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Sample records for ontario swine herds

  1. Investigation of exposure to swine influenza viruses in Ontario (Canada) finisher herds in 2004 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert M; Carman, Susy; McNab, W Bruce; Dewey, Catherine E

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiology of influenza in the North American swine population has changed since the emergence of a triple-reassortant H3N2 influenza virus. Although seen previously in North America, the Ontario swine population had likely been free of viruses of the reassortant H3N2 lineage until 2005. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and distribution of exposure to H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes in the Ontario finisher pig population prior to and after the H3N2 outbreak that occurred in 2005. This included investigating prevalence and spatial distribution of positive herds, assessing proportion of random variation at different hierarchical levels, and evaluating selected demographic factors and management procedures as potential risk factors. In total, 919 and 978 sera collected in cross-sectional studies from 46 and 49 finisher herds in 2004 and 2005 were tested by a H1N1 subtype-specific and a H3N2 subtype-specific commercial ELISA. For the H1N1 subtype, the point prevalence of positive herds (>3 reactors) was 19.5% and 30.6% in 2004 and 2005, respectively. For the H3N2 subtype the point prevalence of positive herds (>3 reactors) was 6.5% and 40.8% in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Sera from 2004 that were positive on H3N2 ELISA did not cross-react with any of the H3N2 variants used as antigen on a sequential HI test. Only herds positive for H3N2 subtype in 2005 clustered in space (P<0.01). The H1N1 status in 2005 was associated with the H1N1 status in 2004, and with reported distance to the nearest herd. The H3N2 status in 2005 was associated with reported distance to the nearest herd and a type of replacement gilt source. For H3N2, distance seemed to be important even after controlling for type of gilt source. Most variability in seropositivity was between herds with little variability between pens. This study confirms that in 2005, the epidemic H3N2 subtype co-circulated with endemic H1N1 subtype in the Ontario finisher herds. We concluded that in

  2. Prevalence of and risk factors for influenza in southern Ontario swine herds in 2001 and 2003

    PubMed Central

    Poljak, Zvonimir; Dewey, Catherine E.; Martin, S. Wayne; Christensen, Jette; Carman, Susy; Friendship, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    This research included 2 prevalence studies and a risk-factor investigation conducted in 2001 at 93 sites with sows only, finishers only, or both. In 2001, 1300 serum samples from sows in 65 herds and 720 serum samples from finisher pigs in 72 herds were tested for antibodies to swine influenzavirus (SIV) of H1N1 subtype with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In 2003, 1140 serum samples from sows in 76 herds were tested for antibodies to SIV of H3N2 subtype with a hemagglutination-inhibition assay based on A/Swine/Colorado/1/77 and A/Swine/Texas/4199-2/98 isolates. The apparent pig-level H1N1 seroprevalence in 2001 was 61.1% and 24.3% in sows and finishers, respectively. The apparent pig-level seroprevalence in 2003 for H3N2 A/Sw/CO/1/77 and A/Sw/TX/4199-2/98 in sows was 0.6% and 0.7%, respectively. The factors associated with sow-herd H1N1 positivity included pig or farm density at different geographic levels, an external source of breeding pigs, number of animals on site, and decreasing proximity to other barns. Higher-parity sows had higher odds of seropositivity, but there was significant random variability in this association among herds. The odds of finisher-herd SIV positivity were higher with large herd size, high pig farm density, and farrow-to-finish type of farm. Finisher herds were SIV-positive only if source sow herds were positive. Simultaneously, 45% of finisher herds were SIV-negative although sow source herds were positive. PMID:18214156

  3. Clinical signs and their association with herd demographics and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) control strategies in PRRS PCR-positive swine herds in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Young, Beth; Dewey, Cate; Poljak, Zvonimir; Rosendal, Thomas; Carman, Susy

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe the clinical signs observed in PRRS positive herds during a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) outbreak in Ontario and to determine associations between these clinical signs and herd demographics and PRRS control strategies. All PRRS polymerase chain reaction-(PCR)-positive submissions to a diagnostic laboratory between September 1, 2004 and August 31, 2007 were identified (n = 1864). After meeting eligibility requirements and agreeing to voluntary study participation, producers from 455 of these submissions were surveyed for information on clinical signs observed in their herds, herd demographics, and PRRS control strategies used in their herds at the time that the PCR-positive samples were taken. Larger herd size was associated with an increased risk of reporting abortion, weakborn piglets, off-feed sows, and sow mortality in sow herds, and with an increased risk of reporting mortality in finishing herds. When disease control strategies were examined, use of a commercial PRRS vaccine in sows and gilts was associated with a decreased risk of reporting weakborn pigs and high pre-weaning mortality, while the use of serum inoculation in breeding animals was associated with an increased risk of reporting off-feed sows and sow mortality. Providing biofeedback of stillborn/mummified piglets, placenta or feces to gilts was associated with an increased risk of reporting respiratory disease and mortality in finishing pigs while all-in/all-out flow in farrowing rooms was associated with an increased risk of reporting sow mortality and weakborn piglets. PMID:20885840

  4. Exploring relationships between whole carcass condemnation abattoir data, non-disease factors and disease outbreaks in swine herds in Ontario (2001-2007).

    PubMed

    Thomas-Bachli, Andrea L; Pearl, David L; Friendship, Robert M; Berke, Olaf

    2014-03-28

    Improving upon traditional animal disease surveillance systems may allow more rapid detection of disease outbreaks in animal populations. In Ontario, between the years 2001 - 2007, widespread outbreaks of several diseases caused major impacts to the swine industry. This study was undertaken to investigate whether whole carcass condemnation data of market pigs from provincial abattoirs from 2001 - 2007 could have provided useful information for disease surveillance of Ontario swine. The objective was to examine the suitability of these data for detection of disease outbreaks using multi-level models and spatial scan statistics. We investigated the ability of these data to provide spatially-relevant surveillance information by determining the approximate distance pigs are shipped from farm to provincial abattoirs in the province, and explored potentially biasing non-disease factors within these data. Provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario were found to be located in close proximity to the hog farms of origin. The fall season and increasing abattoir capacity were associated with a decrease in condemnation rates. Condemnation rates varied across agricultural regions by year, and some regions showed yearly trends consistent with the timing of emergence of new disease strains that affected the Ontario swine population. Scan statistics identified stable clusters of condemnations in space that may have represented stable underlying factors influencing condemnations. The temporal scans detected the most likely cluster of high condemnations during the timeframe in which widespread disease events were documented. One space-time cluster took place during the beginning of the historical disease outbreaks and may have provided an early warning signal within a syndromic surveillance system. Spatial disease surveillance methods may be applicable to whole carcass condemnation data collected at provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario for disease detection on a local scale

  5. Association between the genetic similarity of the open reading frame 5 sequence of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and the similarity in clinical signs of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Ontario swine herds.

    PubMed

    Rosendal, Thomas; Dewey, Cate; Friendship, Robert; Wootton, Sarah; Young, Beth; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2014-10-01

    A study of Ontario swine farms positive for Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) tested the association between genetic similarity of the virus and similarity of clinical signs reported by the herd owner. Herds were included if a positive result of polymerase chain reaction for PRRSV at the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, was found between September 2004 and August 2007. Nucleotide-sequence similarity and clinical similarity, as determined from a telephone survey, were calculated for all pairs of herds. The Mantel test indicated that clinical similarity and sequence similarity were weakly correlated for most clinical signs. The generalized additive model indicated that virus homology with 2 vaccine viruses affected the association between sequence similarity and clinical similarity. When the data for herds with vaccine-like virus were removed from the dataset there was a significant association between virus similarity and similarity of the reported presence of abortion, stillbirth, preweaning mortality, and sow/boar mortality. Ownership similarity was also found to be associated with virus similarity and with similarity of the reported presence of sows being off-feed, nursery respiratory disease, nursery mortality, finisher respiratory disease, and finisher mortality. These results indicate that clinical signs of PRRS are associated with PRRSV genotype and that herd ownership is associated with both of these.

  6. Association between the genetic similarity of the open reading frame 5 sequence of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and the similarity in clinical signs of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Ontario swine herds

    PubMed Central

    Rosendal, Thomas; Dewey, Cate; Friendship, Robert; Wootton, Sarah; Young, Beth; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2014-01-01

    A study of Ontario swine farms positive for Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) tested the association between genetic similarity of the virus and similarity of clinical signs reported by the herd owner. Herds were included if a positive result of polymerase chain reaction for PRRSV at the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, was found between September 2004 and August 2007. Nucleotide-sequence similarity and clinical similarity, as determined from a telephone survey, were calculated for all pairs of herds. The Mantel test indicated that clinical similarity and sequence similarity were weakly correlated for most clinical signs. The generalized additive model indicated that virus homology with 2 vaccine viruses affected the association between sequence similarity and clinical similarity. When the data for herds with vaccine-like virus were removed from the dataset there was a significant association between virus similarity and similarity of the reported presence of abortion, stillbirth, preweaning mortality, and sow/boar mortality. Ownership similarity was also found to be associated with virus similarity and with similarity of the reported presence of sows being off-feed, nursery respiratory disease, nursery mortality, finisher respiratory disease, and finisher mortality. These results indicate that clinical signs of PRRS are associated with PRRSV genotype and that herd ownership is associated with both of these. PMID:25355993

  7. Investigation of the Occurrence of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus in Swine Herds Participating in an Area Regional Control and Elimination Project in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Arruda, A G; Friendship, R; Carpenter, J; Hand, K; Ojkic, D; Poljak, Z

    2017-02-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-specific genotypes in swine sites in Ontario (Canada) using molecular, spatial and network data from a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) regional control project. For each site, location, animal movement service provider (truck companies), PRRSV status and sequencing data of the open reading frame 5 (ORF5) were obtained. Three-kilometre buffers were created to evaluate neighbourhood characteristics for each site. Social network analysis was conducted on swine sites and trucking companies to assemble the network and define network components. Three different PRRSV genotypes were used as outcomes for statistical analysis based on the region's phylogenetic tree of the ORF5. Multivariable exact logistic regression was conducted to investigate the association between being positive for a specific genotype and two main exposures of interest: (i) having at least one neighbour within three km also positive for the same genotype outside the production system and (ii) having at least one positive site for the same genotype in the same truck network component outside the production system. Results showed that the importance of area spread and truck network on PRRSV occurrence differed according to genotype. Additionally, the Ontario PRRS database appears suitable for conducting regional disease investigations. Finally, the use of relatively new tools available for network, spatial and molecular analysis could be useful in investigation, control and prevention of endemic infectious diseases in animal populations.

  8. Eliminating swine dysentery from selected herds.

    PubMed

    Glock, R D

    1984-08-01

    In attempts to eliminate swine dysentery from a herd, the total cost of nitroimidazole medication in the water can be estimated at 16/gal over 3-4 weeks and for carbadox in the feed at 70/100 lb over 6-8 weeks. Use of dimetridazole or ipronidazole in the water for 3-4 weeks or carbadox in the feed for 6-8 weeks eliminates Treponema hyodysenteriae from the porcine gut. A 30-day (10 weeks with carbadox) preslaughter withdrawal time should be provided. Impervious surfaces should be thoroughly sanitized, while permeable surfaces and lots should be cleaned, dried and aired well for 2-3 weeks in warm, dry weather and for at least 60 days in cool, damp weather. Animal vectors and fomites must be controlled. Isolation of new breeding stock for 3-4 weeks helps prevent recontamination. While elimination of swine dysentery is not practical in many herds because of poor facilities or lack of producer commitment, a properly designed program can result in economic benefits.

  9. Boar culling in swine breeding herds in Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    D'Allaire, Sylvie; Leman, Allen D.

    1990-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to study boar culling patterns in swine breeding herds. Data were obtained from 84 swine breeding herds and included 440 boars that were culled. Each producer was involved for 12 consecutive months, and recorded every boar that was removed from the herd, the date, and the reason for culling. The annual culling rate for the 84 farms averaged 59.4% ± 6.4 (SEM). The correlation coefficient between boar and sow culling was 0.52 (p <0.0001). Removal was the result of being overweight (47%), reproductive problems (18%), leg problems (12%), death (7%), and other diseases (4%). From the annual culling rate, the average breeding life of boars was estimated at 20 months. From this study, we concluded that the annual culling rate for boars in commercial herds was high and related to several different factors. PMID:17423646

  10. Detection of a Novel Porcine Parvovirus in Chinese Swine Herds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine whether the recently reported novel porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) is prevalent in China, a set of PPV4 specific primers were designed and used for the molecular survey of PPV4 among clinical samples. The results indicated a positive detection for PPV4 in Chinese swine herds of 1.84% ...

  11. An assessment of external biosecurity on southern Ontario swine farms and its application to surveillance on a geographic level

    PubMed Central

    Bottoms, Kate; Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert; Deardon, Rob; Alsop, Janet; Dewey, Cate

    2013-01-01

    Risk-based surveillance is becoming increasingly important in the veterinary and public health fields. It serves as a means of increasing surveillance sensitivity and improving cost-effectiveness in an increasingly resource-limited environment. Our approach for developing a tool for the risk-based geographical surveillance of contagious diseases of swine incorporates information about animal density and external biosecurity practices within swine herds in southern Ontario. The objectives of this study were to group the sample of herds into discrete biosecurity groups, to develop a map of southern Ontario that can be used as a tool in the risk-based geographical surveillance of contagious swine diseases, and to identify significant predictors of biosecurity group membership. A subset of external biosecurity variables was selected for 2-step cluster analysis and latent class analysis (LCA). It was determined that 4 was the best number of groups to describe the data, using both analytical approaches. The authors named these groups: i) high biosecurity herds that were open with respect to replacement animals; ii) high biosecurity herds that were closed with respect to replacement animals; iii) moderate biosecurity herds; and iv) low biosecurity herds. The risk map was developed using information about the geographic distribution of herds in the biosecurity groups, as well as the density of swine sites and of grower-finisher pigs in the study region. Finally, multinomial logistic regression identified heat production units (HPUs), number of incoming pig shipments per month, and herd type as significant predictors of biosecurity group membership. It was concluded that the ability to identify areas of high and low risk for disease may improve the success of surveillance and eradication projects. PMID:24124266

  12. A Survey of Mastitis in Selected Ontario Dairy Herds

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, B. W.; Barnum, D. A.; Meek, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    A mastitis survey involving 74 Ontario dairy herds was conducted. The prevalence of infection at the quarter level was found to be 4.1% with Streptococcus agalactiae, 4.5% with other streptococcal species and 8.0% with Staphylococcus aureus. Regardless of the infection status, the geometric mean somatic cell count was found to increase with age of the cow but no increase was observed with increasing stage of lactation. The percentage of cows from which a bacterial pathogen was isolated increased with age but not with stage of lactation. PMID:17422140

  13. Molecular characterization of H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated from Ontario swine in 2011 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Grgić, Helena; Costa, Marcio; Friendship, Robert M; Carman, Susy; Nagy, Éva; Wideman, Greg; Weese, Scott; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2014-11-22

    Data about molecular diversity of commonly circulating type A influenza viruses in Ontario swine are scarce. Yet, this information is essential for surveillance of animal and public health, vaccine updates, and for understanding virus evolution and its large-scale spread. The study population consisted of 21 swine herds with clinical problems due to respiratory disease. Nasal swabs from individual pigs were collected and tested by virus isolation in MDCK cells and by rtRT-PCR. All eight segments of 10 H3N2 viruses were sequenced using high-throughput sequencing and molecularly characterized. Within-herd prevalence ranged between 2 and 100%. Structurally, Ontario H3N2 viruses could be classified into three different groups. Group 1 was the most similar to the original trH3N2 virus from 2005. Group 2 was the most similar to the Ontario turkey H3N2 isolates with PB1 and NS genes originating from trH3N2 virus and M, PB2, PA and NP genes originating from the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. All Group 3 internal genes were genetically related to A(H1N1)pdm09. Analysis of antigenic sites of HA1 showed that Group 1 had 8 aa changes within 4 antigenic sites, A(1), B(3), C(2) and E(2). The Group 2 viruses had 8 aa changes within 3 antigenic sites A(3), B(3) and C(2), while Group 3 viruses had 4 aa changes within 3 antigenic sites, B(1), D(1) and E(2), when compared to the cluster IV H3N2 virus [A/swine/Ontario/33853/2005/(H3N2)]. The characterization of the Ontario H3N2 viruses clearly indicates reassortment of gene segments between the North American swine trH3N2 from cluster IV and the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus.

  14. Culling patterns in selected Minnesota swine breeding herds.

    PubMed Central

    D'Allaire, S; Stein, T E; Leman, A D

    1987-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to study culling patterns in swine breeding herds. Data were obtained from 89 Minnesota swine breeding herds and included 5918 sows and 1324 gilts for a total of 7242 culled femaled. Each producer was involved for 12 consecutive months. They were asked to record every female that was removed from the herd, the reason for its culling and its parity. The annual culling rate for the sample averaged 50%, but varied considerably between herds ranging from 15% to 85%. Culled females had produced an average of 3.77 litters. Half of the females culled did not produce more than three litters. Reproductive failure accounted for 32% of all removals. The average parity of the females culled in that category was only 2.37: almost 33% were gilts. Failure to conceive represented 75% of all females culled for reproductive failure. Proportionally, culling as a result of anestrus was higher in gilts. It accounted for 33% of all gilts culled for reproductive failure which was twice as much as for sows. Inadequate performance accounted for 17% of all removals. These sows had produced an average of 5.11 litters. These results indicated that few animals were culled on the basis of first litter performance. Old age comprised 14% of all removals and the average parity at culling for this category was 7.11. Death accounted for 12% and the average parity for these females was 3.40. Locomotor problems and peripartum problems were the cause of 28% and 23% of all deaths, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3453273

  15. 9 CFR 85.8 - Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. 85.8 Section 85.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. Swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd, and... are from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd; (2) The date of the herd's last...

  16. 9 CFR 85.8 - Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine from a... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.8 Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. Swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd, and...

  17. 9 CFR 85.8 - Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine from a... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.8 Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. Swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd, and...

  18. 9 CFR 85.8 - Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine from a... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.8 Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. Swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd, and...

  19. 9 CFR 85.8 - Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine from a... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.8 Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. Swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd, and...

  20. Piglet preweaning mortality in a commercial swine herd in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuntapaitoon, Morakot; Tummaruk, Padet

    2015-12-01

    In the modern swine industry, the number of piglets born alive per litter is dramatically increasing due to genetic improvement of litter traits. However, knowledge on post-partum management is inadequate to reduce piglet preweaning mortality. The present study aimed to investigate piglet preweaning mortality in a commercial swine herd in Thailand in relation to the number of littermate pigs and piglet birth weight. Data included 11,154 litters from 3574 sows farrowed from January 2009 to December 2012. Littermate pig was defined as the number of piglets after cross-fostering. Number of littermate pigs was classified as 1-7, 8-10, 11-12, and 13-15 piglets per litter. Mean birth weight of the piglets was classified as low (<1.30 kg), medium (1.30-1.79 kg), and high (≥1.80 kg). Piglet preweaning mortality was calculated, logged transformed, and analyzed by general linear mixed models. On average, piglet preweaning mortality was 14.5 % (median = 10.0 %). Piglet preweaning mortality in the litter with 13-15 littermate pigs (24.1 %) was significantly higher than the litter with 1-7 (11.9 %, P < 0.001), 8-10 (11.8 %, P < 0.001), and 11-12 (14.6 %, P < 0.001) littermate pigs. The litters with a low piglet birth weight had a higher piglet preweaning mortality rate (18.8 %) than the litters with a medium (15.7 %, P < 0.001) and a high piglet birth weight (12.1 %, P < 0.001). In conclusion, to reduce piglet preweaning mortality in commercial swine herds, special care needs to be taken in litters with more than 13 littermate pigs and with piglets with birth weight below 1.30 kg.

  1. Assessment of seasonality of influenza in swine using field submissions to a diagnostic laboratory in Ontario between 2007 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Zvonimir; Carman, Susy; McEwen, Beverly

    2014-07-01

    Seasonality of any infectious disease is important for its control and monitoring. While influenza seasonality in people has been evaluated extensively, this question has not been studied well in swine populations. The goal of this study was to investigate seasonality of influenza in swine, using diagnostic submissions to a diagnostic laboratory. Two thousand seven hundred and eleven virological tests within 685 submissions and 5471 serological tests within 193 submissions in Ontario swine between 2007 and 2012 were included in the study and converted to total monthly number of virological and serological submissions, and the number of positive submissions. Data were analyzed by time-series decomposition, fixed-effect Poisson, random-effect Poisson regression with month as uncorrelated and correlated random effects. All approaches identified seasonality in virological submissions (P < 0.02) with peak in January and April, and a trough in July, but were not able to detect seasonality of influenza-positive virological submissions (P > 0.13). Seasonality of positive serological submissions was identified only if independence between months was assumed (P < 0.03). Almost 50% of serological submissions had evidence of exposure to H3N2 and H1N1. Thus, this study identified evidence of seasonality in influenza-like disease in swine herds, but not in circulation of influenza virus. Evidence of seasonality in exposure to influenza was dependent on assumptions of between-month correlation. High exposure to H3N2 and H1N1 subtypes warrants more detailed investigation of within-herd influenza virus circulation. The study provides initial insight into seasonality of influenza in swine and should be followed with herd-level studies. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Environmental source of mycobacteriosis in a California swine herd.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, I A; Hird, D W

    1989-01-01

    Between July 1985 and April 1986, mycobacterial lymphadenitis was recorded in six of 2407 slaughter pigs from a commercial swine herd in which the majority of pigs were raised in confinement. Records showed that all six affected pigs had access to dirt-floored pens at least 81 days prior to slaughter. The mycobacteriosis lesion rate for pigs exposed to dirt pens was 9.4% while in nonexposed pigs the lesion rate was zero. The risk associated with movement of pigs from concrete floored pens to dirt pens was evaluated by a field trial. In the field trial, two litters (5 of 15 pigs) exposed to dirt pens at 12-24 days of age but none of nine nonexposed litters (39 pigs) developed lesions. Mycobacterium avium-complex bacteria were recovered from both exposed litters (9 of 15 pigs) but from none of nine nonexposed litters. Serovars of M. avium-complex isolated from trial pigs included 1, 4, 8, 9, the dual serovar 4/8, and an untypable serovar. Incense-cedar bark (Calocedrus decurrens) used as a flooring material in the pens was demonstrated to be a potential source of M. avium-complex serovar 9. The dual serovar 4/8 and an untypable M. avium-complex were isolated from the dirt-floored pens. No evidence of cross-transmission of M. avium-complex infection was detected. The sporadic pattern of mycobacteriosis observed in the herd probably resulted from infrequent exposure to a common environmental source. PMID:2914225

  3. Herd- and cow-level prevalence of foot lesions in Ontario dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Cramer, G; Lissemore, K D; Guard, C L; Leslie, K E; Kelton, D F

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to determine herd-level and cow-level prevalence estimates for 11 foot lesions in Ontario dairy cattle. Foot lesions were recorded by 5 hoof trimmers on 13,530 cows in 204 Ontario dairy herds from March 2004 to May 2005. Significant differences existed between free-stall and tie-stall housing. In free-stall housing systems, 46.4% of cows had a foot lesion, compared with 25.7% of cows in tie-stall barns. Digital dermatitis was the most common lesion in tie stalls, occurring in 9.3% of cows and 69.7% of the herds, whereas in free-stall herds, 22.7% of cows and 96.7% of the herds were affected. The most common hoof horn lesions were hemorrhages and ulcers, at 7.7 and 4.7% in tie-stall housing and 11.0 and 9.2% in free-stall housing, respectively. Foot blocks were used to treat 2.2% of cows in free stalls and 0.3% in tie stalls. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 9.5 to 17.3 for hoof horn lesions and 28.0 to 38.7 for infectious lesions. In summary, foot lesions diagnosed at the time of hoof trimming are common in Ontario, and appropriate treatment for hoof horn lesions is low.

  4. [Terminology for classifying the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) status of swine herds].

    PubMed

    Holtkamp, D J; Polson, D D; Torremorell, M; Morrison, B; Classen, D M; Becton, L; Henry, S; Rodibaugh, M T; Rowland, R R; Snelson, H; Straw, B; Yeske, P; Zimmerman, J

    2011-01-01

    Standardized terminology for the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) status of swine herds is necessary to facilitate communication between veterinarians, swine producers, genetic companies, and other industry participants. It is also required for implementation of regional and national efforts towards PRRSV control and elimination. The purpose of this paper is to provide a herd classification system for describing the PRRSV status of herds, based upon a set of definitions reflecting the biology and ecology of PRRSV. The herd classification system was developed by a definitions committee formed jointly by the American Association of Swine Veterinarians (AASV) and the United States Department of Agriculture PRRS-Coordinated Agricultural Project, and was approved by the AASV Board of Directors on March 9, 2010. The committee included veterinarians from private practice and industry, researchers, and representatives from AASV and the National Pork Board. Breeding herds, with or without growing pigs on the same premises, are categorized as Positive Unstable (Category I), Positive Stable (Category II), Provisional Negative (Category III), or Negative (Category IV) on the basis of herd shedding and exposure status. Growing-pig herds are categorized as Positive or Negative. Recommended testing procedures and decision rules for herd classification are detailed.

  5. Systematic Epidemiological Investigations of Cases of Senecavirus A in US Swine Breeding Herds.

    PubMed

    Baker, K L; Mowrer, C; Canon, A; Linhares, D C L; Rademacher, C; Karriker, L A; Holtkamp, D J

    2017-02-01

    Epidemiological investigations were conducted on a case series of six Senecavirus A (SVA)-affected breeding herds in the United States to determine potential routes of introduction and enhance the swine industry's knowledge of SVA's clinical presentation and spread. Each SVA-affected herd was evaluated using a standard form to ensure that all relevant data were collected. The form was used to guide a detailed discussion about the clinical presentation of SVA and risk events that occurred in the 4 weeks prior to the first observation of clinical signs with the herd veterinarian and farm personnel. Each event was then subjectively assigned a risk level of low, medium or high likelihood for SVA introduction by the investigation team. The clinical presentation of SVA varied by case. All SVA-affected herds (six of six) reported increases in pre-weaning mortality and sow anorexia. Vesicular lesions were observed in four of six herds, and mild-to-moderate neonatal diarrhoea was observed in three of six herds. No gross anatomic or histologic lesions were observed in neonatal pigs that tested positive for SVA via PCR. Multiple potential routes of introduction were identified. Events subjectively rated as high risk for SVA introduction were on-farm employee entry (six of six), carcass disposal (four of six), cull sow removal (three of six) and breeding replacement entry (two of six). Non-swine domestic animals, rodents, other visitors, repairs outside swine barns, feed delivery, weaned pig removal and semen entry were assigned a high risk level in one of six herds. Cases occurred in breeding herds of all sizes with variable biosecurity in both swine dense and swine sparse areas.

  6. An observational study of Corynebacterium bovis in selected Ontario dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, B W; Barnum, D A; Meek, A H

    1983-01-01

    An observational study of Corynebacterium bovis was conducted in 74 Ontario dairy herds. The levels of infection with C. bovis were 19.9, 36.2 and 85.6% at the quarter, cow and herd level, respectively. Teat disinfection was found to be the variable best able to distinguish between herds with a high or low C. bovis quarter infection rate. Mean total milk somatic cell counts for 1103 quarters and 107 cows infected with only C. bovis ranged between 150,000 and 200,000/mL and were significantly higher than for uninfected quarters or cows. The rate of infection with mastitis pathogens was not significantly different in quarters previously colonized with only C. bovis compared to previously uninfected quarters. PMID:6831308

  7. Somatic cell counts, mastitis and milk production in selected Ontario dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Barnum, D A; Meek, A H

    1982-01-01

    Somatic cell counts were performed monthly on bulk tank milk samples for all producers in the Ontario counties of Hastings, Lennox/Addington and Prince Edward throughout 1978 and 1979. Other data were obtained via a structured questionnaire and from the records of the Ontario Milk Marketing Board. Many producers have not adopted practices that have been advocated for the integrated control of mastitis. For example, 43.3% of producers surveyed used single service paper towels, 63.3% regularly used teat dip and 56.5% dry cow therapy. The mean of the average monthly somatic cell count for all producers for 1978 was 621.1 x 10(3) cells/mL. This latter value was used to divide the producers into case (higher than average) and control (lower than average) groups. Control herds averaged 95.9 liters more shipped milk per cow per month than case herds. Milk from control herds averaged 0.22 percentage points higher than case herds for each of average fat and lactose, and 0.16 percentage points higher for protein. The linear regression of monthly shipped milk on the respective monthly bulk tank somatic cell count indicated a loss of 13.26 L/cow/month for each 100,000 increase in somatic cell count. PMID:7200385

  8. Comparison of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Isolates Recovered from Pigs in Apparently Healthy Multiplier Herds with Isolates from Herds with Swine Dysentery.

    PubMed

    La, Tom; Rohde, Judith; Phillips, Nyree Dale; Hampson, David J

    2016-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is a mucohaemorrhagic colitis of grower/finisher pigs classically resulting from infection by the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. This study aimed to determine whether B. hyodysenteriae isolates from pigs in three healthy German multiplier herds supplying gilts to other farms differed from isolates from nine German production herds with SD. Isolates were subjected to whole genomic sequencing, and in silico multilocus sequence typing showed that those from the three multiplier herds were of previously undescribed sequence types (ST132, ST133 and ST134), with all isolates from the same herd having the same ST. All isolates were examined for the presence of 332 genes encoding predicted virulence or virulence lifestyle associated factors, and these were well conserved. Isolates from one multiplier herd were atypical in being weakly haemolytic: they had 10 amino acid substitutions in the haemolysin III protein and five in the haemolysin activation protein compared to reference strain WA1, and had a disruption in the promoter site of the hlyA gene. These changes likely contribute to the weakly haemolytic phenotype and putative lack of virulence. These same isolates also had nine base pair insertions in the iron metabolism genes bitB and bitC and lacked five of six plasmid genes that previously have been associated with colonisation. Other overall differences between isolates from the different herds were in genes from three of five outer membrane proteins, which were not found in all the isolates, and in members of a block of six plasmid genes. Isolates from three herds with SD had all six plasmid genes, while isolates lacking some of these genes were found in the three healthy herds-but also in isolates from six herds with SD. Other differences in genes of unknown function or in gene expression may contribute to variation in virulence; alternatively, superior husbandry and better general health may have made pigs in the

  9. Comparison of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Isolates Recovered from Pigs in Apparently Healthy Multiplier Herds with Isolates from Herds with Swine Dysentery

    PubMed Central

    La, Tom; Rohde, Judith; Phillips, Nyree Dale; Hampson, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is a mucohaemorrhagic colitis of grower/finisher pigs classically resulting from infection by the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. This study aimed to determine whether B. hyodysenteriae isolates from pigs in three healthy German multiplier herds supplying gilts to other farms differed from isolates from nine German production herds with SD. Isolates were subjected to whole genomic sequencing, and in silico multilocus sequence typing showed that those from the three multiplier herds were of previously undescribed sequence types (ST132, ST133 and ST134), with all isolates from the same herd having the same ST. All isolates were examined for the presence of 332 genes encoding predicted virulence or virulence lifestyle associated factors, and these were well conserved. Isolates from one multiplier herd were atypical in being weakly haemolytic: they had 10 amino acid substitutions in the haemolysin III protein and five in the haemolysin activation protein compared to reference strain WA1, and had a disruption in the promoter site of the hlyA gene. These changes likely contribute to the weakly haemolytic phenotype and putative lack of virulence. These same isolates also had nine base pair insertions in the iron metabolism genes bitB and bitC and lacked five of six plasmid genes that previously have been associated with colonisation. Other overall differences between isolates from the different herds were in genes from three of five outer membrane proteins, which were not found in all the isolates, and in members of a block of six plasmid genes. Isolates from three herds with SD had all six plasmid genes, while isolates lacking some of these genes were found in the three healthy herds—but also in isolates from six herds with SD. Other differences in genes of unknown function or in gene expression may contribute to variation in virulence; alternatively, superior husbandry and better general health may have made pigs in

  10. Prevalence, distribution, and molecular characterization of Salmonella recovered from swine finishing herds and a slaughter facility in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Swine are a reservoir for Salmonella spp., and pork and pork products are vehicles of Salmonella infections. The objective of this investigation was to determine the distribution and types of Salmonella in 12 swine finishing herds and a slaughter facility in Santa Catarina, Brazil. A total of 1,258 ...

  11. Outbreak investigation of porcine epidemic diarrhea in swine in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Pasma, Tim; Furness, Mary Catherine; Alves, David; Aubry, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus was first diagnosed in Ontario in January of 2014. An outbreak investigation was conducted and it was hypothesized that feed containing spray-dried porcine plasma contaminated with the virus was a risk factor in the introduction and spread of the disease in Ontario.

  12. Aujeszky's disease and the effects of infection on Japanese swine herd productivity: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Itsuro; Ishizeki, Sayoko; Yamazaki, Hisanori

    2015-05-01

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is endemic in some regions of Japan. We investigated the effects of PRV infection status on herd productivity. Serum samples were obtained from 48 swine herds in Japan. Within each herd, three serum samples were obtained from growing pigs at four different ages, as well as from sows in low and high parity groups. Sera were tested for antibodies against wild-type PRV via competitive ELISA. Herds were classified into PRV positive and negative groups based on serological results. Herds infected with PRV exhibited postweaning mortalities (6.84%) that were significantly (P=0.0018) higher than those in unaffected herds (4.73%). Because of the reduced productivity in PRV positive herds, the current PRV eradication program must be strengthened.

  13. An Investigation into the Etiological Agents of Swine Dysentery in Australian Pig Herds.

    PubMed

    La, Tom; Phillips, Nyree D; Hampson, David J

    2016-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is a mucohemorrhagic colitis, classically seen in grower/finisher pigs and caused by infection with the anaerobic intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. More recently, however, the newly described species Brachyspira hampsonii and Brachyspira suanatina have been identified as causing SD in North America and/or Europe. Furthermore, there have been occasions where strains of B. hyodysenteriae have been recovered from healthy pigs, including in multiplier herds with high health status. This study investigated whether cases of SD in Australia may be caused by the newly described species; how isolates of B. hyodysenteriae recovered from healthy herds compared to isolates from herds with disease; and how contemporary isolates compare to those recovered in previous decades, including in their plasmid gene content and antimicrobial resistance profiles. In total 1103 fecal and colon samples from pigs in 97 Australian herds were collected and tested. Of the agents of SD only B. hyodysenteriae was found, being present in 34 (35.1%) of the herds, including in 14 of 24 (58%) herds that had been considered to be free of SD. Multilocus sequence typing applied to 96 isolates from 30 herds and to 53 Australian isolates dating from the 1980s through the early 2000s showed that they were diverse, distinct from those reported in other countries, and that the 2014/16 isolates generally were different from those from earlier decades. These findings provided evidence for ongoing evolution of B. hyodysenteriae strains in Australia. In seven of the 20 herds where multiple isolates were available, two to four different sequence types (STs) were identified. Isolates with the same STs also were found in some herds with epidemiological links. Analysis of a block of six plasmid virulence-associated genes showed a lack of consistency between their presence or absence and their origin from herds currently with or without disease; however, significantly fewer

  14. An Investigation into the Etiological Agents of Swine Dysentery in Australian Pig Herds

    PubMed Central

    La, Tom; Phillips, Nyree D.

    2016-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is a mucohemorrhagic colitis, classically seen in grower/finisher pigs and caused by infection with the anaerobic intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. More recently, however, the newly described species Brachyspira hampsonii and Brachyspira suanatina have been identified as causing SD in North America and/or Europe. Furthermore, there have been occasions where strains of B. hyodysenteriae have been recovered from healthy pigs, including in multiplier herds with high health status. This study investigated whether cases of SD in Australia may be caused by the newly described species; how isolates of B. hyodysenteriae recovered from healthy herds compared to isolates from herds with disease; and how contemporary isolates compare to those recovered in previous decades, including in their plasmid gene content and antimicrobial resistance profiles. In total 1103 fecal and colon samples from pigs in 97 Australian herds were collected and tested. Of the agents of SD only B. hyodysenteriae was found, being present in 34 (35.1%) of the herds, including in 14 of 24 (58%) herds that had been considered to be free of SD. Multilocus sequence typing applied to 96 isolates from 30 herds and to 53 Australian isolates dating from the 1980s through the early 2000s showed that they were diverse, distinct from those reported in other countries, and that the 2014/16 isolates generally were different from those from earlier decades. These findings provided evidence for ongoing evolution of B. hyodysenteriae strains in Australia. In seven of the 20 herds where multiple isolates were available, two to four different sequence types (STs) were identified. Isolates with the same STs also were found in some herds with epidemiological links. Analysis of a block of six plasmid virulence-associated genes showed a lack of consistency between their presence or absence and their origin from herds currently with or without disease; however, significantly fewer

  15. Occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cattle herds, related swine farms, and humans in contact with herds.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, C; Cremonesi, P; Caprioli, A; Carfora, V; Ianzano, A; Barberio, A; Morandi, S; Casula, A; Castiglioni, B; Bronzo, V; Moroni, P

    2017-01-01

    In this study we investigated the circulation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 2 dairy cattle farms (farm A and B), previously identified as MRSA-positive in bulk tank milk samples, and epidemiologically related to swine farms. Collected specimens included quarter milk samples and nasal swabs from dairy cows, pig nasal swabs collected at both the farm and slaughterhouse level, environmental dust samples, and human nasal swabs from the farms' owners and workers. The prevalence of MRSA was estimated at the herd level by testing quarter milk samples. The prevalence of MRSA was 4.8% (3/63; 95% confidence interval=0-10.2%) and 60% (33/55; 95% confidence interval=47.05-72.95) in farm A and B, respectively. In farm A, MRSA was also isolated from humans, pigs sampled at both farm and slaughterhouse level, and from environmental samples collected at the pig facilities. The dairy cattle facilities of farm A tested negative for MRSA. In farm B, MRSA was isolated from environmental dust samples in both the cattle and pig facilities, whereas nasal swabs collected from cows and from humans tested negative. Sixty-three selected MRSA isolates obtained from different sources in farm A and B were genetically characterized by multilocus sequence typing, spa-typing, ribosomal spacer-PCR, and also tested for the presence of specific virulence genes and for their phenotypical antimicrobial susceptibility by broth microdilution method. Different clonal complex (CC) and spa-types were identified, including CC398, CC97, and CC1, CC already reported in livestock animals in Italy. The MRSA isolates from quarter milk of farm A and B mostly belonged to CC97 and CC398, respectively. Both lineages were also identified in humans in farm A. The CC97 and CC398 quarter milk isolates were also identified as genotype GTBE and GTAF by ribosomal spacer-PCR respectively, belonging to distinct clusters with specific virulence and resistance patterns. The GTBE and GTAF clusters also

  16. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in Norwegian swine herds 2009/10: the risk of human to swine transmission.

    PubMed

    Grøntvedt, Carl Andreas; Er, Chiek; Gjerset, Britt; Hauge, Anna Germundsson; Brun, Edgar; Jørgensen, Anne; Lium, Bjørn; Framstad, Tore

    2013-07-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infection in humans and pigs, and some serotypes can be transmitted between these species. The emergence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections in the spring of 2009 quickly led to a worldwide pandemic in humans, with subsequent introduction of the virus to pig populations. Following a widespread infection in the human population in Norway, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was introduced to the influenza A naïve Norwegian pig population, and within a few months pigs in more than one third of Norwegian swine herds had antibodies against the virus. A cross-sectional study was performed on all swine nucleus and multiplier herds in Norway to analyze risk factors for introduction of infection, and the preventive effects of recommended biosecurity practices. A surveillance program provided information on infection status of the study herds, and a questionnaire was administered to all 118 nucleus and multiplier herds to collect information on herd variables. The surveillance program revealed that pigs in 42% of the herds had antibodies against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. The incidence of serologically positive pigs was similar in both multiplier herds (41%) and closed nucleus herds (43%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that presence of farm staff with influenza-like illness (ILI) (OR=4.15, CI 1.5-11.4, p=0.005) and herd size (OR=1.01, CI 1-1.02, p=0.009) were risk factors for infection. The rapid and widespread seroconversion for antibodies against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in the Norwegian pig population can be explained by the emergence of a novel virus that is readily transmitted between people and swine in a largely susceptible population of humans, and an entirely naïve population of pigs.

  17. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Commercial Swine Herds Is Associated with Disinfectant and Zinc Usage

    PubMed Central

    Friendship, Robert M.; Weese, J. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) originating from swine is concerning for public health, but an understanding of the emergence and persistence of MRSA in nursery herds is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine whether MRSA in nursery pigs is associated with particular herd-level parameters, including the use of antimicrobials, disinfectants, and heavy metals, which may be driving the selection and persistence of antimicrobial resistance. Nasal cultures for MRSA were completed for 390 pigs from 26 farms at the end of the suckling phase and again at 3 weeks postweaning. Herd-level information was collected, and a random subset of MRSA isolates was screened for resistance to zinc and quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Multivariate analysis revealed that in-feed concentrations of zinc (P < 0.001) and frequent disinfection of nursery pens (P < 0.001) are associated with MRSA shedding in nursery pigs. Furthermore, 62.5% (25/40) of MRSA isolates carried the zinc resistance gene czrC and demonstrated decreased susceptibility to zinc. All MRSA isolates carried at least 1 QAC resistance gene. The most common genotype was qacG qacH smr, which occurred in 32.5% (13/40) of isolates. Seven isolates (17.5%) demonstrated a significant tolerance to benzalkonium chloride, indicating a potential to survive commercial QAC exposure in the presence of organic matter. Overall, these findings indicate that high levels of in-feed zinc and QAC-based disinfectants are important drivers in the selection and persistence of MRSA in commercial swine herds, and these agents may be coselecting for other antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:25662976

  18. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated from Swine Herds in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mirajkar, Nandita S.; Davies, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered “Brachyspira hampsonii,” have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility trends of four Brachyspira species originating from U.S. swine herds and to investigate their associations with the bacterial species, genotypes, and epidemiological origins of the isolates. We evaluated the susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae, B. hampsonii, Brachyspira pilosicoli, and Brachyspira murdochii to tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, and tylosin by broth microdilution and that to carbadox by agar dilution. In general, Brachyspira species showed high susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, and carbadox, heterogeneous susceptibility to doxycycline, and low susceptibility to lincomycin and tylosin. A trend of decreasing antimicrobial susceptibility by species was observed (B. hampsonii > B. hyodysenteriae > B. murdochii > B. pilosicoli). In general, Brachyspira isolates from the United States were more susceptible to these antimicrobials than were isolates from other countries. Decreased antimicrobial susceptibility was associated with the genotype, stage of production, and production system from which the isolate originated, which highlights the roles of biosecurity and husbandry in disease prevention and control. Finally, this study also highlights the urgent need for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved clinical breakpoints for Brachyspira species, to facilitate informed therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:27252458

  19. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated from Swine Herds in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mirajkar, Nandita S; Davies, Peter R; Gebhart, Connie J

    2016-08-01

    Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered "Brachyspira hampsonii," have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility trends of four Brachyspira species originating from U.S. swine herds and to investigate their associations with the bacterial species, genotypes, and epidemiological origins of the isolates. We evaluated the susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae, B. hampsonii, Brachyspira pilosicoli, and Brachyspira murdochii to tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, and tylosin by broth microdilution and that to carbadox by agar dilution. In general, Brachyspira species showed high susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, and carbadox, heterogeneous susceptibility to doxycycline, and low susceptibility to lincomycin and tylosin. A trend of decreasing antimicrobial susceptibility by species was observed (B. hampsonii > B. hyodysenteriae > B. murdochii > B. pilosicoli). In general, Brachyspira isolates from the United States were more susceptible to these antimicrobials than were isolates from other countries. Decreased antimicrobial susceptibility was associated with the genotype, stage of production, and production system from which the isolate originated, which highlights the roles of biosecurity and husbandry in disease prevention and control. Finally, this study also highlights the urgent need for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved clinical breakpoints for Brachyspira species, to facilitate informed therapeutic and control strategies. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Pneumonia in Saskatchewan Swine: Abattoir Incidence of Intrathoracic Lesions in Pigs from a Herd Infected with Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae and from Other Herds

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, J. R.; Osborne, A. D.; K-Sebunya, T.

    1981-01-01

    A 1978-79 survey of the incidence of thoracic cavity lesions at slaughter had shown that the overall incidence of pleurisy in Saskatchewan swine was low (2%). Therefore, in the summer of 1979 a comparison was made between the incidence of pleurisy in a herd of pigs chronically affected with Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae pneumonia and in animals from other herds slaughtered at the same time. The incidence of pleurisy in control pigs (3.6%) was slightly higher than in the large scale survey but in the pigs from the Haemophilus infected herd it was almost four times as great (13.3%). In the same herd the survivors of a batch of pigs which had been decimated by more severe disease showed an incidence of 32% pleurisy. The economic implications of these findings are detailed and discussed. PMID:7340926

  1. Estimating the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in swine herds--influence of sensitivity and specificity of Salmonella detection.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, G; Blaha, T; Methner, U

    2002-11-01

    Information about the proportion of truly Salmonella-free herds is required for an evaluation of the epidemiological situation, the development of control strategies and their implementation. Findings regarding the presence of salmonellas in faeces and intestinal lymph nodes as well as the presence of Salmonella antibodies in meat juice from slaughtered pigs were obtained in the context of a study conducted by a number of institutes. These data were used for an analysis of the validity of data on the prevalence of infected animals within herds and on the prevalence of infected herds. The proportion of batches or herds with exclusively negative individual findings was found to depend not only on the true proportion of truly Salmonella-free animals within herds but quite essentially also on the distribution of the proportion of infected animals within herds, the sensitivity of the methods of examination and sample sizes. When taking into account the existing dependencies, it was found that among the swine, the real numbers of Salmonella carriers were much higher than shown by bacteriological and serological examination. Regarding salmonellosis in swine, also a number of contaminated herds must be expected which is far higher than that shown by the number of herds with positive findings in at least one animal. Even a low contamination of all or almost all herds would result in the numbers of 'negative' batches observed, i.e. batches with exclusively negative individual findings. A rating of the salmonella exposure of herds as high, low, or very low is possible and may, and should be, used for measures of consumer protection, irrespective of the proportion of truly Salmonella-free herds.

  2. Adoption and consistency of application of premilking preparation in Ontario dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Belage, E; Dufour, S; Shock, D A; Jones-Bitton, A; Kelton, D F

    2017-03-02

    Milking management practices that affect udder health have been widely studied, leading to a variety of evidence-based recommendations. Lack of adoption or inconsistency in milking practices can interfere with efforts to prevent mastitis in the herd. The study objective was to assess the variation in adoption and application consistency of important milk harvest practices between and within farms over time. During the summer of 2013, 50 herds in southern Ontario were visited twice within a month, at milking time, and a single person observed and time-recorded premilking preparation procedures. A generalized mixed model was used to partition the variance for predisinfectant contact time and preparation lag time (time between the first contact with the teats and cluster attachment), and determine the proportion of variation attributable to farms, milkers, visits, and characteristics of a cow milking. Using logistic regression, models were built to assess factors affecting adequate contact time and adequate preparation lag time, respectively. Farm, the person(s) milking, and visit number were used as random effects in both instances. In both models, farm-to-farm differences and variations between cows during a specific milking accounted for the largest part of the variability seen in both contact time (47 and 44%, respectively) and preparation lag time (40 and 36%, respectively). For both outcomes, milkers were consistent in their routines over the 2 visits (only 9 and 3.1% of total variance for contact and preparation lag time, respectively). Parlors were more likely to meet the recommended contact time than tie-stalls; increased number of milkers at milking time and having contact times under 30 s had negative effects on meeting recommended preparation lag time. The majority of farms in the study complied with the recommendations for adequate milking practices; however, most did not follow a consistent timed protocol. There are several potential sources of variation

  3. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis from Ontario swine.

    PubMed

    Glass-Kaastra, Shiona K; Pearl, David L; Reid-Smith, Richard J; McEwen, Beverly; Slavic, Durda; Fairles, Jim; McEwen, Scott A

    2014-10-01

    Susceptibility results for Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis isolated from swine clinical samples were obtained from January 1998 to October 2010 from the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, and used to describe variation in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to 4 drugs of importance in the Ontario swine industry: ampicillin, tetracycline, tiamulin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Four temporal data-analysis options were used: visualization of trends in 12-month rolling averages, logistic-regression modeling, temporal-scan statistics, and a scan with the "What's strange about recent events?" (WSARE) algorithm. The AMR trends varied among the antimicrobial drugs for a single pathogen and between pathogens for a single antimicrobial, suggesting that pathogen-specific AMR surveillance may be preferable to indicator data. The 4 methods provided complementary and, at times, redundant results. The most appropriate combination of analysis methods for surveillance using these data included temporal-scan statistics with a visualization method (rolling-average or predicted-probability plots following logistic-regression models). The WSARE algorithm provided interesting results for quality control and has the potential to detect new resistance patterns; however, missing data created problems for displaying the results in a way that would be meaningful to all surveillance stakeholders.

  4. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis from Ontario swine

    PubMed Central

    Glass-Kaastra, Shiona K.; Pearl, David L.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; McEwen, Beverly; Slavic, Durda; Fairles, Jim; McEwen, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibility results for Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis isolated from swine clinical samples were obtained from January 1998 to October 2010 from the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, and used to describe variation in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to 4 drugs of importance in the Ontario swine industry: ampicillin, tetracycline, tiamulin, and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole. Four temporal data-analysis options were used: visualization of trends in 12-month rolling averages, logistic-regression modeling, temporal-scan statistics, and a scan with the “What’s strange about recent events?” (WSARE) algorithm. The AMR trends varied among the antimicrobial drugs for a single pathogen and between pathogens for a single antimicrobial, suggesting that pathogen-specific AMR surveillance may be preferable to indicator data. The 4 methods provided complementary and, at times, redundant results. The most appropriate combination of analysis methods for surveillance using these data included temporal-scan statistics with a visualization method (rolling-average or predicted-probability plots following logistic-regression models). The WSARE algorithm provided interesting results for quality control and has the potential to detect new resistance patterns; however, missing data created problems for displaying the results in a way that would be meaningful to all surveillance stakeholders. PMID:25355992

  5. A Delphi exercise used to identify potential causes of variation in litter size of Ontario swine

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, Catherine E.; Martin, S. Wayne; Friendship, Robert M.; Kennedy, Brain

    1992-01-01

    Forty-eight people, considered to the swine experts, were asked to collaborate in a Delphi exercise to identify the factors which they believed affect litter size in Ontario swine. The panel included 16 animal scientists, 16 pork producers, and 16 veterinarians in swine practice. The ten factors with the highest ratings were parity of the sow, mycotoxins in the feed, infections with porcine parvovirus or Leptospira spp., breeding gilts on their second versus first observed estrus, the timing of breeding with respect to the onset of estrus, purebred versus crossbred sows, boar overuse (bred by a boar that was mated more than six times per week), pen versus hand mating, age of gilt when first bred, and body condition of the sow at the time of conception. The experts did not agree about the effect on litter size of the sow's previous lactation, factors ensuring adequate nutrient intake during lactation, health of the sow and the boar, breed of a purebred sow, or the ease of mating the sow. Key items in the use of the Delphi technique to arrive at a consensus are discussed. PMID:17423928

  6. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Japanese encephalitis virus genotype III is still prevalent in swine herds in Sichuan province in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rui; Wang, Qiao; Liu, Hongming; Chai, Chunxia; He, Bo; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Yiping; Wen, Xintian; Yan, Qiguai; Ma, Xiaoping; Cao, Sanjie

    2016-06-01

    The genome of JEV strain SC201301, which was isolated from an aborted fetal piglet in 2013 in Sichuan province in China, was completely sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Sequence alignments showed that the SC201301 strain shared 97-100% sequence identity with other genotype III strains but showed less similarity to genotype I representative JEVs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the SC201301 strain belonged to genotype III and was most closely related to representative strains such as SA14-14-2, HW and SH0601. Our findings suggest that JEV genotype III is still prevalent in swine herds in Sichuan province in China, and thus, there is an urgent need to monitor the infection status of JEV among swine herds in China.

  7. Seroprevalence of and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in the US swine herd using sera collected during the National Animal Health Monitoring Survey (Swine 2006).

    PubMed

    Hill, D E; Haley, C; Wagner, B; Gamble, H R; Dubey, J P

    2010-02-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) initiated the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) in 1983 to collect, analyse and disseminate data on animal health, management and productivity in US domestic livestock populations, including swine. The programme includes an on-farm serological sampling component which can be used to monitor seroprevalence of various pathogens, including Toxoplasma gondii. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in grower/finisher pigs using sera collected during NAHMS Swine 2006 and to determine farm level factors associated with differences in seroprevalence on farms where sera was collected during the Swine 2006 survey. Sera and data on management practices for this study were collected from 185 grower/finisher swine production sites located in 16 states accounting for > 90% of US swine production (Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas and Wisconsin). A total of 6238 sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a commercial ELISA assay (Vet. Parasitol.128, 2005, 177). Seroprevalence in this study, as determined by ELISA, was 2.6%, with a herd prevalence of 21.6% and a mean within-herd prevalence of 2.7%. Analysis of swine management practices indicated that rodent control methods and carcass disposal methods were associated with differences in the number of T. gondii positive samples on farm. These results are consistent with current epidemiological knowledge of the transmission of Toxoplasma on the farm (ingestion of organic matter containing oocysts, or ingestion of infected animal tissues). Production practices which eliminate these sources of exposure can reduce the risk of Toxoplasma infection in pigs, and reduce the likelihood of human infection from consumption of infected pork.

  8. The emergence of a new strain of porcine circovirus-2 in Ontario and Quebec swine and its association with severe porcine circovirus associated disease — 2004–2006

    PubMed Central

    Carman, Susy; Cai, Hugh Y.; DeLay, Josepha; A.Youssef, Sameh; McEwen, Beverly J.; Gagnon, Carl A.; Tremblay, Donald; Hazlett, Murray; Lusis, Peter; Fairles, Jim; Alexander, Hazel S.; van Dreumel, Tony

    2008-01-01

    In the late fall of 2004 more severe lesions of porcine circovirus-2 associated disease (PCVAD) than usual occurred during an outbreak of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) infection in Ontario nursery and grower/finisher pigs. The lesions were of unprecedented severity and included diffuse bronchointerstitial pneumonia, granulomatous enteritis, vasculitis, interstitial nephritis, and new lesions of splenic infarction. Some affected herds had up to 50% mortality. The outbreak correlated with the sudden emergence of a variant PCV-2, with PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) type 321. Phylogenetic comparison of ORF2 sequences and full genome sequences showed the new variant to be different from the previously dominant RFLP type 422 viruses, and similar to viruses that had occurred in France and other European and Asian countries. A subsequent retrospective study showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of histological lesions in lymph node, spleen, lung, small intestine, colon and kidney, for pigs spontaneously infected with RFLP type 321, compared with the older RFLP type 422 strain. Viral burden, based on IHC staining in lymph node, also showed a statistically significant increase in pigs infected with the newer variant RFLP type 321, compared with the older RFLP type 422 strain. This enhanced virulence in pigs infected with PCV-2 RFLP type 321 strain may be related to the genetic differences in this new strain of PCV-2. This virus is now the dominant strain of PCV-2 virus found in Ontario and Quebec swine. PMID:18505190

  9. Evaluation of recombinant Bhlp29.7 as an ELISA antigen for detecting pig herds with swine dysentery.

    PubMed

    La, Tom; Phillips, Nyree D; Hampson, David J

    2009-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) results from infection of the porcine large intestine with the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Diagnosis of SD traditionally has relied on detecting the spirochaete in the faeces of acutely affected pigs. To date simple and reliable serological assays that can be applied as a diagnostic tool at the herd level have not been available. In the current study a recombinant histidine tagged 29.7 kDa lipoprotein of B. hyodysenteriae (His6-Bhlp29.7) was used as an ELISA plate-coating antigen. Sera (n=1121) from slaughter-aged pigs on 19 farms were tested in this ELISA. Following optimization of the ELISA conditions using hyperimmune control sera, a set of 464 sera from slaughter-aged pigs from five herds where SD did not occur was tested. From these results a suitable cut-off value for herd negativity was defined as the mean optical density reading plus three standard deviations. Testing of 337 pig sera from six farms with SD then showed that the sensitivity of the test at the herd level was 100%, with all six farms having one or more serum samples exceeding the cut-off value for negativity. Finally, 320 sera from eight herds suspected of having SD were examined. Four of these herds were shown to have pigs with titres consistent with SD. The true health status of the other four herds that were serologically negative could not be confirmed. In conclusion, when used on sets of 40 sera from slaughter-aged pigs the His6-Bhlp29.7 ELISA as established proved to be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of SD at the herd level.

  10. Pig and herd level prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Ontario finisher pigs in 2001, 2003, and 2004

    PubMed Central

    Poljak, Zvonimir; Dewey, Catherine E.; Friendship, Robert M.; Martin, S. Wayne; Christensen, Jette; Ojkic, Davor; Wu, John; Chow, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the apparent and true prevalence of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in Ontario finisher pigs. During the study period (2001 to 2004), sera from 6048 pigs were tested with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); 103 farms were included 1 to 3 times in the study. True prevalence was estimated using a Bayesian approach. Apparent prevalence at the pig level was 1.59% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.45, 2.99] in 2001, 0.06% (95% CI: 0.00, 0.46) in 2003, and 0.26% (95% CI: 0.00, 0.82) in 2004. Apparent prevalence at the herd-level was 13.7% (95% CI: 7.5, 22.3) in 2001; 1.25% (95% CI: 0.03, 6.77) in 2003, and 3.75% (95% CI: 0.78, 10.6) in 2004. Similarly, posterior Bayesian estimates of true prevalence at the pig level were 1.7% [95% probability interval (PI): 1.2, 2.2] in 2001, 0.2% (95% PI: 0.04, 0.4) in 2003, and 0.3% (95% PI: 0.1, 0.7) in 2004. At the herd level, posterior estimates of prevalence were 11.6% (95% PI: 7.4, 16.8) in 2001, 0% (95% PI: 0.0, 2.5) in 2003, and 1.2% (95% PI: 0.0, 5.0) in 2004 when a herd cut-point ≥ 1 was used. Exposure to T. gondii in finishing pig farms in Ontario appears to be infrequent. PMID:18783018

  11. Emergence and characterisation of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in Hungarian swine herds.

    PubMed

    Bálint, Adám; Kiss, István; Bányai, Krisztián; Biksi, Imre; Szentpáli-Gavallér, Katalin; Magyar, Tibor; Jankovics, István; Rózsa, Mónika; Szalai, Bálint; Takács, Mária; Tóth, Adám György; Dán, Adám

    2013-03-01

    In 2010, two novel porcine H1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from pigs with influenza-like illness in Hungarian swine herds. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of these strains revealed that they shared molecular features with the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus strains, which emerged globally during 2009. The PB2, HA and NA genes contained unique amino acid changes compared to the available new H1N1 influenza virus sequences of pig origin. Furthermore, the investigated strains could be separated with respect to parallel amino acid substitutions affecting the polymerase genes (PB2, PB1 and PA) and the nucleoprotein (NP) gene, supporting the proposed complementarities between these proteins, all required for the viral fitness. Molecular characterisation of two Hungarian human pandemic H1N1 isolates was also performed, so that we could compare contemporaneous strains of different host species origins. Shared molecular motifs in various genes of animal and human influenza strains suggested that the Hungarian porcine strains could have originated from humans through direct interspecies transmission. This study is among the few that support the natural human-to-pig transmission of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.

  12. Distribution and genetic characterization of Enterovirus G and Sapelovirus A in six Spanish swine herds.

    PubMed

    Vilar, M J; Peralta, B; García-Bocanegra, I; Simon-Grifé, M; Bensaid, A; Casal, J; Segalés, J; Pina-Pedrero, S

    2016-04-02

    The prevalence of Enterovirus G (EV-G) and Sapelovirus A (PSV-1) was investigated in Spanish swine herds by means of cross-sectional studies. Faecal samples from clinically healthy pigs were collected from six farms, and analysed by RT-PCR. The results indicated a high prevalence of EV-G detected in nearly all the animals older than 3 weeks of age. Otherwise, PSV-1 was only detected in 3-week-old piglets from one of the farms. Genetic analyses performed in the VP1 region of the EV-G indicated circulation of diverse strains in the same farm, related to genotypes G1, G2, G3, G4, G6, G9, G12, G13 and G14. Moreover, co-infection of several PSV-1 variants in the same animal was evident, typical of viral quasispecies. Evolutionary pressure analysis indicated that microevolution of PSV-1 seems to be driven by negative selection. This study gives further insights in the epidemiology of EV-G and PSV-1. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Detection and characterization of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. on swine farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Farzan, Abdolvahab; Parrington, Lorna; Coklin, Tatjana; Cook, Angela; Pintar, Katarina; Pollari, Frank; Friendship, Robert; Farber, Jeffrey; Dixon, Brent

    2011-11-01

    As part of the C-EnterNet surveillance program of the Public Health Agency of Canada, 122 pooled swine manure samples from 10 farms in Ontario, Canada were collected and tested for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia duodenalis cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected using immunofluorescence microscopy. Nested-polymerase chain reaction protocols were performed to amplify the small subunit rRNA gene and the β-giardin gene for G. duodenalis, and the small subunit rRNA gene and the heat shock protein-70 gene for Cryptosporidium spp. The DNA amplicons were sequenced to determine genotypes and species. A mixed multivariable method was used to compare the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in different stages of production. Both Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were present on all tested farms, with 50.8% of the samples positive for G. duodenalis and 44.3% positive for Cryptosporidium spp. by microscopy, and 66.4% and 55.7%, respectively, positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). No significant agreement was observed between microscopy and PCR method to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium (p<0.05). The prevalence of Giardia in manure pits and finisher pigs did not differ (p>0.05), however, it was less frequent (odds ratio, OR=0.21 [0.07, 0.63]) among sows. Cryptosporidium was more likely (OR=3.6 [1.3, 9.9]) to be detected in manure pits and weaners (OR=3.3 [1.1, 10.0]) compared to finisher pigs, and it was less frequent (OR=0.06 [0.007, 0.55]) in sows than in finishers (p<0.05). DNA sequencing demonstrated that 92.1% of the Giardia isolates were Assemblage B and 7.9% were Assemblage E. The most prevalent Cryptosporidium were Cryptosporidium parvum (55.4%), and Cryptosporidium sp. pig genotype II (37.5%). These findings indicate that the occurrence of zoonotic isolates of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium is very high on swine farms in southern Ontario, and that there is a potential for transmission between swine and humans by means of cyst

  14. Sampling and Pooling Methods for Capturing Herd Level Antibiotic Resistance in Swine Feces using qPCR and CFU Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Mellerup, Anders; Ståhl, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to define the sampling level and method combination that captures antibiotic resistance at pig herd level utilizing qPCR antibiotic resistance gene quantification and culture-based quantification of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria. Fourteen qPCR assays for commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were developed, and used to quantify antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA from swine fecal samples that were obtained using different sampling and pooling methods. In parallel, the number of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria was determined in the same swine fecal samples. The results showed that the qPCR assays were capable of detecting differences in antibiotic resistance levels in individual animals that the coliform bacteria colony forming units (CFU) could not. Also, the qPCR assays more accurately quantified antibiotic resistance genes when comparing individual sampling and pooling methods. qPCR on pooled samples was found to be a good representative for the general resistance level in a pig herd compared to the coliform CFU counts. It had significantly reduced relative standard deviations compared to coliform CFU counts in the same samples, and therefore differences in antibiotic resistance levels between samples were more readily detected. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe sampling and pooling methods for qPCR quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA extracted from swine feces. PMID:26114765

  15. Sampling and Pooling Methods for Capturing Herd Level Antibiotic Resistance in Swine Feces using qPCR and CFU Approaches.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Gunilla Veslemøy; Mellerup, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Ståhl, Marie; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Angen, Øystein

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to define the sampling level and method combination that captures antibiotic resistance at pig herd level utilizing qPCR antibiotic resistance gene quantification and culture-based quantification of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria. Fourteen qPCR assays for commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were developed, and used to quantify antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA from swine fecal samples that were obtained using different sampling and pooling methods. In parallel, the number of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria was determined in the same swine fecal samples. The results showed that the qPCR assays were capable of detecting differences in antibiotic resistance levels in individual animals that the coliform bacteria colony forming units (CFU) could not. Also, the qPCR assays more accurately quantified antibiotic resistance genes when comparing individual sampling and pooling methods. qPCR on pooled samples was found to be a good representative for the general resistance level in a pig herd compared to the coliform CFU counts. It had significantly reduced relative standard deviations compared to coliform CFU counts in the same samples, and therefore differences in antibiotic resistance levels between samples were more readily detected. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe sampling and pooling methods for qPCR quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA extracted from swine feces.

  16. Longitudinal Study of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium Infection in Three Danish Farrow-to-Finish Swine Herds

    PubMed Central

    Kranker, Søren; Alban, Lis; Boes, Jaap; Dahl, Jan

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal study of the infection dynamics of Salmonella enterica was carried out with three Danish farrow-to-finish swine herds. To account for variations in Salmonella shedding over time, litters from each herd were divided into two cohorts. Each cohort consisted of 30 pigs, for a total of 180 pigs. Pigs were individually monitored by monthly bacteriologic and serologic examinations from weaning to slaughter. At weaning, individual sows were examined bacteriologically and serologically. At slaughter, cecal contents, ileocecal lymph nodes, and carcass swab samples were obtained from 131 pigs. A total of 88 pigs were found to be shedding Salmonella on one or more occasions. Only the Salmonella serotype Typhimurium was detected during the study period. At weaning, no sows or piglets were found to be shedding, but a serological reaction was detected in 11 sows. The prevalence in culture peaked in the nursery and subsequently declined to undetectable levels before slaughter. The seroprevalence peaked approximately 60 days after the peak prevalence in culture. Salmonella was detected in individual fecal samples at least once in 53% of the pigs, and 62% of the pigs were seropositive more than once. Only 3.7% of all pigs were found to be culture positive on more than one occasion. Piglets from seroreacting sows had a significantly (P = 0.0339) lower probability of shedding in the nursery. Under the assumption that shedding lasted at least 1 or 2 weeks, the average shedding time was estimated to have been 18 or 26 days. An association between serology, on-farm bacteriology, and Salmonella prevalence in culture at slaughter was shown. Marked differences in prevalence in sera and prevalence in culture between cohorts and within herds were observed. These differences emphasize the need for caution when using point estimates in on-farm interventions and surveillance in subclinically infected swine herds. PMID:12791837

  17. Longitudinal study of Salmonella enterica aerotype Typhimurium infection in three Danish farrow-to-finish swine herds.

    PubMed

    Kranker, Søren; Alban, Lis; Boes, Jaap; Dahl, Jan

    2003-06-01

    A longitudinal study of the infection dynamics of Salmonella enterica was carried out with three Danish farrow-to-finish swine herds. To account for variations in Salmonella shedding over time, litters from each herd were divided into two cohorts. Each cohort consisted of 30 pigs, for a total of 180 pigs. Pigs were individually monitored by monthly bacteriologic and serologic examinations from weaning to slaughter. At weaning, individual sows were examined bacteriologically and serologically. At slaughter, cecal contents, ileocecal lymph nodes, and carcass swab samples were obtained from 131 pigs. A total of 88 pigs were found to be shedding Salmonella on one or more occasions. Only the Salmonella serotype Typhimurium was detected during the study period. At weaning, no sows or piglets were found to be shedding, but a serological reaction was detected in 11 sows. The prevalence in culture peaked in the nursery and subsequently declined to undetectable levels before slaughter. The seroprevalence peaked approximately 60 days after the peak prevalence in culture. Salmonella was detected in individual fecal samples at least once in 53% of the pigs, and 62% of the pigs were seropositive more than once. Only 3.7% of all pigs were found to be culture positive on more than one occasion. Piglets from seroreacting sows had a significantly (P = 0.0339) lower probability of shedding in the nursery. Under the assumption that shedding lasted at least 1 or 2 weeks, the average shedding time was estimated to have been 18 or 26 days. An association between serology, on-farm bacteriology, and Salmonella prevalence in culture at slaughter was shown. Marked differences in prevalence in sera and prevalence in culture between cohorts and within herds were observed. These differences emphasize the need for caution when using point estimates in on-farm interventions and surveillance in subclinically infected swine herds.

  18. An outbreak of Lawsonia intracellularis infection in a standardbred herd in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    McGurrin, M. Kimberly J.; Vengust, Modest; Arroyo, Luis G.; Baird, John D.

    2007-01-01

    An outbreak of protein-losing enteropathy associated with Lawsonia intracelluaris infection was diagnosed in 6 standardbred foals from a farm in Ontario. Wildlife exposure may have been involved in the perpetuation of disease in this outbreak. The clinical presentation, treatment, outcomes, and pathological findings are described. PMID:17966333

  19. Beef herd poisoning due to ingestion of tansy ragwort in southwestern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Robert B.; Dingwell, Randy T.

    2007-01-01

    Deaths attributed to Senecio jacobaea were investigated. The animal presented was a mature bull that was lethargic and dragging its feet. The bull was euthanized and 3 other cows died. Significantly, this disease has not been documented in Ontario before, and clinical signs of icterus or hepatoencephalopathy were not observed. PMID:17824160

  20. Distribution of Salmonella serovars and phage types on 80 Ontario swine farms in 2004

    PubMed Central

    Farzan, Abdolvahab; Friendship, Robert M.; Dewey, Catherine E.; Muckle, Anne C.; Gray, Jeff T.; Funk, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the distribution of Salmonella spp. on Ontario grower–finisher pig farms. Eighty swine farms were visited from January through July 2004. On each farm, fecal samples were collected from 5 pens, 2 rectal samples and 1 pooled sample from fresh manure on the floor per pen. Salmonella was isolated from 91 (11%) of the 800 rectal samples and 73 (18%) of the 397 pooled samples. Overall, Salmonella was recovered from 37 (46%) of the 80 farms. On each positive farm, Salmonella was cultured from 1 to 7 pigs or 1 to 5 pens. Of the 37 farms, 18, 13, 5, and 1 yielded 1, 2, 3, and 4 serovars, respectively. The most common serovars were S. Typhimurium var. Copenhagen, S. Infantis, S. Typhimurium, S. Derby, S. Agona, S. Havana, and S. enterica subsp. I:Rough-O. The 3 most frequent phage types were PT 104, PT 104a, and PT 104b. There was a statistically fair agreement between samples collected directly from pigs and pooled pen samples in determining the Salmonella status at the pen and farm level (κ = 0.6, P < 0.0001). However, in 62 pens, Salmonella status, serovars, or phage types differed between the pig and pooled pen samples. The distribution of Salmonella on the swine farms in this study indicates that, in developing an intervention strategy, priority should be given to farms positive for S. Typhimurium var. Copenhagen. Also, the variation in Salmonella status between pig and pooled pen samples deserves consideration in a sampling strategy. PMID:18214155

  1. Serosurvey of Coxiella burnetii infection in dairy goat herds in Ontario. A comparison of two methods of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, G H

    1988-01-01

    Two technical variations of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies to Coxiella burnetii were compared in this serosurvey on 20 Ontario dairy goat herds. Both a trichloracetic acid extract and a coctoantigen of purified coxiellas were used to sensitize the microtitration plates. Technical differences related to coating pH, serum dilutions tested and interpretation of results. Results agreed in 98.6% of sera examined, the differing sera were in the low titer borderline range. Only 20% of the herds had seroreactors. PMID:3349400

  2. Detection and isolation of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 from a small backyard swine herd in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Weller, Christina B; Cadmus, Kyran J; Ehrhart, E J; Powers, Barbara E; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2013-11-01

    Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 A(H1N1)pdm09 was first confirmed in pigs in the United States in October 2009. In November 2010, lungs and intestines from 2 York piglets from a small, privately owned herd were submitted to the Colorado State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. The submitting veterinarian reported rapid weight loss and signs of pneumonia in the piglets. Gross lesions included caudoventral pneumonia in both piglets, and histologic lesions in the lungs showed characteristics consistent with influenza virus and bacterial infection. Ribonucleic acid extracted from fresh lung homogenates from both piglets was positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 by a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Virus was isolated from lung homogenates from both piglets in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, as well as in 10-day-old specific pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs. Sequence analysis showed 98% homology with 2009 H1N1 human isolates from across the United States and 98% homology against two 2009 and 2010 swine isolates from Nebraska and Minnesota. The current report documents the possible transmission of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus [A(H1N1)pdm09] from a human being to a small, privately owned backyard swine herd. The owner was employed as a pharmacist, making occupational exposure to the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 a possibility.

  3. Efficacy of antibiotic treatment and test-based culling strategies for eradicating brucellosis in commercial swine herds.

    PubMed

    Dieste-Pérez, L; Frankena, K; Blasco, J M; Muñoz, P M; de Jong, M C M

    2016-04-01

    Swine brucellosis caused by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease in continental Europe. Without effective vaccines being available, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommends the full depopulation of infected herds as the only strategy to eradicate B. suis outbreaks. Using data collected from 8 herds suffering natural swine brucellosis outbreaks, we assessed the efficacy of four control strategies: (i) oxytetracycline treatment only, as a default scenario, (ii) oxytetracycline treatment combined with skin testing and removal of positive animals, (iii) oxytetracycline treatment combined with serological testing (Rose Bengal test-RBT-and indirect ELISA -iELISA-) and removal of seropositive animals and (iv) oxytetracycline treatment combined with both serological (RBT/iELISA) and skin testing and removal of positive animals. A Susceptible-Infectious-Removal model was used to estimate the reproduction ratio (R) for each strategy. According to this model, the oxytetracycline treatment alone was not effective enough to eradicate the infection. However, this antibiotic treatment combined with diagnostic testing at 4-monthly intervals plus immediate removal of positive animals showed to be effective to eradicate brucellosis independent of the diagnostic test strategy used in an acceptable time interval (1-2 years), depending on the initial number of infected animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antimicrobial drug use and related management practices among Ontario swine producers.

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, R H; McEwen, S A; Meek, A H; Friendship, R A; Clarke, R C; Black, W D

    1998-01-01

    A mail survey of swine producers in Ontario was undertaken during 1991 to describe the types, frequency, and motives for antimicrobial use. Two hundred operations that marketed fewer than 350 hogs per year, and 800 that marketed more than 350 per year were sent questionnaires, 63% of which were completed and returned. Most operations (86%) added antimicrobials to starter (weanling pig) rations, while fewer (29%) added these drugs to finisher pig rations. The most commonly used antimicrobials were tylosin, carbadox, and furazolidone in weanling pigs, and tylosin, lincomycin, and tetracycline in finishers. Water medication of grower-finisher pigs was practised on 25% of farms; 80% of farms had injected at least some grower-finisher pigs with antimicrobials in the 12 mo preceding the survey. Approximately 20% of operations that added antimicrobials to finisher rations did so for growth promotion purposes only, while others used them for disease treatment, prevention, control, or a combination of reasons. Among those not using antimicrobials in finisher rations, 83% did not believe they were necessary and 37% were concerned about the potential for residues in marketed hogs. PMID:10051955

  5. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and identification of commonly occurring haplotypes using sequence specific low and high resolution primers.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Jungersen, Gregers; Sorensen, Maria Rathmann; Ho, Chak-Sum; Vadekær, Dorte Fink

    2014-12-15

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genomic region (SLA) is extremely polymorphic comprising high numbers of different alleles, many encoding a distinct MHC class I molecule, which binds and presents endogenous peptides to circulating T cells of the immune system. Upon recognition of such peptide-MHC complexes (pMHC) naïve T cells can become activated and respond to a given pathogen leading to its elimination and the generation of memory cells. Hence SLA plays a crucial role in maintaining overall adaptive immunologic resistance to pathogens. Knowing which SLA alleles that are commonly occurring can be of great importance in regard to future vaccine development and the establishment of immune protection in swine through broad coverage, highly specific, subunit based vaccination against viruses such as swine influenza, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, foot-and-mouth-disease virus and others. Here we present the use of low- and high-resolution PCR-based typing methods to identify individual and commonly occurring SLA class I alleles in Danish swine. A total of 101 animals from seven different herds were tested, and by low resolution typing the top four most frequent SLA class I alleles were those of the allele groups SLA-3*04XX, SLA-1*08XX, SLA-2*02XX, and SLA-1*07XX, respectively. Customised high resolution primers were used to identify specific alleles within the above mentioned allele groups as well as within the SLA-2*05XX allele group. Our studies also suggest the most common haplotype in Danish pigs to be Lr-4.0 expressing the SLA-1*04XX, SLA-2*04XX, and SLA-3*04XX allele combination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Swine herds achieve high performance by culling low lifetime efficiency sows in early parity.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Ariko; McTaggart, Iain; Koketsu, Yuzo

    2011-11-01

    Sow lifetime performance and by-parity performance were analyzed using a 3 by 3 factorial design, comprising 3 herd productivity groups and 3 sow efficiency groups. Data was obtained from 101 Japanese herds, totaling 173,526 parity records of 34,929 sows, for the years 2001 to 2006. Sows were categorized into 3 groups based on the lower and upper 25th percentiles of the annualized lifetime pigs born alive: low lifetime efficiency sows (LE sows), intermediate lifetime efficiency sows or high lifetime efficiency sows. Herds were grouped on the basis of the upper and lower 25th percentiles of pigs weaned per mated female per year, averaged over 6 years: high-, intermediate- or low-performing herds. Mixed-effects models were used for comparisons. LE sows in high-performing herds had 57.8 fewer lifetime nonproductive days and 0.5 earlier parity at removal than those in low-performing herds (P<0.05). The number of pigs born alive of LE sows continuously decreased from parity 1 to 5, whereas those of high lifetime efficiency sows gradually increased from parity 1 to 4 before decreasing up to parity ≥ 6 (P<0.05). In conclusion, the LE sows have a performance pattern of decreasing number of pigs born alive across parity. The present study also indicates that high-performing herds culled potential LE sows earlier than the other herds.

  7. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections in closed swine herds: infection patterns and serological profiles.

    PubMed

    Chiers, Koen; Donné, Eef; Van Overbeke, Ingrid; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2002-04-02

    Many farrow-to-finish herds are endemically infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. In order to control the disease efficiently, a better knowledge of the ages at which pigs become infected is necessary. Furthermore, no information is available concerning the influence of maternally derived antibodies on the colonization of the upper respiratory tract. Therefore, A. pleuropneumoniae infection patterns were studied in five farrow-to-finish pig herds (A-E) with a history of pleuropneumonia. A longitudinal study was carried out in herds A and B. In these herds, piglets from sows carrying A. pleuropneumoniae in their noses or tonsils were sampled. Nasal and tonsillar swabs as well as sera, were collected from these animals at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16 (herds A and B) and 23 weeks (herd B). At these ages other pigs from the same sows were euthanized. The lungs were macroscopically examined and samples from nose, tonsils and lungs were collected at necropsy. A cross-sectional study was performed in herds C-E. In these herds nasal and tonsillar swabs, as well as sera, were taken from 10 animals of 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age. Lung, nasal and tonsillar samples were tested for the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae by routine bacteriology and PCR with mixed bacterial cultures. The sera were examined for the presence of Apx toxin neutralizing antibodies. In herd A, A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 and 10 strains were isolated, whereas serotype 2, 3, 5b and 8 strains were demonstrated in herd B. In most herds, A. pleuropneumoniae was detected in mixed bacterial cultures of tonsillar and/or nasal samples by PCR from the age of 4 weeks onwards. Colonization of the lungs and development of lung lesions was observed in 12- and 16-week-old animals of herd A and 23-week-old animals of herd B. In most herds, high antibody titres were detected in 4-week-old piglets. These titres decreased during the first 12 weeks of age, but thereafter, increased. It was concluded that PCR with

  8. Eradication of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from a swine finishing herd without total depopulation.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Mari; Laurila, Tapio; Vidgren, Gabriele; Levonen, Katri

    2011-04-01

    Using vaccination and medication, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo) was eradicated from a finishing herd without total depopulation. Altogether 3243 feeder pigs originating from Mhyo-free herds were vaccinated once using an inactivated, adjuvanted vaccine before transporting them to a Mhyo-infected finishing herd. The Mhyo-infected groups of pigs were medicated with antimicrobial agents at the time of the arrival of the first groups of Mhyo-free, vaccinated feeder pigs. The groups were operated with an all-in-all-out method in rooms with separate ventilation and slurry disposal systems. Thereafter the farmer purchased only non-vaccinated feeder pigs originating from Mhyo-free sow herds. Serology gave no positive results for 5.5 years and it was concluded that the eradication programme had been successful in producing a Mhyo-free herd without total depopulation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Network analysis of swine shipments in Ontario, Canada, to support disease spread modelling and risk-based disease management.

    PubMed

    Dorjee, S; Revie, C W; Poljak, Z; McNab, W B; Sanchez, J

    2013-10-01

    Understanding contact networks are important for modelling and managing the spread and control of communicable diseases in populations. This study characterizes the swine shipment network of a multi-site production system in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Data were extracted from a company's database listing swine shipments among 251 swine farms, including 20 sow, 69 nursery and 162 finishing farms, for the 2-year period of 2006 to 2007. Several network metrics were generated. The number of shipments per week between pairs of farms ranged from 1 to 6. The medians (and ranges) of out-degree were: sow 6 (1-21), nursery 8 (0-25), and finishing 0 (0-4), over the entire 2-year study period. Corresponding estimates for in-degree of nursery and finishing farms were 3 (0-9) and 3 (0-12) respectively. Outgoing and incoming infection chains (OIC and IIC), were also measured. The medians (ranges) of the monthly OIC and IIC were 0 (0-8) and 0 (0-6), respectively, with very similar measures observed for 2-week intervals. Nursery farms exhibited high measures of centrality. This indicates that they pose greater risks of disease spread in the network. Therefore, they should be given a high priority for disease prevention and control measures affecting all age groups alike. The network demonstrated scale-free and small-world topologies as observed in other livestock shipment studies. This heterogeneity in contacts among farm types and network topologies should be incorporated in simulation models to improve their validity. In conclusion, this study provided useful epidemiological information and parameters for the control and modelling of disease spread among swine farms, for the first time from Ontario, Canada. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The prevalence of swine enteropathogens in Brazilian grower and finish herds.

    PubMed

    Viott, A M; Lage, A P; Cruz, E C C; Guedes, R M C

    2013-05-17

    Diarrhoea among growing and finishing pigs is an important problem in many herds. The prevalence of L. intracellularis, B. pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae, Salmonella spp., enterotoxigenic E. coli, Trichuris suis and the occurrence of mixed infection were investigated. Fecal samples for forty-six herds with diarrhea or a history of diarrhea were randomly collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The enteric pathogens were detected by culture (E. coli and Salmonella sp.), PCR (L. intracellularis and Brachyspira spp.) and eggs counts (T. suis). The overall herd prevalence of L. intracellularis, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and enterotoxigenic E. coli were 19.56%, 6.52%, 10.86% respectively. Mixed infection was diagnosed in 30.43% of herds, and L. intracellularis and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium are main pathogens association (10.87%). B. pilosicoli was diagnosed only in two herds, always associated with mixed infections. B. hyodysenteriae and T. suis were not demonstrated in any sample. These pathogens have been reported world-wide but studies regarding epidemiology in Brazil are few. This study contributes to establish of prevention programs for the control enteropathogens in grower finish herds in Brazil.

  11. The prevalence of swine enteropathogens in Brazilian grower and finish herds

    PubMed Central

    Viott, A.M.; Lage, A.P.; Cruz, E.C.C.; Guedes, R.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoea among growing and finishing pigs is an important problem in many herds. The prevalence of L. intracellularis, B. pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae, Salmonella spp., enterotoxigenic E. coli, Trichuris suis and the occurrence of mixed infection were investigated. Fecal samples for forty-six herds with diarrhea or a history of diarrhea were randomly collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The enteric pathogens were detected by culture (E. coli and Salmonella sp.), PCR (L. intracellularis and Brachyspira spp.) and eggs counts (T. suis). The overall herd prevalence of L. intracellularis, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and enterotoxigenic E. coli were 19.56%, 6.52%, 10.86% respectively. Mixed infection was diagnosed in 30.43% of herds, and L. intracellularis and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium are main pathogens association (10.87%). B. pilosicoli was diagnosed only in two herds, always associated with mixed infections. B. hyodysenteriae and T. suis were not demonstrated in any sample. These pathogens have been reported world-wide but studies regarding epidemiology in Brazil are few. This study contributes to establish of prevention programs for the control enteropathogens in grower finish herds in Brazil. PMID:24159297

  12. Prevalence, distribution, and molecular characterization of Salmonella recovered from swine finishing herds and a slaughter facility in Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kich, Jalusa D; Coldebella, Arlei; Morés, Nelson; Nogueira, Mariana Gomes; Cardoso, Marisa; Fratamico, Pina M; Call, Jeffrey E; Fedorka-Cray, Paula; Luchansky, John B

    2011-12-15

    Swine can carry Salmonella strains that may be transmitted to humans by pork products. This investigation determined the distribution and types of Salmonella in 12 swine finishing herds and a slaughter facility in Santa Catarina, Brazil. A total of 1258 samples, consisting of environmental, feed, carcass, lymph node, and fecal material were collected and submitted to bacteriological isolation of Salmonella. From 487 positive samples, 1255 isolates were recovered and confirmed to be Salmonella. The distribution of positive samples was as follows: finishing pen floors 26% (16/61); feed 29% (42/143); feces 44% (52/119); pooled feces 59% (35/59); slaughter holding pens 90% (36/40); lymph nodes 46% (220/478); pre-chilled carcass surfaces 24% (24/98); and post-chilled carcass surfaces 24% (62/260). The most prevalent serovars were Typhimurium, Panama, Senftenberg, Derby, and Mbandaka. By pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, 1071 isolates were subtyped using XbaI, and duplicate isolates were removed. From the remaining 747 isolates, 163 macrorestriction profiles (pulsotypes) were identified. Six pulsotypes were considered very frequent, occurring in 33 isolates or more. The multiple correspondence analyses showed correlations between pulsotypes from shedding pigs (feces), herd environment (pen floors), and subiliac and prescapular lymph nodes and between lairage and carcass surface samples before and after chilling. All sources of Salmonella investigated contributed to the carrier state; however, pre-slaughter contamination at lairage was the variable most strongly associated with carcass contamination. A total of 59 different antimicrobial resistance profiles were observed in 572 Salmonella isolates. From these isolates, 17% (97/572) were susceptible to all 15 antibiotics tested, 83% (475/572) were resistant to at least one, and 43% (246/572) were resistant to four or more antibiotics (multi-resistant). The AmpGenKanTet profile was the most prevalent in carcass isolates and

  13. Influenza A virus in swine breeding herds: Combination of vaccination and biosecurity practices can reduce likelihood of endemic piglet reservoir.

    PubMed

    White, L A; Torremorell, M; Craft, M E

    2017-03-01

    Recent modelling and empirical work on influenza A virus (IAV) suggests that piglets play an important role as an endemic reservoir. The objective of this study is to test intervention strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of IAV in piglets and ideally, preventing piglets from becoming exposed in the first place. These interventions include biosecurity measures, vaccination, and management options that swine producers may employ individually or jointly to control IAV in their herds. We have developed a stochastic Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Vaccinated (SEIRV) model that reflects the spatial organization of a standard breeding herd and accounts for the different production classes of pigs therein. Notably, this model allows for loss of immunity for vaccinated and recovered animals, and for vaccinated animals to have different latency and infectious periods from unvaccinated animals as suggested by the literature. The interventions tested include: (1) varied timing of gilt introductions to the breeding herd, (2) gilt separation (no indirect transmission to or from the gilt development unit), (3) gilt vaccination upon arrival to the farm, (4) early weaning, and (5) vaccination strategies of sows with different timing (mass and pre-farrow) and efficacy (homologous vs. heterologous). We conducted a Latin Hypercube Sampling and Partial Rank Correlation Coefficient (LHS-PRCC) analysis combined with a random forest analysis to assess the relative importance of each epidemiological parameter in determining epidemic outcomes. In concert, mass vaccination, early weaning of piglets (removal 0-7days after birth), gilt separation, gilt vaccination, and longer periods between introductions of gilts (6 months) were the most effective at reducing prevalence. Endemic prevalence overall was reduced by 51% relative to the null case; endemic prevalence in piglets was reduced by 74%; and IAV was eliminated completely from the herd in 23% of all simulations. Importantly

  14. Risk factors for herds to test positive for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-antibodies with a commercial milk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in Ontario and western Canada.

    PubMed

    Sorge, Ulrike S; Lissemore, Kerry; Godkin, Ann; Jansen, Jocelyn; Hendrick, Steven; Wells, Scott; Kelton, David F

    2012-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify risk factors associated with i) a Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-antibody milk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAP milk ELISA)-positive herd status, and ii) the within-herd MAP milk ELISA-positive prevalence in Canadian dairy herds. This prospective cohort study was conducted between 2005 and 2009 on 226 herds in Ontario and western Canada, which participated in a voluntary risk assessment (RA)-based Johne's disease control program. Two MAP milk ELISA and risk assessments and a previsit survey were available per herd. The overall farm RA scores alone could not be used to predict whether a herd would test positive for MAP antibodies. However, the results of this study indicated that increasing the likelihood of exposing calves to MAP through certain management practices, as assessed with the RA, increased the likelihood of a herd being test-positive for MAP antibodies.

  15. Evidence for porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) in Brazilian swine herds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction Porcine bocaviruses were recently identified among swine co-infected with PCV2 (2,3) and suffering an acute-onset disease of high mortality in the United States, in pigs with PMWS in Sweden (1), and in pigs with reproductive and neurological disease in China (4). Parvoviruses are smal...

  16. The association between submission counts to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory and the economic and disease challenges of the Ontario swine industry from 1998 to 2009.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, T; Friendship, R; Pearl, D L; McEwen, B; Ker, A; Dewey, C

    2012-10-01

    An intuitive assumption is to believe that the number of submissions made to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory is dictated by the financial state of the industries using the laboratory. However, no research is available to document how the economics of a food animal industry affects laboratory submissions and therefore disease monitoring and surveillance efforts. The objective of this study was to determine if economic indices associated with the Ontario swine industry can account for the variability seen in these submissions. Retrospective swine submissions made to the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario from January 1998 to July 2009 were compiled. The following economic, demographic, and health variables impacting Ontario swine production were selected for analysis: auction price, lean-hog futures, currency exchange rate, price of corn, an outbreak of porcine circovirus type-2 associated diseases (PCVAD), government incentive program, number of farms in province, and average farm size. All independent variables identified by unconditional associations to have a significance of P≤0.2 with the outcome of monthly submission count were included in a multivariable negative binomial model. A final model was identified by a backwards elimination procedure. A total of 30,432 swine submissions were recorded. The mean frequency of monthly submissions over 139 months was 212.9 (SD=56.0). After controlling for farm size, the number of pigs in Ontario, higher submission counts were associated with a weaker CAD$ versus US$, higher auction prices, and a PCVAD outbreak (P<0.001). The results suggest that both economic volatility and disease outbreaks in the Ontario swine industry drive submissions to the laboratory. In conclusion, lab submissions are a useful source of animal health data for disease surveillance; however, surveillance activities should also monitor the economics of the industry.

  17. Detection and molecular characterization of zoonotic viruses in swine fecal samples in Italian pig herds.

    PubMed

    Monini, Marina; Di Bartolo, Ilaria; Ianiro, Giovanni; Angeloni, Giorgia; Magistrali, Chiara Francesca; Ostanello, Fabio; Ruggeri, Franco Maria

    2015-10-01

    Gastrointestinal disease is frequent in pigs, and among the different etiological agents involved, viruses are considered the leading cause of infection in this animal species. Furthermore, about half of the newly identified swine pathogens are viruses, many of which may be transmitted to humans by direct contact or by indirect transmission pathways. In this study, the prevalence of astrovirus (AstV), group A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in pigs was investigated. During 2012-2014, 242 fecal samples were collected from pigs at different production stages (5 to 220 days old) on eight swine farms located in northern, central and southern Italy. Seven out of eight farms analyzed were positive for AstV, which was detected in 163 out of 242 (67.4%) samples and was the most prevalent virus; 61 of the 163 AstV-positive animals (37.4%) had diarrhea. HEV was detected on six farms and in 45 (18.6%) of the 242 samples analyzed. Twenty-three HEV-infected pigs had diarrhea (51.1%). A lower prevalence was observed for RVA, which was found in 10 of the 242 samples (4.1%) from three positive farms, and diarrhea was present only in six infected pigs (60.0%). No swine samples were found to be positive for NoV. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of some strains representative of the different viruses detected were investigated, confirming a wide heterogeneity of viral strains circulating among pigs.

  18. Retrospective testing and case series study of porcine delta coronavirus in U.S. swine herds.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Brian J; Haley, Charles; Rovira, Albert; Main, Rodger; Zhang, Yan; Barder, Sunny

    2016-01-01

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first reported in the United States (US) in February 2014. This was the second novel swine enteric coronavirus detected in the US since May 2013. In this study, we conducted retrospective testing of samples submitted to three veterinary diagnostic laboratories where qualifying biological samples were derived from previously submitted diagnostic case submissions from US commercial swine farms with a clinical history of enteric disease or from cases that had been previously tested for transmissible gastroenteritis virus, PEDV, or rotavirus. Overall, 2286 banked samples were tested from 27 States. Samples were collected in 3 separate years and in 17 different months. Test results revealed 4 positive samples, 3 collected in August 2013 and 1 collected in October 2013. In addition, a case series including 42 operations in 10 States was conducted through administration of a survey. Survey data collected included information on characteristics of swine operations that had experienced PDCoV clinical signs. Special emphasis was placed on obtaining descriptive estimates of biosecurity practices and disease status over time of each operation. Clinical signs of PDCoV were reported to be similar to those of PEDV. The average number of animals on each operation exhibiting clinical signs (morbidity) and the average number of case fatalities was greatest for suckling and weaned pigs. Average operation-level weaned pig morbidity was greatest in the first week of the outbreak while average operation-level suckling pig case fatality was greatest in the second week of the outbreak. The survey included questions regarding biosecurity practices for visitors and operation employees; trucks, equipment and drivers; and feed sources. These questions attempted to identify a likely pathway of introduction of PDCoV onto the operations surveyed.

  19. Effect of herd size on subclinical infection of swine in Vietnam with influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Takemae, Nobuhiro; Shobugawa, Yugo; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Nguyen, Tung; Nguyen, Tien Ngoc; To, Thanh Long; Thai, Phuong Duy; Nguyen, Tho Dang; Nguyen, Duy Thanh; Nguyen, Dung Kim; Do, Hoa Thi; Le, Thi Quynh Anh; Hua, Phan Truong; Van Vo, Hung; Nguyen, Diep Thi; Nguyen, Dang Hoang; Uchida, Yuko; Saito, Reiko; Saito, Takehiko

    2016-10-10

    Influenza A viruses of swine (IAV-S) cause acute and subclinical respiratory disease. To increase our understanding of the etiology of the subclinical form and thus help prevent the persistence of IAV-S in pig populations, we conducted active virologic surveillance in Vietnam, the second-largest pig-producing country in Asia, from February 2010 to December 2013. From a total of 7034 nasal swabs collected from clinically healthy pigs at 250 farms and 10 slaughterhouses, we isolated 172 IAV-S from swine at the weaning and early-fattening stages. The isolation rate of IAV-S was significantly higher among pigs aged 3 weeks to 4.5 months than in older and younger animals. IAV-S were isolated from 16 large, corporate farms and 6 family-operated farms from among the 250 farms evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that "having more than 1,000 pigs" was the most influential risk factor for IAV-S positivity. Farms affected by reassortant IAV-S had significantly larger pig populations than did those where A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were isolated, thus suggesting that large, corporate farms serve as sites of reassortment events. We demonstrate the asymptomatic circulation of IAV-S in the Vietnamese pig population. Raising a large number of pigs on a farm has the strongest impact on the incidence of subclinical IAV-S infection. Given that only some of the corporate farms surveyed were IAV-S positive, further active monitoring is necessary to identify additional risk factors important in subclinical infection of pigs with IAV-S in Vietnam.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the U.S. swine herd using sera collected during the National Animal Health Monitoring Survey (Swine 2006)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sera and data on swine management practices was collected during the voluntary survey of 185 grower/finisher swine production sites located in 16 states accounting for >90% of U.S. swine production . A total of 6,238 sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a commercial ELISA assay; all posit...

  1. Detection of Porcine Parvovirus 2 (Ungulate Tetraparvovirus 3) Specific Antibodies and Examination of the Serological Profile of an Infected Swine Herd

    PubMed Central

    Cságola, Attila; Zádori, Zoltán; Mészáros, István; Tuboly, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus 2 (PPV2) is a member of a recently discovered group of swine parvoviruses occurring worldwide. It is frequently detected in lung samples suggesting some pathological role of the virus in diseases. To study this possibility an indirect ELISA was developed to detect PPV2 specific antibodies and to examine the serological profile of an infected swine herd where 185 serum samples collected from different age groups including sows were analyzed. According to the results maternal antibody levels decreased until 14 days of age and PPV2 specific antibodies started to rise between 28 to 43 days of age when respiratory signs were also observed in the examined swine herd. At 57 days of age the clinical signs disappeared and a rapid increase of PPV2 specific antibody levels could be measured simultaneously, peaking at 57 days of age. The viraemic status of different age groups was determined by qPCR using serum samples. At least a low level of viraemia was measured in every age group, but higher copy number of PPV2 was only detected at 57 days of age and the level decreased in older age groups. The changes in virus load and antibody levels together with the onset and decrease of clinical signs suggested that PPV2 had a role in the development of respiratory signs. PMID:26974825

  2. A serological survey of leptospirosis in Prince Edward Island swine herds and its association with infertility.

    PubMed Central

    Van Til, L D; Dohoo, I R

    1991-01-01

    A serological survey was undertaken to determine the prevalence of leptospirosis, and to investigate associations between leptospiral antibody titers, and herd measures of reproduction. Production records and leptospirosis serology were analyzed for 25 slaughter hogs from each of eleven randomly sampled farrow-finish operations on Prince Edward Island. The effect of selected leptospiral serovars on nonproductive sow days per parity (NPSD/P) and the proportion of pigs born dead was evaluated. The four most common serovars to which antibodies were detected were Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, L. bratislava, L. autumnalis and L. pomona, with respective prevalences of 57.1%, 35.1%, 3.4% and 1.5% of PEI slaughter hogs. None of these serovars was associated with increased frequency of stillbirths (p greater than 0.05). However, farms with a higher prevalence of L. bratislava antibody titers tended to have more infertility, as measured by NPSD/P (r = 0.738, p = 0.036 with Bonferroni adjustment). Also, farms with L. pomona antibody titers had higher NPSD/P than farms without L. pomona antibody titers (p = 0.0008 with Bonferroni adjustment). There was no association between NPSD/P and antibodies to either L. autumnalis or L. icterohaemorrhagiae (p greater than 0.05). PMID:1790491

  3. Herd characteristics and cow-level factors associated with Prototheca mastitis on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pieper, L; Godkin, A; Roesler, U; Polleichtner, A; Slavic, D; Leslie, K E; Kelton, D F

    2012-10-01

    Prototheca spp. are algae that cause incurable acute or chronic mastitis in dairy cows. The aim of this case-control study was the identification of cow- and herd-level risk factors for this unusual mastitis pathogen. Aseptically collected composite milk samples from 2,428 milking cows in 23 case and 23 control herds were collected between January and May 2011. A questionnaire was administered to the producers, and cow-level production and demographic data were gathered. In 58 of 64 isolates, Prototheca spp. and Prototheca zopfii genotypes were differentiated using PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. All isolates were identified as Prototheca zopfii genotype 2. The mean within-herd prevalence for Prototheca spp. was 5.1% (range 0.0-12.5%). Case herds had a significantly lower herd-level prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and a higher prevalence of yeasts than did control herds. The final logistic regression model for herd-level risk factors included use of intramammary injections of a non-intramammary drug [odds ratio (OR) = 136.8], the number of different injectable antibiotic products being used (OR = 2.82), the use of any dry cow teat sealant (external OR = 80.0; internal OR = 34.2), and having treated 3 or more displaced abomasums in the last 12 mo OR = 44.7). The final logistic regression model for cow-level risk factors included second or greater lactation (OR = 4.40) and the logarithm of the lactation-average somatic cell count (OR = 2.99). Unsanitary or repeated intramammary infusions, antibiotic treatment, and off-label use of injectable drugs in the udder might promote Prototheca udder infection.

  4. Serologic follow-up of a repopulated swine herd after an outbreak of proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Roberto M C; Gebhart, Connie J; Armbruster, Greg A; Roggow, Brian D

    2002-10-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular organism that causes porcine proliferative enteropathy, a widespread infectious disease. Very little is known about the immune response and the epidemiologic features of the disease in the field. The aims of this study were to evaluate the duration and titers of antibody specific for L. intracellularis in gilts after an outbreak of proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy (PHE), to evaluate maternal antibodies in piglets, and to evaluate seroconversion and fecal shedding in growing-finishing pigs. Thirty-six gilts in a herd that had recently experienced an outbreak of PHE, including 13 that had recovered, were bled 3 wk after the beginning of the outbreak and then every 3 wk until they became seronegative in 2 consecutive tests. Fourteen piglets from 5 gilts seropositive at farrowing and 5 piglets from 2 sows that remained seronegative were bled once or twice at the farrowing house and then every 3 wk until they reached market age. Fecal samples from these pigs were tested by polymerase chain reaction at 7 wk of age and then on the days of blood collection. After the PHE outbreak, the gilts had high serum antibody levels; the levels decreased over time, but antibody was still detectable for up to 3 mo in some animals. Four piglets from sows that were seropositive at farrowing had detectable passive antibodies up to 5 wk of age. Some nursery pigs started shedding L. intracellularis around 7 wk of age; peak shedding was observed between 13 and 16 wk. Antibody was not detected until 16 wk of age and was more often detected between 19 and 22 wk.

  5. [Serological examinations for swine vesicular disease (SVD) in a closed pig breeding herd using ELISA].

    PubMed

    Pannwitz, Gunter; Haas, Bernd; Hoffmann, Bernd; Fischer, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    In a closed pig establishment housing about 18,000 pigs, 2895 gilts were tested pre-export for SVD (swine vesicular disease) antibodies using Ceditest/PrioCHECK SVDV-AB ELISA. 130 gilts (4.5%) tested positive. In addition, 561 animals of this farm were sampled per random for SVD serology. One in 241 weaners (0.4%), eight in 150 gilts (5.3%) and 18 in 170 (10.6%) pregnant sows tested ELISA SVD-antibody positive. Of the ELISA positive samples, 23 tested positive in VNT (virus neutralization test). Of these, 20 VNT-positive animals were re-sampled two weeks later and re-tested via ELISA and VNT in different laboratories, displaying falling titres with one to two animals remaining VNT-positive. Epidemiological investigations and clinical examinations on site did not yield any evidence for SVD. 745 faecal samples taken from individual pigs and collected from pens tested negative in SVDV-RNA-PCR. 40 of these samples tested negative in virus isolation on cell culture. Pathological examinations on fallen pigs did not reveal any evidence for SVD either. After comparing our ELISA results with data recorded in the ELISA validation by Chenard et al. (1998), we propose that the published test performance is perhaps not currently applicable for the commercial test. Provided that SVD-antibody negative pigs were tested, a specificity of 99.6% in weaners, 95.5% in gilts and 89.4% in pregnant sows would appear to be more appropriate for the Ceditest/PrioCHECK SVDV-AB ELISA. Details are provided for all examined pigs regarding husbandry, breed, age, weeks pregnant and previous vaccinations. The results of other serological tests on the same sera are given. Possible clusterings of false-positive SVD-ELISA results are discussed.

  6. Presence of hepatitis E virus in a naturally infected swine herd from nursery to slaughter.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Danielle; Ward, Pierre; Gagné, Marie-Josée; Poitras, Elyse; Müller, Peter; Trottier, Yvon-Louis; Simard, Carole; Houde, Alain

    2007-06-30

    Hepatitis E virus has recently been recognized as having zoonotic potential and could be transmitted from pig to human. Pigs are identified as a potential animal reservoir and HEV is highly prevalent in the swine population around the world. In this study, the presence of HEV was investigated in 51 subjects reared on a simulated commercial farm setting from the age of 2 weeks up to slaughter. Samples were collected on four occasions: at 2, 8, and 18 weeks and between 22-29 weeks of age. Anti-HEV IgG in plasma samples, presence of HEV RNA in plasma samples and feces were monitored. At 2 weeks of age, HEV RNA was detected in feces of 6 subjects (11.8%) but not in their plasma. At 8 weeks, HEV was detected in feces of 27 subjects (52.9%) and in plasma of one subject. At 18 weeks, HEV was detected in feces of 44 subjects (86.2%) and in plasma of 24 subjects (47.1%). At slaughter time (22-29 weeks), HEV was present in plasma of 6 subjects (11.8%) and in stools of 21 subjects (41.2%). Spread of the virus inside the population was evaluated by comparison of means (paired t-test, P<0.05) of anti-HEV IgG ELISA results from the 4 bleedings. Significant differences were noted between the results of populations at 8 and 18 weeks and also between 18 and 22 to 29 weeks indicating an immune response to the virus. Based on the comparison of a 304 nucleotides sequence of the 5' ORF 2 gene, all amplified fragments clustered in genotype 3a.

  7. [Transmission of agents of the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) between swine herds: a review. Part 2--Pathogen transmission via semen, air and living/nonliving vectors].

    PubMed

    Woeste, K; Grosse Beilage, E

    2007-10-01

    The transmission of PRDC-pathogens (PRRSV, influenza virus A, PCV2, M. hyopneumoniae, A. pleuropneumoniae) between swine herds, which was summarized in the first part of the review, mainly occurs via pig movement. The risk of pathogen transmission by insemination with contaminated semen plays only a relevant role in the infection with PRRSV and PCV2. A risk of the aerogen transmission of pathogens between herds within a distance of 2 to 3 km is described for M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV. Evidence for the other pathogens is not investigated. The PRDC-pathogens are frequently detected in wild boar populations. Therefore, the transmission between wild boars and domestic pigs seems possible by close contacts. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae can be transmitted by contaminated clothes and boots, but the use of sanitation protocols appears to limit their spread. Live vectors like rodents or birds seemed to have no special importance for the transmission of PRDC-pathogens.

  8. Risk factors for stillbirth and foetal mummification in four Brazilian swine herds.

    PubMed

    Borges, Vladimir F; Bernardi, Mari L; Bortolozzo, Fernando P; Wentz, Ivo

    2005-09-12

    The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors of stillbirth and foetal mummification in 565 farrowings of four commercial pig farms in Brazil. Stillborn piglets were observed in 31.3% of the litters and the stillborn risk was 5.6%. Mummified foetuses occurred in 42.1% of the litters and the mummification risk was 3.4%. The potential risk factors were included in multivariable logistic regression models as categories: herd (1-4); parity (1, 2-5 and >5); litter size (<10, 10-12 and >12 piglets); farrowing length (< or =3 or >3h); presence of mummified foetuses (yes or no); farrowing induction (yes or no); use of oxytocin (yes or no); use of vaginal palpation (yes or no); body condition score (<3, 3 and > or =4), and placental production index (PPI) (5) which was measured as the ratio of total foetal weight to total placental weight. Duration of farrowing and use of farrowing induction, oxytocin or vaginal palpation were not included in the model that investigated the risk factors of foetal mummification. Two models were used to investigate the risk factors of stillbirth, one with and the other without the inclusion of farrowing length. When compared to sows of parity 2-5, sows of parity >5 had 1.7- and 1.6-times higher odds (P<0.05) for stillbirth in the models with and without the inclusion of farrowing length, respectively. In both models, sows with more than 12 piglets/litter had 3.6-times higher odds of stillbirth occurrence compared to sows with less than 10 piglets (P<0.05). Sows with prolonged farrowing (>3h) had 2.0-times higher odds of stillbirth occurrence than sows with short farrowing (P<0.05). Sows with more than 12 piglets/litter had 14.5-times higher odds of mummification compared to sows with less than 10 piglets (P<0.05). Sows of parities 1 and >5 had 3.5- and 2.0-times, respectively, higher odds of mummification in comparison to sows of parity 2-5 (P<0.05). Sows with low PPI had 1.7-times higher odds of mummification compared

  9. Rapid identification of herd effects with the introduction of serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine in Ontario, Canada, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Kinlin, Laura M; Jamieson, Frances; Brown, Elizabeth M; Brown, Shirley; Rawte, Prasad; Dolman, Sharon; Drews, Steven J; Fisman, David N

    2009-03-10

    In 2001, Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunization endorsed a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine, which appears to provide durable serogroup-specific immunity while reducing nasopharyngeal carriage. With reference to direct and indirect effects on case occurrence, we sought to evaluate recent trends in the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Ontario. Analyses included all IMD cases reported between 2000 and 2006 to the Ontario Central Public Health Laboratory. Poisson models incorporating terms for age, sex and seasonal oscillation identified a significant downward trend in disease occurrence, which was strongest in serogroup C cases and not evident when serogroup C strains were excluded from the analysis. Among age groups not targeted by the vaccine program serogroup C, IMD displayed a pattern of decreasing incidence that was not present in non-serogroup C disease. These apparent dramatic effects of conjugate C vaccine (both direct and indirect) may be important in the implementation and evaluation of vaccine policy in other jurisdictions.

  10. Evaluation of Control Strategies for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) in Swine Breeding Herds Using a Discrete Event Agent-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Andréia Gonçalves; Friendship, Robert; Carpenter, Jane; Greer, Amy; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a discrete event agent-based stochastic model to explore the likelihood of the occurrence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) outbreaks in swine herds with different PRRS control measures in place. The control measures evaluated included vaccination with a modified-live attenuated vaccine and live-virus inoculation of gilts, and both were compared to a baseline scenario where no control measures were in place. A typical North American 1,000-sow farrow-to-wean swine herd was used as a model, with production and disease parameters estimated from the literature and expert opinion. The model constructed herein was not only able to capture individual animal heterogeneity in immunity to and shedding of the PRRS virus, but also the dynamic animal flow and contact structure typical in such herds under field conditions. The model outcomes included maximum number of females infected per simulation, and time at which that happened and the incidence of infected weaned piglets during the first year of challenge-virus introduction. Results showed that the baseline scenario produced a larger percentage of simulations resulting in outbreaks compared to the control scenarios, and interestingly some of the outbreaks occurred over long periods after virus introduction. The live-virus inoculation scenario showed promising results, with fewer simulations resulting in outbreaks than the other scenarios, but the negative impacts of maintaining a PRRS-positive population should be considered. Finally, under the assumptions of the current model, neither of the control strategies prevented the infection from spreading to the piglet population, which highlights the importance of maintaining internal biosecurity practices at the farrowing room level. PMID:27875546

  11. A longitudinal study of Salmonella enterica infections in high-and low-seroprevalence finishing swine herds in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Wolf, P J; Lo Fo Wong, D M; Wolbers, W B; Elbers, A R; van der Heijden, H M; van Schie, F W; Hunneman, W A; Willeberg, P; Tielen, M J

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the incidence and course of Salmonella infections in finishing pig herds in order to asses the stability of a given Salmonella herd status. Five low- and 7 high-seroprevalence herds were followed for seven sampling rounds. Each round, blood and faecal samples were tested in an indirect ELISA and by bacteriological culturing, respectively. In high-seroprevalence herds a positive Salmonella status was an indication of a long-term problem and the status was relatively stable over time. The herds experiencing clinical salmonellosis were not necessarily the herds with the highest seroprevalence. It is possible to deliver sero-negative finishers to the slaughterhouse, even though these pigs were seropositive as growers. In three out of five low-prevalence herds, major infection incidents occurred, indicating that changes in the Salmonella status should be anticipated. Low-prevalence herds can remain negative over a longer period of time as a result feeding a complete liquid feed containing fermented by-products.

  12. Rapid detection of Chlamydia/Chlamydophila group in samples collected from swine herds with and without reproductive disorders.

    PubMed

    Rypula, K; Kumala, A; Lis, P; Niemczuk, K; Płoneczka-Janeczko, K; Pejsak, Z

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out in seven reproductive herds of pigs. In three of them reproductive disorders were observed. Three herds consisted of 10-50 and four consisted of 120-500 adult sows and they were called small and medium, respectively. Fifty-seven adult sows were randomly selected from herds. Serum samples were tested using the complement fixation test and swabs from both eyes and from the vaginal vestibule were examined using real-time PCR. All serum samples were negative. Infected sows were present in each of the study herds. In total, there were 28 positive samples (53%, 28/48) in real-time PCR in sows with reproductive disorders and 35 (53%, 35/66) in sows selected from herds without problems in reproduction. One isolate proved to be Chlamydophila pecorum, whereas all the remaining were Chamydia suis.

  13. Changing epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae in Ontario, Canada: evidence for herd effects and strain replacement due to Hib vaccination.

    PubMed

    Adam, H J; Richardson, S E; Jamieson, F B; Rawte, P; Low, D E; Fisman, D N

    2010-05-28

    The epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae infections was evaluated in Ontario between 1989 and 2007 to assess the impact of the introduction of the conjugate H. influenzae serotype b (Hib) vaccine in the early 1990 s on Hib and non-Hib serotypes in both vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts as well as the possibility of "strain replacement" with non-vaccine H. influenzae strains. Data were collected by the provincial Public Health Laboratories-Toronto, Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, which performed almost all serotyping on invasive (blood, CSF, other sterile sites) H. influenzae strains isolated in the province during the study period. Temporal trends for Hib, other typeable strains, and non-typeable H. influenzae were evaluated by Poisson regression, controlling for the specimen submissions. Prior to infant Hib vaccination, the most commonly observed serotype was serotype b (64.9%). Subsequently, 70.3%, 13.6%, and 9.4% of isolates were non-typeable, serotype f, and serotype b, respectively. Infant Hib vaccination resulted in a decrease in Hib incidence in all age groups (pooled IRR 0.432) and marked increases of non-typeable and serotype f H. influenzae in children aged <5 years (IRR 2.4 and 3.0, respectively). Vaccination against Hib has altered the epidemiology of invasive H. influenzae infections in Ontario. Prevention of invasive Hib disease was observed in both vaccinated and unvaccinated age groups. Invasive H. influenzae infection now commonly presents as sepsis due to non-typeable H. influenzae in older individuals. However, strain replacement of Hib with serotype f and non-typeable strains in children under 5 years was documented.

  14. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  15. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  16. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  17. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  18. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  19. Epidemiology of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Raccoons (Procyon lotor) and the Environment on Swine Farms and Conservation Areas in Southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Bondo, Kristin J; Pearl, David L; Janecko, Nicol; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Parmley, Jane; Jardine, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to livestock, human and environmental health. Although resistant bacteria have been detected in wildlife, their role in the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance is not clear. Our objective was to investigate demographic, temporal and climatic factors associated with carriage of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in raccoons and the environment. We collected samples from raccoon paws and feces and from soil, manure pit and dumpsters on five swine farms and five conservation areas in Ontario, Canada once every five weeks from May to November, 2011-2013 and tested them for E. coli and susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials. Of samples testing positive for E. coli, resistance to ≥ 1 antimicrobials was detected in 7.4% (77/1044; 95% CI, 5.9-9.1) of raccoon fecal samples, 6.3% (23/365; 95% CI, 4.0-9.3) of paw samples, 9.6% (121/1260; 8.0-11.4) of soil samples, 57.4% (31/54; 95% CI, 43.2-70.8) of manure pit samples, and 13.8% (4/29; 95% CI, 3.9-31.7) of dumpster samples. Using univariable logistic regression, there was no significant difference in the occurrence of resistant E. coli in raccoon feces on conservation areas versus farms; however, E. coli isolates resistant to ≥ 1 antimicrobials were significantly less likely to be detected from raccoon paw samples on swine farms than conservation areas and significantly more likely to be detected in soil samples from swine farms than conservation areas. Resistant phenotypes and genotypes that were absent from the swine farm environment were detected in raccoons from conservation areas, suggesting that conservation areas and swine farms may have different exposures to resistant bacteria. However, the similar resistance patterns and genes in E. coli from raccoon fecal and environmental samples from the same location types suggest that resistant bacteria may be exchanged between raccoons and their environment.

  20. Impact of Season, Demographic and Environmental Factors on Salmonella Occurrence in Raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Swine Farms and Conservation Areas in Southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Bondo, Kristin J; Pearl, David L; Janecko, Nicol; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Parmley, Jane; Jardine, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella has been detected in the feces of many wildlife species, including raccoons (Procyon lotor), but little is known about the epidemiology of Salmonella in wildlife living in different habitat types. Our objective was to investigate demographic, temporal, and climatic factors associated with the carriage of Salmonella in raccoons and their environment on swine farms and conservation areas. Using a repeated cross-sectional study design, we collected fecal samples from raccoons and environmental samples (soil, manure pits, dumpsters) on 5 swine farms and 5 conservation areas in Ontario, Canada once every five weeks from May to November, 2011-2013. Salmonella was detected in 26% (279/1093; 95% CI 22.9-28.2) of raccoon fecal samples, 6% (88/1609; 95% CI 4.5-6.8) of soil samples, 30% (21/69; 95% CI 20.0-42.7) of manure pit samples, and 23% (7/31; 95% CI 9.6-41.0) of dumpster samples. Of samples testing positive for Salmonella, antimicrobial resistance was detected in 5% (14/279; 95% CI 2.8-8.3) of raccoon fecal, 8% (7/89; 95% CI 3.2-15.5) of soil, 10% (2/21; 95% CI 1.2-30.4) of manure pit, and 0/7 dumpster samples. Using multi-level multivariable logistic regression analyses, we found location type (swine farm or conservation area) was not a significant explanatory variable for Salmonella occurrence in raccoon feces or soil (p > 0.05). However, detection of Salmonella in raccoon feces was associated with rainfall, season, and sex with various interaction effects among these variables. We detected a variety of Salmonella serovars that infect humans and livestock in the feces of raccoons indicating that raccoons living near humans, regardless of location type, may play a role in the epidemiology of salmonellosis in livestock and humans in southwestern Ontario.

  1. Descriptive analysis and spatial epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) for swine sites participating in area regional control and elimination programs from 3 regions of Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Andreia G.; Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert; Carpenter, Jane; Hand, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe demographics, basic biosecurity practices, ownership structure, and prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in swine sites located in 3 regions in Ontario, and investigate the presence of spatial clustering and clusters of PRRS positive sites in the 3 regions. A total of 370 swine sites were enrolled in Area Regional Control and Elimination projects in Niagara, Watford, and Perth from 2010 to 2013. Demographics, biosecurity, and site ownership data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and site locations were obtained from an industry organization. Status was assigned on the basis of available diagnostic tests and/or assessment by site veterinarians. Spatial dependence was investigated using the D-function, the spatial scan statistic test and the spatial relative risk method. Results showed that the use of strict all-in all-out (AIAO) pig flow and shower before entry are uncommon biosecurity practices in swine sites, but a larger proportion of sites reported having a Danish entry. The prevalence of PRRS in the 3 regions ranged from 17% to 48% and localized high and low risk clusters were detected. Sites enrolled in the PRRS control projects were characterized by membership in multiple and overlapping ownership structures and networks, which complicates the way the results of monitoring and disease management measures are communicated to the target population. PMID:26424906

  2. Descriptive analysis and spatial epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) for swine sites participating in area regional control and elimination programs from 3 regions of Ontario.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Andreia G; Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert; Carpenter, Jane; Hand, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe demographics, basic biosecurity practices, ownership structure, and prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in swine sites located in 3 regions in Ontario, and investigate the presence of spatial clustering and clusters of PRRS positive sites in the 3 regions. A total of 370 swine sites were enrolled in Area Regional Control and Elimination projects in Niagara, Watford, and Perth from 2010 to 2013. Demographics, biosecurity, and site ownership data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and site locations were obtained from an industry organization. Status was assigned on the basis of available diagnostic tests and/or assessment by site veterinarians. Spatial dependence was investigated using the D-function, the spatial scan statistic test and the spatial relative risk method. Results showed that the use of strict all-in all-out (AIAO) pig flow and shower before entry are uncommon biosecurity practices in swine sites, but a larger proportion of sites reported having a Danish entry. The prevalence of PRRS in the 3 regions ranged from 17% to 48% and localized high and low risk clusters were detected. Sites enrolled in the PRRS control projects were characterized by membership in multiple and overlapping ownership structures and networks, which complicates the way the results of monitoring and disease management measures are communicated to the target population.

  3. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative...

  4. Two years of surveillance of influenza a virus infection in a swine herd. Results of virological, serological and pathological studies.

    PubMed

    Cappuccio, Javier; Dibarbora, Marina; Lozada, Inés; Quiroga, Alejandra; Olivera, Valeria; Dángelo, Marta; Pérez, Estefanía; Barrales, Hernán; Perfumo, Carlos; Pereda, Ariel; Pérez, Daniel R

    2017-02-01

    Swine farms provide a dynamic environment for the evolution of influenza A viruses (IAVs). The present report shows the results of a surveillance effort of IAV infection in one commercial swine farm in Argentina. Two cross-sectional serological and virological studies (n=480) were carried out in 2011 and 2012. Virus shedding was detected in nasal samples from pigs from ages 7, 21 and 42-days old. More than 90% of sows and gilts but less than 40% of 21-days old piglets had antibodies against IAV. In addition, IAV was detected in 8/17 nasal swabs and 10/15 lung samples taken from necropsied pigs. A subset of these samples was further processed for virus isolation resulting in 6 viruses of the H1N2 subtype (δ2 cluster). Pathological studies revealed an association between suppurative bronchopneumonia and necrotizing bronchiolitis with IAV positive samples. Statistical analyses showed that the degree of lesions in bronchi, bronchiole, and alveoli was higher in lungs positive to IAV. The results of this study depict the relevance of continuing long-term active surveillance of IAV in swine populations to establish IAV evolution relevant to swine and humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic and pathobiologic characterization of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza viruses from a naturally infected swine herd.

    PubMed

    Weingartl, Hana M; Berhane, Yohannes; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Neufeld, James; Kehler, Helen; Emburry-Hyatt, Carissa; Hooper-McGreevy, Kathleen; Kasloff, Samantha; Dalman, Brett; Bystrom, Jan; Alexandersen, Soren; Li, Yan; Pasick, John

    2010-03-01

    Since its initial identification in Mexico and the United States, concerns have been raised that the novel H1N1 influenza virus might cause a pandemic of severity comparable to that of the 1918 pandemic. In late April 2009, viruses phylogenetically related to pandemic H1N1 influenza virus were isolated from an outbreak on a Canadian pig farm. This outbreak also had epidemiological links to a suspected human case. Experimental infections carried out in pigs using one of the swine isolates from this outbreak and the human isolate A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009 showed differences in virus recovery from the lower respiratory tract. Virus was consistently isolated from the lungs of pigs infected with A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009, while only one pig infected with A/swine/Alberta/OTH-33-8/2008 yielded live virus from the lung, despite comparable amounts of viral RNA and antigen in both groups of pigs. Clinical disease resembled other influenza virus infections in swine, albeit with somewhat prolonged virus antigen detection and delayed viral-RNA clearance from the lungs. There was also a noteworthy amount of genotypic variability among the viruses isolated from the pigs on the farm. This, along with the somewhat irregular pathobiological characteristics observed in experimentally infected animals, suggests that although the virus may be of swine origin, significant viral evolution may still be ongoing.

  6. Investigation of a pig herd with animals seropositive for classical swine fever and where porcine circovirus-associated disease had been diagnosed.

    PubMed

    Bingham, P C; McFadden, A M J; Wang, J; Kittelberger, R; Clough, R R; Tham, K M

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the cause of classical swine fever (CSF) virus-seropositive animals in a nucleus pig-breeding herd in New Zealand, where porcine circovirus-associated disease had been diagnosed. An exotic disease investigation was undertaken to exclude CSF and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) on a nucleus pig-breeding herd comprising approximately 300 breeding sows, 1,000 weaners, and 650 grower pigs. The herd was experiencing poor reproductive performance in sows, and breeding records showed a declining farrowing rate attributable to a single manager. The growing pigs (10-15 weeks old) were experiencing respiratory disease and wasting, and the mortality rate by pen varied between 9 and 20%. Post-mortem changes in affected grower pigs were consistent with circovirus-associated diseases. DIAGNOSTIC TESTING: Serological screening using an IDEXX-ELISA gave negative results for PRRS virus antibodies, but two grower pigs and one sow tested positive for CSF virus antibodies. These three seropositive animals remained positive to CSF virus, using three commercial ELISA test kits, over 27 weeks. A newly developed virus neutralisation test (VNT), using a New Zealand isolate of border disease (BD) virus, demonstrated that the seropositive pig sera had higher antibody titres to BD virus than to bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus and CSF virus. PCR performed on tonsil, kidney, ileum and spleen gave negative results for CSF virus, and histopathology on lymph nodes, intestine, lung, kidney, liver and brain showed no evidence of the disease. Virus isolation performed on a number of samples was negative. The seropositive samples for CSF virus found in this investigation were likely to be a cross reaction to a pestivirus other than CSF virus. The finding of a possible endemic pestivirus capable of being transmitted between sheep and pigs on this farm may explain findings from previous serological survey work in New Zealand, and supports experience elsewhere, where

  7. Simulating the spread of classical swine fever virus between a hypothetical wild-boar population and domestic pig herds in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Boklund, A; Goldbach, S G; Uttenthal, A; Alban, L

    2008-07-15

    Denmark has no free-range wild-boar population. However, Danish wildlife organizations have suggested that wild boar should be reintroduced into the wild to broaden national biodiversity. Danish pig farmers fear that this would lead to a higher risk of introduction of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), which could have enormous consequences in terms of loss of pork exports. We conducted a risk assessment to address the additional risk of introducing and spreading CSFV due to the reintroduction of wild boar. In this paper, we present the part of the risk assessment that deals with the spread of CSFV between the hypothetical wild-boar population and the domestic population. Furthermore, the economic impact is assessed taking the perspective of the Danish national budget and the Danish pig industry. We used InterSpreadPlus to model the differential classical swine fever (CSF) risk due to wild boar. Nine scenarios were run to elucidate the effect of: (a) presence of wild boar (yes/no), (b) locations for the index case (domestic pig herd/wild-boar group), (c) type of control strategy for wild boar (hunting/vaccination) and (d) presence of free-range domestic pigs. The presence of free-range wild boar was simulated in two large forests using data from wildlife studies and Danish habitat data. For each scenario, we estimated (1) the control costs borne by the veterinary authorities, (2) the control-related costs to farmers and (3) the loss of exports associated with an epidemic. Our simulations predict that CSFV will be transmitted from the domestic pig population to wild boar if the infected domestic pig herd is located close to an area with wild boar (<5 km). If an outbreak begins in the wild-boar population, the epidemic will last longer and will occasionally lead to several epidemics because of periodic transfer of virus from groups of infected wild boar to domestic pig herds. The size and duration of the epidemic will be reduced if there are no free-range domestic

  8. Epidemiology of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Raccoons (Procyon lotor) and the Environment on Swine Farms and Conservation Areas in Southern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Pearl, David L.; Janecko, Nicol; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Parmley, Jane; Jardine, Claire M.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to livestock, human and environmental health. Although resistant bacteria have been detected in wildlife, their role in the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance is not clear. Our objective was to investigate demographic, temporal and climatic factors associated with carriage of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in raccoons and the environment. We collected samples from raccoon paws and feces and from soil, manure pit and dumpsters on five swine farms and five conservation areas in Ontario, Canada once every five weeks from May to November, 2011–2013 and tested them for E. coli and susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials. Of samples testing positive for E. coli, resistance to ≥ 1 antimicrobials was detected in 7.4% (77/1044; 95% CI, 5.9–9.1) of raccoon fecal samples, 6.3% (23/365; 95% CI, 4.0–9.3) of paw samples, 9.6% (121/1260; 8.0–11.4) of soil samples, 57.4% (31/54; 95% CI, 43.2–70.8) of manure pit samples, and 13.8% (4/29; 95% CI, 3.9–31.7) of dumpster samples. Using univariable logistic regression, there was no significant difference in the occurrence of resistant E. coli in raccoon feces on conservation areas versus farms; however, E. coli isolates resistant to ≥ 1 antimicrobials were significantly less likely to be detected from raccoon paw samples on swine farms than conservation areas and significantly more likely to be detected in soil samples from swine farms than conservation areas. Resistant phenotypes and genotypes that were absent from the swine farm environment were detected in raccoons from conservation areas, suggesting that conservation areas and swine farms may have different exposures to resistant bacteria. However, the similar resistance patterns and genes in E. coli from raccoon fecal and environmental samples from the same location types suggest that resistant bacteria may be exchanged between raccoons and their environment. PMID:27829035

  9. Hematology and biochemistry reference intervals for Ontario commercial nursing pigs close to the time of weaning.

    PubMed

    Perri, Amanda M; O'Sullivan, Terri L; Harding, John C S; Wood, R Darren; Friendship, Robert M

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation of pig hematology and biochemistry parameters is rarely done largely due to the costs associated with laboratory testing and labor, and the limited availability of reference intervals needed for interpretation. Within-herd and between-herd biological variation of these values also make it difficult to establish reference intervals. Regardless, baseline reference intervals are important to aid veterinarians in the interpretation of blood parameters for the diagnosis and treatment of diseased swine. The objective of this research was to provide reference intervals for hematology and biochemistry parameters of 3-week-old commercial nursing piglets in Ontario. A total of 1032 pigs lacking clinical signs of disease from 20 swine farms were sampled for hematology and iron panel evaluation, with biochemistry analysis performed on a subset of 189 randomly selected pigs. The 95% reference interval, mean, median, range, and 90% confidence intervals were calculated for each parameter.

  10. Impact of Season, Demographic and Environmental Factors on Salmonella Occurrence in Raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Swine Farms and Conservation Areas in Southern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Pearl, David L.; Janecko, Nicol; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Parmley, Jane; Jardine, Claire M.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella has been detected in the feces of many wildlife species, including raccoons (Procyon lotor), but little is known about the epidemiology of Salmonella in wildlife living in different habitat types. Our objective was to investigate demographic, temporal, and climatic factors associated with the carriage of Salmonella in raccoons and their environment on swine farms and conservation areas. Using a repeated cross-sectional study design, we collected fecal samples from raccoons and environmental samples (soil, manure pits, dumpsters) on 5 swine farms and 5 conservation areas in Ontario, Canada once every five weeks from May to November, 2011–2013. Salmonella was detected in 26% (279/1093; 95% CI 22.9–28.2) of raccoon fecal samples, 6% (88/1609; 95% CI 4.5–6.8) of soil samples, 30% (21/69; 95% CI 20.0–42.7) of manure pit samples, and 23% (7/31; 95% CI 9.6–41.0) of dumpster samples. Of samples testing positive for Salmonella, antimicrobial resistance was detected in 5% (14/279; 95% CI 2.8–8.3) of raccoon fecal, 8% (7/89; 95% CI 3.2–15.5) of soil, 10% (2/21; 95% CI 1.2–30.4) of manure pit, and 0/7 dumpster samples. Using multi-level multivariable logistic regression analyses, we found location type (swine farm or conservation area) was not a significant explanatory variable for Salmonella occurrence in raccoon feces or soil (p > 0.05). However, detection of Salmonella in raccoon feces was associated with rainfall, season, and sex with various interaction effects among these variables. We detected a variety of Salmonella serovars that infect humans and livestock in the feces of raccoons indicating that raccoons living near humans, regardless of location type, may play a role in the epidemiology of salmonellosis in livestock and humans in southwestern Ontario. PMID:27611198

  11. Introduction to Swine Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Kevin

    This packet contains an instructor guide and student reference for a course in introduction to swine production. The curriculum contains the following seven lessons: (1) introduction to the swine industry; (2) breeds of swine; (3) principles of swine selection; (4) production systems; (5) herd health; (6) herd management; and (6) industry…

  12. Introduction to Swine Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Kevin

    This packet contains an instructor guide and student reference for a course in introduction to swine production. The curriculum contains the following seven lessons: (1) introduction to the swine industry; (2) breeds of swine; (3) principles of swine selection; (4) production systems; (5) herd health; (6) herd management; and (6) industry…

  13. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.6 Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or...

  14. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.6 Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or...

  15. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.6 Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or...

  16. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.6 Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or...

  17. Genetic relationships between length of productive life and lifetime production efficiency in a commercial swine herd in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Noppibool, Udomsak; Elzo, Mauricio A; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Suwanasopee, Thanathip

    2017-02-01

    Genetic parameters and trends for length of productive life (LPL), lifetime number of piglets born alive per year (LBAY), lifetime number of piglets weaned per year (LPWY), lifetime litter birth weight per year (LBWY) and lifetime litter weaning weight per year (LWWY) were estimated using phenotypic records of 3085 sows collected from 1989 to 2013 in a commercial swine farm in Northern Thailand. The five-trait animal model included the fixed effects of first farrowing year-season, breed group and age at first farrowing. Random effects were animal and residual. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.04 ± 0.02 for LBWY to 0.17 ± 0.04 for LPL. Genetic correlations ranged from 0.66 ± 0.14 between LPL and LBAY to 0.95 ± 0.02 between LPWY and LWWY. Spearman rank correlations among estimated breeding values for LPL and lifetime production efficiency traits tended to be higher for boars than for sows. Sire genetic trends were negative and significant for all traits, except for LPWY. Dam genetic trends were positive and significant for all traits. Sow genetic trends were mostly positive and significant only for LPWY and LBWY. Improvement of LPL and lifetime production efficiency traits will require these traits to be included in the selection indexes used to choose replacement boars and gilts in this population. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Efficacy of oral vaccination against swine erysipelas in growing-finishing pigs in a clinically infected Slovakian pig herd.

    PubMed

    Friendship, C R; Bilkei, G

    2007-01-01

    In a large Slovakian growing-finishing pig production unit, the effects of oral vaccination against swine erysipelas (SE) were investigated in three groups of pigs of 10 weeks of age. In group 1, the pigs were vaccinated intramuscularly at 1 and 3 weeks after arrival in the growing-finishing barn using an Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae bacterin. Group 2 pigs were vaccinated at the same time as group 1 using an oral avirulent live SE vaccine administered through drinking water; the pigs in the third group were placebo treated. Clinical signs of acute SE, arthritic changes, average daily weight gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio, and mortality were evaluated. None of the pigs in groups 1 and 2 but 31.7% of the control animals (group 3) showed typical clinical signs of acute SE. More (P<0.01) non-vaccinated pigs had chronic arthritic changes compared with groups 1 and 2. No significant differences in mortality were recorded between the groups. Groups 1 and 2 had higher (P<0.05) ADG and lower feed conversion ratios compared with group 3 pigs. The results demonstrated that the oral avirulent live culture was efficacious in significantly reducing the clinical symptoms caused by E. rhusiopathiae infection, so enhancing the pigs' performance.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. in finishing pigs in Polish farrow-to-finish swine herds.

    PubMed

    Dors, A; Pomorska-Mól, M; Czyżewska, E; Wasyl, D; Pejsak, Z

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the herd-level, within-herd prevalence, the frequency of mixed infections and risk factors for L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. in selected farrow-to-finish Polish pig herds. A total of 254 pooled fecal samples were collected from 9 to 24 week-old pigs in 70 herds. Real time PCR for detection of L. intracellularis and B. hyodysenteriae was performed. For Salmonella spp. bacteriological examination was performed. The herd-level prevalences of L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. among examined herds were 65.7%, 1.4% and 8.6%, respectively. The within-herd prevalences (in positive herds) for L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. were 51.5%, 75.0% and 30.4%, respectively. All herds with diarrhea observed during sampling were infected with L. intracellularis and 60% of herds with no diarrhea at the moment of sampling were infected with L. intracellularis (p=0.035). In herds with more than 200 sows the prevalence of Salmonella spp. was significantly higher compared to herds with less than 200 sows (p=0.027). In herds where all-in/all-out (AIAO) was respected, prevalence of L. intracellularis was significantly lower than in herds where this rule was not kept (p=0.024). Obtained results confirm that L. intracellularis is the major cause of bacterial diarrhea in finishing pigs. The present study identified AIAO and herd size as a risk factor, at the herd level, for L. intracellularis and Salmonella spp., respectively.

  20. Conception Rate and Litter Size in Multiparous Sows after Intrauterine Insemination Using Frozen-Thawed Boar Semen in a Commercial Swine Herd in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    CHANAPIWAT, Panida; OLANRATMANEE, Em-On; KAEOKET, Kampon; TUMMARUK, Padet

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to determine the conception rate and litter size in sows after fixed time intra-uterine insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen in a commercial swine herd in Thailand. Sixty-nine Landrace multiparous sows were randomly allocated into two groups, including control (n=36) and treatment (n=33). The control sows were inseminated with extended fresh semen (3 × 109 motile sperm/dose, 100 ml) at 24, 36 and 48 hr after the onset of estrus. The treatment sows were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen (2 × 109 motile sperm/dose, 20 ml) at 24 and 36 hr after induction of ovulation by human chorionic gonadotropin. All inseminations were carried out by using an intra-uterine insemination technique. The time of ovulation was determined by using transrectal real-time B-mode ultrasonography. The conception rate, farrowing rate, total number of piglets born/litter (TB) and number of piglets born alive/litter (BA) were evaluated. The sows inseminated with extended fresh semen yield a higher TB (10.8 versus 9.0 piglets/l, P=0.015) and tended to have a higher conception rate (88.9% versus 75.8%, P=0.150) than sows inseminated with frozen-thawed semen. In conclusion, insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen can be practiced with convinced fertility under field conditions by fixed-time intrauterine insemination with 2 × 109 sperm/ dose of 20 ml at 24 and 36 hr after the onset of estrus. PMID:24954517

  1. Direct and indirect contact rates among beef, dairy, goat, sheep, and swine herds in three California counties, with reference to control of potential foot-and-mouth disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Bates, T W; Thurmond, M C; Carpenter, T E

    2001-07-01

    To estimate direct and indirect contact rates on livestock facilities and distance traveled between herd contacts. 320 beef, dairy, goat, sheep, and swine herds, 7 artificial insemination technicians, 6 hoof trimmers, 15 veterinarians, 4 sales yard owners, and 7 managers of livestock-related companies within a 3-county region of California. A questionnaire was mailed to livestock producers, and personal and telephone interviews were conducted with individuals. Mean monthly direct contact rates were 2.6, 1.6, and 2.0 for dairies with < 1,000, 1,000 to 1,999, and > or = 2,000 cattle, respectively. Mean indirect contact rates on dairies ranged from 234 to 743 contacts/mo and increased by 1 contact/mo as herd size increased by 4.3. Mean direct monthly contact rate for beef herds was 0.4. Distance traveled by personnel and vehicles during a 3-day period ranged from 58.4 to 210.4 km. Of livestock arriving at sales yards, 7% (500/7,072) came from > or = 60 km away, and of those sold, 32% (1,180/3,721) were destined for a location > or = 60 km away. Fifty-five percent (16/29) of owners of large beef herds observed deer or elk within 150 m of livestock at least once per month. Direct and indirect contacts occur on livestock facilities located over a wide geographic area and at a higher frequency on larger facilities. Knowledge of contact rates may be useful for planning biosecurity programs at the herd, state, and national levels and for modeling transmission potential for foot-and-mouth disease virus.

  2. Estimating the Basic Reproductive Number (R0) for African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) Transmission between Pig Herds in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Barongo, Mike B; Ståhl, Karl; Bett, Bernard; Bishop, Richard P; Fèvre, Eric M; Aliro, Tony; Okoth, Edward; Masembe, Charles; Knobel, Darryn; Ssematimba, Amos

    2015-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious, lethal and economically devastating haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs. Insights into the dynamics and scale of virus transmission can be obtained from estimates of the basic reproduction number (R0). We estimate R0 for ASF virus in small holder, free-range pig production system in Gulu, Uganda. The estimation was based on data collected from outbreaks that affected 43 villages (out of the 289 villages with an overall pig population of 26,570) between April 2010 and November 2011. A total of 211 outbreaks met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Three methods were used, specifically; (i) GIS- based identification of the nearest infectious neighbour based on the Euclidean distance between outbreaks, (ii) epidemic doubling time, and (iii) a compartmental susceptible-infectious (SI) model. For implementation of the SI model, three approaches were used namely; curve fitting (CF), a linear regression model (LRM) and the SI/N proportion. The R0 estimates from the nearest infectious neighbour and epidemic doubling time methods were 3.24 and 1.63 respectively. Estimates from the SI-based method were 1.58 for the CF approach, 1.90 for the LRM, and 1.77 for the SI/N proportion. Since all these values were above one, they predict the observed persistence of the virus in the population. We hypothesize that the observed variation in the estimates is a consequence of the data used. Higher resolution and temporally better defined data would likely reduce this variation. This is the first estimate of R0 for ASFV in a free range smallholder pig keeping system in sub-Saharan Africa and highlights the requirement for more efficient application of available disease control measures.

  3. Longitudinal study of Clostridium difficile shedding in raccoons on swine farms and conservation areas in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bondo, Kristin J; Weese, J Scott; Rouseau, Joyce; Jardine, Claire M

    2015-10-07

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteropathogen affecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. The objectives of this study were to 1) compare the prevalence and characteristics of C. difficile isolated from the feces of raccoons trapped on swine farms and conservation sites, and 2) investigate the role of raccoons as potential reservoirs for host-adapted strains of C. difficile using a longitudinal study. Fecal swabs were collected from raccoons at 5 conservation sites and 5 swine farms, once every five weeks, from May to November, 2012. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 9 % (38/444) of samples, from 12 % (37/302) of raccoons, from all 10 sites. A total of 19 different ribotypes were identified, including 5 ribotypes that matched recognized international designations and which are also found in humans (001, 014, 056, 078, and 103). Location type (farm or conservation area) was not associated with C. difficile status (P = 0.448) but only 3 ribotypes (014, 056, and 078) were found in both location types. The prevalence of ribotype 078 was significantly higher on farms (4 %; 9/220) compared to conservation sites (1 %; 2/225) (P = 0.034). Only one of 108 raccoons caught in multiple sessions was positive on more than one occasion. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that raccoons harbour host-adapted strains of C. difficile; rather, it appears that raccoons transiently acquire C. difficile from the environment. Raccoons are unlikely to be maintaining C. difficile, but because we detected C. difficile strains that have the potential to cause illness in humans and livestock, and because raccoons can move relatively large distances, they may play a role in the dissemination of pathogenic ribotypes of C. difficile throughout the environment.

  4. Recoding classical swine fever virus (CSFV) structural glycoprotein E2 produces complete virus attenuation in swine and protects infected animals against disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Controlling classical swine fever (CSF) involves vaccination in endemic regions and preemptive slaughter of infected swine herds during epidemics. Generally, live attenuated vaccines induce solid immunity. Using diverse approaches, reverse genetics has been useful in developing classical swine fever...

  5. Suitability and limitations of portion-specific abattoir data as part of an early warning system for emerging diseases of swine in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Abattoir data have the potential to provide information for geospatial disease surveillance applications, but the quality of the data and utility for detecting disease outbreaks is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify non-disease factors that may bias these data for disease surveillance and 2) determine if major disease events that took place during the study period would be captured using multi-level modelling and scan statistics. We analyzed data collected at all provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario, Canada during 2001-2007. During these years there were outbreaks of porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and swine influenza that produced widespread disease within the province. Negative binomial models with random intercepts for abattoir, to account for repeated measurements within abattoirs, were created. The relationships between partial carcass condemnation rates for pneumonia and nephritis with year, season, agricultural region, stock price, and abattoir processing capacity were explored. The utility of the spatial scan statistic for detecting clusters of high partial carcass condemnation rates in space, time, and space-time was investigated. Results Non-disease factors that were found to be associated with lung and kidney condemnation rates included abattoir processing capacity, agricultural region and season. Yearly trends in predicted condemnation rates varied by agricultural region, and temporal patterns were different for both types of condemnations. Some clusters of high condemnation rates of kidneys with nephritis in time and space-time preceded the timeframe during which case clusters were detected using traditional laboratory data. Yearly kidney condemnation rates related to nephritis lesions in eastern Ontario were most consistent with the trends that were expected in relation to the documented disease outbreaks. Yearly lung condemnation

  6. Suitability and limitations of portion-specific abattoir data as part of an early warning system for emerging diseases of swine in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Bachli, Andrea L; Pearl, David L; Friendship, Robert M; Berke, Olaf

    2012-01-06

    Abattoir data have the potential to provide information for geospatial disease surveillance applications, but the quality of the data and utility for detecting disease outbreaks is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify non-disease factors that may bias these data for disease surveillance and 2) determine if major disease events that took place during the study period would be captured using multi-level modelling and scan statistics. We analyzed data collected at all provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario, Canada during 2001-2007. During these years there were outbreaks of porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and swine influenza that produced widespread disease within the province. Negative binomial models with random intercepts for abattoir, to account for repeated measurements within abattoirs, were created. The relationships between partial carcass condemnation rates for pneumonia and nephritis with year, season, agricultural region, stock price, and abattoir processing capacity were explored. The utility of the spatial scan statistic for detecting clusters of high partial carcass condemnation rates in space, time, and space-time was investigated. Non-disease factors that were found to be associated with lung and kidney condemnation rates included abattoir processing capacity, agricultural region and season. Yearly trends in predicted condemnation rates varied by agricultural region, and temporal patterns were different for both types of condemnations. Some clusters of high condemnation rates of kidneys with nephritis in time and space-time preceded the timeframe during which case clusters were detected using traditional laboratory data. Yearly kidney condemnation rates related to nephritis lesions in eastern Ontario were most consistent with the trends that were expected in relation to the documented disease outbreaks. Yearly lung condemnation rates did not

  7. Evaluation of the long-term effect of air filtration on the occurrence of new PRRSV infections in large breeding herds in swine-dense regions.

    PubMed

    Dee, Scott; Cano, Jean Paul; Spronk, Gordon; Reicks, Darwin; Ruen, Paul; Pitkin, Andrea; Polson, Dale

    2012-05-01

    Airborne transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a risk factor for the infection of susceptible populations. Therefore, a long‑term sustainability study of air filtration as a means to reduce this risk was conducted. Participating herds (n = 38) were organized into 4 independent cohorts and the effect of air filtration on the occurrence of new PRRSV infections was analyzed at 3 different levels from September 2008 to January 2012 including the likelihood of infection in contemporary filtered and non-filtered herds, the likelihood of infection before and after implementation of filtration and the time to failure in filtered and non-filtered herds. Results indicated that new PRRSV infections in filtered breeding herds were significantly lower than in contemporary non-filtered control herds (P < 0.01), the odds for a new PRRSV infection in breeding herds before filtration was 7.97 times higher than the odds after filtration was initiated (P < 0.01) and the median time to new PRRSV infections in filtered breeding herds of 30 months was significantly longer than the 11 months observed in non-filtered herds (P < 0.01). In conclusion, across all 3 levels of analysis, the long-term effect of air filtration on reducing the occurrence of new PRRSV infections in the study population was demonstrated.

  8. Comparison of agar dilution and E-test for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter coil isolates recovered from 80 Ontario swine farms.

    PubMed

    Varela, Norma P; Friendship, Robert; Dewey, Cate; Valdivieso, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the level of agreement of the E-test for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter coli using the agar dilution technique, which is the approved method. A convenience sample of 80 Ontario swine farms was chosen for this study; each farm was visited from January to June 2004. A total of 233 isolates of C. coli were tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials by agar dilution and the E-test. Performance of the tests was evaluated using 7 quality control strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33560, and Campylobacter coli ATCC 33559 for the E-test and E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and C. jejuni ATCC 33560 for the agar dilution test. Weighted Cohen's kappa and prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) tests were used for statistical analysis. The E-test and agar dilution test results had a strong agreement when resistance to streptomycin and tetracycline were evaluated (weighted kappa: 0.68 and 0.66, respectively). However, marked disagreement was detected when testing susceptibility to nalidixic acid and ampicillin (0.15 and 0.22, respectively). Almost perfect agreement was detected by PABAK when testing susceptibility to gentamicin (0.99). Agreement was found to be moderate for ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol. Although the level of agreement between the E-test and agar dilution depended on the antimicrobial being tested, the E-test always detected a lower proportion of resistant isolates compared to agar dilution.

  9. Comparison of Agar Dilution and E-test for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter coli isolates recovered from 80 Ontario swine farms

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Norma P.; Friendship, Robert; Dewey, Cate; Valdivieso, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the level of agreement of the E-test for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter coli using the agar dilution technique, which is the approved method. A convenience sample of 80 Ontario swine farms was chosen for this study; each farm was visited from January to June 2004. A total of 233 isolates of C. coli were tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials by agar dilution and the E-test. Performance of the tests was evaluated using 7 quality control strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33560, and Campylobacter coli ATCC 33559 for the E-test and E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and C. jejuni ATCC 33560 for the agar dilution test. Weighted Cohen’s kappa and prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) tests were used for statistical analysis. The E-test and agar dilution test results had a strong agreement when resistance to streptomycin and tetracycline were evaluated (weighted kappa: 0.68 and 0.66, respectively). However, marked disagreement was detected when testing susceptibility to nalidixic acid and ampicillin (0.15 and 0.22, respectively). Almost perfect agreement was detected by PABAK when testing susceptibility to gentamicin (0.99). Agreement was found to be moderate for ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol. Although the level of agreement between the E-test and agar dilution depended on the antimicrobial being tested, the E-test always detected a lower proportion of resistant isolates compared to agar dilution. PMID:18505206

  10. No overall relationship between average daily weight gain and the serological response to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in eight chronically infected Danish swine herds.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, M; Mousing, J; Thomsen, L K

    2001-04-13

    The association between the average daily weight gain (from approximately 4 to 20 weeks of age) and the serological responses to respiratory infections was examined in a longitudinal study including 825 pigs from eight chronically infected herds. Pigs were bled every 4th week (starting from approximately 4 weeks of age), and sera were analyzed for antibodies to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 5-7 and 12.Mixed analysis of covariance analyzed the relationship between the average daily weight gain and a categorical variable defining seroconversion as none, early or late as compared to the median time (estimated across herds) of seroconversion for the particular pathogen. The variables "gender", "weight at an approximate age of 4 weeks" and "time" (defining the exact length of the follow-up period), were included as explanatory variables, and "litter" and "herd" were included as explanatory random variables. The individual pig was the unit of concern. The variable defining time at seroconversion was not significantly associated with the average daily weight gain, when evaluating models across all eight herds. The apparent lack of effect could be because most pigs included in the study were subclinically infected, or because a temporary negative influence of the infections is hidden due to an increased growth in the period following infection. In conclusion, at least in these eight herds, seroresponses to M. hyopneumoniae and A. pleuropneumoniae could not be used to predict the effect of the pathogens on the daily weight gain.

  11. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because they... determined by the meat or breeding value of the animals. Animals may be appraised in groups, provided...

  12. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because they... determined by the meat or breeding value of the animals. Animals may be appraised in groups, provided...

  13. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because they... an APHIS employee alone. (b) The appraisal of swine will be based on the fair market value...

  14. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because they...

  15. Multiple-class antimicrobial resistance surveillance in swine Escherichia coli F4, Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis isolates from Ontario and the impact of the 2004-2006 Porcine Circovirus type-2 Associated Disease outbreak.

    PubMed

    Glass-Kaastra, Shiona K; Pearl, David L; Reid-Smith, Richard; McEwen, Beverly; Slavic, Durda; Fairles, Jim; McEwen, Scott A

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this work was to describe trends in multiple-class antimicrobial resistance present in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli F4, Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis from Ontario swine 1998-2010. Temporal changes in multiple-class resistance varied by the pathogens examined; significant yearly changes were apparent for the E. coli and P. multocida data. Although not present in the E. coli data, significant increases in multiple-class resistance within P. multocida isolates occurred from 2003 to 2005, coinciding with the expected increase in antimicrobials used to treat clinical signs of Porcine Circovirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) before it was confirmed. Prospective temporal scan statistics for multiple-class resistance suggest that significant clusters of increased resistance may have been found in the spring of 2004; months before the identification of the PCVAD outbreak in the fall of 2004. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Distribution of genotypes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Ontario during 2004-2007 and the association between genotype and clinical signs of disease.

    PubMed

    Rosendal, Thomas; Dewey, Cate; Young, Beth; Carman, Susy; Ge, Li; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2010-04-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was first proposed to classify porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in 1998. The primary objective of this study was to identify associations between different PRRSV RFLP types in swine herds in southern Ontario and clinical signs of disease in those herds. Herds included in the study submitted samples to the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph between September 2004 and August 2007. Each farm owner was surveyed to describe the clinical disease in the herd and the RFLP pattern of an isolate of PRRSV was obtained from a diagnostic sample. The most frequent isolates were RFLP types 1_4 (25.1%), 252 (14.7%), 134 (12%), and 1_2 (7.7%). The distribution of RFLP types in this study was found to be different from a previous investigation in Ontario. Those RFLP types most associated with clinical disease in the farrowing phase of production were 1_4, 1_2, and 134. The only virus type to be significantly associated with disease in the finisher phase was RFLP type 262. During the study period RFLP type 184 emerged in the population in November 2005.

  17. One-Health Simulation Modelling: Assessment of Control Strategies Against the Spread of Influenza between Swine and Human Populations Using NAADSM.

    PubMed

    Dorjee, S; Revie, C W; Poljak, Z; McNab, W B; McClure, J T; Sanchez, J

    2016-04-01

    Simulation models implemented using a range of parameters offer a useful approach to identifying effective disease intervention strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of key control strategies to mitigate the simultaneous spread of influenza among and between swine and human populations. We used the pandemic H1N1 2009 virus as a case study. The study population included swine herds (488 herds) and households-of-people (29,707 households) within a county in Ontario, Canada. Households were categorized as: (i) rural households with swine workers, (ii) rural households without swine workers and (iii) urban households without swine workers. Seventy-two scenarios were investigated based on a combination of the parameters of speed of detection and control strategies, such as quarantine strategy, effectiveness of movement restriction and ring vaccination strategy, all assessed at three levels of transmissibility of the virus at the swine-human interface. Results showed that the speed of detection of the infected units combined with the quarantine strategy had the largest impact on the duration and size of outbreaks. A combination of fast to moderate speed of the detection (where infected units were detected within 5-10 days since first infection) and quarantine of the detected units alone contained the outbreak within the swine population in most of the simulated outbreaks. Ring vaccination had no added beneficial effect. In conclusion, our study suggests that the early detection (and therefore effective surveillance) and effective quarantine had the largest impact in the control of the influenza spread, consistent with earlier studies. To our knowledge, no study had previously assessed the impact of the combination of different intervention strategies involving the simultaneous spread of influenza between swine and human populations.

  18. Description of the pig production systems, biosecurity practices and herd health providers in two provinces with high swine density in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Alawneh, J I; Barnes, T S; Parke, C; Lapuz, E; David, E; Basinang, V; Baluyut, A; Villar, E; Lopez, E L; Blackall, P J

    2014-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2011 and March 2012 in two major pig producing provinces in the Philippines. Four hundred and seventy one pig farms slaughtering finisher pigs at government operated abattoirs participated in this study. The objectives of this study were to group: (a) smallholder (S) and commercial (C) production systems into patterns according to their herd health providers (HHPs), and obtain descriptive information about the grouped S and C production systems; and (b) identify key HHPs within each production system using social network analysis. On-farm veterinarians, private consultants, pharmaceutical company representatives, government veterinarians, livestock and agricultural technicians, and agricultural supply stores were found to be actively interacting with pig farmers. Four clusters were identified based on production system and their choice of HHPs. Differences in management and biosecurity practices were found between S and C clusters. Private HHPs provided a service to larger C and some larger S farms, and have little or no interaction with the other HHPs. Government HHPs provided herd health service mainly to S farms and small C farms. Agricultural supply stores were identified as a dominant solitary HHP and provided herd health services to the majority of farmers. Increased knowledge of the routine management and biosecurity practices of S and C farmers and the key HHPs that are likely to be associated with those practices would be of value as this information could be used to inform a risk-based approach to disease surveillance and control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. One-Health Simulation Modelling: A Case Study of Influenza Spread between Human and Swine Populations using NAADSM.

    PubMed

    Dorjee, S; Revie, C W; Poljak, Z; McNab, W B; Sanchez, J

    2016-02-01

    The circulation of zoonotic influenza A viruses including pH1N1 2009 and H5N1 continue to present a constant threat to animal and human populations. Recently, an H3N2 variant spread from pigs to humans and between humans in limited numbers. Accordingly, this research investigated a range of scenarios of the transmission dynamics of pH1N1 2009 virus at the swine-human interface while accounting for different percentages of swine workers initially immune. Furthermore, the feasibility of using NAADSM (North American Animal Disease Spread Model) applied as a one-health simulation model was assessed. The study population included 488 swine herds and 29, 707 households of people within a county in Ontario, Canada. Households were categorized as follows: (i) rural households with swine workers, (ii) rural households without swine workers, and (iii) urban households without swine workers. Forty-eight scenarios were investigated, based on the combination of six scenarios around the transmissibility of the virus at the interface and four vaccination coverage levels of swine workers (0-60%), all under two settings of either swine or human origin of the virus. Outcomes were assessed in terms of stochastic 'die-out' fraction, size and time to peak epidemic day, overall size and duration of the outbreaks. The modelled outcomes indicated that minimizing influenza transmissibility at the interface and targeted vaccination of swine workers had significant beneficial effects. Our results indicate that NAADSM can be used as a framework to model the spread and control of contagious zoonotic diseases among animal and human populations, under certain simplifying assumptions. Further evaluation of the model is required. In addition to these specific findings, this study serves as a benchmark that can provide useful input to a future one-health influenza modelling studies. Some pertinent information gaps were also identified. Enhanced surveillance and the collection of high

  20. Seroprevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in different swine populations in 3 provinces in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Marie-Anne; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Rajic, Andrijana; Ravel, André; Wilson, Jeff B.; Aramini, Jeff; McClure, Carol A.; Dick, C. Paul

    2007-01-01

    Porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis is an important enteric disease in swine throughout the world. Information regarding the distribution of this pathogen in Canadian swine herds would be beneficial for the creation of control protocols. Pigs from Ontario, Quebec, and Alberta were tested by using an indirect immunofluorescence assay for antibodies to L. intracellularis. Pig seroprevalence was calculated as the proportion of pigs positive from total pigs tested in the targeted population. Seroprevalence (± standard error [sχ̄]) in market hogs in Ontario from farrow-finish (FF) farms and finishing (FIN) farms were significantly different at 77% (sχ̄ = 7%) and 29% (sχ̄ = 15%), respectively. Seroprevalence for sows and gilts in FF and farrowing and nursery (FAR + NUR) farms in Ontario were 90% (sχ̄ = 3%) and 93% (sχ̄ = 6%), respectively. Seroprevalence in breeding females in Quebec from FF and FAR farms was 82% (sχ̄ = 5%) and 87% (sχ̄ = 3%), respectively. Seroprevalence (57%, sχ̄ = 8%) in finishing pigs in Alberta from FF farms was significantly different from that of multisite (MS) farms and FIN farms, 6% (sχ̄ = 6%) and 9% (sχ̄ = 5%), respectively. Lawsonia intracellularis appears to be widespread in Canada and the seroprevalence on FF farms is higher than that on FIN and MS farms, possibly due to the presence of breeding females or management differences. PMID:17310623

  1. Persistence of clinical signs associated with rotavirus following an outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) on a farrow-to-grow swine operation in southwestern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Tenbergen, Ryan; O’Sullivan, Terri; Poljak, Zvonimir; DeLay, Josepha; Charbonneau, George

    2016-01-01

    Clinical signs attributed to porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) persisted for several months in a southwestern Ontario farm following an outbreak of PED. Extensive testing revealed rotavirus infection and absence of PED in nursing and nursery pigs, highlighting the importance of repeated diagnostic testing following a disease outbreak. PMID:27247460

  2. Field efficacy of an inactivated bivalent influenza vaccine in a multi-site swine production system during an outbreak of systemic porcine circovirus associated disease

    PubMed Central

    Poljak, Zvonimir; Dewey, Catherine E.; Martin, S. Wayne; Christensen, Jette; Friendship, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is a disease of significance for the swine industry, and vaccination is often recommended as a way to reduce its impact on production. The efficacy of SI vaccines is well established under experimental conditions, but information about field efficacy is scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial inactivated bivalent (H1N1/H3N2) vaccine under conditions of natural exposure to a field SI variant. To accomplish our goal we used a randomized, blinded, field trial in 2 cohorts of finisher pigs in a multi-site swine production system located in southern Ontario. During the trial, this herd experienced an outbreak of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD). The efficacy of the SI vaccine was assessed through its effect on average daily weight gain, and serological responses to SI over time. The effect of vaccination on pig growth was different in the 2 cohorts. Weight gain was higher in vaccinated pigs than in control pigs in Cohort 1, but was numerically higher for control pigs than for vaccinated pigs in Cohort 2. Vaccination against swine influenza, in a herd experiencing an outbreak of PCVAD, was of questionable value. PMID:20592840

  3. Detection of porcine circovirus genotypes 2a and 2b in aborted foetuses from infected swine herds in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Alessandra M M G; Cruz, Taís F; Salgado, Vanessa R; Kanashiro, Tatiana M; Ferrari, Karen L; Araujo, João P; Brandão, Paulo E; Richtzenhain, Leonardo J

    2012-05-03

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has been associated with several disease complexes, including reproductive failure. The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of PCV2 that are associated with reproductive failure in pigs from the State of São Paulo, Brazil and to investigate co-infections with other infectious organisms. Samples of 168 aborted foetuses or mummified foetuses from five farrow-to-finish swine farms known to be infected with PCV2 and located in the State of São Paulo were tested for PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive samples were additionally tested for porcine parvovirus (PPV), Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. by PCR. PCV2 was detected in 18 of the samples (10.7%). PPV, Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp were found in 2, 10 and 0 cases, respectively. Eleven PCV2 strains were sequenced and determined to be either genotype 2a (n = 1) or 2b (n = 10). The findings indicate that the frequency of PCV2 infections in aborted porcine foetuses from the State of São Paulo is rather low (10.7%) and that co-infection with other pathogens is common and may be involved in PCV2 associated reproductive failure. No repeatable, characteristic amino acid motifs for regions of the PCV2 capsid protein seemed to be associated with abortion in sows.

  4. Swine Worker Precautions During Suspected Outbreaks of Influenza in Swine.

    PubMed

    Paccha, Blanca; Neira-Ramirez, Victor; Gibbs, Shawn; Torremorell, Montserrat; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2016-05-01

    To assess the behavior and precautions that swine workers take during suspected influenza outbreaks in swine, six commercial swine farms in the Midwest U.S. region were visited when influenza outbreaks were suspected in herds during the fall/winter of 2012-2013. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and type of task performed by swine workers were recorded based on farm representative reports. Between one to two workers were working on the day of each visit and spent approximately 25 minutes performing work-related tasks that placed them in close contact with the swine. The most common tasks reported were walking the aisles (27%), handling pigs (21%), and handling equipment (21%). The most common PPE were boots (100%), heavy rubber gloves (75%), and dedicated nondisposable clothing (74%). Use of N95 respirators was reported at three farms. Hand hygiene practices were common in most of the farms, but reportedly performed for only 20% to 25% of tasks.

  5. Biotin in swine nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kornegay, E T

    1985-01-01

    For many years, it was believed that supplemental biotin was not needed in swine diets because of the wide distribution of biotin in feedstuffs used in the formulation of swine diets, and because of the known synthesis of biotin by the animal's intestinal microflora. However, interest in biotin nutrition for swine was rekindled in the mid-1970s when several field reports indicated a biotin deficiency in swine that was responsive to biotin supplementation in many cases. Results from university research are accumulating, especially from long-term sow studies (three to four parities), which suggest that supplemental biotin will improve litter size, conception rate, weaning-to-estrus interval, toe lesions, and haircoat condition. Milk biotin concentration and plasma biotin concentration of sows and piglets were also elevated when supplemental biotin was fed. Using presently available feedstuffs and under modern swine production conditions, a marginal biotin deficiency is possible. Swine producers experiencing poor reproductive performance in their sow herds, associated with excessive loss of hair and severe foot lesions, should evaluate the biotin content of their sow diet and consider supplemental biotin.

  6. Control of African swine fever epidemics in industrialized swine populations.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten; Christensen, Hanne; Toft, Nils; Boklund, Anette

    2016-12-25

    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a high impact on swine health. The disease is endemic in certain regions in the Baltic countries and has spread to Poland constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning, it is important to explore strategies that can effectively control an epidemic of ASF. In this study, the epidemiological and economic effects of strategies to control the spread of ASF between domestic swine herds were examined using a published model (DTU-DADS-ASF). The control strategies were the basic EU and national strategy (Basic), the basic strategy plus pre-emptive depopulation of neighboring swine herds, and intensive surveillance of herds in the control zones, including testing live or dead animals. Virus spread via wild boar was not modelled. Under the basic control strategy, the median epidemic duration was predicted to be 21days (5th and 95th percentiles; 1-55days), the median number of infected herds was predicted to be 3 herds (1-8), and the total costs were predicted to be €326 million (€256-€442 million). Adding pre-emptive depopulation or intensive surveillance by testing live animals resulted in marginal improvements to the control of the epidemics. However, adding testing of dead animals in the protection and surveillance zones was predicted to be the optimal control scenario for an ASF epidemic in industrialized swine populations without contact to wild boar. This optimal scenario reduced the epidemic duration to 9days (1-38) and the total costs to €294 million (€257-€392 million). Export losses were the driving force of the total costs of the epidemics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Simulation of between-farm transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Ontario, Canada using the North American Animal Disease Spread Model.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Krishna K; Revie, Crawford W; Hurnik, Daniel; Poljak, Zvonimir; Sanchez, Javier

    2015-03-01

    movements and the sharing of trucks within the model indicated that the effect of direct and indirect contact may be nonlinear on outbreak progression. The increase of 44% in epidemic size when indirect contact, via sharing of trucks, was incorporated into the model highlights the importance of proper biosecurity measures in preventing transmission of the PRRS virus. Simulation of between-farm spread of the PRRS virus in swine farms has highlighted the relative importance of direct and indirect contact and provides important insights regarding the possible patterns and extent of spread of the PRRS virus in a completely susceptible population with herd demographics similar to those found in Ontario, Canada. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Simulating the epidemiological and economic effects of an African swine fever epidemic in industrialized swine populations.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten; Christensen, Hanne; Toft, Nils; Boklund, Anette

    2016-09-25

    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a considerable impact on animal health and is currently one of the most important emerging diseases of domestic pigs. ASF was introduced into Georgia in 2007 and subsequently spread to the Russian Federation and several Eastern European countries. Consequently, there is a non-negligible risk of ASF spread towards Western Europe. Therefore it is important to develop tools to improve our understanding of the spread and control of ASF for contingency planning. A stochastic and dynamic spatial spread model (DTU-DADS) was adjusted to simulate the spread of ASF virus between domestic swine herds exemplified by the Danish swine population. ASF was simulated to spread via animal movement, low- or medium-risk contacts and local spread. Each epidemic was initiated in a randomly selected herd - either in a nucleus herd, a sow herd, a randomly selected herd or in multiple herds simultaneously. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on input parameters. Given the inputs and assumptions of the model, epidemics of ASF in Denmark are predicted to be small, affecting about 14 herds in the worst-case scenario. The duration of an epidemic is predicted to vary from 1 to 76days. Substantial economic damages are predicted, with median direct costs and export losses of €12 and €349 million, respectively, when epidemics were initiated in multiple herds. Each infectious herd resulted in 0 to 2 new infected herds varying from 0 to 5 new infected herds, depending on the index herd type. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Draft genome sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22 has been used in experimental infections of swine as a model of clinical B. bronchiseptica infections within swine herds and to study host-to-host transmission. Here we report the draft genome sequence of KM22....

  10. Association Between PRRSV ORF5 Genetic Distance and Differences in Space, Time, Ownership and Animal Sources Among Commercial Pig Herds.

    PubMed

    Rosendal, T; Dewey, C; Friendship, R; Wootton, S; Young, B; Poljak, Z

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate associations between genetic distance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) detected in Ontario swine herds, and the distance between the herds with respect to space, time, ownership and animal sources. PRRSV sequence data between September 2004 and August 2007 were obtained from the Animal Health Laboratory of the University of Guelph. Geographical coordinates were obtained from the Ontario Pork marketing board, and network information about ownership and animal suppliers was obtained using a telephone interview. The matrices of sequence, spatial, temporal and network distances were generated and were analysed using the Mantel test, and using linear-mixed models with P-values based on random permutations. A total of 438 PRRSV isolates from 329 premises and 232 ownerships were originally included; 57 of the isolates were considered vaccine type. The Mantel correlation test indicated that there was positive correlation between sequence distance and geographic distance (r = 0.11, P = 0.001), as well as sequence distance and temporal distance (r = 0.03, P = 0.03), with similar results reported after adjusting for the ownership distance. Mantel correlogram suggested existence of spatial correlation up to ~30 km distance. Multivariable linear-mixed model for association between genetic distance and space-time distance was characterized by the three-way interaction among space, time and ownership (P < 0.001). It suggested that positive association between sequence similarity and spatial proximity exists in herds under different ownerships, but its magnitude is very small. In contrast, for pairs of herds under identical ownership, the spatial association was more complex. This could be a consequence of interactions within ownerships, or alternatively decisions made about sampling of herds for diagnostic purposes. Of the networks evaluated, ownership (P < 0.001) and gilt supplier (P < 0

  11. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because they... determined by the meat or breeding value of the animals. Animals may be appraised in groups, provided that...

  12. Swine influenza virus vaccine research and technology: What does the future hold and what are our next steps?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Swine influenza represents a problem for the health of pigs and the economic health of the swine industry due to real and perceived public health risks. This is largely driven by the diversity of influenza A viruses (IAV) in swine herds. Antigenic drift (mutations) and shifts (reassortments) by in...

  13. Herd factors associated with the serological Yersinia prevalence in fattening pig herds.

    PubMed

    von Altrock, Alexandra; Roesler, Uwe; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz

    2011-12-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence has demonstrated that pork is an important source of yersiniosis in humans. Identifying risk factors and potential interventions in swine production that may decrease the risk of pork production contamination during harvest and processing is an important step before controlling Yersinia spp. Therefore, management strategies and production processes that might be associated with fattening pigs testing seropositive for pathogenic Yersinia spp. were investigated in 80 fattening pig farms. Although >70 farm characteristics were included in the risk assessment, there were only a few that seemed to be connected with serological prevalence: housing on a fully slatted floor and the use of municipal water were observed more often in herds with low serological Yersinia prevalence, whereas recurring health problems and a low daily weight gain compared with the mean of the herds included in the study were found in herds with a high prevalence. Besides, the Yersinia prevalence seemed to be inversely proportional to the herds' serological Salmonella status collected in accordance with German legislation. Additionally, the development of the serological Yersinia status of selected herds was assessed over a period of a year to gain knowledge of the dynamics of Yersinia infections in fattening pig herds. Three out of four serological negative herds maintained a low level of Yersinia prevalence, whereas one herd shifted between negative status and a prevalence of 100%. The reason for these considerable fluctuations could not be explained, and there was no direct association with the analyzed risk factors. Further research should be carried out to prove the given risk factors, especially the possible relation to the Salmonella prevalence before implementing a combined zoonoses surveillance and control program.

  14. SWINE INFLUENZA

    PubMed Central

    Shope, Richard E.

    1931-01-01

    1. It has been possible to demonstrate, in Berkefeld filtrates of infectious material from experimental cases of swine influenza, a virus which when administered intranasally to susceptible swine induced a mild, usually afebrile illness of short duration. The changes in the respiratory tract resembled those in swine influenza but were usually much less extensive. When the filtrable virus was mixed with pure cultures of H. influenzae suis and administered to swine a disease identical clinically and pathologically with swine influenza was induced. The data presented indicate that the filtrable virus of swine influenza and H. influenzae suis act in concert to produce swine influenza and that neither alone is capable of inducing the disease. 2. One attack of swine influenza usually renders an animal immune to reinfection. Blood serum from an animal made immune in this way neutralizes infectious material from swine influenza in vitro, as shown by the failure of the mixture to produce disease in a susceptible animal. 3. The virus can be stored in a dried state or in glycerol for several weeks at least. In one instance dried material apparently retained both the virus and H. influenzas suis in viable form for a period of 54 days. 4. Fatal cases of experimental swine influenza have been observed in which H. influenzae suis was the only organism that could be cultivated from the respiratory tract. 5. Attention has been called to some features of marked similarity between epizootic swine influenzae and epidemic influenzae in man. PMID:19869924

  15. Coxiella burnetii seropositivity and associated risk factors in goats in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Meadows, S; Jones-Bitton, A; McEwen, S; Jansen, J; Menzies, P

    2015-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium, and infection in goats with this bacterium can result in abortion, stillbirth or birth of non-viable kids. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the seroprevalence and risk factors for C. burnetii exposure in Ontario goats. Sera were collected between August 2010 and February 2012, and tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IDEXX). Overall, 63.2% (48/76, 95% CI=51.9-73.4) of farms had one or more seropositive goats. A higher farm-level seroprevalence of 78.6% (33/42) was found on dairy goat farms, compared to 44.1% (15/34) on meat goat farms (p<0.01). At the overall individual-animal level, 32.5% (714/2195, 95% CI=30.6-34.5) of goats were seropositive. Similarly, a higher individual-level seroprevalence was identified for dairy goats (43.7%, 633/1447) compared to meat goats (10.8%, 81/748) (p<0.001). A mixed multivariable logistic model that controlled for farm-level clustering identified risk factors associated with seropositivity (p<0.05). Increases in the female herd size (logarithmic scale) were associated with increased odds of seropositivity, while increases in male herd size had a negative association with seropositivity. If other sheep or goat farms were located in a 5-km radius, goats had 5.6 times (95% CI=1.01-30.8) times the odds of seropositivity compared to those that were not. Relative to goats from farms where all kidding pen hygiene was practiced (adding bedding, removing birth materials and disinfection after kidding), goats from farms which only added bedding and removed birth materials had a higher odds of seropositivity (OR=19.3, 95% CI=1.1-330.4), as did goats from farms which practiced none of these measures (OR=161.0, 95% CI=2.4-10822.2). An interaction term revealed kidding outdoors when there were no swine on farm had a protective effect on seropositivity compared to kidding indoors, or kidding outdoors with swine on the farm. These

  16. Widespread distribution of hepatitis E virus in Spanish pig herds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a serious health problem in developing countries and is also increasingly reported in industrialized regions. HEV is considered a zoonotic agent and strains isolated from swine and human sources are genetically similar. Thus, HEV is of increasing importance to both public and animal health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution of HEV in a large population of pigs from herds located in different autonomous regions throughout Spain. Results The presence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies was analyzed in 1141 swine serum samples (corresponding to 381 pigs younger than 6 months and 760 pigs older than 6 months) collected from 85 herds. Herds were located in 6 provinces in 4 autonomous regions throughout Spain. At least one pig tested positive for anti-HEV IgG in over 80% of herds. Of individual pigs, 20.4% (233/1141) were positive for anti-HEV IgG, with the prevalence being higher in adult pigs than in those under 6 months (30.2% vs. 15.5%). A subset of serum samples taken at 2- to 5-week intervals showed that seroprevalence dropped between 3 and 11 weeks of age, and then rose significantly by the 15th week. Pigs were also examined for the presence of HEV-RNA by RT-PCR. Of pigs tested for the presence of HEV-RNA 18.8% (64/341) were positive, with at least one pig in almost half of the herds testing positive. HEV-RNA amplicons from several positive pigs were sequenced and all were of genotype 3. Conclusions HEV was found to be widely distributed among swine farms across Spain, with the prevalence being highest among animals older than 6 months. These results indicate that HEV infection either is or is likely to become endemic in the Spanish swine population. PMID:21999141

  17. Aflatoxicosis in Iowa swine: eight cases (1983-1985).

    PubMed

    Cook, W O; Van Alstine, W G; Osweiler, G D

    1989-02-15

    During 1983, 1984, and 1985, aflatoxicosis was diagnosed in 8 Iowa swine herds after the herds were fed corn from the 1983 corn crop. As a result of the diagnosis, the associated environmental conditions, clinical signs of aflatoxicosis, macroscopic and microscopic lesions, aflatoxin concentrations detected in feeds, and management of affected swine were reviewed. Concentrations of aflatoxin in shelled corn and complete feed were as high as 2,020 ng and 1,200 ng of aflatoxin (B1 and B2)/g of feed, respectively. Clinical signs of aflatoxicosis included decreased feed consumption and weight loss. Some pigs died acutely, but death often was preceded by a period of clinical disease. Greater morbidity and mortality were observed in swine herds that consumed greater concentrations of aflatoxin.

  18. Mathematical modeling of influenza A virus dynamics within swine farms and the effects of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jennifer J H; Torremorell, Montserrat; Craft, Meggan E

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A virus infections are widespread in swine herds across the world. Influenza negatively affects swine health and production, and represents a significant threat to public health due to the risk of zoonotic infections. Swine herds can act as reservoirs for potentially pandemic influenza strains. In this study, we develop mathematical models based on experimental data, representing typical breeding and wean-to-finish swine farms. These models are used to explore and describe the dynamics of influenza infection at the farm level, which are at present not well understood. In addition, we use the models to assess the effectiveness of vaccination strategies currently employed by swine producers, testing both homologous and heterologous vaccines. An important finding is that following an influenza outbreak in a breeding herd, our model predicts a persistently high level of infectious piglets. Sensitivity analysis indicates that this finding is robust to changes in both transmission rates and farm size. Vaccination does not eliminate influenza throughout the breeding farm population. In the wean-to-finish herd, influenza infection may persist in the population only if recovered individuals become susceptible to infection again. A homologous vaccine administered to the entire wean-to-finish population after the loss of maternal antibodies eliminates influenza, but a vaccine that only induces partial protection (heterologous vaccine) has little effect on influenza infection levels. Our results have important implications for the control of influenza in swine herds, which is crucial in order to reduce both losses for swine producers and the risk to public health.

  19. The porcupine caribou herd

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, Brad; Douglas, David C.; Walsh, Noreen E.; Young, Donald D.; McCabe, Thomas R.; Russell, Donald E.; White, Robert G.; Cameron, Raymond D.; Whitten, Kenneth R.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Documentation of the natural range of variation in ecological, life history, and physiological characteristics of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) of the Porcupine caribou herd is a necessary base for detecting or predicting any potential effects of industrial development on the performance (e.g., distribution, demography, weight-gain of individuals) of the herd. To demonstrate an effect of development, post-development performance must differ from pre-development performance while accounting for any natural environmental trends.We had 2 working hypotheses for our investigations: 1) performance of the Porcupine caribou herd was associated with environmental patterns and habitat quality, and 2) access to important habitats was a key influence on demography.We sought to document the range of natural variation in habitat conditions, herd size, demography (defined here as survival and reproduction), sources and magnitude of mortality, distribution, habitat use, and weight gain and loss, and to develop an understanding of the interactions among these characteristics of the herd.In addition, we investigated ways that we could use this background information, combined with auxiliary information from the adjacent Central Arctic caribou herd, to predict the direction and magnitude of any potential effects of industrial oil development in the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge on Porcupine caribou herd calf survival on the herd's calving grounds during June.

  20. Overview of swine influenza virus vaccine research and technology: What's on the horizon and what do we need to move forward?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction Swine influenza represents a problem for the health of pigs and the economic health of the swine industry due to real and perceived public health risks. This is largely driven by the diversity of influenza A viruses (IAV) in swine herds. Antigenic drift (mutations) and shifts (reassortm...

  1. [Skin diseases of swine].

    PubMed

    von Altrock, A; Höltig, D

    2013-01-01

    Skin alterations can be caused by both environmental conditions and diseases of the organism. Some diseases may only manifest in the skin while others represent signs of a generalized infection. Regarding their origin, skin diseases can be divided into congenital, infectious, and nutritional disorders, and those resulting from housing scarcities. Additionally, there are skin diseases with unknown causes. Skin diseases in a swine herd can result in economic losses through decreased feed efficiency and growth rate and increased mortality. The knowledge of causes and symptoms as well as the selection of appropriate further laboratory investigations provide a valid diagnosis and enable a quick and effective therapy. This description of several skin diseases should provide a background.

  2. Camelid herd health.

    PubMed

    Jones, Meredyth; Boileau, Melanie

    2009-07-01

    The area of herd health is particularly important when considering camelid operations because of the high frequency of travel for exhibition, breeding, and boarding. This article outlines the considerations for routine husbandry, facility and animal maintenance, and infectious disease control in the form of biosecurity, vaccination, and health testing that should be included in any farm's herd-health plan. Veterinary input into the design of programs for biosecurity and infectious disease prevention is critical and requires an active veterinary client-patient relationship with identification of the goals of the operation. Risk assessments should be made based on farm activities and should be the foundation for herd-health program design.

  3. The Ontario CAI Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, W. P.

    The evolution and current operation of the Ontario Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) Network are described. Sponsored by the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education and including 11 community colleges in Ontario, the network has computer installations and access devices throughout the province. Initial development work was done using a…

  4. Vaccine herd effect.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.

  5. Production impact & time to stability in sow herds infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV).

    PubMed

    Goede, Dane; Morrison, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    PEDV was first detected in United States in May, 2013. The virus spread through the swine industry and was reported in 30 US states by June, 2014 (Morrison and Goede, 2014). There are limited data describing the impact on production in sow farms. Veterinarians attempt to control the virus in sow herds with a program that stimulates herd immunity. There are no data on how long it takes with this control program to achieve a stable state of consistently produce weaned pigs that are not infected with the virus. This study involved participants and data from an existing program called the Swine Health Monitoring Project. Veterinarians were invited to share production data from 429 herds infected with PEDV. These data, in conjunction with diagnostic reports, were used to estimate the time required for the herd to produce PEDV PCR negative pigs and the production loss. Of the 429 infected herds that achieved the stable state of weaning PEDV PCR negative pigs, the median time was 28 weeks, ranging from 7 to 64 weeks. A median of 2.7 piglets/inventoried sow were not weaned and the average time required to recover to baseline production was 10 weeks in 183 herds. Herd infected in quarters 3 or 4 of the year had approximately twice the negative impact. These data are valuable for veterinarians in advising clients on the anticipated impact and time to re-achieve a stable state with regards to PEDV.

  6. A case-control study of Nocardia mastitis in Nova Scotia dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Ferns, Lyn; Dohoo, Ian; Donald, Alan

    1991-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to identify herd production, housing, and hygienic and therapeutic factors associated with a diagnosis of Nocardia mastitis in dairy herds in Nova Scotia. The data were collected by on-farm interviews with owners of 54 case and 54 control herds. Logistic regression was used to study risk factors. The use of dry cow products containing neomycin, including two specific dry cow products, was strongly associated with a diagnosis of Nocardia mastitis in a herd. Other factors which increased the risk of Nocardia mastitis were higher levels of production, larger herd size, and a large percentage of cows treated with dry cow products. These results are compared to results from a similar study carried out in Ontario. PMID:17423896

  7. Factors associated with herd-level PRRSV infection and age-time to seroconversion in farrow-to-finish herds.

    PubMed

    Fablet, C; Marois-Créhan, C; Grasland, B; Simon, G; Rose, N

    2016-08-30

    Factors associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection were investigated in 109 herds. Serums from four batches of pigs (4, 10, 16 and 22 weeks, 15 pigs/batch) were tested by ELISA for PRRSV antibodies. Infection by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza A viruses (swIAV) and PCV2 were detected by specific serological or PCR tests. Data related to herd characteristics, biosecurity, management housing and climatic conditions were collected during a herd visit. Factors associated with the herd's PRRSV seropositive status were identified by logistic regression. Large herd size, the lack of disinsectisation in the gestation facilities, on-farm semen collection, a short time-period for gilt quarantine and a low temperature setpoint for the ventilation controller in the fattening room significantly increased the odds of a herd being seropositive for PRRSV. Infection by Mhp and H1N2 swIAV were associated with a PRRSV seropositive status. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the factors associated with the age-time to seroconversion in infected herds. Joint housing for the gilts and sows when lactating, a large nursery pen, a small number of pens per fattening room and lack of all-in all-out management in the fattening section significantly reduced the age-time to seroconversion. A small range of temperatures controlling ventilation rate in the nursery room was also associated with time to PRRSV seroconversion. Infection by Mhp and a high PCV2 infection pressure were associated with a shorter time to seroconversion. Biosecurity measures minimising the risk of introducing PRRSV into the herd, management practices reducing contacts between animals from different batches and within batches and favourable climatic conditions should be implemented to better control PRRSV infection.

  8. Swine Dysentery.

    PubMed

    Burrough, E R

    2017-01-01

    Swine dysentery is a severe enteric disease in pigs, which is characterized by bloody to mucoid diarrhea and associated with reduced growth performance and variable mortality. This disease is most often observed in grower-finisher pigs, wherein susceptible pigs develop a significant mucohemorrhagic typhlocolitis following infection with strongly hemolytic spirochetes of the genus Brachyspira. While swine dysentery is endemic in many parts of the world, the disease had essentially disappeared in much of the United States by the mid-1990s as a result of industry consolidation and effective treatment, control, and elimination methods. However, since 2007, there has been a reported increase in laboratory diagnosis of swine dysentery in parts of North America along with the detection of novel pathogenic Brachyspira spp worldwide. Accordingly, there has been a renewed interest in swine dysentery and Brachyspira spp infections in pigs, particularly in areas where the disease was previously eliminated. This review provides an overview of knowledge on the etiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of swine dysentery, with insights into risk factors and control.

  9. Indirect effects by meningococcal vaccines: herd protection versus herd immunity.

    PubMed

    Bröker, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The term "herd immunity" for the indirect effect of meningococcal conjugate vaccines is inaccurate. A more appropriate term is "herd protection," because this term correctly describes the public effects imparted by vaccination campaigns against the meningococcus.

  10. Understanding Herd Immunity.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, C J E; Ferrari, M; Graham, A L; Grenfell, B T

    2015-12-01

    Individual immunity is a powerful force affecting host health and pathogen evolution. Importantly, the effects of individual immunity also scale up to affect pathogen transmission dynamics and the success of vaccination campaigns for entire host populations. Population-scale immunity is often termed 'herd immunity'. Here we outline how individual immunity maps to population outcomes and discuss implications for control of infectious diseases. Particular immunological characteristics may be more or less likely to result in a population level signature of herd immunity; we detail this and also discuss other population-level outcomes that might emerge from individual-level immunity.

  11. Lung function and farm size predict healthy worker effect in swine farmers.

    PubMed

    Chénard, Liliane; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Grover, Vaneeta K; Kirychuk, Shelley P; Lawson, Joshua A; Hurst, Thomas S; Dosman, James A

    2007-01-01

    Swine farmers are exposed to a number of airborne contaminants associated with respiratory ill health. To examine the factors associated with healthy worker effect in the swine industry from a longitudinal follow-up of farmers at 4 years and 13 years. A prospective study of swine farmers and nonexposed rural residents was conducted using similar questionnaires and same spirometer at each time point. In the original observations in 1990/1991, we studied 302 swine farmers and 261 nonfarming control subjects. Four years later in 1994/1995, 217 swine farmers and 171 nonfarming control subjects of the original group participated again. In 2003/2004, 163 swine farmers and 118 control subjects were retested. Of the 163 swine farmers, 52 remained active swine farmers and 111 were no longer swine farming, thus providing the opportunity to evaluate work continuity in the industry. Among farmers studied in 2003/2004, mean values for percentage of predicted FEV(1)/FVC ratio and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC were lower in those who had quit swine farming compared to those still swine farming and nonfarming control subjects. The herd size in the barn at baseline in 1990/1991 and at interim follow-up in 1994/1995 was a significant predictor of quitting swine farming. In addition, percentage of predicted FEV(1)/FVC at the interim observation was a significant predictor of quitting swine farming. There is a significant healthy worker effect among swine farmers. The continuation of work in the facilities may be predicted by herd size and interim lung function.

  12. OptisampleTM: Open web-based application to optimize sampling strategies for active surveillance activities at the herd level illustrated using Porcine Respiratory Reproductive Syndrome (PRRS).

    PubMed

    Alba, Anna; Morrison, Robert E; Cheeran, Ann; Rovira, Albert; Alvarez, Julio; Perez, Andres M

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) infection causes a devastating economic impact to the swine industry. Active surveillance is routinely conducted in many swine herds to demonstrate freedom from PRRSv infection. The design of efficient active surveillance sampling schemes is challenging because optimum surveillance strategies may differ depending on infection status, herd structure, management, or resources for conducting sampling. Here, we present an open web-based application, named 'OptisampleTM', designed to optimize herd sampling strategies to substantiate freedom of infection considering also costs of testing. In addition to herd size, expected prevalence, test sensitivity, and desired level of confidence, the model takes into account the presumed risk of pathogen introduction between samples, the structure of the herd, and the process to select the samples over time. We illustrate the functionality and capacity of 'OptisampleTM' through its application to active surveillance of PRRSv in hypothetical swine herds under disparate epidemiological situations. Diverse sampling schemes were simulated and compared for each herd to identify effective strategies at low costs. The model results show that to demonstrate freedom from disease, it is important to consider both the epidemiological situation of the herd and the sample selected. The approach illustrated here for PRRSv may be easily extended to other animal disease surveillance systems using the web-based application available at http://stemma.ahc.umn.edu/optisample.

  13. Accessibility to Ontario Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Christine K.

    Accessibility to a college education in Ontario, Canada, was assessed by studying the pattern of acceptances and rejections of various choices made by unregistered college applicants. Study concerns included: total offers to programs of choice from any college and from an Ontario college only; offers by institution type and program type for first…

  14. Aboriginal Languages in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaby, Barbara J.

    This report outlines the basic characteristics of native languages in Ontario, the degree to which they are being maintained, and the aspirations of native people for their future development. The report covers only the Algonquian and Iroquoian families of languages spoken in Ontario for many generations and still spoken at present, including…

  15. Education: Ontario's Preoccupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, W. G.

    Written as an abridged companion volume to the seven-volume series, Ontario's Educative Society, this book shares the objective of exploring the development of education in Ontario since World War II. The material is presented within an historical framework and uses a broad definition of education which includes organizations and activities beyond…

  16. Swine origin influenza (swine flu).

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Meghna R; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S K

    2009-08-01

    Swine origin influenza was first recognized in the border area of Mexico and United States in April 2009 and during a short span of two months became the first pandemic. The currently circulating strain of swine origin influenza virus of the H1N1 strain has undergone triple reassortment and contains genes from the avian, swine and human viruses. It is transmitted by droplets or fomites. Incubation period is 2 to 7 days. Common clinical symptoms are indistinguishable by any viral respiratory illness, and include fever, cough, sore throat and myalgia. A feature seen more frequently with swine origin influenza is GI upset. Less than 10% of patients require hospitalization. Patients at risk of developing severe disease are - younger than five years, elderly, pregnant women, with chronic systemic illnesses, adolescents on aspirin. Of the severe manifestations of swine origin influenza, pneumonia and respiratory failure are the most common. Unusual symptoms reported are conjunctivitis, parotitis, hemophagocytic syndrome. Infants may present with fever and lethargy with no respiratory symptoms. Diagnosis is based on RT PCR, Viral culture or increasing neutralizing antibodies. Principle of treatment consist of isolation, universal precautions, good infection control practices, supportive care and use of antiviral drugs. Antiviral drugs effective against H1N1 virus include: oseltamivir and zamanavir. With good supportive care case fatality is less than 1%. Preventive measures include: social distancing, practicing respiratory etiquette, hand hygiene and use of chemoprohylaxis with antiviral drugs. Vaccine against H1N1 is not available at present, but will be available in near future.

  17. One world, one health: the threat of emerging swine diseases. A North American perspective.

    PubMed

    Davies, P R

    2012-03-01

    The predicted expansion of global livestock populations to meet the food and fibre demands of the growing human population raises numerous concerns, including the implications for disease emergence. The evolution of animal production in developed countries has been marked by substantial reduction in farm numbers with correspondingly larger herd sizes, specialization of enterprises, concentration or ownership and vertical integration. Innovations in the structure and operations of swine production have been largely driven by efforts to improve swine health, and the impact of several important swine diseases has declined. Productivity in swine production and the safety of pork products have increased markedly. The most significant emerging infectious diseases of pigs over the last decades have been highly host-specific viruses rather than multihost pathogens. While some bacterial pathogens of pigs have increased in importance in modern systems, improved management systems and biosecurity have enabled herd sizes to increase without negative impact on swine health. The most vulnerable scenario for disease emergence in swine, particularly for zoonotic agents, may be rapid expansion and intensification of swine industries in developing countries without incorporating the stringent biosecurity measures and veterinary oversight that have helped maintain the health and productivity of large herds in North America. Factors that may influence disease emergence in the long term include regulatory measures (particularly related to antimicrobial use), genetics and feeding practices. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. isolated from grower-finisher pigs in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Norma P.; Friendship, Robert M.; Dewey, Cate E.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in 80 Ontario grower-finisher pig herds. Ninety-nine percent of the isolates yielded Campylobacter, C. coli being the most common species detected. Control of this microorganism must rely on careful food processing and storage of pork, rather than on an on-farm approach. PMID:17542372

  19. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    MedlinePlus

    ... of illness at all. How common is swine flu among pigs? H1N1 and H3N2 swine flu viruses are endemic among pig populations in the ... and winter) , but can occur year round. While H1N1 swine viruses have been ... least 1930, H3N2 influenza viruses did not begin circulating among pigs in ...

  20. Epidemiological features of influenza circulation in swine populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Baudon, Eugénie; Peyre, Marisa; Peiris, Malik; Cowling, Benjamin John

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of the 2009 influenza pandemic virus with a swine origin stressed the importance of improving influenza surveillance in swine populations. The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to describe epidemiological features of swine influenza (SI) across the world and identify factors impacting swine influenza virus surveillance. The systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines. Articles published after 1990 containing data on SI on pig and herd-level seroprevalence, isolation and detection rates, and risk factors were included. Meta-regression analyses using seroprevalence and virological rates were performed. A total of 217 articles were included. Low avian influenza (AI) seroprevalence (means pig = 4.1%; herd = 15%) was found, showing that AIV do not readily establish themselves in swine while SIV seroprevalence was usually high across continents (influenza A means pig = 32.6-87.8%; herd = 29.3-100%). Higher pig density and number of pigs per farm were shown by the meta-regression analyses and/or the risk factor articles to be associated with higher SI seroprevalence. Lower seroprevalence levels were observed for countries with low-to-medium GDP. These results suggest that larger industrial farms could be more at risk of SIV circulation. Sampling swine with influenza-like illness (ILI) was positively associated with higher isolation rates; most studies in Europe, Latin and North America were targeting swine with ILI. To improve understanding of SI epidemiology, standardization of the design and reporting of SI epidemiological studies is desirable. Performance of SI surveillance systems in low-to-medium GDP countries should be evaluated to rule out technical issues linked to lower observed SIV prevalence. Targeting certain swine age groups, farming systems and swine with ILI may improve the surveillance cost-effectiveness. However, focusing on pigs with ILI may bias virus detection against strains less virulent for swine but

  1. Epidemiological features of influenza circulation in swine populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peyre, Marisa; Peiris, Malik; Cowling, Benjamin John

    2017-01-01

    Background The emergence of the 2009 influenza pandemic virus with a swine origin stressed the importance of improving influenza surveillance in swine populations. The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to describe epidemiological features of swine influenza (SI) across the world and identify factors impacting swine influenza virus surveillance. Methods The systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines. Articles published after 1990 containing data on SI on pig and herd-level seroprevalence, isolation and detection rates, and risk factors were included. Meta-regression analyses using seroprevalence and virological rates were performed. Results A total of 217 articles were included. Low avian influenza (AI) seroprevalence (means pig = 4.1%; herd = 15%) was found, showing that AIV do not readily establish themselves in swine while SIV seroprevalence was usually high across continents (influenza A means pig = 32.6–87.8%; herd = 29.3–100%). Higher pig density and number of pigs per farm were shown by the meta-regression analyses and/or the risk factor articles to be associated with higher SI seroprevalence. Lower seroprevalence levels were observed for countries with low-to-medium GDP. These results suggest that larger industrial farms could be more at risk of SIV circulation. Sampling swine with influenza-like illness (ILI) was positively associated with higher isolation rates; most studies in Europe, Latin and North America were targeting swine with ILI. Conclusions To improve understanding of SI epidemiology, standardization of the design and reporting of SI epidemiological studies is desirable. Performance of SI surveillance systems in low-to-medium GDP countries should be evaluated to rule out technical issues linked to lower observed SIV prevalence. Targeting certain swine age groups, farming systems and swine with ILI may improve the surveillance cost-effectiveness. However, focusing on pigs with ILI may bias virus detection

  2. Association between in-transit loss, internal trailer temperature, and distance traveled by Ontario market hogs.

    PubMed

    Haley, Charles; Dewey, Catherine E; Widowski, Tina; Friendship, Robert

    2008-10-01

    An observational study was conducted from July to October 2004 to determine the association between in-transit losses of swine and internal trailer temperature after controlling for loading density, trip distance, herd size, and random trip effect. A convenience sample of 3 trucking companies was used to collect temperature, relative humidity, and global positioning data for 104 trips that delivered 21,834 pigs from 371 producers to Ontario abattoirs. The association between in-transit loss and trailer temperature was determined using the 90th percentiles of internal temperature for each trip. Average loading density was 0.36 m2/100 kg pig (range 0.28 to 0.50 m2/100 kg pig). Average in-transit loss was 0.12%; however, 94% of producers experienced no losses. As the 90th percentile of internal trailer temperature increased from a range of 8.6 degrees C to 23.3 degrees C to a range of 23.4 degrees C to 26.1degreesC, average in-transit loss ratio increased approximately 3-fold, with an additional 2-fold increase as the range increased from 26.2 degrees C to 28.9 degrees C to 29.0 degrees C to 30.5 degrees C. As the 90th percentile of temperature increased by 1degreesC over the full range of temperatures in this study, in-transit loss was expected to increase 1.26 times. The in-transit loss was expected to decrease 0.81 times for each 50-km increase in distance traveled between the farm and the abattoir.

  3. Association between in-transit loss, internal trailer temperature, and distance traveled by Ontario market hogs

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Charles; Dewey, Catherine E.; Widowski, Tina; Friendship, Robert

    2008-01-01

    An observational study was conducted from July to October 2004 to determine the association between in-transit losses of swine and internal trailer temperature after controlling for loading density, trip distance, herd size, and random trip effect. A convenience sample of 3 trucking companies was used to collect temperature, relative humidity, and global positioning data for 104 trips that delivered 21 834 pigs from 371 producers to Ontario abattoirs. The association between in-transit loss and trailer temperature was determined using the 90th percentiles of internal temperature for each trip. Average loading density was 0.36 m2/100 kg pig (range 0.28 to 0.50 m2/100 kg pig). Average in-transit loss was 0.12%; however, 94% of producers experienced no losses. As the 90th percentile of internal trailer temperature increased from a range of 8.6°C to 23.3°C to a range of 23.4°C to 26.1°C, average in-transit loss ratio increased approximately 3-fold, with an additional 2-fold increase as the range increased from 26.2°C to 28.9°C to 29.0°C to 30.5°C. As the 90th percentile of temperature increased by 1°C over the full range of temperatures in this study, in-transit loss was expected to increase 1.26 times. The in-transit loss was expected to decrease 0.81 times for each 50-km increase in distance traveled between the farm and the abattoir. PMID:19086369

  4. Bovine mastitis in Ontario due to Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis.

    PubMed Central

    Ruhnke, H L; Thawley, D; Nelson, F C

    1976-01-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis was first diagnosed in 16 of 55 cows in an Ontario herd in Feburary 1972. A total of 182 of 598 (30.4%) cows from 33 of 64 (51.5%) farms in widely separated areas of the province were culturally positive. Herd incidence varied from 15 to 40% with one closed herd having an incidence of 61%. Four herds were investigated culturally and serologically by the growth inhibition test for 15 months. In the acute phase the organism was present in the milk in extremely high numbers and could still be isolated from a few cows after eight to 12 months. The sera from 89.5% of the animals with clinical mycoplasma mastitis produced a zone of surface "film" and/or colony inhibition and some cows remained positive for six to 12 months. The disease was experimentally reproduced with a pure culture of the organism isolated from the milk of a cow from one of the herds. PMID:1000385

  5. Flying Over Ontario Lacus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-15

    This image is from an animation that glides along the shoreline of Ontario Lacus, the largest lake on the southern hemisphere of Saturn moon Titan. The animation is based on overlapping radar images obtained by NASA Cassini spacecraft.

  6. Distance Education in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David M.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the services of the Ontario Educational Communications Authority (OECA), which has a nine station TV network, a nonbroadcast videotape distribution system, many interactions with cable companies and domestic satellite transmission, and a databank indexing OECA resources. (JEG)

  7. Swine production.

    PubMed

    Plain, Ronald L; Lawrence, John D

    2003-07-01

    The US swine industry is large and growing. The quantity of pork desired by consumers of US pork is growing at the rate of 1.5%/y. New production systems and new technology have enabled production per sow to grow at a rate of 4% annually in recent years. Consequently, the number of sows in the United States is declining. Because productivity growth is outpacing demand growth, the deflated price of hogs and pork is declining. Hog production and prices continue to exhibit strong seasonal and cyclic patterns. Pork production is usually lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. Production and prices tend to follow 4-year patterns. The US swine industry continues to evolve toward fewer and larger producers who rely on contracts for both hog production and marketing. In 2000, over half of the hogs marketed were from approximately 156 firms marketing more than 50,000 head annually. These producers finished 60% of their production in contract facilities. Over 90% of their marketings were under contract or were owned by a packer. These producers expressed a high level of satisfaction with hog production. Both they and their contract growers were satisfied with production contracts. These large producers were satisfied with their marketing contracts and planned to continue them in the future. The hog industry has changed a great deal in the last decade. There is little reason to believe this rapid rate of change will not continue. This swine industry is highly competitive and profit driven. Profit margins are too small to allow producers the luxury of ignoring new technology and innovative production systems. Consequently, hog production will continue its rapid evolution from traditional agriculture to typical industry.

  8. Seroprevalence and association with abortion of leptospirosis in cattle in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, J F; Miller, R B; Nicholson, V M; Martin, S W; Lesnick, T

    1988-01-01

    Sera were collected using a systematic random sampling from 348 cattle herds in Ontario, in proportion to the cattle population in different areas. One cow in five from 296 dairy herds and one in three from 52 beef herds were sampled. The sera were analyzed for prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohaemorhagiae and pomona using the microscopic agglutination test. Herd seroprevalence (one or more animals with titer greater than or equal to 80) in beef and dairy herds combined was grippotyphosa 2%, hardjo 13.8%, icterohaemorrhagiae 10.1% and pomona 25.8%; 39% of all herds showed evidence of leptospiral infection with one or more serovars; 44.2% of 52 beef herds had serological evidence of infection with serovar hardjo compared to 8.4% of 296 dairy herds (P less than 0.0001). Seroprevalence of other serovars was not significantly different between beef and dairy herds. The proportion of beef animals seropositive for hardjo and for pomona increased with age, particularly for hardjo; 26.5% of beef animals aged nine years or over were seropositive for hardjo. Dairy animals showed a significant rise of hardjo but not pomona titers with age. The seroprevalence of pomona infection was significantly higher in dairy cattle in eastern Ontario than in other regions. Thirty-four (6.1%) of 553 aborted bovine fetuses had leptospires detected by immunofluorescence techniques. Sixty-five percent of these fetuses were from submissions made between November and January. Leptospires were identified as serovar hardjo by specific immunofluorescence. There appeared, however, to be a paradoxical serological response in that eight aborting cows had antibody titers to pomona rather than hardjo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3370556

  9. Implementation and use of a microcomputer-based management information system to monitor dairy herd performance

    PubMed Central

    Lissemore, Kerry D.; Leslie, Ken E.; Menzies, Paula I.; Martin, S. Wayne; Meek, Alan H.; Etherington, Wayne G.

    1992-01-01

    A microcomputer-based herd management information system was implemented as part of the herd health program provided to 13 dairy clients by the Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph. The study was conducted over a two year period. Data were collected from on-farm event diaries, veterinary visit reports, and production testing information. Selected indices of reproduction, udder health, production, and heifer performance were reported. It was concluded that the implementation of a microcomputer-based information management system, operated as a bureau service, was feasible. However, limitations to the implementation in veterinary practice were identified. PMID:17423945

  10. Herding and snaking by the harem stallion in domestic herds.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Lara, Antonietta; Leoni, Marco; Bergfelt, D R

    2002-05-01

    Four herds of pony mares, each consisting of a stallion and six mares, were used to characterize the nature of herding by the stallion and the factors that induced the herding behavior. Herding behaviors were compared among four successive treatments (six mares alone, stallion added, two new mares added, and entire herd moved to a new pasture). A new treatment was initiated every 7 days and behavior was studied for 5 consecutive days (Days 1-5) for each treatment. Observations were made every 10 min during a 2-h period for each day. The extent of herding was quantitated by the mean distances between mares. The extent of snaking (herding with the head and neck extended and ears held back) was scored 0, 1, 2, or 3 (nil, minimal, intermediate, and maximal, respectively). The mean distance among the original mares on Day 1 when the mares were alone was 5.0 mare lengths and was reduced (P < 0.05) to 1.9 mare lengths when the stallion was added. The mean distance among the original mares of an established stallion/mare herd (3.8 mare lengths) was reduced (P < 0.05) on the day the herd was moved to a new pasture (1.9 mare lengths), similar to the effect of the introduction of the stallion. Scores for the extent of snaking, as well as the extent of herding, were highest (P < 0.05) on Day 1 when the stallion was added or the stallion/mare herd was moved to a new pasture. The extent of herding and snaking decreased (P < 0.05) by Day 2 and was seen only occasionally on Days 3-5. The addition of new mares to the herd did not induce herding of the original mares. However, the new mares maintained mean distances of 8-12 mare lengths from the original mares, resulting primarily from chasing by the stallion. By Day 4, the distances between the new and original mares were not different (P > 0.05) from the distances among the original mares.

  11. Antimicrobial dispensing by Ontario dairy veterinarians

    PubMed Central

    Léger, David F.; Newby, Nathalie C.; Reid-Smith, Richard; Anderson, Neil; Pearl, David L.; Lissemore, Kerry D.; Kelton, David F.

    2015-01-01

    This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was designed to capture the demographics of dairy practitioners in Ontario and to describe aspects of antimicrobial dispensing on-farm and over-the-counter by these veterinarians. The information collected revealed that the prescription status of a drug and the level of veterinary-client-patient relationship were important elements of dispensing policies. Over-the-counter dispensing records were incomplete, while only a small proportion of on-farm dispensing records contained pertinent information and directions as required by the Veterinarians Act. While respondents recognized that antimicrobial use in dairy herds could lead to resistance in cattle, few indicated that this was a significant public health issue. Veterinarians can play a key role in antimicrobial stewardship, part of which is the provision of complete written dispensing instructions to producers for antimicrobial use in dairy cattle. PMID:26130834

  12. Spatial and temporal patterns of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) genotypes in Ontario, Canada, 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Rosendal, Thomas; Dewey, Cate; Friendship, Robert; Wootton, Sarah; Young, Beth; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2014-04-05

    The spread of PRRSV among pig herds has been investigated experimentally, but few observational studies have investigated this subject. Because PRRSV is endemic and live modified vaccines are used in Ontario, the spatial and temporal distributions of 6 PRRSV genotypes were investigated in the province during the period from 2004-2007. The purpose was to find evidence of spread of PRRSV genotypes and determine if spread could be attributed to supplier or ownership connections between herds. Sequence information from PRRSV ORF5 and related source-herd demographic information were obtained from diagnostic submissions to the Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph. A spatial cluster that could not be attributed to supplier or ownership connections among herds in the cluster was detected for RFLP type 1-3-4. Because of genetic dissimilarity among members of the cluster, it was considered to be a result of past spread of the RFLP type. A spatio-temporal cluster detected for RFLP type 1-18-4 was attributed to a shared gilt supplier among the herds in the cluster. Significant spatio-temporal patterns detected for RFLP type 2-5-2, which is considered to be a vaccine-type virus were most likely due to grouping of herds in an ownership that used the corresponding vaccine. Clustering within herd-ownership was a risk factor for presence of five of the six genotypes investigated in the present study. Although the literature indicates that PRRSV can spread via aerosol between pig herds, the present study found no strong evidence of this occurring in Ontario. The evidence pointed toward transmission of PRRSV occurring in this population by common sources of animals or similarity of herd ownership, which is a proxy measure for other connections between herds. It is also apparent that the recognition and testing of these connections between herds is a necessary part of interpreting spatio-temporal patterns of PRRSV genotypes.

  13. Comparison of Methods for Assessing the Prevalence and Extent of Pneumonia in Market Weight Swine

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Robert B.; Hilley, Harvey D.; Leman, Allen D.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare four different techniques that may be used to assess the prevalence or severity of enzootic pneumonia in a swine herd. These techniques included: 1) assessing the percentage of lung involved and calculating a mean percentage and standard deviation for each herd, 2) counting the number of lungs in the herd sample that have greater than a predetermined amount of pneumonia and calculating the prevalence of the sample thus affected, 3) scoring only the lung from each herd sample that was maximally affected by pneumonia, and 4) allocating lungs to categories depending on the approximate extent of pneumonia. Five hundred and sixty pigs from 41 different swine herds in southern Minnesota were examined at slaughter and lungs were evaluated for the extent of pneumonia that was macroscopically visible. The mean percentage of pneumonia for a herd was positively and highly correlated with the standard deviation of that herd (r = +0.914; p < 0.0001), the prevalence of pigs having ≥5% lung involved with pneumonia in that herd (r = +0.946; p < 0.0001) and with the percentage of lung that was observed to be the maximally affected lung in each corresponding herd (r = +0.940; p < 0.001). The most informative procedure was assessing the percentage of lung involved and calculating a mean for the herd sample. Allocating lungs to categories based on approximate severity of pneumonia was less precise and more difficult to interpret. Assessing the prevalence of affected lungs, or evaluating the maximally affected lung was less time consuming and equally as informative for a herd-based indicator, as scoring the percentage of each lung and calculating a mean. PMID:17422599

  14. Imported pigs may have introduced the first classical swine influenza viruses into Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenfei; Yang, Shuai; Guo, Yuanji; Yang, Lei; Bai, Tian; Yu, Zaijiang; Li, Xiaodan; Li, Ming; Guo, Junfeng; Wang, Dayan; Gao, Rongbao; Dong, Libo; Zou, Shumei; Li, Zi; Wang, Min; Shu, Yuelong

    2013-07-01

    The first classical swine influenza A H1N1 viruses were isolated in Mainland China in 1991. To aid surveillance of swine influenza viruses as part of pandemic preparedness, we sought to identify their origin. We sequenced and phylogenically analyzed 19 swine influenza viruses isolated in 1991 and 1992 in China and compared them with viruses isolated from other regions during the same period. All 19 swine influenza viruses analyzed in our study shared the highest similarity with the classical swine influenza virus A/Swine/Maryland/23239/1991 (H1N1). Phylogenetic trees of eight segmented genes exhibited similar topology, with all segments in the cluster of classical swine influenza viruses. In addition, antigenic analysis also indicated that the tested isolated were related to classical swine influenza isolates. Classical swine H1N1 influenza viruses were predominant in Beijing pig herds during this period. Since both antibody and virus detections did not indicate the presence of CS H1N1 before 1991 in Mainland China, we combined with the data on pigs imported to and exported from China and concluded that these viruses might spread to China via pigs imported from North America and that they could affect the genetic evolution and transmission dynamics of swine influenza viruses in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Epidemiology, geographical distribution, and economic consequences of swine zoonoses: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Uddin Khan, Salah; Atanasova, Kalina R; Krueger, Whitney S; Ramirez, Alejandro; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-01-01

    We sought to review the epidemiology, international geographical distribution, and economic consequences of selected swine zoonoses. We performed literature searches in two stages. First, we identified the zoonotic pathogens associated with swine. Second, we identified specific swine-associated zoonotic pathogen reports for those pathogens from January 1980 to October 2012. Swine-associated emerging diseases were more prevalent in the countries of North America, South America, and Europe. Multiple factors were associated with the increase of swine zoonoses in humans including: the density of pigs, poor water sources and environmental conditions for swine husbandry, the transmissibility of the pathogen, occupational exposure to pigs, poor human sanitation, and personal hygiene. Swine zoonoses often lead to severe economic consequences related to the threat of novel pathogens to humans, drop in public demand for pork, forced culling of swine herds, and international trade sanctions. Due to the complexity of swine-associated pathogen ecology, designing effective interventions for early detection of disease, their prevention, and mitigation requires an interdisciplinary collaborative “One Health” approach from veterinarians, environmental and public health professionals, and the swine industry. PMID:26038451

  16. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolated from apparently healthy pig herds following an evaluation of a prototype commercial serological ELISA.

    PubMed

    Hampson, David J; La, Tom; Phillips, Nyree D; Holyoake, Patricia K

    2016-08-15

    Swine dysentery (SD) is a disease mainly of grower/finisher pigs characterised by severe mucohaemorrhagic colitis. The classical aetiological agent is the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, although "Brachyspira hampsonii" and Brachyspira suanatina also cause SD. This study reports on the unexpected isolation of B. hyodysenteriae from pigs in apparently healthy herds that gave positive reactions when tested with a prototype commercial serological ELISA for detecting herds infected with B. hyodysenteriae (Priocheck(®)Brachyspira porcine Ab ELISA). The ELISA was tested with sera collected at abattoirs from 1770 slaughtered pigs from 30 Australian herds, including 12 with a history of SD and18 that were considered by their consulting veterinarians to be healthy. The latter herds had no history of SD and did not routinely use antimicrobials that may have masked the disease. Based on the recommended ELISA cut-off value, 25 herds were recorded as showing evidence of infection, including 11 of 12 herds that were considered infected by the submitters and 14 of the 18 "healthy" herds. When faecal or colonic wall samples from 11 of the 14 "false positive" herds subsequently were culturing 6-24 months after the original ELISA testing was completed, different strains of B. hyodysenteriae were isolated from six herds, including a high-health status breeding herd. The existence of apparently healthy herds that are colonised by B. hyodysenteriae has major implications for the control of SD. Had the ELISA not been trialled it is unlikely that colonic samples from these herds would have been cultured and the colonisation identified.

  17. Building Ontario: Ontario Colleges' Contribution and Investment. Revised. Briefing Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, Toronto.

    This paper addresses the issue of educational budgets for Ontario's Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology (Canada). Colleges have supported a 35% increase in enrollment, with a 40% decrease in funding, over the last ten years, while operating costs have increased. In addition, Ontario eliminated the secondary school Ontario Academic Courses…

  18. Reproductive management practices and performance of Canadian dairy herds using automated activity-monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Neves, R C; LeBlanc, S J

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the characteristics and motivations of producers who had implemented automated activity-monitoring (AAM) systems and to compare herd reproductive performance before and after the implementation of an AAM system and between herds with AAM and herds managing reproduction based on timed artificial insemination (TAI) or based on other programs. Freestall dairy herds located in Ontario and the western provinces of Canada and enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement were surveyed through a mail questionnaire between April and July 2010. The data describe the characteristics and reproductive management practices of herds using AAM systems. A total of 505 questionnaires (29%) were returned. On average, 21-d pregnancy risk, conception risk, and 21-d insemination risk did not differ between herds managing reproduction based on an AAM system (18, 39, and 50%, respectively) or a TAI-based program (17, 38, and 49%, respectively). Herds that implemented an AAM system had a significant increase in annual pregnancy risk, from 15 to 17%, and insemination risk increased from 42 to 50%, whereas conception risk was unchanged (37 and 35%) following adoption of the system. The majority of respondents with AAM systems first used the system to manage reproduction in lactating cows. Most herds with AAM were performing artificial insemination twice per day, most commonly with an interval from the estrus alarm to artificial insemination of 7 to 12 h. The most commonly reported reason to adopt an AAM system was a desire to improve reproductive performance. These results support the findings from randomized trials that AAM-based programs can yield comparable reproductive performance to TAI-based programs. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Ontario Benthos Biomonitoring Network

    Treesearch

    Chris Jones; Brian Craig; Nicole Dmytrow

    2006-01-01

    Canada’s Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Environment Canada (Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network) are developing an aquatic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring network for Ontario’s lakes, streams, and wetlands. We are building the program, called the Ontario Benthos Biomonitoring Network (OBBN), on the principles of partnership, free data sharing, and...

  20. Swine: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating swine in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the main points in evaluating market hogs and breeding swine and provides an example class of swine. Section 2,…

  1. Swine: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating swine in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the main points in evaluating market hogs and breeding swine and provides an example class of swine. Section 2,…

  2. 9 CFR 55.24 - Herd status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... available for testing (i.e., a trace animal from a known positive herd died and was not tested) or for other... with program requirements for animal identification, animal testing, and recordkeeping, the herd will... requirements of the CWD Herd Certification Program. The herd plan will require testing of all animals that die...

  3. 9 CFR 55.24 - Herd status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... available for testing (i.e., a trace animal from a known positive herd died and was not tested) or for other... with program requirements for animal identification, animal testing, and recordkeeping, the herd will... requirements of the CWD Herd Certification Program. The herd plan will require testing of all animals that die...

  4. 9 CFR 55.24 - Herd status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... available for testing (i.e., a trace animal from a known positive herd died and was not tested) or for other... with program requirements for animal identification, animal testing, and recordkeeping, the herd will... requirements of the CWD Herd Certification Program. The herd plan will require testing of all animals that die...

  5. Bovine Mastitis: A Survey of Ontario Dairy Producers, 1978

    PubMed Central

    Meek, A. H.; Goodhope, R. G.; Barnum, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A survey to assess the knowledge and perception regarding mastitis of 1200 randomly selected Ontario dairy producers was conducted using a mailed questionnaire. Other data were provided by the Ontario Milk Marketing Board and the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. In general, producers were less aware of subclinical than clinical mastitis and did not appreciate the losses in production associated with it. Approximately 40% of producers were not familiar with mastitis in its subclinical form. Many producers have not adopted practices that have been advocated for the integrated control of mastitis. For example, 35.5% of producers surveyed used single service paper towels and 38% regularly used teat dips and dry cow antibiotic therapy. PMID:7225997

  6. Evaluation of the Johne's disease risk assessment and management plan on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor J; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David F

    2015-10-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a production-limiting gastrointestinal disease in cattle. To minimize the effects of JD, the Ontario dairy industry launched the Ontario Johne's Education and Management Assistance Program in 2010. As part of the program, trained veterinarians conducted a risk assessment and management plan (RAMP), an on-farm questionnaire where high RAMP scores are associated with high risk of JD transmission. Subsequently, veterinarians recommended farm-specific management practices for JD prevention. Milk or serum ELISA results from the milking herd were used to determine the herd ELISA status (HES) and within-herd prevalence. After 3.5 yr of implementation of the program, the aim of this study was to evaluate the associations among RAMP scores, HES, and recommendations. Data from 2,103 herds were available for the analyses. A zero-inflated negative binomial model for the prediction of the number of ELISA-positive animals per farm was built. The model included individual RAMP questions about purchasing animals in the logistic portion, indicating risks for between-herd transmission, and purchasing bulls, birth of calves outside the designated calving area, colostrum and milk feeding management, and adult cow environmental hygiene in the negative binomial portion, indicating risk factors for within-herd transmission. However, farms which fed low-risk milk compared with milk replacer had fewer seropositive animals. The model additionally included the JD herd history in the negative binomial and the logistic portion, indicating that herds with a JD herd history were more likely to have at least 1 positive animal and to have a higher number of positive animals. Generally, a positive association was noted between RAMP scores and the odds of receiving a recommendation for the respective risk area; however, the relationship was not always linear. For general JD risk and calving area risk, seropositive herds had higher odds of receiving recommendations compared

  7. Helminth parasites of intermingling axis deer, wild swine and domestic cattle from the island of Molokai, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, M E; Davidson, W R

    1989-04-01

    Helminth infections of axis deer (Cervus axis), wild swine (Sus scrofa) and domestic cattle (Bos taurus) were studied among intermingling herds on the Puu-O-Hoku Ranch, Molokai, Hawaii. Twenty-four species of helminths were collected from the 10 deer, 10 swine and 10 cattle. Capillaria bovis, Cooperia punctata, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus axei infected both axis deer and cattle, whereas Gongylonema pulchrum infected both axis deer and wild swine. None of the species of helminths occurred in both wild swine and cattle nor was any species found in all three hosts. Wild swine and domestic cattle supported separate and distinct helminth communities. In contrast, the helminth community of axis deer appeared to be derived from the helminth communities of cattle and wild swine and consisted only of those species capable of parasitizing either a broad range of ruminants or many mammalian taxa.

  8. Comparison of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Inactivated Swine Influenza Virus Vaccine in Weaned Pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare humoral and cellular immune responses to inactivated swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccine. Methods: Fifty 3-week-old weaned pigs from a herd free of SIV and PRRSV were randomly divided into the non-vaccinated control group and vaccinated group containing 25 pigs each....

  9. Comparison of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Inactivated Swine Influenza Virus Vaccine in Weaned Pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Humoral and cellular immune responses to inactivated swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccine were evaluated and compared. Fifty 3-week-old weaned pigs from a herd free of SIV and PRRSV were randomly divided into the non-vaccinated control group and vaccinated group containing 25 pigs each. Pigs were va...

  10. In vivo validation of predicted and conserved T cell epitopes in a swine influenza model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Swine influenza is a highly contagious respiratory viral infection in pigs that is responsible for significant financial losses to pig farmers annually. Current measures to protect herds from infection using inactivated whole-virus, subunit and alpha replicon-based vaccines do not provide broad prot...

  11. Novel Human-like Influenza A Viruses Circulate in Swine in Mexico and Chile

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Martha; Culhane, Marie R.; Rovira, Albert; Torremorell, Montserrat; Guerrero, Pedro; Norambuena, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Further understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of influenza A viruses circulating in swine (IAV-S) is important for the development of effective vaccines and our knowledge of pandemic threats. Until recently, very little was known of IAV-S diversity in Latin America, owing to a lack of surveillance. Methods: To address this gap, we sequenced and conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 69 hemagglutinin (HA) sequences from IAV-S isolates collected in swine in Mexico and Chile during 2010-2014, including the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes. Results: Our analysis identified multiple IAV-S lineages that appear to have been circulating undetected in swine for decades, including four novel IAV-S lineages of human seasonal virus origin that have not been previously identified in any swine populations globally. We also found evidence of repeated introductions of pandemic H1N1 viruses from humans into swine in Mexico and Chile since 2009, and incursions of H1 and H3 viruses from North American swine into Mexico. Discussion: Overall, our findings indicate that at least 12 genetically distinct HA lineages circulate in Latin American swine herds, only two of which have been found in North American swine herds. Human-to-swine transmission, spatial migration via swine movements, and genomic reassortment are the key evolutionary mechanisms that generate this viral diversity. Additional antigenic characterization and whole-genome sequencing is greatly needed to understand the diversity and independent evolution of IAV-S in Latin America.  PMID:26345598

  12. Gaps in African swine fever: Analysis and priorities.

    PubMed

    Arias, M; Jurado, C; Gallardo, C; Fernández-Pinero, J; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2017-09-22

    African swine fever (ASF) causes greater sanitary, social and economic impacts on swine herds than many other swine diseases. Although ASF was first described in 1921 and it has affected more than fifty countries in Africa, Europe and South America, several key issues about its pathogenesis, immune evasion and epidemiology remain uncertain. This article reviews the main characteristics of the causative virus, its molecular epidemiology, natural hosts, clinical features, epidemiology and control worldwide. It also identifies and prioritizes gaps in ASF from a horizontal point of view encompassing fields including molecular biology, epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and vaccine development. The purpose of this review is to promote ASF research and enhance its control. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Ontario's Ordinary Countryside.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlwraith, Thomas F.

    1984-01-01

    Rural and small-town Ontario, Canada is introduced through illustrations and discussions of seven typical elements that helped shape the province: cemetery, house, barn, hall, fence, roadscape, and main street. Having students make and discuss sketches is an excellent way to help them learn about the human geography of an area. (RM)

  14. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  15. Living in Ontario French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadasdi, Terry

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a variationist analysis of verbs meaning "reside" in Ontario French. Four lexical variants are examined: "demeurer," "habiter," "rester" and "vivre." Results reveal that "rester" is used most often by unrestricted speakers and least often by those whose use of French…

  16. Ontario's Student Voice Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This article describes in some detail aspects of the Student Voice initiative funded and championed by Ontario's Ministry of Education since 2008. The project enables thousands of students to make their voices heard in meaningful ways and to participate in student-led research. Some students from grades 7 to 12 become members of the Student…

  17. Short communication: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk of dairy cows and effect of swine population density.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, C; Cremonesi, P; Bertocchi, L; Zanoni, M G; Barberio, A; Drigo, I; Varisco, G; Castiglioni, B; Bronzo, V; Moroni, P

    2016-03-01

    The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has recently frequently been reported in dairy cattle, usually with low prevalence. The livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) ST398 is especially involved in cases of subclinical and clinical mastitis. Swine carry LA-MRSA without clinical symptoms and are considered its reservoir and shedder. People exposed to swine are particularly at risk of LA-MRSA colonization. Environments with relevant livestock density are a demonstrated risk factor for humans to be carriers of a LA-MRSA. This work investigated dairy farms located in an area with a high livestock density, mainly represented by swine. Bulk tank milk samples from 224 dairy farms were collected, and their status was defined as MRSA-positive or MRSA-negative based on culture on chromogenic medium. The number of fattening swine and of fattening swine herds was calculated in an area of 3 km around each dairy farm through georeferencing. The probability of a Staphylococcus aureus-positive dairy farm to be MRSA positive based on the extent of potential infective pressure due to swine density was calculated. Both the number of swine herds and the number of swine were associated with the MRSA status of dairy herds. The 9 MRSA isolated were typed by multi-locus sequence typing and spa-typing, and characterized for their virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance profiles. The ST and spa-types detected are consistent with those present in the Italian swine population. Virulence and resistance profiles are mostly consistent with the types detected. This work provides the first evidence of the epidemiological challenge exerted by the density of the swine population on MRSA in dairy cows.

  18. First description of swine Torque teno virus (TTV) and detection of a new genogroup in Hungary: short communication.

    PubMed

    Takács, Mária; Dencs, Agnes; Csiszár, Csenge; Hettmann, Andrea; Rusvai, Erzsébet; Szomor, Katalin N; Pálfi, Vilmos; Nagy, Béla

    2008-12-01

    Torque teno virus (TTV) belongs to the floating genus of Anellovirus. It was discovered in a human patient, and later it was also found in animals including pigs. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and estimate the prevalence of swine TTV in Hungarian pig herds for the first time, and to characterise the viruses found. Serum samples of 82 adult swine from 13 piggeries and 44 weaned pigs from one large herd were tested by PCR for the presence of TTV DNA. Viral DNA was found in 30% of the adult swine and 73% of the weaned pigs tested. Liver and intestine of weaned pigs were also tested and found to be infected at a lower rate. The TTV sequences found in sera and intestines were similar and could be clustered as swine genogroup 1. However, the sequences derived from one liver were remarkably different from all other known genogroups and seemed to represent a new genogroup.

  19. Novel reassortant human-like H3N2 and H3N1 influenza A viruses detected in pigs are virulent and antigenically distinct from swine viruses endemic to the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since November of 2012, human-like swine H3 influenza A viruses have been detected by the USDA surveillance system. Here, we genetically and antigenically characterized two of the novel swine human-like H3N2 and H3N1 viruses detected in the same herd but two years apart. Their pathogenicity and tran...

  20. Vaccination with NS1-truncated H3N2 swine influenza virus primes T cells and confers cross-protection against an H1N1 heterosubtypic challenge in pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The diversity of contemporary swine influenza virus (SIV) strains impedes effective immunization of swine herds. Mucosally delivered, attenuated virus vaccines are one approach with potential to provide broad cross-protection. Reverse genetics-derived H3N2 SIV virus with truncated NS1 (NS1delta126 T...

  1. Congenital cataracts in an Ayrshire herd: a herd case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An Ayrshire dairy herd was investigated for occurrence of ocular abnormalities in new-born calves. Ophthalmic examinations were performed on all the animals in the herd and 26% of them were diagnosed with bilateral cataracts. Cataracts varied in extent and severity but the majority were restricted to the lens nucleus. Epidemiological analysis showed the prevalence was higher in male animals and lower in animals born to heifers. A family tree was designed but no genetic impact of dam lines was evident. Sire data was incomplete and could therefore not be included. Based on the information provided by the farmer there was no obvious environmental or nutritional cause of these cataracts. However, data records were incomplete and further investigation/monitoring of the herd would be needed to establish a cause and enable a better insight into the aetiology of this disease in cattle. PMID:24460638

  2. Bayesian zero-inflated predictive modelling of herd-level Salmonella prevalence for risk-based surveillance.

    PubMed

    Benschop, J; Spencer, S; Alban, L; Stevenson, M; French, N

    2010-11-01

    The national control programme for Salmonella in Danish swine herds introduced in 1993 has led to a large decrease in pork-associated human cases of salmonellosis. The pork industry is increasingly focused on the cost-effectiveness of surveillance while maintaining consumer confidence in the pork food supply. Using national control programme data from 2003 and 2004, we developed a zero-inflated binomial model to predict which farms were most at risk of Salmonella. We preferentially sampled these high-risk farms using two sampling schemes based on model predictions resulting from a farm's covariate pattern and its random effect. Zero-inflated binomial modelling allows assessment of similarities and differences between factors that affect herd infection status (introduction), and those that affect the seroprevalence in infected herds (persistence and spread). Both large (producing greater than 5000 pigs per annum), and small herds (producing less than 2000 pigs per annum) were at significantly higher risk for infection and subsequent seroprevalence, when compared with medium sized herds (producing between 2000 and 5000 pigs per annum). When compared with herds being located elsewhere, being located in the south of Jutland significantly decreased the risk of herd infection, but increased the risk of a pig from an infected herd being seropositive. The model suggested that many of the herds where Salmonella was not detected were infected, but at a low prevalence. Using cost and sensitivity, we compared the results of our model based sampling schemes with those under the standard sampling scheme, based on herd size, and the recently introduced risk-based approach. Model-based results were less sensitive but show significant cost savings. Further model refinements, sampling schemes and the methods to evaluate their performance are important areas for future work, and these should continue to occur in direct consultation with Danish authorities. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag

  3. Epidemiological study of air filtration systems for preventing PRRSV infection in large sow herds.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Carmen; Murtaugh, Michael P; Dee, Scott A; Davies, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most economically significant pathogen in the US swine industry. Aerosol transmission among herds is a major concern in pig dense regions and filtration of incoming air, in combination with standard biosecurity procedures, has been demonstrated to prevent transmission of PRRSV into susceptible herds. To quantify the impact of air filtration on reducing risk of PRRSV outbreaks, we compared the incidence rate of new PRRSV introductions in 20 filtered and 17 non-filtered control sow herds in a swine dense region of North America during a 7 year study period. Events of novel virus introduction were ascertained by phylogenetic analysis of PRRSV ORF5 gene sequences. Putative new viruses were defined as exogenous (introduced) based on ORF5 nucleotide sequence differences compared to previous farm isolates. The influence of sequence difference cut-off values ranging from 2 to 10% on case definition and relative risk were evaluated. Non-filtered farms incurred about 0.5 outbreaks per year, with a seasonal increase in risk in cooler periods. Baseline risk, prior to filtration, in treatment farms was approximately 0.75 per year, approximately 50% higher than in control farms. Air filtration significantly reduced risk of PRRSV introduction events to 0.06-0.22 outbreaks per year, depending on the cut-off values used to classify a virus isolate as new to the herd. Overall, air filtration led to an approximately 80% reduction in risk of introduction of novel PRRSV, indicating that on large sow farms with good biosecurity in swine-dense regions, approximately four-fifths of PRRSV outbreaks may be attributable to aerosol transmission.

  4. Herd Behaviors in Financial Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyungsik; Yoon, Seong-Min; Choi, J.-S.; Takayasu, Hideki

    2004-03-01

    We investigate the herd behavior of returns for the yen-dollar exchange rate in the Japanese financial market. It is obtained that the probability distribution $P(R)$ of returns $R$ satisfies the power-law behavior $P(R) \\simeq R^{-\\beta}$ with the exponents $ \\beta=3.11$(the time interval $\\tau=$ one minute) and 3.36($\\tau=$ one day). The informational cascade regime appears in the herding parameter $H\\ge 2.33$ at $\\tau=$ one minute, while it occurs no herding at $\\tau=$ one day. Especially, we find that the distribution of normalized returns shows a crossover to a Gaussian distribution at one time step $\\Delta t=1$ day.

  5. Brucella suis infection associated with feral swine hunting - three states, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    2009-06-12

    Historically, brucellosis from Brucella suis infection occurred among workers in swine slaughterhouses. In 1972, the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Brucellosis Eradication Program was expanded to cover swine herds. Subsequent elimination of brucellosis in commercial swine resulted in a decrease in B. suis-associated illness in humans. Currently, swine-associated brucellosis in humans in the United States is predominantly associated with exposure to infected feral swine (i.e., wild boar or wild hogs). In May and July 2008, CDC was contacted by the state health departments in South Carolina and Pennsylvania regarding two cases of brucellosis possibly linked to feral swine hunts. Both state health departments contacted the state health department in Florida, where the hunts took place. The subsequent investigation, conducted jointly by the three state health departments and CDC, determined that the two patients had confirmed brucellosis from B. suis infection and the brother of one patient had probable brucellosis. All three exposures were associated with feral swine hunting, and at least two patients did not have symptoms until 4-6 months after exposure. The findings from this investigation suggest that clinicians treating patients with unexplained febrile illness should consider brucellosis in the differential diagnosis and obtain a thorough history of travel (e.g., to enzootic areas), food consumption, occupation, and recreational activities, including feral swine hunting. Cross-agency collaboration by state health departments and agriculture agencies is needed on brucellosis investigations to reduce the risk for illness through contact with infected animals.

  6. Endotracheal intubation in swine.

    PubMed

    Chum, Helen; Pacharinsak, Cholawat

    2012-11-01

    Swine are commonly used as research models for cardiovascular surgery and disease, gastrointestinal disease, organ transplantation and intra-renal surgery. These surgical models require anesthesia and, consequently, endotracheal intubation in order to protect the airway; prevent aspiration of saliva, blood and foreign materials; and maintain positive pressure ventilation of the animal. Successful intubation is vital to the stable maintenance of swine under inhalational anesthesia. Here we discuss key features of swine anatomy that make intubation challenging, equipment necessary for successful intubation and techniques for endotracheal intubation in swine.

  7. 9 CFR 55.24 - Herd status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program § 55.24 Herd status. (a) Initial and subsequent...

  8. 9 CFR 55.24 - Herd status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program § 55.24 Herd status. (a) Initial and subsequent...

  9. Mastitis control in Swedish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, C; Emanuelson, U

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which preventive measures targeting mastitis are implemented in Swedish dairy herds with different housing and milking systems. Data were collected through a self-administered postal questionnaire sent to 898 dairy farmers, stratified by housing and milking system, in May 2011. The questionnaire contained general questions about the herd and the person responsible for the udder health of the cows, and specific questions about perceived udder health and the implementation of preventive measures. The response rate was 48%. The median herd size of participating herds was 80 cows, and the median herd average milk yield per cow was 9,586 kg of milk. External validity was assessed by comparing participating herds with nonresponders in respect to key performance indicators in the Swedish official milk recording system; no significant differences were found. When herds with combined systems had been removed, 400 herds with tiestalls and pipeline milking, freestalls and parlor milking, and freestalls with an automatic milking system remained. Differences between herd types were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Fisher's exact test. The results showed that herd types differed in their rates of implementation of different preventive measures. Freestall herds with milking parlors implemented more preventive measures related to milking hygiene and milking routines than did tiestall herds. A milking order based on the udder health status of the cows was frequently implemented in tiestall herds, but not in most herds with an automatic milking system or most freestall herds with milking parlors. Irrespective of herd type, the proportion of herds in which cows were kept standing for at least 30 min after milking was low. A substantial proportion of herds ignored the udder health status of lactating cows when grouping them, and few herds grouped dry cows according to udder health status, although this occurred more frequently in

  10. Genetic correlation between current circulating H1N1 swine and human influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Yin, Yanbo; Sun, Zhongsheng; Gao, Lei; Gao, George F; Liu, Sidang; Sun, Lei; Liu, Wenjun

    2010-11-01

    H1N1 is the main subtype influenza A virus circulating in human and swine population, and has long been a threat to economy and public health. To explore the genetic correlation between current circulating H1N1 swine and human influenza viruses. Three new H1N1 swine influenza viruses (SIVs) were isolated and genomes sequencing were conducted followed by phylogenetic and molecular analysis of all swine and human H1N1 influenza viruses isolated in China in the past five years. Homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the three isolates possessed different characteristics: the genome of A/Swine/Shandong/1112/2008 was closely related to that of classical H1N1 SIV, while A/Swine/Shandong/1123/2008 was a reassortant with NS gene from the human-like H3N2 influenza virus and other genes from the classical H1N1 SIV, and A/Swine/Fujian/0325/2008 fell into a lineage of seasonal human H1N1 influenza viruses. Genetically, 2009 H1N1 influenza A viruses (2009 H1N1) in China were contiguous to the SIV lineages rather than the seasonal H1N1 human influenza virus's lineage. Furthermore, molecular analysis among human and swine influenza viruses provided more detail information for understanding their genetic correlation. These results suggested that in China in the past five years, the classical, avian-like and human-like H1N1 SIV existed in swine herds and the reassortment between H1N1 swine and H3N2 human influenza viruses was identified. In addition, the present data showed no evidence to support a strong correlation between the 2009 H1N1 and the swine influenza virus circulating in China. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Report on Ontario's Northern Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Ontario's funding formula fails to recognize the unique needs of northern school boards, which cover immense geographic areas, have many small schools, and enroll a high proportion of Aboriginal students. This report examines school size, enrollment, and staffing in northern Ontario schools, drawing on 2002-03 tracking reports of provincial…

  12. The central arctic caribou herd

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, Raymond D.; Smith, Walter T.; White, Robert G.; Griffith, Brad; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    From the mid-1970s through the mid-1980s, use of calving and summer habitats by Central Arctic herd caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) declined near petroleum development infrastructure on Alaska's arctic coastal plain (Cameron et al. 1979; Cameron and Whitten 1980, Smith and Cameron 1983. Whitten and Cameron 1983a, 1985: Dau and Cameron 1986).With surface development continuing to expand westward from the Prudhoe Bay petroleum development area (Fig. 4.1), concerns arose that the resultant cumulative losses of habitat would eventually reduce productivity of the caribou herd. Specifically, reduced access of adult females to preferred foraging areas might adversely affect growth and fattening (Elison et al. 1986. Clough et al. 1987), in turn depressing calf production (Dauphiné 1976, Thomas 1982, Reimers 1983, White 1983, Eloranta and Nieminen 1986. Lenvik et al. 1988, Thomas and Kiliaan 1991) and survival (Haukioja and Salovaara 1978, Rognmo et al. 1983, Skogland 1984, Eloranta and Nieminen 1986, Adamczewski et al. 1987).Those concerns, though justified in theory, lacked empirical support. With industrial development in arctic Alaska virtually unprecedented, there was little basis for predicting the extent and duration of habitat loss, much less the secondary short- and long-term effects on the well-being of a particular caribou herd.Furthermore, despite a general acceptance that body condition and fecundity of the females are functionally related for reindeer and caribou, it seemed unlikely that any single model would apply to all subspecies of Rangifer, and perhaps not even within a subspecies in different geographic regions. We therefore lacked a complete understanding of the behavioral responses of arctic caribou to industrial development, the manner in which access to habitats might be affected, and how changes in habitat use might translate into measurable effects on fecundity and herd growth rate.Our study addressed the following objectives: 1) estimate

  13. Swine immune system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Probably no area of veterinary medicine has seen a greater explosion in knowledge then the immune system and its implications in disease and vaccination. In this chapter on the Swine Immune System for the 10th Edition of Diseases of Swine we expand on the information provided in past editions by in...

  14. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) isolates of swine origin form robust biofilms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. One hypothesis to explain the high prevalence of MRSA in swine herds is the ability of these organisms to exist as biofilms. To invest...

  15. Use of bioinformatic SNP predictions in differentially expressed genes to find SNPs associated with Salmonella colonization in swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Asymptomatic Salmonella-carrier pigs present a major problem in pre-harvest food safety, with a recent survey indicating greater than 50% of swine herds in the U.S. have Salmonella-positive animals. Salmonella-carrier pigs serve as a reservoir for contamination of neighboring pigs, abattoir pens and...

  16. Estimation of the transmission dynamics of African swine fever virus within a swine house.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J P; Larsen, T S; Halasa, T; Christiansen, L E

    2017-10-01

    The spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) threatens to reach further parts of Europe. In countries with a large swine production, an outbreak of ASF may result in devastating economic consequences for the swine industry. Simulation models can assist decision makers setting up contingency plans. This creates a need for estimation of parameters. This study presents a new analysis of a previously published study. A full likelihood framework is presented including the impact of model assumptions on the estimated transmission parameters. As animals were only tested every other day, an interpretation was introduced to cover the weighted infectiousness on unobserved days for the individual animals (WIU). Based on our model and the set of assumptions, the within- and between-pen transmission parameters were estimated to β w = 1·05 (95% CI 0·62-1·72), β b = 0·46 (95% CI 0·17-1·00), respectively, and the WIU = 1·00 (95% CI 0-1). Furthermore, we simulated the spread of ASFV within a pig house using a modified SEIR-model to establish the time from infection of one animal until ASFV is detected in the herd. Based on a chosen detection limit of 2·55% equivalent to 10 dead pigs out of 360, the disease would be detected 13-19 days after introduction.

  17. A cross-sectional study of swine influenza in intensive and extensive farms in the northeastern region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Henrique Meiroz de Souza; Storino, Gabriel Yuri; Pereira, Daniele Araújo; Gatto, Igor Renan Honorato; Mathias, Luis Antonio; Montassier, Hélio José; de Oliveira, Luís Guilherme

    2017-01-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is a seasonal infectious disease highly important to the world pig industry. Loss of daily weight gain, increased costs for the prevention and treatment of secondary infections are the main economic losses associated with the presence of this disease. However, some epidemiological features of SI remain quite unclear. This study focused on assessing the prevalence of swine influenza virus (SIV) infection in intensive and extensive pig herds and associating risk factors. A set of 601 blood samples of five intensive farrow-to-finish farms and 361 blood samples from 56 extensive farms were analyzed using an indirect ELISA kit CIVTEST SUIS INFLUENZA®, Hipra (Amer, Spain), in order to detect anti-SIV antibodies. In total, 24.13 % of samples from intensive herds were positive, while no positive samples were detected in extensive rearing herds. Sow and weaning piglets had the highest prevalence values. In the intensive rearing system, occurrence of reproductive disorders and exposure to recently introduced animals were positively associated with the disease occurrence in swine herds. The findings highlight the importance of sows in the epidemiology of the disease and bring information about risk factors involved in the occurrence of swine influenza in intensive herds.

  18. Herd-level association between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in bovine mastitis Staphylococcus aureus isolates on Canadian dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Saini, V; McClure, J T; Scholl, D T; DeVries, T J; Barkema, H W

    2012-04-01

    Surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance is needed to manage antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. In this study, data were collected on antimicrobial use and resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (n=562), isolated from intramammary infections and (sub)clinical mastitis cases on 89 dairy farms in 4 regions of Canada [Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and the Maritime Provinces (Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick)]. Dairy producers were asked to deposit empty drug containers into specially provided receptacles, and antimicrobial drug use rate was calculated to quantify antimicrobial use. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the Sensititer bovine mastitis plate system (TREK Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH), containing antimicrobials commonly used for mastitis treatment and control. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to determine herd-level risk factors of penicillin, ampicillin, pirlimycin, penicillin-novobiocin combination, tetracycline and sulfadimethoxine resistance in Staph. aureus isolates. Intramammary administration of the penicillin-novobiocin combination for dry cow therapy was associated with penicillin and ampicillin resistance [odds ratio (OR): 2.17 and 3.10, respectively]. Systemic administration of penicillin was associated with penicillin resistance (OR: 1.63). Intramammary administration of pirlimycin for lactating cow mastitis treatment was associated with pirlimycin resistance as well (OR: 2.07). Average herd parity was associated with ampicillin and tetracycline resistance (OR: 3.88 and 0.02, respectively). Average herd size was also associated with tetracycline resistance (OR: 1.02). Dairy herds in the Maritime region had higher odds of penicillin and lower odds of ampicillin resistance than dairy herds in Québec (OR: 2.18 and 0.19, respectively). Alberta dairy herds had lower odds of ampicillin and sulfadimethoxine resistance than dairy herds in Québec (OR: 0.04 and 0.08, respectively

  19. Presentation of postweaning Escherichia coli diarrhea in southern Ontario, prevalence of hemolytic E. coli serogroups involved, and their antimicrobial resistance patterns.

    PubMed

    Amezcua, Rocio; Friendship, Robert M; Dewey, Catherine E; Gyles, Carlton; Fairbrother, John M

    2002-04-01

    Post-weaning Escherichia coli diarrhea (PWECD) in Ontario was investigated using a case-control study involving 50 Ontario nurseries. The clinical signs and the impact on productive parameters were determined by means of a producer survey. The hemolytic E. coli serogroups involved in PWECD (O149:K91:K88) were examined in this study. Based on a polymerase chain reaction test, the hemolytic E. coli from 82% of the case herds were positive for 3 enterotoxins (STa, STb, and LT), those from 12% of the case herds were positive for STb and LT only, and those from one herd (6%) were positive for 3 enterotoxins, as well as for verotoxin and F18 pili. The E. coli involved in disease were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Case farms commonly used a wide variety of antibiotics either in the feed or water, or as injectable drugs. The most common antibiotic used to treat PWECD on the study farms was apramycin, but evidence of resistance to this antibiotic was noted. The PWECD problem was commonly seen within a week of weaning but onset of diarrhea was reported as late as the grower-finisher stage. Growth rate was poorer in case herds and mortality was higher than in control herds, demonstrating that PWECD is an economically important disease in Ontario.

  20. Presentation of postweaning Escherichia coli diarrhea in southern Ontario, prevalence of hemolytic E. coli serogroups involved, and their antimicrobial resistance patterns

    PubMed Central

    Amezcua, Rocio; Friendship, Robert M.; Dewey, Catherine E.; Gyles, Carlton; Fairbrother, John M.

    2002-01-01

    Post-weaning Escherichia coli diarrhea (PWECD) in Ontario was investigated using a case-control study involving 50 Ontario nurseries. The clinical signs and the impact on productive parameters were determined by means of a producer survey. The hemolytic E. coli serogroups involved in PWECD (O149:K91:K88) were examined in this study. Based on a polymerase chain reaction test, the hemolytic E. coli from 82% of the case herds were positive for 3 enterotoxins (STa, STb, and LT), those from 12% of the case herds were positive for STb and LT only, and those from one herd (6%) were positive for 3 enterotoxins, as well as for verotoxin and F18 pili. The E. coli involved in disease were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Case farms commonly used a wide variety of antibiotics either in the feed or water, or as injectable drugs. The most common antibiotic used to treat PWECD on the study farms was apramycin, but evidence of resistance to this antibiotic was noted. The PWECD problem was commonly seen within a week of weaning but onset of diarrhea was reported as late as the grower-finisher stage. Growth rate was poorer in case herds and mortality was higher than in control herds, demonstrating that PWECD is an economically important disease in Ontario. PMID:11989737

  1. International Student Support Services at Ontario Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clayton; Whiteside, Brenda; Blanchard, Suzanne; Martin, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the Ontario Committee on Student Affairs and the Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance partnered to examine the availability and use of international student support services at Ontario universities. Results of the recently administered Ontario Committee on Student Affairs, Canadian Bureau of International Education, and…

  2. Landsat View: Ontario, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Thirty-five miles due east of downtown Los Angeles lies the city of Ontario, California. In 1881 two Canadian brothers established the town, naming it after their native city. By 1891 Ontario, Calif., was incorporated as a city. The farming-based economy (olives, citrus, dairy) of the city helped it grow to 20,000 by the 1960s. Subsequently, warehousing and freight trafficking took over as the major industry and the city’s population was over 160,000 by 2010. The L.A./Ontario International Airport is now America’s 15th busiest cargo airport. In these natural color Landsat 5 images, the massive growth of the city between 1985 and 2010 can be seen. The airport, found in the southwest portion of the images, added a number of runways and large warehousing structures now dominate the once rural areas surrounding the airport. In these images vegetation is green and brown and urban structures are bright white and gray. (Note there is a large dry riverbed in the northeast corner that is also bright white, but its nonlinear appearance sets it apart visually). ---- NASA and the U.S. Department of the Interior through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) jointly manage Landsat, and the USGS preserves a 40-year archive of Landsat images that is freely available over the Internet. The next Landsat satellite, now known as the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) and later to be called Landsat 8, is scheduled for launch in 2013. In honor of Landsat’s 40th anniversary in July 2012, the USGS released the LandsatLook viewer – a quick, simple way to go forward and backward in time, pulling images of anywhere in the world out of the Landsat archive. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission

  3. Poly I:C adjuvanted inactivated swine influenza vaccine induces heterologous protective immunity in pigs.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Milton; Wang, Zhao; Sreenivasan, Chithra C; Hause, Ben M; Gourapura J Renukaradhya; Li, Feng; Francis, David H; Kaushik, Radhey S; Khatri, Mahesh

    2015-01-15

    Swine influenza is widely prevalent in swine herds in North America and Europe causing enormous economic losses and a public health threat. Pigs can be infected by both avian and mammalian influenza viruses and are sources of generation of reassortant influenza viruses capable of causing pandemics in humans. Current commercial vaccines provide satisfactory immunity against homologous viruses; however, protection against heterologous viruses is not adequate. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of an intranasal Poly I:C adjuvanted UV inactivated bivalent swine influenza vaccine consisting of Swine/OH/24366/07 H1N1 and Swine/CO/99 H3N2, referred as PAV, in maternal antibody positive pigs against an antigenic variant and a heterologous swine influenza virus challenge. Groups of three-week-old commercial-grade pigs were immunized intranasally with PAV or a commercial vaccine (CV) twice at 2 weeks intervals. Three weeks after the second immunization, pigs were challenged with the antigenic variant Swine/MN/08 H1N1 (MN08) and the heterologous Swine/NC/10 H1N2 (NC10) influenza virus. Antibodies in serum and respiratory tract, lung lesions, virus shedding in nasal secretions and virus load in lungs were assessed. Intranasal administration of PAV induced challenge viruses specific-hemagglutination inhibition- and IgG antibodies in the serum and IgA and IgG antibodies in the respiratory tract. Importantly, intranasal administration of PAV provided protection against the antigenic variant MN08 and the heterologous NC10 swine influenza viruses as evidenced by significant reductions in lung virus load, gross lung lesions and significantly reduced shedding of challenge viruses in nasal secretions. These results indicate that Poly I:C or its homologues may be effective as vaccine adjuvants capable of generating cross-protective immunity against antigenic variants/heterologous swine influenza viruses in pigs.

  4. "Herd immunity": a rough guide.

    PubMed

    Fine, Paul; Eames, Ken; Heymann, David L

    2011-04-01

    The term "herd immunity" is widely used but carries a variety of meanings. Some authors use it to describe the proportion immune among individuals in a population. Others use it with reference to a particular threshold proportion of immune individuals that should lead to a decline in incidence of infection. Still others use it to refer to a pattern of immunity that should protect a population from invasion of a new infection. A common implication of the term is that the risk of infection among susceptible individuals in a population is reduced by the presence and proximity of immune individuals (this is sometimes referred to as "indirect protection" or a "herd effect"). We provide brief historical, epidemiologic, theoretical, and pragmatic public health perspectives on this concept.

  5. Herd Immunity: A Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Alam, M J; Rahman, M F

    2016-04-01

    Immunization is a means of protecting the greatest number of people. By reducing the number of susceptible in the community, it augments "herd immunity" making the infection more difficult to spread. It also reduces the risk for those individuals who have escaped vaccination or those who have not developed satisfactory protection. It is well to bear in mind that immunizations are not at all 100 per cent effective, particularly when an individual is exposed to a large dose of pathogenic organisms.

  6. Controlling Herds of Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.

    2006-01-01

    A document poses, and suggests a program of research for answering, questions of how to achieve autonomous operation of herds of cooperative robots to be used in exploration and/or colonization of remote planets. In a typical scenario, a flock of mobile sensory robots would be deployed in a previously unexplored region, one of the robots would be designated the leader, and the leader would issue commands to move the robots to different locations or aim sensors at different targets to maximize scientific return. It would be necessary to provide for this hierarchical, cooperative behavior even in the face of such unpredictable factors as terrain obstacles. A potential-fields approach is proposed as a theoretical basis for developing methods of autonomous command and guidance of a herd. A survival-of-the-fittest approach is suggested as a theoretical basis for selection, mutation, and adaptation of a description of (1) the body, joints, sensors, actuators, and control computer of each robot, and (2) the connectivity of each robot with the rest of the herd, such that the herd could be regarded as consisting of a set of artificial creatures that evolve to adapt to a previously unknown environment. A distributed simulation environment has been developed to test the proposed approaches in the Titan environment. One blimp guides three surface sondes via a potential field approach. The results of the simulation demonstrate that the method used for control is feasible, even if significant uncertainty exists in the dynamics and environmental models, and that the control architecture provides the autonomy needed to enable surface science data collection.

  7. Comparing ELISA test-positive prevalence, risk factors and management recommendations for Johne's disease prevention between organic and conventional dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David

    2015-11-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic, infectious disease in cattle. Between 2010 and 2013, a voluntary JD control program was successfully launched in Ontario, Canada, including a Risk Assessment and Management Plan (RAMP) and JD ELISA testing of the entire milking herd. Over the last decade, the organic dairy sector has been growing. However, organic farming regulations and philosophies may influence the risk for JD transmission on Ontario organic dairy farms. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in JD ELISA test positive prevalence, risk factors for JD and recommendations for JD prevention between organic and conventional dairy herds in Ontario. RAMP results (i.e. RAMP scores and recommendations) and ELISA results were available for 2103 dairy herds, including 42 organic herds. If available, additional data on milk production, milk quality, and herd characteristics were gathered. Organic and conventional herds had a similar herd-level JD ELISA test-positive prevalence (26.2% and 27.2%, respectively). Organic herds (4.2%) had a higher within-herd JD ELISA test-positive prevalence compared to conventional herds (2.3%) if they had at least one JD test-positive animal on the farm. Organic farms had lower risk scores for biosecurity (9 points lower), and higher scores in the calving (7 points higher) and the calf-rearing management areas (4 points higher). After accounting for RAMP score, organic farms received fewer recommendations for the calving management area (Odds Ratio=0.41) and more recommendations in the adult cow management area (Odds Ratio=2.70). A zero-inflated negative binomial model was built with purchase of animals and the herd size included in the logistic portion of the model. Herd type (organic or conventional), colostrum and milk feeding practices, average bulk tank somatic cell count, and presence of non-Holstein breeds were included in the negative binomial portion of the model. Organic farms had a higher number of

  8. Within-farm variability in age structure of breeding-female pigs and reproductive performance on commercial swine breeding farms.

    PubMed

    Koketsu, Yuzo

    2005-03-15

    This study investigated relationships between herd age structure and herd productivity in breeding herds; it also investigated a pattern in parity proportions of females over 2 years and its relationship with herd productivity in commercial swine herds. This study was based on data from 148 commercial farms in North America stored in the swine database program at the University of Minnesota. The primary selection criterion was fluctuations in breeding-female pig (female) inventories over a 2-year interval. Productivity measurements and parity proportions of females were extracted from the database. A 24-month time-plot in proportions of Parity 0 and Parities 3-5 females (mid-parity) was charted for each farm. Using these charts, a change in proportions of Parity 0 and mid-parity for each farm was categorized into patterns: FLUCTUATE (Parity 0 and mid-parity proportion lines crossed) or STABLE (the two proportion lines never crossed). Higher proportions of mid-parity sows were correlated with greater pigs weaned per female per year (PWFY; P < 0.01). Farms with a FLUCTUATE (73% of the 148 farms) pattern had lower PWFY than those with a STABLE pattern (P < 0.01). The STABLE farms had higher proportions of mid-parity sows, higher parity at culling, higher frequency of gilt deliveries per year, and lower replacement rate than the FLUCTUATE farms (P < 0.01). In conclusion, maintaining stable subpopulations with mid-parity and Parity 0 are recommended to optimize herd productivity.

  9. Classical Swine Fever—An Updated Review

    PubMed Central

    Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph; Henke, Julia; Carlson, Jolene; Beer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization. Both infections in domestic pigs and wild boar are of great relevance; and wild boars are a reservoir host transmitting the virus sporadically also to pig farms. Control strategies for epidemic outbreaks in free countries are mainly based on classical intervention measures; i.e., quarantine and strict culling of affected herds. In these countries, vaccination is only an emergency option. However, live vaccines are used for controlling the disease in endemically infected regions in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas, and some African countries. Here, we will provide a concise, updated review on virus properties, clinical signs and pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immune responses, diagnosis and vaccination possibilities. PMID:28430168

  10. Swine influenza viruses: an Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Ki; Pascua, Phillippe Noriel Q; Song, Min-Suk

    2013-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) are respiratory viral pathogens of pigs that are capable of causing serious global public health concerns in human. Because of their dual susceptibility to mammalian and avian influenza A viruses, pigs are the leading intermediate hosts for genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission and serve as reservoirs of antigenically divergent human viruses from which zoonotic stains with pandemic potential may arise. Pandemic influenza viruses emerging after the 1918 Spanish flu have originated in asia. Although distinct lineages of North American and European SIVs of the H1N1, H3N2, and HiN2 subtypes have been widely studied, less is known about the porcine viruses that are circulating among pig populations throughout Asia. The current review understanding of Contemporary viruses, human infection with SIVs, and the potential threat of novel pandemic strains are described, Furthermore, to best use the limited resources that are available for comprehensive genetic assessment of influenza, consensus efforts among Asian nations to increase epidemiosurveillance of swine herds is also strongly promoted.

  11. Classical Swine Fever-An Updated Review.

    PubMed

    Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph; Henke, Julia; Carlson, Jolene; Beer, Martin

    2017-04-21

    Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization. Both infections in domestic pigs and wild boar are of great relevance; and wild boars are a reservoir host transmitting the virus sporadically also to pig farms. Control strategies for epidemic outbreaks in free countries are mainly based on classical intervention measures; i.e., quarantine and strict culling of affected herds. In these countries, vaccination is only an emergency option. However, live vaccines are used for controlling the disease in endemically infected regions in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas, and some African countries. Here, we will provide a concise, updated review on virus properties, clinical signs and pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immune responses, diagnosis and vaccination possibilities.

  12. Variable performance of a human derived Sarcoptes scabiei recombinant antigen ELISA in swine mange diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Casais, R; Goyena, E; Martínez-Carrasco, C; Ruiz de Ybáñez, R; Alonso de Vega, F; Ramis, G; Prieto, J M; Berriatua, E

    2013-10-18

    The performance of an indirect ELISA test based on Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis recombinant antigen Ssλ20ΔB3 (rec-ELISA), to diagnose pig mange was investigated in 15 experimentally infected and non-infected pigs and 692 commercial pigs from 16 herds in southeast Spain. These latter animals included 6-7 month old fatteners (13 herds), 11-12 month old replacement sows (1 herd) and ≥24 month old breeding sows (7 herds). All pigs were examined for mites in ear skin scrapings and the presence of S. scabiei-associated macroscopic dermatitis; moreover, fatteners were also tested for antibodies against porcine viruses including: Aujeszky disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus (SIV), type 2 porcine circovirus (PCV2) and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV). S. scabiei and chronic hyperkeratotic dermatitis were detected in breeding sows from 6 herds. Mite prevalence in other pigs was 83% in replacement sows, 0% in 7 fattener's herds and 3-82% in other fattener's herds. All fattener herds had pigs with acute hypersensitivity dermatitis and the percentage of affected pigs and lesion area was significantly greater in S. scabiei infected ones. Rec-ELISA relative optical densities (RODs) were greater in older than in young pigs, as well as in infected compared to non-infected pigs. However, RODs differed significantly between infected individuals, regardless of age and origin (commercial or experimental) and the herd prevalence of S. scabiei. Low repeatability between ELISA microtiter plates, suggesting variable specific antibody binding to antigen, are likely partly responsible for ROD variation. Other potential causes of variation were examined in fatteners using random effects logistic regression analysis, after defining a seropositivity threshold value with receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. The logistic model indicated that seropositivity was associated with large dermatitis areas and with the only herd with low PCV2

  13. High turnover drives prolonged persistence of influenza in managed pig herds

    PubMed Central

    Aguas, Ricardo; Riley, Steven; Loeffen, Willie L. A.; Wood, James L. N.; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs have long been hypothesized to play a central role in the emergence of novel human influenza A virus (IAV) strains, by serving as mixing vessels for mammalian and avian variants. However, the key issue of viral persistence in swine populations at different scales is ill understood. We address this gap using epidemiological models calibrated against seroprevalence data from Dutch finishing pigs to estimate the ‘critical herd size’ (CHS) for IAV persistence. We then examine the viral phylogenetic evidence for persistence by comparing human and swine IAV. Models suggest a CHS of approximately 3000 pigs above which influenza was likely to persist, i.e. orders of magnitude lower than persistence thresholds for IAV and other acute viruses in humans. At national and regional scales, we found much stronger empirical signatures of prolonged persistence of IAV in swine compared with human populations. These striking levels of persistence in small populations are driven by the high recruitment rate of susceptible piglets, and have significant implications for management of swine and for overall patterns of genetic diversity of IAV. PMID:27358277

  14. High turnover drives prolonged persistence of influenza in managed pig herds.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Virginia E; Aguas, Ricardo; Riley, Steven; Loeffen, Willie L A; Wood, James L N; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2016-06-01

    Pigs have long been hypothesized to play a central role in the emergence of novel human influenza A virus (IAV) strains, by serving as mixing vessels for mammalian and avian variants. However, the key issue of viral persistence in swine populations at different scales is ill understood. We address this gap using epidemiological models calibrated against seroprevalence data from Dutch finishing pigs to estimate the 'critical herd size' (CHS) for IAV persistence. We then examine the viral phylogenetic evidence for persistence by comparing human and swine IAV. Models suggest a CHS of approximately 3000 pigs above which influenza was likely to persist, i.e. orders of magnitude lower than persistence thresholds for IAV and other acute viruses in humans. At national and regional scales, we found much stronger empirical signatures of prolonged persistence of IAV in swine compared with human populations. These striking levels of persistence in small populations are driven by the high recruitment rate of susceptible piglets, and have significant implications for management of swine and for overall patterns of genetic diversity of IAV.

  15. Swine Fecal Metagenomics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metagenomic approaches are providing rapid and more robust means to investigate the composition and functional genetic potential of complex microbial communities. In this study, we utilized a metagenomic approach to further understand the functional diversity of the swine gut. To...

  16. Swine Fecal Metagenomics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metagenomic approaches are providing rapid and more robust means to investigate the composition and functional genetic potential of complex microbial communities. In this study, we utilized a metagenomic approach to further understand the functional diversity of the swine gut. To...

  17. Assessment of the economic impact of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome on swine production in the United States.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Eric J; Kliebenstein, James B; Johnson, Colin D; Mabry, John W; Bush, Eric J; Seitzinger, Ann H; Green, Alice L; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J

    2005-08-01

    To estimate the annual cost of infections attributable to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus to US swine producers. Economic analysis. Data on the health and productivity of PRRS-affected and PRRS-unaffected breeding herds and growing-pig populations were collected from a convenience sample of swine farms in the midwestern United States. Health and productivity variables of PRRS-affected and PRRS-unaffected swine farms were analyzed to estimate the impact of PRRS on specific farms. National estimates of PRRS incidence were then used to determine the annual economic impact of PRRS on US swine producers. PRRS affected breeding herds and growing-pig populations as measured by a decrease in reproductive health, an increase in deaths, and reductions in the rate and efficiency of growth. Total annual economic impact of these effects on US swine producers was estimated at dollar 66.75 million in breeding herds and dollar 493.57 million in growing-pig populations. PRRS imposes a substantial financial burden on US swine producers and causes approximately dollar 560.32 million in losses each year. By comparison, prior to eradication, annual losses attributable to classical swine fever (hog cholera) and pseudorabies were estimated at dollar 364.09 million and dollar 36.27 million, respectively (adjusted on the basis of year 2004 dollars). Current PRRS control strategies are not predictably successful; thus, PRRS-associated losses will continue into the future. Research to improve our understanding of ecologic and epidemiologic characteristics of the PRRS virus and technologic advances (vaccines and diagnostic tests) to prevent clinical effects are warranted.

  18. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) isolates of swine origin form robust biofilms.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tracy L; Shore, Sarah M; Smith, Tara C; Frana, Timothy S; Fraena, Timothy S

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. Mechanisms contributing to the persistent carriage and high prevalence rates of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) strains in swine herds and production facilities have not been investigated. One explanation for the high prevalence of MRSA in swine herds is the ability of these organisms to exist as biofilms. In this report, the ability of swine LA-MRSA strains, including ST398, ST9, and ST5, to form biofilms was quantified and compared to several swine and human isolates. The contribution of known biofilm matrix components, polysaccharides, proteins and extracellular DNA (eDNA), was tested in all strains as well. All MRSA swine isolates formed robust biofilms similar to human clinical isolates. The addition of Dispersin B had no inhibitory effect on swine MRSA isolates when added at the initiation of biofilm growth or after pre-established mature biofilms formed. In contrast, the addition of proteinase K inhibited biofilm formation in all strains when added at the initiation of biofilm growth and was able to disperse pre-established mature biofilms. Of the LA-MRSA strains tested, we found ST398 strains to be the most sensitive to both inhibition of biofilm formation and dispersal of pre-formed biofilms by DNaseI. Collectively, these findings provide a critical first step in designing strategies to control or eliminate MRSA in swine herds.

  19. Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) Isolates of Swine Origin Form Robust Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Tracy L.; Shore, Sarah M.; Smith, Tara C.; Fraena, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. Mechanisms contributing to the persistent carriage and high prevalence rates of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) strains in swine herds and production facilities have not been investigated. One explanation for the high prevalence of MRSA in swine herds is the ability of these organisms to exist as biofilms. In this report, the ability of swine LA-MRSA strains, including ST398, ST9, and ST5, to form biofilms was quantified and compared to several swine and human isolates. The contribution of known biofilm matrix components, polysaccharides, proteins and extracellular DNA (eDNA), was tested in all strains as well. All MRSA swine isolates formed robust biofilms similar to human clinical isolates. The addition of Dispersin B had no inhibitory effect on swine MRSA isolates when added at the initiation of biofilm growth or after pre-established mature biofilms formed. In contrast, the addition of proteinase K inhibited biofilm formation in all strains when added at the initiation of biofilm growth and was able to disperse pre-established mature biofilms. Of the LA-MRSA strains tested, we found ST398 strains to be the most sensitive to both inhibition of biofilm formation and dispersal of pre-formed biofilms by DNaseI. Collectively, these findings provide a critical first step in designing strategies to control or eliminate MRSA in swine herds. PMID:23951352

  20. Atypical staphylococcal mastitis in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Thawley, D G; Marshall, R B; Cullinane, L; Markham, J

    1977-09-01

    A herd of cattle with a history of increased prevalence of clinical and nonclinical mastitis was investigated. Bacteriologic analysis of milk samples indicated approximately 50% of the herd was producing milk containing coagulase-positive staphylococci. Of these staphylococcal isolates, 55% had characteristics consistent with those of human strains of staphylococci, based on hemolysin production and phage patterns. Human beings in contact with the herd were nasal carriers of these staphylococci, which produced a granulartype coagulase reaction in bovine plasma, rather than the usually expected clot-type reaction. In the herd, the staphylococci caused mainly nonclinical mastitis, which was largely unresponsive to antibiotic therapy.

  1. Trends in noncompliance with milk quality standards for Dairy Herd Improvement herds in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Frequency of herd noncompliance for somatic cell count (SCC) based on current US and European Union (EU) standards as well as for standards proposed by the National Milk Producers Federation (NMPF) was examined for US Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) herds. For current US standards, regulatory action is...

  2. Consequence of changing standards for somatic cell count on US Dairy Herd Improvement herds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consequence of noncompliance with European Union (EU) and current US standards for somatic cell count (SCC) as well as SCC standards proposed by the National Milk Producers Federation was examined for US herds. Somatic cell scores (SCS) from 14,854 Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) herds were analyzed. H...

  3. Somatic cell counts of milk from Dairy Herd Improvement herds during 2010

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2010 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to somatic cell count (SCC) for calculating herd and State averages. The ...

  4. Comparison between the 2013-2014 and 2009-2012 annual porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus epidemics in a cohort of sow herds in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tousignant, Steven J P; Perez, Andres; Morrison, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the 2013/2014 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) epidemic in the United States and compare it with the previous 4 y of data from 2009 to 2012. A total of 371 herds participated in the study, representing nearly 1.2 million sows in 15 States. There were significantly fewer PRRSV cases during this study period and the onset of the annual epidemic was delayed approximately 3 wk. Cluster analysis revealed a pattern similar to previous years. The roles of spurious observations, increased awareness of PRRSV epidemics, and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus detection in the United States swine herd are considered.

  5. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd management areas shall be established for the maintenance of wild horse and burro herds. In delineating each...

  6. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd management areas shall be established for the maintenance of wild horse and burro herds. In delineating...

  7. Swine flu vaccine: present status.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2009-11-01

    In early 2009, "swine flu", a new infectious disease, emerged in Mexico and further spread around the world. It is currently accepted as the most problematic infection at present. To control this new infection, the swine flu vaccine is the hope. The reasons that we need the swine flu vaccine will be discussed. Also, the present status, current attempts and problems of swine flu vaccine development will be presented in this commentary.

  8. Myeloid Leukemias and Virally Induced Lymphomas in Miniature Inbred Swine: Development of a Large Animal Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Matar, Abraham J; Huang, Christene A

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a large animal transplantable tumor model has limited the study of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of liquid cancers. Swine as a species provide a natural option based on their similarities with humans and their already extensive use in biomedical research. Specifically, the Massachusetts General Hospital miniature swine herd retains unique genetic characteristics that facilitate the study of hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplantation. Spontaneously arising liquid cancers in these swine, specifically myeloid leukemias and B cell lymphomas, closely resemble human malignancies. The ability to establish aggressive tumor cell lines in vitro from these naturally occurring malignancies makes a transplantable tumor model a close reality. Here, we discuss our experience with myeloid and lymphoid tumors in major histocompatibility characterized miniature swine and future approaches regarding the development of a large animal transplantable tumor model.

  9. The repeated introduction of the H3N2 virus from human to swine during 1979-1993 in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenfei; Yang, Shuai; Dong, Libo; Yang, Lei; Tang, Jing; Zou, Xiaohui; Chen, Tao; Yang, Jing; Shu, Yuelong

    2015-07-01

    Limited data are available regarding the swine influenza viruses (SIVs) that circulated in Mainland China prior to the 1990s. Eleven H3N2 virus strains were isolated from swine populations from 1979 to 1992. To determine the origin and tendency of these SIVs, the phylogenetic and antigenic properties of these viruses were analyzed based on the whole genome sequenced and the HI titrations with post-infection ferret antisera against influenza A (H3N2) virus isolates of swine and human origin. The results revealed that these 11 SIVs originated from humans and were not maintained in swine populations, indicating the interspecies transmission from humans to pigs occurred frequently and independently throughout these periods. However, human H3N2 viruses might not have the ability to circulate in pig herds.

  10. Swine Dysentery: Aetiology, Pathogenicity, Determinants of Transmission and the Fight against the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Martínez-Lobo, Francisco Javier; Arguello, Héctor; Carvajal, Ana; Rubio, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Swine Dysentery (SD) is a severe mucohaemorhagic enteric disease of pigs caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, which has a large impact on pig production and causes important losses due to mortality and sub-optimal performance. Although B. hyodysenteriae has been traditionally considered a pathogen mainly transmitted by direct contact, through the introduction of subclinically infected animals into a previously uninfected herd, recent findings position B. hyodysenteriae as a potential threat for indirect transmission between farms. This article summarizes the knowledge available on the etiological agent of SD and its virulence traits, and reviews the determinants of SD transmission. The between-herds and within-herd transmission routes are addressed. The factors affecting disease transmission are thoroughly discussed, i.e., environmental survival of the pathogen, husbandry factors (production system, production stage, farm management), role of vectors, diet influence and interaction of the microorganism with gut microbiota. Finally, prophylactic and therapeutic approaches to fight against the disease are briefly described. PMID:23665849

  11. Swine dysentery: aetiology, pathogenicity, determinants of transmission and the fight against the disease.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Martínez-Lobo, Francisco Javier; Arguello, Héctor; Carvajal, Ana; Rubio, Pedro

    2013-05-10

    Swine Dysentery (SD) is a severe mucohaemorhagic enteric disease of pigs caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, which has a large impact on pig production and causes important losses due to mortality and sub-optimal performance. Although B. hyodysenteriae has been traditionally considered a pathogen mainly transmitted by direct contact, through the introduction of subclinically infected animals into a previously uninfected herd, recent findings position B. hyodysenteriae as a potential threat for indirect transmission between farms. This article summarizes the knowledge available on the etiological agent of SD and its virulence traits, and reviews the determinants of SD transmission. The between-herds and within-herd transmission routes are addressed. The factors affecting disease transmission are thoroughly discussed, i.e., environmental survival of the pathogen, husbandry factors (production system, production stage, farm management), role of vectors, diet influence and interaction of the microorganism with gut microbiota. Finally, prophylactic and therapeutic approaches to fight against the disease are briefly described.

  12. Live virus immunization (LVI) with a recent 1-7-4 PRRSV isolate elicits broad protection against PRRSV challenge in finishing age swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    PRRSV infection is the most economically important disease affecting domestic swine herds in the United States and in many countries. Commercially available vaccines are often based on older viral strains and offer limited efficacy against heterologous challenge. Live virus immunization (LVI), a for...

  13. One Step Real-Time RT-PCR for 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Matrix Gene Detection in Swine Samples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: In the spring of 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza A virus began to spread among humans worldwide (1). Because the virus is now circulating widely in the human population, swine herds are at increased risk of becoming infected. In order to investigate the potential outbreak of the new pande...

  14. Identification and Characterization of a Highly Virulent Triple Reassortant H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus in the Midwest of the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An H1N1 influenza A virus, A/Swine/Kansas/77778/2007 (KS07) was isolated from a herd in Kansas that was suffering severe respiratory disease and 10% mortality. A pig challenge model was developed to evaluate the pathogenicity and transmission capacity of the KS07 virus. The pathogenicity and trans...

  15. Origin, distribution, and potential risk factors associated with influenza A virus in swine in two production systems in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Reiche, Ana S; Ramírez, Ana L; Müller, María L; Orellana, David; Sosa, Silvia M; Ola, Pablo; Paniagua, Jorge; Ortíz, Lucía; Hernandez, Jorge; Cordón-Rosales, Celia; Perez, Daniel R

    2017-03-01

    Guatemala is the country with the largest swine production in Central America; however, evidence of influenza A virus (IAV) in pigs has not been clearly delineated. In this study, we analyzed the presence and spatial distribution of IAV in commercial and backyard swine populations. Samples from two nationwide surveys conducted in 2010 and 2011 were tested using virological (rRT-PCR and virus isolation) and serological (ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition) assays to detect IAV. Influenza A virus was detected in 15.7% of the sampled pigs (30.6% of herds) in 2010 and in 11.7% (24.2% of herds) in 2011. The percentage of seropositive pigs was 10.6% (16.1% of herds) and 1.4% (3.1% of herds) for each year, respectively. Three pandemic H1N1 and one seasonal human-like H3N2 viruses were isolated. Antibodies against viruses from different genetic clusters were detected. No reassortant strains with swine viruses were detected. The H3N2 virus was closely related to human viruses that circulated in Central America in 2010, distinct to the most recent human seasonal vaccine lineages. Spatial clusters of rRT-PCR positive herds were detected each year by scan statistics. Our results demonstrate circulation of IAV throughout Guatemala and identify commercial farms, animal health status, and age as potential risk factors associated with IAV infection and exposure. Detection of human-origin viruses in pigs suggests a role for humans in the molecular epidemiology of IAV in swine in Guatemala and evidences gaps in local animal and human surveillance. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Herd immunity: recent uses in vaccine assessment.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Guilherme

    2008-12-01

    Human communities defend themselves against specific infectious agents in a way that extends beyond the simple sum of the immune status of its individuals. By analogy with individual immunity to specific agents, the community level of immunity may vary from complete susceptibility to full protection. Herd immunity has been used to name this community property, which is the result of evolution through natural selection, leading to relationships between two species, typical of prey-predator systems. Varying uses of the term herd immunity led to the use of other expressions, such as herd protection, herd effect and community immunity. Knowledge derived from observational studies and models on herd immunity has supported decisions on the choice of vaccines and vaccination strategies for the benefit of populations. This knowledge is most likely to be extended in the future, with far-reaching effects.

  17. Severe acute bovine viral diarrhea in Ontario, 1993-1995.

    PubMed

    Carman, S; van Dreumel, T; Ridpath, J; Hazlett, M; Alves, D; Dubovi, E; Tremblay, R; Bolin, S; Godkin, A; Anderson, N

    1998-01-01

    In 1993, noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains with enhanced virulence caused unprecedented outbreaks of severe acute bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in dairy, beef, and veal herds in Ontario (Canada). Fever, pneumonia, diarrhea, and sudden death occurred in all age groups of cattle. Abortions often occurred in pregnant animals. Gross lesions in the alimentary tract were similar to those associated with mucosal disease, especially in animals >6 months of age. Cattle of all age groups had microscopic lesions in the alimentary tract similar to those seen with mucosal disease. The epidemic peaked in the summer of 1993, with 15% of all bovine accessions from diseased cattle presented to the diagnostic laboratory being associated with BVDV. The virus strains involved in the outbreak were analyzed using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and the polymerase chain reaction. The virus isolates from these outbreaks of severe disease were determined to be type 2 BVDV. Type 2 BVDV has been present in Ontario at least since 1981 without causing widespread outbreaks of severe acute BVD, which suggests that type 2 designation in itself does not imply enhanced virulence. Cattle properly vaccinated with type 1 BVDV vaccines appear to be protected from clinical disease.

  18. Incidence and Molecular Characterization of Hepatitis E Virus from Swine in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chuks Iweriebor, Benson; Nwodo, U. U.; Obi, Larry Chikwelu; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus-mediated infection is a serious public health concern in economically developing nations of the world. Globally, four major genotypes of HEV have been documented. Hepatitis E has been suggested to be zoonotic owing to the increase of evidence through various studies. Thus far, this paper reports on prevalence of hepatitis E virus among swine herd in selected communal and commercial farms in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A total of 160 faecal samples were collected from swine herds in Amathole and Chris Hani District Municipalities of Eastern Cape Province for the presence of HEV. Of the 160 faecal samples screened, only seven were positive (4.4%) for HEV. The nucleotide sequences analyses revealed the isolates as sharing 82% to 99% identities with other strains (KX896664, KX896665, KX896666, KX896667, KX896668, KX896669, and KX896670) from different regions of the world. We conclude that HEV is present among swine in the Eastern Cape Province, albeit in low incidence, and this does have public health implications. There is a need for maintenance of high hygienic standards in order to prevent human infections through swine faecal materials and appropriate cooking of pork is highly advised. PMID:28191016

  19. Incidence and Molecular Characterization of Hepatitis E Virus from Swine in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Adelabu, Olusesan Adeyemi; Chuks Iweriebor, Benson; Nwodo, U U; Obi, Larry Chikwelu; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus-mediated infection is a serious public health concern in economically developing nations of the world. Globally, four major genotypes of HEV have been documented. Hepatitis E has been suggested to be zoonotic owing to the increase of evidence through various studies. Thus far, this paper reports on prevalence of hepatitis E virus among swine herd in selected communal and commercial farms in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A total of 160 faecal samples were collected from swine herds in Amathole and Chris Hani District Municipalities of Eastern Cape Province for the presence of HEV. Of the 160 faecal samples screened, only seven were positive (4.4%) for HEV. The nucleotide sequences analyses revealed the isolates as sharing 82% to 99% identities with other strains (KX896664, KX896665, KX896666, KX896667, KX896668, KX896669, and KX896670) from different regions of the world. We conclude that HEV is present among swine in the Eastern Cape Province, albeit in low incidence, and this does have public health implications. There is a need for maintenance of high hygienic standards in order to prevent human infections through swine faecal materials and appropriate cooking of pork is highly advised.

  20. Herd-level risk factors associated with cow mortality in Swedish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Alvåsen, K; Jansson Mörk, M; Hallén Sandgren, C; Thomsen, P T; Emanuelson, U

    2012-08-01

    An increase in on-farm mortality (euthanasia and death) in dairy herds has been reported in several countries in the last decade. This does not only imply possible problems with animal welfare, but it also causes economic losses to the farmer. The objective of this study was to evaluate time trends in on-farm dairy cow mortality in Sweden and identify potential herd-level risk factors. Data were retrieved on all Swedish dairy herds enrolled in the milk recording scheme between 2002 and 2010. Herds with a herd size of <20 cows or a mortality rate (MR) of >40 dead or euthanized cows per 100 cow-years were excluded. Two different models were used: 1 multiple-year analysis, which included 6,898 herds during the period 2002 to 2010 and 1 single-year analysis including 4,252 herds for the year 2010, where other variables that were not present during the entire multiple year study were analyzed. The outcome variable was the number of euthanized and dead cows per year and season. A negative binomial regression model, adjusted for clustering within herd, was applied to both models. Fixed effects in the multiple-year analysis were breed, calving interval, herd size, milk yield, region, season, pasture period, and year. The fixed effects in the single-year analysis were breed, calving interval, conventional versus organic farming, herd size, housing system, milk yield, region, and season. The results demonstrated that MR gradually increased from 5.1 to 6.6 events per 100 cow-years during the study period. Swedish MR are consequently on par with, or even greater than, MR among dairy herds in other comparable countries. Higher mortality was associated with larger herd size, longer calving intervals, and herds that had Swedish Holstein as the predominant breed. Lower mortality was observed in herds with a higher herd average milk yield, during the fall and winter, and in organically managed herds. There were regional differences in mortality. An interaction between herd size and

  1. Origins of rainbow smelt in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.

    1983-01-01

    The first rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) to enter Lake Ontario were probably migrants from an anadromous strain introduced into New York's Finger Lakes. Since the upper Great Lakes were originally stocked with a landlocked strain from Green Lake, Maine, subsequent migration to Lake Ontario from Lake Erie makes Lake Ontario unique among the Great Lakes in probably having received introductions from two distinct populations.

  2. Accessibility to Ontario Universities, Fall 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Christine K.

    Accessibility to Ontario universities in 1984 was studied to replicate a 1983 study. The study population consisted of 7,798 Ontario secondary school students who were qualified to seek admission to an Ontario university in fall 1984 but who failed to register. To identify acceptance and rejection patterns, data are provided on: the number of…

  3. Accessibility to Ontario Universities, Fall 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Christine K.

    Accessibility to Ontario universities in 1984 was studied to replicate a 1983 study. The study population consisted of 7,798 Ontario secondary school students who were qualified to seek admission to an Ontario university in fall 1984 but who failed to register. To identify acceptance and rejection patterns, data are provided on: the number of…

  4. Reforming Ontario Early Learning: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Thomas; Date, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we address the reformation of Ontario early learning. Over the next 3 years, all 4- and 5-year-olds in Ontario (Canada) will be able to attend full-day early learning with child care, before and after school provided by the Government of Ontario Ministry of Education. The benefits of such a change are both academic and societal and are…

  5. Monitoring reproductive performance of small dairy herds in veterinary practice

    PubMed Central

    Lemire, Georges E.; Stalheim, P. Scott; Lemire, Michel R.; Verdon, Lucie; Tiemann, Martin; Bruning, Thomas R.

    1991-01-01

    A descriptive field study involving 87 herds (3608 cows) in two veterinary practices was conducted to compute mean values for a panel of reproductive herd parameters. A method of monitoring herds and identifying those herds experiencing reproductive inefficiency is reported. When comparing the means of herd indices for both practices, only the means for the index “percent in heat by 60 days” were significantly different. Overall, 20 herds were found to have at least one herd index which was significantly different from the mean for all herds. Fourteen herds were found to have significant reproductive inefficiency. If the index “percent problem cows” had not been used, 29% of the herds with reproductive inefficiency would not have been indentified. Our study suggests that it is useful to compare reproductive indices among herds, practices, and regions using a veterinary office microcomputer. PMID:17423859

  6. Control of endemic swine flu persistence in farrow-to-finish pig farms: a stochastic metapopulation modeling assessment.

    PubMed

    Cador, Charlie; Andraud, Mathieu; Willem, Lander; Rose, Nicolas

    2017-10-03

    Swine influenza viruses (swIAVs) are known to persist endemically in farrow-to-finish pig farms, leading to repeated swine flu outbreaks in successive batches of pigs at a similar age (mostly around 8 weeks of age). This persistence in European swine herds involves swIAVs from European lineages including H1avN1, H1huN2, H3N2, the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus and their reassortants. The specific population dynamics of farrow-to-finish pig farms, the immune status of the animals at infection-time, the co-circulation of distinct subtypes leading to consecutive or concomitant infections have been evidenced as factors favouring swIAV persistence within herds. We developed a stochastic metapopulation model representing the co-circulation of two distinct swIAVs within a typical farrow-to-finish pig herd to evaluate the risk of reassortant viruses generation due to co-infection events. Control strategies related to herd management and/or vaccination schemes (batch-to-batch or mass vaccination of the sow herd and vaccination of growing pigs) were implemented to assess their relative efficacy regarding viral persistence. The overall probability of a co-infection event for France, possibly leading to reassortment, was evaluated to 16.8%. The export of consecutive piglets batches was identified as the most efficient measure facilitating swIAV infection fade-out. Although some vaccination schemes (batch-to-batch vaccination) had a beneficial effect in breeding sows by reducing the persistence of swIAVs within this subpopulation, none of vaccination strategies achieved swIAVs fade-out within the entire farrow-to-finish pig herd.

  7. Identification of the first strain of swine hepatitis E virus in South America and prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in swine in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Munné, María S; Vladimirsky, Sara; Otegui, Lucio; Castro, Raúl; Brajterman, Leonardo; Soto, Sonia; Guarnera, Eduardo; Molina, Viviana; Monfellano, Marcela; Schlauder, George G; González, Jorge E

    2006-12-01

    In Argentina, a country considered non-endemic for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, serologic evidence of HEV infection has been observed in different human population groups. In other countries, a high degree of genetic relatedness has been observed between human and swine HEV genotype 3 sequences, suggesting zoonosis as one probable route of infection. This is the first identification of swine HEV in South America. HEV RNA was detected and sequenced in the ORF 1 and ORF 2 regions from swine fecal samples from a herd located in Pergamino, in the province of Buenos Aires. These strains all group into genotype 3 and exhibit a close relationship to two novel HEV variants previously identified in Argentina from sporadic acute cases of non-A to -C hepatitis in humans. In addition, using a modified commercial ELISA, the presence of anti-HEV antibodies was surveyed in five provinces across the country and all five showed a prevalence of HEV antibodies, ranging from 4% to 58%. The results suggest that swine could be an important reservoir for virus transmission in Argentina as has been suggested for other non-endemic areas. The Argentine human strains and swine strain described in this article seem to be closely related to a human Austrian strain, suggesting a potential European origin of HEV infection in these cases.

  8. Short communication: variance estimates among herds stratified by individual herd heritability.

    PubMed

    Dechow, C D; Norman, H D; Pelensky, C A

    2008-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare (co)variance parameter estimates among subsets of data that were pooled from herds with high, medium, or low individual herd heritability estimates and to compare individual herd heritability estimates to REML heritability estimates for pooled data sets. A regression model was applied to milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, and somatic cell score (SCS) records from 20,902 herds to generate individual-herd heritability estimates. Herds representing the 5th percentile or less (P5), 47th through the 53rd percentile (P50), and the 95th percentile or higher (P95) for herd heritability were randomly selected. Yield or SCS from the selected herds were pooled for each percentile group and treated as separate traits. Records from P5, P50, and P95 were then analyzed with a 3-trait animal model. Heritability estimates were 23, 31, 26, and 8% higher in P95 than in P5 for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, and SCS, respectively. The regression techniques successfully stratified individual herds by heritability, and additive genetic variance increased progressively, whereas permanent environmental variance decreased progressively as herd heritability increased.

  9. Herd management practices associated with paratuberculosis seroprevalence in Dutch dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Muskens, J; Elbers, A R W; van Weering, H J; Noordhuizen, J P T M

    2003-10-01

    We describe the paratuberculosis management practices applied in dairy herds in the Netherlands. The findings from paratuberculosis seronegative and seropositive herds were compared to discover possible risk factors. In total, 370 randomly selected herds with > or =20 dairy cows were surveyed. A questionnaire was used to collect data on current and previous paratuberculosis management practices. All cattle aged > or =3 years were serologically tested for paratuberculosis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Herds with >33 tested cattle, of which only one was seropositive, were excluded to reduce the risk of including false-positive herds in the analysis. A comparison of the management data of the seronegative herds (n = 166) and the seropositive herds (n = 143) showed that in both groups important management measures for the prevention of paratuberculosis, such as calving in a cleaned calving area, removing the calf immediately after birth, and feeding paratuberculosis non-suspect roughage to calves, were used only rarely. However, such measures should be regarded as the critical first step to control the disease and/or reduce its prevalence. Using univariable analysis, four factors were statistically different between seronegative and seropositive herds: herd size, cows with clinical signs of paratuberculosis, prompt selling of clinically diseased cattle and feeding milk replacer. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, only herd size was a significantly different factor. These results indicate that most of the paratuberculosis preventive management measures were executed on these Dutch dairy farms only to a limited extent.

  10. Polymerase chain reaction method for leptospirosis, analysis on samples from an autochthon swine population in Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Maria; Vitale, Fabrizio; Di Marco, Vincenzo; Curró, Vittoria; Vesco, Gesualdo; Caracappa, Santo

    2005-01-01

    We set a method targeting 16 rRNA gene consisting in a single polymerase chain reaction of 40 cycles which is specific for pathogenic leptospira. Negative polymerase chain reaction results were observed with nonpathogenic Leptospira (serovar patoc) and other bacteria species. By this method a survey on a population of autochthon swine herds had been conducted in Sicily particularly on kidney samples of slaughtered animals and on urine samples from live animals. The analysis showed that a prevalence of leptospira up to 40 % can be observed on these animals. Results on other bovine and ovine herds from the same province in Sicily showed a lower prevalence.

  11. Ontario. Reference Series No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Ontario and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, history, agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, manufacturing, transportation, energy, arts and culture, sports and recreation, and people and…

  12. Ontario. Reference Series No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Ontario and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, history, agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, manufacturing, transportation, energy, arts and culture, sports and recreation, and people and…

  13. Planktonic diatoms of Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinwand, Jerry F.

    1969-01-01

    The major species of diatoms in surface collections from Lake Ontario in September 1964 were Asterionella formosa, Fragilaria crotonensis, and Tabellaris fenestrata. Dominant species in the deep-water samples were Stephanodiscus astraea, S. astraea var. mintula, and F. crotonensis. The diatom flora in surface collections varied among several stations in the eastern end of the lake.

  14. Housing system and herd size interactions in Norwegian dairy herds; associations with performance and disease incidence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background According to the Norwegian animal welfare regulations, it has been forbidden to build new tie-stall barns since the end of 2004. Previous studies have shown that cow performance and health differ between housing systems. The interaction between housing system and herd size with respect to performance and disease incidence has not been evaluated. Methods Cow performance and health in 620 herds housed in free-stall barns were compared with in 192 herds housed in tie-stall barns based on a mail survey and data from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording and Cattle Health Systems. The housing systems herds were comparable with respect to herd size (15-55 cows). Associations between performance/disease incidence and housing system, herd size and year of building the cow barn were tested in general linear models, and values for fixed herd size of 20 and 50 cows were calculated. On the individual cow level mixed models were run to test the effect of among others housing system and herd size on test-day milk yield, and to evaluate lactation curves in different parities. All cows were of the Norwegian Red Breed. Results Average milk production per cow-year was 134 kg lower in free-stall herd than in tie-stall herds, but in the range 27-45 cows there was no significant difference in yields between the herd categories. In herds with less than 27 cows there were increasingly lower yields in free-stalls, particularly in first parity, whereas the yields were increasingly higher in free-stalls with more than 45 cows. In free-stalls fertility was better, calving interval shorter, and the incidence rate of teat injuries, ketosis, indigestions, anoestrus and cystic ovaries was lower than in tie-stalls. All of these factors were more favourable in estimated 50-cow herds as compared to 20-cow herds. In the larger herd category, bulk milk somatic cell counts were higher, and the incidence rate of mastitis (all cases) and all diseases was lower. Conclusion This study has shown

  15. Agriculture. Swine Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for swine, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  16. Agriculture. Swine Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for swine, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  17. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  18. African Swine Fever Virus: a new old enemy of Europe

    PubMed

    Cisek, Agata A; Dąbrowska, Iwona; Gregorczyk, Karolina P; Wyżewski, Zbigniew

    2016-10-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious viral disease of swine with a mortality rate approaching 100 percent. African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is a double-stranded DNA virus with a complex molecular structure. Its large genome, encoding multiple virulence factors, allows for efficient replication, which takes place predominantly in the cytoplasm of monocytes and macrophages. Also, ASFV has the ability to interfere with cell signalling pathways, which leads to various modulations in the synthesis profiles of interferon and other cytokines. Sustained viremia favours the persistence of virions in blood and tissues of the convalescents, and the extended circulation of ASFV within the herd. ASFV has been spreading in the Caucasus since 2007, and in 2014 reached the eastern territory of the European Union. Outbreaks pose an economical threat to native pig rearing, especially since a single point source may easily develop into an epizootic event. There is currently no effective vaccine nor treatment for ASF, and eradication is possible only by prevention or the slaughter of diseased animals. This review paper summarizes the current state of knowledge about ASFV.

  19. Household food insecurity in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Vogt, Janet

    2009-01-01

    To identify socio-demographic factors associated with household food insecurity in the Ontario population. Using data from the Ontario Share File of the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of households most likely to report food insecurity. Of the estimated 379,100 food-insecure households in Ontario in 2004, 55% were reliant on salaries or wages, 23% on social assistance, and 13% on pensions or seniors' benefits. The prevalence of food insecurity increased markedly as income adequacy declined, rising to 47% in the lowest category of income adequacy. Food insecurity was also more prevalent among tenant households and single-person and single-parent households. When all socio-demographic factors were taken into account, three potent socio-demographic correlates of household food insecurity in Ontario were identified: low income adequacy, social assistance as the main source of income, and not owning one's dwelling. Compared to households whose main source of income was salary or wages, the adjusted odds of experiencing food insecurity was 3.69 (95% CI: 2.33, 5.84) for households reliant on social assistance, but 0.44 (95% CI: 0.29, 0.67) for those reliant on pensions or seniors' benefits. Our findings highlight the need for more adequate social assistance benefit levels, but also point to the need for better income supports for low-waged workers in Ontario so that they have sufficient financial resources to purchase the food they need.

  20. [Multiresistant Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in a Dutch sow herd].

    PubMed

    Duinhof, T F; Dierikx, C M; Koene, M G J; van Bergen, M A P; Mevius, D J; Veldman, K T; van Beers-Schreurs, H M G; de Winne, R T J A

    This case study describes the isolation ofa multiresistant strain ofBrachyspira hyodysenteriae in April 2007 in a Dutch sow herd with recurrent diarrhoea. Examination of faecal samples taken from 7-month-old breeding gilts with diarrhoea revealed the presence of resistance against tiamulin, lincomycin, tylosin, doxycycline, and tylvalosin (the active substance in Aivlosin) in four of five samples. Tiamulin resistance has not been reported in The Netherlands before. The repeated use of tiamulin on the affected farm was assumed to be the main cause of the development of resistance to the drug. The farmer was advised to adopt a medication strategy and to implement management practices that would prevent an ongoing cycle of infection on the farm. It is important that the Dutch swine industry appreciates that tiamulin-resistant strains of B. hyodysenteriae may be found on other farms as well. The appropriate and prudent use of antibiotics is essential in order to prevent the development of resistance against the last option left to cure B. hyodysenteriae infections: valnemulin.

  1. Update on Controlling Herds of Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco; Chang, Johnny

    2007-01-01

    A document presents further information on the subject matter of "Controlling Herds of Cooperative Robots". The document describes the results of the computational simulations of a one-blimp, three-surface-sonde herd in various operational scenarios, including sensitivity studies as a function of distributed communication and processing delays between the sondes and the blimp. From results of the simulations, it is concluded that the methodology is feasible, even if there are significant uncertainties in the dynamical models.

  2. Salmonella Muenster infection in a dairy herd

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Brian R.; McFall, Margaret; Radostits, Steve M.

    2002-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to provide information on animal and occupational health associated with the infection of a dairy herd with Salmonella Muenster that would be useful in the management of dairy herds so infected. This retrospective, longitudinal report records a 2-year infection of a 140-cow dairy herd with S. Muenster, which was likely introduced by additions to the herd. Six cows aborted or had diarrhea due to salmonellosis in the last trimester of pregnancy. Additions to the herd and the presence of animals that had not received an Escherichia coli bacterin-toxoid were risk factors for salmonellosis. One neonate died, and 24 of 36 calves born between November 1998 and May 1999 had diarrhea by 1 mo of age. Initially, over 60% of the cows were fecal positive; within 6 months, all cows but 1 had become infected. The intermittent shedding of the organism and the eventual zero prevalence highlight the inappropriateness of extensive culling as an eradication strategy. Cultures of the bulk-tank milk filters were more sensitive than cultures of the bulk-tank milk samples at detecting S. Muenster. Two months after the index case, S. Muenster was cultured from the milk of 7.8% of the cows. Positive fecal or milk cultures were not associated with impaired health or production. The herd's milk was a zoonotic risk, but contact with infected animals was not. The organism spread easily between operations, likely via manure-contaminated clothing and footwear. PMID:12058570

  3. Herd behavior in designer genes.

    PubMed

    Huang, P H

    1999-01-01

    The ability of individuals to choose their children's genes has increased over time and may ultimately culminate in a world involving free market reprogenetic technologies. Reprogenetic technologies combine advances in reproductive biology and genetics to provide humans increased control over their children's genes. This Article offers economic perspectives that are helpful in understanding the possibly unexpected ethical, legal, and social issues at stake in using reprogenetic technologies for trait enhancement selection. The Appendix analyzes two competitive games that might arise in such a biotechnological society. Specifically, the Article focuses on herd behavior, caused by either a popularity contest or positional competition, in the choice of genetic traits. The analytical game-theoretic models in the Appendix can have several equilibrium outcomes in terms of individual reprogenetic technological choices and corresponding beliefs about such choices by others. This multiplicity of potential social outcomes suggests that a society can attain efficiency if the state or some private organization transforms individual parents' beliefs over the choices of other parents regarding their children's traits and, thus, coordinates parental reprogenetic decisions by selecting, as focal, certain beliefs over parents' reprogenetic decisions.

  4. Clostridium botulinum type D intoxication in a dairy herd in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sarah

    2003-06-01

    Thirty-four Holstein cows died after exposure to Clostridium botulinum type D toxin, presumably from contaminated haylage. The presence of type D toxin in ruminal contents was confirmed by mouse inoculation. This is the first confirmation by direct toxin isolation of C. botulinum type D toxin in cattle in North America.

  5. Occupational cancer: experience in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Chovil, A. C.; McCracken, W. J.; Dowd, E. C.; Stewart, C.; Burton, D. F.; Dyer, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience of the Workmen's Compensation Board of Ontario in identifying cases of cancer that could be attributed to occupational hazards. Worker's claims for compensation are allowed if there is reasonable medical evidence that their cancer was caused by exposure to risk factors associated with their occupation. Details of the types of cancer associated with specific carcinogens or fields of employment are discussed. About 50% of the cases were related to exposure in particular industrial operations that functioned for relatively brief periods. The number of deaths from cancer identified as being caused by occupational factors is compared with the total for cancer from all causes in Ontario during the period 1971 through 1975. Although all workers eligible for compensation may not have been identified, the data suggest that less than 1% of cancer is presently caused by occupational factors. PMID:6460552

  6. "Uberizing" home care in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Wojtak, Anne; Stark, Linda

    2016-07-01

    This article looks at home care in Ontario and its role as a foundation for a sustainable healthcare system in the future. Beginning with the history and evolution of the service delivery model, it examines current challenges and opportunities to unleash the potential of home care within a more integrated model for patient-centred care for the future. An in-depth look at how to better coordinate, integrate, and fund care for patients is highlighted.

  7. Pediatric fire deaths in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yingming Amy; Bridgman-Acker, Karen; Edwards, Jim; Lauwers, Albert Edward

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify the predictors of residential fire deaths in the Ontario pediatric population using systematically collected data from the Office of the Chief Coroner. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Ontario. Participants Children younger than 16 years of age who died in accidental residential fires in Ontario between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2006. Main outcome measures The study retrospectively reviewed the coroner’s case files for 60 subjects who qualified according to the selection criteria. Reviewed documents included the coroner’s investigation statements, autopsy reports, toxicology reports, fire marshal’s reports, police reports, and Children’s Aid Society (CAS) reports. Information on a range of demographic, behavioural, social, and environmental factors was collected. Statistical tests, including relative risk, relative risk confidence intervals, and χ2 tests were performed to determine the correlation between factors of interest and to establish their significance. Results Thirty-nine fire events resulting in 60 deaths occurred between 2001 and 2006. Fire play and electrical failures were the top 2 causes of residential fires. More fires occurred during the night (midnight to 9 am) than during the day (9 am to midnight). Nighttime fires were most commonly due to electrical failures or unattended candles, whereas daytime fires were primarily caused by unsupervised fire play and stove fires. Smoke alarms were present at 32 of 39 fire events (82%), but overall alarm functionality was only 54%. Children from families with a history of CAS involvement were approximately 32 times more likely to die in fires. Conclusion Risk factors for pediatric fire death in Ontario include smoke alarm functionality, fire play, fire escape behaviour, and CAS involvement. Efforts to prevent residential fire deaths should target these populations and risk factors, and primary care physicians should consider education around these

  8. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    PubMed

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  9. Classical swine fever.

    PubMed

    Moennig, V; Becher, P; Beer, M

    2013-01-01

    Classical swine fever is a serious and economically important transboundary disease threatening pig production globally. The infection may occur in backyard pigs, feral pig populations and domestic pigs. Whereas there are proven control strategies for the latter pig population, control in backyard pigs with poor biosecurity settings or in wild boar populations of high density still poses a problem in some parts of the world. Laboratory diagnostic methods, efficacious vaccines and contingency plans are in place in most industrialised countries. So far modified live vaccines (MLV) are still the first choice for rapid and reliable immune protection. Since antibodies elicited by conventional MLV cannot be distinguished from antibodies after natural infection, considerable efforts are put into the development of a live marker vaccine accompanied by a serological test. Nevertheless, some remaining gaps with respect to the diagnosis of and vaccination against classical swine fever have been identified.

  10. Somatic cell counts of milk from Dairy Herd Improvement herds during 2008

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2008 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  11. Somatic cell counts of milk from Dairy Herd Improvement herds during 2009

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2009 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  12. Somatic Cell Counts of Milk from Dairy Herd Improvement Herds during 2007

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2007 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  13. Reasons That Cows in Dairy Herd Improvement Programs Exit the Herd

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This new Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory Research Report was initiated to provide the US industry more comprehensive information on a routine basis on why dairy cows leave Dairy Herd Improvement herds. AIPL had previously published some information on culling rate, but the method used did not...

  14. Sero-prevalence and risk factors associated with African swine fever on pig farms in southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Awosanya, Emmanuel Jolaoluwa; Olugasa, Babasola; Ogundipe, Gabriel; Grohn, Yrjo Tapio

    2015-06-12

    African swine fever (ASF) is one of the major setbacks to development of the pig industry in Nigeria. It is enzootic in southwest Nigeria. We determined the sero-prevalence and factors associated with ASF among-herd seropositivity in 144 pig farms in six States from southwest Nigeria during the dry and rainy seasons using indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for ASF IgG antibodies. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on demography, environmental and management factors. We performed descriptive statistics, and univariate and multivariable analyses to determine the among-herd sero-prevalence of ASF and its associated factors. The overall herd sero-prevalence of ASF was 28% (95% Confidence interval (95% CI) 21-36); it was significantly higher (P <0.05) in the dry season (54%; 95% CI 37-70) than the rainy season (18%; 95% CI 11-27). In the univariate analysis, having a quarantine/ isolation unit within 100 m radius of a regular pig pen (OR = 3.3; 95% CI 1.3-8.9), external source of replacement stock (OR = 3.2; 95% CI 1.3-8.3) and dry season (OR = 5.3; 95% CI 2.2-12.7) were risk factors for ASF among-herd seropositivity. In the multivariable logistic regression, there was interaction between season and herd size. Our final model included season, source of replacement stock, herd size and interaction between herd size and season. Herds with an external source of replacement always had higher ASF sero-prevalence compared with herds with an internal source. The herd size effect varied between seasons. The ASF herd level sero-prevalence in southwest Nigeria was higher in pig herds with an external source of replacement stock and in the dry season. The effect of season of the year the samples were taken on ASF seropositivity was modified by herd size. We encourage strict compliance with biosecurity measures, especially using an internal source of replacement stock and measures that minimize movement on pig farms

  15. Identification of Exogenous Forms of Human-Tropic Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus in Miniature Swine

    PubMed Central

    Wood, James C.; Quinn, Gary; Suling, Kristen M.; Oldmixon, Beth A.; Van Tine, Brian A.; Cina, Robert; Arn, Scott; Huang, Christine A.; Scobie, Linda; Onions, David E.; Sachs, David H.; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Fishman, Jay A.; Patience, Clive

    2004-01-01

    The replication of porcine endogenous retrovirus subgroup A (PERV-A) and PERV-B in certain human cell lines indicates that PERV may pose an infectious risk in clinical xenotransplantation. We have previously reported that human-tropic PERVs isolated from infected human cells following cocultivation with miniature swine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are recombinants of PERV-A with PERV-C. Here, we report that these recombinants are exogenous viruses in miniature swine; i.e., they are not present in the germ line DNA. These viruses were invariably present in miniature swine that transmitted PERV to human cells and were also identified in some miniature swine that lacked this ability. These data, together with the demonstration of the absence of both replication-competent PERV-A and recombinant PERV-A/C loci in the genome of miniature swine (L. Scobie, S. Taylor, J. C. Wood, K. M. Suling, G. Quinn, C. Patience, H.-J. Schuurman, and D. E. Onions, J. Virol. 78:2502-2509, 2004), indicate that exogenous PERV is the principal source of human-tropic virus in these animals. Interestingly, strong expression of PERV-C in PBMC correlated with an ability of the PBMC to transmit PERV-A/C recombinants in vitro, indicating that PERV-C may be an important factor affecting the production of human-tropic PERV. In light of these observations, the safety of clinical xenotransplantation from miniature swine will be most enhanced by the utilization of source animals that do not transmit PERV to either human or porcine cells. Such animals were identified within the miniature swine herd and may further enhance the safety of clinical xenotransplantation. PMID:14963150

  16. In Vivo Validation of Predicted and Conserved T Cell Epitopes in a Swine Influenza Model

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Andres H.; Loving, Crystal; Moise, Leonard; Terry, Frances E.; Brockmeier, Susan L.; Hughes, Holly R.; Martin, William D.; De Groot, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza is a highly contagious respiratory viral infection in pigs that is responsible for significant financial losses to pig farmers annually. Current measures to protect herds from infection include: inactivated whole-virus vaccines, subunit vaccines, and alpha replicon-based vaccines. As is true for influenza vaccines for humans, these strategies do not provide broad protection against the diverse strains of influenza A virus (IAV) currently circulating in U.S. swine. Improved approaches to developing swine influenza vaccines are needed. Here, we used immunoinformatics tools to identify class I and II T cell epitopes highly conserved in seven representative strains of IAV in U.S. swine and predicted to bind to Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) alleles prevalent in commercial swine. Epitope-specific interferon-gamma (IFNγ) recall responses to pooled peptides and whole virus were detected in pigs immunized with multi-epitope plasmid DNA vaccines encoding strings of class I and II putative epitopes. In a retrospective analysis of the IFNγ responses to individual peptides compared to predictions specific to the SLA alleles of cohort pigs, we evaluated the predictive performance of PigMatrix and demonstrated its ability to distinguish non-immunogenic from immunogenic peptides and to identify promiscuous class II epitopes. Overall, this study confirms the capacity of PigMatrix to predict immunogenic T cell epitopes and demonstrate its potential for use in the design of epitope-driven vaccines for swine. Additional studies that match the SLA haplotype of animals with the study epitopes will be required to evaluate the degree of immune protection conferred by epitope-driven DNA vaccines in pigs. PMID:27411061

  17. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY...

  18. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine or...

  19. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine or...

  20. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine or...

  1. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine or...

  2. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine or...

  3. Intensive swine production and pork safety.

    PubMed

    Davies, Peter R

    2011-02-01

    Major structural changes in livestock production in developed countries, particularly intensive confinement production and increases in herd and flock sizes, have raised several societal concerns about the future directions and implications of livestock food production, including the safety of meat products. This review of the major parasitic and bacterial foodborne pathogens associated with pork production indicates that pork safety in the United States has improved demonstrably over recent decades. Most notably, changes in swine production methods have been associated with virtual elimination of risk of the foodborne parasites Taenia solium, Trichinella spiralis, and Toxoplasma gondii from pigs reared on modern intensive farms. This represents a substantial public health achievement that has gone largely unheralded. Regulatory changes have led to demonstrably lower prevalence of Salmonella on pork carcasses, but control of bacterial foodborne pathogens on farms remains a significant challenge. Available evidence does not support the hypothesis that intensive pork production has increased risk for the major bacterial foodborne pathogens that are common commensals of the pig (Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, and Yersinia enterocolitica), or that pigs produced in alternative systems are at reduced risk of colonization with these organisms. However, pigs raised in outdoor systems inherently confront higher risks of exposure to foodborne parasites, particularly T. gondii.

  4. Benchmarking dairy herd health status using routinely recorded herd summary data.

    PubMed

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2016-02-01

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to nongenetic factors, such as the environment. More rapid improvement of dairy cattle health may be attainable if herd health programs incorporate environmental and managerial aspects. More than 1,100 herd characteristics are regularly recorded on farm test-days. We combined these data with producer-recorded health event data, and parametric and nonparametric models were used to benchmark herd and cow health status. Health events were grouped into 3 categories for analyses: mastitis, reproductive, and metabolic. Both herd incidence and individual incidence were used as dependent variables. Models implemented included stepwise logistic regression, support vector machines, and random forests. At both the herd and individual levels, random forest models attained the highest accuracy for predicting health status in all health event categories when evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracy (SD) ranged from 0.61 (0.04) to 0.63 (0.04) when using random forest models at the herd level. Accuracy of prediction (SD) at the individual cow level ranged from 0.87 (0.06) to 0.93 (0.001) with random forest models. Highly significant variables and key words from logistic regression and random forest models were also investigated. All models identified several of the same key factors for each health event category, including movement out of the herd, size of the herd, and weather-related variables. We concluded that benchmarking health status using routinely collected herd data is feasible. Nonparametric models were better suited to handle this complex data with numerous variables. These data mining techniques were able to perform prediction of health status and could add evidence to personal experience in herd

  5. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Pigs and Farm Workers on Conventional and Antibiotic-Free Swine Farms in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tara C.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Abley, Melanie J.; Harper, Abby L.; Forshey, Brett M.; Male, Michael J.; Martin, H. Wayne; Molla, Bayleyegn Z.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Thakur, Siddhartha; Thiruvengadam, Madhumathi; Davies, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Much uncertainty remains about the origin and public health implications of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA). This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and prevalence of MRSA in general and LA-MRSA in particular in pigs and farm workers in five states. We collected nasal swabs from pigs and farm workers at 45 swine herds (21 antibiotic-free herds; 24 conventional herds) in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, North Carolina and Ohio. MRSA was isolated from 50 of 1085 pigs (4.6%) and 31 of 148 (20.9%) of farm workers. MRSA-positive pigs and people were clustered in four conventional swine farms in Iowa and Illinois. Based on genotyping, spa type t034, a common livestock associated variant, was predominant among both human and swine isolates. These results confirm the presence of LA-MRSA in pigs and swine farm workers in the USA, but the prevalence found is relatively low compared with European studies. PMID:23667659

  6. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs and farm workers on conventional and antibiotic-free swine farms in the USA.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tara C; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Abley, Melanie J; Harper, Abby L; Forshey, Brett M; Male, Michael J; Martin, H Wayne; Molla, Bayleyegn Z; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Thakur, Siddhartha; Thiruvengadam, Madhumathi; Davies, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    Much uncertainty remains about the origin and public health implications of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA). This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and prevalence of MRSA in general and LA-MRSA in particular in pigs and farm workers in five states. We collected nasal swabs from pigs and farm workers at 45 swine herds (21 antibiotic-free herds; 24 conventional herds) in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, North Carolina and Ohio. MRSA was isolated from 50 of 1085 pigs (4.6%) and 31 of 148 (20.9%) of farm workers. MRSA-positive pigs and people were clustered in four conventional swine farms in Iowa and Illinois. Based on genotyping, spa type t034, a common livestock associated variant, was predominant among both human and swine isolates. These results confirm the presence of LA-MRSA in pigs and swine farm workers in the USA, but the prevalence found is relatively low compared with European studies.

  7. Detection and characterisation of hepatitis E virus in naturally infected swine in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lipej, Zoran; Novosel, Dinko; Vojta, Lea; Roić, Besi; Simpraga, Miljenko; Vojta, Aleksandar

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis E is a viral zoonotic disease infecting swine worldwide. Since pigs represent a likely animal reservoir for the hepatitis E virus, the epidemiology of naturally occurring hepatitis E was investigated in Croatian swine herds. Nearly all tested animals were seropositive for antibodies against the hepatitis E virus (55/60, 91.7%). Active infection was detected in all age groups by RT-PCR of viral RNA in serum (8/60, 13.3%) and bile samples (3/37, 8.1%), which was further confirmed by histopathological findings of characteristic lesions in the livers of the infected animals. Three new strains of hepatitis E virus were isolated from Croatian pig herds. Phylogenetic analysis using median-joining networks clustered those Croatian strains with isolates from various parts of the world, indicating their likely origin in international trade. Similarity to human isolates implies a zoonotic potential of Croatian strains, which raises a public health concern, especially in the light of the high prevalence of hepatitis E in the herds studied.

  8. Herd-level risk factors for the seropositivity to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and the occurrence of enzootic pneumonia among fattening pigs in areas of endemic infection and high pig density.

    PubMed

    Nathues, H; Chang, Y M; Wieland, B; Rechter, G; Spergser, J; Rosengarten, R; Kreienbrock, L; Grosse Beilage, E

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify potential risk factors for the occurrence of enzootic pneumonia (EP) in herds situated in a region of high pig density, where a majority of herds is endemically infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Between 2006 and 2010, overall 100 herds were enrolled in a case-control study. Data were collected through personal interview with the farmers, clinical examination of pigs and their environments, and serological testing for M. hyopneumoniae, swine influenza virus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. There were 40 case herds (coughing index high, seroprevalence high) with a mean coughing index of 4.3 and a seroprevalence of 86.6%. There were two control groups. Control group I consisted of 25 herds (coughing index low, seroprevalence low) with mean values of 0.7 and 11.2%, and 35 herds were allocated to control group II (coughing index low, seroprevalence high) where the mean coughing index was 0.9 and seroprevalence 86.3%. Case herds and control II herds had an increased age of piglets at weaning compared to control I herds. Any contact between fattening pigs of different age during restocking of compartments increased the risk for the occurrence of EP in a herd. Finally, farms that use living animals for the exposure to gilts during the acclimatization and farms that had increased number of weaned piglets per sow and year were less likely to test positive for M. hyopneumoniae and less likely to develop clinical symptoms of EP in fattening pigs.

  9. Identification and characterization of a highly virulent triple reassortant H1N1 swine influenza virus in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenjun; Vincent, Amy L; Lager, Kelly M; Janke, Bruce H; Henry, Steven C; Rowland, Raymond R R; Hesse, Richard A; Richt, Jürgen A

    2010-02-01

    A highly virulent H1N1 influenza A virus, A/Swine/Kansas/77778/2007 (KS07), which caused approximately 10% mortality in finishing pigs, was isolated from herds in the Midwestern United States. Molecular and phylogenic analysis revealed this swine isolate was a triple reassortant virus, similar to an H1N1 virus that infected humans and pigs at an Ohio county fair in August 2007. A pig challenge model was developed to evaluate the pathogenicity and transmission capacity of the KS07 virus. The results confirmed that the KS07 virus is highly virulent in pigs and easily transmitted to sentinel animals. The KS07 virus failed to cross-react with a panel of H1-specific swine sera. Interestingly, the KS07 virus shed for a prolonged period up to 7 days in infected pigs, indicating that this virus can spread efficiently between animals. The highly virulent H1N1 swine influenza virus is further evidence of reassortment among avian, human and swine influenza viruses and justifies the need for continued surveillance of influenza viruses in swine.

  10. Genotyping of Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses from a Family of Miniature Swine

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Gary; Wood, James; Suling, Kristen; Arn, Scott; Sachs, David H.; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Patience, Clive

    2004-01-01

    The identification of animals in an inbred miniature swine herd that consistently fail to produce replication- competent humantropic porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) has prompted studies on the biology of PERV in transmitter and nontransmitter animals. We analyzed PERV RNA transcript profiles in a family of inbred miniature swine (SLAd/d haplotype) in which individual members differed in their capacity to generate humantropic and ecotropic (i.e., pigtropic) virus. We identified unique HaeIII and HpaII gag restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profiles resulting from single nucleotide polymorphisms in blood cells; these were found only in animals that produced humantropic PERV. These HaeIII and HpaII gag RFLP profiles proved to be components of humantropic PERV as they were transmitted to 293 human target cells in vitro. The humantropic HaeIII and HpaII gag RFLP genotypes in the family of study were not present in other miniature swine in the herd that produced humantropic PERV, indicating that these RFLP profiles relate specifically to this family's lineage. PMID:14671113

  11. Variability in Risk Assessment and Management Plan (RAMP) scores completed as part of the Ontario Johne's Education and Management Assistance Program(2010-2013).

    PubMed

    Pieper, Laura; DeVries, Trevor J; Sorge, Ulrike S; Godkin, Ann; Hand, Karen J; Perkins, Nicole R; Imada, Jamie; Kelton, David F

    2015-04-01

    As a proactive measure toward controlling the nontreatable and contagious Johne's disease in cattle, the Ontario dairy industry launched the voluntary Ontario Johne's Education and Management Assistance Program in 2010. The objective of this study was to describe the results of the first 4 yr of the program and to investigate the variability in Risk Assessment and Management Plan (RAMP) scores associated with the county, veterinary clinic, and veterinarian. Of 4,158 Ontario dairy farms, 2,153 (51.8%) participated in the program between January 2010 and August 2013. For this study, RAMP scores and whole-herd milk or serum ELISA results were available from 2,103 farms. Herd-level ELISA-positive prevalence (herds with one or more test-positive cows were considered positive) was 27.2%. Linear mixed model analysis revealed that the greatest RAMP score variability was at the veterinarian level (24.2%), with relatively little variability at the county and veterinary clinic levels. Consequently, the annual RAMP should be done by the same veterinarian to avoid misleading or discouraging results.

  12. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they were...

  13. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they were...

  14. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they were...

  15. Controlling disease outbreaks in wildlife using limited culling: modelling classical swine fever incursions in wild pigs in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cowled, Brendan D; Garner, M Graeme; Negus, Katherine; Ward, Michael P

    2012-01-16

    Disease modelling is one approach for providing new insights into wildlife disease epidemiology. This paper describes a spatio-temporal, stochastic, susceptible- exposed-infected-recovered process model that simulates the potential spread of classical swine fever through a documented, large and free living wild pig population following a simulated incursion. The study area (300 000 km2) was in northern Australia. Published data on wild pig ecology from Australia, and international Classical Swine Fever data was used to parameterise the model. Sensitivity analyses revealed that herd density (best estimate 1-3 pigs km-2), daily herd movement distances (best estimate approximately 1 km), probability of infection transmission between herds (best estimate 0.75) and disease related herd mortality (best estimate 42%) were highly influential on epidemic size but that extraordinary movements of pigs and the yearly home range size of a pig herd were not. CSF generally established (98% of simulations) following a single point introduction. CSF spread at approximately 9 km2 per day with low incidence rates (< 2 herds per day) in an epidemic wave along contiguous habitat for several years, before dying out (when the epidemic arrived at the end of a contiguous sub-population or at a low density wild pig area). The low incidence rate indicates that surveillance for wildlife disease epidemics caused by short lived infections will be most efficient when surveillance is based on detection and investigation of clinical events, although this may not always be practical. Epidemics could be contained and eradicated with culling (aerial shooting) or vaccination when these were adequately implemented. It was apparent that the spatial structure, ecology and behaviour of wild populations must be accounted for during disease management in wildlife. An important finding was that it may only be necessary to cull or vaccinate relatively small proportions of a population to successfully contain

  16. Controlling disease outbreaks in wildlife using limited culling: modelling classical swine fever incursions in wild pigs in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Disease modelling is one approach for providing new insights into wildlife disease epidemiology. This paper describes a spatio-temporal, stochastic, susceptible- exposed-infected-recovered process model that simulates the potential spread of classical swine fever through a documented, large and free living wild pig population following a simulated incursion. The study area (300 000 km2) was in northern Australia. Published data on wild pig ecology from Australia, and international Classical Swine Fever data was used to parameterise the model. Sensitivity analyses revealed that herd density (best estimate 1-3 pigs km-2), daily herd movement distances (best estimate approximately 1 km), probability of infection transmission between herds (best estimate 0.75) and disease related herd mortality (best estimate 42%) were highly influential on epidemic size but that extraordinary movements of pigs and the yearly home range size of a pig herd were not. CSF generally established (98% of simulations) following a single point introduction. CSF spread at approximately 9 km2 per day with low incidence rates (< 2 herds per day) in an epidemic wave along contiguous habitat for several years, before dying out (when the epidemic arrived at the end of a contiguous sub-population or at a low density wild pig area). The low incidence rate indicates that surveillance for wildlife disease epidemics caused by short lived infections will be most efficient when surveillance is based on detection and investigation of clinical events, although this may not always be practical. Epidemics could be contained and eradicated with culling (aerial shooting) or vaccination when these were adequately implemented. It was apparent that the spatial structure, ecology and behaviour of wild populations must be accounted for during disease management in wildlife. An important finding was that it may only be necessary to cull or vaccinate relatively small proportions of a population to successfully contain

  17. Herd immunity and the HIV epidemic.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, W T

    1991-05-01

    Background. Herd immunity describes the collective immunocompetence of a population and its ability to resist disease. The diseases of mycobacteria, salmonella, hepatitis A, cryptosporidia, syphilis, measles, influenza, and numerous others recently have been seen in epidemic proportions in the United States. An association between these superimposed secondary infections and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic can be made since the HIV's imposition on individual immunity has ramifications on a population level through a decline in herd immunity. Conclusion. Exploring these epidemic phenomena as consequential to a reduction in herd immunity can provide a unifying hypothesis to explain existing and predict future infectious disease epidemic dynamics. The benefits of acting upon these implications has advantages for both the HIV infected and the uninfected.

  18. An analysis of herding behavior in security analysts’ networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, YongJie; Feng, Xu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we build undirected weighted networks to study herding behavior among analysts and to analyze the characteristics and the structure of these networks. We then construct a new indicator based on the average degree of nodes and the average weighted clustering coefficient to research the various types of herding behavior. Our findings suggest that every industry has, to a certain degree, herding behavior among analysts. While there is obvious uninformed herding behavior in real estate and certain other industries, industries such as mining and nonferrous metals have informed herding behavior caused by analysts’ similar reactions to public information. Furthermore, we relate the two types of herding behavior to stock price and find that uninformed herding behavior has a positive effect on market prices, whereas informed herding behavior has a negative effect.

  19. Ontario's Challenge: Denominational Rights in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinga, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Denominational rights in education have a long and controversial history within Canada. Ontario has struggled with denomination rights and continues to face the challenges posed by accommodating denominational rights. This paper examines those challenges and considers the future of denominational rights in Ontario, in light of John Tory's 2007…

  20. Comparing Ontario and American Public Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    Universities in Ontario, Canada, and the United States were compared using data from the U.S. 1995 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System and a database based on Statistics Canada information. On average, universities in Ontario would have to hire 35.9% more full-time faculty in order to achieve the student-faculty ratio of U.S. peers.…

  1. Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Paul Z.

    2012-01-01

    TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

  2. Examining Competition in Ontario's Higher Education Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farhan, Bayan Yousef

    2017-01-01

    Financial challenges have forced many publicly funded academic institutions in Ontario to adopt a corporate model and to use market tools to compete in the higher education market and maintain their enrolment and revenue levels. This study has analyzed how competition affects publicly funded universities in Ontario. Competition was examined by…

  3. Nursery practices and research in Ontario

    Treesearch

    Karen E. Watt

    2002-01-01

    A brief history of nursery production of forest tree seedlings in Ontario is presented. The industry dates back to 1904, when the first nursery in the province was established. From 1922 to 1958, eleven additional nurseries were built, the majority of which were situated in northern Ontario. Although the original experiments with containerized seedlings were conducted...

  4. Libraries in Ontario: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/ontario.html Libraries in Ontario To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Barrie Royal Victoria Regional Health Centre Health Library 201 Georgian Drive Barrie, ON L4M 6M2 CANADA ...

  5. Examining Competition in Ontario's Higher Education Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farhan, Bayan Yousef

    2017-01-01

    Financial challenges have forced many publicly funded academic institutions in Ontario to adopt a corporate model and to use market tools to compete in the higher education market and maintain their enrolment and revenue levels. This study has analyzed how competition affects publicly funded universities in Ontario. Competition was examined by…

  6. [Overview of acupuncture development in Ontario Canada].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Wu, Bin-jiang

    2012-04-01

    The history of acupuncture in Ontario, Canada was traced, and the current status as welI as the prospection were introduced in this paper. Statistics showed that the history of acupuncture in Ontario started in the 1880s, and it was only popular in China Town and Chinese community. In the 1970s, it gradually merged into the mainstream of the society, and entered into a growing period. With the tide of Chinese immigration in the 1980s and 1990s, acupuncture matured rapidly. In 2006, the "Traditional Chinese Medicine Act" was passed in Ontario, it was considered as a milestone in the history of acupuncture. At present, just like the other 23 health care professions, acupuncture has already be included into the legislation system, and become a component of Ontario's health care system. At the same time, the law and regulation may also promote the establishment of "pure Chinese Medicine" in Ontario.

  7. Microbiological, pathological and histological findings in four Danish pig herds affected by a new neonatal diarrhoea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neonatal diarrhoea is a frequent clinical condition in commercial swine herds, previously regarded to be uncomplicated to treat. However, since 2008 it seems that a new neonatal diarrhoeic syndrome unresponsive to antibiotics and common management practices has emerged. Routine laboratory examinations have not detected any pathogen related to this syndrome. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate if well-known enteric pathogens could be associated with outbreaks of neonatal diarrhoea, thus question the hypotheses of a new syndrome. Furthermore, we wanted to evaluate macroscopic and microscopic findings associated with these outbreaks and if possible propose a preliminary piglet-level case-definition on syndrome New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea syndrome (NNPDS). Results Four well-managed herds experiencing neonatal diarrhoea with no previously established laboratory conclusion and suspected to suffer from New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome, were selected. Within these herds, 51 diarrhoeic and 50 non-diarrhoeic piglets at the age of three to seven days were necropsied and subjected to histological and microbiological examination. Faeces were non-haemorrhagic. Neither enterotoxigenic E. coli, Clostridium perfringens type A or C, Clostridium difficile, rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, Cystoisospora suis nor Strongyloides ransomi were associated with diarrhoea in the investigated outbreaks. Macroscopically, the diarrhoeic piglets were characterized by filled stomachs and flaccid intestines without mucosal changes. The predominant histological lesions were villous atrophy in jejunum and ileum. Epithelial lesions in colon were seen in one third of the case piglets. Conclusions The results of the study supported the hypothesis that a new neonatal porcine diarrhoea was present in the investigated herds, since no known pathogen(s) or management factors could explain the diarrhoeal outbreaks. Based on the findings in the four

  8. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Herd management areas. 4710.3-1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd...

  9. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Herd management areas. 4710.3-1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd...

  10. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus: infection dynamics within and between herds

    PubMed Central

    Klem, T. B.; Gulliksen, S. M.; Lie, K.-I.; Løken, T.; Østerås, O.; Stokstad, M.

    2013-01-01

    The infection dynamics of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were studied in randomly selected Norwegian dairy herds. A total of 134 herds were tested twice, six months apart. The herds were classified as positive for BRSV if at least one animal between 150 and 365 days old tested positive for antibodies against BRSV, thereby representing herds that had most likely had the virus present during the previous year. The prevalence of positive herds at the first and second sampling was 34 per cent and at 41 per cent, respectively, but varied greatly between regions. Negative herds were found in close proximity to positive herds. Some of these herds remained negative despite several new infections nearby. Of the herds initially being negative, 42 per cent changed status to positive during the six months. This occurred at the same rate during summer as winter, but a higher rate of animals in the herds was positive if it took place during winter. Of the herds initially being positive, 33 per cent changed to negative. This indicates that an effective strategy to lower the prevalence and the impact of BRSV could be to employ close surveillance and place a high biosecurity focus on the negative herds. PMID:24158321

  11. Herd behavior in a complex adaptive system

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Yang, Guang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yu; Huang, J. P.; Ohashi, Hirotada; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-01-01

    In order to survive, self-serving agents in various kinds of complex adaptive systems (CASs) must compete against others for sharing limited resources with biased or unbiased distribution by conducting strategic behaviors. This competition can globally result in the balance of resource allocation. As a result, most of the agents and species can survive well. However, it is a common belief that the formation of a herd in a CAS will cause excess volatility, which can ruin the balance of resource allocation in the CAS. Here this belief is challenged with the results obtained from a modeled resource-allocation system. Based on this system, we designed and conducted a series of computer-aided human experiments including herd behavior. We also performed agent-based simulations and theoretical analyses, in order to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that, as long as the ratio of the two resources for allocation is biased enough, the formation of a typically sized herd can help the system to reach the balanced state. This resource ratio also serves as the critical point for a class of phase transition identified herein, which can be used to discover the role change of herd behavior, from a ruinous one to a helpful one. This work is also of value to some fields, ranging from management and social science, to ecology and evolution, and to physics. PMID:21876133

  12. Vaccination and herd immunity to infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Roy M.; May, Robert M.

    1985-11-01

    An understanding of the relationship between the transmission dynamics of infectious agents and herd immunity provides a template for the design of effective control programmes based on mass immunization. Mathematical models of the spread and persistence of infection provide important insights into the problem of how best to protect the community against disease.

  13. Herd behavior in a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Yang, Guang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yu; Huang, J P; Ohashi, Hirotada; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-09-13

    In order to survive, self-serving agents in various kinds of complex adaptive systems (CASs) must compete against others for sharing limited resources with biased or unbiased distribution by conducting strategic behaviors. This competition can globally result in the balance of resource allocation. As a result, most of the agents and species can survive well. However, it is a common belief that the formation of a herd in a CAS will cause excess volatility, which can ruin the balance of resource allocation in the CAS. Here this belief is challenged with the results obtained from a modeled resource-allocation system. Based on this system, we designed and conducted a series of computer-aided human experiments including herd behavior. We also performed agent-based simulations and theoretical analyses, in order to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that, as long as the ratio of the two resources for allocation is biased enough, the formation of a typically sized herd can help the system to reach the balanced state. This resource ratio also serves as the critical point for a class of phase transition identified herein, which can be used to discover the role change of herd behavior, from a ruinous one to a helpful one. This work is also of value to some fields, ranging from management and social science, to ecology and evolution, and to physics.

  14. Review of group A rotavirus strains reported in swine and cattle.

    PubMed

    Papp, Hajnalka; László, Brigitta; Jakab, Ferenc; Ganesh, Balasubramanian; De Grazia, Simona; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Ciarlet, Max; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Krisztián

    2013-08-30

    Group A rotavirus (RVA) infections cause severe economic losses in intensively reared livestock animals, particularly in herds of swine and cattle. RVA strains are antigenically heterogeneous, and are classified in multiple G and P types defined by the two outer capsid proteins, VP7 and VP4, respectively. This study summarizes published literature on the genetic and antigenic diversity of porcine and bovine RVA strains published over the last 3 decades. The single most prevalent genotype combination among porcine RVA strains was G5P[7], whereas the predominant genotype combination among bovine RVA strains was G6P[5], although spatiotemporal differences in RVA strain distribution were observed. These data provide important baseline data on epidemiologically important RVA strains in swine and cattle and may guide the development of more effective vaccines for veterinary use.

  15. Agents of the "suis-ide diseases" of swine: Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed Central

    MacInnes, J I; Desrosiers, R

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Streptococcus suis have emerged as important pathogens of swine, particularly in high health status herds. Their association with a wide range of serious clinical conditions and has given rise to the moniker "suis-ide diseases." These organisms are early colonizers and, for that reason, are difficult to control by management procedures such as segregated early weaning. Vaccination, serodiagnostic testing, and even serotyping are complicated by the presence of multiple serotypes, cross-reactive antigens, and the absence of clear markers for virulence. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and management of the causative agents of the "suis-ide diseases" of swine. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:10369563

  16. Use of ELISA to detect toxigenic Pasteurella multocida in atrophic rhinitis in swine.

    PubMed

    Bowersock, T L; Hooper, T; Pottenger, R

    1992-10-01

    The use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a means of detecting dermonecrotoxin-producing strains of Pasteurella multocida was investigated. The assay was evaluated as a means to identify toxigenic P. multocida isolates recovered from nasal secretions of swine with atrophic rhinitis. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA for detecting dermonecrotoxin-producing P. multocida strains were compared to those of mouse-inoculation and cytotoxicity assays. The ELISA was highly sensitive and more specific than animal inoculation or tissue culture assay and is thus a more effective method for screening swine herds for the presence of toxigenic strains of P. multocida. The ELISA is a rapid, effective, economical way to identify toxigenic P. multocida isolates.

  17. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae by polymerase chain reaction in swine presenting respiratory problems

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguti, M.; Muller, E.E.; Piffer, A.I.; Kich, J.D.; Klein, C.S.; Kuchiishi, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    Since Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae isolation in appropriate media is a difficult task and impractical for daily routine diagnostics, Nested-PCR (N-PCR) techniques are currently used to improve the direct diagnostic sensitivity of Swine Enzootic Pneumonia. In a first experiment, this paper describes a N-PCR technique optimization based on three variables: different sampling sites, sample transport media, and DNA extraction methods, using eight pigs. Based on the optimization results, a second experiment was conducted for testing validity using 40 animals. In conclusion, the obtained results of the N-PCR optimization and validation allow us to recommend this test as a routine monitoring diagnostic method for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in swine herds. PMID:24031248

  18. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis infection in swine associated with peat used for bedding.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Agdestein, Angelika; Lium, Bjørn; Jørgensen, Anne; Djønne, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is an environmental bacterium causing opportunistic infections in swine, resulting in economic losses. Additionally, the zoonotic aspect of such infections is of concern. In the southeastern region of Norway in 2009 and 2010, an increase in condemnation of pig carcasses with tuberculous lesions was seen at the meat inspection. The use of peat as bedding in the herds was suspected to be a common factor, and a project examining pigs and environmental samples from the herds was initiated. Lesions detected at meat inspection in pigs originating from 15 herds were sampled. Environmental samples including peat from six of the herds and from three peat production facilities were additionally collected. Samples were analysed by culture and isolates genotyped by MLVA analysis. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis was detected in 35 out of 46 pigs, in 16 out of 20 samples of peat, and in one sample of sawdust. MLVA analysis demonstrated identical isolates from peat and pigs within the same farms. Polyclonal infection was demonstrated by analysis of multiple isolates from the same pig. To conclude, the increase in condemnation of porcine carcasses at slaughter due to mycobacteriosis seemed to be related to untreated peat used as bedding.

  19. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Infection in Swine Associated with Peat Used for Bedding

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Lium, Bjørn; Jørgensen, Anne; Djønne, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is an environmental bacterium causing opportunistic infections in swine, resulting in economic losses. Additionally, the zoonotic aspect of such infections is of concern. In the southeastern region of Norway in 2009 and 2010, an increase in condemnation of pig carcasses with tuberculous lesions was seen at the meat inspection. The use of peat as bedding in the herds was suspected to be a common factor, and a project examining pigs and environmental samples from the herds was initiated. Lesions detected at meat inspection in pigs originating from 15 herds were sampled. Environmental samples including peat from six of the herds and from three peat production facilities were additionally collected. Samples were analysed by culture and isolates genotyped by MLVA analysis. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis was detected in 35 out of 46 pigs, in 16 out of 20 samples of peat, and in one sample of sawdust. MLVA analysis demonstrated identical isolates from peat and pigs within the same farms. Polyclonal infection was demonstrated by analysis of multiple isolates from the same pig. To conclude, the increase in condemnation of porcine carcasses at slaughter due to mycobacteriosis seemed to be related to untreated peat used as bedding. PMID:25431762

  20. Serological Evidence of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Infections in Greek Swine.

    PubMed

    Kyriakis, C S; Papatsiros, V G; Athanasiou, L V; Valiakos, G; Brown, I H; Simon, G; Van Reeth, K; Tsiodras, S; Spyrou, V; Billinis, C

    2016-08-01

    The introduction of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza virus in pigs changed the epidemiology of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine in Europe and the rest of the world. Previously, three IAV subtypes were found in the European pig population: an avian-like H1N1 and two reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses with human-origin haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase proteins and internal genes of avian decent. These viruses pose antigenically distinct HAs, which allow the retrospective diagnosis of infection in serological investigations. However, cross-reactions between the HA of pH1N1 and the HAs of the other circulating H1 IAVs complicate serological diagnosis. The prevalence of IAVs in Greek swine has been poorly investigated. In this study, we examined and compared haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titres against previously established IAVs and pH1N1 in 908 swine sera from 88 herds, collected before and after the 2009 pandemic. While we confirmed the historic presence of the three IAVs established in European swine, we also found that 4% of the pig sera examined after 2009 had HI antibodies only against the pH1N1 virus. Our results indicate that pH1N1 is circulating in Greek pigs and stress out the importance of a vigorous virological surveillance programme.

  1. Optimal Use of Vaccines for Control of Influenza A Virus in Swine.

    PubMed

    Sandbulte, Matthew R; Spickler, Anna R; Zaabel, Pamela K; Roth, James A

    2015-01-30

    Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) is one of the most important infectious disease agents of swine in North America. In addition to the economic burden of IAV-S to the swine industry, the zoonotic potential of IAV-S sometimes leads to serious public health concerns. Adjuvanted, inactivated vaccines have been licensed in the United States for over 20 years, and there is also widespread usage of autogenous/custom IAV-S vaccines. Vaccination induces neutralizing antibodies and protection against infection with very similar strains. However, IAV-S strains are so diverse and prone to mutation that these vaccines often have disappointing efficacy in the field. This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd. We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future. We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs. Improvements in IAV-S immunization strategies, in both the short term and long term, will benefit swine health and productivity and potentially reduce risks to public health.

  2. Optimal Use of Vaccines for Control of Influenza A Virus in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Sandbulte, Matthew R.; Spickler, Anna R.; Zaabel, Pamela K.; Roth, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) is one of the most important infectious disease agents of swine in North America. In addition to the economic burden of IAV-S to the swine industry, the zoonotic potential of IAV-S sometimes leads to serious public health concerns. Adjuvanted, inactivated vaccines have been licensed in the United States for over 20 years, and there is also widespread usage of autogenous/custom IAV-S vaccines. Vaccination induces neutralizing antibodies and protection against infection with very similar strains. However, IAV-S strains are so diverse and prone to mutation that these vaccines often have disappointing efficacy in the field. This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd. We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future. We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs. Improvements in IAV-S immunization strategies, in both the short term and long term, will benefit swine health and productivity and potentially reduce risks to public health. PMID:26344946

  3. Evaluation of a veterinary-based syndromic surveillance system implemented for swine

    PubMed Central

    del Rocio Amezcua, Maria; Pearl, David L.; Friendship, Robert M.; McNab, W. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Practicing veterinarians play an important role in detecting the initial outbreak of disease in animal populations. A pilot study was conducted to determine the feasibility of a veterinary-based surveillance system for the Ontario swine industry. A total of 7 practitioners from 5 clinics agreed to submit information from July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2008. The surveillance program was evaluated in terms of timeliness, compliance, geographic coverage, and data quality. Our study showed that the veterinary-based surveillance system was acceptable to practitioners and produced useful data. The program obtained information from 25% of pig farms in Ontario during this time period. However, better communication with practitioners, more user-friendly recording systems that can be adapted to each clinic’s management system, active involvement of the clinics’ technical personnel, and the use of financial incentives may help to improve compliance and timeliness. PMID:21197223

  4. Relationships among and variation within rare breeds of swine.

    PubMed

    Roberts, K S; Lamberson, W R

    2015-08-01

    Extinction of rare breeds of livestock threatens to reduce the total genetic variation available for selection in the face of the changing environment and new diseases. Swine breeds facing extinction typically share characteristics such as small size, slow growth rate, and high fat percentage, which limit them from contributing to commercial production. Compounding the risk of loss of variation is the lack of pedigree information for many rare breeds due to inadequate herd books, which increases the chance that producers are breeding closely related individuals. By making genetic data available, producers can make more educated breeding decisions to preserve genetic diversity in future generations, and conservation organizations can prioritize investments in breed preservation. The objective of this study was to characterize genetic variation within and among breeds of swine and prioritize heritage breeds for preservation. Genotypes from the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip (GeneSeek, Lincoln, NE) were obtained for Guinea, Ossabaw Island, Red Wattle, American Saddleback, Mulefoot, British Saddleback, Duroc, Landrace, Large White, Pietrain, and Tamworth pigs. A whole-genome analysis toolset was used to construct a genomic relationship matrix and to calculate inbreeding coefficients for the animals within each breed. Relatedness and average inbreeding coefficient differed among breeds, and pigs from rare breeds were generally more closely related and more inbred ( < 0.05). A multidimensional scaling diagram was constructed based on the SNP genotypes. Animals within breeds clustered tightly together except for 2 Guinea pigs. Tamworth, Duroc, and Mulefoot tended to not cluster with the other 7 breeds.

  5. Control of swine pseudorabies in China: Opportunities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Luo, Yuzi; Wang, Chun-Hua; Yuan, Jin; Li, Na; Song, Kun; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2016-02-01

    Pseudorabies (PR), also known as Aujeszky's disease (AD), is caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV) or called suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1). It is an economically significant viral disease of pigs and other animals. Although the disease has been eradicated in commercial swine populations of some countries using gE-deleted vaccines and differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) strategy, PR continues to be one of the most important diseases of pigs in many countries, particularly in regions with dense pig populations, including China. This article reviews the current situation of PR in China, including epidemiology, diagnostic assays, control strategies and challenges of the disease. PR has been endemic in most provinces of China largely due to the lack of appropriate compulsory vaccination campaigns of pigs, sufficient awareness and biosecurity measures, although gE-deleted vaccines based on the Bartha-K61 strain and regional DIVA-based eradication programs have been widely used in the past decades. Notably, since 2011, an emerging variant PRV with enhanced pathogenicity has become prevalent in vaccinated swine herds in many regions of China and the disease situation is worsening. Control and eventual eradication of PR remain a big challenge in China, and strengthened control measures based on updated DIVA strategy are urgently needed toward national eradication of PR.

  6. The relationship among current management systems, production, disease and drug usage on Ontario dairy farms.

    PubMed Central

    Meek, A H; Martin, S W; Stone, J B; McMillan, I; Britney, J B; Grieve, D G

    1986-01-01

    The study involved 110 randomly selected dairy farms located in the Ontario, Canada counties of Bruce, Grey, Huron, Oxford, Perth, Waterloo and Wellington. Herds were classified as "intensive" and "extensive". On extensive farms, data were collected at the herd level only, while on intensive farms, data were recorded at both the individual animal and herd level. Data collection continued for approximately two and one-half years. At each visit, technicians collected production data from the most recent production recording scheme report and from the "daily log" maintained by each producer. As well as the ongoing data collection procedures, a number of supplementary data collections were made. The average 305 day milk production increased gradually during the three calendar years from 6224.6 kg in 1981 to 6443.7 kg in 1983. The average calving interval was stable at 13.2 months for all three years. The majority of cows removed from the herds were culled for beef (0.243 per animal year). The next highest removal rate was for domestic sale, followed by death, export sale and destroyed. The highest disease rate, for those conditions whose rates were based on calving, was for retained placenta (0.09 per calving), while clinical mastitis was highest for those conditions whose rates were based on animal years (0.37 per animal year). The overall crude antimicrobial dosage rate, that is, including any antimicrobial used for either prophylactic or therapeutic purposes, was 3.85 doses per animal year. The rate for therapeutic purposes only was 3.6 doses per animal year. Penicillin/streptomycin was used most often with a rate of 1.45 doses per animal year. PMID:3742360

  7. Multispecialty physician networks in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Stukel, Therese A; Glazier, Richard H; Schultz, Susan E; Guan, Jun; Zagorski, Brandon M; Gozdyra, Peter; Henry, David A

    2013-01-01

    Background Large multispecialty physician group practices, with a central role for primary care practitioners, have been shown to achieve high-quality, low-cost care for patients with chronic disease. We assessed the extent to which informal multispecialty physician networks in Ontario could be identified by using health administrative data to exploit natural linkages among patients, physicians, and hospitals based on existing patient flow. Methods We linked each Ontario resident to his or her usual provider of primary care over the period from fiscal year 2008/2009 to fiscal year 2010/2011. We linked each specialist to the hospital where he or she performed the most inpatient services. We linked each primary care physician to the hospital where most of his or her ambulatory patients were admitted for non-maternal medical care. Each resident was then linked to the same hospital as his or her usual provider of primary care. We computed “loyalty” as the proportion of care to network residents provided by physicians and hospitals within their network. Smaller clusters were aggregated to create networks based on a minimum population size, distance, and loyalty. Networks were not constrained geographically. Results We identified 78 multispecialty physician networks, comprising 12 410 primary care physicians, 14 687 specialists, and 175 acute care hospitals serving a total of 12 917 178 people. Median network size was 134 723 residents, 125 primary care physicians, and 143 specialists. Virtually all eligible residents were linked to a usual provider of primary care and to a network. Most specialists (93.5%) and primary care physicians (98.2%) were linked to a hospital. Median network physician loyalty was 68.4% for all physician visits and 81.1% for primary care visits. Median non-maternal admission loyalty was 67.4%. Urban networks had lower loyalties and were less self-contained but had more health care resources. Interpretation We demonstrated the feasibility

  8. Multispecialty physician networks in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Stukel, Therese A; Glazier, Richard H; Schultz, Susan E; Guan, Jun; Zagorski, Brandon M; Gozdyra, Peter; Henry, David A

    2013-01-01

    Large multispecialty physician group practices, with a central role for primary care practitioners, have been shown to achieve high-quality, low-cost care for patients with chronic disease. We assessed the extent to which informal multispecialty physician networks in Ontario could be identified by using health administrative data to exploit natural linkages among patients, physicians, and hospitals based on existing patient flow. We linked each Ontario resident to his or her usual provider of primary care over the period from fiscal year 2008/2009 to fiscal year 2010/2011. We linked each specialist to the hospital where he or she performed the most inpatient services. We linked each primary care physician to the hospital where most of his or her ambulatory patients were admitted for non-maternal medical care. Each resident was then linked to the same hospital as his or her usual provider of primary care. We computed "loyalty" as the proportion of care to network residents provided by physicians and hospitals within their network. Smaller clusters were aggregated to create networks based on a minimum population size, distance, and loyalty. Networks were not constrained geographically. We identified 78 multispecialty physician networks, comprising 12,410 primary care physicians, 14,687 specialists, and 175 acute care hospitals serving a total of 12,917,178 people. Median network size was 134,723 residents, 125 primary care physicians, and 143 specialists. Virtually all eligible residents were linked to a usual provider of primary care and to a network. Most specialists (93.5%) and primary care physicians (98.2%) were linked to a hospital. Median network physician loyalty was 68.4% for all physician visits and 81.1% for primary care visits. Median non-maternal admission loyalty was 67.4%. Urban networks had lower loyalties and were less self-contained but had more health care resources. We demonstrated the feasibility of identifying informal multispecialty physician

  9. Patterns of genetic variation in US federal bison herds.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Natalie D; Derr, James N

    2008-12-01

    Like many wide-ranging mammals, American bison (Bison bison) have experienced significant range contraction over the past two centuries and are maintained in artificially isolated populations. A basic understanding of the distribution of genetic variation among populations is necessary to facilitate long-term germplasm preservation and species conservation. The 11 herds maintained within the US federal system are a critically important source of germplasm for bison conservation, as they include many of the oldest herds in the USA and have served as a primary resource for the establishment of private and public herds worldwide. In this study, we used a panel of 51 nuclear markers to investigate patterns of neutral genetic variation among these herds. Most of these herds have maintained remarkably high levels of variation despite the severe bottleneck suffered in the late 1800s. However, differences were noted in the patterns of variation and levels of differentiation among herds, which were compared with historical records of establishment, supplementation, herd size, and culling practices. Although some lineages have been replicated across multiple herds within the US federal system, other lineages with high levels of genetic variation exist in isolated herds and should be considered targets for the establishment of satellite herds. From this and other studies, it is clear that the genetic variation represented in the US federal system is unevenly distributed among National Park Service and Fish and Wildlife Service herds, and that these resources must be carefully managed to ensure long-term species conservation.

  10. Herd-level risk factors for infection with bovine leukemia virus in Canadian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nekouei, Omid; VanLeeuwen, John; Sanchez, Javier; Kelton, David; Tiwari, Ashwani; Keefe, Greg

    2015-05-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important infection of dairy cattle worldwide, which is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The prevalence of infection in Canadian dairy herds is high and continues to increase; however, there has not been a national program to control BLV. This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify potentially important risk factors for BLV infection on Canadian dairy herds, which is a prerequisite to developing an effective control program. During 1998-2003, based on a stratified two-stage random sampling process, 315 dairy farms from seven provinces of Canada were selected. Within each farm, 9-45 cows were bled and tested with a commercial serum ELISA kit for BLV antibodies. A comprehensive questionnaire, targeting potentially important herd-level management indicators, was successfully administered in 272 herds. A zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression model was fit to the resulting data to assess the potential associations between BLV seropositivity and a variety of herd-level factors. Seventy-eight percent of the herds were identified as BLV-positive (had one or more test positive animals). In the negative-binomial part of the final ZINB model, herds with clinical cases of leukosis during the 12 months prior to sampling, as well as herds which purchased animals with unknown BLV infection status in the last five years, had a significantly larger proportion of BLV positive animals. Based on a significant interaction between two of the risk factors, changing gloves between cows during pregnancy examination was not statistically associated with lower proportion of infected cows compared with not changing gloves, in the western Canadian provinces. In the logistic part of the model, herds from eastern Canadian provinces and those not purchasing cows in the last five years had increased odds of being free from BLV. The high prevalence of infection across Canada should be addressed through the development and

  11. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE...

  12. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE...

  13. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE...

  14. Laterality in bovine behavior in an extensive partially suckled herd and an intensive dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C J C; Llewellyn, S; Claudia, A

    2003-10-01

    Cattle exhibit behavioral laterality, but the consistency and correlation between behaviors are unknown. Behavioral laterality was recorded in two herds of contrasting management intensity. The first was a small, extensively managed herd in Brazil, with cows and calves on rangeland, except when removed for handmilking in stalls. The second was a large, intensive British herd, with cows fed mostly indoors and calves removed for individual rearing soon after birth. In herd 1, the side of the body on which the following behaviors were performed was recorded: rumination (rumination), tail waving (tail), tongue protrusion during the initiation of a feeding bout (feeding), hind leg placement when lying (lying), and front leg initiating walking (walking). The distribution of left and right side dominance was normal for all behaviors, with positive correlations between walking and rumination, tail, and feeding, and between lying and rumination. In herd 2, rumination, feeding, and lying behaviors were similarly recorded, as well as parlor side-preference (parlor) and the side of a track chosen when returning to pasture (track). For all behaviors except track, the extent of left- and right-side dominance was not normally distributed, and more cows than expected showed strong laterality on the right or the left side. Parlor and track lateralities were correlated, indicating that cows that entered one side of the parlor also tended to choose the same side of the track. Strong laterality in the intensively managed herd therefore contrasted with that observed in the extensively managed herd and the reasons for such differences in laterality are uncertain.

  15. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent or treat swine flu. There is a vaccine available to protect against swine flu. You can help prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like influenza by Covering your nose and mouth with a ...

  16. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Other Variant Influenza Viruses: Background and CDC Risk Assessment and Reporting Language: ... Background CDC Assessment Reporting Background On Variant Influenza Viruses Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. ...

  17. Ontario Power Generation's Proposed Deep Geologic Repository, Tiverton, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, M.

    2009-05-01

    Ontario Power Generation is proposing to develop a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for the long-term management of its Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (L&ILW) at the Bruce site located near Tiverton, Ontario, 225 km northwest of Toronto. The shaft accessed repository, as envisioned, would accommodate 200,000 m3 (as packaged) of L&ILW in emplacement rooms excavated at a depth of 680 m within the Ordovician age argillaceous limestone Cobourg Formation. The Bruce site is underlain by an approximate 860 m thick Paleozoic sedimentary sequence comprised of near horizontally bedded carbonates, shales, evaporates and sandstones, Devonian to Cambrian in age, overlying crystalline basement rocks. Regional and site-specific geoscientific studies to verify the suitability of the Bruce site to host the DGR were initiated in 2006. The focus for the geoscientific investigations has been on gathering data to develop and test an understanding of the evolution and stability of the geologic, hydrogeologic, hydrogeochemical and geomechanical environ as it relates to demonstrating repository safety. Scheduled for completion in 2010, the interim results, which have included the drilling, coring and testing of 4 deep boreholes, are providing evidence of a predictable geosphere with a deep seated (>400 m), low permeability (K < 10-13 m sec-1), low porosity (0.01-0.08), saline (TDS > 250 gm l-1) groundwater regime that is ancient and resilient to external perturbations (e.g. glaciation). Work program activities in this regard have included, among others, detailed studies of rock core lithology, mineralogy and petrophysics, rock matrix pore fluid and groundwater characterisation, in-situ rock mass hydraulic testing, geomechanical rock core testing, 2-D seismic reflection surveys and long-term hydraulic borehole instrumentation. These data, in addition to regional and site-scale hydrogeologic modelling of the sedimentary sequence that among other aspects is examining groundwater

  18. A model for the contagion and herding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caetano, Marco Antonio Leonel; Yoneyama, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    This work concerns the modeling of contagion and herding effects which can cause significant movements of prices and volatilities. The idea is to adapt some concepts borrowed from the Biological Sciences and that have emerged as useful analogies to model a variety of phenomena in a large variety of fields such as Engineering and Economics. In this work, the allegory of interacting particles is used to describe the contagion and emergence of herding behavior of financial agents leading to the formation of clusters. The main idea is to adapt the schemes originally employed in particle swarm optimization algorithms, together with the concepts of leaders and followers. As an illustration of the applicability of the proposed model, a case study is presented using data from the World Bank.

  19. Underground storage of hydrocarbons in Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, T.R.; Manocha, J.

    1995-09-01

    The underground storage of natural gas and liquified petroleum products in geological formations is a provincially significant industry in Ontario with economic, environmental, and safety benefits for the companies and residents of Ontario. There are 21 active natural gas storage pools in Ontario, with a total working storage capacity of approximately 203 bcf (5.76 billion cubic metres). Most of these pools utilize former natural gas-producing Guelph Formation pinnacle reefs. In addition there are seventy-one solution-mined salt caverns utilized for storage capacity of 24 million barrels (3.9 million cubic metres). These caverns are constructed within salt strata of the Salina A-2 Unit and the B Unit. The steadily increasing demand for natural gas in Ontario creates a continuing need for additional storage capacity. Most of the known gas-producing pinnacle reefs in Ontario have already been converted to storage. The potential value of storage rights is a major incentive for continued exploration for undiscovered reefs in this mature play. There are numerous depleted or nearly depleted natural gas reservoirs of other types with potential for use as storage pools. There is also potential for use of solution-mined caverns for natural gas storage in Ontario.

  20. Induction of swine dysentery in swine by the intravenous injection of filtered Treponema hyodysenteriae.

    PubMed Central

    Olson, L D

    1981-01-01

    Swine dysentery was induced in 18 swine exposed by intravenous injection of a filtrate which contained Treponema hyodysenteriae and was obtained from macerated colonic scrapings of swine dysentery. However, swine dysentery did not develop in swine injected intravenously with a pure culture of T. hyodysenteriae or when combined with a colonic filtrate from normal swine. Diarrheal feces from the swine injected intravenously with the filtered T. hyodysenteriae contained more mucus, and fecal smears contained more T. hyodysenteriae and fewer other bacteria than did swine exposed orally to colon infected with swine dysentery or filtered T. hyodysenteriae. In the colons of the 12 swine injected intravenously with filtered T. hyodysenteriae that died, there was a minimum amount of croupous membrane and, microscopically, the T. hyodysenteriae were located deep in the colonic crypts. Five of the six surviving swine injected intravenously with filtered T. hyodysenteriae developed serum anti-T. hyodysenteriae antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test and four of these swine developed diarrhea when reexposed with swine dysentery infected colon six weeks after initial exposure. None of the swine injected intravenously with cultured T. hyodysenteriae developed serum anti-T. hyodysenteriae antibodies and all were highly susceptible to swine dysentery. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:7337868

  1. Scrapie in swine: a diagnostic challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A naturally occurring prion disease has not been recognized in swine, but the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy does transmit to swine by experimental routes. Swine are thought to have a robust species barrier when exposed to the naturally occurring prion diseases of other species, but the s...

  2. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... paragraph (c) of this section, all breeding swine shall be tested for and show negative test results to... Uniform Methods and Rules, chapter 2, part II, G, 1, 2, and 3. (c) Breeding swine exported to a country that does not require breeding swine from the United States to be tested for brucellosis need...

  3. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... paragraph (c) of this section, all breeding swine shall be tested for and show negative test results to... Uniform Methods and Rules, chapter 2, part II, G, 1, 2, and 3. (c) Breeding swine exported to a country that does not require breeding swine from the United States to be tested for brucellosis need...

  4. UPDATE ON SWINE DISEASE AND GENOMICS RESEARCH

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This review will summarize advances in swine genomics and how it has altered approaches for swine disease and vaccination research. The swine has been a major biomedical model species, for transplantation, heart disease, allergies and asthma, as well as normal neonatal development and reproductive p...

  5. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

  6. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change, shall...

  7. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

  8. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change, shall...

  9. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

  10. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change, shall...

  11. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change, shall...

  12. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

  13. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

  14. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change, shall...

  15. Scrapie in swine: a diagnostic challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A naturally occurring prion disease has not been recognized in swine, but the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy does transmit to swine by experimental routes. Swine are thought to have a robust species barrier when exposed to the naturally occurring prion diseases of other species, but the s...

  16. Immunological and respiratory findings in swine farmers.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Schachter, E N; Mustajbegovic, J; Goswami, S; Maayani, S; Marom, Z; Rienzi, N

    1991-12-01

    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity abnormalities in relation to immunological status was studied in 32 swine farmers and in 39 controls. A large number of swine farmers reacted to swine confinement building antigens (swine hair, 34%, swine confinement agents, 28%) but also to other extracts such as animal food (78%) and corn flour (37%). Control workers also reacted to these antigens in similar frequencies. Increased serum IgE levels were found in 3 swine farmers (9.4%) and all 3 had positive skin tests to at least one of the swine antigens. Among control workers one (2.6%) had an increased serum IgE level; this worker exhibited a positive skin reaction to swine food antigen. Swine farmers with positive skin reactions had across-shift reductions of FEF50 and FEF25 significantly larger than those with negative skin tests (P less than 0.01). Preshift measured ventilatory capacity data (FEV1, FEF50, FEF25) in swine farmers with positive skin tests were significantly lower (compared to predicted) than in those with negative skin tests. Additionally, we showed that a water-soluble swine confinement building antigen causes a dose-related contraction of nonsensitized guinea pig trachea smooth muscle studied in vitro. Our data indicate significant differences in lung function between swine workers with positive and negative skin tests. We suggest that skin testing may be helpful in identifying workers at risk for developing lung disease.

  17. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Influenza Viruses Circulating within European Swine between 2009 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Simon J.; Langat, Pinky; Reid, Scott M.; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Cotten, Matthew; Kelly, Michael; Van Reeth, Kristien; Qiu, Yu; Simon, Gaëlle; Bonin, Emilie; Foni, Emanuela; Chiapponi, Chiara; Larsen, Lars; Hjulsager, Charlotte; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Urbaniak, Kinga; Dürrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Huovilainen, Anita; Davidson, Irit; Dán, Ádám; Loeffen, Willie; Edwards, Stephanie; Bublot, Michel; Vila, Thais; Maldonado, Jaime; Valls, Laura; Brown, Ian H.; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2015-01-01

    China and North America, no equivalent study has yet been reported for Europe. Surveillance of swine herds across Europe between 2009 and 2013 revealed that the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus is established in European swine, increasing the number of circulating lineages in the region and increasing the possibility of the emergence of a genotype with human pandemic potential. It also has implications for veterinary health, making prevention through vaccination more challenging. The identification of a genotype similar to the A(H3N2)v genotype, causing zoonoses at North American agricultural fairs, underlines the importance of continued genomic characterization in European swine. PMID:26202246

  18. A novel pathogenic Mammalian orthoreovirus from diarrheic pigs and Swine blood meal in the United States.

    PubMed

    Thimmasandra Narayanappa, Athmaram; Sooryanarain, Harini; Deventhiran, Jagadeeswaran; Cao, Dianjun; Ammayappan Venkatachalam, Backiyalakshmi; Kambiranda, Devaiah; LeRoith, Tanya; Heffron, Connie Lynn; Lindstrom, Nicole; Hall, Karen; Jobst, Peter; Sexton, Cary; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2015-05-19

    Since May 2013, outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea have devastated the U.S. swine industry, causing immense economic losses. Two different swine enteric coronaviruses (porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and Delta coronavirus) have been isolated from the affected swine population. The disease has been reported from at least 32 states of the United States and other countries, including Mexico, Peru, Dominican Republic, Canada, Columbia, Ecuador, and Ukraine, with repeated outbreaks in previously infected herds. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a novel mammalian orthoreovirus 3 (MRV3) from diarrheic feces of piglets from these outbreaks in three states and ring-dried swine blood meal from multiple sources. MRV3 could not be isolated from healthy or pigs that had recovered from epidemic diarrhea from four states. Several MRV3 isolates were obtained from chloroform-extracted pig feces or blood meal in cell cultures or developing chicken embryos. Biological characterization of two representative isolates revealed trypsin resistance and thermostability at 90°C. NextGen sequencing of ultrapurified viruses indicated a strong homology of the S1 segment to mammalian and bat MRV3. Neonatal piglets experimentally infected with these viruses or a chloroform extract of swine blood meal developed severe diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis with 100% mortality within 3 days postinfection. Therefore, the novel porcine MRV3 may contribute to enteric disease along with other swine enteric viruses. The role of MRV3 in the current outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea in the United States remains to be determined, but the pathogenic nature of the virus warrants further investigations on its epidemiology and prevalence. Porcine orthoreoviruses causing diarrhea have been reported in China and Korea but not in the United States. We have isolated and characterized two pathogenic reassortant MRV3 isolates from swine fecal samples from porcine epidemic diarrhea outbreaks

  19. Transformation of Swine Manure and Algal Consortia to Value-added Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharara, Mahmoud A.

    The swine production sector is projected to grow globally. In the past, this growth manifested itself in increased herd sizes and geographically concentrated production. Although economically sound, these trends had negative consequences on surrounding ecosystems. Over-application of manure resulted in water quality degradation, while long-term storage of manure slurries was found to promote release of potent GHG emissions. There is a need for innovative approaches for swine manure management that are compatible with current scales of production, and increasingly strict environmental regulations. This study aims to investigate the potential for incorporating gasification as part of a novel swine manure management system which utilizes liquid-solid separation and periphytic algal consortia as a phycoremediation vector for the liquid slurry. The gasification of swine manure solids, and algal biomass solids generate both a gaseous fuel product (producer gas) in addition to a biochar co-product. First, the decomposition kinetics for both feedstock, i.e., swine manure solids, and algal solids, were quantified using thermogravimetry at different heating rates (1 ~ 40°C min-1) under different atmospheres (nitrogen, and air). Pyrolysis kinetics were determined for manure solids from two farms with different manure management systems. Similarly, the pyrolysis kinetics were determined for phycoremediation algae grown on swine manure slurries. Modeling algal solids pyrolysis as first-order independent parallel reactions was sufficient to describe sample devolatilization. Combustion of swine manure solids blended with algal solids, at different ratios, showed no synergistic effects. Gasification of phycoremediation algal biomass was studied using a bench-scale auger gasification system at temperatures between 760 and 960°C. The temperature profile suggested a stratification of reaction zones common to fixed-bed reactors. The producer gas heating value ranged between 2.2 MJ m

  20. Spillback transmission of European H1N1 avian-like swine influenza viruses to turkeys: A strain-dependent possibility?

    PubMed

    Bonfante, Francesco; Fusaro, Alice; Tassoni, Luca; Patrono, Livia Victoria; Milani, Adelaide; Maniero, Silvia; Salviato, Annalisa; Terregino, Calogero

    2016-04-15

    In 1979, an avian influenza virus of the H1N1 subtype began to circulate in European swine herds, rapidly replacing classical swine H1N1 viruses. Spill-back transmissions to turkeys were recorded occasionally, but they might have been underreported due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection and the lack of specific surveillance. In our study, we evaluated the infectivity and transmissibility in turkeys of seven strains of H1N1 avian-like swine viruses isolated from 1979 to 2006, and compared them with their closest progenitor A/duck/Bavaria/1/77 (H1N1), to establish whether the adaptation to pigs has gradually decreased their fitness in turkeys. Our data indicate that the circulation of European H1N1 in pigs might have impaired the possibility of infecting turkeys. Nevertheless, the two swine-origin strains, which showed the ability to replicate and transmit in turkeys, possess typical swine-like genetic traits, not different from the rest of the tested isolates, suggesting replication of avian-like swine H1N1 viruses in turkeys as a strain-dependent polygenic feature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Continual Reintroduction of Human Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Viruses into Swine in the United States, 2009 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha I; Stratton, Jered; Killian, Mary Lea; Janas-Martindale, Alicia; Vincent, Amy L

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of influenza A viruses in swine (swIAVs) presents an important pandemic threat. Knowledge of the human-swine interface is particularly important for understanding how viruses with pandemic potential evolve in swine hosts. Through phylogenetic analysis of contemporary swIAVs in the United States, we demonstrate that human-to-swine transmission of pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) viruses has occurred continuously in the years following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and has been an important contributor to the genetic diversity of U.S. swIAVs. Although pandemic H1 and N1 segments had been largely removed from the U.S. swine population by 2013 via reassortment with other swIAVs, these antigens reemerged following multiple human-to-swine transmission events during the 2013-2014 seasonal epidemic. These findings indicate that the six internal gene segments from pH1N1 viruses are likely to be sustained long term in the U.S. swine population, with periodic reemergence of pandemic hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) segments in association with seasonal pH1N1 epidemics in humans. Vaccinating U.S. swine workers may reduce infection of both humans and swine and in turn limit the role of humans as sources of influenza virus diversity in pigs. Swine are important hosts in the evolution of influenza A viruses with pandemic potential. Here, we analyze influenza virus sequence data generated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's national surveillance system to identify the central role of humans in the reemergence of pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza viruses in U.S. swine herds in 2014. These findings emphasize the important role of humans as continuous sources of influenza virus diversity in swine and indicate that influenza viruses with pandemic HA and NA segments are likely to continue to reemerge in U.S. swine in association with seasonal pH1N1 epidemics in humans. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Continual Reintroduction of Human Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Viruses into Swine in the United States, 2009 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Jered; Killian, Mary Lea; Janas-Martindale, Alicia; Vincent, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The diversity of influenza A viruses in swine (swIAVs) presents an important pandemic threat. Knowledge of the human-swine interface is particularly important for understanding how viruses with pandemic potential evolve in swine hosts. Through phylogenetic analysis of contemporary swIAVs in the United States, we demonstrate that human-to-swine transmission of pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) viruses has occurred continuously in the years following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and has been an important contributor to the genetic diversity of U.S. swIAVs. Although pandemic H1 and N1 segments had been largely removed from the U.S. swine population by 2013 via reassortment with other swIAVs, these antigens reemerged following multiple human-to-swine transmission events during the 2013-2014 seasonal epidemic. These findings indicate that the six internal gene segments from pH1N1 viruses are likely to be sustained long term in the U.S. swine population, with periodic reemergence of pandemic hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) segments in association with seasonal pH1N1 epidemics in humans. Vaccinating U.S. swine workers may reduce infection of both humans and swine and in turn limit the role of humans as sources of influenza virus diversity in pigs. IMPORTANCE Swine are important hosts in the evolution of influenza A viruses with pandemic potential. Here, we analyze influenza virus sequence data generated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's national surveillance system to identify the central role of humans in the reemergence of pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza viruses in U.S. swine herds in 2014. These findings emphasize the important role of humans as continuous sources of influenza virus diversity in swine and indicate that influenza viruses with pandemic HA and NA segments are likely to continue to reemerge in U.S. swine in association with seasonal pH1N1 epidemics in humans. PMID:25833052

  3. Serological and virological BVDV prevalence and risk factor analysis for herds to be BVDV seropositive in Belgian cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Steven; Veldhuis, Anouk; Méroc, Estelle; Vangeel, Ilse; Laureyns, Jozef; Dewulf, Jeroen; Caij, Ann Brigitte; Piepers, Sofie; Hooyberghs, Jozef; Ribbens, Stefaan; Van Der Stede, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a worldwide spread virus that most commonly infects cattle and can cause considerable economic losses. To determine the prevalence of BVDV in Belgium, a cross-sectional study was performed between November 2009 and March 2010. Young stock aged between 6 and 12 months from 773 randomly selected Belgian cattle herds were tested for BVDV-specific antibodies and antigen. With a target and maximum of 10 animals per sampled herd, a total of 5246 animals were selected. Additionally a questionnaire including different herd management topics and questions about participation in animal health programmes, including BVDV, was sent to 1100 Belgian cattle herds, including the 773 herds for BVDV testing. This paper focuses on results regarding these 773 herds. The true prevalence of BVDV-specific antibodies and antigen at herd level was respectively 47.4% and 4.4%, while at animal level this was respectively 32.9% and 0.3%. In 44.4% of the herds where BVDV-specific antibodies were detected at least 60% of the sampled young stock was BVDV seropositive. Interestingly, 83.4% of these farmers stated not to have suffered from problems related to BVDV. Moreover, only 8.4% of all farmers who completed the questionnaire (n=895) reported problems possibly related to BVDV the past 3 years. This demonstrates that farmers are often unaware of the presence of BVDV in their herd. Risk factors for a herd to be BVDV seropositive were identified by means of a multivariable logistic regression model. Large herds were significantly more likely to be BVDV seropositive (OR=1.004, p<0.01). The interaction between "Antigen positive animal detected in this study" and "BVDV vaccination in 2009" was significant (p<0.01). In non-vaccinating herds, the detection of antigen positive animals was significantly associated with BVDV seropositive herds (OR=13.8, p<0.01). In herds with no antigen positive animals detected, vaccination resulted in a significant risk factor to

  4. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  5. Bayesian estimation of true between-herd and within-herd prevalence of Salmonella in Danish veal calves.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T D; Nielsen, L R; Toft, N

    2011-07-01

    Specialised veal producers that purchase and raise calves from several dairy herds are potentially at high risk of delivering Salmonella-infected animals to slaughter. However, the true prevalence of Salmonella infected veal producing herds and the prevalence of infected calves delivered to slaughter from infected herds are unknown in Denmark. Due to uncertainties about test sensitivity and specificity, these prevalences are not straightforward to assess. The objective of this study was to estimate the within-herd- and between-herd prevalence of Salmonella in veal calves delivered for slaughter to abattoirs in Denmark. Furthermore, it was investigated to which extent the estimates differed between a setup using both serological tests and faecal culture, compared to just serological tests, and whether the applied sampling scheme in the national surveillance programme in Denmark was sufficient to establish high posterior estimates of freedom from infection in individual herds. We used Bayesian analysis to avoid bias as a result of fixed test validity estimates. Serological test results from 753 animals and faecal culture from 1233 animals from 68 randomly selected Danish veal producing herds that delivered more than 100 calves to slaughter per year were used to estimate the prevalences and estimates of freedom from Salmonella. Serological test results of 7726 animals from 185 herds were used to compare the difference in prevalence estimates between serology alone vs. faecal culture combined with serology. We estimated that 34-57% of specialised veal producing herds were infected with Salmonella. Within the infected herds, 21-49% of the animals were infected. Few herds obtained high posterior estimates for the probability of freedom from infection given the collected data, with only six of 68 herds obtaining posterior probability of being infected less than 10%. Furthermore, this study indicated that serology is sufficiently sensitive and specific to be used for

  6. Infection by Brazilian and Dutch swine hepatitis E virus strains induces haematological changes in Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described as an emerging pathogen in Brazil and seems to be widely disseminated among swine herds. An autochthonous human case of acute hepatitis E was recently reported. To obtain a better understanding of the phenotypic profiles of both human and swine HEV strains, a experimental study was conducted using the animal model, Macaca fascicularis. Methods Six cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were inoculated intravenously with swine HEV genotype 3 that was isolated from naturally and experimentally infected pigs in Brazil and the Netherlands. Two other monkeys were inoculated with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from Brazilian and Argentinean patients with locally acquired acute and fulminant hepatitis E. The haematological, biochemical, and virological parameters of all animals were monitored for 67 days. Results Subclinical hepatitis was observed in all monkeys after inoculation with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from the infected swine and human patients. HEV RNA was detected in the serum and/or faeces of 6 out of the 8 cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 53 days after inoculation. The mild inflammation of liver tissues and elevations of discrete liver enzymes were observed. Seroconversions to anti-HEV IgM and/or IgG were detected in 7 animals. Reactivities to anti-HEV IgA were also detected in the salivary samples of 3 animals. Interestingly, all of the infected monkeys showed severe lymphopenia and a trend toward monocytosis, which coincided with elevations in alanine aminotransferase and antibody titres. Conclusions The ability of HEV to cross the species barrier was confirmed for both the swine (Brazilian and Dutch) and human (Argentinean) strains, thus reinforcing the zoonotic risk of hepatitis E in South America. Cynomolgus monkeys that were infected with HEV genotype 3 developed subclinical hepatitis that was associated with haematological changes. Haematological approaches should be considered in

  7. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds.

    PubMed

    Holm, Signe A; Sörensen, Camilla R L; Thamsborg, Stig M; Enemark, Heidi L

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.

  8. Management of Wisconsin dairy herds enrolled in milk quality teams.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A C O; Caraviello, D Z; Ruegg, P L

    2005-07-01

    A study was conducted to characterize Wisconsin dairy herds that enrolled in a team-based milk quality improvement program and to assess association of specific management practices with milking efficiency and milk quality. Management and financial data were obtained from dairy farms (n = 180) that participated in the program. Upon enrollment, herds reported a median bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC) of 333,500 cells/mL, an average of 125 lactating cows, and a mean rolling-herd average of 10,100 kg. Many management practices and bulk milk SCC were strongly associated with herd size and facility type. Managers of herds housed in freestall barns adopted more standardized procedures and recommended management practices compared with managers of herds housed in stall barns. Those managers also reported less bulk milk SCC and greater milk yields, and had a tendency for lower prevalence of subclinical mastitis and reduced estimates of the incidence of clinical mastitis. Managers of freestall herds received more quality premiums for milk shipped, estimated that they had fewer financial losses related to mastitis, and reported more efficient milking performance. A more efficient milking performance did not increase estimates of clinical mastitis or bulk milk SCC. In herds having freestalls, frequent training of employees seemed to be the fundamental factor that increased milking efficiency. Bulk milk SCC was positively associated with standard plate count, estimated rate of clinical mastitis, prevalence of subclinical mastitis, numbers of cows culled for mastitis, and estimated financial losses attributable to mastitis. Herds reporting high bulk milk SCC had an increased prevalence of subclinical mastitis, but incidence did not differ among bulk milk SCC categories. Overall, herds did not discuss milk quality frequently with dairy professionals, and herds having greater bulk milk SCC reported less consultation with their herd veterinarian.

  9. The relationship between antibody status to bovine corona virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and disease incidence, reproduction and herd characteristics in dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine corona virus (BCV) affects cattle worldwide. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of these infections on general health and reproduction parameters measurable on herd level and to explore the association between antibody status and some herd characteristics. Methods We collected a pooled milk sample from five primiparous cows from 79 Swedish dairy herds in September 2006. The samples were analysed for immunoglobulin G antibodies to BCV and BRSV with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Herd level data from 1 September 2005 to 30 August 2006 were accessed retrospectively. The location of the herds was mapped using a geographical information system. Results Ten herds were antibody negative to both viruses and were compared with 69 herds positive to BCV or BRSV or both. Positive herds had a higher (P = 0.001) bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) compared with negative herds. The medians for all other analyzed health and reproductive parameters were consistently in favour of the herds negative to both viruses although the differences were not statistically significant. A higher proportion (P = 0.01) of herds used professional technicians for artificial insemination, rather than farm personnel, amongst the 33 herds negative to BCV compared with the 46 positive herds. Conclusions Our result shows that herds that were antibody positive to BCV and/or BRSV had a higher BMSCC compared with herds negative to BCV and BRSV. There was also tendency that negative herds had a better general herd health compared with positive. A higher proportion amongst the BCV negative herds used external technicians for AI instead of farm personnel, indicating that it is possible to avoid infection although having regular visits. Negative herds were located in close proximity to positive herds, indicating that local spread and airborne transmission between herds might not be of great importance and that herds can

  10. Herd-level risk factors for antimicrobial demanding gastrointestinal diseases in Danish herds with finisher pigs: A register-based study.

    PubMed

    Hybschmann, G K; Ersbøll, A K; Vigre, H; Baadsgaard, N P; Houe, H

    2011-02-01

    Endemic gastrointestinal (GI) diseases have a substantial negative impact on pig production, because, when present, they reduce animal welfare, productivity and generate high antimicrobial (AM) demand. In Danish legislation, AM can be prescribed only for therapeutic purposes. The objective of the study was to estimate the association between herd-level risk factors and the amount of AM use (AMU) in connection with GI diseases in finisher herds. We conducted a register-based cross-sectional study with repeated measurements from 2004 to 2007. Data were extracted from databases in the Danish Register of Veterinary Medicine, the Central Husbandry Register and the Danish Agriculture and Food Council. In total, 3192 pig herds with 26,973 records (quarters with prescriptions) were included. The outcome was presented as average AM use (measured as Animal Daily Dosage) for GI diseases per finishing pig per quarter per herd. Three potential herd-level risk factors were evaluated: herd size (number of finishers delivered for slaughter); herd health status (herds in the Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) System, conventional herds); and herd type (herds including only finishers, integrated herds). Data were analyzed using general linear mixed models with repeated measurements. Smaller herds had a larger AMU per finisher than larger herds. Integrated herds had lower AMU as compared with herds with only finishers. Herds within the SPF System had a larger decrease in AMU with increasing herd size compared to conventional herds. Significant regional differences in AMU were seen. Additionally, the results showed that other herd factors and veterinarians were more influential than the investigated herd risk factors. This illustrates the difficulties of characterising AM-demanding GI diseases in herds by the use of register data only.

  11. Maternally Derived Immunity Extends Swine Influenza A Virus Persistence within Farrow-to-Finish Pig Farms: Insights from a Stochastic Event-Driven Metapopulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Cador, Charlie; Rose, Nicolas; Willem, Lander; Andraud, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Swine Influenza A Viruses (swIAVs) have been shown to persist in farrow-to-finish pig herds with repeated outbreaks in successive batches, increasing the risk for respiratory disorders in affected animals and being a threat for public health. Although the general routes of swIAV transmission (i.e. direct contact and exposure to aerosols) were clearly identified, the transmission process between batches is still not fully understood. Maternally derived antibodies (MDAs) were stressed as a possible factor favoring within-herd swIAV persistence. However, the relationship between MDAs and the global spread among the different subpopulations in the herds is still lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to understand the mechanisms induced by MDAs in relation with swIAV spread and persistence in farrow-to-finish pig herds. A metapopulation model has been developed representing the population dynamics considering two subpopulations—breeding sows and growing pigs—managed according to batch-rearing system. This model was coupled with a swIAV-specific epidemiological model, accounting for partial passive immunity protection in neonatal piglets and an immunity boost in re-infected animals. Airborne transmission was included by a between-room transmission rate related to the current prevalence of shedding pigs. Maternally derived partial immunity in piglets was found to extend the duration of the epidemics within their batch, allowing for efficient between-batch transmission and resulting in longer swIAV persistence at the herd level. These results should be taken into account in the design of control programmes for the spread and persistence of swIAV in swine herds. PMID:27662592

  12. Prostaglandins in swine reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kingston, D J

    1982-05-01

    A review is presented of the roles of prostaglandins in swine reproduction. PGE and PGF are both produced in the ovary. PGE is thought to mediate steroidogenic activity of L.H. on the development of the granulosa cells leading to increased progesterone production in the preovulatory phase of the oestrus cycle. PGF2 acts on the theca cells leading to increased oestradiol and oestrus manifestation. The PG blocker indomethacin prevents oocyte rupture, but not maturation. The L.H. surges in the follicular phase stimulate ovarian PG production which initiates oestrus and ovulation. The uterus produces PGF2alpha. Disorders leading to abortion usually result in excess PGF2alpha production at the endometrium leading to luteolysis. With normal gestation circulatory progesterone levels fall during the last two weeks of pregnancy associated with increased circulatory foetal corticoid levels. The foetal corticoids are thought to trigger endometrial PGF2alpha levels leading to luteolysis and parturition. The use of exogenous PGF2alpha for induction of oestrus and abortion, parturition, semen collection and resolution of anoestrus is reviewed.

  13. Engineered Swine Models of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Adrienne L.; Carlson, Daniel F.; Largaespada, David A.; Hackett, Perry B.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs in cancer modeling are immense. In this review, we discuss how pigs have been and can be used as a biomedical models for cancer research, with an emphasis on current technologies. We have focused on applications of precision genetics that can provide models that mimic human cancer predisposition syndromes. In particular, we describe the advantages of targeted gene-editing using custom endonucleases, specifically TALENs and CRISPRs, and transposon systems, to make novel pig models of cancer with broad preclinical applications. PMID:27242889

  14. Detection of African swine fever, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine oral fluids by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Grau, Frederic R; Schroeder, Megan E; Mulhern, Erin L; McIntosh, Michael T; Bounpheng, Mangkey A

    2015-03-01

    African swine fever (ASF), classical swine fever (CSF), and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are highly contagious animal diseases of significant economic importance. Pigs infected with ASF and CSF viruses (ASFV and CSFV) develop clinical signs that may be indistinguishable from other diseases. Likewise, various causes of vesicular disease can mimic clinical signs caused by the FMD virus (FMDV). Early detection is critical to limiting the impact and spread of these disease outbreaks, and the ability to perform herd-level surveillance for all 3 diseases rapidly and cost effectively using a single diagnostic sample and test is highly desirable. This study assessed the feasibility of simultaneous ASFV, CSFV, and FMDV detection by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR) in swine oral fluids collected through the use of chewing ropes. Animal groups were experimentally infected independently with each virus, observed for clinical signs, and oral fluids collected and tested throughout the course of infection. All animal groups chewed on the ropes readily before and after onset of clinical signs and before onset of lameness or serious clinical signs. ASFV was detected as early as 3 days postinoculation (dpi), 2-3 days before onset of clinical disease; CSFV was detected at 5 dpi, coincident with onset of clinical disease; and FMDV was detected as early as 1 dpi, 1 day before the onset of clinical disease. Equivalent results were observed in 4 independent studies and demonstrate the feasibility of oral fluids and mRT-qPCR for surveillance of ASF, CSF, and FMD in swine populations. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Herd Protection from Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Interventions.

    PubMed

    Fuller, James A; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2016-11-02

    Herd immunity arises when a communicable disease is less able to propagate because a substantial portion of the population is immune. Nonimmunizing interventions, such as insecticide-treated bednets and deworming drugs, have shown similar herd-protective effects. Less is known about the herd protection from drinking water, sanitation, and hand hygiene (WASH) interventions. We first constructed a transmission model to illustrate mechanisms through which different WASH interventions may provide herd protection. We then conducted an extensive review of the literature to assess the validity of the model results and identify current gaps in research. The model suggests that herd protection accounts for a substantial portion of the total protection provided by WASH interventions. However, both the literature and the model suggest that sanitation interventions in particular are the most likely to provide herd protection, since they reduce environmental contamination. Many studies fail to account for these indirect effects and thus underestimate the total impact an intervention may have. Although cluster-randomized trials of WASH interventions have reported the total or overall efficacy of WASH interventions, they have not quantified the role of herd protection. Just as it does in immunization policy, understanding the role of herd protection from WASH interventions can help inform coverage targets and strategies that indirectly protect those that are unable to be reached by WASH campaigns. Toward this end, studies are needed to confirm the differential role that herd protection plays across the WASH interventions suggested by our transmission model.

  16. The selenium status of dairy herds in Prince Edward Island

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Bulk tank milk selenium (Se) concentration was compared with mean serum Se concentration in 15 herds and was found to be an accurate reflection of the herd Se status. The Se status of 109 Prince Edward Island (PEI) dairy herds was monitored for 1 year using bulk tank milk Se concentration. Fifty-nine percent of the herds surveyed were, at some point, found to be marginal or deficient in Se, putting them at risk of disease and suboptimal production. The periods of greatest risk of deficiency were fall and winter, at which time 5% and 4%, respectively, of herds sampled fell in the range considered truly deficient in Se. Herds in which Se supplementation was provided in the form of a commercial dairy concentrate were over 4 times more likely to be Se-adequate than herds not using this method, and adjusted average daily milk yield was 7.6% greater in herds determined to be Se-adequate when compared with Se-marginal herds. We conclude that many dairy producers in PEI are providing insufficient supplementary Se in the ration to meet the recommended Se intake for lactating cows. PMID:15025148

  17. Structural vulnerability of the French swine industry trade network to the spread of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Rautureau, S; Dufour, B; Durand, B

    2012-07-01

    The networks generated by live animal movements are the principal vector for the propagation of infectious agents between farms, and their topology strongly affects how fast a disease may spread. The structural characteristics of networks may thus provide indicators of network vulnerability to the spread of infectious disease. This study applied social network analysis methods to describe the French swine trade network. Initial analysis involved calculating several parameters to characterize networks and then identifying high-risk subgroups of holdings for different time scales. Holding-specific centrality measurements ('degree', 'betweenness' and 'ingoing infection chain'), which summarize the place and the role of holdings in the network, were compared according to the production type. In addition, network components and communities, areas where connectedness is particularly high and could influence the speed and the extent of a disease, were identified and analysed. Dealer holdings stood out because of their high centrality values suggesting that these holdings may control the flow of animals in part of the network. Herds with growing units had higher values for degree and betweenness centrality, representing central positions for both spreading and receiving disease, whereas herds with finishing units had higher values for in-degree and ingoing infection chain centrality values and appeared more vulnerable with many contacts through live animal movements and thus at potentially higher risk for introduction of contagious diseases. This reflects the dynamics of the swine trade with downward movements along the production chain. But, the significant heterogeneity of farms with several production units did not reveal any particular type of production for targeting disease surveillance or control. Besides, no giant strong connected component was observed, the network being rather organized according to communities of small or medium size (<20% of network size

  18. Swine in biomedical research. Vol. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: hemodynamic characteristics of the conscious resting pig; cardiovascular and metabolic responses to acute and chronic exercise in swine (ILLEGIBLE) a large animal model for studies (ILLEGIBLE) effects of heparin-protamine interaction in swine - intravenous vs. intraarterial; swine as animal models in cardiovascular research; studies of coronary thrombosis in swine with von Willebrand's disease; role of plasma intermediate and low density lipoproteins in early atherogenesis in hyperlipidemic swine; swine as a model in renal physiology and nephrology; the pig as a model for studying kidney disease in man; hypertension of renal origin and the effects of Captopril in miniature pigs; porcine natural killer/killer cell system; the behavior of pig lymphocyte populations in vivo; a review of spontaneous and experimental porcine eperythrozoonosis; and Sinclair swine melanoma.

  19. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certificate for swine. 93.505 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.505 Certificate for swine. (a) All swine... veterinarian issuing the certificate was authorized to do so, stating that such swine have been kept in said...

  20. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or material...

  1. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or material...

  2. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or material...

  3. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or material...

  4. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or material...

  5. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certificate for swine. 93.505 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.505 Certificate for swine. (a) All swine... veterinarian issuing the certificate was authorized to do so, stating that such swine have been kept in said...

  6. Blastomycosis in Ontario, 1994–2003

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Shaun K.; Brophy, Jason; Summerbell, Richard; Parkin, Patricia C.; Jamieson, Frances; Limerick, Bill; Wiebe, Lyle; Ford-Jones, E. Lee

    2006-01-01

    We describe a case of blastomycosis in an 8-year-old boy with Blastomyces-associated osteomyelitis and possible pulmonary involvement. We also identify 309 cases of blastomycosis in Ontario that were seen during a 10-year period, 57% of which occurred from 2001 to 2003. The overall incidence during the study period was 0.30 cases per 100,000 population. Most patients were from north Ontario (n = 188), where the incidence was 2.44 cases per 100,000. The incidence in the Toronto region was 0.29 per 100,000. Thirteen percent of cases occurred in children <19 years of age. These findings substantially increase the number of known cases in Ontario and Canada. Clinicians may encounter persons infected with Blastomyces dermatitidis and must be familiar with its signs and symptoms and be aware of locations, such as northwestern Ontario, where disease is endemic or hyperendemic. We advocate resuming blastomycosis as a reportable disease in Ontario to facilitate tracking cases. PMID:16494754

  7. A Financial Market Model Incorporating Herd Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction model based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new model of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is modelled using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space model, corresponding to agents’ accumulating information over a bounded state-space), and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of model parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of model price returns in terms of the model parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space model corresponding to agents’ accumulating information over an unbounded state-space), numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the model is compared to both the distribution of historical stock returns and the

  8. A Financial Market Model Incorporating Herd Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wray, Christopher M; Bishop, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction model based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new model of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is modelled using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space model, corresponding to agents' accumulating information over a bounded state-space), and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of model parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of model price returns in terms of the model parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space model corresponding to agents' accumulating information over an unbounded state-space), numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the model is compared to both the distribution of historical stock returns and the market

  9. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  10. Impact of the national full herd depopulation policy on the recurrence of bovine tuberculosis in Irish herds, 2003 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Good, M; Clegg, T A; Duignan, A; More, S J

    2011-11-26

    This study evaluated the impact of the Irish herd bovine tuberculosis (bTB) depopulation policy (depopulation, disinfection, contiguous testing and local badger removal where implicated) on the recurrence of bTB infection, by comparing the future risk in restocked herds following depopulation for either bTB or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) during 2003 to 2005. Each herd was assigned a 'previous bTB risk', based on bTB history during the five years before depopulation. Future bTB risk was estimated, using a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model for time-to-breakdown for each study herd, to identify risk factors associated with bTB. Future bTB risk varied significantly by reason for depopulation and previous bTB risk. Herds depopulated for bTB (by definition, at high bTB risk) were not significantly different from BSE herds with no or a low previous bTB risk. BSE herds with a high previous bTB risk were found to be at significantly greater future bTB risk. Herd bTB depopulation measures, as currently applied in Ireland, are shown to be effective in enabling herds to attain and retain bTB freedom following restocking. Based on the data presented, and consistent with current knowledge of the bTB epidemiology, local badger removal contributes to efforts to limit recurrence of bTB in Ireland.

  11. Triple-reassortant influenza A virus with H3 of human seasonal origin, NA of swine origin, and internal A(H1N1) pandemic 2009 genes is established in Danish pigs.

    PubMed

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Michael Albin; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2017-05-01

    This report describes a triple-reassortant influenza A virus with a HA that resembles H3 of human seasonal influenza from 2004 to 2005, N2 from influenza A virus already established in swine, and the internal gene cassette from A(H1N1)pdm09 has spread in Danish pig herds. The virus has been detected in several Danish pig herds during the last 2-3 years and may possess a challenge for human as well as animal health. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The cost-utility of integrated cervical cancer prevention strategies in the Ontario setting - Can we do better?

    PubMed

    Sander, Beate; Wong, William W L; Yeung, Man Wah; Ormanidhi, Orges; Atkin, Karen; Murphy, Joan; Krahn, Murray; Deeks, Shelley L

    2016-04-07

    A universal, publicly funded, school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program in grade eight girls was initiated in Ontario in 2007. We present a cost-utility analysis of integrated cervical cancer prevention programs from the healthcare payer perspective. Our analysis was based on linked HPV transmission and disease history models. We obtained data from the literature, provincial surveys and Ontario population-based linked health administrative datasets. We modeled combinations of vaccination and screening strategies. We considered vaccination based on the Ontario experience, as well as conservative and optimistic scenarios, varying coverage, vaccine effectiveness and duration of protection. We considered 900 screening scenarios (screening start age: 21-70 years, screening interval: 3-20 years; 1-year time steps). The current schedule screens every 3 years starting at age 21 years. We examined (1) first vaccinated cohort (low herd-immunity), and (2) steady state, i.e. all cohorts were vaccinated (high herd-immunity). Adding vaccination to the current screening schedule was cost-effective (

  13. Special Education: A Right or Privilege in Ontario?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeton, Anne

    1979-01-01

    Government policies and procedures for identifying, assessing, placing, and programing children in special education in Ontario, Canada, are examined. Survey results provide a picture of the variability that exists across Ontario in interpretation and carrying out of the regulations. (JMF)

  14. Early Days for the Differentiation Policy Framework in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sianos, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities in Canada released "Ontario's Differentiation Policy Framework for Postsecondary Education" in 2013. This chapter examines the mandate as it pertains to the college sector.

  15. 59 FR- Intent To Gather Wild Horses From the Owyhee Herd Management Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-10-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management [ID-015-1060-04] Intent To Gather Wild Horses From the Owyhee Herd Management... Hardtrigger and Black Mountain Herd Areas located within the Owyhee Herd Management Area. A public...

  16. Prevalence of paratuberculosis in the dairy goat and dairy sheep industries in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Cathy A.; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Toft, Nils; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in the small ruminant dairy industries in Ontario, Canada. Blood and feces were sampled from 580 goats and 397 sheep (lactating and 2 y of age or older) that were randomly selected from 29 randomly selected dairy goat herds and 21 convenience-selected dairy sheep flocks. Fecal samples were analyzed using bacterial culture (BD BACTEC MGIT 960) and polymerase chain reaction (Tetracore); serum samples were tested with the Prionics Parachek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using 3-test latent class Bayesian models, true farm-level prevalence was estimated to be 83.0% [95% probability interval (PI): 62.6% to 98.1%] for dairy goats and 66.8% (95% PI: 41.6% to 91.4%) for dairy sheep. The within-farm true prevalence for dairy goats was 35.2% (95% PI: 23.0% to 49.8%) and for dairy sheep was 48.3% (95% PI: 27.6% to 74.3%). These data indicate that a paratuberculosis control program for small ruminants is needed in Ontario. PMID:26834269

  17. Paratuberculosis on small ruminant dairy farms in Ontario, Canada: A survey of management practices.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms.

  18. Paratuberculosis on small ruminant dairy farms in Ontario, Canada: A survey of management practices

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Cathy A.; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms. PMID:27152042

  19. Lessons learned from Ontario wind energy disputes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, Stewart; Mabee, Warren; Baxter, Jamie; Christidis, Tanya; Driver, Liz; Hill, Stephen; McMurtry, J. J.; Tomkow, Melody

    2016-02-01

    Issues concerning the social acceptance of wind energy are major challenges for policy-makers, communities and wind developers. They also impact the legitimacy of societal decisions to pursue wind energy. Here we set out to identify and assess the factors that lead to wind energy disputes in Ontario, Canada, a region of the world that has experienced a rapid increase in the development of wind energy. Based on our expertise as a group comprising social scientists, a community representative and a wind industry advocate engaged in the Ontario wind energy situation, we explore and suggest recommendations based on four key factors: socially mediated health concerns, the distribution of financial benefits, lack of meaningful engagement and failure to treat landscape concerns seriously. Ontario's recent change from a feed-in-tariff-based renewable electricity procurement process to a competitive bid process, albeit with more attention to community engagement, will only partially address these concerns.

  20. The Ontario Telemedicine Network: a case report.

    PubMed

    Brown, Edward M

    2013-05-01

    This article describes the evolution, current status, and future prospects of the Ontario Telemedicine Network (OTN). Started in the late 1990s (and formally established in 2006), OTN is a not-for-profit corporation primarily funded by the Government of Ontario, Canada, that aims to improve access to and quality of care throughout the Province. It covers a land mass larger than France and serves a population of just over 13 million, the vast majority of which live in a narrow strip close to the U.S. border. Telemedicine has been effective in reducing travel to usual sources of care, reducing hospital admissions, and improving efficiency and prompt access to care. The diffusion of telemedicine is accelerating in Ontario, and it is becoming an integral part of the health system.

  1. Monitoring wood shaving litter and animal products for polychlorophenols residues, Ontario, Canada 1978-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R.; Stonefield, K.I.; Luyken, H.

    1988-03-01

    Timber is extensively treated with the wood preservative pesticides collectively called the polychlorophenols (PxCP) which include tri-(T3CP), tetra-(T4CP), and pentachlorophenol (P5CP). These treatments are intended to protect lumber against the attacks of wood eating or boring insects and the wood decaying and staining fungi. Wood shavings are a by-product of the lumber industry that have been utilized widely in agriculture for many years as a major bedding litter for poultry, swine, and cattle and a minor litter for other domestic animals. Complaints were lodged within the Province of Ontario of off-flavors in locally produced poultry meat. Many local poultry producers reported having difficulties with (1) the fertility of their breeding flocks and (2) the ineffectiveness of vaccines among poultry raised on wood shavings but which disappeared when raised on cereal straw. An Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food service was offered whereby producers could have their wood shavings analyzed and receive guidance on the advisability of use. This paper reports on this service started in 1978 for wood shavings, and on a follow-up monitoring program to determine residues of PxCP in domestic animal products.

  2. Swine Influenza Virus: Emerging Understandings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America [1]. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...

  3. Energy conservation in swine buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.D.; Friday, W.H.

    1980-05-01

    Saving energy in confinement swine buildings can be achieved by conserving existing animal heat through both proper building construction and control of the environment. Environmental management practices considered include building insulation and modifications, heating and cooling system selection, ventilation system adjustments, and proper building temperature. (MCW)

  4. Evaluation of Primary Binding Assays for Presumptive Serodiagnosis of Swine Brucellosis in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, P. Silva; Vigliocco, A. M.; Ramondino, R. F.; Marticorena, D.; Bissi, E.; Briones, G.; Gorchs, C.; Gall, D.; Nielsen, K.

    2000-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IELISA), a competitive ELISA (CELISA), and a fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) for the presumptive serological diagnosis of swine brucellosis were evaluated using two populations of swine sera: sera from brucellosis-free Canadian herds and sera from Argentina selected based on positive reactions in the buffered antigen plate agglutination test (BPAT) and the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) test. In addition, sera from adult swine from which Brucella suis was isolated at least once for each farm of origin were evaluated. The IELISA, CELISA, and FPA specificity values were 99.9, 99.5, and 98.3%, respectively, and the IELISA, CELISA, and FPA sensitivity values relative to the BPAT and the 2-ME test were 98.9, 96.6, and 93.8%, respectively. Actual sensitivity was assessed by using 37 sera from individual pigs from which B. suis was cultured, and the values obtained were as follows: BPAT, 86.5%; 2-ME test, 81.1%; IELISA, 86.5%; CELISA, 78.5%; and FPA, 80.0%. PMID:10973463

  5. Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Hepatitis E Virus in a Canadian Swine Production Network.

    PubMed

    Nantel-Fortier, Nicolas; Letellier, Ann; Lachapelle, Virginie; Fravalo, Philippe; L'Homme, Yvan; Brassard, Julie

    2016-12-01

    Viral contamination along the production chain is a significant concern in both food safety and livestock health. Pigs have been reported to act as a reservoir for zoonotic viruses, sometimes emerging ones, and epidemiological studies have shown direct links between the consumption of uncooked pork offal and cases of hepatitis caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 in humans. The presence of HEV in swine herds has been reported, but its dissemination in pork production environments is still unknown. To investigate viral contamination sources in the swine industry, 452 environment and fecal samples, including samples from livestock transportation vehicles, were collected over a period of 11 months from ten farms and one slaughterhouse that together represent a single production network. Hepatitis E virus RNA was detected by nested RT-PCR in 32 samples from both inside and outside farm buildings, on trucks, and, mostly, from fomites collected in the slaughterhouse yard, such as on a utility vehicle. Phylogenetic analysis showed a wide diversity of HEV genotype 3 strains, similar to human and swine strains previously found. According to the results of this study, the movements of trucks and utility vehicles might play an important role in HEV dissemination on a slaughterhouse site and throughout an entire network.

  6. Effect of antimicrobial compounds tylosin and chlortetracycline during batch anaerobic swine manure digestion.

    PubMed

    Stone, James J; Clay, Sharon A; Zhu, Zhenwei; Wong, Kwok L; Porath, Laura R; Spellman, Garth M

    2009-10-01

    Tylosin and chlortetracycline (CTC) are antimicrobial chemicals that are fed to >45% of the US swine herds at therapeutic and sub-therapeutic dosages to enhance growth rates and treat swine health problems. These compounds are poorly absorbed during digestion so that the bioactive compound or metabolites are excreted. This study investigated the degradation and stabilization of swine manure that contained no additives and compared the observed processes with those of manure containing either tylosin or CTC. The batch anaerobic incubation lasted 216 days. The breakdown of insoluble organic matter through anaerobic hydrolysis reactions was faster for manure containing CTC compared with tylosin or no-antimicrobial treatments. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation, including acetate, butyrate, and propionate, was greater for CTC-containing manure compared to tylosin and no-antimicrobial treatments. The relative abundance of two aceticlastic methanogens, Methanosaetaceae and Methanosarcinaceae spp., were less for CTC manure than manure with no-antimicrobial treatment. In addition, generation of methane and carbon dioxide was inhibited by 27.8% and 28.4%, respectively, due to the presence of CTC. Tylosin effects on manure degradation were limited, however the relative abundance of Methanosarcinaceae spp. was greater than found in the CTC or no-antimicrobial manures. These data suggest that acetate and other C-1 VFA compounds would be effectively utilized during methanogenesis in the presence of tylosin.

  7. Opening Doors to Nursing Degrees: A Proposal from Ontario's Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colleges Ontario, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Ontario needs to expand nursing education options to improve access to the nursing profession, create better pathways amongst all nursing occupations, and build Ontario's capacity to meet the province's long-term nursing needs. Ontario's colleges are capable of playing a larger role within a long-term provincial strategy for sustaining and…

  8. Resource Development in Ontario's Colleges--What's the Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouveia, Cindy O. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a brief historical account, and differences in philanthropy between Ontario's colleges and universities. Several theoretical concepts will be explored to explain donor motivation in Ontario's higher education sector. The final section of this paper explores non-traditional resource development strategies that Ontario colleges…

  9. Statistical Analysis of Regional Surface Water Quality in Southeastern Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodo, Byron A.

    1992-01-01

    Historical records from Ontario's Provincial Water Quality Monitoring Network for rivers and streams were analyzed to assess the feasibility of mapping regional water quality patterns in southeastern Ontario, spanning the Precambrian Shield and the St. Lawrence Lowlands. The study served as a model for much of Ontario. (54 references) (Author/MDH)

  10. Statistical Analysis of Regional Surface Water Quality in Southeastern Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodo, Byron A.

    1992-01-01

    Historical records from Ontario's Provincial Water Quality Monitoring Network for rivers and streams were analyzed to assess the feasibility of mapping regional water quality patterns in southeastern Ontario, spanning the Precambrian Shield and the St. Lawrence Lowlands. The study served as a model for much of Ontario. (54 references) (Author/MDH)

  11. "Strengthening" Ontario Universities: A Neoliberal Reconstruction of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigas, Bob; Kuchapski, Renée

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews neoliberalism as an ideology that has influenced higher education generally and Ontario higher education in particular. It includes a discourse analysis of "Strengthening Ontario's Centres of Creativity, Innovation and Knowledge" (Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities, 2012), a government discussion…

  12. Empowering Ontario: Transforming Higher Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colleges Ontario, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines a series of transformational changes to position colleges to help achieve the vision articulated by the Ontario government in its 2012 discussion paper, "Strengthening Ontario's Centres of Creativity, Innovation and Knowledge"--namely, that "Ontario's colleges and universities will drive creativity, innovation,…

  13. A Report on Accounting Education in Ontario Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    A 1981 report on accounting education in Ontario universities, which was prepared by a study group of the Council of Ontario Universities (COU), is presented. The objective was to advise the COU on the feasibility of establishing a professional school or faculty of accounting in one or more Ontario universities. Attention was directed to the…

  14. Controlling herding in minority game systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji-Qiang; Huang, Zi-Gang; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Su, Riqi; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation takes place in various types of real-world complex systems such as urban traffic, social services institutions, economical and ecosystems. Mathematically, the dynamical process of resource allocation can be modeled as minority games. Spontaneous evolution of the resource allocation dynamics, however, often leads to a harmful herding behavior accompanied by strong fluctuations in which a large majority of agents crowd temporarily for a few resources, leaving many others unused. Developing effective control methods to suppress and eliminate herding is an important but open problem. Here we develop a pinning control method, that the fluctuations of the system consist of intrinsic and systematic components allows us to design a control scheme with separated control variables. A striking finding is the universal existence of an optimal pinning fraction to minimize the variance of the system, regardless of the pinning patterns and the network topology. We carry out a generally applicable theory to explain the emergence of optimal pinning and to predict the dependence of the optimal pinning fraction on the network topology. Our work represents a general framework to deal with the broader problem of controlling collective dynamics in complex systems with potential applications in social, economical and political systems. PMID:26883398

  15. Copper toxicosis in a dairy goat herd.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Jennifer; Angelos, John; Puschner, Birgit; Miller, Grant; George, Lisle

    2007-08-15

    A closed herd of 400 mixed-breed dairy goats was examined because of a decrease in milk production and increase in mortality rate. Nine animals had died within a 1-month period. Clinical signs were evident only in lactating goats and included anorexia and recumbency. In the most severely affected goats, signs progressed to neurologic abnormalities and death. Serum aspartate aminotransferase activity, gamma-glutamyltransferase activity, and total bilirubin concentration were high in clinically affected does, but no evidence of hemolysis was found. A diagnosis of copper toxicosis was made on the basis of high liver and kidney copper concentrations and histologic evidence of hepatic necrosis. Goats were found to have been fed a mineral mix containing 3,050 ppm copper for 9 months prior to the onset of copper toxicosis. Overall, there was no consistent relationship between serum hepatic enzyme activities, serum copper concentration, and liver copper concentration. Clinically affected goats were treated with penicillamine, ammonium molybdate, sodium thiosulfate, and vitamin E. Penicillamine increased urine copper excretion in treated does versus untreated control animals. An increased incidence of infectious disease was identified in the herd 9 months later. Liver vitamin E concentration was low in 10 of the 12 goats that underwent necropsy. Findings suggested that penicillamine may be an effective treatment for goats with copper toxicosis. Production losses months after the diagnosis was made suggested that the intoxication had a prolonged animal welfare and economic impacts.

  16. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  17. Controlling herding in minority game systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji-Qiang; Huang, Zi-Gang; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Su, Riqi; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Resource allocation takes place in various types of real-world complex systems such as urban traffic, social services institutions, economical and ecosystems. Mathematically, the dynamical process of resource allocation can be modeled as minority games. Spontaneous evolution of the resource allocation dynamics, however, often leads to a harmful herding behavior accompanied by strong fluctuations in which a large majority of agents crowd temporarily for a few resources, leaving many others unused. Developing effective control methods to suppress and eliminate herding is an important but open problem. Here we develop a pinning control method, that the fluctuations of the system consist of intrinsic and systematic components allows us to design a control scheme with separated control variables. A striking finding is the universal existence of an optimal pinning fraction to minimize the variance of the system, regardless of the pinning patterns and the network topology. We carry out a generally applicable theory to explain the emergence of optimal pinning and to predict the dependence of the optimal pinning fraction on the network topology. Our work represents a general framework to deal with the broader problem of controlling collective dynamics in complex systems with potential applications in social, economical and political systems.

  18. Controlling herding in minority game systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Qiang; Huang, Zi-Gang; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Su, Riqi; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-02-17

    Resource allocation takes place in various types of real-world complex systems such as urban traffic, social services institutions, economical and ecosystems. Mathematically, the dynamical process of resource allocation can be modeled as minority games. Spontaneous evolution of the resource allocation dynamics, however, often leads to a harmful herding behavior accompanied by strong fluctuations in which a large majority of agents crowd temporarily for a few resources, leaving many others unused. Developing effective control methods to suppress and eliminate herding is an important but open problem. Here we develop a pinning control method, that the fluctuations of the system consist of intrinsic and systematic components allows us to design a control scheme with separated control variables. A striking finding is the universal existence of an optimal pinning fraction to minimize the variance of the system, regardless of the pinning patterns and the network topology. We carry out a generally applicable theory to explain the emergence of optimal pinning and to predict the dependence of the optimal pinning fraction on the network topology. Our work represents a general framework to deal with the broader problem of controlling collective dynamics in complex systems with potential applications in social, economical and political systems.

  19. Transitional funding: Changing Ontario's global budgeting system

    PubMed Central

    Lave, Judith R.; Jacobs, Philip; Markel, Frank

    1992-01-01

    In 1988, Ontario introduced transitional funding, a collaborative process between the Ministry of Health and the hospitals to modify Ontario's global budgeting system. The goals are to achieve greater equity; encourage hospital efficiency, and promote a shift from inpatient to outpatient services. To implement these goals, inpatient care is being measured in terms of case-mix groups, i.e., a classification system comparable to the diagnosis-related groups. However, since there is no patient level cost data, cost weights are being derived from patient-level data from New York State. Transitional funding draws attention to both positive and negative aspects of global budgeting. PMID:10120184

  20. The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Anthony F.

    1987-01-01

    The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario is a non-profit volunteer-driven organization that is active in supporting research and education programs with the ultimate goal of reducing death and disability from heart disease and stroke. The Foundation has over 65 chapters across the province, a full-time staff of 130, and over 70,000 volunteers involved in various programs and fund-raising activities. Several of the Foundation's programs offer direct assistance to family physicians and their patients. This review summarizes the major programs of the Foundation and specifies how they relate to the physicians of Ontario. PMID:21263913

  1. Triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) in humans in the United States, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Vivek; Bridges, Carolyn B; Uyeki, Timothy M; Shu, Bo; Balish, Amanda; Xu, Xiyan; Lindstrom, Stephen; Gubareva, Larisa V; Deyde, Varough; Garten, Rebecca J; Harris, Meghan; Gerber, Susan; Vagasky, Susan; Smith, Forrest; Pascoe, Neal; Martin, Karen; Dufficy, Deborah; Ritger, Kathy; Conover, Craig; Quinlisk, Patricia; Klimov, Alexander; Bresee, Joseph S; Finelli, Lyn

    2009-06-18

    Triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) viruses--containing genes from avian, human, and swine influenza viruses--emerged and became enzootic among pig herds in North America during the late 1990s. We report the clinical features of the first 11 sporadic cases of infection of humans with triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) viruses reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, occurring from December 2005 through February 2009, until just before the current epidemic of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) among humans. These data were obtained from routine national influenza surveillance reports and from joint case investigations by public and animal health agencies. The median age of the 11 patients was 10 years (range, 16 months to 48 years), and 4 had underlying health conditions. Nine of the patients had had exposure to pigs, five through direct contact and four through visits to a location where pigs were present but without contact. In another patient, human-to-human transmission was suspected. The range of the incubation period, from the last known exposure to the onset of symptoms, was 3 to 9 days. Among the 10 patients with known clinical symptoms, symptoms included fever (in 90%), cough (in 100%), headache (in 60%), and diarrhea (in 30%). Complete blood counts were available for four patients, revealing leukopenia in two, lymphopenia in one, and thrombocytopenia in another. Four patients were hospitalized, two of whom underwent invasive mechanical ventilation. Four patients received oseltamivir, and all 11 recovered from their illness. From December 2005 until just before the current human epidemic of swine-origin influenza viruses, there was sporadic infection with triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) viruses in persons with exposure to pigs in the United States. Although all the patients recovered, severe illness of the lower respiratory tract and unusual influenza signs such as diarrhea were observed in some patients, including

  2. 9 CFR 77.35 - Interstate movement from accredited herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.35 Interstate movement from accredited herds. (a) Qualifications. To be... § 77.33(f) must have tested negative to at least two consecutive official tuberculosis tests, conducted... accredited herd may be moved interstate without further tuberculosis testing only if it is accompanied by a...

  3. 9 CFR 77.35 - Interstate movement from accredited herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.35 Interstate movement from accredited herds. (a) Qualifications. To be... § 77.33(f) must have tested negative to at least two consecutive official tuberculosis tests, conducted... accredited herd may be moved interstate without further tuberculosis testing only if it is accompanied by a...

  4. 9 CFR 77.35 - Interstate movement from accredited herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.35 Interstate movement from accredited herds. (a) Qualifications. To be... § 77.33(f) must have tested negative to at least two consecutive official tuberculosis tests, conducted... accredited herd may be moved interstate without further tuberculosis testing only if it is accompanied by a...

  5. 9 CFR 77.35 - Interstate movement from accredited herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.35 Interstate movement from accredited herds. (a) Qualifications. To be... § 77.33(f) must have tested negative to at least two consecutive official tuberculosis tests, conducted... accredited herd may be moved interstate without further tuberculosis testing only if it is officially...

  6. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Washington State domestic goat herds.

    PubMed

    Sondgeroth, Kerry S; Davis, Margaret A; Schlee, Sara L; Allen, Andy J; Evermann, James F; McElwain, Terry F; Baszler, Tim V

    2013-11-01

    A caprine herd seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection was determined by passive surveillance of domestic goat herds in Washington State. Serum samples (n=1794) from 105 herds in 31 counties were analyzed for C. burnetii antibodies using a commercially available Q fever antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. The sera were submitted to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory for routine serologic screening over an approximate 1-year period from November, 2010, through November, 2011. To avoid bias introduced by testing samples from ill animals, only accessions for routine screening of nonclinical animals were included in the study. A standard cluster sampling approach to investigate seroprevalence at the herd level was used to determine optimal study sample size. The results identified C. burnetii antibodies in 8.0% of samples tested (144/1794), 8.6% of goat herds tested (9/105), and 25.8% of counties tested (8/31). Within-herd seroprevalence in positive counties ranged from 2.9% to 75.8%. Counties with seropositive goats were represented in the western, eastern, southeastern, and Columbia basin agricultural districts of the state. To our knowledge this is the first county-specific, statewide study of C. burnetii seroprevalence in Washington State goat herds. The findings provide baseline information for future epidemiologic, herd management and public health investigations of Q fever.

  7. 9 CFR 77.36 - Interstate movement from qualified herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement from qualified... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.36 Interstate movement from qualified herds. (a) Qualifications. To be... and is classified as a qualified herd. (b) Movement allowed. Except as provided in § 77.23 with regard...

  8. 9 CFR 77.35 - Interstate movement from accredited herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement from accredited... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.35 Interstate movement from accredited herds. (a) Qualifications. To be... classified as an accredited herd. (b) Movement allowed. Except as provided in § 77.23 with regard to captive...

  9. Swine Influenza Virus and Association with the Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Pig Farms in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C; Cibulski, S P; Andrade, C P; Teixeira, T F; Varela, A P M; Scheffer, C M; Franco, A C; de Almeida, L L; Roehe, P M

    2016-05-01

    Despite the putative endemic status of swine influenza A virus (swIAV) infections, data on the occurrence of swine influenza outbreaks are scarce in Brazil. The aim of this study was to detect and subtype swIAVs from six outbreaks of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in southern Brazil. Nasal swabs were collected from 66 piglets with signs of respiratory disease in six herds. Lung tissue samples were collected from six necropsied animals. Virus detection was performed by PCR screening and confirmed by virus isolation and hemagglutination (HA). Influenza A subtyping was performed by a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) to detect the A(H1N1)pdm09; other swIAV subtypes were determined by multiplex RT-PCR. In lung tissues, the major bacterial and viral pathogens associated with PRDC (Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and PCV2) were investigated. In some affected pigs, clinico-pathological evaluations were conducted. Influenza A was detected by screening PCR in 46 of 66 swab samples and from five of six lungs. Virus was recovered from pigs of all six herds. Subtype A(H1N1)pdm09 was detected in four of six herds and H1N2 in the other two herds. In lung tissues, further agents involved in PRDC were detected in all cases; Pasteurella multocida was identified in five of six samples and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in three of six. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (1/6), Haemophilus parasuis (1/6) and PCV2 (1/6) were also detected. These findings indicate that subtypes A(H1N1)pdm09 and H1N2 were present in pigs in southern Brazil and were associated with PRDC outbreaks.

  10. Why herd size matters - mitigating the effects of livestock crashes.

    PubMed

    Næss, Marius Warg; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Analysing the effect of pastoral risk management strategies provides insights into a system of subsistence that have persevered in marginal areas for hundreds to thousands of years and may shed light into the future of around 200 million households in the face of climate change. This study investigated the efficiency of herd accumulation as a buffer strategy by analysing changes in livestock holdings during an environmental crisis in the Saami reindeer husbandry in Norway. We found a positive relationship between: (1) pre- and post-collapse herd size; and (2) pre-collapse herd size and the number of animals lost during the collapse, indicating that herd accumulation is an effective but costly strategy. Policies that fail to incorporate the risk-beneficial aspect of herd accumulation will have a limited effect and may indeed fail entirely. In the context of climate change, official policies that incorporate pastoral risk management strategies may be the only solution for ensuring their continued existence.

  11. Characterization of a Novel Influenza Virus in Cattle and Swine: Proposal for a New Genus in the Orthomyxoviridae Family

    PubMed Central

    Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Liu, Runxia; Huang, Bing; Sheng, Zizhang; Lu, Wuxun; Wang, Dan; Nelson, Eric A.; Li, Feng

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have recently reported the isolation of a novel virus, provisionally designated C/swine/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (C/OK), with 50% overall homology to human influenza C viruses (ICV), from a pig in Oklahoma. Deep RNA sequencing of C/OK virus found a matrix 1 (M1) protein expression strategy that differed from that of ICV. The novelty of C/OK virus prompted us to investigate whether C/OK virus could exist in a nonswine species. Significantly, we found that C/OK virus was widespread in U.S. bovine herds, as demonstrated by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and serological assays. Genome sequencing of three bovine viruses isolated from two herds in different states further confirmed these findings. To determine whether swine/bovine C/OK viruses can undergo reassortment with human ICV, and to clarify the taxonomic status of C/OK, in vitro reassortment and serological typing by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) were conducted. In vitro reassortment using two human ICV and two swine and bovine C/OK viruses demonstrated that human ICV and C/OK viruses were unable to reassort and produce viable progeny. Antigenically, no cross-recognition of detergent split virions was observed in AGID between human and nonhuman viruses by using polyclonal antibodies that were reactive to cognate antigens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that C/OK virus is genetically and antigenically distinct from ICV. The classification of the new virus in a separate genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family is proposed. The finding of C/OK virus in swine and bovine indicates that this new virus may spread and establish infection in other mammals, including humans. PMID:24595369

  12. Transmission rate of African swine fever virus under experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Ferreira, H C; Backer, J A; Weesendorp, E; Klinkenberg, D; Stegeman, J A; Loeffen, W L A

    2013-08-30

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal, viral disease of swine. No vaccine is available, so controlling an ASF outbreak is highly dependent on zoosanitary measures, such as stamping out infected herds and quarantining of affected areas. Information on ASF transmission parameters could allow for more efficient application of outbreak control measures. Three transmission experiments were carried out to estimate the transmission parameters of two ASF virus isolates: Malta'78 (in two doses) and Netherlands'86. Different criteria were used for onset of infectiousness of infected pigs and moment of infection of contact pigs. The transmission rate (β), estimated by a Generalized Linear Model, ranged from 0.45 to 3.63 per day. For the infectious period, a minimum as well as a maximum infectious period was determined, to account for uncertainties regarding infectiousness of persistently infected pigs. While the minimum infectious period ranged from 6 to 7 days, the average maximum infectious period ranged from approximately 20 to nearly 40 days. Estimates of the reproduction ratio (R) for the first generation of transmission ranged from 4.9 to 24.2 for the minimum infectious period and from 9.8 to 66.3 for the maximum infectious period, depending on the isolate. A first approximation of the basic reproduction ratio (R0) resulted in an estimate of 18.0 (6.90-46.9) for the Malta'78 isolate. This is the first R0 estimate of an ASFV isolate under experimental conditions. The estimates of the transmission parameters provide a quantitative insight into ASFV epidemiology and can be used for the design and evaluation of more efficient control measures.

  13. A serological survey for bovine immunodeficiency-like virus in Ontario dairy cattle and associations between test results, production records and management practices.

    PubMed Central

    McNab, W B; Jacobs, R M; Smith, H E

    1994-01-01

    A chemiluminescence Western blot analysis (WBA) for detecting antibovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV) antibodies, had good repeatability. The test was subsequently applied to a bank of serum samples from 928 adult cows from 265 herds in Ontario; the number of cows sampled within each herd ranged from 1 to 13. The overall prevalence of anti-BIV antibodies among cows was 5.5% with a 95% confidence interval of 4.2% to 7.2%. In contrast, 18.1% of herds had at least one reactor among cows tested, resulting in a herd-prevalence confidence interval of 13.8% to 23.4%. These estimates of prevalence were in the same range as previous reports from the US and Europe. Bovine immunodeficiency-like virus may have a worldwide distribution. Unfortunately, BIV test sensitivity and specificity are difficult to estimate because virus isolation is inefficient. Therefore, the apparent prevalences could not be adjusted for test sensitivity and specificity, to estimate the true prevalence of infection. The serum samples had previously been tested for antibodies to bovine leukemia virus (BLV). There were no significant associations between BIV and BLV test results. Least squares regression was used to investigate potential associations between BIV test results and selected production indices.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8143251

  14. Genetic Characterization of H1N1 and H1N2 Influenza A Viruses Circulating in Ontario Pigs in 2012.

    PubMed

    Grgić, Helena; Costa, Marcio; Friendship, Robert M; Carman, Susy; Nagy, Éva; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize H1N1 and H1N2 influenza A virus isolates detected during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pig herds in Ontario (Canada) in 2012. Six influenza viruses were included in analysis using full genome sequencing based on the 454 platform. In five H1N1 isolates, all eight segments were genetically related to 2009 pandemic virus (A(H1N1)pdm09). One H1N2 isolate had hemagglutinin (HA), polymerase A (PA) and non-structural (NS) genes closely related to A(H1N1)pdm09, and neuraminidase (NA), matrix (M), polymerase B1 (PB1), polymerase B2 (PB2), and nucleoprotein (NP) genes originating from a triple-reassortant H3N2 virus (tr H3N2). The HA gene of five Ontario H1 isolates exhibited high identity of 99% with the human A(H1N1)pdm09 [A/Mexico/InDRE4487/09] from Mexico, while one Ontario H1N1 isolate had only 96.9% identity with this Mexican virus. Each of the five Ontario H1N1 viruses had between one and four amino acid (aa) changes within five antigenic sites, while one Ontario H1N2 virus had two aa changes within two antigenic sites. Such aa changes in antigenic sites could have an effect on antibody recognition and ultimately have implications for immunization practices. According to aa sequence analysis of the M2 protein, Ontario H1N1 and H1N2 viruses can be expected to offer resistance to adamantane derivatives, but not to neuraminidase inhibitors.

  15. Vaccination against Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in two Swedish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Landin, Håkan; Mörk, Marie Jansson; Larsson, Maria; Waller, Karin Persson

    2015-11-25

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common udder pathogen in dairy cows, and may cause severe mastitis problems in some herds. In herds where normal control measures are not successful, vaccination might be an additional tool to use if sufficiently efficient. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a commercially available vaccine (Startvac(®), Hipra, Spain) in two commercial Swedish dairy herds where the control programs for S. aureus mastitis had been unsuccessful. Within each herd cows were randomly assigned to vaccine or control groups, and effects on udder health and milk production during 120 days after calving, and survival during the following lactation were evaluated. A field study was performed in two high producing Swedish herds having approximately 600 (herd A) and 200 (herd B) cows. During 12 months, cows with odd numbers were vaccinated three times around calving according to label protocol, while cows with even numbers constituted the not vaccinated control group. Quarter milk samples for bacteriological culturing were collected from all cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis. The outcome was evaluated during 120 days after calving using data on SCC and daily milk yield at monthly milk recordings, and incidence of mastitis due to S. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci and coliforms. Cow survival throughout lactation was also studied. In herd A, 239 and 240 cows were included in the vaccinated and control groups, respectively. Corresponding numbers for herd B was 126 and 151 cows. Significant differences between vaccinated and control groups were not found in any of the parameters investigated. Vaccination with a commercial polyvalent vaccine did not have any beneficial effects on udder health, milk production or survival in two commercial dairy herds with mastitis problems due to S. aureus.

  16. Modelling the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a beef cattle herd and its impact on herd productivity.

    PubMed

    Damman, Alix; Viet, Anne-France; Arnoux, Sandie; Guerrier-Chatellet, Marie-Claude; Petit, Etienne; Ezanno, Pauline

    2015-02-24

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of disease introductions through fenceline contact with neighboring herds and the purchase of infected cattle, and (3) the risk of individual pregnant cattle generating persistently infected (PI) calves based on their stage in gestation. The model predicted the highest losses from BVDV during the first 3 years after disease was introduced into a naive herd. During the endemic phase, the impact of BVDV on the yearly herd productivity was much lower due to herd immunity. However, cumulative losses over 10 years in an endemic situation greatly surpassed the losses that occurred during the acute phase. A sensitivity analysis of key model parameters revealed that herd size, the duration of breeding, grazing, and selling periods, renewal rate of breeding females, and the level of numerical productivity expected by the farmer had a significant influence on the predicted losses. This model provides a valuable framework for evaluating the impact of BVDV and the efficacy of different control strategies in beef cow-calf herds.

  17. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, NEWCASTLE DISEASE, HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND...

  18. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  19. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  20. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  1. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  2. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  3. A possible outbreak of swine influenza, 1892.

    PubMed

    Morens, David M; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2014-02-01

    Influenza A viruses are globally enzootic in swine populations. Swine influenza has been recognised only since 1918, but an anecdotal report suggests that a swine-influenza epizootic might have occurred in England in 1892, at the same time as an explosive epidemic (or pandemic recurrence) of human influenza. This outbreak suggests that the ecobiological association between human and swine influenza could extend to before 1918. By contrast with the recent documentation of swine influenza, influenza in horses has been well documented for hundreds of years, and was often linked temporally and geographically to epidemics of human influenza. Both decreased contact between people and horses, and the concomitant increase in swine production over the past century, might have altered the character and dynamics of influenza host-switch events between people and domestic mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A possible outbreak of swine influenza, 1892

    PubMed Central

    Morens, David M; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses are globally enzootic in swine populations. Swine influenza has been recognised only since 1918, but an anecdotal report suggests that a swine-influenza epizootic might have occurred in England in 1892, at the same time as an explosive epidemic (or pandemic recurrence) of human influenza. This outbreak suggests that the ecobiological association between human and swine influenza could extend to before 1918. By contrast with the recent documentation of swine influenza, influenza in horses has been well documented for hundreds of years, and was often linked temporally and geographically to epidemics of human influenza. Both decreased contact between people and horses, and the concomitant increase in swine production over the past century, might have altered the character and dynamics of influenza host-switch events between people and domestic mammals. PMID:24290840

  5. Purification of swine haptoglobin by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Eurell, T E; Hall, W F; Bane, D P

    1990-01-01

    A globin-agarose affinity chromatography technique was used to purify swine haptoglobin. This technique provides a highly specific, single-step purification method without the contamination of extraneous serum proteins reported by previous studies. Complex formation between the haptoglobin isolate and swine hemoglobin confirmed that biological activity was maintained during the purification process. Immunoelectrophoretic and Ouchterlony immunodiffusion methods revealed that the swine haptoglobin isolate cross-reacted with polyvalent antisera against human haptoglobin. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2123414

  6. Ontario's Quality Assurance Framework: A Critical Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heap, James

    2013-01-01

    Ontario's Quality Assurance Framework (QAF) is reviewed and found not to meet all five criteria proposed for a strong quality assurance system focused on student learning. The QAF requires a statement of student learning outcomes and a method and means of assessing those outcomes, but it does not require that data on achievement of intended…

  7. Linking Economic Strategies and Ontario Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Bill; Drea, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Ontario's Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology (CAATs) have established productive links with employers and the result is practical training that leads to rewarding work for graduates. This practical success is not being adequately recognized in a crucial debate that focuses on strategies for economic development. It is important for the CAATs…

  8. The Status of Benthos in Lake Ontario

    EPA Science Inventory

    The benthic community of Lake Ontario was dominated by an amphipod (Diporeia spp.) prior to the 1990’s. Two dreissenid mussel species D. polymorpha (zebra) and D. bugensis (quagga) were introduced in 1989 and 1991 via ballast water exchange. D. bugensis was observed as deep as 85...

  9. Future looks bleak for many Ontario hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Charlotte

    1995-01-01

    Ontario will soon begin to experience some of the hospital closures that are already well known in many other provinces. A recent report called for the closure of 12 hospitals in Metropolitan Toronto and a 13% cut in the number of hospital beds. Strong campaigns against some of the proposed closures are already being mounted.

  10. Encephalitis, Ontario, Canada, 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Parpia, Alyssa S; Li, Ye; Chen, Cynthia; Dhar, Badal; Crowcroft, Natasha S

    2016-03-01

    Encephalitis, a brain inflammation leading to severe illness and often death, is caused by >100 pathogens. To assess the incidence and trends of encephalitis in Ontario, Canada, we obtained data on 6,463 Ontario encephalitis hospitalizations from the hospital Discharge Abstract Database for April 2002-December 2013 and analyzed these data using multiple negative binomial regression. The estimated crude incidence of all-cause encephalitis in Ontario was ≈4.3 cases/100,000 persons/year. Incidence rates for infants <1 year of age and adults >65 years were 3.9 and 3.0 times that of adults 20-44 years of age, respectively. Incidence peaks during August-September in 2002 and 2012 resulted primarily from encephalitis of unknown cause and viral encephalitis. Encephalitis occurred more frequently in older age groups and less frequently in women in Ontario when compared to England, but despite differences in population, vector-borne diseases, climate, and geography, the epidemiology was overall remarkably similar in the two regions.

  11. Encephalitis, Ontario, Canada, 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Parpia, Alyssa S.; Li, Ye; Chen, Cynthia; Dhar, Badal

    2016-01-01

    Encephalitis, a brain inflammation leading to severe illness and often death, is caused by >100 pathogens. To assess the incidence and trends of encephalitis in Ontario, Canada, we obtained data on 6,463 Ontario encephalitis hospitalizations from the hospital Discharge Abstract Database for April 2002–December 2013 and analyzed these data using multiple negative binomial regression. The estimated crude incidence of all-cause encephalitis in Ontario was ≈4.3 cases/100,000 persons/year. Incidence rates for infants <1 year of age and adults >65 years were 3.9 and 3.0 times that of adults 20–44 years of age, respectively. Incidence peaks during August–September in 2002 and 2012 resulted primarily from encephalitis of unknown cause and viral encephalitis. Encephalitis occurred more frequently in older age groups and less frequently in women in Ontario when compared to England, but despite differences in population, vector-borne diseases, climate, and geography, the epidemiology was overall remarkably similar in the two regions. PMID:26890626

  12. Early fire history near Papineau lake, Ontario

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; Richard P. Guyette

    1996-01-01

    Research that defines the role of fire in upland red oak-pine ecosystems in central Ontario is being conducted by the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Silviculture program. Site-specific fire histories are being developed that document fire frequency, fire behavior, fire effects on forest regeneration and grwoth, and the influnce of human activites on fire disturbances. This...

  13. Indians of Ontario (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The booklet presents an historical review and a description of the 2 cultural groups of Indians--Iroquoian and Algonkian--which inhabited Ontario in pre-European times. According to the document, the Iroquoian culture evolved over a period of at least 2000 years in the fertile land of the eastern Great Lakes region; the Algonkians inhabited the…

  14. The fruit flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirteen species of Tephritidae are newly recorded from Ontario, and alternative format keys are provided to the 31 genera and 72 species of fruit fly now known from, or likely to occur, in the province. Standard dichotomous keys to genera, and simplified field keys to genera and species are provide...

  15. Early fire history near Seguin Falls, Ontario

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; Richard P. Guyette

    1996-01-01

    This report is one of a series of site-specfic fire histories being developed for red oak (Quercus rubra L.)-pine ecosystems in central Ontario. Collectively, these studies documents the role of fire in upland oak forests. this information also provides an ecological basis for developing silviculture prescriptions that use prescribed burning to...

  16. Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…

  17. The Whiteness of Literacy Practice in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Kleut, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 2008, the Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Education in Canada released a DVD that was one in a series designed to train literacy teachers in what the Ministry referred to as "high-yield" comprehension strategies. Using the lens of Critical Race Theory, this article analyses the picture book…

  18. Marketing the College Brand in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holgerson, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Since inception of the Ontario college system in 1967, the quality of a diploma or certificate in comparison to a university degree has been perceived as an inferior rather than alternative academic credential. As public institutions, community colleges are mandated to respond to regional labour force needs, and to provide graduates who will…

  19. Ontario's Quality Assurance Framework: A Critical Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heap, James

    2013-01-01

    Ontario's Quality Assurance Framework (QAF) is reviewed and found not to meet all five criteria proposed for a strong quality assurance system focused on student learning. The QAF requires a statement of student learning outcomes and a method and means of assessing those outcomes, but it does not require that data on achievement of intended…

  20. Financing Education in Ontario: Issues and Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Richard M.

    A study of the history of public financing of elementary and secondary education in Ontario and the issues and choices presently facing the province's finance system suggest that proposals for radical change must be considered. Current pressures on the mixed provincial-local system of finance come from the slow rate of economic expansion generally…