia gravis and burden for health care resources planning for the province, respectively.

  4. Survey of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds

    PubMed Central

    Jelinski, Murray; Lanigan, Emily; Gilleard, John; Waldner, Cheryl; Royan, Grant

    2016-01-01

    A survey of gastrointestinal parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds was conducted over the summer of 2014. Fecal samples were collected on 3 occasions during the summer grazing season from beef cows and calves from 14 herds. The mean number of strongylid eggs per gram of feces recovered from calves increased 9-fold (95% CI: 4.5 to 18) over the summer period, while egg counts in the cows remained constant over the same period. The prevalence and infection intensities of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in cow-calf herds in Saskatchewan were comparable to what is seen in cattle grazing in the northern regions of the United States and for which anthelmintic treatments have resulted in positive production benefits. PMID:26834267

  5. Survey of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds.

    PubMed

    Jelinski, Murray; Lanigan, Emily; Gilleard, John; Waldner, Cheryl; Royan, Grant

    2016-02-01

    A survey of gastrointestinal parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds was conducted over the summer of 2014. Fecal samples were collected on 3 occasions during the summer grazing season from beef cows and calves from 14 herds. The mean number of strongylid eggs per gram of feces recovered from calves increased 9-fold (95% CI: 4.5 to 18) over the summer period, while egg counts in the cows remained constant over the same period. The prevalence and infection intensities of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in cow-calf herds in Saskatchewan were comparable to what is seen in cattle grazing in the northern regions of the United States and for which anthelmintic treatments have resulted in positive production benefits.

  6. Empirical model of odor emission from deep-pit swine finishing barns to derive a standardized odor emission factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauberger, Günther; Lim, Teng-Teeh; Ni, Ji-Qin; Bundy, Dwaine S.; Haymore, Barry L.; Diehl, Claude A.; Duggirala, Ravi K.; Heber, Albert J.

    2013-02-01

    Odor emission from swine housing is influenced by the herd characteristics and building environment. The following three specific factors were identified as inputs to a swine house odor emission model: indoor temperature, barn ventilation rate, and pig activity. Model input parameters were determined based on tests of four, identical, 1000-head, mechanically-ventilated swine finishing houses. Each building had two sidewall curtains, a curtain on the west end wall, five exhaust fans on the east end wall, four pit ventilation fans, and long-term manure storage beneath a fully slatted floor. Odor concentrations of 112 odor samples were determined using dynamic forced-choice olfactometry with four to six trained panelists. The emission model showed that the standard live mass specific odor emission factor was 48 OU s-1 per 500 kg live mass or animal unit (AU), and it corresponded to an indoor temperature of T0 = 20 °C, a ventilation rate of V0 = 200 m3 h-1 (55.6 × 10-3 m3 s-1) per pig (maximum capacity for summer time), and the daily mean animal activity. The rate of odor emission from a swine finishing house can be calculated based on these parameters coupled with the number of animals, the mean live mass, and the standard live mass specific odor emission factor. Using this process-based odor emission model, the odor emission estimation and therefore the input for odor dispersion models can be improved to obtain more reliable estimates of separation distance for siting future pig farms.

  7. Factors affecting calf mortality in Iranian Holstein dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Azizzadeh, Mohammad; Shooroki, Hadi Fazeli; Kamalabadi, Ali Shafiee; Stevenson, Mark A

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to document mortality reasons and risk factors for mortality in dairy calves in the northeast of Iran. This was a prospective cohort study of calves born on ten commercial dairy herds from 21 March 2009 to 20 March 2010. A total of 4097 live calves were followed for 90 days after birth. For each calf details of sex, parity of the dam, type of parturition and season of birth were recorded. The interval (in days) from the date of birth to the date of death and the reason for death was recorded for those calves that died before 90 days of age. A Cox proportional hazards model, including a frailty term to account for unmeasured herd-level effects was developed to quantify the effect of factors associated with time to death. Two hundred and sixty-six (6.5%, 95% CI: 5.8-7.3%) of the 4097 live-born calves died or were euthanised before 90 days of age. The most important reasons for death were digestive tract disorders (58% of all deaths, 95% CI: 52-64%) followed by respiratory diseases (13% of all deaths, 95% CI: 9-17%). Calves exposed to dystocia at birth had 2.09 (95% CI: 1.49-2.92) times the daily hazard of death compared with calves born from a normal calving. The daily hazard of death for calves born in the summer was 1.93 (95% CI: 1.41-2.64) times greater than the hazard for those calves born in the autumn. Inclusion of the herd-level frailty term had a significant effect on hazard estimates indicating that the study herds were heterogeneous in the distribution of unmeasured herd-level factors influencing calf survival. Our results show that diarrhoea is the most important cause of calf mortality in dairy herds in this area of Iran and that environmental and management factors affect calf mortality rate.

  8. Associations between nondietary factors and dairy herd performance.

    PubMed

    Bach, A; Valls, N; Solans, A; Torrent, T

    2008-08-01

    Forty-seven dairy herds (approximately 3,129 lactating cows) from northeast of Spain that were offering exactly the same lactating ration were surveyed to determine the effect of nondietary factors on herd performance. The survey collected information on the profile of the owners (their future intentions, the number of workers, and time devoted to the enterprise), information regarding the animals (reproductive performance, incidence of pathology, culling rate, etc.), information on the facilities (number of feeders, waters, stalls, cleanliness, etc.) and information on management practices (numbers of daily milkings, feed deliveries, feed push-ups, cleaning frequency, etc.). In addition, the chemical quality of drinking water from each dairy enterprise was determined. Also, amount of feed delivered to each herd, daily total milk production, and milk quality were obtained for each herd for a period of 8 mo before the fulfillment of the survey. Mortality rate of calves tended to be lesser in herds that weaned progressively than in those that weaned abruptly. Age at first calving was negatively correlated with level of milk production (mainly due to the type of heifer rearing system used). Culling rate tended to be lower in herds that used a close-up ration than in those that did not. Using gloves and paper towels (instead of cloth towels) tended to reduce the somatic cell count in milk. Concentration of calcium in the drinking water tended to be negatively correlated with the number of days open and with the proportion of cows culled due to infertility problems. Despite that the 47 herds fed the same ration and shared a similar genetic base, average milk production per cow ranged from 20.6 to 33.8 kg/d. A positive relationship (r = 0.57) between the number of stalls per cow and milk production was found. The most important nondietary factors that affected milk production in these dairy herds were age at first calving, presence or absence of feed refusals, number of

  9. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113.44 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted...

  10. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No...

  11. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No...

  12. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No...

  13. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No...

  14. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No...

  15. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  16. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  17. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  18. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  19. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  20. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine....

  1. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine....

  2. 7 CFR 59.204 - Mandatory weekly reporting for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. 59.204 Section 59.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.204 Mandatory weekly reporting for swine....

  3. 7 CFR 59.204 - Mandatory weekly reporting for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. 59.204 Section 59.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.204 Mandatory weekly reporting for swine....

  4. 7 CFR 59.204 - Mandatory weekly reporting for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. 59.204 Section 59.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.204 Mandatory weekly reporting for swine....

  5. 7 CFR 59.204 - Mandatory weekly reporting for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. 59.204 Section 59.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.204 Mandatory weekly reporting for swine....

  6. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do... acceptable methods to submit example contracts electronically, contact GIPSA through the Internet on...

  7. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do... acceptable methods to submit example contracts electronically, contact GIPSA through the Internet on...

  8. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do... acceptable methods to submit example contracts electronically, contact GIPSA through the Internet on...

  9. DECLINE IN LAKE ONTARIO POPULATIONS OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of benthic macroinvertebrates conducted in Lake Ontario during 1994 and 1997 revealed declines in populations of three major groups of organisms: oligochaetes, sphariids, and Diporeia spp. (Amphipoda), with the most drastic reductions occurring in the latter. Based on phy...

  10. Ontario passes new mandatory blood testing law: a preliminary review.

    PubMed

    Betteridge, Glenn

    2007-05-01

    In December 2006, the Mandatory Blood Testing Act, 2006 passed third reading in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. When this new Act comes into force, it will replace the existing administrative system for forced blood testing, currently operating under Ontario's public health law. Responsibility for forced blood testing will shift from the Minister of Health and Long-Term Care to the Minister of Community Safety and Corrections. PMID:17715523

  11. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR...

  12. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR...

  13. Eradication of bovine tuberculosis at a herd-level in Madrid, Spain: study of within-herd transmission dynamics over a 12 year period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eradication of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) through the application of test-and-cull programs is a declared goal of developed countries in which the disease is still endemic. Here, longitudinal data from more than 1,700 cattle herds tested during a 12 year-period in the eradication program in the region of Madrid, Spain, were analyzed to quantify the within-herd transmission coefficient (β) depending on the herd-type (beef/dairy/bullfighting). In addition, the probability to recover the officially bTB free (OTF) status in infected herds depending on the type of herd and the diagnostic strategy implemented was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. Results Overall, dairy herds showed higher β (median 4.7) than beef or bullfighting herds (2.3 and 2.2 respectively). Introduction of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) as an ancillary test produced an apparent increase in the β coefficient regardless of production type, likely due to an increase in diagnostic sensitivity. Time to recover OTF status was also significantly lower in dairy herds, and length of bTB episodes was significantly reduced when the IFN-γ was implemented to manage the outbreak. Conclusions Our results suggest that bTB spreads more rapidly in dairy herds compared to other herd types, a likely cause being management and demographic-related factors. However, outbreaks in dairy herds can be controlled more rapidly than in typically extensive herd types. Finally, IFN-γ proved its usefulness to rapidly eradicate bTB at a herd-level. PMID:22748007

  14. Risk factors for displaced abomasum or ketosis in Swedish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Stengärde, L; Hultgren, J; Tråvén, M; Holtenius, K; Emanuelson, U

    2012-03-01

    Risk factors associated with high or low long-term incidence of displaced abomasum (DA) or clinical ketosis were studied in 60 Swedish dairy herds, using multivariable logistic regression modelling. Forty high-incidence herds were included as cases and 20 low-incidence herds as controls. Incidence rates were calculated based on veterinary records of clinical diagnoses. During the 3-year period preceding the herd classification, herds with a high incidence had a disease incidence of DA or clinical ketosis above the 3rd quartile in a national database for disease recordings. Control herds had no cows with DA or clinical ketosis. All herds were visited during the housing period and herdsmen were interviewed about management routines, housing, feeding, milk yield, and herd health. Target groups were heifers in late gestation, dry cows, and cows in early lactation. Univariable logistic regression was used to screen for factors associated with being a high-incidence herd. A multivariable logistic regression model was built using stepwise regression. A higher maximum daily milk yield in multiparous cows and a large herd size (p=0.054 and p=0.066, respectively) tended to be associated with being a high-incidence herd. Not cleaning the heifer feeding platform daily increased the odds of having a high-incidence herd twelvefold (p<0.01). Keeping cows in only one group in the dry period increased the odds of having a high incidence herd eightfold (p=0.03). Herd size was confounded with housing system. Housing system was therefore added to the final logistic regression model. In conclusion, a large herd size, a high maximum daily milk yield, keeping dry cows in one group, and not cleaning the feeding platform daily appear to be important risk factors for a high incidence of DA or clinical ketosis in Swedish dairy herds. These results confirm the importance of housing, management and feeding in the prevention of metabolic disorders in dairy cows around parturition and in early

  15. Dynamic changes in antibody levels as an early warning of Salmonella Dublin in bovine dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Stockmarr, A; Bødker, R; Nielsen, L R

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Dublin is a bacterium that causes disease and production losses in cattle herds. In Denmark, a surveillance and control program was initiated in 2002 to monitor and reduce the prevalence of Salmonella Dublin. In dairy herds, the surveillance includes herd classification based on bulk tank milk measurements of antibodies directed against Salmonella Dublin at 3-mo intervals. In this study, an "alarm herd" concept, based on the dynamic progression of these repeated measurements, was formulated such that it contains predictive power for Salmonella Dublin herd classification change from "likely free of infection" to "likely infected" in the following quarter of the year, thus warning the farmer 3 mo earlier than the present system. The alarm herd concept was defined through aberrations from a stable development over time of antibody levels. For suitable parameter choices, alarm herd status was a positive predictor for Salmonella Dublin status change in dairy herds, in that alarm herds had a higher risk of changing status in the following quarter compared with nonalarm herds. This was despite the fact that both alarm and nonalarm herds had antibody levels that did not indicate the herds being "likely infected" according to the existing classification system in the present quarter. The alarm herd concept can be used as a new early warning element in the existing surveillance program. Additionally, to improve accuracy of herd classification, the alarm herd concept could be incorporated into a model including other known risk factors for change in herd classification. Furthermore, the model could be extended to other diseases monitored in similar ways.

  16. Teaching Preventive Medicine--Herd Health to Veterinary Students at Michigan State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, D. A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This program was designed to train students in the principles of applied epidemiology and concepts of herd disease prevention. It included a lecture course, a client education program, and demonstration herds for providing students with clinical training, to collect data for documenting herd disease prevention, and for problem solving. (LBH)

  17. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle from herds not known to be... BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not known to be affected. Male cattle which are not test eligible and are from herds not known to...

  18. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle from herds not known to be... BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not known to be affected. Male cattle which are not test eligible and are from herds not known to...

  19. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle from herds not known to be... BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not known to be affected. Male cattle which are not test eligible and are from herds not known to...

  20. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle from herds not known to be... BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not known to be affected. Male cattle which are not test eligible and are from herds not known to...