Science.gov

Sample records for op wereldwijde graanmarkten

  1. Co-op

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Barton, LLNL; Richard Becker, LLNL; Robert Chen, LLNL; Richard Hornung, LLNL; Jaroslaw Knap, LLNL; Gary Kumfert, LLNL; James Leek, LLNL; John May, LLNL; Miller, Patrick; Morrone, Chris; Tannahill, John

    2007-05-25

    Co-op is primarily middleware software, a runtime system for the support of the Cooperative Parallel Programming model. This model is based on using whole SPMD applications as components in a scalable programming, and having them treat one another as single objects and communicate via remote method invocation. Also included is some application level software: (1) a metric space database library for managing data items located in an arbitrary metric space and retrieving based on nearest neighbor queries; and (2) a Krieging extrapolation library for use in implementing adaptive sampling for generic multiscale simulations.

  2. OPS83: Style Guide for High Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    er and ,de,,l U by Sc Mor,o’ - FIEL GRUP SB-GOUP Artificial intelligence, rule-based systems, OPS83, Rete algorithm, program optimization 19 ABTAC Coot...OPS83....................................................... I Rete Match Algorithm ....................................................... Function ...implementation of the Rete algorithm reported here. RETE MATCH ALGORITHM Function /Overview The function of the Rete match algorithm is to compute the

  3. Candidate OP Phyla: Importance, Ecology and Cultivation Prospects.

    PubMed

    Rohini Kumar, M; Saravanan, V S

    2010-10-01

    OP phyla were created in the domain bacteria, based on the group of 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from the Obsidian Pool. However, due to the lack of cultured representative it is referred to as candidate phyla. Wider ecological occurrence was predicted for the OP phyla, especially OP3, OP10 and OP11. Recently, members of phylum OP5 and OP10 were cultured, providing clues to their cultivation prospects. At last the bioprospecting potentials of the OP members are discussed herein.

  4. The CO-OP Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-08-16

    You are at D0, the newest and most advanced experiment at Fermilab. Its goal is to find the 'top quark', nicknamed 'truth'. theoretically one of the six fundamental building blocks of matter. Combinations of the six quarks are said to make up electrons, protons and neutrons. Your group at D0 is the cryogenic division. Its goal is to provide and maintain a cryogenic system which ultimately supplies and controls the liquid argon used in the giant cryostats for the experiment. The high purity liquid argon is needed to keep the detector modules inside the cryostats cold, so that they will operate properly. Your job at D0 is to be a co-op for the research and development group of the cryogenics division. Your goals are dependent on the needs of the cryo group. D0 is where you will spend most of your time. The co-op office is located on what is known as the 3rd floor, but is actually on the ground floor. The floor directly above the 3rd floor is the 5th floor, which contains your immediate superiors and the D0 secretary. The 6th and top floor is above that, and contains the D0 secretary for official and important business. On the other side of the D0 assembly building is the cryo control room. This is where the cryogenic piping system is remotely monitored and controlled. Other important sites at D0 include the trailer city on the north parking lot, which has the D0 secretary who handles all the payroll matters (among other duties), and the portakamp in the south parking lot. Besides D0, which is named for its location on the particle accelerator ring. the most important place is Wilson Hall. That is the large building shaped like a big Atact symbol. It contains various important people such as the safety group. the personnel department (which you have already encountered. being hired), the minor stock room, the cafeteria, the Fermi library. Ramsey Auditorium. etc. Behind Wilson Hall is the Booster Ring, which accelerates particles before they are injected into the main

  5. 45 CFR 156.515 - CO-OP standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CO-OP standards. 156.515 Section 156.515 Public... Operated and Oriented Plan Program § 156.515 CO-OP standards. (a) General. A CO-OP must satisfy the...) Governance requirements. A CO-OP must meet the following governance requirements: (1) Member control. A...

  6. 45 CFR 156.515 - CO-OP standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CO-OP standards. 156.515 Section 156.515 Public... Operated and Oriented Plan Program § 156.515 CO-OP standards. (a) General. A CO-OP must satisfy the...) Governance requirements. A CO-OP must meet the following governance requirements: (1) Member control. A...

  7. 45 CFR 156.515 - CO-OP standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CO-OP standards. 156.515 Section 156.515 Public... Operated and Oriented Plan Program § 156.515 CO-OP standards. (a) General. A CO-OP must satisfy the...) Governance requirements. A CO-OP must meet the following governance requirements: (1) Member control. A...

  8. OpTIIX Mission Overview and Education/Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.; Swade, D.

    2013-10-01

    The Optical Testbed and Integration on ISS Experiment (OpTIIX) is a technology demonstration to design, develop, deliver, robotically assemble, and successfully operate an observatory on the International Space Station (ISS). An OpTIIX Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program is being designed to bring OpTIIX and its discoveries to amateur observers, students, educators, and the public. In addition OpTIIX will be available to the professional community for additional tests using the assembled OpTIIX configuration.

  9. Total absence of colony-stimulating factor 1 in the macrophage-deficient osteopetrotic (op/op) mouse.

    PubMed

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W; Bartocci, A; Ferrante, A W; Ahmed-Ansari, A; Sell, K W; Pollard, J W; Stanley, E R

    1990-06-01

    Osteopetrotic (op/op) mutant mice suffer from congenital osteopetrosis due to a severe deficiency of osteoclasts. Furthermore, the total number of mononuclear phagocytes is extremely low in affected mice. Serum, 11 tissues, and different cell and organ conditioned media from op/op mice were shown to be devoid of biologically active colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), whereas all of these preparations from littermate control +/+ and +/op mice contained the growth factor. The deficiency was specific for CSF-1 in that serum or conditioned media from op/op mice possessed elevated levels of at least three other macrophage growth factors. Partial correction of the op/op defect was observed following intraperitoneal implantation of diffusion chambers containing L929 cells, which in culture produce CSF-1 as their sole macrophage growth factor. No rearrangement of the CSF-1 gene in op/op mice was detected by Southern analysis. However, in contrast to control lung fibroblasts, which contained 4.6- and 2.3-kilobase CSF-1 mRNAs, only the 4.6-kilobase species was detected in op/op cells. An alteration in the CSF-1 gene is strongly implicated as the primary defect in op/op mice because they do not contain detectable CSF-1, their defect is correctable by administration of CSF-1, the op locus and the CSF-1 gene map within the same region of mouse chromosome 3, their CSF-1 mRNA biosynthesis is altered, and the op/op phenotype is consistent with the phenotype expected in a CSF-1 deficient mouse.

  10. How to Form a Food Co-op.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Philip; And Others

    Based on questions asked during an adult education course at Truman College (Chicago), this booklet was designed to be a simple organizing manual for small neighborhood preorder food cooperatives (co-ops). The guide covers basic information for organizing a co-op, definition of a co-op, what jobs are needed, getting the food, wholesale sources,…

  11. Joint SatOPS Compatibility Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Danford

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) participation in the interagency cooperation committee, the Joint SatOps Compatibility Committee (JSCC), and the compatible Sat 2 efforts. Part of GSFC's participation in the JSCC is to work with the Goddard Mission Systems Evolution Center (GMSEC) to provides a publish/subscribe framework to enable rapid integration of commercially available satellite control products.

  12. Macrophage deficiency in osteopetrotic (op/op) mice inhibits activation of satellite cells and prevents hypertrophy in single soleus fibers.

    PubMed

    Ohira, T; Wang, X D; Ito, T; Kawano, F; Goto, K; Izawa, T; Ohno, H; Kizaki, T; Ohira, Y

    2015-05-15

    Effects of macrophage on the responses of soleus fiber size to hind limb unloading and reloading were studied in osteopetrotic homozygous (op/op) mice with inactivated mutation of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) gene and in wild-type (+/+) and heterozygous (+/op) mice. The basal levels of mitotically active and quiescent satellite cell (-46 and -39% vs. +/+, and -40 and -30% vs. +/op) and myonuclear number (-29% vs. +/+ and -28% vs. +/op) in fibers of op/op mice were significantly less than controls. Fiber length and sarcomere number in op/op were also less than +/+ (-22%) and +/op (-21%) mice. Similar trend was noted in fiber cross-sectional area (CSA, -15% vs. +/+, P = 0.06, and -14% vs. +/op, P = 0.07). The sizes of myonuclear domain, cytoplasmic volume per myonucleus, were identical in all types of mice. The CSA, length, and the whole number of sarcomeres, myonuclei, and mitotically active and quiescent satellite cells, as well as myonuclear domain, in single muscle fibers were decreased after 10 days of unloading in all types of mice, although all of these parameters in +/+ and +/op mice were increased toward the control values after 10 days of reloading. However, none of these levels in op/op mice were recovered. Data suggest that M-CSF and/or macrophages are important to activate satellite cells, which cause increase of myonuclear number during fiber hypertrophy. However, it is unclear why their responses to general growth and reloading after unloading are different.

  13. Tempel 1 First Op-Nav

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Tempel 1 First Optical Navigation

    On Monday, April 25, the Deep Impact spacecraft obtained its first optical navigation (Op-Nav) image of comet Tempel 1. At the time the picture was taken the distance between spacecraft and comet was 64 million kilometers (39.7 million miles) away. The exposure -- known as a 'negative image' -- is used by the spacecraft team to assist in navigation and instrument calibration. The spacecraft will start imaging the comet on a regular basis in about 10 days.

  14. CSF-1 deficiency in the op/op mouse has differential effects on macrophage populations and differentiation stages.

    PubMed

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W; Ratajczak, M Z; Ptasznik, A; Sell, K W; Ahmed-Ansari, A; Ostertag, W

    1992-09-01

    Osteopetrosis and the absence of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) in op/op mice are associated with decreased cellularity of the bone marrow (to one tenth of the normal), a very significant reduction in the number of cells recovered from peritoneal, pleural, and alveolar lavages, moderate leukopenia, and a slight decrease in the number of cells per spleen and thymus. Furthermore, op/op mice possess deficiencies in the number of macrophages in various organs. These cells are apparently absent in the bone marrow, severely reduced (5%-15% of the normal number) in peritoneal and pleural cavities and in the lungs. In addition, a marked decrease in the frequency and total number of circulating monocytes is present (5% of the normal). The deficiency of macrophages is less severe in the liver, spleen, and thymus of op/op mice (approximately 30% of those seen in normal). There is a concomitant redistribution of macrophage progenitor cells (granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units, CFU-GM) in op/op mice from the marrow to the spleen and liver, associated with an increased sensitivity to interleukin 3 (IL-3). Their total number is decreased at least threefold compared to control mice. Moreover, op/op mice have at least a fivefold reduction in the total number of day-11 spleen colony-forming units (CFU-S) associated with their redistribution to the spleen and liver. These data suggest that the macrophage system in op/op mice is reduced at all levels tested, that is, at the level of mature macrophages, the level of progenitors, and the level of stem cells, whereas the redistribution of progenitor and stem cells could be viewed as a secondary consequence of osteopetrosis. Furthermore, these data suggest that macrophage dependency in vivo on CSF-1 is limited and different in various organs. Particularly in the liver, spleen, and thymus, other growth factors may significantly compensate for CSF-1 deficiency. Based on the relative decrease in the number of CFU-GM in the op/op

  15. VEP Responses to Op-Art Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    O’Hare, Louise; Clarke, Alasdair D. F.; Pollux, Petra M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Several types of striped patterns have been reported to cause adverse sensations described as visual discomfort. Previous research using op-art-based stimuli has demonstrated that spurious eye movement signals can cause the experience of illusory motion, or shimmering effects, which might be perceived as uncomfortable. Whilst the shimmering effects are one cause of discomfort, another possible contributor to discomfort is excessive neural responses: As striped patterns do not have the statistical redundancy typical of natural images, they are perhaps unable to be encoded efficiently. If this is the case, then this should be seen in the amplitude of the EEG response. This study found that stimuli that were judged to be most comfortable were also those with the lowest EEG amplitude. This provides some support for the idea that excessive neural responses might also contribute to discomfort judgements in normal populations, in stimuli controlled for perceived contrast. PMID:26422207

  16. 2011 Internship & Co-Op Survey. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Colleges and Employers (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of Colleges and Employers' (NACE's) "2011 Internship & Co-op Survey" indicates that internships are an integral and ever-important part of the college recruiting scene. The survey finds that employers expect to increase internship hiring by about 7 percent this year and co-op positions by nearly 9 percent. Furthermore,…

  17. Co-op Essay - Tour 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, Derrick

    2014-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) is responsible for the training, planning and performance of all U.S. manned operations in space. Within this directorate all responsibilities are divided up into divisions. The EVA, Robotics & Crew Systems Operations Division performs ground operations and trains astronauts to carry out some of the more "high action" procedures in space. For example they orchestrate procedures like EVAs, or ExtraVehicular Activities (spacewalks), and robotics operations external to the International Space Station (ISS). The robotics branch of this division is responsible for the use of the Mobile Servicing System (MSS). This system is a combination of two robotic mechanisms and a series of equipment used to transport them on the ISS. The MSS is used to capture and position visiting vehicles, transport astronauts during EVAs, and perform external maintenance tasks on the ISS. This branch consists of two groups which are responsible for crew training and flight controlling, respectively. My first co-op tour took place Fall 2013. During this time I was given the opportunity to work in the robotics operations branch of the Mission Operations Directorate at NASA's Johnson Space Center. I was given a variety of tasks that encompassed, at a base level, all the aspects of the branch.

  18. Dorothy Jorgensen - Co-Op Tour Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    NASA is a household name in this day and age, known commonly as America's government-run powerhouse of innovation and space exploration. It is a common dream for students to be a part of NASA's workforce, but I did not realize that it was my dream until I found that I could not imagine working anywhere else. From August to December, I had the privilege of a co-op tour with NASA at the Johnson Space Center. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) first formed in the early hysteria of the Cold War, and in its early days it received enormous funding and political support. It was America's response to the Russian Sputnik, which was a not only a stark symbol of what was suddenly possible, but also of how far behind the United States had fallen in the race for technology. The political atmosphere in the world has since changed, but NASA's drive to push the boundaries of the impossible has not faded: NASA's primary mission has been exploration for the betterment of mankind, and it works towards that mission to this day. The specific NASA site that I worked in was by a coast near Houston, TX, at the Johnson Space Center (Figure 1). I was led on my first day of work to a building dedicated to Structural Engineering (Building 13), which was where I would be spending most of my time in the months to come. It was here that I had my desk and cubicle, and would later do the bulk of my computer modeling and theoretical planning. Later that day we traveled to the Vibrations and Acoustics Test Facility (Building 49), and here I was shown the parts we would use for our technical project and the locations we would work in. I worked in the Loads and Dynamics Branch of the Structural Engineering Division, in the Engineering Directorate.

  19. DRACO: Didymos Reconnaissance and Asteroid Camera for Op-Nav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Z. J.; Cheng, A. F.; Barnouin, O. S.; Chabot, N. L.; Reed, C. L.

    2016-10-01

    The proposed DART mission is the first demonstration of kinetic impact for deflection of an asteroid. We describe DART's instrument DRACO's (Didymos Reconaissance and Asteroid Camera for Op-nav) requirements, resulting design, and planned operations.

  20. OP-ELM: optimally pruned extreme learning machine.

    PubMed

    Miche, Yoan; Sorjamaa, Antti; Bas, Patrick; Simula, Olli; Jutten, Christian; Lendasse, Amaury

    2010-01-01

    In this brief, the optimally pruned extreme learning machine (OP-ELM) methodology is presented. It is based on the original extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm with additional steps to make it more robust and generic. The whole methodology is presented in detail and then applied to several regression and classification problems. Results for both computational time and accuracy (mean square error) are compared to the original ELM and to three other widely used methodologies: multilayer perceptron (MLP), support vector machine (SVM), and Gaussian process (GP). As the experiments for both regression and classification illustrate, the proposed OP-ELM methodology performs several orders of magnitude faster than the other algorithms used in this brief, except the original ELM. Despite the simplicity and fast performance, the OP-ELM is still able to maintain an accuracy that is comparable to the performance of the SVM. A toolbox for the OP-ELM is publicly available online.

  1. Long-term time series prediction using OP-ELM.

    PubMed

    Grigorievskiy, Alexander; Miche, Yoan; Ventelä, Anne-Mari; Séverin, Eric; Lendasse, Amaury

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, an Optimally Pruned Extreme Learning Machine (OP-ELM) is applied to the problem of long-term time series prediction. Three known strategies for the long-term time series prediction i.e. Recursive, Direct and DirRec are considered in combination with OP-ELM and compared with a baseline linear least squares model and Least-Squares Support Vector Machines (LS-SVM). Among these three strategies DirRec is the most time consuming and its usage with nonlinear models like LS-SVM, where several hyperparameters need to be adjusted, leads to relatively heavy computations. It is shown that OP-ELM, being also a nonlinear model, allows reasonable computational time for the DirRec strategy. In all our experiments, except one, OP-ELM with DirRec strategy outperforms the linear model with any strategy. In contrast to the proposed algorithm, LS-SVM behaves unstably without variable selection. It is also shown that there is no superior strategy for OP-ELM: any of three can be the best. In addition, the prediction accuracy of an ensemble of OP-ELM is studied and it is shown that averaging predictions of the ensemble can improve the accuracy (Mean Square Error) dramatically.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS), feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, D. L.; Hall, D. W.; Mcelveen, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS) is a near-space, geostationary, multi-user, unmanned microwave powered monitoring platform system. This systems engineering feasibility study addressed identified existing requirements such as: carbon dioxide observational data requirements, communications requirements, and eye-in-the-sky requirements of other groups like the Defense Department, the Forestry Service, and the Coast Guard. In addition, potential applications in: earth system science, space system sciences, and test and verification (satellite sensors and data management techniques) were considered. The eleven month effort is summarized. Past work and methods of gathering the required observational data were assessed and rough-order-of magnitude cost estimates have shown the CO-OPS system to be most cost effective (less than $30 million within a 10 year lifetime). It was also concluded that there are no technical, schedule, or obstacles that would prevent achieving the objectives of the total 5-year CO-OPS program.

  3. The MetOp satellite - Weather information from polar orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Peter G.; Berutti, Bruno; Blythe, Paul; Callies, Joerg; Carlier, Stefane; Fransen, Cees; Krutsch, Rainer; Lefebvre, Alain-Robert; Loiselet, Marc; Stricker, Nico

    2006-08-01

    MetOp-A is Europe's first polar-orbiting satellite dedicated to operational meteorology. With its array of advanced instruments, it will provide data of unprecedented accuracy and resolution on temperature and humidity, wind speed and direction over the ocean, and ozone and other trace gases, making a huge contribution to global weather forecasting and climate monitoring. In addition, MetOp-A will observe land and ocean surfaces and its search-and-rescue service will help ships and aircraft in distress.

  4. ProOpDB: Prokaryotic Operon DataBase.

    PubMed

    Taboada, Blanca; Ciria, Ricardo; Martinez-Guerrero, Cristian E; Merino, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The Prokaryotic Operon DataBase (ProOpDB, http://operons.ibt.unam.mx/OperonPredictor) constitutes one of the most precise and complete repositories of operon predictions now available. Using our novel and highly accurate operon identification algorithm, we have predicted the operon structures of more than 1200 prokaryotic genomes. ProOpDB offers diverse alternatives by which a set of operon predictions can be retrieved including: (i) organism name, (ii) metabolic pathways, as defined by the KEGG database, (iii) gene orthology, as defined by the COG database, (iv) conserved protein domains, as defined by the Pfam database, (v) reference gene and (vi) reference operon, among others. In order to limit the operon output to non-redundant organisms, ProOpDB offers an efficient method to select the most representative organisms based on a precompiled phylogenetic distances matrix. In addition, the ProOpDB operon predictions are used directly as the input data of our Gene Context Tool to visualize their genomic context and retrieve the sequence of their corresponding 5' regulatory regions, as well as the nucleotide or amino acid sequences of their genes.

  5. Crossing Boundaries: Co-Op Students Relearning to Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the deeply conflicted literature on learning transfer, especially as it applies to rhetorical knowledge and skill. It then describes a study in which six students are followed through their first co-op work term to learn about which resources they draw on as they enter a new environment of professional writing. It suggests…

  6. Engaging the public through writing an op-ed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labosier, Chris; Zhu, Laiyin; Quiring, Steven

    2012-10-01

    In May, prior to the start of the 2012 hurricane season, AGU asked us to write an op-ed for the Houston Chronicle on the importance of funding hurricane research. We were excited to be asked and pleased that AGU facilitated the process by providing us with some guidance on writing the op-ed. Given the impact that Hurricane Ike had in Texas just a few years ago, we felt it was important to remind the citizens of the greater Houston metropolitan area of the societal benefits of funding hurricane research. Thanks to the assistance of AGU staff, writing the article required only a few hours of time. Our op-ed was published in the print edition of the Houston Chronicle on 1 June 2012, the official start of the hurricane season (http://www.chron.com/default/article/Tight-budgets-posing-threat-to-Texas-hurricane-3600363.php). It was picked up by the media relations office in the College of Geosciences at Texas A&M University and featured on the college's Web site in the dean's biweekly briefing and on its Facebook page. As a result, the op-ed reached a large and diverse audience.

  7. A Study of Initial Employment Characteristics between Co-op and Non-co-op Community College Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, J. Robert; Clark, Aaron C.

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of 24 community college engineering graduates who participated in cooperative education and 13 nonco-op graduates found no significant employment differences in terms of organizational socialization, relevance of job-to-career plans, access to resources, or participation in decision making. Findings may be specific to this community…

  8. 7 CFR 1944.662 - Eligibility of HPG assistance on rental properties or co-ops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... co-ops. 1944.662 Section 1944.662 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Preservation Grants § 1944.662 Eligibility of HPG assistance on rental properties or co-ops. (a) Ownership. The owner(s) of rental properties or co-ops must own the dwelling at the time of receiving assistance...

  9. 7 CFR 1944.662 - Eligibility of HPG assistance on rental properties or co-ops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... co-ops. 1944.662 Section 1944.662 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Preservation Grants § 1944.662 Eligibility of HPG assistance on rental properties or co-ops. (a) Ownership. The owner(s) of rental properties or co-ops must own the dwelling at the time of receiving assistance...

  10. 7 CFR 1944.662 - Eligibility of HPG assistance on rental properties or co-ops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... co-ops. 1944.662 Section 1944.662 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Preservation Grants § 1944.662 Eligibility of HPG assistance on rental properties or co-ops. (a) Ownership. The owner(s) of rental properties or co-ops must own the dwelling at the time of receiving assistance...

  11. 7 CFR 1944.662 - Eligibility of HPG assistance on rental properties or co-ops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... co-ops. 1944.662 Section 1944.662 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Preservation Grants § 1944.662 Eligibility of HPG assistance on rental properties or co-ops. (a) Ownership. The owner(s) of rental properties or co-ops must own the dwelling at the time of receiving assistance...

  12. 7 CFR 1944.662 - Eligibility of HPG assistance on rental properties or co-ops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... co-ops. 1944.662 Section 1944.662 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Preservation Grants § 1944.662 Eligibility of HPG assistance on rental properties or co-ops. (a) Ownership. The owner(s) of rental properties or co-ops must own the dwelling at the time of receiving assistance...

  13. Work-Op IV summary: lessons from iron opacities

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, S J; Iglesias, C A; Minguez, E; Serduke, F J D

    1999-04-16

    The fourth international LTE opacity workshop and code comparison study, WorkOp-IV, was held in Madrid in 1997. Results of this workshop are summarized with a focus on iron opacities. In particular, the astrophysically important photon absorption region between 50 and 80 eV is emphasized for a sequence of iron plasmas at densities and temperatures that produce nearly the same average ionization stage (Z* {approximately} 8.6). Experimental data that addressed this spectral region is also reviewed.

  14. Optoelectronic Device Integration in Silicon (OpSIS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-26

    the community as part of the OpSIS-IME MPW service. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo -Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the...germanium direct contact” Vol.22, No.9; 11367-11375 (2013). (9 Google Scholar Citations) Abstract: We report a Ge-on-Si photodetector without doped Ge or...versus optical signal-to-noise ratio. 27 Fig. 1 WDM ring transmitter. (a) Architecture diagram. (b) Chip photo . 28. Ding, Ran; Liu, Yang; Li, Qi

  15. All Conservation Opportunity Areas (ECO.RES.ALL_OP_AREAS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The All_OP_Areas GIS layer are all the Conservation Opportunity Areas identified by MoRAP (produced for EPA Region 7). They designate areas with potential for forest, grassland and forest/grassland mosaic conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural forest land cover that are at least 75 meters away from roads and away from patch edges. OAs were modeled by creating distance grids using the National Land Cover Database and the Census Bureau's TIGER roads files.

  16. Enzymatic degradation of monocrotophos by extracellular fungal OP hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rachna; Garg, Veena

    2013-11-01

    The present study explores the potential of extracellular fungal organophosphate (OP) hydrolase for the degradation of monocrotophos. Extracellular OP hydrolases were isolated and purified from five different fungal isolates viz. Aspergillus niger (M1), Aspergillus flavus (M2), Penicillium aculeatum (M3), Fusarium pallidoroseum (M4), and Macrophomina sp. (M5) by AmSO4 precipitation, dialysis, and G-100 chromatography. M3 showed highest percentage yield of 68.81 followed by 55.41 % for M1. Each of the purified enzyme fraction constituted of two different subunits of 33- and 67-kDa molecular weight. Optimum enzyme fraction (150 μg ml(-1)) rapidly degraded monocrotophos within 120 h in phosphorus-free liquid culture medium (CZM) with K deg of 0.0368, 0.0138, 0.048, 0.016, 0.0138, and 0.048 day(-1) and half-life of 0.79, 2.11, 0.6, 1.8, and 2.11 days for M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5, respectively. The results were further confirmed by high performance thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared which indicate the disappearance of monocrotophos by hydrolytic cleavage of vinyl phosphate bond. The overall order of enzymatic degradation was found to be P. aculeatum > A. niger > F. pallidoroseum > A. flavus = Macrophomina sp. Hence, the study concludes that extracellular OP hydrolases efficiently degraded monocrotophos and could be used as a potential candidate for the detoxification of this neurotoxin pesticide.

  17. Electing a candidate: a speculative history of the bacterial phylum OP10.

    PubMed

    Dunfield, Peter F; Tamas, Ivica; Lee, Kevin C; Morgan, Xochitl C; McDonald, Ian R; Stott, Matthew B

    2012-12-01

    In 1998, a cultivation-independent survey of the microbial community in Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, detected 12 new phyla within the Domain Bacteria. These were dubbed 'candidate divisions' OP1 to OP12. Since that time the OP10 candidate division has been commonly detected in various environments, usually as part of the rare biosphere, but occasionally as a predominant community component. Based on 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, OP10 comprises at least 12 class-level subdivisions. However, despite this broad ecological and evolutionary diversity, all OP10 bacteria have eluded cultivation until recently. In 2011, two reference species of OP10 were taxonomically validated, removing the phylum from its 'candidate' status. Construction of a highly resolved phylogeny based on 29 universally conserved genes verifies its standing as a unique bacterial phylum. In the following paper we summarize what is known and what is suspected about the newest described bacterial phylum, the Armatimonadetes.

  18. 14O+p elastic scattering in a microscopic cluster model

    SciTech Connect

    Descouvemont, P.; Baye, D.; Leo, F.

    2006-04-26

    The 14O+p elastic scattering is analyzed in a fully microscopic cluster model. With the Resonating Group Method associated with the microscopic R-matrix theory, phase shifts and cross sections are calculated. Data on 16O+p are used to test the precision of the model. For the 14O+p elastic scattering, an excellent agreement is found with recent experimental data. Resonances properties in 15F are discussed.

  19. Is This Op-Amp Any Good?: Lab-Built Checker Removes All Doubt!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Electronics instructors and students find it very helpful to be able to check an operational amplifier at the proto-board stage. Most students lack the experience or knowledge that it takes to recognize whether an op-amp is operating normally or not. This article discusses a handy op-amp checker that allows one to check and/or test op-amps at the…

  20. Nuclear localization of the dehydrin OpsDHN1 is determined by histidine-rich motif

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Sánchez, Itzell E.; Maruri-López, Israel; Ferrando, Alejandro; Carbonell, Juan; Graether, Steffen P.; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F.

    2015-01-01

    The cactus OpsDHN1 dehydrin belongs to a large family of disordered and highly hydrophilic proteins known as Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins, which accumulate during the late stages of embryogenesis and in response to abiotic stresses. Herein, we present the in vivo OpsDHN1 subcellular localization by N-terminal GFP translational fusion; our results revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of the GFP::OpsDHN1 protein in Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells. In addition, dimer assembly of OpsDHN1 in planta using a Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) approach was demonstrated. In order to understand the in vivo role of the histidine-rich motif, the OpsDHN1-ΔHis version was produced and assayed for its subcellular localization and dimer capability by GFP fusion and BiFC assays, respectively. We found that deletion of the OpsDHN1 histidine-rich motif restricted its localization to cytoplasm, but did not affect dimer formation. In addition, the deletion of the S-segment in the OpsDHN1 protein affected its nuclear localization. Our data suggest that the deletion of histidine-rich motif and S-segment show similar effects, preventing OpsDHN1 from getting into the nucleus. Based on these results, the histidine-rich motif is proposed as a targeting element for OpsDHN1 nuclear localization. PMID:26442018

  1. Nuclear localization of the dehydrin OpsDHN1 is determined by histidine-rich motif.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Sánchez, Itzell E; Maruri-López, Israel; Ferrando, Alejandro; Carbonell, Juan; Graether, Steffen P; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    The cactus OpsDHN1 dehydrin belongs to a large family of disordered and highly hydrophilic proteins known as Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins, which accumulate during the late stages of embryogenesis and in response to abiotic stresses. Herein, we present the in vivo OpsDHN1 subcellular localization by N-terminal GFP translational fusion; our results revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of the GFP::OpsDHN1 protein in Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells. In addition, dimer assembly of OpsDHN1 in planta using a Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) approach was demonstrated. In order to understand the in vivo role of the histidine-rich motif, the OpsDHN1-ΔHis version was produced and assayed for its subcellular localization and dimer capability by GFP fusion and BiFC assays, respectively. We found that deletion of the OpsDHN1 histidine-rich motif restricted its localization to cytoplasm, but did not affect dimer formation. In addition, the deletion of the S-segment in the OpsDHN1 protein affected its nuclear localization. Our data suggest that the deletion of histidine-rich motif and S-segment show similar effects, preventing OpsDHN1 from getting into the nucleus. Based on these results, the histidine-rich motif is proposed as a targeting element for OpsDHN1 nuclear localization.

  2. Impaired tumor growth in colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1)-deficient, macrophage-deficient op/op mouse: evidence for a role of CSF-1-dependent macrophages in formation of tumor stroma.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, A; Szenajch, J; Ostrowska, G; Wojtowicz, A; Wojtowicz, K; Kruszewski, A A; Maruszynski, M; Aukerman, S L; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W

    1996-01-03

    Macrophages have been suggested to play a major role in the immune response to cancer. They have also been suggested to stimulate the formation of tumor stroma and to promote tumor vascularization. The availability of the op/op mouse, which has no endogenous colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) and which possesses a profound macrophage deficiency, provides a new model to verify these notions. Subcutaneous growth of transplantable Lewis lung cancer (LLC) is markedly impaired in the op/op mice compared with normal littermates. Treatment of tumor-bearing op/op mice with human recombinant CSF-1 corrects this impairment. Histological analysis of tumors grown in op/op and normal mice revealed marked differences. Tumors grown in op/op mice display a decreased mitotic index and pronounced necrosis, particularly hemorrhagic. Moreover, particularly in the op/op tumors, peculiar sinusoid-like abortive vessels (not filled with blood) have been observed. These tumors, in contrast to tumors grown in normal mice, are almost deprived of regular arteries and veins. In contrast to tumors grown in normal mice, they exhibit almost no Sirius red-stained collagenous fibers and Gomori silver-stained reticular fibers. Our data suggest that the CSF-1-dependent macrophage subpopulation missing in op/op mice plays a primary role in supporting tumor stroma formation and tumor vascularization in murine LLC tumors.

  3. Comparative pulsation calculations with OP and OPAL opacities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanbur, Shashi M.; Simon, Norman R.

    1994-01-01

    Comparative linear nonadiabatic pulsation calculations are presented using the OPAL and Opacity Project opacities. The two sets of opacities include effects due to intermediate coupling and fine structure as well as new abundances. We used two mass luminosity (M-L) relations, one standard (BIT), and one employing substantial convective core overshoot (COV). The two sets of opacities cannot be differentiated on the basis of the stellar pulsation calculations presented here. The BIT relation can model the beat and bump Cepheids with masses between 4 and 7 solar mass, while if the overshoot relation is used, masses between 2 and 6 solar mass are required. In the RR Lyrae regime, we find the inferred masses of globular cluster RRd stars to be little influenced by the choice of OPAL or OP. Finally, the limited modeling we have done is not able to constrain the Cepheid M-L relation based upon period ratios observed in the beat and bump stars.

  4. Gaze stability of observers watching Op Art pictures.

    PubMed

    Zanker, Johannes M; Doyle, Melanie; Robin, Walker

    2003-01-01

    It has been the matter of some debate why we can experience vivid dynamic illusions when looking at static pictures composed from simple black and white patterns. The impression of illusory motion is particularly strong when viewing some of the works of 'Op Artists, such as Bridget Riley's painting Fall. Explanations of the illusory motion have ranged from retinal to cortical mechanisms, and an important role has been attributed to eye movements. To assess the possible contribution of eye movements to the illusory-motion percept we studied the strength of the illusion under different viewing conditions, and analysed the gaze stability of observers viewing the Riley painting and control patterns that do not produce the illusion. Whereas the illusion was reduced, but not abolished, when watching the painting through a pinhole, which reduces the effects of accommodation, it was not perceived in flash afterimages, suggesting an important role for eye movements in generating the illusion for this image. Recordings of eye movements revealed an abundance of small involuntary saccades when looking at the Riley pattern, despite the fact that gaze was kept within the dedicated fixation region. The frequency and particular characteristics of these rapid eye movements can vary considerably between different observers, but, although there was a tendency for gaze stability to deteriorate while viewing a Riley painting, there was no significant difference in saccade frequency between the stimulus and control patterns. Theoretical considerations indicate that such small image displacements can generate patterns of motion signals in a motion-detector network, which may serve as a simple and sufficient, but not necessarily exclusive, explanation for the illusion. Why such image displacements lead to perceptual results with a group of Op Art and similar patterns, but remain invisible for other stimuli, is discussed.

  5. Chronic exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and neuropsychological functioning in farm workers: a review

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Boris Andrés; Iglesias, Verónica Paz; Muñoz, María Pía; Cornejo, Claudia Alejandra; Achu, Eduardo; Baumert, Brittney; Hanchey, Arianna; Concha, Carlos; Brito, Ana María; Villalobos, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that acute poisoning from exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides in agricultural workers causes adverse health effects. However, neuropsychological and cognitive effects of chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides remain controversial. Objective To identify, evaluate, and systematize existing evidence regarding chronic exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects in farmworkers. Methods Using the PubMed search engine, a systematic review process was implemented and replicated according to the PRISMA statement. Eligibility criteria included workers over 18 years of age exposed to OP pesticides as well as assessment of neuropsychological and cognitive functioning. Search terms were in English and Spanish languages and included organophosphate and workers. Results Of the search results, 33 of 1,256 articles meet eligibility criteria. Twenty-four studies found an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and low neuropsychological performance in workers. We classified nine of the studies to have study design limitations. Studies indicated occupational exposure to OP pesticides is linked to difficulties in executive functions, psychomotor speed, verbal, memory, attention, processing speed, visual–spatial functioning, and coordination. Nine studies find no relationship between OP pesticides exposure and neuropsychological performance. Conclusions Overall, evidence suggests an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects. However, there is no consensus about the specific cognitive skills affected. PMID:27128815

  6. UTC(OP) based on LNE-SYRTE atomic fountain primary frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovera, G. D.; Bize, S.; Chupin, B.; Guéna, J.; Laurent, Ph; Rosenbusch, P.; Uhrich, P.; Abgrall, M.

    2016-06-01

    UTC(OP), the French national realization of the international coordinated universal time, was redesigned and rebuilt. The first step was the implementation in October 2012 of a new algorithm based on a H-maser and on atomic fountain data. Thanks to the new implementation, the stability of UTC(OP) was dramatically improved and UTC(OP) competes with the best time scales available today. Then the hardware generation and distribution of the UTC(OP) physical signals were replaced. Part of the new hardware is composed of commercial devices, but the key elements were specifically developed. One of them is a special switch that allows the UTC(OP) signals to be derived from one of two time scales, based on two different H-masers, which are generated simultaneously. This insures the continuity of the UTC(OP) signal even when a change of the reference H-maser is required. With the new hardware implementation, UTC(OP) is made available through three coherent signals: 100 MHz, 10 MHz and 1 PPS. For more than 3 years, UTC(OP) remained well below 10 ns close to UTC, with a difference even less than 5 ns if we except a short period around MJD 56650.

  7. A Study of the Ethical Orientation of Co-op Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    A group of 255 civil engineering students in cooperative education programs responded to 12 hypothetical professional ethics situations in core areas of public interest. Findings showed that (1) co-op influences change from rule-based to act-based ethics; (2) students face ethical dilemmas during co-op; and (3) students considered the consequences…

  8. 48 CFR 750.7110-3 - Submission of cases to the M/OP Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... M/OP Director. 750.7110-3 Section 750.7110-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... Actions To Protect Foreign Policy Interests of the United States 750.7110-3 Submission of cases to the M/OP Director. Cases to be submitted for consideration by the M/OAA Director shall be prepared...

  9. 48 CFR 750.7110-3 - Submission of cases to the M/OP Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... M/OP Director. 750.7110-3 Section 750.7110-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... Actions To Protect Foreign Policy Interests of the United States 750.7110-3 Submission of cases to the M/OP Director. Cases to be submitted for consideration by the M/OAA Director shall be prepared...

  10. Preparing for High Technology: Successful Co-op Strategies. Research and Development Series No. 263.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchak, Stephen J.; Smith, O. H. Michael

    This document has been prepared to assist program administrators and practitioners in planning and implementing cooperative (co-op) programs in high technology occupational areas. Information focuses on the key elements, strategies, and procedures of successful co-op programs. The guide contains nine chapters and is based on a review of the…

  11. Emerging OP354-Like P[8] Rotaviruses Have Rapidly Dispersed from Asia to Other Continents.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Mark; Heylen, Elisabeth; Damanka, Susan; Pietsch, Corinna; Donato, Celeste; Tamura, Tsutomu; Kulkarni, Ruta; Arora, Ritu; Cunliffe, Nigel; Maunula, Leena; Potgieter, Christiaan; Tamim, Sana; Coster, Sarah De; Zhirakovskaya, Elena; Bdour, Salwa; O'Shea, Helen; Kirkwood, Carl D; Seheri, Mapaseka; Nyaga, Martin Monene; Mphahlele, Jeffrey; Chitambar, Shobha D; Dagan, Ron; Armah, George; Tikunova, Nina; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2015-08-01

    The majority of human group A rotaviruses possess the P[8] VP4 genotype. Recently, a genetically distinct subtype of the P[8] genotype, also known as OP354-like P[8] or lineage P[8]-4, emerged in several countries. However, it is unclear for how long the OP354-like P[8] gene has been circulating in humans and how it has spread. In a global collaborative effort 98 (near-)complete OP354-like P[8] VP4 sequences were obtained and used for phylogeographic analysis to determine the viral migration patterns. During the sampling period, 1988-2012, we found that South and East Asia acted as a source from which strains with the OP354-like P[8] gene were seeded to Africa, Europe, and North America. The time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of all OP354-like P[8] genes was estimated at 1987. However, most OP354-like P[8] strains were found in three main clusters with TMRCAs estimated between 1996 and 2001. The VP7 gene segment of OP354-like P[8] strains showed evidence of frequent reassortment, even in localized epidemics, suggesting that OP354-like P[8] genes behave in a similar manner on the evolutionary level as other P[8] subtypes. The results of this study suggest that OP354-like P[8] strains have been able to disperse globally in a relatively short time period. This, in combination with a relatively large genetic distance to other P[8] subtypes, might result in a lower vaccine effectiveness, underscoring the need for a continued surveillance of OP354-like P[8] strains, especially in countries where rotavirus vaccination programs are in place.

  12. Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) PV integration study.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Abraham; Mousseau, Tom

    2011-08-01

    This report investigates the effects that increased distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation would have on the Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) system operating requirements. The study focused on determining reserve requirements needed to mitigate the impact of PV variability on system frequency, and the impact on operating costs. Scenarios of 5-MW, 10-MW, and 15-MW nameplate capacity of PV generation plants distributed across the Kauai Island were considered in this study. The analysis required synthesis of the PV solar resource data and modeling of the KIUC system inertia. Based on the results, some findings and conclusions could be drawn, including that the selection of units identified as marginal resources that are used for load following will change; PV penetration will displace energy generated by existing conventional units, thus reducing overall fuel consumption; PV penetration at any deployment level is not likely to reduce system peak load; and increasing PV penetration has little effect on load-following reserves. The study was performed by EnerNex under contract from Sandia National Laboratories with cooperation from KIUC.

  13. Looking at Op Art: Gaze stability and motion illusions

    PubMed Central

    Hermens, Frouke; Zanker, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Various Op artists have used simple geometrical patterns to create the illusion of motion in their artwork. One explanation for the observed illusion involves retinal shifts caused by small involuntary eye movements that observers make while they try to maintain fixation. Earlier studies have suggested a prominent role of the most conspicuous of these eye movements, small rapid position shifts called microsaccades. Here, we present data that could expand this view with a different interpretation. In three experiments, we recorded participants' eye movements while they tried to maintain visual fixation when being presented with variants of Bridget Riley's Fall, which were manipulated such as to vary the strength of induced motion. In the first two experiments, we investigated the properties of microsaccades for a set of stimuli with known motion strengths. In agreement with earlier observations, microsaccade rates were unaffected by the stimulus pattern and, consequently, the strength of induced motion illusion. In the third experiment, we varied the stimulus pattern across a larger range of parameters and asked participants to rate the perceived motion illusion. The results revealed that motion illusions in patterns resembling Riley's Fall are perceived even in the absence of microsaccades, and that the reported strength of the illusion decreased with the number of microsaccades in the trial. Together, the three experiments suggest that other sources of retinal image instability than microsaccades, such as slow oculomotor drift, should be considered as possible factors contributing to the illusion. PMID:23145284

  14. Regulation of microtubule destabilizing activity of Op18/stathmin downstream of Rac1.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Torsten; Bokoch, Gary M; Waterman-Storer, Clare M

    2004-02-13

    In the leading edge of migrating cells, a subset of microtubules exhibits net growth in a Rac1- and p21-activated kinase-dependent manner. Here, we explore the possibility of whether phosphorylation and inactivation of the microtubule-destabilizing protein Op18/stathmin could be a mechanism regulating microtubule dynamics downstream of Rac1 and p21-activated kinases. We find that, in vitro, Pak1 phosphorylates Op18/stathmin specifically at serine 16 and inactivates its catastrophe promoting activity in biochemical and time lapse microscopy microtubule assembly assays. Furthermore, phosphorylation of either serine 16 or 63 is sufficient to inhibit Op18/stathmin in vitro. In cells, the microtubule-destabilizing effect of an excess of Op18/stathmin can be partially overcome by expression of constitutively active Rac1(Q61L), which is dependent on Pak activity, suggesting that the microtubule cytoskeleton can be regulated through inactivation of Op18/stathmin downstream of Rac1 and Pak in vivo. However, in vivo, Pak1 activity alone is not sufficient to phosphorylate Op18, indicating that additional pathways downstream of Rac1 are required for Op18 regulation.

  15. OpWise: Operons aid the identification of differentially expressedgenes in bacterial microarray experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2005-11-23

    Differentially expressed genes are typically identified by analyzing the variation between replicate measurements. These procedures implicitly assume that there are no systematic errors in the data even though several sources of systematic error are known. Results-OpWise estimates the amount of systematic error in bacterial microarray data by assuming that genes in the same operon have matching expression patterns. OpWise then performs a Bayesian analysis of a linear model to estimate significance. In simulations, OpWise corrects for systematic error and is robust to deviations from its assumptions. In several bacterial data sets, significant amounts of systematic error are present, and replicate-based approaches overstate the confidence of the changers dramatically, while OpWise does not. Finally, OpWise can identify additional changers by assigning genes higher confidence if they are consistent with other genes in the same operon. Although microarray data can contain large amounts of systematic error, operons provide an external standard and allow for reasonable estimates of significance. OpWise is available at http://microbesonline.org/OpWise.

  16. 7 CFR 1944.663 - Ownership agreement between HPG grantee and rental property owner or co-op.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... property owner or co-op. 1944.663 Section 1944.663 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Preservation Grants § 1944.663 Ownership agreement between HPG grantee and rental property owner or co-op. HPG assistance may be provided by a grantee with respect to rental properties or co-ops only if the...

  17. 7 CFR 1944.663 - Ownership agreement between HPG grantee and rental property owner or co-op.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... property owner or co-op. 1944.663 Section 1944.663 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Preservation Grants § 1944.663 Ownership agreement between HPG grantee and rental property owner or co-op. HPG assistance may be provided by a grantee with respect to rental properties or co-ops only if the...

  18. 7 CFR 1944.663 - Ownership agreement between HPG grantee and rental property owner or co-op.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... property owner or co-op. 1944.663 Section 1944.663 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Preservation Grants § 1944.663 Ownership agreement between HPG grantee and rental property owner or co-op. HPG assistance may be provided by a grantee with respect to rental properties or co-ops only if the...

  19. 7 CFR 1944.663 - Ownership agreement between HPG grantee and rental property owner or co-op.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... property owner or co-op. 1944.663 Section 1944.663 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Preservation Grants § 1944.663 Ownership agreement between HPG grantee and rental property owner or co-op. HPG assistance may be provided by a grantee with respect to rental properties or co-ops only if the...

  20. 7 CFR 1944.663 - Ownership agreement between HPG grantee and rental property owner or co-op.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... property owner or co-op. 1944.663 Section 1944.663 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Preservation Grants § 1944.663 Ownership agreement between HPG grantee and rental property owner or co-op. HPG assistance may be provided by a grantee with respect to rental properties or co-ops only if the...

  1. The Vida Verde Women's Co-Op: Brazilian immigrants organizing to promote environmental and social justice.

    PubMed

    Gute, David M; Siqueira, Eduardo; Goldberg, Julia S; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Mônica; Pirie, Alex

    2009-11-01

    We reviewed the key steps in the launch of the Vida Verde Women's Co-Op among Brazilian immigrant housecleaners in Somerville, MA. The co-op provides green housecleaning products, encourages healthy work practices, and promotes a sense of community among its members. We conducted in-depth interviews with 8 of the first co-op members, who reported a reduction in symptoms associated with the use of traditional cleaning agents and a new sense of mutual support. Critical to the co-op's success have been the supportive roles of its academic partners (Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts, Lowell), effective media outreach, and a focus on advancing social justice. Next steps include implementing a formal business plan and assessing the appropriateness of cooperatives in other industries.

  2. Three-photon absorption in optical parametric oscillators based on OP-GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckl, Oliver H.; Bjork, Bryce J.; Winkler, Georg; Bryan Changala, P.; Spaun, Ben; Porat, Gil; Bui, Thinh Q.; Lee, Kevin F.; Jiang, Jie; Fermann, Martin E.; Schunemann, Peter G.; Ye, Jun

    2016-11-01

    We report on the first singly-resonant (SR), synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on orientation-patterned gallium arsenide (OP-GaAs). Together with a doubly resonant (DR) degenerate OPO based on the same OP-GaAs material, the output spectra cover 3 to 6 ${\\mu}$m within ~3 dB of relative power. The DR-OPO has the highest output power reported to date from a femtosecond, synchronously pumped OPO based on OP-GaAs. We discovered strong three photon absorption with a coefficient of 0.35 ${\\pm}$ 0.06 cm${^3}$/GW${^2}$ for our OP-GaAs sample, which limits the output power of these OPOs as mid-IR light sources. We present a detailed study of the three photon loss on the performance of both the SR and DR-OPOs, and compare them to those without this loss mechanism.

  3. The Vida Verde Women's Co-Op: Brazilian Immigrants Organizing to Promote Environmental and Social Justice

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Eduardo; Goldberg, Julia S.; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Mônica; Pirie, Alex

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed the key steps in the launch of the Vida Verde Women's Co-Op among Brazilian immigrant housecleaners in Somerville, MA. The co-op provides green housecleaning products, encourages healthy work practices, and promotes a sense of community among its members. We conducted in-depth interviews with 8 of the first co-op members, who reported a reduction in symptoms associated with the use of traditional cleaning agents and a new sense of mutual support. Critical to the co-op's success have been the supportive roles of its academic partners (Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts, Lowell), effective media outreach, and a focus on advancing social justice. Next steps include implementing a formal business plan and assessing the appropriateness of cooperatives in other industries. PMID:19890146

  4. An investigation of potential applications of OP-SAPS: Operational sampled analog processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, E. A.; Mcvey, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of charge-coupled device (CCD) processors on future instrumentation was investigated. The CCD devices studied process sampled analog data and are referred to as OP-SAPS - operational sampled analog processors. Preliminary studies into various architectural configurations for systems composed of OP-SAPS show that they have potential in such diverse applications as pattern recognition and automatic control. It appears probable that OP-SAPS may be used to construct computing structures which can serve as special peripherals to large-scale computer complexes used in real time flight simulation. The research was limited to the following benchmark programs: (1) face recognition, (2) voice command and control, (3) terrain classification, and (4) terrain identification. A small amount of effort was spent on examining a method by which OP-SAPS may be used to decrease the limiting ground sampling distance encountered in remote sensing from satellites.

  5. Music May Soothe the 'Savage Beast' of Post-Op Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164526.html Music May Soothe the 'Savage Beast' of Post-Op ... pain and anxiety, but new research shows that music therapy may help ease their discomfort. Medication is ...

  6. Study on multiple-hops performance of MOOC sequences-based optical labels for OPS networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Qiu, Kun; Ma, Chunli

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we utilize a new study method that is under independent case of multiple optical orthogonal codes to derive the probability function of MOOCS-OPS networks, discuss the performance characteristics for a variety of parameters, and compare some characteristics of the system employed by single optical orthogonal code or multiple optical orthogonal codes sequences-based optical labels. The performance of the system is also calculated, and our results verify that the method is effective. Additionally it is found that performance of MOOCS-OPS networks would, negatively, be worsened, compared with single optical orthogonal code-based optical label for optical packet switching (SOOC-OPS); however, MOOCS-OPS networks can greatly enlarge the scalability of optical packet switching networks.

  7. Common Post-Op Ear Drops Tied to Eardrum Perforations in Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_164372.html Common Post-Op Ear Drops Tied to Eardrum Perforations in Kids Rate ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Children who suffer through multiple ear infections are often candidates for ear tube surgery. ...

  8. Usefulness of the Co-op Experience: A Study of Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Uwe (Hugh)

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the perceived usefulness of the co-op experience of community college graduates from the Production and Operating Management and the Marketing Management programs at Centennial College in Ontario. (JOW)

  9. Results of Investigations Concerning the Capabilities of the OpScan 100DM Optical Scanner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Gordon L.; Hooper, Judith

    A series of tests using OpScan 100DM optical scanner were carried out to determine whether it can mechanically transport paper that does not comply with the manufacturer's specifications for weight and size and see if standard paper stock has sufficient quality, opacity, and brightness to permit it to be used to print forms for the OpScan 100DM.…

  10. Creature co-op: Achieving robust remote operations with a community of low-cost robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonasso, R. Peter

    1990-01-01

    The concept is advanced of carrying out space based remote missions using a cooperative of low cost robot specialists rather than monolithic, multipurpose systems. A simulation is described wherein a control architecture for such a system of specialists is being investigated. Early results show such co-ops to be robust in the face of unforeseen circumstances. Descriptions of the platforms and sensors modeled and the beacon and retriever creatures that make up the co-op are included.

  11. OpEx - a validated, automated pipeline optimised for clinical exome sequence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruark, Elise; Münz, Márton; Clarke, Matthew; Renwick, Anthony; Ramsay, Emma; Elliott, Anna; Seal, Sheila; Lunter, Gerton; Rahman, Nazneen

    2016-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use, open-source Optimised Exome analysis tool, OpEx (http://icr.ac.uk/opex) that accurately detects small-scale variation, including indels, to clinical standards. We evaluated OpEx performance with an experimentally validated dataset (the ICR142 NGS validation series), a large 1000 exome dataset (the ICR1000 UK exome series), and a clinical proband-parent trio dataset. The performance of OpEx for high-quality base substitutions and short indels in both small and large datasets is excellent, with overall sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 97% and low false detection rate (FDR) of 3%. Depending on the individual performance requirements the OpEx output allows one to optimise the inevitable trade-offs between sensitivity and specificity. For example, in the clinical setting one could permit a higher FDR and lower specificity to maximise sensitivity. In contexts where experimental validation is not possible, minimising the FDR and improving specificity may be a preferable trade-off for slightly lower sensitivity. OpEx is simple to install and use; the whole pipeline is run from a single command. OpEx is therefore well suited to the increasing research and clinical laboratories undertaking exome sequencing, particularly those without in-house dedicated bioinformatics expertise. PMID:27485037

  12. Use of OpdA, an Organophosphorus (OP) Hydrolase, Prevents Lethality in an African Green Monkey Model of Acute OP Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Colin J; Carville, Angela; Ward, Jeanine; Mansfield, Keith; Ollis, David L.; Khurana, Tejvir; Bird, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are a diverse class of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors that are responsible for tremendous morbidity and mortality worldwide, killing approximately 300,000 people annually. Enzymatic hydrolysis of OPs is a potential therapy for acute poisoning. OpdA, an OP hydrolase isolated from Agrobacterium radiobacter, has been shown to decrease lethality in rodent models of OP poisoning. This study investigated the effects of OpdA on AChE activity, plasma concentrations of OP, and signs of toxicity after administration of dichlorvos to nonhuman primates. A dose of 75 mg/kg dichlorvos given orally caused apnea within 10 minutes with a progressive decrease in heart rate. Blood AChE activity decreased to zero within ten minutes. Respirations and AChE activity did not recover. The mean dichlorvos concentration rose to a peak of 0.66 μg/ml. Treated monkeys received 1.2 mg/kg OpdA iv immediately after poisoning with dichlorvos. In Opda-treated animals, heart and respiratory rates were unchanged from baseline over a 240-minute observation period. AChE activity slowly declined, but remained above 25% of baseline for the entire duration. Dichlorvos concentrations reached a mean peak of 0.19 μg/ml at 40 minutes after poisoning and decreased to a mean of 0.05 μg/ml at 240 minutes. These results show that OpdA hydrolyzes dichlorvos in an African Green Monkey model of lethal poisoning, delays AChE inhibition, and prevents lethality. PMID:24447378

  13. Realization of the new UTC(OP) based on the LNE-SYRTE atomic fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupin, B.; Bize, S.; Guéna, J.; Laurent, P.; Rosenbusch, P.; Uhrich, P.; Abgrall, M.; Rovera, G.

    2014-12-01

    For many years, UTC(OP), the real-time approximation of UTC built in LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris (OP), Paris, France, had been based on industrial Cesium (Cs) standards [1]. Since October 2012, new algorithm for the generation of UTC(OP) has been put in operation. It is based on the steering of a H-maser signal on the LNE-SYRTE Primary Frequency Standards. The current OP atomic fountain ensemble comprises a Cs fountain called FO1, a dual fountain working with Cs and Rubidium (Rb) atoms called FO2, and a mobile Cs fountain called FOM. All fountains share the same cryogenic oscillator which is phase locked to a H-maser, so that all fountains measure the frequency of the same H-maser. Automatic fountain data processing provides hourly preliminary data corrected of all systematic frequency shifts. The steering of the H-maser frequency is calculated daily by a fit to the fountain data. First we describe the implementation of all the instruments used for the generation of UTC(OP) together with the current version of the algorithm. The choice of this algorithm has been oriented to obtain robustness of the system instead of the ultimate optimization of performances. We then present the results obtained during the first year of operation.

  14. Expert systems built by the Expert: An evaluation of OPS5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Two expert systems were written in OPS5 by the expert, a Ph.D. astronomer with no prior experience in artificial intelligence or expert systems, without the use of a knowledge engineer. The first system was built from scratch and uses 146 rules to check for duplication of scientific information within a pool of prospective observations. The second system was grafted onto another expert system and uses 149 additional rules to estimate the spacecraft and ground resources consumed by a set of prospective observations. The small vocabulary, the IF this occurs THEN do that logical structure of OPS5, and the ability to follow program execution allowed the expert to design and implement these systems with only the data structures and rules of another OPS5 system as an example. The modularity of the rules in OPS5 allowed the second system to modify the rulebase of the system onto which it was grafted without changing the code or the operation of that system. These experiences show that experts are able to develop their own expert systems due to the ease of programming and code reusability in OPS5.

  15. Correction by CSF-1 of defects in the osteopetrotic op/op mouse suggests local, developmental, and humoral requirements for this growth factor.

    PubMed

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W; Urbanowska, E; Aukerman, S L; Pollard, J W; Stanley, E R; Ralph, P; Ansari, A A; Sell, K W; Szperl, M

    1991-11-01

    Mice that are mutant at the op locus have a severe deficiency of mononuclear phagocytes due to an inactivating mutation in the CSF-1 (macrophage colony-stimulating factor, M-CSF) gene. op/op mice are toothless, possessing skeletal abnormalities, a low body weight, and compromised fertility; they are osteopetrotic due to a deficiency of osteoclasts. The congenital osteopetrosis, toothless phenotype, osteoclast deficit, and the defects in splenic and femoral macrophages were corrected by routes of administration of human recombinant CSF-1 that maintained normal circulating CSF-1 concentrations. Early restoration of circulating CSF-1 was required for rescue of the toothless phenotype, but only partially restored body weight. In contrast, the deficiencies of pleural and peritoneal cavity macrophages and the reduced female fertility were not corrected by restoration of circulating CSF-1. These results suggest that although circulating CSF-1 is required for osteoclast and macrophage production, local synthesis and action of the growth factor are important for certain target cell populations.

  16. Status of the Signals of Opportunity Airborne Demonstrator (SoOp-AD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Jim; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Piepmeier, Jeff; Knuble, Joe; Hersey, Ken; Du Toit, Cornelus; Joseph, Alicia; Deshpande, Manohar; Alikakos, George; O'Brien, Steve; Katzberg, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Root zone soil moisture (RZSM) is not directly measured by any current satellite instrument, despite its importance as a key link between surface hydrology and deeper processes. Presently, model assimilation of surface measurements or indirect estimates using other methods must be used to estimate this value. Signals of Opportunity (SoOp) methods, exploiting reflected P- and S-band communication satellite signals, have many of the benefits of both active and passive microwave remote sensing. Reutilization of active transmitters, with forward-scattering geometry, presents a strong reflected signal even at orbital altitudes. Microwave radiometry is advantageous as it measures emissivity, which is directly related to dielectric constant and sensitive to water content of soil. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is used in P-band (400 MHz) for soil moisture and biomass, but faces issues in obtaining permission to transmit due to spectrum regulations, particularly over North America and Europe. A primary advantage of SAR is excellent spatial resolution. Signals-of-opportunity (SoOp) reflectometry provides a good compromise between radiometry and SAR by providing decent sensitivity and special resolution for RZSM measurements without issues of spectrum access. Further, a SoOp instrument would not be limited to operating in only a few protected frequencies and is also expected to have less susceptibility to radio-frequency interference (RFI). Although advantageous if available, SoOp techniques do not require the ability to demodulate or decode the communication signals. The SoOp instrument is receive only and therefore requires much less electrical power than a SAR and is more similar to a radiometer in receiver architecture. These unique features of SoOp circumvent past obstacles to a spaceborne P-band remote sensing mission and have the potential to enable new RZSM measurements that are not possible with present technology. We will present the latest development status of a

  17. Small molecule activation by POC(sp3)OP-nickel complexes.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jingjun; Vabre, Boris; Mougang-Soumé, Berline; Zargarian, Davit

    2014-09-22

    This contribution describes the reactivities of CO2 , CO, O2 , and ArNC with the pincer-type complexes [(κ(P) ,κ(C) ,κ(P') -POC sp 3OP)NiX] (POC sp 3OP=(R2 POCH2 )2 CH; R=iPr; X=OSiMe3 , NArH; Ar=2,6-iPr2 C6 H3 ). Reaction of the amido derivative with CO2 and CO leads to a simple insertion into the NiN bond to give stable carbamate and carbamoyl derivatives, respectively, the pincer ligand backbone remaining intact in both cases. In contrast, the analogous reactions with the siloxide derivative produced kinetically labile insertion products that either revert to the starting material (in the case of CO2 ) or react further to give the mixed-valent, dinickel species [(POC sp 3OP)Ni(II) {μ,κ(O) ,κ(P) ,κ(P') -OCOCH(CH2 CH2 OPR2 )2 }Ni(0) (CO)2 ]. The zero-valent center in the latter compound is ligated by a new ligand arising from transformation of the POC sp 3OP ligand backbone. The carbonylation and carboxylation of the siloxido derivative also produced minor quantities of a side-product identified as the trinickel species, [{(η(3) -allyl)Ni(μ(O) ,κ(P) -R2 PO)2 }2 Ni], arising from total dismantling of the POC sp 3OP ligand. Similar reactivities were observed with isonitrile, ArNC: reaction with the siloxido derivative resulted in a complex sequence of steps involving initial insertion, a 1,3-hydrogen shift, and an Arbuzov rearrangement to give [Ni(CNAr)4 ] and a methacrylamide based on fragments of the POC sp 3OP ligand. Oxygenation of the amido and siloxido derivatives led to the phosphinate derivative, [(POC sp 3OP)Ni(OP(O)R2 )], arising from oxidative transformation of the original ligand frame; the reaction with the Ni-NHAr derivative also gave ArHNP(O)R2 through a complex NP bond-forming reaction.

  18. Three-photon absorption in optical parametric oscillators based on OP-GaAs.

    PubMed

    Heckl, Oliver H; Bjork, Bryce J; Winkler, Georg; Bryan Changala, P; Spaun, Ben; Porat, Gil; Bui, Thinh Q; Lee, Kevin F; Jiang, Jie; Fermann, Martin E; Schunemann, Peter G; Ye, Jun

    2016-11-15

    We report on, to the best of our knowledge, the first singly resonant (SR), synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on orientation-patterned gallium arsenide (OP-GaAs). Together with a doubly resonant (DR) degenerate OPO based on the same OP-GaAs material, the output spectra cover 3 to 6 μm within ∼3  dB of relative power. The DR-OPO has the highest output power reported to date from a femtosecond, synchronously pumped OPO based on OP-GaAs. We observed strong three-photon absorption with a coefficient of 0.35±0.08  cm3/GW2 for our OP-GaAs sample, which limits the output power of these OPOs as mid-IR light sources. We present a detailed study of the three-photon loss on the performance of both the SR- and DR-OPOs, and compare them to those without this loss mechanism.

  19. 77 FR 27788 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Special Ops Flashlights and Sportsman...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... of a Special Ops Flashlight, Sportsman Flashlight, and a light-emitting diode (LED) blank assembly...-emitting diodes (LEDs) blank assemblies. Your letter was forwarded from our National Commodity Specialist... are produced in India, incorporate the four light emitting diodes and a push-button switch...

  20. Comparison of Total Dose Effects on Micropower Op-Amps: Bipolar and CMOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C.; Johnston, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper compares low-paper op-amps, OPA241 (bipolar) and OPA336 (CMOS), from Burr-Brown, MAX473 (bipolar) and MAX409 (CMOS), characterizing their total dose response with a single 2.7V power supply voltage.

  1. 75 FR 16874 - Market Test of “Samples Co-Op Box” Experimental Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Market Test...: The Postal Service gives notice of a market test of an experimental product in accordance with...) that it will begin a market test of its ``Samples Co-Op Box'' experimental product on May 1, 2010....

  2. Developing the Conditions for Co-Op Students' Organizational Commitment through Cooperative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennaforte, Antoine; Pretti, T. Judene

    2015-01-01

    Based in a French context, this research investigates the link between the French cooperative education (co-op) system and students' organizational commitment. Following a quasi-experimental design with a control group, in a longitudinal approach, the study focuses on under-baccalaureate, undergraduate and graduate students. Results show that in…

  3. An investigation of potential applications of OP-SAPS: Operational Sampled Analog Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, E. A.; Mcvey, E. S.

    1977-01-01

    The application of OP-SAP's (operational sampled analog processors) in pattern recognition system is summarized. Areas investigated include: (1) human face recognition; (2) a high-speed programmable transversal filter system; (3) discrete word (speech) recognition; and (4) a resolution enhancement system.

  4. Implementing a Multiple Criteria Model Base in Co-Op with a Graphical User Interface Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-23

    Decision Support System (Co-op) for Windows. The algorithms and the graphical user interfaces for these modules are implemented using Microsoft Visual ... Basic under the Windows based environment operating in a IBM compatible microcomputer. Design of the MCDM programs interface is based on general interface design principles of user control, screen design, and layout.

  5. Evaluating Cumulative OP Pesticide Body Burden of Children: A National Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Payne-Sturges, Devon; Cohen, Jonathan; Castorina, Rosemary; Axelrad, Daniel A.; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2009-01-01

    Biomonitoring is a valuable tool for identifying exposures to chemicals that pose potential harm to human health. However, to date there has been little published on ways to evaluate the relative public health significance of biomonitoring data for different chemicals, and even less on cumulative assessment of multiple chemicals. The objectives of our study are to develop a methodology for a health risk interpretation of biomonitoring data, and to apply it using NHANES 1999–2002 body burden data for organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. OP pesticides present a particularly challenging case given the non-specificity of many metabolites monitored through NHANES. We back-calculate OP pesticide exposures from urinary metabolite data, and compare cumulative dose estimates with available toxicity information for a common mechanism of action (brain cholinesterase inhibition) using data from U.S. EPA. Our results suggest that approximately 40% of children in the United States may have had insufficient margins of exposure (MOEs) for neurological impacts from cumulative exposures to OP pesticides (MOE less than 1,000). Limitations include uncertainty related to assumptions about likely precursor pesticide compounds of the urinary metabolites, sources of exposure, and intra-individual and temporal variability. PMID:19921915

  6. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(29)-1T - CO-OP Health Insurance Issuers (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false CO-OP Health Insurance Issuers (temporary). 1.501(c)(29)-1T Section 1.501(c)(29)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... CO-OP Health Insurance Issuers (temporary). (a) Organizations must notify the Commissioner that...

  7. Examining the Influence of Selected Factors on Perceived Co-Op Work-Term Quality from a Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewery, David; Nevison, Colleen; Pretti, T. Judene; Cormier, Lauren; Barclay, Sage; Pennaforte, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses and tests a conceptual model of co-op work-term quality from a student perspective. Drawing from an earlier exploration of co-op students' perceptions of work-term quality, variables related to role characteristics, interpersonal dynamics, and organizational elements were used in a multiple linear regression analysis to…

  8. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(29)-1T - CO-OP Health Insurance Issuers (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true CO-OP Health Insurance Issuers (temporary). 1.501(c)(29)-1T Section 1.501(c)(29)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... CO-OP Health Insurance Issuers (temporary). (a) Organizations must notify the Commissioner that...

  9. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(29)-1T - CO-OP Health Insurance Issuers (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false CO-OP Health Insurance Issuers (temporary). 1.501(c)(29)-1T Section 1.501(c)(29)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... CO-OP Health Insurance Issuers (temporary). (a) Organizations must notify the Commissioner that...

  10. Exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and health conditions in agricultural and non-agricultural workers from Maule, Chile.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris; Iglesias, Verónica; Levy, Karen; Muñoz, María Pía; Achú, Eduardo; Cornejo, Claudia; Concha, Carlos; Brito, Ana María; Villalobos, Marcos

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the characteristics of exposure to OP pesticides and health status in Chilean farm workers from the Maule Region. An occupational health questionnaire was administered in 207 agricultural and non-agricultural workers. For the group of agricultural workers, we asked about specific occupational exposure history and symptoms of OP pesticide poisoning. The main health problem of the exposed group was previous OP pesticide poisoning (p < 0.001). Fifty-six percent of agricultural workers reported symptoms consistent with acute OP pesticide poisoning. The use of respiratory personal protective equipment and younger age were protective against these symptoms, and number of years of OP pesticide exposure was positively associated with reporting symptoms of poisoning. Of the pesticide applicators 47 % reported using chlorpyrifos. The regulations regarding use and application of pesticides should be strengthened, as should training and intervention with workers to improve the use of personal protective equipment.

  11. Antagonism of SET using OP449 enhances the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and overcome drug resistance in myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anupriya; MacKenzie, Ryan J.; Pippa, Raffaella; Eide, Christopher A.; Oddo, Jessica; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Sears, Rosalie; Vitek, Michael P.; Odero, María D.; Christensen, Dale; Druker, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The SET oncoprotein, a potent inhibitor of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), is overexpressed in leukemia. We evaluated the efficacy of SET antagonism in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, a murine leukemia model, and primary patient samples using OP449, a specific, cell-penetrating peptide that antagonizes SET's inhibition of PP2A. Experimental Design In vitro cytotoxicity and specificity of OP449 in CML and AML cell lines and primary samples were measured using proliferation, apoptosis and colonogenic assays. Efficacy of target inhibition by OP449 is evaluated by immunoblotting and PP2A assay. In vivo antitumor efficacy of OP449 was measured in human HL-60 xenografted murine model. Results We observed that OP449 inhibited growth of CML cells including those from patients with blastic phase disease and patients harboring highly drug-resistant BCR-ABL1 mutations. Combined treatment with OP449 and ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors was significantly more cytotoxic to K562 cells and primary CD34+ CML cells. SET protein levels remained unchanged with OP449 treatment, but BCR-ABL1-mediated downstream signaling was significantly inhibited with the degradation of key signaling molecules such as BCR-ABL1, STAT5, and AKT. Similarly, AML cell lines and primary patient samples with various genetic lesions showed inhibition of cell growth after treatment with OP449 alone or in combination with respective kinase inhibitors. Finally, OP449 reduced the tumor burden of mice xenografted with human leukemia cells. Conclusions We demonstrate a novel therapeutic paradigm of SET antagonism using OP449 in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of CML and AML. PMID:24436473

  12. Mutational analysis of op18/stathmin-tubulin-interacting surfaces. Binding cooperativity controls tubulin GTP hydrolysis in the ternary complex.

    PubMed

    Segerman, B; Larsson, N; Holmfeldt, P; Gullberg, M

    2000-11-17

    Oncoprotein 18 (Op18) is a microtubule regulator that forms a ternary complex with two tubulin heterodimers. Dispersed regions of Op18 are involved in two-site cooperative binding and subsequent modulation of tubulin GTPase activity. Here we have analyzed specific determinants of Op18 that govern both stoichiometry and positive cooperativity in tubulin binding and consequent stimulatory and inhibitory effects on tubulin GTPase activity. The data revealed that the central and C-terminal regions of Op18 contain overlapping binding-motifs contacting both tubulin heterodimers, suggesting that these regions of Op18 are wedged into the previously noted 1-nm gap between the two longitudinally arranged tubulin heterodimers. Both the N- and C-terminal flanks adjacent to the central region are involved in stabilizing the ternary complex, but only the C-terminal flank does so by imposing positive binding cooperativity. Within the C-terminal flank, deletion of a 7-amino acid region attenuated positive binding cooperativity and resulted in a switch from stimulation to inhibition of tubulin GTP hydrolysis. This switch can be explained by attenuated binding cooperativity, because Op18 under these conditions may block longitudinal contact surfaces of single tubulins with consequent interference of tubulin-tubulin interaction-dependent GTP hydrolysis. Together, our results suggest that Op18 links two tubulin heterodimers via longitudinal contact surfaces to form a ternary GTPase productive complex.

  13. Influence of polychlorinated aromatic compounds on the biotransformation and toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides (OP) to the Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkopii, V.; Zagrebin, A.; Sherstneva, L.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of different polychlorinated aromatics (DDT, Aroclor 1254, certain polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans) on the toxicity of OP (DDVP paraoxon, malaoxon) to Daphnia magna was studied. Pretreatment of daphnids with chlorinated compounds during 72 hours in nontoxic concentrations (1/5--1/20 CL{sub 50}) has been shown to reduce the toxicity of OP for hydrobionts. For study of influence of chlorinated compounds on biotransformation of OP the activity of enzymes which are hydrolyzing the OP was investigated in Daphnia`s homogenates or microsomes. The activity of carboxylesterase (tributyrinase, aliesterase) and arylesterase (phosphorylphosphatase) with usage as substrates accordingly {alpha}-naphthylacetate and paraoxon was measured. Besides that the activity of cholinesterase with application of propionylthiocholine as substrate was determined. After polychlorinated aromatic compounds treatment of daphnids activities of both aryl-and carboxylesterase increased markedly. It decreased the inhibition of Daphnia`s cholinesterase caused by incubation with OP in concentrations 0.5--1.0 CL{sub 50}. Thus the induction by chlorinate aromatics of OP metabolizing enzymes seems to play the important role in reduction of OP toxicity to Daphnia magna. Perhaps the aryl- and carboxylesterase of Daphnia can be used as biomarkers of pollution by polychlorinated aromatics in water.

  14. Integration of a full co-op job experience (and direct job-placement) with an applied physics curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Daniel

    2002-03-01

    Kettering University, formerly GMI Engineering & Management Institute, is a fully co-operational private institution offering bachelor's degrees in engineering, applied science, and management. The Applied Physics degree program was established in 1995 and our current freshman class has 11 students. The program takes 5 years to complete, during which time students alternate between 11 weeks in the classroom and 11 weeks at a co-op job at one of over 600 companies at over 800 locations around the world. All students, including applied physics majors, are required to complete a minimum of five co-op terms in order to graduate. In addition, they are required to complete a senior thesis of benefit to their company, a project which usually takes about six months (two co-op terms). In this talk we will describe the co-op program as it currently exists at Kettering and summarize the co-op experiences of our current applied physics students and our recent graduates. We will discuss how our curriculum has been designed to take advantage of and support the co-op experience. In addition we will discuss some of the challenges our students and faculty have encountered in the process of finding co-op sponsors.

  15. Development and initial application of δ18Op to understand phosphorus cycling in river, lake and groundwater ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surridge, Ben; Gooddy, Daren; Newton, Rob; Moore, Oliver; Heaton, Timothy; Lapworth, Daniel; Davies, Ceri

    2014-05-01

    Variation in the stable isotope composition of oxygen within dissolved phosphate (δ18Op) represents a novel and potentially powerful environmental tracer. In freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, δ18Op can act as an inherent label for the sources of phosphorus and the extent to which phosphorus from different sources is metabolised. This paper focuses on the methodological development and initial application of δ18Op across a range of freshwater ecosystems. Initially, we report modifications to the analytical protocol for δ18Op that are designed to minimise incorporation of contaminant oxygen in the final silver phosphate precipitate prior to pyrolysis. This is critical given the range of possible sources of contaminant oxygen within freshwater matrices. Subsequently, we consider the potential utility of δ18Opthrough application of the technique within a range of freshwater ecosystems in England, UK. Firstly, we characterise δ18Opin river water and effluents from Sewage Treatment Works (STW), and examine the opportunity to use the δ18Op of STW effluents to trace the entry and downstream fate of phosphorus from these point sources in rivers. Secondly, we analyse δ18Opto gain insights into variations in the sources and biological cycling of phosphorus in a seasonally-stratified lake ecosystem. Thirdly, we characterise δ18Op in shallow and deep groundwater samples, considering whether δ18Op might provide evidence for variation in source and extent of metabolism for phosphorus in groundwater ecosystems. Taken together, these data extend the catalogue of δ18Op in freshwater ecosystems, and further the scope of δ18Op as a tool to better understand phosphorus biogeochemistry.

  16. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Thomas; Callantine, Todd; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The operational goal of the ATD-1 ConOps is to enable aircraft, using their onboard FMS capabilities, to fly Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from cruise to the runway threshold at a high-density airport, at a high throughput rate, using primarily speed control to maintain in-trail separation and the arrival schedule. The three technologies in the ATD-1 ConOps achieve this by calculating a precise arrival schedule, using controller decision support tools to provide terminal controllers with speeds for aircraft to fly to meet times at a particular meter points, and onboard software providing flight crews with speeds for the aircraft to fly to achieve a particular spacing behind preceding aircraft.

  17. System study of the carbon dioxide observational platform system (CO-OPS): Project overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. Briscoe; Thompson, Wilbur E.

    1987-01-01

    The resulting options from a system study for a near-space, geo-stationary, observational monitoring platform system for use in the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS) on the greenhouse effect are discussed. CO-OPS is being designed to operate continuously for periods of up to 3 months in quasi-fixed position over most global regional targets of interest and could make horizon observations over a land-sea area of circular diameter up to about 600 to 800 statute miles. This affords the scientific and engineering community a low-cost means of operating their payloads for monitoring the regional parameters they deem relevant to their investigations of the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect at one-tenth the cost of most currently utilized comparable remote sensing techniques.

  18. An Automated Medical Information Management System (OpScan-MIMS) in a Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, S.; Baker, T.G.; Ritchey, M.G.; Alterescu, S.; Friedman, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes an automated medical information management system within a clinic setting. The system includes an optically scanned data entry system (OpScan), a generalized, interactive retrieval and storage software system(Medical Information Management System, MIMS) and the use of time-sharing. The system has the advantages of minimal hardware purchase and maintenance, rapid data entry and retrieval, user-created programs, no need for user knowledge of computer language or technology and is cost effective. The OpScan-MIMS system has been operational for approximately 16 months in a sexually transmitted disease clinic. The system's application to medical audit, quality assurance, clinic management and clinical training are demonstrated.

  19. Microscopic cluster model analysis of 14O+p elastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baye, D.; Descouvemont, P.; Leo, F.

    2005-08-01

    The 14O+p elastic scattering is discussed in detail in a fully microscopic cluster model. The 14O cluster is described by a closed p shell for protons and a closed p3/2 subshell for neutrons in the translation-invariant harmonic-oscillator model. The exchange and spin-orbit parameters of the effective forces are tuned on the energy levels of the 15C mirror system. With the generator-coordinate and microscopic R-matrix methods, phase shifts and cross sections are calculated for the 14O+p elastic scattering. An excellent agreement is found with recent experimental data. A comparison is performed with phenomenological R-matrix fits. Resonances properties in 15F are discussed.

  20. Microscopic cluster model analysis of {sup 14}O+p elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Baye, D.; Descouvemont, P.; Leo, F.

    2005-08-01

    The {sup 14}O+p elastic scattering is discussed in detail in a fully microscopic cluster model. The {sup 14}O cluster is described by a closed p shell for protons and a closed p3/2 subshell for neutrons in the translation-invariant harmonic-oscillator model. The exchange and spin-orbit parameters of the effective forces are tuned on the energy levels of the {sup 15}C mirror system. With the generator-coordinate and microscopic R-matrix methods, phase shifts and cross sections are calculated for the {sup 14}O+p elastic scattering. An excellent agreement is found with recent experimental data. A comparison is performed with phenomenological R-matrix fits. Resonances properties in {sup 15}F are discussed.

  1. Did the Olympics need more drugs? a doctor's reflection on providing medical care during Op OLYMPICS.

    PubMed

    Monteiro de Barros, James; Ross, D A

    2014-09-01

    This paper examines some of the medical problems arising from the successful deployment of Defence Medical Services personnel to Op OLYMPICS (mid-June 2012-September 2012). It does not aim to be all encompassing in its scope, but focuses on the most pressing issues affecting a junior military doctor's ability to work effectively under field conditions. This will entail a discussion about whether in a deployment such as Op OLYMPICS medical care should be based upon offering solely primary healthcare in medical centres or using Role 1 medical treatment facilities, which include primary healthcare and pre-hospital emergency care. The main recommendations arising from the deployment are: clinicians should deploy with a minimum of basic emergency drugs and equipment; a medical facility treating a large population at risk for a prolonged period should have a broad stock of medications available on site; and medical risk assessments must be performed on all Reservists during mobilisation.

  2. SmeOP-TolCSm Efflux Pump Contributes to the Multidrug Resistance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Wen; Huang, Yi-Wei; Hu, Rouh-Mei

    2014-01-01

    A five-gene cluster, tolCSm-pcm-smeRo-smeO-smeP, of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was characterized. The presence of smeOP and smeRo-pcm-tolCSm operons was verified by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Both operons were negatively regulated by the TetR-type transcriptional regulator SmeRo, as demonstrated by quantitative RT-PCR and a promoter-fusion assay. SmeO and SmeP were associated with TolCSm (the TolC protein of S. maltophilia) for the assembly of a resistance-nodulation-cell-division (RND)-type pump. The compounds extruded by SmeOP-TolCSm mainly included nalidixic acid, doxycycline, amikacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, leucomycin, carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone, crystal violet, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and tetrachlorosalicylanilide. PMID:24395237

  3. Implementation of an OPS5 derivative on the Novix RISC processor

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    The recent popularity of rule-based programming and reduced instruction set computer (RISC) architectures has made the marriage of these two technologies an almost inevitable alternative for applying artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to real-time computing tasks. This paper presents an overview of the software development environment for a rule-based expert-system language based on OPS5 that was written specifically for the Novix NC4016 CPU.

  4. NASA KSC/AFRL Reusable Booster System (RBS) Concept of Operations (ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeno, Dnany; Mosteller, Ted; McCleskey, Carey; Jhnson, Robert; Hopkins, Jason; Miller, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study and findings of the study on the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for Reusable Booster System (RBS) centering on rapid turnaround and launch of a two-stage partially reusable payload delivery system (i.e., 8 hours between launches). The study was to develop rapid ground processing (aircraft like concepts) and identify areas for follow-on study, technology needs, and proof-of-concept demonstrations.

  5. Physical analysis and recalibration of MetOp HIRS using IASI for cloud studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruiyue; Cao, Changyong

    2012-02-01

    The HIRS long-wave CO2 channels (702 cm-1, 716.5 cm-1, 731.7 cm-1, and 748.8 cm-1) have been used by scientists for estimating cloud height and amount. However, spectral and radiometric biases in these HIRS channels significantly affect the accuracy and consistency of the level-1b data used. This study utilizes the MetOp IASI measurements to calibrate the long-wave CO2 channels of the HIRS on the same satellite. The radiance bias characteristics are displayed for a sample MetOp orbit. Detailed analysis is performed in an attempt to find the causes of the bias. The analysis consists of three steps. First, a thermal-equilibrium analysis of blackbody using the HIRS window channel reveals the blackbody of MetOp HIRS has a 0.14 K bias. Then, the effective Spectral Response Function (SRF) corrections are estimated for the three long-wave CO2 channels by minimizing the orbital bias variation, which is -0.13 cm-1 for channel 4, 0.09 cm-1 for channel 5, and -0.15 cm-1 for channel 7. Channel brightness temperature dynamic range is found to be important for separating SRF versus nonlinearity effects. Finally, the nonlinearity effect is evaluated and the nonlinearity term is derived to reduce the orbital mean biases toward zero. The improved radiometric and spectral recalibration parameters are validated using 16 months of independent MetOp data, with very positive results, showing consistent performance. It is found that the HIRS biases relative IASI are generally within 0.1 K after the recalibration.

  6. Generation of Recombinant Human AChE OP-Scavengers with Extended Circulatory Longevity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    glaucoma or myasthenia gravis (Taylor, 1990). Some organophosphorus (OP) inhibitors of ChEs such as malathion and diazinon, act as efficient...2000); site directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling together with kinetic studies of the 7 AChE muteins with substrates and reversible...of the individual lysine residues does not alter the kinetic performance of the enzyme. Based solely on this criterion, any of the lysine residues

  7. Northern Arabian Sea Circulation - Autonomous Research: Optimal Planning Systems (NASCar-OPS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Our long-term goal is to apply our theory and schemes for rigorous optimal path planning and persistent ocean sampling with swarms of autonomous...Autonomous Vehicles for Persistent Sampling. We plan to apply our theory and schemes for rigorous optimal path planning and persistent ocean sampling...pierrel@mit.edu Grant Number: N00014-15-1-2616 04/25/2015 - 09/30/2018 http://mseas.mit.edu/Research/NASCar-OPS/index.html LONG-TERM GOALS

  8. Cost-effective combination of contention resolution/avoidance schemes in bufferless slotted OPS networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahbar, Akbar Ghaffar Pour

    2009-03-01

    Contention is a major problem for Optical Packed Switched (OPS) networks. Many studies have shown that to obtain a very small optical packet loss rate, a large number of specific contention resolution or contention avoidance hardware must be used. However, this may not be so cost-effective. Instead of using the same technique to achieve a very low packet loss rate, the idea of this paper is to use the combination of different contention avoidance and contention resolution schemes, but using a lower amount of each scheme, to reduce packet loss rate in slotted bufferless OPS networks. A number of cost-effective contention resolution and avoidance schemes are studied in order to decrease traffic loss and increase TCP throughput as a result. Designing a multi-fiber architecture that uses inexpensive shared-per-node wavelength converters and additional drop-ports can significantly reduce network-wide traffic loss. The lost traffic can also be retransmitted in the optical domain in order to have a loss-free OPS network. A cost model is also provided to obtain cost-effective combinations of fibers, wavelength converters and drop ports under a desirable TCP throughput and investment on network hardware. The effectiveness of the combined contention avoidance and resolution schemes are demonstrated under Internet traffic.

  9. Evaluation of the Immunogenicity of Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugated to Salmonella Typhimurium-Derived OPS in a Mouse Model: A Potential Vaccine Candidate Against Salmonellosis

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Vahid; Kazemian, Hossein; Yamchi, Jalil Kardan; Feyisa, Seifu Gizaw; Aslani, Saeed; Shavalipour, Aref; Houri, Hamidreza; Hoorijani, Mohammadneshvan; Halaji, Mehrdad; Heidari, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) causes gastroenteritis in humans and paratyphoid disease in some animals. Given the emergence of antibiotic resistance, vaccines are more effective than chemotherapy in disease control. Objectives The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the immunogenicity of diphtheria toxoid (DT) conjugated with S. Typhimurium -derived OPS (O side chain isolation) in mice to determine its potential as a vaccine candidate against salmonellosis. Materials and Methods Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was extracted from the bacterial strain. After isolation of the O side chain of LPS, detoxification, and conjugation of the detoxified OPS samples with DT, pyrogenicity, toxicity, and sterility tests were performed. To vaccination, four groups of female Balb/c mice were used in an immunization test. Antibody responses were measured by the ELISA method. Challenging processes were performed to analyze the efficacy of the OPS-DT compound. Results Two weeks after the first vaccination dose, there was no significant difference in the antibody titers of the OPS and OPS-DT groups. However, after the second and third doses, the antibody titers of the OPS-DT group increased significantly compared with those of the control groups (P < 0.001). The induction of anti-OPS antibodies was as follows: OPS-DT>OPS. The most anti-OPS IgG antibody was IgG1. Challenging procedure showed successful protective characteristics in clinical examinations. Conclusions The results indicated that DT increased anti-OPS antibodies against the OPS-DT compound. The antibody response to OPS-DT was greater than that to OPS alone. We conclude that OPS-DT is an appropriate and acceptable vaccine candidate against salmonellosis. PMID:27660722

  10. Flight Dynamics Performances of the MetOp A Satellite during the First Months of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righetti, Pier Luigi; Meixner, Hilda; Sancho, Francisco; Damiano, Antimo; Lazaro, David

    2007-01-01

    The 19th of October 2006 at 16:28 UTC the first MetOp satellite (MetOp A) was successfully launched from the Baykonur cosmodrome by a Soyuz/Fregat launcher. After only three days of LEOP operations, performed by ESOC, the satellite was handed over to EUMETSAT, who is since then taking care of all satellite operations. MetOp A is the first European operational satellite for meteorology flying in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO), all previous satellites operated by EUMETSAT, belonging to the METEOSAT family, being located in the Geo-stationary orbit. To ensure safe operations for a LEO satellite accurate and continuous commanding from ground of the on-board AOCS is required. That makes the operational transition at the end of the LEOP quite challenging, as the continuity of the Flight Dynamics operations is to be maintained. That means that the main functions of the Flight Dynamics have to be fully validated on-flight during the LEOP, before taking over the operational responsibility on the spacecraft, and continuously monitored during the entire mission. Due to the nature of a meteorological operational mission, very stringent requirements in terms of overall service availability (99 % of the collected data), timeliness of processing of the observation data (3 hours after sensing) and accuracy of the geo-location of the meteorological products (1 km) are to be fulfilled. That translates in tight requirements imposed to the Flight Dynamics facility (FDF) in terms of accuracy, timeliness and availability of the generated orbit and clock solutions; a detailed monitoring of the quality of these products is thus mandatory. Besides, being the accuracy of the image geo-location strongly related with the pointing performance of the platform and with the on-board timing stability, monitoring from ground of the behaviour of the on-board sensors and clock is needed. This paper presents an overview of the Flight Dynamics operations performed during the different phases of the MetOp A

  11. Op. Cit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    The fundamental concern of the roundtable on which this essay is based was the world of scholarship's ability to sustain and develop a system of scholarly communication that makes individual contributions to the knowledge base broadly accessible for judgment within and among the academic disciplines. The focus was on the disciplines that have…

  12. Upregulated Op18/stathmin activity causes chromosomal instability through a mechanism that evades the spindle assembly checkpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Holmfeldt, Per; Sellin, Mikael E.; Gullberg, Martin

    2010-07-15

    Op18/stathmin (Op18) is a microtubule-destabilizing protein that is phosphorylation-inactivated during mitosis and its normal function is to govern tubulin subunit partitioning during interphase. Human tumors frequently overexpress Op18 and a tumor-associated Q18{yields}E mutation has been identified that confers hyperactivity, destabilizes spindle microtubules, and causes mitotic aberrancies, polyploidization, and chromosome loss in K562 leukemia cells. Here we determined whether wild-type and mutant Op18 have the potential to cause chromosomal instability by some means other than interference with spindle assembly, and thereby bypassing the spindle assembly checkpoint. Our approach was based on Op18 derivatives with distinct temporal order of activity during mitosis, conferred either by differential phosphorylation inactivation or by anaphase-specific degradation through fusion with the destruction box of cyclin B1. We present evidence that excessive Op18 activity generates chromosomal instability through interference occurring subsequent to the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, which reduces the fidelity of chromosome segregation to spindle poles during anaphase. Similar to uncorrected merotelic attachment, this mechanism evades detection by the spindle assembly checkpoint and thus provides an additional route to chromosomal instability.

  13. Numerical modeling of open pit (OP) to underground (UG) transition in coal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Phu Minh Vuong; Niedbalski, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective of the present paper is an attempt at evaluating the influence of sub-level caving operations on the slope stability of a still-functioning open pit coal mine in Vietnam. Initially, various methods of predicting the impact of underground mining on surface stability are discussed. Those theoretical considerations were later utilized in the process of constructing a Flac-2D-software-based numerical model for calculating the influence of underground operation on the deformation and possible loss of stability of an open pit slope. The numerical analysis proved that the values of open pit slope displacements were affected mainly by underground exploitation depth, direction of operation (i.e., from one slope to the other) and the distance from the slope plane. Real geomechanical strata parameters from the Vietnamese coal basin of Cam Pha were used in the modeling process. The paper is, therefore, a critical review of the hitherto proposed methods of predicting the impact of underground operation (UG) on open pit mining (OP), illustrated with selected examples of case studies on OP-UG interaction, followed by an original experiment based on numerical modeling method. This is first such study for the genuine conditions of the coal mining in Vietnam. The obtained results, however, should not be generalized due to a highly specific character of the analyzed phenomenon of mining-induced surface deformation. The practical implications of the study may occur extremely useful in the case of an UG-OP transition. Such a transition is often necessary for both technical and economical reasons, as in some coal basins open pit operations at greater depths occur unfeasible, which calls for a proper selection of parameters for a planned underground operation.

  14. "Keeping our mission, changing our system": translation and organizational change in natural foods co-ops.

    PubMed

    Haedicke, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Institutional theory has played a central role in the study of organizations for over half a century, but it often overlooks the actions of the people who bring organizations to life. This article advances an inhabited approach to institutional analysis that foregrounds the creativity of organizational members. It argues that people use local cultures to translate and respond to institutional pressures. The article analyzes qualitative data from countercultural co-op stores that have been pushed to conform to mainstream forms of business organization by a competitive market and demonstrates that translation explains why outcomes that institutional theory would not predict have come to pass.

  15. NASA's Participation in Joint SatOPS Compatibility Efforts 2009-2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Danford

    2010-01-01

    Many U.S. government organizations build or fly space systems: a) NASA, NOAA, Navy, Air Force, NRO, ORS. Others? b) Through the Joint SatOps Compatibility Committee (JSCC) we have increased the grass-roots interaction between many of these organizations. c) We all deal with many of the same challenges: More rapid deployments, lower budgets; Advancing technologies - frameworks, clouds, virtualization; Evolving concepts - automation, situational awareness, enterprise mngt. Standardization - formal or by common use. There is an inherently governmental role in creating the business case for contractors and commercial product vendors to move in directions beneficial to multiple government space organizations.

  16. Excitation Function for the 74Se(18O,p3n) Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, Jacklyn; Dragojevic, Irena; Dvorak, Jan; Ellison, Paul; Gregorich, Kenneth; Stavsetra, Liv; Nitsche, Heino

    2009-02-02

    The 74Se(18O,p3n)88gNb excitation function was measured and a maximum cross section of 495+-5 mb was observed at and 18O energy of 74.0 MeV. Experimental cross sections were compared to theoretical calculations using the computer code ALICE-91 and the values were found to be in good agreement. The half life of 88gNb was determined to be around 14.56+-0.11 min.

  17. T-cell differentiation of multipotent hematopoietic cell line EML in the OP9-DL1 coculture system

    PubMed Central

    Kutleša, Snježana; Zayas, Jennifer; Valle, Alexandra; Levy, Robert B.; Jurecic, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Objective Multipotent hematopoietic cell line EML can differentiate into myeloid, erythroid, megakaryocytic, and B-lymphoid lineages, but it remained unknown whether EML cells have T-cell developmental potential as well. The goal of this study was to determine whether the coculture with OP9 stromal cells expressing Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (OP9-DL1) could induce differentiation of EML cells into T-cell lineage. Materials and Methods EML cells were cocultured with control OP9 or OP9-DL1 stromal cells in the presence of cytokines (stem cell factor, interleukin-7, and Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand). Their T-cell lineage differentiation was assessed through flow cytometry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction expression analysis of cell surface markers and genes characterizing and associated with specific stages of T-cell development. Results The phenotypic, molecular, and functional analysis has revealed that in EML/OP9-DL1 cocultures with cytokines, but not in control EML/OP9 cocultures, EML cell line undergoes T-cell lineage commitment and differentiation. In OP9-DL1 cocultures, EML cell line has differentiated into cells that 1) resembled double-negative, double-positive, and single-positive stages of T-cell development; 2) initiated expression of GATA-3, Pre-Tα, RAG-1, and T-cell receptor – Vβ genes; and 3) produced interferon-γ in response to T-cell receptor stimulation. Conclusions These results support the notion that EML cell line has the capacity for T-cell differentiation. Remarkably, induction of T-lineage gene expression and differentiation of EML cells into distinct stages of T-cell development were very similar to previously described T-cell differentiation of adult hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors in OP9-DL1 cocultures. Thus, EML/OP9-DL1 coculture could be a useful experimental system to study the role of particular genes in T-cell lineage specification, commitment, and differentiation. PMID:19447159

  18. Virtual microscopy in medical research: Open European Nephrology Science Center (OpEN.SC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Thomas; Beil, Michael; Schmidt, Danilo; Dietel, Manfred; Lindemann, Gabriela

    2007-03-01

    The amount and heterogeneity of data in biomedical research, notably in transnational research, requires new methods for the collection, presentation and analysis of information. Important data from laboratory experiments as well as patient trials are available as images. Thus, the integration and processing of image data represent a crucial component of information systems in biomedical research. The Charité Medical School in Berlin has established a new information service center for kidney diseases and transplantation (Open European Nephrology Science Centre - OpEN.SC) together with the German Research Agency (DFG). The aims of this project are (i) to improve the availability of raw data, (ii) to establish an infrastructure for clinical trials, (iii) to monitor the occurrence of rare disease patterns and (iv) to establish a quality assurance system. Major diagnostic procedures in medicine are based on the processing and analysis of image data. In diagnostic pathology, the availability of automated slide scanners provide the opportunity to digitize entire microscopic slides. The processing, presentation and analysis of these image data are called virtual microscopy. The integration of this new technology into the OpEN.SC system and the link to other heterogeneous data of individual patients represent a major technological challenge. Thus, new ways in communication between clinical and scientific partners have to be established and will be promoted by the project. The technological basis of the repository are web services for a scalable and adaptable system. HL7 and DICOM are considered the main medical standards of communication.

  19. Synergistic effect of mixed neutron and gamma irradiation in bipolar operational amplifier OP07

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liu; Wei, Chen; Shanchao, Yang; Xiaoming, Jin; Chaohui, He

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the synergistic effects in bipolar operational amplifier OP07. The radiation effects are studied by neutron beam, gamma ray, and mixed neutron/gamma ray environments. The characterateristics of the synergistic effects are studied through comparison of different experiment results. The results show that the bipolar operational amplifier OP07 exhibited significant synergistic effects in the mixed neutron and gamma irradiation. The bipolar transistor is identified as the most radiation sensitive unit of the operational amplifier. In this paper, a series of simulations are performed on bipolar transistors in different radiation environments. In the theoretical simulation, the geometric model and calculations based on the Medici toolkit are built to study the radiation effects in bipolar components. The effect of mixed neutron and gamma irradiation is simulated based on the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of radiation effects in bipolar transistors. The simulated results agree well with the experimental data. The results of the experiments and simulation indicate that the radiation effects in the bipolar devices subjected to mixed neutron and gamma environments is not a simple combination of total ionizing dose (TID) effects and displacement damage. The data suggests that the TID effect could enhance the displacement damage. The synergistic effect should not be neglected in complex radiation environments.

  20. Organic waste composting at the Semple Street Co-op. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Accomplishments in the development of a vermiculture room are described. The purpose of the project is to develop an earthworm composting system for processing organic (food) wastes. The composting room in its completed form consists of an insulated room with exterior access, a utility tub, a grinder and racks to accommodate earthworm pans. As of now, the earthworms are being fed regularly, and are increasing in numbers. The responsibility of finding and scheduling volunteers for feeding has come under the wing of the regular co-op volunteer coordinator and has been institutionalized into the co-op's operations. The present population of earthworms is approximately 10,000, a sufficient number to process one day's organic waste, one day a week. It will require no more than 60,000 earthworms to compost all of the organic waste at the current level of waste generation. At a distribution of 1000 to 2000 worms per pan, it is estimated that the project will operate in its full capacity with between 30 and 60 pans.

  1. La fasciite nécrosante post opératoire: une complication rare et mortelle

    PubMed Central

    Ghezala, Hassen Ben; Feriani, Najla

    2016-01-01

    Les complications pariétales post opératoire peuvent être exceptionnellement majeures et graves menaçant le pronostic vital. La fasciite nécrosante est une infection rare de la peau et des tissus sous-cutanés profonds, se propageant le long des fascias et du tissu adipeux. Elle est surtout causée par le streptocoque du groupe A Streptococcus pyogènes mais également par d'autres bactéries telles que Vibrio vulnificus, clostridium perfringens ou Bacteroides fragilis. La fasciite nécrosante est une véritable urgence médicochirurgicale. Nous rapportons dans ce travail une observation très rare d'une gangrène pariétale abdominale survenant chez une patiente de 75 ans au cinquième jour post-opératoire d'un kyste de l'ovaire. L’évolution était marquée par l'installation d'un état de choc septique réfractaire rapidement fatal à J3 de la prise en charge. PMID:27279950

  2. In ovo exposure to o,p -DDE affects sexual development but not sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papoulias, D.M.; Villalobos, Sergio A.; Meadows, J.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Giesy, J.P.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Despite being banned in many countries, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) continue to be found in fish tissues at concentrations of concern. Like o,p -DDT, o,p -DDE is estrogenic and is believed to exert its effects through binding to the estrogen receptor. The limited toxicologic data for o,p -DDE suggest that it decreases fecundity and fertility of fishes. We conducted an egg injection study using the d-rR strain of medaka and environmentally relevant concentrations of o,p -DDE to examine its effects on sexual differentiation and development. The gonads of exposed fish showed no evidence of sex reversal or intersex. However, other gonad abnormalities occurred in exposed individuals. Females exhibited few vitellogenic oocytes and increased atresia. Male testes appeared morphologically normal but were very small. Gonadosomatic index values for both sexes were lower for exposed fish. Our observations of abnormal female and very small male gonads after in ovo o,p -DDE exposure may be indicative of effects on early endocrine processes important for normal ovarian and testicular development.

  3. Comparison among Op-site, polyvinyl chloride film and tulle gauze in the treatment of skin graft donor sitet.

    PubMed

    Poonyakariyagorn, Theerapong; Sirimaharaj, Wimon; Pinchai, Opart; Angspatt, Apichai

    2002-04-01

    A prospective analytic study was performed at the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, King Chulalongkorn Memorial University Hospital and the Department of Surgery, Chiang Mai University Hospital to compare among Polyvinyl chloride film (PVC film), Op-site and tulle gauze in the treatment of skin graft donor site. From October 1998 to January 2000, 81 donor sites in the same number of patients were treated by three different methods; tulle gauze (26 patients), Op-site (27 patients) and PVC film (28 patients). Each wound was followed until it was completely healed and visual analogue scale was used for pain evaluation. Donor site dressed with PVC film had a healing time of 10.44 days which was not different from Op-site (10.54 days) but significantly faster (p<0.001) than tulle gauze (17.84 days). Pain as measured with visual analogue scale in the group of PVC film (1.48) was not different from Op-site (1.34) but significantly less than (p<0.001) tulle gauze (5.45). There was no difference in the rate of infection between each group. In conclusion, the authors found no difference between Op-site and PVC film in healing time and pain. Both of them were better than tulle gauze. The results demonstrate the usefulness of PVC film as a donor site dressing as it promises relatively rapid healing, less pain and is inexpensive.

  4. A novel all-optical label processing for OPS networks based on multiple OOC sequences from multiple-groups OOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Kun; Zhang, Chongfu; Ling, Yun; Wang, Yibo

    2007-11-01

    This paper proposes an all-optical label processing scheme using multiple optical orthogonal codes sequences (MOOCS) for optical packet switching (OPS) (MOOCS-OPS) networks, for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In this scheme, the multiple optical orthogonal codes (MOOC) from multiple-groups optical orthogonal codes (MGOOC) are permuted and combined to obtain the MOOCS for the optical labels, which are used to effectively enlarge the capacity of available optical codes for optical labels. The optical label processing (OLP) schemes are reviewed and analyzed, the principles of MOOCS-based optical labels for OPS networks are given, and analyzed, then the MOOCS-OPS topology and the key realization units of the MOOCS-based optical label packets are studied in detail, respectively. The performances of this novel all-optical label processing technology are analyzed, the corresponding simulation is performed. These analysis and results show that the proposed scheme can overcome the lack of available optical orthogonal codes (OOC)-based optical labels due to the limited number of single OOC for optical label with the short code length, and indicate that the MOOCS-OPS scheme is feasible.

  5. Assessing Protection Against OP Pesticides and Nerve Agents Provided by Wild-Type HuPON1 Purified from Trichoplusia ni Larvae or Induced via Adenoviral Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and nerve agents. We assessed the potential of this enzyme to protect against OP poison - ing using two different paradigms...6,10–13]. PON1 is believed to play an important role in determining the resistance or susceptibility to OP pesticide poisoning , in that PON1 knockout...type nerve agent are inadequate to protect against poisoning by these compounds [17,18]. In contrast, injection of exogenous wild-type HuPON1 has

  6. Temperature dependence of o-Ps annihilation lifetime in non-uniform cylindrical pores in comparison with ETE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaghani, Morteza; Mehmandoost-Khajeh-Dad, Ali Akbar

    2017-04-01

    Ortho-positronium (o-Ps) annihilation lifetime was calculated in non-uniform cylinder-shaped pores by solving Schrodinger equation using a well-known multi-physics program called COMSOL. The o-Ps annihilation lifetime variation in terms of temperature was calculated on the basis of ETE model via a numerical method. The COMSOL simulations indicate that as long as the pore is uniform cylinder-shaped, the results agree with those of two-dimensional ETE model, whereas deformations in the cylinder shape (indentation or protrusion) change the temperature behavior of ETE model and, thereby, higher values are predicted for o-Ps lifetime in the pore at lower temperatures. The geometry of the non-uniform cylinder-shaped pores, which is accompanied by empirical evidence, can be used for the analysis of empirical results obtained from positron lifetime spectroscopy in different temperatures.

  7. Phylogeny and physiology of candidate phylum 'Atribacteria' (OP9/JS1) inferred from cultivation-independent genomics.

    PubMed

    Nobu, Masaru K; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Murugapiran, Senthil K; Rinke, Christian; Gies, Esther A; Webster, Gordon; Schwientek, Patrick; Kille, Peter; Parkes, R John; Sass, Henrik; Jørgensen, Bo B; Weightman, Andrew J; Liu, Wen-Tso; Hallam, Steven J; Tsiamis, George; Woyke, Tanja; Hedlund, Brian P

    2016-02-01

    The 'Atribacteria' is a candidate phylum in the Bacteria recently proposed to include members of the OP9 and JS1 lineages. OP9 and JS1 are globally distributed, and in some cases abundant, in anaerobic marine sediments, geothermal environments, anaerobic digesters and reactors and petroleum reservoirs. However, the monophyly of OP9 and JS1 has been questioned and their physiology and ecology remain largely enigmatic due to a lack of cultivated representatives. Here cultivation-independent genomic approaches were used to provide a first comprehensive view of the phylogeny, conserved genomic features and metabolic potential of members of this ubiquitous candidate phylum. Previously available and heretofore unpublished OP9 and JS1 single-cell genomic data sets were used as recruitment platforms for the reconstruction of atribacterial metagenome bins from a terephthalate-degrading reactor biofilm and from the monimolimnion of meromictic Sakinaw Lake. The single-cell genomes and metagenome bins together comprise six species- to genus-level groups that represent most major lineages within OP9 and JS1. Phylogenomic analyses of these combined data sets confirmed the monophyly of the 'Atribacteria' inclusive of OP9 and JS1. Additional conserved features within the 'Atribacteria' were identified, including a gene cluster encoding putative bacterial microcompartments that may be involved in aldehyde and sugar metabolism, energy conservation and carbon storage. Comparative analysis of the metabolic potential inferred from these data sets revealed that members of the 'Atribacteria' are likely to be heterotrophic anaerobes that lack respiratory capacity, with some lineages predicted to specialize in either primary fermentation of carbohydrates or secondary fermentation of organic acids, such as propionate.

  8. Recombinant human TAT-OP1 to enhance NGF neurogenic potential: preliminary studies on PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Di Liddo, R; Grandi, C; Venturini, M; Dalzoppo, D; Negro, A; Conconi, M T; Parnigotto, P P

    2010-11-01

    Osteogenic protein 1 (OP1), also known as bone morphogenic protein-7 (BMP7), is a multifunctional cytokine with demonstrated neurogenic potential. As the recombinant OP1 (rhOP1) was shown to provide axonal guidance cues and to prevent the reduction of dendritic growth in the injury-induced cortical cultures, it was suggested that an in vivo efficient rhOP1 delivery could enhance neurite growth and functional reconnectivity in the damaged brain. In the present work, we engineered a chimeric molecule in which rhBMP7 was fused to a protein transduction domain derived from HIV-1 TAT protein to deliver the denatured recombinant BMP7 into cells and obtain its chaperone-mediated folding, circumventing the expensive and not much efficient in vitro refolding procedures. When tested on rat PC12 cells, a widely used in vitro neurogenic differentiation model, the resulting fusion protein (rhTAT-OP1) demonstrated to enter fastly into the cells, lose HIV-TAT sequence and interact with membrane receptors activating BMP pathway by SMAD 1/5/8 phosphorylation. In comparison with nerve growth factor (NGF) and BMP7, it proved itself effective to induce the formation of more organized H and M neurofilaments. Moreover, if used in combination with NGF, it stimulated a significant (P < 0.05) and more precocious dendritic outgrowth with respect to NGF alone. These results indicate that rhTAT-OP1 fused with TAT transduction domain shows neurogenic activity and may be a promising enhancer factor in NGF-based therapies.

  9. Phylogeny and physiology of candidate phylum ‘Atribacteria' (OP9/JS1) inferred from cultivation-independent genomics

    PubMed Central

    Nobu, Masaru K; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Murugapiran, Senthil K; Rinke, Christian; Gies, Esther A; Webster, Gordon; Schwientek, Patrick; Kille, Peter; Parkes, R John; Sass, Henrik; Jørgensen, Bo B; Weightman, Andrew J; Liu, Wen-Tso; Hallam, Steven J; Tsiamis, George; Woyke, Tanja; Hedlund, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    The ‘Atribacteria' is a candidate phylum in the Bacteria recently proposed to include members of the OP9 and JS1 lineages. OP9 and JS1 are globally distributed, and in some cases abundant, in anaerobic marine sediments, geothermal environments, anaerobic digesters and reactors and petroleum reservoirs. However, the monophyly of OP9 and JS1 has been questioned and their physiology and ecology remain largely enigmatic due to a lack of cultivated representatives. Here cultivation-independent genomic approaches were used to provide a first comprehensive view of the phylogeny, conserved genomic features and metabolic potential of members of this ubiquitous candidate phylum. Previously available and heretofore unpublished OP9 and JS1 single-cell genomic data sets were used as recruitment platforms for the reconstruction of atribacterial metagenome bins from a terephthalate-degrading reactor biofilm and from the monimolimnion of meromictic Sakinaw Lake. The single-cell genomes and metagenome bins together comprise six species- to genus-level groups that represent most major lineages within OP9 and JS1. Phylogenomic analyses of these combined data sets confirmed the monophyly of the ‘Atribacteria' inclusive of OP9 and JS1. Additional conserved features within the ‘Atribacteria' were identified, including a gene cluster encoding putative bacterial microcompartments that may be involved in aldehyde and sugar metabolism, energy conservation and carbon storage. Comparative analysis of the metabolic potential inferred from these data sets revealed that members of the ‘Atribacteria' are likely to be heterotrophic anaerobes that lack respiratory capacity, with some lineages predicted to specialize in either primary fermentation of carbohydrates or secondary fermentation of organic acids, such as propionate. PMID:26090992

  10. Ortho-7 bound to the active-site gorge of free and OP-conjugated acetylcholinesterase: cation-π interactions.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Arup Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Tusar

    2016-01-01

    Despite the immense importance of cation-π interactions prevailing in bispyridinium drug acetylcholinesterase (AChE) complexes, a precise description of cation-π interactions at molecular level has remained elusive. Here, we consider a bispyridinium drug, namely, ortho-7 in three different structures of AChE, with and without complexation with organophosphorus (OP) compounds for detailed investigation using all atom molecular dynamics simulation. By quantum mechanical calculations, Y72, W86, Y124, W286, Y337, and Y341 aromatic residues of the enzyme are investigated for possible cation-π interactions with ortho-7. The cation-π interactions in each of the protein-drug complexes are studied using distance, angle, a suitable functional form of them, and electrostatic criteria. The variation of cation-π functional is remarkably consistent with that of the Columbic variation. It is clearly observed that cation-π interactions for some of the residues in the catalytic active site (CAS) and peripheral anionic site (PAS) of the enzyme are either enhanced or reduced based on the nature of OP conjugation (i.e., nerve gas, tabun or pesticide, fenamiphos) when compared with the OP-free enzyme. The strength of cation-π interaction is strongly dependent on the type OP conjugation. The effect of conjugation at CAS is also seen to influence the cation-π interaction at the PAS region. The variation of cation-π interactions on the type of conjugating OP compounds might be suggestive of a reason as to why wide spectrum drug against any OP poisoning is yet to arrive in the market.

  11. Charge carrier mobility and electronic properties of Al(Op)3: impact of excimer formation

    PubMed Central

    Friederich, Pascal; Schäfer, Bernhard; Fattori, Valeria; Sun, Xiangnan; Strunk, Timo; Meded, Velimir; Hueso, Luis E; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Ruben, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Summary We have studied the electronic properties and the charge carrier mobility of the organic semiconductor tris(1-oxo-1H-phenalen-9-olate)aluminium(III) (Al(Op)3) both experimentally and theoretically. We experimentally estimated the HOMO and LUMO energy levels to be −5.93 and −3.26 eV, respectively, which were close to the corresponding calculated values. Al(Op)3 was successfully evaporated onto quartz substrates and was clearly identified in the absorption spectra of both the solution and the thin film. A structured steady state fluorescence emission was detected in solution, whereas a broad, red-shifted emission was observed in the thin film. This indicates the formation of excimers in the solid state, which is crucial for the transport properties. The incorporation of Al(Op)3 into organic thin film transistors (TFTs) was performed in order to measure the charge carrier mobility. The experimental setup detected no electron mobility, while a hole mobility between 0.6 × 10−6 and 2.1 × 10−6 cm2·V−1·s−1 was measured. Theoretical simulations, on the other hand, predicted an electron mobility of 9.5 × 10−6 cm2·V−1·s−1 and a hole mobility of 1.4 × 10−4 cm2·V−1·s−1. The theoretical simulation for the hole mobility predicted an approximately one order of magnitude higher hole mobility than was observed in the experiment, which is considered to be in good agreement. The result for the electron mobility was, on the other hand, unexpected, as both the calculated electron mobility and chemical common sense (based on the capability of extended aromatic structures to efficiently accept and delocalize additional electrons) suggest more robust electron charge transport properties. This discrepancy is explained by the excimer formation, whose inclusion in the multiscale simulation workflow is expected to bring the theoretical simulation and experiment into agreement. PMID:26171287

  12. Neoclassical calculations for W7-X OP1.1 parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landreman, Matt; Alonso, A.; Beidler, C. D.; Bozhenkov, S.; Dinklage, A.; Fuchert, G.; Geiger, J.; Hirsch, M.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Langenberg, A.; Maassberg, H.; Mollén, A.; Pablant, N.; Pasch, E.; Satake, S.; Smith, H. M.; Traverso, P.; Turkin, Y.; Valson, P.; Velasco, J. L.; Windisch, T.; Zhang, D.; W7-X Team

    2016-10-01

    Neoclassical calculations are carried out for W7-X OP1.1 plasmas with the SFINCS code, using experimental profiles of ne, Te, and Ti. An electron root solution is found in the inner part of the plasma, consistent with measurements. Calculations are performed using a variety of assumptions for the plasma's impurity composition. Impurities modestly reduce the bootstrap current, and if a flat Zeff profile is assumed, the impurity particle flux profile resembles the Er profile due to dominance of the associated thermodynamic force. Variations of quantities on flux surfaces computed with SFINCS are also presented. The incompressible-ExB approximation is found to be quite accurate for W7-X parameters.

  13. Modifications to the NASA Ames Space Station Proximity Operations (PROX OPS) Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brody, Adam

    1988-01-01

    As the United States is approaching an operational space station era, flight simulators are required to investigate human design and performance aspects associated with orbital operations. Among these are proximity operations (PROX OPS), those activities occurring within a 1-km sphere of Space Station including rendezvous, docking, rescue, and repair. The Space Station Proximity Operations Simulator at NASA Ames Research Center was modified to provide the capability for investigations into human performance aspects of proximity operations. Accurate flight equations of motion were installed to provide the appropriate visual scene to test subjects performing simulated missions. Also, the flight control system was enhanced by enabling pilot control over thruster acceleration values. Currently, research is under way to examine human performance in a variety of mission scenarios.

  14. Hearing Pygmalion's Kiss: A Scientific Object at the Paris Opéra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    In 1748, in his acte de ballet Pygmalion, composer and music theorist Jean-Philippe Rameau arranged the Paris Opéra orchestra to play "nature's chord," harmonies that reproduced the overtones an expert ear could detect in every natural musical vibrating body. The following year Rameau presented his music theory to the French Royal Academy of Sciences for their endorsement. Disillusionment with the promise of Cartesian mechanics as a source of a unified understanding of nature opened up the possibility that matter might have properties beyond extension and motion, such as aversion, desire, and memory. Speculations about this material sensibility also coincided with increasing claims about the authority of spontaneous emotion and feeling. The experience of music at the opera was a significant resource for claims about the cultural authority of sensibility.

  15. OpaR Controls a Network of Downstream Transcription Factors in Vibrio parahaemolyticus BB22OP

    PubMed Central

    Kernell Burke, Alison; Guthrie, Leah T. C.; Modise, Thero; Cormier, Guy; Jensen, Roderick V.; McCarter, Linda L.; Stevens, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an emerging world-wide human pathogen that is associated with food-borne gastroenteritis when raw or undercooked seafood is consumed. Expression of virulence factors in this organism is modulated by the phenomenon known as quorum sensing, which permits differential gene regulation at low versus high cell density. The master regulator of quorum sensing in V. parahaemolyticus is OpaR. OpaR not only controls virulence factor gene expression, but also the colony and cellular morphology associated with growth on a surface and biofilm formation. Whole transcriptome Next Generation sequencing (RNA-Seq) was utilized to determine the OpaR regulon by comparing strains BB22OP (opaR+, LM5312) and BB22TR (∆opaR1, LM5674). This work, using the published V. parahaemolyticus BB22OP genome sequence, confirms and expands upon a previous microarray analysis for these two strains that used an Affymetrix GeneChip designed from the closely related V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633 genome sequence. Overall there was excellent correlation between the microarray and RNA-Seq data. Eleven transcription factors under OpaR control were identified by both methods and further confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. Nine of these transcription factors were demonstrated to be direct OpaR targets via in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assays with purified hexahistidine-tagged OpaR. Identification of the direct and indirect targets of OpaR, including small RNAs, will enable the construction of a network map of regulatory interactions important for the switch between the nonpathogenic and pathogenic states. PMID:25901572

  16. Mechanism of interaction of novel uncharged, centrally active reactivators with OP-hAChE conjugates.

    PubMed

    Radić, Zoran; Sit, Rakesh K; Garcia, Edzna; Zhang, Limin; Berend, Suzana; Kovarik, Zrinka; Amitai, Gabriel; Fokin, Valery V; Barry Sharpless, K; Taylor, Palmer

    2013-03-25

    A library of more than 200 novel uncharged oxime reactivators was used to select and refine lead reactivators of human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) covalently conjugated with sarin, cyclosarin, VX, paraoxon and tabun. N-substituted 2-hydroxyiminoacetamido alkylamines were identified as best reactivators and reactivation kinetics of the lead oximes, RS41A and RS194B, were analyzed in detail. Compared to reference pyridinium reactivators, 2PAM and MMB4, molecular recognition of RS41A reflected in its Kox constant was compromised by an order of magnitude on average for different OP-hAChE conjugates, without significant differences in the first order maximal phosphorylation rate constant k(2). Systematic structural modifications of the RS41A lead resulted in several-fold improvement with reactivator, RS194B. Kinetic analysis indicated K(ox) reduction for RS194B as the main kinetic constant leading to efficient reactivation. Subtle structural modifications of RS194B were used to identify essential determinants for efficient reactivation. Computational molecular modeling of RS41A and RS194B interactions with VX inhibited hAChE, bound reversibly in Michaelis type complex and covalently in the pentacoordinate reaction intermediate suggests that the faster reactivation reaction is a consequence of a tighter RS194B interactions with hAChE peripheral site (PAS) residues, in particular with D74, resulting in lower interaction energies for formation of both the binding and reactivation states. Desirable in vitro reactivation properties of RS194B, when coupled with its in vivo pharmacokinetics and disposition in the body, reveal the potential of this oxime design as promising centrally and peripherally active antidotes for OP toxicity.

  17. The ISS as a Testbed for Future Large Astronomical Observatories: The OpTIIX Demonstration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdick, G.; Callen, P.; Ess, K.; Liu, F.; Postman, M.; Sparks, W.; Seery, B.; Thronson, H.

    2012-01-01

    Future large (diameters in excess of approx. 10 m) astronomical observatories in space will need to employ advanced technologies if they are to be affordable. Many of these technologies are ready to be validated on orbit and the International Space Station (ISS) provides a suitable platform for such demonstrations. These technologies include low-cost, low-density, highly deformable mirror segments, coupled with advanced sensing and control methods. In addition, the ISS offers available telerobotic assembly techniques to build an optical testbed that embodies this new cost-effective approach to assemble and achieve diffraction-limited optical performance for very large space telescopes. Given the importance that NASA attaches to the recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences "Decadal Survey" process, essential capabilities and technologies will be demonstrated well in advance of the next Survey, which commences in 2019. To achieve this objective, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) are carrying out a Phase A/B study of the Optical Testbed and Integration on ISS eXperiment (OpTIIX). The overarching goal is to demonstrate well before the end of this decade key capabilities intended to enable very large optical systems in the decade of the 2020s. Such a demonstration will retire technical risk in the assembly, alignment, calibration, and operation of future space observatories. The OpTIIX system, as currently designed, is a six-hexagon element, segmented visual-wavelength telescope with an edge-to-edge aperture of 1.4 m, operating at its diffraction limit,

  18. Persistent explosive activity at Stromboli investigated with OP-FTIR and SO2 cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, M. R.; La Spina, A.; Sawyer, G. M.; Harris, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Stromboli volcano in Italy exhibits what is perhaps one of the most well-known examples of cyclic activity, in the form of its regular explosions, which send a few m3 of material 100-200 m into the air every 10-20 minutes. Recent developments in measurements of volatile release from Stromboli using a series of novel approaches have allowed this cyclic behaviour to be examined in detail. In particular, the use of an automated OP-FTIR has revealed unprecedented detail in the dynamics of degassing from individual craters at the summit of Stromboli. Furthermore, the variations in composition of explosive degassing from Stromboli demonstrate a deep source ~2 km for the gas slugs which produce explosions at this volcano, in contrast to the commonly-held view that gas coalescence at shallow depth is responsible for the behaviour. The SO2 camera has revealed fascinating new details on the dynamics of degassing at Stromboli, and has allowed direct quantification of the amount of gas released during explosions and through quiescent degassing. The remarkable observation that 99% of degassing takes place quiescently, and that the explosions, whilst apparently more significant, are in fact a secondary process compared with the mass and energy involved in background, quiet processes. The new insight that the explosions are actually only a relatively minor aspect of the activity (in terms of mass and energy) actually makes the regularity of the cyclic explosive activity still more remarkable. In this paper we present a detailed overview of the state of the art of our understanding of cyclic explosive activity at Stromboli volcano from the perspective of recent advances in geochemical monitoring of the gas emissions. We also report initial results from a multidisciplinary campaign on Stromboli which utilised both OP-FTIR and SO2 camera techniques.

  19. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Scardina, John; Shay, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the goals, benefits, technologies, and procedures of the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1), and provides an update to the previous versions of the document [ref 1 and ref 2].

  20. The Opuntia streptacantha OpsHSP18 Gene Confers Salt and Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Muñoz, Silvia; Gómez-Anduro, Gracia; Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stress limits seed germination, plant growth, flowering and fruit quality, causing economic decrease. Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are chaperons with roles in stress tolerance. Herein, we report the functional characterization of a cytosolic class CI sHSP (OpsHSP18) from Opuntia streptacantha during seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines subjected to different stress and hormone treatments. The over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene in A. thaliana increased the seed germination rate under salt (NaCl) and osmotic (glucose and mannitol) stress, and in ABA treatments, compared with WT. On the other hand, the over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene enhanced tolerance to salt (150 mM NaCl) and osmotic (274 mM mannitol) stress in Arabidopsis seedlings treated during 14 and 21 days, respectively. These plants showed increased survival rates (52.00 and 73.33%, respectively) with respect to the WT (18.75 and 53.75%, respectively). Thus, our results show that OpsHSP18 gene might have an important role in abiotic stress tolerance, in particular in seed germination and survival rate of Arabidopsis plants under unfavorable conditions. PMID:22949853

  1. 76 FR 11484 - Public Meeting of the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) Advisory Board, March 14, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Oriented Plan (CO-OP) Advisory Board, March 14, 2011 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS... Date: March 14, 2011 from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m., Eastern Standard Time (EST) Deadline for Meeting Registration, Presentations and Comments: March 10, 2011, 5 p.m., EST. Deadline for Requesting...

  2. Coexistence of osteoporosis (OP) and coronary artery disease (CAD) in the elderly: it is not just a by chance event.

    PubMed

    Yesil, Yusuf; Ulger, Zekeriya; Halil, Meltem; Halaçli, Burçin; Yavuz, Burcu Balam; Yeşil, Nesibe Karahan; Kuyumcu, Mehmet Emin; Cankurtaran, Mustafa; Ariogul, Servet

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and OP are common age-related conditions. In both cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiologic studies, low bone mass has been related to increased frequency of CVD. But available data in geriatric population is limited. In this study we aimed to seek the possible relationship between CAD and low bone mineral density (BMD) in a large number of geriatric patients. A total of 2235 patients aged 65 years or more were included in this cross-sectional study. All patients underwent a complete geriatric assessment and evaluated for CAD and cardiovascular risk factors. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck. BMD results were classified into three groups; normal (T-score: ≥-1.0×S.D.), osteopenia (T-score between -1.0 and -2.5×S.D.), and OP (T-score: ≤-2.5×S.D.). CAD was present in 397 (29.7%) of 1335 patients with OP, in 199 (27.4%) of 726 patients with osteopenia and in 34 (19.5%) of 174 patients with normal BMD. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that presence of OP or osteopenia increased the prevalence of CAD as an independent correlate (OR=1.643; 95% CI=1.068-2.528, p=0.030). This study highlights the need for careful evaluation of elderly patients with low BMD for possible CAD.

  3. The Opuntia streptacantha OpsHSP18 gene confers salt and osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Salas-Muñoz, Silvia; Gómez-Anduro, Gracia; Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stress limits seed germination, plant growth, flowering and fruit quality, causing economic decrease. Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are chaperons with roles in stress tolerance. Herein, we report the functional characterization of a cytosolic class CI sHSP (OpsHSP18) from Opuntia streptacantha during seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines subjected to different stress and hormone treatments. The over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene in A. thaliana increased the seed germination rate under salt (NaCl) and osmotic (glucose and mannitol) stress, and in ABA treatments, compared with WT. On the other hand, the over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene enhanced tolerance to salt (150 mM NaCl) and osmotic (274 mM mannitol) stress in Arabidopsis seedlings treated during 14 and 21 days, respectively. These plants showed increased survival rates (52.00 and 73.33%, respectively) with respect to the WT (18.75 and 53.75%, respectively). Thus, our results show that OpsHSP18 gene might have an important role in abiotic stress tolerance, in particular in seed germination and survival rate of Arabidopsis plants under unfavorable conditions.

  4. Organophosphorus (OP) Pesticide Degradation in the Presence of Chlorinated Oxidants: Kinetics, Modeling, and Structure-Activity Relationships

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rates and pathways for pesticide transformation during drinking water treatment are known for only a few pesticides and under limited conditions. The resulting oxons are more toxic than the parent pesticides. The transformation rates and pathways for chlorpyrifos, an OP pest...

  5. 76 FR 4907 - The Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) Advisory Board, February 7, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES The Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) Advisory Board, February 7, 2011 AGENCY... Advisory Committee Act. DATES: Meeting Date: February 7, 2011 from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., Eastern Standard...

  6. The Melwood Manual: A Planning and Operations Manual for Horticultural Training and Work Co-op Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melwood Horticultural Training Center, Inc., Upper Marlboro, MD.

    This manual is intended as a resource for anyone involved in planning, developing, and/or operating a horticultural training or work co-op program for the handicapped. Following an introductory chapter, the manual is divided into three parts with the greatest weight given to the second part. Part I elaborates on development of the horticulture…

  7. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of OP0595, a New Diazabicyclooctane, against CTX-M-15-Positive Escherichia coli and KPC-Positive Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Yuko; Yamada, Keiko; Takayama, Yoshihiro; Sakakibara, Shiro; Takata, Toshihiko; Abe, Takao; Furuuchi, Takeshi; Inamura, Seiichi; Sakamaki, Yoshiaki; Tsujii, Nakako; Ida, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are evolving to produce β-lactamases of increasing diversity that challenge antimicrobial chemotherapy. OP0595 is a new diazabicyclooctane serine β-lactamase inhibitor which acts also as an antibiotic and as a β-lactamase-independent β-lactam “enhancer” against Enterobacteriaceae. Here we determined the optimal concentration of OP0595 in combination with piperacillin, cefepime, and meropenem, in addition to the antibacterial activity of OP0595 alone and in combination with cefepime, in in vitro time-kill studies and an in vivo infection model against five strains of CTX-M-15-positive Escherichia coli and five strains of KPC-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae. An OP0595 concentration of 4 μg/ml was found to be sufficient for an effective combination with all three β-lactam agents. In both in vitro time-kill studies and an in vivo model of infection, cefepime-OP0595 showed stronger efficacy than cefepime alone against all β-lactamase-positive strains tested, whereas OP0595 alone showed weaker or no efficacy. Taken together, these data indicate that combinational use of OP0595 and a β-lactam agent is important to exert the antimicrobial functions of OP0595. PMID:26953205

  8. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of OP0595, a New Diazabicyclooctane, against CTX-M-15-Positive Escherichia coli and KPC-Positive Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Morinaka, Akihiro; Tsutsumi, Yuko; Yamada, Keiko; Takayama, Yoshihiro; Sakakibara, Shiro; Takata, Toshihiko; Abe, Takao; Furuuchi, Takeshi; Inamura, Seiichi; Sakamaki, Yoshiaki; Tsujii, Nakako; Ida, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are evolving to produce β-lactamases of increasing diversity that challenge antimicrobial chemotherapy. OP0595 is a new diazabicyclooctane serine β-lactamase inhibitor which acts also as an antibiotic and as a β-lactamase-independent β-lactam "enhancer" against Enterobacteriaceae Here we determined the optimal concentration of OP0595 in combination with piperacillin, cefepime, and meropenem, in addition to the antibacterial activity of OP0595 alone and in combination with cefepime, in in vitro time-kill studies and an in vivo infection model against five strains of CTX-M-15-positive Escherichia coli and five strains of KPC-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae An OP0595 concentration of 4 μg/ml was found to be sufficient for an effective combination with all three β-lactam agents. In both in vitro time-kill studies and an in vivo model of infection, cefepime-OP0595 showed stronger efficacy than cefepime alone against all β-lactamase-positive strains tested, whereas OP0595 alone showed weaker or no efficacy. Taken together, these data indicate that combinational use of OP0595 and a β-lactam agent is important to exert the antimicrobial functions of OP0595.

  9. Examining the Effects of Perceived Relevance and Work-Related Subjective Well-Being on Individual Performance for Co-Op Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewery, Dave; Pretti, T. Judene; Barclay, Sage

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between co-op students' perceived relevance of their work term, work-related subjective well-being (SWB), and individual performance at work. Data were collected using a survey of co-op students (n = 1,989) upon completion of a work term. Results of regression analyses testing a…

  10. A joint data record of tropospheric ozone from Aura-TES and MetOp-IASI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oetjen, Hilke; Payne, Vivienne H.; Neu, Jessica L.; Kulawik, Susan S.; Edwards, David P.; Eldering, Annmarie; Worden, Helen M.; Worden, John R.

    2016-08-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on Aura and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on MetOp-A together provide a time series of 10 years of free-tropospheric ozone with an overlap of 3 years. We characterise the differences between TES and IASI ozone measurements and find that IASI's coarser vertical sensitivity leads to a small (< 5 ppb) low bias relative to TES for the free troposphere. The TES-IASI differences are not dependent on season or any other factor and hence the measurements from the two instruments can be merged, after correcting for the offset, in order to study decadal-scale changes in tropospheric ozone. We calculate time series of regional monthly mean ozone in the free troposphere over eastern Asia, the western United States (US), and Europe, carefully accounting for differences in spatial sampling between the instruments. We show that free-tropospheric ozone over Europe and the western US has remained relatively constant over the past decade but that, contrary to expectations, ozone over Asia in recent years does not continue the rapid rate of increase observed from 2004 to 2010.

  11. Global Patterns of Abundance, Diversity and Community Structure of the Aminicenantes (Candidate Phylum OP8)

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Ibrahim F.; Davis, James P.; Youssef, Noha H.; Elshahed, Mostafa S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the global patterns of abundance, diversity, and community structure of members of the Aminicenantes (candidate phylum OP8). Our aim was to identify the putative ecological role(s) played by members of this poorly characterized bacterial lineages in various ecosystems. Analysis of near full-length 16S rRNA genes identified four classes and eight orders within the Aminicenantes. Within 3,134 datasets comprising ∼1.8 billion high throughput-generated partial 16S rRNA genes, 47,351 Aminicenantes-affiliated sequences were identified in 913 datasets. The Aminicenantes exhibited the highest relative abundance in hydrocarbon-impacted environments, followed by marine habitats (especially hydrothermal vents and coral-associated microbiome samples), and aquatic, non-marine habitats (especially in terrestrial springs and groundwater samples). While the overall abundance of the Aminicenantes was higher in low oxygen tension as well as non-saline and low salinity habitats, it was encountered in a wide range of oxygen tension, salinities, and temperatures. Analysis of the community structure of the Aminicenantes showed distinct patterns across various datasets that appear to be, mostly, driven by habitat variations rather than prevalent environmental parameters. We argue that the detection of the Aminicenantes across environmental extremes and the observed distinct community structure patterns reflect a high level of intraphylum metabolic diversity and adaptive capabilities that enable its survival and growth in a wide range of habitats and environmental conditions. PMID:24637619

  12. Efforts of the National Center for Optics and Photonics Education (OP-TEC) to prepare the technician workforce for photonics industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Dan; Souders, John

    2009-06-01

    The mission of the National Center for Optics and Photonics Education (OP-TEC) is to create a secondary-to-postsecondary "pipeline" of highly qualified and strongly motivated students and to empower high schools and community colleges to meet the urgent need for technicians in optics and photonics. This paper describes the methodologies and processes OP-TEC has developed to carry out that mission. A recently completed assessment of the need for optics and photonics technicians in American industry concluded that U.S. colleges lack the capacity to produce an adequate supply. OP-TEC's challenge is to close the gap between the supply of and demand for photonics technicians. To help increase college capacity, OP-TEC has developed and implemented a recruitment process for initiating photonics programs in U.S. colleges. This paper describes the recruitment process and its results, along with the relevant support services provided by OP-TEC. In support of its mission, OP-TEC has developed curriculum and instructional materials that prepare students for the photonics workforce. To help ensure that completers of U.S. photonics programs are workforce ready, OP-TEC uses a skill-standards-based process for developing curriculum and instructional materials. This paper reviews the foundational skill standards and explains the process for integrating them into the materials development process. The curriculum and instructional materials that result from this process are also described.1

  13. Influence of osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1;BMP-7) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 on bone formation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cheifetz, S; Li, I W; McCulloch, C A; Sampath, K; Sodek, J

    1996-01-01

    The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and transforming growth factor-beta s (TGF-beta s), are a group of structurally related proteins which have been shown to stimulate bone formation in vivo. Since these proteins are concentrated in the organic matrix of bone and would be released during bone resorption, they are likely to have a profound effect on the remodeling bone and may provide a link between bone resorption and bone formation. We are using primary cultures of fetal rat calvarial cells (FRCC) to study the independent and combined effects of OP-1/BMP-7 and TGF-beta 1 on bone cells at different stages of differentiation in order to identify responding cell populations and target genes. We have confirmed prior reports that OP-1 stimulates, while TGF-beta 1 inhibits, osteogenic differentiation in this system. The increase in both number and size of the mineralized nodules induced by OP-1 was accompanied by increased expression of alkaline phosphatase and type I collagen with an induction of bone sialoprotein (BSP) suggesting that OP-1 stimulates both differentiation and clonal expansion of osteoblastic cells. Interestingly, TGF-beta 1 abrogated OP-1 induced nodule formation. Despite these opposing effects on osteogenic differentiation, TGF-beta 1 (Wrana et al, 1991) and OP-1 both stimulated a rapid induction of osteopontin (OPN) mRNA in confluent FRCC cultures enriched in pre-osteoblastic cells. In contrast, when OP-1 was added to nodule-forming cultures which are enriched in osteoblastic cells, there was only a weak induction of OPN. Moreover, while the expression of one marker for mature osteoblasts (BSP) was refractory to OP-1, another (osteocalcin) was markedly stimulated. Thus OP-1 has selective effects on bone matrix protein expression that are dependent on the differentiated state of the cells.

  14. Modeling structure-activity relationships of prodiginines with antimalarial activity using GA/MLR and OPS/PLS.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Luana Janaína; de Melo, Eduardo Borges

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we performed a multivariate quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis of 52 prodiginines with antimalarial activity. Variable selection was based on the genetic algorithm (GA) and ordered predictor selection (OPS) approaches, and the models were built using the multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression methods. The leave-N-out crossvalidation and y-randomization tests showed that the models were robust and free from chance correlation. The mechanistic interpretation of the results was supported by earlier findings. In addition, the comparison of our models with those previously described indicated that the OPS/PLS-based model had a higher quality of external prediction. Thus, this study provides a comprehensive approach to the evaluation of the antimalarial activity of prodiginines, which may be used as a support tool in designing new therapeutic agents for malaria.

  15. Natural weathering studies of oil palm trunk lumber (OPTL) green polymer composites enhanced with oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazrul; Dungani, Rudi; Abdul Khalil, Hps; Alwani, M Siti; Nadirah, Wo Wan; Fizree, H Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a green composite was produced from Oil Palm Trunk Lumber (OPTL) by impregnating oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles with formaldehyde resin. The changes of physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the OPS nanoparticles impregnated OPTL as a result of natural weathering was investigated. The OPS fibres were ground with a ball-mill for producing nanoparticles before being mixed with the phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin at a concentration of 1, 3, 5 and 10% w/w basis and impregnated into the OPTL by vacuum-pressure method. The treated OPTL samples were exposed to natural weathering for the period of 6 and 12 months in West Java, Indonesia according to ASTM D1435-99 standard. Physical and mechanical tests were done for analyzing the changes in phenol formaldehyde-nanoparticles impregnated (PF-NPI) OPTL. FT-IR and SEM studies were done to analyze the morphological changes. The results showed that both exposure time of weathering and concentration of PF-NPI had significant impact on physical and mechanical properties of OPTL. The longer exposure of samples to weathering condition reduced the wave numbers during FT-IR test. However, all these physical, mechanical and morphological changes were significant when compared with the untreated samples or only PF impregnated samples. Thus, it can be concluded that PF-NP impregnation into OPTL improved the resistance against natural weathering and would pave the ground for improved products from OPTL for outdoor conditions.

  16. Characterization of a unique OpMNPV-specific early gene not required for viral infection in tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Shippam, C; Wu, X; Stewart, S; Theilmann, D A

    1997-01-20

    opep-2 is an Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpMNPV) early gene in the ie1-ie2 gene region for which there is no homolog in either the archetype virus, Autographa californica MNPV, or Bombyx mori NPV. opep-2 is transcribed immediately upon infection as three mRNAs which initiate from a early gene motif (TATA-N27-CAGT). The expression of multiple transcripts at very early times postinfection has only been previously described for the baculovirus early gene ie1, which produces spliced mRNAs. However, distinct from ie1, the multiple mRNAs of opep-2 are due to multiple termination sites and not splicing. Western blot analysis of steady-state levels of OPEP-2 showed that in OpMNPV-infected Ld652Y cells maximum levels are obtained at 8-12 hr postinfection (p.i.) prior to DNA replication. By 48 hr p.i. OPEP-2 is shut off and is undetectable. To aid in elucidating the function of this OpMNPV-specific gene an opep-2 deletion mutant was generated and was compared to wild-type virus to determine if its absence affects viral growth in Ld652Y tissue culture cells.

  17. Mechanism for the catastrophe-promoting activity of the microtubule destabilizer Op18/stathmin.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kamlesh K; Li, Chunlei; Duan, Aranda; Alberico, Emily O; Kim, Oleg V; Alber, Mark S; Goodson, Holly V

    2013-12-17

    Regulation of microtubule dynamic instability is crucial for cellular processes, ranging from mitosis to membrane transport. Stathmin (also known as oncoprotein 18/Op18) is a prominent microtubule destabilizer that acts preferentially on microtubule minus ends. Stathmin has been studied intensively because of its association with multiple types of cancer, but its mechanism of action remains controversial. Two models have been proposed. One model is that stathmin promotes microtubule catastrophe indirectly, and does so by sequestering tubulin; the other holds that stathmin alters microtubule dynamics by directly destabilizing growing microtubules. Stathmin's sequestration activity is well established, but the mechanism of any direct action is mysterious because stathmin binds to microtubules very weakly. To address these issues, we have studied interactions between stathmin and varied tubulin polymers. We show that stathmin binds tightly to Dolastatin-10 tubulin rings, which mimic curved tubulin protofilaments, and that stathmin depolymerizes stabilized protofilament-rich polymers. These observations lead us to propose that stathmin promotes catastrophe by binding to and acting upon protofilaments exposed at the tips of growing microtubules. Moreover, we suggest that stathmin's minus-end preference results from interactions between stathmin's N terminus and the surface of α-tubulin that is exposed only at the minus end. Using computational modeling of microtubule dynamics, we show that these mechanisms could account for stathmin's observed activities in vitro, but that both the direct and sequestering activities are likely to be relevant in a cellular context. Taken together, our results suggest that stathmin can promote catastrophe by direct action on protofilament structure and interactions.

  18. NINJA-OPS: Fast Accurate Marker Gene Alignment Using Concatenated Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A.; Montassier, Emmanuel; Ward, Henry N.; Knights, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The explosion of bioinformatics technologies in the form of next generation sequencing (NGS) has facilitated a massive influx of genomics data in the form of short reads. Short read mapping is therefore a fundamental component of next generation sequencing pipelines which routinely match these short reads against reference genomes for contig assembly. However, such techniques have seldom been applied to microbial marker gene sequencing studies, which have mostly relied on novel heuristic approaches. We propose NINJA Is Not Just Another OTU-Picking Solution (NINJA-OPS, or NINJA for short), a fast and highly accurate novel method enabling reference-based marker gene matching (picking Operational Taxonomic Units, or OTUs). NINJA takes advantage of the Burrows-Wheeler (BW) alignment using an artificial reference chromosome composed of concatenated reference sequences, the “concatesome,” as the BW input. Other features include automatic support for paired-end reads with arbitrary insert sizes. NINJA is also free and open source and implements several pre-filtering methods that elicit substantial speedup when coupled with existing tools. We applied NINJA to several published microbiome studies, obtaining accuracy similar to or better than previous reference-based OTU-picking methods while achieving an order of magnitude or more speedup and using a fraction of the memory footprint. NINJA is a complete pipeline that takes a FASTA-formatted input file and outputs a QIIME-formatted taxonomy-annotated BIOM file for an entire MiSeq run of human gut microbiome 16S genes in under 10 minutes on a dual-core laptop. PMID:26820746

  19. OCRA radiometric cloud fractions for GOME-2 on MetOp-A/B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, R.; Loyola, D.; Gimeno García, S.; Romahn, F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes an approach for cloud parameter retrieval (radiometric cloud fraction estimation) using the polarization measurements of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) on-board the MetOp-A/B satellites. The core component of the Optical Cloud Recognition Algorithm (OCRA) is the calculation of monthly cloud-free reflectances for a global grid (resolution of 0.2° in longitude and 0.2° in latitude) and to derive radiometric cloud fractions. These cloud fractions will serve as a priori information for the retrieval of cloud top height (CTH), cloud top pressure (CTP), cloud top albedo (CTA) and cloud optical thickness (COT) with the Retrieval Of Cloud Information using Neural Networks (ROCINN) algorithm. This approach is already being implemented operationally for the GOME/ERS-2 and SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT sensors and here we present version 3.0 of the OCRA algorithm applied to the GOME-2 sensors. Based on more than six years of GOME-2A data (February 2007-June 2013), reflectances are calculated for ≈ 35 000 orbits. For each measurement a degradation correction as well as a viewing angle dependent and latitude dependent correction is applied. In addition, an empirical correction scheme is introduced in order to remove the effect of oceanic sun glint. A comparison of the GOME-2A/B OCRA cloud fractions with co-located AVHRR geometrical cloud fractions shows a general good agreement with a mean difference of -0.15±0.20. From operational point of view, an advantage of the OCRA algorithm is its extremely fast computational time and its straightforward transferability to similar sensors like OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) on Sentinel 5 Precursor, as well as Sentinel 4 and Sentinel 5. In conclusion, it is shown that a robust, accurate and fast radiometric cloud fraction estimation for GOME-2 can be achieved with OCRA by using the polarization measurement devices (PMDs).

  20. Universal School-Based Depression Prevention 'Op Volle Kracht': a Longitudinal Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Tak, Yuli R; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Gillham, Jane E; Van Zundert, Rinka M P; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2016-07-01

    The longitudinal effectiveness of a universal, adolescent school-based depression prevention program Op Volle Kracht (OVK) was evaluated by means of a cluster randomized controlled trial with intervention and control condition (school as usual). OVK was based on the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP) (Gillham et al. Psychological Science, 6, 343-351, 1995). Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Child Depression Inventory (Kovacs 2001). In total, 1341 adolescents participated, Mage = 13.91, SD = 0.55, 47.3 % girls, 83.1 % Dutch ethnicity; intervention group n = 655, four schools; control group n = 735, five schools. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed that OVK did not prevent depressive symptoms, β = -0.01, SE = 0.05, p = .829, Cohen's d = 0.02, and the prevalence of an elevated level of depressive symptoms was not different between groups at 1 year follow-up, OR = 1.00, 95 % CI = 0.60-1.65, p = .992, NNT = 188. Latent Growth Curve Modeling over the 2 year follow-up period showed that OVK did not predict differences in depressive symptoms immediately following intervention, intercept: β = 0.02, p = .642, or changes in depressive symptoms, slope: β = -0.01, p = .919. No moderation by gender or baseline depressive symptoms was found. To conclude, OVK was not effective in preventing depressive symptoms across the 2 year follow-up. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Partial Optimization of the 5-Terminal Codon Increased a Recombination Porcine Pancreatic Lipase (opPPL) Expression in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Chen, Dan; Tang, Jiayong; Jia, Gang; Long, Dingbiao; Liu, Guangmang; Chen, Xiaoling; Shang, Haiying

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic lipase plays a key role in intestinal digestion of feed fat, and is often deficient in young animals such as weaning piglets. The objective of this study was to express and characterize a partial codon optimized porcine pancreatic lipase (opPPL). A 537 bp cDNA fragment encoding N-terminus amino acid residue of the mature porcine pancreatic lipase was synthesized according to the codon bias of Pichia pastoris and ligated to the full-length porcine pancreatic lipase cDNA fragment. The codon optimized PPL was cloned into the pPICZαA (Invitrogen, Beijing, China) vector. After the resultant opPPL/pPICZαΑ plasmid was transformed into P.pastoris, the over-expressed extracellular opPPL containing a His-tag to the C terminus was purified using Ni Sepharose affinity column (GE Healthcare, Piscataway, NJ, USA), and was characterized against the native enzyme (commercial PPL from porcine pancreas, Sigma). The opPPL exhibited a molecular mass of approximately 52 kDa, and showed optimal temperature (40°C), optimal pH (8.0), Km (0.041 mM), and Vmax (2.008 µmol.mg protein −1.min−1) similar to those of the commercial enzyme with p-NPP as the substrate. The recombinant enzyme was stable at 60°C, but lost 80% (P<0.05) of its activity after exposure to heat ≥60°C for 20 min. The codon optimization increased opPPL yield for ca 4 folds (146 mg.L−1 vs 36 mg.L−1) and total enzyme activity increased about 5 folds (1900 IU.L−1 vs 367 IU.L−1) compared with those native naPPL/pPICZαΑ tranformant. Comparison of gene copies and mRNA profiles between the two strains indicated the increased rePPL yields may partly be ascribed to the increased protein translational efficiency after codon optimization. In conclusion, we successfully optimized 5-terminal of porcine pancreatic lipase encoding gene and over-expressed the gene in P. pastoris as an extracellular, functional enzyme. The recombination enzyme demonstrates a potential for future use as an animal feed

  2. REMOTE LAND MINE(FIELD) DETECTION. An Overview of Techniques (DETECTIE VAN LANDMIJNEN EN MIJNENVELDEN OP AFSTAND. Een Overzicht van de technieken),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    systeem voor mijnen of mijnenvelden essentieel. De basis principes en sterke en zwakke punten van "real time" mijnen detectie met visuele, nabij...tweede deel van het rapport worden aanbevelingen gegeven voor een toekomstig systeem voor de detectie van mijnen. Deze aanbevelingen zijn gebaseerd...multi-sensor systeem voor op een voertuig. Dit is gebaseerd op de interesse die de "Genie" toont voor een dergelijk systeem , de kosten van een

  3. Insights into different Strombolian explosive styles by remote controlled OP-FTIR (CERBERUS) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spina Alessandro, La; Mike, Burton; Filippo, Murè; Roberto, Maugeri

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we present the results and interpretation of gas composition data collected by a permanent OP-FTIR system (CERBERUS) installed at Stromboli summit. The instrument allows remote control observation and measurement of gas emissions from different points within volcano's crater terrace, using an integrated infrared camera / scanning mirror / FTIR system. Given that an OpenPath Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer allows the simultaneously measure all the major species contained in volcanic gas emissions, we could observe the different explosive styles fed by Stromboli volcano. Stromboli volcano, in the Aeolian island arc, is known as the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean" for its regular (~every 10-20 min) explosive activity, launching crystal-rich black scoriae to 100-200 m height constituting a rich and impressive spectacle for both volcanologists and tourists from every part of the world. This ordinary activity has been classified in two types in relation to the their content of ash ejected. Type 1 is dominated melt ballistic particles whereas Type 2 consists of an ash-rich plume. On 18 July we recorded both explosive styles at the SW crater of Stromboli finding quite similar CO2/SO2 ratio, although we observed a higher value of SO2/HCl molar ratio for the Type 2. Moreover prior to both types of explosions the CO2 amount showed similar trend, whereas a different pattern in SO2 and in HCl gas content, was observed. In detail type 2 was preceded by decrease in SO2 and HCl amounts with respect to type 1. The decreasing trend observed before the onset of style 2 and the higher SO2/HCl ratio might be an indication of overpressure that might have induced the difference between the two types of explosions. In this context, the evidence of no change in the amount of CO2 and in CO2/SO2 ratio suggested us that this overpressure occurred in very shallow depths within the volcano feeding system. If our observations will be confirmed by other explosive

  4. Round Robin evaluation of soil moisture retrieval models for the MetOp-A ASCAT Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Alexander; Paloscia, Simonetta; Santi, Emanuele; Notarnicola, Claudia; Pasolli, Luca; Smolander, Tuomo; Pulliainen, Jouni; Mittelbach, Heidi; Dorigo, Wouter; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Global soil moisture observations are crucial to understand hydrologic processes, earth-atmosphere interactions and climate variability. ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI) project aims to create a global consistent long-term soil moisture data set based on the merging of the best available active and passive satellite-based microwave sensors and retrieval algorithms. Within the CCI, a Round Robin evaluation of existing retrieval algorithms for both active and passive instruments was carried out. In this study we present the comparison of five different retrieval algorithms covering three different modelling principles applied to active MetOp-A ASCAT L1 backscatter data. These models include statistical models (Bayesian Regression and Support Vector Regression, provided by the Institute for Applied Remote Sensing, Eurac Research Viale Druso, Italy, and an Artificial Neural Network, provided by the Institute of Applied Physics, CNR-IFAC, Italy), a semi-empirical model (provided by the Finnish Meteorological Institute), and a change detection model (provided by the Vienna University of Technology). The algorithms were applied on L1 backscatter data within the period of 2007-2011, resampled to a 12.5 km grid. The evaluation was performed over 75 globally distributed, quality controlled in situ stations drawn from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) using surface soil moisture data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS-) Noah land surface model as second independent reference. The temporal correlation between the data sets was analyzed and random errors of the the different algorithms were estimated using the triple collocation method. Absolute soil moisture values as well as soil moisture anomalies were considered including both long-term anomalies from the mean seasonal cycle and short-term anomalies from a five weeks moving average window. Results show a very high agreement between all five algorithms for most stations. A slight

  5. OCRA radiometric cloud fractions for GOME-2 on MetOp-A/B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Ronny; Loyola, Diego; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Romahn, Fabian

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes an approach for cloud parameter retrieval (radiometric cloud-fraction estimation) using the polarization measurements of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) onboard the MetOp-A/B satellites. The core component of the Optical Cloud Recognition Algorithm (OCRA) is the calculation of monthly cloud-free reflectances for a global grid (resolution of 0.2° in longitude and 0.2° in latitude) to derive radiometric cloud fractions. These cloud fractions will serve as a priori information for the retrieval of cloud-top height (CTH), cloud-top pressure (CTP), cloud-top albedo (CTA) and cloud optical thickness (COT) with the Retrieval Of Cloud Information using Neural Networks (ROCINN) algorithm. This approach is already being implemented operationally for the GOME/ERS-2 and SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT sensors and here we present version 3.0 of the OCRA algorithm applied to the GOME-2 sensors. Based on more than five years of GOME-2A data (April 2008 to June 2013), reflectances are calculated for ≈ 35 000 orbits. For each measurement a degradation correction as well as a viewing-angle-dependent and latitude-dependent correction is applied. In addition, an empirical correction scheme is introduced in order to remove the effect of oceanic sun glint. A comparison of the GOME-2A/B OCRA cloud fractions with colocated AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) geometrical cloud fractions shows a general good agreement with a mean difference of -0.15 ± 0.20. From an operational point of view, an advantage of the OCRA algorithm is its very fast computational time and its straightforward transferability to similar sensors like OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) on Sentinel 5 Precursor, as well as Sentinel 4 and Sentinel 5. In conclusion, it is shown that a robust, accurate and fast radiometric cloud-fraction estimation for GOME-2 can be achieved with OCRA using polarization measurement devices (PMDs).

  6. Remote OP-FTIR sensing of magmatic gases driving Yasur trachyandesitic explosive activity, Vanuatu island arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, P.; Burton, M.; Sawyer, G.

    2012-04-01

    Yasur volcano, located in the southern part of the Vanuatu island arc (Tanna island), is a small trachyandesitic cone that has grown in the resurgent (17 cm y-1) Siwi caldera. Since about 1,400 years Yasur has displayed almost continuous Strombolian-Vulcanian explosive activity and is one of the most actively erupting volcanoes worldwide. Using open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy from the crater rim (260-300 m slanting distance) and molten lava as the radiation source, we measured during several days the high frequency compositional variations of magmatic gases driving this explosive activity. Our results expand previous observations from a first FTIR measurement in 2005 [1] and complement in-situ gas measurements made in 2007 [2] within our same research framework (French ANR 'VOLGASPEC' project). FTIR absorption spectra allowed simultaneous retrieval of the molar path amounts of volcanic H2O, CO2, SO2, HCl and CO, corrected for air background in case of H2O, CO2 and CO. We observe a rather steady composition of the crater gas release between the explosions (~one every 1-3 mn) and sharp compositional variations (increases of SO2/HCl, CO2/SO2 and CO/CO2 ratios, decrease of H2O/SO2) associated with the explosions, which demonstrate the ascent and bursting of deeper-derived, CO2-SO2-CO-enriched gas slugs. Such abrupt compositional changes of magmatic gases driving explosive activity at Yasur do resemble those recorded at Stromboli volcano [3]. However, in contrast to Stromboli, Yasur explosions generate dense ash clouds whose fast expansion significantly affects the measured column gas amounts at the onset of each event (an effect considered in our data elaboration). When referred to the pressure-related behaviour of dissolved volatiles in the trachyandesitic magma feeding Yasur (melt inclusions [2]), our results provide new constraints on the source depth(s) of the explosions and the magma degassing processes controlling the volcanic activity

  7. Recent SO2 camera and OP-FTIR field measurements in Mexico and Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Spina, Alessandro; Salerno, Giuseppe; Burton, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Between 22 and 30 November 2012 a field campaign was carried out at Mexico and Guatemala with the objectives of state the volcanic gas composition and flux fingerprints of Popocatepetl, Santiaguito, Fuego and Pacaya by exploiting simultaneously UV-camera and FTIR measurements. Gases were measured remotely using instruments sensitive to ultraviolet and infrared radiation (UV spectrometer, SO2-camera and OP-FTIR). Data collection depended on the requirements of the methodology, weather condition and eruptive stage of the volcanoes. OP-FTIR measurements were carried out using the MIDAC interferometer with 0.5 cm-1 resolution. Spectra were collected in solar occultation mode in which the Sun acts as an infrared source and the volcanic plume is interposed between the Sun and the spectrometer. At Santiaguito spectra were also collected in passive mode using the lava flow as a radiation source. The SO2-camera used for this study was a dual camera system consisting of two QS Imaging 640s cameras. Each of the two cameras was outfitted with two quartz 25mm lens, coupled with two band-pass filters centred at 310nm and at 330nm. The imaging system was managed by a custom-made software developed in LabView. The UV-camera system was coupled with a USB2000+ spectrometer connected to a QP1000-2-SR 1000 micron optical fiber with a 74-UV collimating lens. For calibration of plume imagery, images of five quartz cells containing known concentration path-lengths of SO2 were taken at the end of each sampling. Between 22 and 23 November 2012 UV-camera and FTIR observations were carried out at Popocatepetl. During the time of our observation, the volcano was characterised by pulsing degassing from the summit crater forming a whitish plume that dispersed rapidly in the atmosphere according to wind direction and speed. Data were collected from the Observatorio Atmosférico Altzomoni (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México) at 4000 metre a.s.l. and at a distance of ~12 km from the volcano

  8. Advanced Technologies for Robotic Exploration Leading to Human Exploration: Results from the SpaceOps 2015 Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupisella, Mark L.; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper will provide a summary and analysis of the SpaceOps 2015 Workshop all-day session on "Advanced Technologies for Robotic Exploration, Leading to Human Exploration", held at Fucino Space Center, Italy on June 12th, 2015. The session was primarily intended to explore how robotic missions and robotics technologies more generally can help lead to human exploration missions. The session included a wide range of presentations that were roughly grouped into (1) broader background, conceptual, and high-level operations concepts presentations such as the International Space Exploration Coordination Group Roadmap, followed by (2) more detailed narrower presentations such as rover autonomy and communications. The broader presentations helped to provide context and specific technical hooks, and helped lay a foundation for the narrower presentations on more specific challenges and technologies, as well as for the discussion that followed. The discussion that followed the presentations touched on key questions, themes, actions and potential international collaboration opportunities. Some of the themes that were touched on were (1) multi-agent systems, (2) decentralized command and control, (3) autonomy, (4) low-latency teleoperations, (5) science operations, (6) communications, (7) technology pull vs. technology push, and (8) the roles and challenges of operations in early human architecture and mission concept formulation. A number of potential action items resulted from the workshop session, including: (1) using CCSDS as a further collaboration mechanism for human mission operations, (2) making further contact with subject matter experts, (3) initiating informal collaborative efforts to allow for rapid and efficient implementation, and (4) exploring how SpaceOps can support collaboration and information exchange with human exploration efforts. This paper will summarize the session and provide an overview of the above subjects as they emerged from the SpaceOps 2015

  9. Infrared detector circuits using monolithic CMOS Op-Amps with InSb detectors in a transimpedance configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David S.

    1992-09-01

    As the emphasis in infrared detector research shifts toward larger and more complicated arrays the amount of time spent on simple single-element and small arrays is decreasing. One set of applications where discrete detectors and arrays are still finding use is in satellites. In addition, scanned imaging arrays based on single element detectors and small arrays are still being manufactured. Discussion here is for small arrays and single element detectors. One of the aspects of detector operation that always needs to be addressed is amplification. Often detectors are attached to amplifiers through rather long leads. Such systems are subject to unwanted microphonic response as a result of the motion of the leads relative to each other or to the ground plane. This sort of microphonic response can many times be eliminated through careful wiring and routing techniques, however, in some severe environments it is not possible to eliminate all microphonic response. A commonly used solution to this problem is to hybridize the detector with a JFET front end to reduce the effective output resistance of the detector circuit relative to the amplifier input. The TIA in such configurations is completed off the focal plane at room temperature. This means that half the circuit is operating at cryogenic temperatures while the other part is operating at room temperature some distance away. Ideally it would be more convenient, if not better, to include the amplifier on the focal plane with the detector. (Of course this hybridization is necessary for large two-dimensional arrays.) Data have been acquired to show some of the limitations and opportunities for such an approach. Typical bipolar operational amplifiers (OP-27, OP-37, LM108) will not operate well at cryogenic temperatures. CMOS operational amplifiers generally will operate at cryogenic temperatures but suffer from high front-end voltage noise. The TLC2201 from Texas Instruments is a CMOS op-amp manufactured for low voltage

  10. Analysis of the Ship Ops Model’s Accuracy in Predicting U.S. Naval Ship Operating Cost

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this report are those of the author(s) and do not reflect the official policy or...Dean Graduate School of Business and Public Policy iv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ANALYSIS OF THE SHIP OPS MODEL’S ACCURACY...of Model Accuracy using backcast : 1997-2002 Year SF SU SR SO Total 1997 $24,654 $4,315 $12,748 $6,626 $48,343 1998 $29,890 $5,853 $15,300 $9,046

  11. Physiology and phylogeny of the candidate phylum "Atribacteria" (formerly OP9/JS1) inferred from single-cell genomics and metagenomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodsworth, J. A.; Murugapiran, S.; Blainey, P. C.; Nobu, M.; Rinke, C.; Schwientek, P.; Gies, E.; Webster, G.; Kille, P.; Weightman, A.; Liu, W. T.; Hallam, S.; Tsiamis, G.; Swingley, W.; Ross, C.; Tringe, S. G.; Chain, P. S.; Scholz, M. B.; Lo, C. C.; Raymond, J.; Quake, S. R.; Woyke, T.; Hedlund, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Single-cell sequencing and metagenomics have extended the genomics revolution to yet-uncultivated microorganisms and provided insights into the coding potential of this so-called "microbial dark matter", including microbes belonging candidate phyla with no cultivated representatives. As more datasets emerge, comparison of individual genomes from different lineages and habitats can provide insight into the phylogeny, conserved features, and potential metabolic diversity of candidate phyla. The candidate bacterial phylum OP9 was originally found in Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, and it has since been detected in geothermal springs, petroleum reservoirs, and engineered thermal environments worldwide. JS1, another uncultivated bacterial lineage affiliated with OP9, is often abundant in marine sediments associated with methane hydrates, hydrocarbon seeps, and on continental margins and shelves, and is found in other non-thermal marine and subsurface environments. The phylogenetic relationship between OP9, JS1, and other Bacteria has not been fully resolved, and to date no axenic cultures from these lineages have been reported. Recently, 31 single amplified genomes (SAGs) from six distinct OP9 and JS1 lineages have been obtained using flow cytometric and microfluidic techniques. These SAGs were used to inform metagenome binning techniques that identified OP9/JS1 sequences in several metagenomes, extending genomic coverage in three of the OP9 and JS1 lineages. Phylogenomic analyses of these SAG and metagenome bin datasets suggest that OP9 and JS1 constitute a single, deeply branching phylum, for which the name "Atribacteria" has recently been proposed. Overall, members of the "Atribacteria" are predicted to be heterotrophic anaerobes without the capacity for respiration, with some lineages potentially specializing in secondary fermentation of organic acids. A set of signature "Atribacteria" genes was tentatively identified, including components of a bacterial

  12. Implementation of an integrated op-amp based chaotic neuron model and observation of its chaotic dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Jinwoo; Lee, Jewon; Song, Hanjung

    2011-03-15

    This paper presents a fully integrated circuit implementation of an operational amplifier (op-amp) based chaotic neuron model with a bipolar output function, experimental measurements, and analyses of its chaotic behavior. The proposed chaotic neuron model integrated circuit consists of several op-amps, sample and hold circuits, a nonlinear function block for chaotic signal generation, a clock generator, a nonlinear output function, etc. Based on the HSPICE (circuit program) simulation results, approximated empirical equations for analyses were formulated. Then, the chaotic dynamical responses such as bifurcation diagrams, time series, and Lyapunov exponent were calculated using these empirical equations. In addition, we performed simulations about two chaotic neuron systems with four synapses to confirm neural network connections and got normal behavior of the chaotic neuron such as internal state bifurcation diagram according to the synaptic weight variation. The proposed circuit was fabricated using a 0.8-{mu}m single poly complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology. Measurements of the fabricated single chaotic neuron with {+-}2.5 V power supplies and a 10 kHz sampling clock frequency were carried out and compared with the simulated results.

  13. A 1.2 V low-power OpAmp for integrated lock-in amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, M. R.; Celma, S.; Medrano, N.; Calvo, B.; Gimeno, C.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a simple 1.2 V low-power rail-to-rail class AB operational amplifier (OpAmp) suitable for integrated lock-in amplifiers. The proposed OpAmp has been designed in a standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology. For a 1.2 V single supply and 68.6 μW power consumption, simulations shows a 81 dB open loop gain, 64° phase margin, 13 MHz unity gain frequency for a capacitive load of 10pF and 75 dB CMRR. Adaptive biasing provides 30.7 V/μs slew-rate for a 10 pF load. A compact and reliable lock-in amplifier (LIA) has been designed using the proposed circuit. The designed LIA has a power consumption of 135 μW and recovers signals up to 1 MHz with relative errors below 2.6 % for noise and interference signals of the same amplitude as the signal of interest.

  14. Productivity Performance of the CoOP-WEST Upwelling Region off Bodega Bay, CA: Comparison With Other Coastal Upwelling Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogue, V.; Dugdale, R. C.; Marchi, A.; Lassiter, A.; Wilkerson, F.

    2002-12-01

    The incorporation of upwelled nutrients into phytoplankton by new production offers a means to compare the relative performance of upwelling regions in converting available nitrogen to biomass. The shift-up model of upwelling new production has been used to compare the maximum productivity rates and biomass accumulation of a set of well-studied coastal upwelling systems and evaluate their realization for new production. During the NSF funded CoOP WEST study, we measured new production using N-15 labeled nitrate uptake by different size-fractions of the phytoplankton, along with nutrients and biomass concentrations. The data collected during the CoOP WEST "upwelling-favorable" cruises in spring/summer 2000, 2001 and 2002 allow a comparison of production during different upwelling nutrient conditions within a single system, and to other previously studied systems. The fate of new production and its performance off northern California is compared with the coastal upwelling locations of Point Conception, California; Monterey Bay, California; Cap Blanc, northwest Africa and 15°S, Peru.

  15. Reference materials and representative test materials to develop nanoparticle characterization methods: the NanoChOp project case.

    PubMed

    Roebben, Gert; Kestens, Vikram; Varga, Zoltan; Charoud-Got, Jean; Ramaye, Yannic; Gollwitzer, Christian; Bartczak, Dorota; Geißler, Daniel; Noble, James; Mazoua, Stephane; Meeus, Nele; Corbisier, Philippe; Palmai, Marcell; Mihály, Judith; Krumrey, Michael; Davies, Julie; Resch-Genger, Ute; Kumarswami, Neelam; Minelli, Caterina; Sikora, Aneta; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the production and characteristics of the nanoparticle test materials prepared for common use in the collaborative research project NanoChOp (Chemical and optical characterization of nanomaterials in biological systems), in casu suspensions of silica nanoparticles and CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). This paper is the first to illustrate how to assess whether nanoparticle test materials meet the requirements of a "reference material" (ISO Guide 30, 2015) or rather those of the recently defined category of "representative test material (RTM)" (ISO/TS 16195, 2013). The NanoChOp test materials were investigated with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS) to establish whether they complied with the required monomodal particle size distribution. The presence of impurities, aggregates, agglomerates, and viable microorganisms in the suspensions was investigated with DLS, CLS, optical and electron microscopy and via plating on nutrient agar. Suitability of surface functionalization was investigated with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR) and via the capacity of the nanoparticles to be fluorescently labeled or to bind antibodies. Between-unit homogeneity and stability were investigated in terms of particle size and zeta potential. This paper shows that only based on the outcome of a detailed characterization process one can raise the status of a test material to RTM or reference material, and how this status depends on its intended use.

  16. Reference materials and representative test materials to develop nanoparticle characterization methods: the NanoChOp project case

    PubMed Central

    Roebben, Gert; Kestens, Vikram; Varga, Zoltan; Charoud-Got, Jean; Ramaye, Yannic; Gollwitzer, Christian; Bartczak, Dorota; Geißler, Daniel; Noble, James; Mazoua, Stephane; Meeus, Nele; Corbisier, Philippe; Palmai, Marcell; Mihály, Judith; Krumrey, Michael; Davies, Julie; Resch-Genger, Ute; Kumarswami, Neelam; Minelli, Caterina; Sikora, Aneta; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the production and characteristics of the nanoparticle test materials prepared for common use in the collaborative research project NanoChOp (Chemical and optical characterization of nanomaterials in biological systems), in casu suspensions of silica nanoparticles and CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). This paper is the first to illustrate how to assess whether nanoparticle test materials meet the requirements of a “reference material” (ISO Guide 30, 2015) or rather those of the recently defined category of “representative test material (RTM)” (ISO/TS 16195, 2013). The NanoChOp test materials were investigated with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS) to establish whether they complied with the required monomodal particle size distribution. The presence of impurities, aggregates, agglomerates, and viable microorganisms in the suspensions was investigated with DLS, CLS, optical and electron microscopy and via plating on nutrient agar. Suitability of surface functionalization was investigated with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR) and via the capacity of the nanoparticles to be fluorescently labeled or to bind antibodies. Between-unit homogeneity and stability were investigated in terms of particle size and zeta potential. This paper shows that only based on the outcome of a detailed characterization process one can raise the status of a test material to RTM or reference material, and how this status depends on its intended use. PMID:26539428

  17. 2-ammonio-6-(3-oxidopyridinium-1-yl)hexanoate (OP-lysine) is a newly identified advanced glycation end product in cataractous and aged human lenses.

    PubMed

    Argirov, Ognyan K; Lin, Bin; Ortwerth, Beryl J

    2004-02-20

    Post-translational modifications of proteins take place during the aging of human lens. The present study describes a newly isolated glycation product of lysine, which was found in the human lens. Cataractous and aged human lenses were hydrolyzed and fractionated using reverse-phase and ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). One of the nonproteinogenic amino acid components of the hydrolysates was identified as a 3-hydroxypyridinium derivative of lysine, 2-ammonio-6-(3-oxidopyridinium-1-yl)hexanoate (OP-lysine). The compound was synthesized independently from 3-hydroxypyridine and methyl 2-[(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino]-6-iodohexanoate. The spectral and chromatographic properties of the synthetic OP-lysine and the substance isolated from hydrolyzed lenses were identical. HPLC analysis showed that the amounts of OP-lysine were higher in water-insoluble compared with water-soluble proteins and was higher in a pool of cataractous lenses compared with normal aged lenses, reaching 500 pmol/mg protein. The model incubations showed that an anaerobic reaction mixture of Nalpha-tert-butoxycarbonyllysine, glycolaldehyde, and glyceraldehyde could produce the Nalpha-t-butoxycarbonyl derivative of OP-lysine. The irradiation of OP-lysine with UVA under anaerobic conditions in the presence of ascorbate led to a photochemical bleaching of this compound. Our results argue that OP-lysine is a newly identified glycation product of lysine in the lens. It is a marker of aging and pathology of the lens, and its formation could be considered as a potential cataract risk-factor based on its concentration and its photochemical properties.

  18. Implications of protonation and substituent effects for C-O and O-P bond cleavage in phosphate monoesters.

    PubMed

    Loncke, Paul G; Berti, Paul J

    2006-05-10

    A recent study of phosphate monoesters that broke down exclusively through C-O bond cleavage and whose reactivity was unaffected by protonation of the nonbridging oxygens (Byczynski et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 12541) raised several questions about the reactivity of phosphate monoesters, R-O-P(i). Potential catalytic strategies, particularly with regard to selectively promoting C-O or O-P bond cleavage, were investigated computationally through simple alkyl and aryl phosphate monoesters. Both C-O and O-P bonds lengthened upon protonating the bridging oxygen, R-O(H(+))-P(i), and heterolytic bond dissociation energies, DeltaH(C)(-)(O) and DeltaH(O)(-)(P), decreased. Which bond will break depends on the protonation state of the phosphoryl moiety, P(i), and the identity of the organosubstituent, R. Protonating the bridging oxygen when the nonbridging oxygens were already protonated favored C-O cleavage, while protonating the bridging oxygen of the dianion form, R-O-PO(3)(2)(-), favored O-P cleavage. Alkyl R groups capable of forming stable cations were more prone to C-O bond cleavage, with tBu > iPr > F(2)iPr > Me. The lack of effect on the C-O cleavage rate from protonating nonbridging oxygens could arise from two precisely offsetting effects: Protonating nonbridging oxygens lengthens the C-O bond, making it more reactive, but also decreases the bridging oxygen proton affinity, making it less likely to be protonated and, therefore, less reactive. The lack of effect could also arise without bridging oxygen protonation if the ratio of rate constants with different protonation states precisely matched the ratio of acidity constants, K(a). Calculations used hybrid density functional theory (B3PW91/6-31++G) methods with a conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) of solvation. Calculations on Me-phosphate using MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ and PBE0/aug-cc-pVDZ levels of theory, and variations on the solvation model, confirmed the reproducibility with different

  19. High-efficiency space-based software radio architectures & algorithms (a minimum size, weight, and power TeraOps processor)

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, Mark Edward; Baker, Zachary K; Stettler, Matthew W; Pigue, Michael J; Schmierer, Eric N; Power, John F; Graham, Paul S

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos has recently completed the latest in a series of Reconfigurable Software Radios, which incorporates several key innovations in both hardware design and algorithms. Due to our focus on satellite applications, each design must extract the best size, weight, and power performance possible from the ensemble of Commodity Off-the-Shelf (COTS) parts available at the time of design. In this case we have achieved 1 TeraOps/second signal processing on a 1920 Megabit/second datastream, while using only 53 Watts mains power, 5.5 kg, and 3 liters. This processing capability enables very advanced algorithms such as our wideband RF compression scheme to operate remotely, allowing network bandwidth constrained applications to deliver previously unattainable performance.

  20. Overview of the CoOP experiments: Physical and chemical measurements parameterizing air-sea heat exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Erik John; Bearer Edson, James; Frew, Nelson M.; Hara, Tetsu; Haussecker, Horst; Jähne, Bernd; McGillis, Wade R.; McKenna, Sean P.; Nelson, Robert K.; Schimpf, Uwe; Uz, Mete

    Experiments performed in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans in 1995 and 1997 attempted to measure the short time-scale and small spatial scale variability in the air-sea gas transfer rate. Along with these measurements, physical and chemical parameters known from previous laboratory studies to influence transfer rates were also characterized. These parameters include the atmospheric forcing, the capillary and capillary-gravity wave state, the surface chemical enrichment, and the level of near-surface turbulence. In this contribution we describe the methodologies employed for the measurement campaigns and summarize some general observations resulting from them. Other contributions from the coauthors describe in more detail the specific conclusions derived from the Coastal Ocean Processes (CoOP) field program.

  1. Small Cytoskeleton-Associated Molecule, Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 Oncogene Partner 2/Wound Inducible Transcript-3.0 (FGFR1OP2/wit3.0), Facilitates Fibroblast-Driven Wound Closure

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Audrey; Hokugo, Akishige; Choi, Jae; Nishimura, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Wounds created in the oral cavity heal rapidly and leave minimal scarring. We have examined a role of a previously isolated cDNA from oral wounds encoding wound inducible transcript-3.0 (wit3.0), also known as fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 oncogene partner 2 (FGFR1OP2). FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 was highly expressed in oral wound fibroblasts without noticeable up-regulation of α-smooth muscle actin. In silico analyses, denaturing and nondenaturing gel Western blot, and immunocytology together demonstrated that FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 were able to dimerize and oligomerize through coiled-coil structures and appeared to associate with cytoskeleton networks in oral wound fibroblasts. Overexpression of FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 increased the floating collagen gel contraction of naïve oral fibroblasts to the level of oral wound fibroblasts, which was in turn attenuated by small-interfering RNA knockdown. The FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 synthesis did not affect the expression of collagen I as well as procontractile peptides such as α-smooth muscle actin, and transforming growth factor-β1 had no effect on FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 expression. Fibroblastic cells derived from embryonic stem cells carrying FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 (+/−) mutation showed significant retardation in cell migration. Thus, we postulate that FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 may regulate cell motility and stimulate wound closure. FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 was not up-regulated during skin wound healing; however, when treated with FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 -expression vector, the skin wound closure was significantly accelerated, resulting in the limited granulation tissue formation. Our data suggest that FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 may possess a therapeutic potential for wound management. PMID:19959814

  2. SpaceOps 2012 Plus 2: Social Tools to Simplify ISS Flight Control Communications and Log Keeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowart, Hugh S.; Scott, David W.

    2014-01-01

    A paper written for the SpaceOps 2012 Conference (Simplify ISS Flight Control Communications and Log Keeping via Social Tools and Techniques) identified three innovative concepts for real time flight control communications tools based on social mechanisms: a) Console Log Tool (CoLT) - A log keeping application at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) that provides "anywhere" access, comment and notifications features similar to those found in Social Networking Systems (SNS), b) Cross-Log Communication via Social Techniques - A concept from Johnsson Space Center's (JSC) Mission Control Center Houston (MCC-H) that would use microblogging's @tag and #tag protocols to make information/requests visible and/or discoverable in logs owned by @Destination addressees, and c) Communications Dashboard (CommDash) - A MSFC concept for a Facebook-like interface to visually integrate and manage basic console log content, text chat streams analogous to voice loops, text chat streams dedicated to particular conversations, generic and position-specific status displays/streams, and a graphically based hailing display. CoLT was deployed operationally at nearly the same time as SpaceOps 2012, the Cross- Log Communications idea is currently waiting for a champion to carry it forward, and CommDash was approved as a NASA Iinformation Technoloby (IT) Labs project. This paper discusses lessons learned from two years of actual CoLT operations, updates CommDash prototype development status, and discusses potential for using Cross-Log Communications in both MCC-H and/or POIC environments, and considers other ways for synergizing console applcations.

  3. Comparison of 3D-OP-OSEM and 3D-FBP reconstruction algorithms for High-Resolution Research Tomograph studies: effects of randoms estimation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Velden, Floris H. P.; Kloet, Reina W.; van Berckel, Bart N. M.; Wolfensberger, Saskia P. A.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Boellaard, Ronald

    2008-06-01

    The High-Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT) is a dedicated human brain positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. Recently, a 3D filtered backprojection (3D-FBP) reconstruction method has been implemented to reduce bias in short duration frames, currently observed in 3D ordinary Poisson OSEM (3D-OP-OSEM) reconstructions. Further improvements might be expected using a new method of variance reduction on randoms (VRR) based on coincidence histograms instead of using the delayed window technique (DW) to estimate randoms. The goal of this study was to evaluate VRR in combination with 3D-OP-OSEM and 3D-FBP reconstruction techniques. To this end, several phantom studies and a human brain study were performed. For most phantom studies, 3D-OP-OSEM showed higher accuracy of observed activity concentrations with VRR than with DW. However, both positive and negative deviations in reconstructed activity concentrations and large biases of grey to white matter contrast ratio (up to 88%) were still observed as a function of scan statistics. Moreover 3D-OP-OSEM+VRR also showed bias up to 64% in clinical data, i.e. in some pharmacokinetic parameters as compared with those obtained with 3D-FBP+VRR. In the case of 3D-FBP, VRR showed similar results as DW for both phantom and clinical data, except that VRR showed a better standard deviation of 6-10%. Therefore, VRR should be used to correct for randoms in HRRT PET studies.

  4. Canada's Industry-University Co-Op Education Accreditation System and Its Inspiration for the Evaluation of China's Industry-University-Institute Cooperative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiubo, Yang; Shibin, Wang; Zha, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The high degree of interest that higher education systems around the world have in employability has driven the profound development of industry-university cooperative education. Canada's industry-university co-op education system has served as a model for global cooperative education, and its accreditation system guarantees the high quality of…

  5. MUSICA MetOp/IASI {H2O,δD} pair retrieval simulations for validating tropospheric moisture pathways in atmospheric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Matthias; Borger, Christian; Wiegele, Andreas; Hase, Frank; García, Omaira E.; Sepúlveda, Eliezer; Werner, Martin

    2017-02-01

    The project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) has shown that the sensor IASI aboard the satellite MetOp can measure the free tropospheric {H2O,δD} pair distribution twice per day on a quasi-global scale. Such data are very promising for investigating tropospheric moisture pathways, however, the complex data characteristics compromise their usage in the context of model evaluation studies. Here we present a tool that allows for simulating MUSICA MetOp/IASI {H2O,δD} pair remote sensing data for a given model atmosphere, thereby creating model data that have the remote sensing data characteristics assimilated. This model data can then be compared to the MUSICA data. The retrieval simulation method is based on the physical principles of radiative transfer and we show that the uncertainty of the simulations is within the uncertainty of the MUSICA MetOp/IASI products, i.e. the retrieval simulations are reliable enough. We demonstrate the working principle of the simulator by applying it to ECHAM5-wiso model data. The few case studies clearly reveal the large potential of the MUSICA MetOp/IASI {H2O,δD} data pairs for evaluating modelled moisture pathways. The tool is made freely available in form of MATLAB and Python routines and can be easily connected to any atmospheric water vapour isotopologue model.

  6. Efficacy of using multiple open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers in an odor emission episode investigation at a semiconductor manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Yung-Chieh; Wu, Chang-Fu; Chang, Pao-Erh; Chen, Shin-Yu; Hwang, Yaw-Huei

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of simultaneously employing three open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers with 3-day consecutive monitoring, using an odor episode as an example. The corresponding monitoring paths were allocated among the possible emission sources of a semiconductor manufacturing plant and the surrounding optoelectronic and electronic-related factories, which were located in a high-tech industrial park. There was a combined total odor rate of 43.9% for the three monitoring paths, each comprised of 736 continuous 5-minute monitoring records and containing detectable odor compounds, such as ammonia, ozone, butyl acetate, and propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA). The results of the logistic regression model indicated that the prevailing south wind and the OP-FTIR monitoring path closest to the emission source in down-wind direction resulted in a high efficacy for detecting odorous samples with odds ratios (OR) of 3.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.9-5.0) and 5.1 (95% CI: 3.6-7.2), respectively. Meanwhile, the odds ratio for detecting ammonia odorous samples was 7.5 for Path II, which was downwind closer to the possible source, as compared to Path III, downwind far away from the possible source. PGMEA could not be monitored at Path II but could be at Path III, indicating the importance of the monitoring path and flow ejection velocities inside the stacks on the monitoring performance of OP-FTIR. Besides, an odds ratio of 5.1 for odorous sample detection was obtained with south prevailing wind comprising 65.0% of the monitoring time period. In general, it is concluded that OP-FTIR operated with multiple paths simultaneously shall be considered for investigation on relatively complicated episodes such as emergency of chemical release, multiple-source emission and chemical monitoring for odor in a densely populated plant area to enhance the efficacy of OP-FTIR monitoring.

  7. The direct fitting approach for total ozone column retrievals: a sensitivity study on GOME-2/MetOp-A measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassmann, A.; Borsdorff, T.; aan de Brugh, J. M. J.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Aben, I.; Landgraf, J.

    2015-10-01

    We present a sensitivity study of the direct fitting approach to retrieve total ozone columns from the clear sky Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2/MetOp-A (GOME-2/MetOp-A) measurements between 325 and 335 nm in the period 2007-2010. The direct fitting of the measurement is based on adjusting the scaling of a reference ozone profile and requires accurate simulation of GOME-2 radiances. In this context, we study the effect of three aspects that introduce forward model errors if not addressed appropriately: (1) the use of a clear sky model atmosphere in the radiative transfer demanding cloud filtering, (2) different approximations of Earth's sphericity to address the influence of the solar zenith angle, and (3) the need of polarization in radiative transfer modeling. We conclude that cloud filtering using the operational GOME-2 FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A band) cloud product, which is part of level 1B data, and the use of pseudo-spherical scalar radiative transfer is fully sufficient for the purpose of this retrieval. A validation with ground-based measurements at 36 stations confirms this showing a global mean bias of -0.1 % with a standard deviation (SD) of 2.7 %. The regularization effect inherent to the profile scaling approach is thoroughly characterized by the total column averaging kernel for each individual retrieval. It characterizes the effect of the particular choice of the ozone profile to be scaled by the inversion and is part of the retrieval product. Two different interpretations of the data product are possible: first, regarding the retrieval product as an estimate of the true column, a direct comparison of the retrieved column with total ozone columns from ground-based measurements can be done. This requires accurate a priori knowledge of the reference ozone profile and the column averaging kernel is not needed. Alternatively, the retrieval product can be interpreted as an effective column defined by the total column

  8. Effect of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) point-of-care testing in OP poisoning on knowledge, attitudes and practices of treating physicians in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxicology and Emergency medicine textbooks recommend measurement of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in all symptomatic cases of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning but laboratory facilities are limited in rural Asia. The accuracy of point-of-care (POC) acetylcholinesterase testing has been demonstrated but it remains to be shown whether results would be valued by clinicians. This study aims to assess the effect of seeing AChE POC test results on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of doctors who frequently manage OP poisoning. Methods We surveyed 23 clinicians, who had different levels of exposure to seeing AChE levels in OP poisoned patients, on a) knowledge of OP poisoning and biomarker interpretation, b) attitudes towards AChE in guiding poison management, oxime therapy and discharge decisions, and c) practices of ordering AChE in poisoning scenarios. Results An overall high proportion of doctors valued the test (68-89%). However, we paradoxically found that doctors who were more experienced in seeing AChE results valued the test less. Lower proportions valued the test in guidance of acute poisoning management (50%, p = 0.015) and guidance of oxime therapy (25%, p = 0.008), and it was apparent it would not generally be used to facilitate early discharge. The highest proportion of respondents valued it on admission (p < 0.001). A lack of correlation of test results with the clinical picture, and a perception that the test was a waste of money when compared to clinical observation alone were also comments raised by some of the respondents. Greater experience with seeing AChE test results was associated with increased knowledge (p = 0.034). However, a disproportionate lack of knowledge on interpretation of biomarkers and the pharmacology of oxime therapy (12-50%) was noted, when compared with knowledge on the mechanism of OP poisoning and management (78-90%). Conclusions Our findings suggest an AChE POC test may not be valued by rural doctors. The practical

  9. Le POSSUM: un bon score pour prédire la mortalité du sujet âgé opéré en urgence?

    PubMed Central

    Mzoughi, Zeineb; Bayar, Rached; Djebbi, Achref; Talbi, Ghofrane; Romdhane, Hayfa; Aloui, Wafa; Lassaad, Gharbi; Khalfallah, Mohamed Taher

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le POSSUM (Physiologic and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity) est un score prédictif de mortalité qui est largement utilisé en chirurgie aortique élective et abdominale. Le but de notre étude est une validation du POSSUM chez le sujet âgé (>70 ans) opéré pour une urgence digestive. Nous nous proposons d'étudier les meilleurs seuils du POSSUM, composé d'un score physiologique et d'un score opératoire, pour prédire la mortalité dans cette population. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective analytique de type cas témoin à partir d'une série de 291 patients d'âge ≥ 70 ans opérés pour une urgence digestive. Ces patients étaient répartis en deux groupes comportant 50 patients chacun. Le groupe "DC": patients décédés en post opératoire immédiat et le Groupe témoin "SURV" choisis par tirage au sort. Nous avons analysé la fiabilité du POSSUM pour prédire la mortalité et la morbidité. Par la suite, nous avons établi des courbes de ROC pour définir les seuils qui donnent le meilleur couple sensibilité/spécificité. Résultats Le score physiologique, le score opératoire et les taux de morbidité et mortalité prédits par POSSUM et la mortalité prédit par P-POSSUM représentaient des facteurs prédictifs de mortalité (P <0,0001). Les valeurs seuils du score physiologique et du score opératoire qui donnent le meilleur couple sensibilité/spécificité, étaient respectivement de 23 et 15. Conclusion Prédire la mortalité permet de cibler la prise en charge et d'informer le patient et sa famille des risques encourus. PMID:27795763

  10. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry N.; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Tom; Callantine, Todd J.; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This document is an update to the operations and procedures envisioned for NASA s Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1). The ATD-1 Concept of Operations (ConOps) integrates three NASA technologies to achieve high throughput, fuel-efficient arrival operations into busy terminal airspace. They are Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM) for precise time-based schedules to the runway and points within the terminal area, Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) decision support tools for terminal controllers to better manage aircraft delay using speed control, and Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics and flight crew procedures to conduct airborne spacing operations. The ATD-1 concept provides de-conflicted and efficient operations of multiple arrival streams of aircraft, passing through multiple merge points, from top-of-descent (TOD) to the Final Approach Fix. These arrival streams are Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from en route altitude to the runway, using primarily speed control to maintain separation and schedule. The ATD-1 project is currently addressing the challenges of integrating the three technologies, and their implantation into an operational environment. The ATD-1 goals include increasing the throughput of high-density airports, reducing controller workload, increasing efficiency of arrival operations and the frequency of trajectory-based operations, and promoting aircraft ADS-B equipage.

  11. The COSMO-SkyMed ground and ILS and OPS segments upgrades for full civilian capacity exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasano, L.; De Luca, G. F.; Cardone, M.; Loizzo, R.; Sacco, P.; Daraio, M. G.

    2015-10-01

    COSMO-SkyMed (CSK), is an Earth Observation joint program between Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (Italian Space Agency, ASI) and Italian Ministry of Defense (It-MoD). It consists of a constellation of four X Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) whose first satellite of has been launched on June 2007. Today the full constellation is fully qualified and is in an operative phase. The COSMO-SkyMed System includes 3 Segments: the Space Segment, the Ground Segment and the Integrated Logistic Support and Operations Segment (ILS and OPS) As part of a more complex re-engineering process aimed to improve the expected constellation lifetime, to fully exploit several system capabilities, to manage the obsolescence, to reduce the maintenance costs and to exploit the entire constellation capability for Civilian users a series of activities have been performed. In the next months these activities are planned to be completed and start to be operational so that it will be possible the programming, planning, acquisition, raw processing and archiving of all the images that the constellation can acquire.

  12. China’s new-age small farms and their vertical integration: agribusiness or co-ops?

    PubMed

    Huang, Philip C C

    2011-01-01

    The future of Chinese agriculture lies not with large mechanized farms but with small capital-labor dual intensifying family farms for livestock-poultry-fish raising and vegetable-fruit cultivation. Chinese food consumption patterns have been changing from the old 8:1:1 pattern of 8 parts grain, 1 part meat, and 1 part vegetables to a 4:3:3 pattern, with a corresponding transformation in agricultural structure. Small family-farming is better suited for the new-age agriculture, including organic farming, than large-scale mechanized farming, because of the intensive, incremental, and variegated hand labor involved, not readily open to economies of scale, though compatible with economies of scope. It is also better suited to the realities of severe population pressure on land. But it requires vertical integration from cultivation to processing to marketing, albeit without horizontal integration for farming. It is against such a background that co-ops have arisen spontaneously for integrating small farms with processing and marketing. The Chinese government, however, has been supporting aggressively capitalistic agribusinesses as the preferred mode of vertical integration. At present, Chinese agriculture is poised at a crossroads, with the future organizational mode for vertical integration as yet uncertain.

  13. Molecular characterization of OP354-like P[8] (P[8]b subtype) human rotaviruses A species isolated in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kuzuya, Mitsutaka; Fujii, Ritsushi; Hamano, Masako; Kida, Kouji; Kanadani, Tomohisa; Nishimura, Keiko; Kishimoto, Toshio

    2012-04-01

    OP354-like P[8] (P[8]b subtype) species A rotaviruses (RVAs) were isolated first time in Japan during a RVA survey in Okayama Prefecture between 2006 and 2009. Two of 236 RVA-positive samples were identified as G1P[8]b by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. P[8]b strains (RVA/human-wt/JPN/OH1998/2008/G1P[8]b and RVA/human-wt/JPN/OH2024/2008/G1P[8]b) were isolated only in May, 2008 and both patients infected with P[8]b viruses lived in the same city, suggesting that the prevalence of P[8]b RVAs is limited considerably in Okayama Prefecture. Molecular analysis of four genes (VP4, VP6, VP7, and NSP4 genes) of Japanese P[8]b strains revealed that the VP4 genes of these strains were related closely to those of Southeast Asian and Indian P[8]b strains. In contrast, the VP6, VP7, and NSP4 genes of Japanese P[8]b strains were highly homologous to G1P[8]a strains prevalent in the same area. These results suggest that the Japanese P[8]b strain may be a result of reassortment events between Japanese G1P[8]a viruses and unidentified Asian viruses possessing the P[8]b VP4 gene.

  14. Round-robin evaluation of nadir ozone profile retrievals: methodology and application to MetOp-A GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppens, A.; Lambert, J.-C.; Granville, J.; Miles, G.; Siddans, R.; van Peet, J. C. A.; van der A, R. J.; Hubert, D.; Verhoelst, T.; Delcloo, A.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Kivi, R.; Stubi, R.; Zehner, C.

    2015-05-01

    A methodology for the round-robin evaluation and the geophysical validation of ozone profile data retrieved from nadir UV backscatter satellite measurements is detailed and discussed, consisting of data set content studies, information content studies, co-location studies, and comparisons with reference measurements. Within the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative on ozone (Ozone_cci project), the proposed round-robin procedure is applied to two nadir ozone profile data sets retrieved at the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL, United Kingdom), using their respective OPERA v1.26 and RAL v2.1 optimal estimation algorithms, from MetOp-A GOME-2 (i.e. the second generation Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment on the first Meteorological Operational Satellite) measurements taken in 2008. The ground-based comparisons use ozonesonde and lidar profiles as reference data, acquired by the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde programme (SHADOZ), and other stations of the World Meteorological Organisation's Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO GAW). This direct illustration highlights practical issues that inevitably emerge from discrepancies in e.g. profile representation and vertical smoothing, for which different recipes are investigated and discussed. Several approaches for information content quantification, vertical resolution estimation, and reference profile resampling are compared and applied as well. The paper concludes with compliance estimates of the two GOME-2 ozone profile data sets with user requirements from the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and from climate modellers.

  15. Round-robin evaluation of nadir ozone profile retrievals: methodology and application to MetOp-A GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppens, A.; Lambert, J.-C.; Granville, J.; Miles, G.; Siddans, R.; van Peet, J. C. A.; van der A, R. J.; Hubert, D.; Verhoelst, T.; Delcloo, A.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Kivi, R.; Stübi, R.; Zehner, C.

    2014-11-01

    A methodology for the round-robin evaluation and geophysical validation of ozone profile data retrieved from nadir UV backscatter satellite measurements is detailed and discussed, consisting of dataset content studies, information content studies, co-location studies, and comparisons with reference measurements. Within ESA's Climate Change Initiative on ozone (Ozone_cci project), the proposed round-robin procedure is applied to two nadir ozone profile datasets retrieved at KNMI and RAL, using their respective OPERA v1.26 and RAL v2.1 optimal estimation algorithms, from MetOp-A GOME-2 measurements taken in 2008. The ground-based comparisons use ozonesonde and lidar profiles as reference data, acquired by the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde programme (SHADOZ), and other stations of WMO's Global Atmosphere Watch. This direct illustration highlights practical issues that inevitably emerge from discrepancies in e.g. profile representation and vertical smoothing, for which different recipes are investigated and discussed. Several approaches for information content quantification, vertical resolution estimation, and reference profile resampling are compared and applied as well. The paper concludes with compliance estimates of the two GOME-2 ozone profile datasets with user requirements from GCOS and from climate modellers.

  16. "Built-In" Action/Issues Tracking and Post-Ops Analysis Tool for Realtime Console Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for the International Space Station (ISS) uses a number of formal databases to manage and track flight plan changes, onboard and ground equipment anomalies, and other events. However, individual console positions encounter many action items and/or occurrences that don't fit neatly into the databases, and while console logs are comprehensive, manual or automated searches do not always yield consistent results. The Payload Communications Manager (PAYCOM) team, whose members speak directly with the ISS onboard crew with respect to NASA payload operations, has found a creative way to reformat a mandatory Daily Report to organize action items, standing reminders, significant events, and other comments. While the report keeps others appraised of PAYCOMs activities and issues of the moment, the format makes it easy to capture very brief summaries of the items in a "Roll Off Matrix", including start and stop dates, resolution, and possible applicability to future ops. The matrix provides accountability for all action items, gives direct insight into the issues surrounding various payloads and methods of dealing with them, yields indirect information on PAYCOM priorities and processes, and provides a roadmap that makes it easier to get back to extensive details if needed. This paper describes how the ISS PAYCOM Daily Report and Roll Off Matrix are organized, used, and inter-related to each other and the PAYCOM operations log. While the application is for a manned vehicle, the concepts could apply in a wide spectrum of operational settings.

  17. OP-Triplet-ELM: Identification of real and pseudo microRNA precursors using extreme learning machine with optimal features.

    PubMed

    Pian, Cong; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Zhi; Li, Qin; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Liang-Yun

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a set of short (21-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that play significant regulatory roles in the cells. Triplet-SVM-classifier and MiPred (random forest, RF) can identify the real pre-miRNAs from other hairpin sequences with similar stem-loop (pseudo pre-miRNAs). However, the 32-dimensional local contiguous structure-sequence can induce a great information redundancy. Therefore, it is essential to develop a method to reduce the dimension of feature space. In this paper, we propose optimal features of local contiguous structure-sequences (OP-Triplet). These features can avoid the information redundancy effectively and decrease the dimension of the feature vector from 32 to 8. Meanwhile, a hybrid feature can be formed by combining minimum free energy (MFE) and structural diversity. We also introduce a neural network algorithm called extreme learning machine (ELM). The results show that the specificity ([Formula: see text])and sensitivity ([Formula: see text]) of our method are 92.4% and 91.0%, respectively. Compared with Triplet-SVM-classifier, the total accuracy (ACC) of our ELM method increases by 5%. Compared with MiPred (RF) and miRANN, the total accuracy (ACC) of our ELM method increases nearly by 2%. What is more, our method commendably reduces the dimension of the feature space and the training time.

  18. Pneumothorax spontané secondaire post opératoire compliquant une paralysie récurrentielle

    PubMed Central

    Joulali, Toufik; Derkaou, Ali; Shimi, Abdelkarim; Khatouf, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Le Pneumothorax spontané est défini par un épanchement gazeux de la grande cavité pleurale en dehors de tout traumatisme ou manipulation instrumentale. Son incidence est estimée à 28/100000 pour les hommes et 6/100000 pour les femmes. Les étiologies sont dominées par la broncho-pneumopathies chroniques et obstructives. Le tableau clinique est souvent grave d'emblé nécessitant une exsufflation à l'aiguille et/ou un drainage thoracique. Les récidives sont assez fréquentes et la mortalité reste assez élevée en comparaison avec les pneumothorax post traumatique ou les pneumothorax primaires. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente présentant en post opératoire un pneumothorax spontané sur un poumon métastatique et compliquant une paralysie récurrentielle. PMID:25419334

  19. Development Of VHF (240-270 MHz) Antennas For SoOp (Signal Of Opportunity) Receiver For 6u Cubesat Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, A. T.; Deshpande, M.; O'Neill, P. E.; Miles, L.

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this research is to design, fabricate, and test deployable VHF antennas for 6U Cubesat platforms to enable validation of root zone soil moisture (RZSM) estimation algorithms for signal of opportunity (SoOp) remote sensing over the 240-270 MHz frequency band. The proposed work provides a strong foundation for establishing a technology development path for maturing a truly global direct surface soil moisture (SM) and RZSM measurement system (Figure 1) over a variety of land covers with limited density restrictions. In SoOp methodology, signals transmitted by already existing transmitters (known as transmitters of opportunity, in this case the Military Satellite Communication (MilSatCom) System's UHF Follow-On program) are utilized to measure properties of reflecting targets by recording reflected signals using a simple passive microwave receiver.

  20. Spatiotemporal pattern of neuronal injury induced by DFP in rats: A model for delayed neuronal cell death following acute OP intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yonggang; Lein, Pamela J.; Liu Cuimei; Bruun, Donald A.; Tewolde, Teclemichael; Ford, Gregory; Ford, Byron D.

    2011-06-15

    Organophosphate (OP) neurotoxins cause acute cholinergic toxicity and seizures resulting in delayed brain damage and persistent neurological symptoms. Testing novel strategies for protecting against delayed effects of acute OP intoxication has been hampered by the lack of appropriate animal models. In this study, we characterize the spatiotemporal pattern of cellular injury after acute intoxication with the OP diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received pyridostigmine (0.1 mg/kg, im) and atropine methylnitrate (20 mg/kg, im) prior to DFP (9 mg/kg, ip) administration. All DFP-treated animals exhibited moderate to severe seizures within minutes after DFP injection but survived up to 72 h. AChE activity was significantly depressed in the cortex, hippocampus, subcortical brain tissue and cerebellum at 1 h post-DFP injection and this inhibition persisted for up to 72 h. Analysis of neuronal injury by Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) labeling revealed delayed neuronal cell death in the hippocampus, cortex, amygdala and thalamus, but not the cerebellum, starting at 4 h and persisting until 72 h after DFP treatment, although temporal profiles varied between brain regions. At 24 h post-DFP injection, the pattern of FJB labeling corresponded to TUNEL staining in most brain regions, and FJB-positive cells displayed reduced NeuN immunoreactivity but were not immunopositive for astrocytic (GFAP), oligodendroglial (O4) or macrophage/microglial (ED1) markers, demonstrating that DFP causes a region-specific delayed neuronal injury mediated in part by apoptosis. These findings indicate the feasibility of this model for testing neuroprotective strategies, and provide insight regarding therapeutic windows for effective pharmacological intervention following acute OP intoxication. - Research Highlights: > DFP induced neuronal FJB labeling starting at 4-8 h after treatment > The pattern of DFP-induced FJB labeling closely corresponded to TUNEL staining > FJB

  1. Improved performance of Brucella melitensis native hapten over Brucella abortus OPS tracer on goat antibody detection by the fluorescence polarization assay.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Pfeiffer, C; Díaz-Aparicio, E; Rodríguez-Padilla, C; Morales-Loredo, A; Alvarez-Ojeda, G; Gomez-Flores, R

    2008-06-15

    The current method for goat brucellosis diagnosis is based on the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) using the screening card test (CT), with antigen at 8% (CT8) or 3% (CT3) of cell concentrations, and the confirmatory complement fixation test (CFT). However, these tests do not differentiate antibodies induced by vaccination from those derived from field infections by Brucella species or other bacterial agents; in places like Mexico, where the prevalence of brucellosis and the vaccination rates are high, there is a considerable percentage of false positive reactions that causes significant unnecessary slaughter of animals. Furthermore, results of the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) using the Brucella abortus O-polysaccharide (OPS) tracer in goats are poorer than those with cattle. The present study was undertaken to investigate a tracer prepared from the native hapten (NH) of the Rev. 1 strain of Brucella melitensis to improve FPA performance on goat brucellosis diagnosis. Evaluation of 48 positive samples and 96 negative samples showed that the NH tracer was more accurate (p<0.01) than the OPS tracer (97.2% vs. 93.8% accuracy, respectively). On the diagnostic performance evaluation, the NH tracer performed better (87.5% accuracy, 79.5% sensitivity, 84.3% specificity, and 163.8 performance index) than the OPS tracer (83.5%, 75.9%, 81.0%, and 156.9, respectively) using 1009 positive and 2039 negative Mexican field goat sera samples selected by test series approved by the OIE (card test 3% and CFT). We demonstrated a new application for the NH lipopolysaccharide on detecting antibodies against Brucella using the FPA, which may yield faster results (minutes vs. 24-72h) than the immunodiagnosis assays frequently used in bovine brucellosis. In addition, NH tracer produces similar or better performance results than the conventional OPS tracer, using the FPA in goat sera samples.

  2. Toxicological assessment of isomeric pesticides: a strategy for testing of chiral organophosphorus (OP) compounds for delayed polyneuropathy in a regulatory setting.

    PubMed

    Battershill, Jon M; Edwards, Philippa M; Johnson, Martin K

    2004-08-01

    Many compounds, including some pesticides, contain structural centres of asymmetry, which convey the property of a type of stereoisomerism known as chirality. Such compounds can exist in two or more forms, depending on the number of chiral atoms and are termed stereoisomers or enantiomers. Stereoisomers of a particular compound can have different biological properties; one such of particular importance for toxicological evaluation, is the potential for differences in metabolic disposal of and binding of stereoisomers to molecular targets in the cell. The combination of differential metabolism of chiral organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and opposing stereoselectivity of inhibition of neuropathy target esterase (NTE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) can affect the value of the hen test, performed to OECD guidelines, in predicting the potential to cause organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) in humans. This is a mixed central and sensory and motor neuropathy. The experimental data on structural analogues of the pesticide methamidophos and the evidence for stereoselective OPIDP are reviewed and a model is given demonstrating how the properties of a chiral OP can result in the neuropathic potential not being detected by the standard hen test. A strategy for the assessment of a racemic mixture comprised of two OP enantiomers for the potential to induce OPIDP is outlined. The strategy uses information from structure activity relationships (SAR), in vitro tests and in vivo tests to allow risk assessment decisions to be made. It is suggested that the potential for stereoselective toxicity of pesticides should be routinely considered in regulatory assessments.

  3. Chaînes opératoires and resource-exploitation strategies in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nut cracking.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Susana; Cunha, Eugénia; Sousa, Cláudia; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2008-07-01

    We apply archaeological methods to extend our knowledge of chimpanzee material culture. The chaîne opératoire conceptual framework, as introduced by ethnography, established technology as a phased process. Prehistoric archaeology adopted this concept to elucidate technological variability in tool-making procedures, based on knowledge of tool functions or subsistence patterns. We focused on the detection of operational sequences by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) when nut cracking with lithic implements at the sites of Bossou and Diecké, Guinea, West Africa. Thus, while it has recently been claimed that chimpanzees leave behind recognizable assemblages of stone hammers that can be morphologically distinguished from Oldowan hammers, this is the first study to focus specifically on the existence of operational sequences during the utilization of stone tools by wild chimpanzees. By combining primatological and archaeological methods and examining ecological areas inhabited by different chimpanzee groups, we sought technological variability and identified variables influencing regional diversity in tool typology and technology. We compared three case studies: (1) Bossou-direct recording of experimental nut-cracking sessions; (2) Bossou- direct and indirect monitoring of nut-cracking sites in the wild; (3) Diecké-indirect monitoring of nut-cracking sites in the wild. Results suggest that chimpanzees perform sequences of repeated tool transport and nut cracking. Data show discrimination of tool functions based on tool features. We identified the most technologically complex tool for nut cracking, which was composed of four stones. We found regional diversity in chimpanzee stone assemblages. Raw-material type and tool mobility constrain technological development in human and nonhuman primates. Spatial analysis of tool distribution indicates a pattern of resource-exploitation strategy, revealing affinities with Oldowan.

  4. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  5. SILTECH OP-40

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: this surface collecting agent used in oil spill cleanups should be sprayed on water around the perimeter of an oil slick using a pressurized backpack sprayer or aerial applicator, to aid in situ burning.

  6. Effects of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) on the development, differentiation, and maturation of marginal metallophilic macrophages and marginal zone macrophages in the spleen of osteopetrosis (op) mutant mice lacking functional M-CSF activity.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K; Umeda, S; Shultz, L D; Hayashi, S; Nishikawa, S

    1994-05-01

    Immunohistochemical techniques using an anti-mouse panmacrophage monoclonal antibody and anti-mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for marginal metallophilic macrophages or marginal zone macrophages were used to detect red pulp macrophages, marginal metallophilic macrophages, and marginal zone macrophages in the spleen of op/op mice. In the mutant mice, the red pulp macrophages were reduced to about 60% of those in the normal littermates and the marginal metallophilic macrophages and marginal zone macrophages were absent. After administration of recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhM-CSF), numbers of red pulp macrophages increased rapidly, reaching levels found in normal littermates 1 week later. In contrast, the marginal metallophilic macrophages as well as the marginal zone macrophages appeared slowly after rhM-CSF administration and their numbers were less than half of the baseline level of normal littermates even at 12 weeks of administration. The distribution of marginal metallophilic macrophages and marginal zone macrophages appearing after M-CSF administration was irregular in the spleen of the op/op mice. These splenic macrophage subpopulations differed in their responses to rhM-CSF, suggesting that distinct mechanisms may be involved in their development and differentiation. The splenic red pulp macrophages present in unmanipulated op/op mice are an M-CSF-independent macrophage population. Although the marginal metallophilic macrophages and marginal zone macrophages are thought to be M-CSF-dependent, their development and differentiation appear to be influenced by locally produced M-CSF or other cytokines.

  7. Flight Deck Surface Trajectory-based Operations (STBO): Results of Piloted Simulations and Implications for Concepts of Operation (ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foyle, David C.; Hooey, Becky L.; Bakowski, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    The results offour piloted medium-fidelity simulations investigating flight deck surface trajectory-based operations (STBO) will be reviewed. In these flight deck STBO simulations, commercial transport pilots were given taxi clearances with time and/or speed components and required to taxi to the departing runway or an intermediate traffic intersection. Under a variety of concept of operations (ConOps) and flight deck information conditions, pilots' ability to taxi in compliance with the required time of arrival (RTA) at the designated airport location was measured. ConOps and flight deck information conditions explored included: Availability of taxi clearance speed and elapsed time information; Intermediate RTAs at intermediate time constraint points (e.g., intersection traffic flow points); STBO taxi clearances via ATC voice speed commands or datal ink; and, Availability of flight deck display algorithms to reduce STBO RTA error. Flight Deck Implications. Pilot RTA conformance for STBO clearances, in the form of ATC taxi clearances with associated speed requirements, was found to be relatively poor, unless the pilot is required to follow a precise speed and acceleration/deceleration profile. However, following such a precise speed profile results in inordinate head-down tracking of current ground speed, leading to potentially unsafe operations. Mitigating these results, and providing good taxi RTA performance without the associated safety issues, is a flight deck avionics or electronic flight bag (EFB) solution. Such a solution enables pilots to meet the taxi route RTA without moment-by-moment tracking of ground speed. An avionics or EFB "error-nulling" algorithm allows the pilot to view the STBO information when the pilot determines it is necessary and when workload alloys, thus enabling the pilot to spread his/her attention appropriately and strategically on aircraft separation airport navigation, and the many other flight deck tasks concurrently required

  8. Polymorphisms of the centrosomal gene (FGFR1OP) and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 14 463 cases and 44 188 controls

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Xiaozheng; Liu, Hongliang; Onaitis, Mark W.; Liu, Zhensheng; Owzar, Kouros; Han, Younghun; Su, Li; Wei, Yongyue; Hung, Rayjean J.; Brhane, Yonathan; McLaughlin, John; Brennan, Paul; Bickeböller, Heike; Rosenberger, Albert; Houlston, Richard S.; Caporaso, Neil; Landi, Maria Teresa; Heinrich, Joachim; Risch, Angela; Wu, Xifeng; Ye, Yuanqing; Christiani, David C.; Amos, Christopher I.; Wei, Qingyi

    2016-01-01

    Centrosome abnormalities are often observed in premalignant lesions and in situ tumors and have been associated with aneuploidy and tumor development. We investigated the associations of 9354 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 106 centrosomal genes with lung cancer risk by first using the summary data from six published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of the Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung (TRICL) (12 160 cases and 16 838 controls) and then conducted in silico replication in two additional independent lung cancer GWASs of Harvard University (984 cases and 970 controls) and deCODE (1319 cases and 26 380 controls). A total of 44 significant SNPs with false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.05 were mapped to one novel gene FGFR1OP and two previously reported genes (TUBB and BRCA2). After combined the results from TRICL with those from Harvard and deCODE, the most significant association (P combined = 8.032×10−6) was with rs151606 within FGFR1OP. The rs151606 T>G was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.05–1.14]. Another significant tagSNP rs12212247 T>C (P combined = 9.589×10−6) was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.90–0.96). Further in silico functional analyzes revealed that rs151606 might affect transcriptional regulation and result in decreased FGFR1OP expression (P trend = 0.022). The findings shed some new light on the role of centrosome abnormalities in the susceptibility to lung carcinogenesis. PMID:26905588

  9. Evaluating a school-based fruit and vegetable co-op in low-income children: A quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shreela V; Markham, Christine; Chow, Joanne; Ranjit, Nalini; Pomeroy, Michael; Raber, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new school-based food co-op program, Brighter Bites (BB), to increase fruit and vegetable intake, and home nutrition environment among low-income 1st graders and their parents. This was a non-randomized controlled comparative effectiveness trial (2013-2015). Six schools received BB (n=407 parent-child dyads); six comparison schools implemented a coordinated school health program (n=310 parent-child dyads) in Houston, Texas, 2013-2015. Brighter Bites (BB) is a 16-week school-based food co-op comprising weekly distribution of fresh produce (50 servings); nutrition education in schools and for parents; and weekly recipe tastings. Measurements included parent-reported home nutrition environment surveys, and food frequency questionnaires for parent and child. Intervention effects were examined using multivariate analyses. At baseline, the sample was 71% Hispanic, 24% African American; 43% of 1st graders were overweight/obese. Children receiving BB had significant increases in intake of fruit servings (P=0.046), vegetable servings (P=0.049), and decreased intake of added sugars (P=0.014). Among parents, there were significant increases in fruit consumed (P=0.032); vegetable intake increased baseline to midpoint but not post-intervention. Among BB families, there were significant improvements in the home environment including understanding and usage of nutrition facts labels to make food purchases (P<0.05), frequency of cooking (P=0.007), rules and practices regarding eating family meals (P=0.022), serving fruits (P=0.005) and vegetables (P=0.028) at meals, and limiting portion sizes (P=0.016). In conclusion, a school-based food co-op model shows promising results in improving dietary habits and home nutrition environment among low-income families.

  10. Expression of Baculovirus Anti-Apoptotic Genes p35 and op-iap in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Enhances Tolerance to Verticillium Wilt

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Benguo; Li, Shanwei; Wu, Zhixia; Wang, Qianhua; Leng, Chunxu; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Background Programmed cell death plays an important role in mediating plant adaptive responses to the environment such as the invasion of pathogens. Verticillium wilt, caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Verticillium dahliae, is a serious vascular disease responsible for great economic losses to cotton, but the molecular mechanisms of verticillium disease and effective, safe methods of resistance to verticillium wilt remain unexplored. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we introduced baculovirus apoptosis inhibitor genes p35 and op-iap into the genome of cotton via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and analyzed the response of transgenic plants to verticillium wilt. Results showed that p35 and op-iap constructs were stably integrated into the cotton genome, expressed in the transgenic lines, and inherited through the T3 generation. The transgenic lines had significantly increased tolerance to verticillium wilt throughout the developmental stages. The disease index of T1–T3 generation was lower than 19, significantly (P<0.05) better than the negative control line z99668. After treatment with 250 mg/L VD-toxins for 36 hours, DNA from negative control leaves was fragmented, whereas fragmentation in the transgenic leaf DNA did not occur. The percentage of cell death in transgenic lines increased by 7.11% after 60 mg/L VD-toxin treatment, which was less than that of the negative control lines's 21.27%. This indicates that p35 and op-iap gene expression partially protects cells from VD-toxin induced programmed cell death (PCD). Conclusion/Significance Verticillium dahliae can trigger plant cells to die through induction of a PCD mechanism involved in pathogenesis. This paper provides a potential strategy for engineering broad-spectrum necrotrophic disease resistance in plants. PMID:21151969

  11. Partial Genome Assembly for a Candidate Division OP11 Single Cell from an Anoxic Spring (Zodletone Spring, Oklahoma)▿†

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Noha H.; Blainey, Paul C.; Quake, Stephen R.; Elshahed, Mostafa S.

    2011-01-01

    Members of candidate division OP11 are widely distributed in terrestrial and marine ecosystems, yet little information regarding their metabolic capabilities and ecological role within such habitats is currently available. Here, we report on the microfluidic isolation, multiple-displacement-amplification, pyrosequencing, and genomic analysis of a single cell (ZG1) belonging to candidate division OP11. Genome analysis of the ∼270-kb partial genome assembly obtained showed that it had no particular similarity to a specific phylum. Four hundred twenty-three open reading frames were identified, 46% of which had no function prediction. In-depth analysis revealed a heterotrophic lifestyle, with genes encoding endoglucanase, amylopullulanase, and laccase enzymes, suggesting a capacity for utilization of cellulose, starch, and, potentially, lignin, respectively. Genes encoding several glycolysis enzymes as well as formate utilization were identified, but no evidence for an electron transport chain was found. The presence of genes encoding various components of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis indicates a Gram-negative bacterial cell wall. The partial genome also provides evidence for antibiotic resistance (β-lactamase, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase), as well as antibiotic production (bacteriocin) and extracellular bactericidal peptidases. Multiple mechanisms for stress response were identified, as were elements of type I and type IV secretion systems. Finally, housekeeping genes identified within the partial genome were used to demonstrate the OP11 affiliation of multiple hitherto unclassified genomic fragments from multiple database-deposited metagenomic data sets. These results provide the first glimpse into the lifestyle of a member of a ubiquitous, yet poorly understood bacterial candidate division. PMID:21908640

  12. The impact of the revised 17O(p, α)14N reaction rate on 17O stellar abundances and yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straniero, O.; Bruno, C. G.; Aliotta, M.; Best, A.; Boeltzig, A.; Bemmerer, D.; Broggini, C.; Caciolli, A.; Cavanna, F.; Ciani, G. F.; Corvisiero, P.; Cristallo, S.; Davinson, T.; Depalo, R.; Di Leva, A.; Elekes, Z.; Ferraro, F.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, G.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Mossa, V.; Pantaleo, F. R.; Piatti, D.; Piersanti, L.; Prati, P.; Samorjai, E.; Strieder, F.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M. P.; Trezzi, D.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Material processed by the CNO cycle in stellar interiors is enriched in 17O. When mixing processes from the stellar surface reach these layers, as occurs when stars become red giants and undergo the first dredge up, the abundance of 17O increases. Such an occurrence explains the drop of the 16O/17O observed in RGB stars with mass larger than 1.5M⊙. As a consequence, the interstellar medium is continuously polluted by the wind of evolved stars enriched in 17O. Aims: Recently, the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) collaboration released an improved rate of the 17O(p, α)14N reaction. In this paper we discuss the impact that the revised rate has on the 16O/17O ratio at the stellar surface and on 17O stellar yields. Methods: We computed stellar models of initial mass between 1 and 20 M⊙ and compared the results obtained by adopting the revised rate of the 17O(p, α)14N to those obtained using previous rates. Results: The post-first dredge up 16O/17O ratios are about 20% larger than previously obtained. Negligible variations are found in the case of the second and the third dredge up. In spite of the larger 17O(p, α)14N rate, we confirm previous claims that an extra-mixing process on the red giant branch, commonly invoked to explain the low carbon isotopic ratio observed in bright low-mass giant stars, marginally affects the 16O/17O ratio. Possible effects on AGB extra-mixing episodes are also discussed. As a whole, a substantial reduction of 17O stellar yields is found. In particular, the net yield of stars with mass ranging between 2 and 20 M⊙ is 15 to 40% smaller than previously estimated. Conclusions: The revision of the 17O(p, α)14N rate has a major impact on the interpretation of the 16O/17O observed in evolved giants, in stardust grains and on the 17O stellar yields.

  13. Boosting Immune Responses Against Bacterial Pathogens: In Vitro Analysis of Immunomodulators (In Vitro Analyse van de Stimulerende Werking van Verschillende Stoffen op het Immuunsysteem)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Distribution list Onderstaande instanties/personen ontvangen een volledig exernplaar van het rapport. 1 DMO/SC-DR&D standaard inclusief digitale versie...Directeur Militaire Gezondheidszorg 9 CDCIBGGZ Kol-arts H.A. Gerretsen MPH 10 CDCfBGGZ/CEMG A.S. de Koning, arts standaard inclusief digitale versie...Ltkol C.A. Bourgondie n standaard inclusief digitale versie bijgeleverd op cd-rom 16 Mindef/DMO/DWS&B/RLS&B/Logistieke systemen Kol ir. M.B.G. Mulder

  14. A Structural Biology and Protein Engineering Approach to the Development of Antidotes Against the Inhibition of Human Acetylcholinesterase by OP-based Nerve Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    and will be reacted with coumarin. Synthesis of the pure chiral forms of the coumarin surrogate of VX, both the toxic Sp isomer, and the much less...of EMP-CHMC (the O-ethylmethylphosphonyl ester of cyanohydroxymethylcoumarin), to yield both racemic EMP-CHMC and the resolved chiral forms, [+]-EMP...oxime-induced reactivation, and in the velocity of the ‘aging’ reaction, for the hAChE conjugates of the SP and RP chiral forms of OP nerve agents

  15. Root Zone Soil Moisture (RZSM) Estimates Using VHF (240-270 MHZ) Antenna for SoOp (Signal of Opportunity) Receiver for 6U CubeSat Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    The main goal of this research is to develop VHF antennas for 6U Cubesat platforms to enable validation of root zone soil moisture (RZSM) estimation algorithms for signal of opportunity (SoOp) remote sensing over the 240-270 MHz frequency band. This study provides a strong foundation for establishing a path for maturing truly global direct surface soil moisture (SM) and RZSM measurement system over a variety of land covers with limited density restrictions. In SoOp methodology, signals transmitted by already existing transmitters, in this case the Military Satellite Communication (MilSatCom) System's UHF Follow-On program, are utilized to measure properties of reflecting targets by recording reflected signals using a simple passive microwave receiver. We developed and will test VHF (240-270 MHz) antenna technology for SoOp receivers for 6U Cubesat platforms and perform measurement of SM and RZSM using the proposed antennas deployed on a ground-based Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) simulator boom truck. We will validate the RZSM and SM estimation algorithms from measured data (where RZSM is defined as the volumetric SM contained in the top 1 m of the soil column). Knowledge of RZSM up to a depth of 1 m and surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 m on a global scale, at a spatial resolution of 1-10 km through moderate-to-heavy vegetation, is critical to understanding global water resources and the vertical moisture gradient in the Earth's surface layer which controls moisture interactions between the soil, vegetation, and atmosphere. Current observations of surface SM from space by L-band radiometers and radars are limited to measurements of surface SM up to a depth of ~0.05 m through moderate amounts of vegetation. Developing bi-static reflectometry using VHF geostationary satellite SoOp creates the potential of directly observing SM and RZSM on a truly global basis from a constellation of small satellite-based receivers in low earth orbit. The technique provides the

  16. Synthesis and in vitro kinetic study of novel mono-pyridinium oximes as reactivators of organophosphorus (OP) inhibited human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE).

    PubMed

    Valiveti, Aditya Kapil; Bhalerao, Uma M; Acharya, Jyotiranjan; Karade, Hitendra N; Gundapu, Raviraju; Halve, Anand K; Kaushik, Mahabir Parshad

    2015-07-25

    A series of mono pyridinium oximes linked with arenylacetamides as side chains were synthesized and their in vitro reactivation potential was evaluated against human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) inhibited by organophosphorus inhibitors (OP) such as sarin, VX and tabun. The reactivation data of the synthesized compounds were compared with those obtained with standard reactivators such as 2-PAM and obidoxime. The dissociation constant (KD) and specific reactivity (kr) of the oximes were also determined by performing reactivation kinetics against OP inhibited hAChE. Among the synthesized compounds, oximes 1-(2-(4-cyanophenylamino)-2-oxoethyl)-4-((hydroxyimino)methyl)pyridinium chloride (12a) and 4-((hydroxyimino)methyl)-1-(2-(4-methoxyphenylamino)-2-oxoethyl)pyridinium chloride (2a) were found most potent reactivators for hAChE inhibited by sarin. In case of VX inhibited hAChE majority of the oximes have shown good reactivation efficacies. Among these oximes 1-(2-(benzylamino)-2-oxoethyl)-4-((hydroxyimino)methyl)pyridinium chloride (18a), 4-((hydroxyimino)methyl)-1-(2-(4-(methoxycarbonyl)phenylamino)-2-oxoethyl)pyridinium-chloride (14a) and 12a were found to surpass the reactivation potential of 2-PAM and obidoxime. However, the synthesized oximes showed marginal reactivation efficacies in case of tabun inhibited hAChE. The pKa value of the oximes were determined and correlated with their observed reactivation potential.

  17. Positive iodine-131 6 beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59) adrenal images can precede return of adrenocortical function after o,p' DDD treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sparagana, M.; Ackerman, L.

    1988-05-01

    A patient with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, due to the ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) syndrome, received a 3-month course of treatment with 1,1 dichloro-2(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p' DDD), which caused adrenal hypofunction requiring steroid therapy. Eleven months later, Cushing's syndrome recurred. His CT scan showed a left adrenal gland that was enlarged and a normal-sized right adrenal gland. However, the NP-59 image showed increased uptake by both glands. Venous effluent was sampled from each adrenal vein. The plasma cortisol level from the left gland was 1392 ng/ml, and that from the right gland was 667 ng/ml. The latter value was not significantly different from the values obtained at peripheral sites (517-744 ng/ml). In the course of recovery from o,p' DDD damage, the ability of the adrenal gland to take up NP-59 may be restored before the return of its biosynthetic and secretory functions. Serial NP-59 adrenal images can anticipate the recurrence of Cushing's syndrome after adrenolytic therapy, thereby permitting early retreatment.

  18. Orthogonal projection (OP) technique applied to pattern recognition of fingerprints of the herbal medicine houttuynia cordata Thunb. and its final injection products.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhong-Da; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Zhang, Ting; Chau, Foo-Tim; Wang, Ya-Li

    2006-05-01

    It is a crucial issue to determine the origins of herbal medicinal materials and identify the quality grades and fakes of their final products collected from different pharmaceutical corporations. Pattern recognition technique may assist the manufacturers to achieve this purpose and effectively control the quality of their products. In this work, a widely used method in chemometrics, orthogonal projection (OP) technique, was applied to discrimination analysis and identification of fingerprints of the herbal medicine houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HCT) and its final injection products. The advantages of the OP technique are clearly shown after comparing with the conventional methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), Mahalanobis distance (MD), and similarity comparison method (SCM). Three different sources of medicinal material HCT and its final injection products from six different manufacturers were studied under 'sixfold', 'threefold' and 'threefold-bis' cross-validation procedures. The good performance of the proposed method in determination and identification of unknown samples shows it could be a powerful tool for quality control in herbal medicine production and other related research fields.

  19. J1-J2 square-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnets with 4 d1 spins: A MoOP O4Cl (A =K ,Rb )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Hajime; Nakamura, Nanako; Yoshida, Makoto; Takigawa, Masashi; Babkevich, Peter; Qureshi, Navid; Rønnow, Henrik M.; Yajima, Takeshi; Hiroi, Zenji

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic properties of A MoOP O4Cl (A =K ,Rb ) with M o5 + ions in the 4 d1 electronic configuration are investigated by magnetization, heat capacity, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on single crystals, combined with powder neutron diffraction experiments. The magnetization measurements reveal that they are good model compounds for the spin-1/2 J1-J2 square-lattice magnet with the first and second nearest-neighbor interactions. Magnetic transitions are observed at around 6 and 8 K in the K and Rb compounds, respectively. In contrast to the normal Néel-type antiferromagnetic order, the NMR and neutron diffraction experiments find a columnar antiferromagnetic order for each compound, which is stabilized by a dominant antiferromagnetic J2. Both compounds realize the unusual case of two interpenetrating J2 square lattices weakly coupled to each other by J1.

  20. 1.95  μm-pumped OP-GaAs optical parametric oscillator with 10.6  μm idler wavelength.

    PubMed

    Wueppen, Jochen; Nyga, Sebastian; Jungbluth, Bernd; Hoffmann, Dieter

    2016-09-15

    We report on an optical parametric oscillator that generates output idler wavelengths around 10.6 μm. On the basis of orientation-patterned gallium arsenide (OP-GaAs) as a nonlinear medium and a 1.95 μm ns-pulsed pump laser, a signal-resonant bow-tie resonator was designed in order to maximize the output power at moderate intensities well below the damage threshold of the optical components. With this setup, the average idler output power at 50 kHz and 100 ns idler pulse length was more than 800 mW, which corresponds to a pulse energy of 16 μJ. The maximum quantum conversion efficiency of 36.8% is the highest value measured so far for comparable setups to the best of our knowledge.

  1. Pulsed, tunable, single-frequency OP-GaAs OPO for the standoff detection of hazardous chemicals in the longwave infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Q.; Melkonian, J.-M.; Dherbecourt, J.-B.; Raybaut, M.; Grisard, A.; Lallier, E.; Gérard, B.; Faure, B.; Souhaité, G.; Godard, A.

    2015-10-01

    We present our results on the first nanosecond single-frequency optical parametric oscillator (OPO) emitting in the longwave infrared. It is based on orientation-patterned GaAs (OP-GaAs), and can be pumped by a pulsed singlefrequency Tm:YAP microlaser thanks to its low oscillation threshold of 10 μJ. Stable single-longitudinal mode emission of the OPO is obtained owing to Vernier spectral filtering provided by its nested cavity OPO (NesCOPO) scheme. Crystal temperature tuning covers the 10.3-10.9 μm range with a single quasi-phase-matching period of 72.6 μm. Shortrange standoff detection of ammonia vapor around 10.4 μm is performed with this source. We believe that this achievement paves the way to differential absorption lidars in the LWIR with increased robustness and reduced footprint.

  2. Biogenic VOC measurements during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3) above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Charlotte; Hopkins, James; Lee, James; Lewis, Alastair; Hamilton, Jacqueline

    2010-05-01

    We present the first ambient air speciated monoterpene measurements from the UK FGAM (Facility for Ground based Atmospheric Measrements) - York dual channel gas chromatograph system with flame ionisation detectors, alongside measurements of other biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) such as isoprene, which were made during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) campaign in Danum Valley, Borneo, in 2008. The monoterpenes measured were alpha-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, gamma-terpinene and limonene. We compare the relative concentrations and diurnal profiles of the different monoterpene species and other BVOCs such as isoprene, and analyse variability in their concentrations in light of various environmental conditions, in order to gain insight into factors which influence their emission rates, and therefore regulate their potential impact upon photochemical processes within the boundary layer. We also present regional BVOC measurements made onboard the FAAM BAE 146 aircraft over both the natural rainforest and oil palm plantations.

  3. Armatimonas rosea gen. nov., sp. nov., of a novel bacterial phylum, Armatimonadetes phyl. nov., formally called the candidate phylum OP10.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Matsuzawa, Hiroaki; Muramatsu, Mizuho; Meng, Xian-Ying; Hanada, Satoshi; Mori, Kazuhiro; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2011-06-01

    A novel aerobic, chemoheterotrophic bacterium, strain YO-36(T), isolated from the rhizoplane of an aquatic plant (a reed, Phragmites australis) inhabiting a freshwater lake in Japan, was morphologically, physiologically and phylogenetically characterized. Strain YO-36(T) was Gram-negative and ovoid to rod-shaped, and formed pinkish hard colonies on agar plates. Strain YO-36(T) grew at 20-40 °C with optimum growth at 30-35 °C, whilst no growth was observed at 15 °C or 45 °C. The pH range for growth was 5.5-8.5 with an optimum at pH 6.5. Strain YO-36(T) utilized a limited range of substrates, such as sucrose, gentiobiose, pectin, gellan gum and xanthan gum. The strain contained C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1), C(14 : 0) and C(15 : 0) as the major cellular fatty acids and menaquinone-12 as the respiratory quinone. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 62.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain YO-36(T) belonged to the candidate phylum OP10 comprised solely of environmental 16S rRNA gene clone sequences except for two strains, P488 and T49 isolated from geothermal soil in New Zealand; strain YO-36(T) showed less than 80 % sequence similarity to strains P488 and T47. Based on the phylogetic and phenotypic findings, a new genus and species, Armatimonas rosea gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed for the isolate (type strain YO-36(T)  = NBRC 105658(T)  = DSM 23562(T)). In addition, a new bacterial phylum named Armatimonadetes phyl. nov. is proposed for the candidate phylum OP10 represented by A. rosea gen. nov., sp. nov. and Armatimonadaceae fam. nov., Armatimonadales ord. nov., and Armatimonadia classis nov.

  4. Cross-validation of IASI/MetOp derived tropospheric δD with TES and ground-based FTIR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacour, J.-L.; Clarisse, L.; Worden, J.; Schneider, M.; Barthlott, S.; Hase, F.; Risi, C.; Clerbaux, C.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.-F.

    2014-11-01

    The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) flying on-board MetOpA and MetOpB is able to capture fine isotopic variations of the HDO to H2O ratio (δD) in the troposphere. Such observations at the high spatio temporal resolution of the sounder are of great interest to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling humidity in the troposphere. In this study we aim to empirically assess the validity of our error estimation previously evaluated theoretically. To achieve this, we compare IASI δD retrieved profiles with other available profiles of δD, from the TES infrared sounder onboard AURA and from three ground-based FTIR stations produced within the MUSICA project: the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) sites Kiruna and Izana, and the TCCON site Karlsruhe, which in addition to near-infrared TCCON spectra also records mid-infrared spectra. We describe the achievable level of agreement between the different retrievals and show that these theoretical errors are in good agreement with empirical differences. The comparisons are made at different locations from tropical to Arctic latitudes, above sea and above land. Generally IASI and TES are similarly sensitive to δD in the free troposphere which allows to compare their measurements directly. At tropical latitudes where IASI's sensitivity is lower than that of TES, we show that the agreement improves when taking into account the sensitivity of IASI in the TES retrieval. For the comparison IASI-FTIR only direct comparisons are performed because of similar sensitivities. We identify a quasi negligible bias in the free troposphere (-3‰) between IASI retrieved δD with the TES one, which are bias corrected, but an important with the ground-based FTIR reaching -47‰. We also suggest that model-satellite observations comparisons could be optimized with IASI thanks to its high spatial and temporal sampling.

  5. A COMPARATIVE INVESTIGATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF DERMAL APPENDAGES (HAIR FOLLICLES) ON THE PERCUTANEOUS ABSORPTION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS (OP) INSECTICIDES USING QSAR AND PBPK/PD MODELS FOR HUMAN RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The successful use of the Exposure Related Dose Estimating Model (ERDEM) for assessment of dermal exposure of humans to OP pesticides requires the input of representative and comparable input parameters. In the specific case of dermal exposure, regional anatomical variation in...

  6. Prise en charge péri opératoire des urgences chirurgicales abdominales chez l’adulte au CHU Aristide Le Dantec

    PubMed Central

    Gaye, Ibrahima; Leye, Pape Alassane; Traoré, Mamadou Mour; Ndiaye, Pape Ibrahima; Ba, El Hadji Boubacar; Bah, Mamadou Diawo; Fall, Mouhamed Lamine; Diouf, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    La prise en charge périopératoire des urgences chirurgicales abdominales reste une préoccupation majeure des anesthésistes du fait des désordres hémodynamiques et/ou métaboliques souvent présents en préopératoire; mais également des complications postopératoires auxquelles elles sont exposées. Les objectifs de ce travail étaient d'étudier les aspects épidémiologiques, diagnostiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques des urgences abdominales. Etude rétrospective descriptive sur une période de 6 mois portant sur les patients âgés de plus de 16 ans opérés d'une urgence abdominale à l'hôpital Aristide Le Dantec. Les paramètres étudiés portaient sur les aspects épidémiologiques, diagnostiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques des urgences chirurgicales abdominales. Nous avions colligé 161 cas, près de 20% de l'activité du service. L'âge moyen était de 41 ans [16, 80 ans]. Le sex ratio était de 2, 9. Le délai moyen de consultation était de 4,6 jours. Les péritonites étaient les pathologies les plus fréquentes (25,5%). La fréquence cardiaque moyenne des patients était de 92 bpm (battements/min)et 97 bpm pour ceux ayant eu une préparation hémodynamique préopératoire. La moyenne de la PAM était de 9,66 cmhg et 8,61 cmhg chez les patients préparés. 49,1% des patients étaient de la classe ASA1, 39,9% ASA2, 8,7% ASA3, 2,5% ASA4 et 0,6% ASA5. Une antibioprophylaxie était faite chez 46,30% des patients et 53,41% d'entre eux avaient eu une antibiothérapie.95,6% des patients avaient eu une anesthésie générale et 4,4% une rachianesthésie. La fréquence des incidents peropératoires était de 11,08%. La morbidité était de 4,3% et la mortalité 4,96%. La prise en charge des urgences chirurgicales abdominales doit être multidisciplinaire impliquant anesthésistes, chirurgiens et biologistes afin de réduire davantage le taux de morbimortalité qui reste de nos jours non négligeable. PMID:27795787

  7. Feasibility and Acceptability of Brighter Bites: A Food Co-Op in Schools to Increase Access, Continuity and Education of Fruits and Vegetables Among Low-Income Populations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shreela; Helfman, Lisa; Albus, Katherine; Pomeroy, Mike; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Markham, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Intake of fruits and vegetables (F&V) continues to be low in children in the United States. The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot feasibility evaluation of Brighter Bites, a school-based food co-op to provide access to fresh F&V and nutrition education to low-income children and their families. Brighter Bites is a 16-week school-based food co-op consisting of: (1) Weekly distribution of 50-60 servings of fresh F&V; (2) Weekly bilingual parent handouts and recipe demonstrations; and (3) implementing CATCH, a coordinated school health program in schools. Brighter Bites was pilot tested using a pre-post evaluation design in one charter school in Houston, TX, USA (n = 57 3rd grade parent-child dyads; 94.1 % Hispanic, 91 % low-income). Evaluation, at baseline, midpoint, and post-intervention, included self-reported child and parent surveys on psychosocial factors, dietary habits and mealtime practices. Pearson's Chi square test, Fisher's exact-test or paired t test were used to determine changes pre- to post-intervention (at p < 0.05). Process data using parent surveys, teacher surveys, attendance logs, and produce cost data were used to determine feasibility and acceptability of program. Participants received on average 61 servings of F&V weekly for 16 weeks at the cost of $4.31/family/week. Results showed significant increases in child reported self-efficacy, outcome expectations and attitudes towards consuming F&V (p < 0.05). We found significant increases in child exposure to F&V and child preference of various F&V from baseline to post-intervention (p < 0.05). Parent surveys showed significant improvements in mealtime practices at home: decrease in children eating while watching TV, increase in eating dinner with the family, less fast food, less sugary drinks with meals, more children asking for F&V as snacks. Process data showed 98 % retention rate and high parent acceptability of program components. Brighter Bites is a promising strategy to increase F

  8. Caractérisation de la flore bactérienne des péritonites communautaires opérées au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sanou, Mahamoudou; Ky, Armand; Ouangre, Edgard; Bisseye, Cyrille; Sanou, Adama; Nagalo, Bolni Marius; Sanou, Drissa; Simporé, Jacques; Sangare, Lassana; Traore, Rasmata

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La péritonite communautaire est une urgence chirurgicale récurrente chez l'adulte qui constitue une préoccupation majeure pour le chirurgien et l'anesthésiste-réanimateur dans sa prise en charge. L'objectif de cette étude était d’établir non seulement le profil bactériologique des péritoniques communautaires opérées dans le service de chirurgie générale et digestive du CHU-YO mais aussi d’évaluer la sensibilité aux antibiotiques des souches bactériennes isolées à partir de ces dernières. Méthodes Cent six (106) patients ont été recrutés dans cette étude et des prélèvements bactériologiques préopératoires ont été effectués dont 63 se sont révélés positifs. Résultats Sur les 63 prélèvements positifs, 78 germes ont été isolés soit une moyenne de 1,2 germe par échantillon. Escherichia coli été le germe le plus fréquemment isolé (33,3%), suivi des anaérobies (11,5%), Streptococcus sp (9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6,4%) et Staphylococcus sp (5,1%). Les antibiotiques les plus efficaces sur les bactéries identifiées dans les péritonites communautaires étaient respectivement l'imipenème (100%), la colistine (100%), la céftriaxone (100%), et la ciprofloxacine (65,4%) Conclusion Le profil de sensibilité des bactéries identifiées dans les principales péritonites communautaires aux antibiotiques montre une augmentation inquiétante du nombre de souches résistantes, notamment à l'association amoxicilline/acide clavulanique PMID:25360201

  9. Cross-validation of IASI/MetOp derived tropospheric δD with TES and ground-based FTIR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacour, J.-L.; Clarisse, L.; Worden, J.; Schneider, M.; Barthlott, S.; Hase, F.; Risi, C.; Clerbaux, C.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.-F.

    2015-03-01

    The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) flying onboard MetOpA and MetOpB is able to capture fine isotopic variations of the HDO to H2O ratio (δD) in the troposphere. Such observations at the high spatio-temporal resolution of the sounder are of great interest to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling humidity in the troposphere. In this study we aim to empirically assess the validity of our error estimation previously evaluated theoretically. To achieve this, we compare IASI δD retrieved profiles with other available profiles of δD, from the TES infrared sounder onboard AURA and from three ground-based FTIR stations produced within the MUSICA project: the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) sites Kiruna and Izaña, and the TCCON site Karlsruhe, which in addition to near-infrared TCCON spectra also records mid-infrared spectra. We describe the achievable level of agreement between the different retrievals and show that these theoretical errors are in good agreement with empirical differences. The comparisons are made at different locations from tropical to Arctic latitudes, above sea and above land. Generally IASI and TES are similarly sensitive to δD in the free troposphere which allows one to compare their measurements directly. At tropical latitudes where IASI's sensitivity is lower than that of TES, we show that the agreement improves when taking into account the sensitivity of IASI in the TES retrieval. For the comparison IASI-FTIR only direct comparisons are performed because the sensitivity profiles of the two observing systems do not allow to take into account their differences of sensitivity. We identify a quasi negligible bias in the free troposphere (-3‰) between IASI retrieved δD with the TES, which are bias corrected, but important with the ground-based FTIR reaching -47‰. We also suggest that model-satellite observation comparisons could be optimized with IASI thanks to its high

  10. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  11. La place du traitement non opératoire des contusions abdominales dans les pays en voie de développement

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Khalid; Narjis, Youssef; Louzi, Abdelouahed; Benelkhaiat, Redouane; Finech, Benacer

    2015-01-01

    Le traitement non opératoire des contusions de l'abdomen représente une approche thérapeutique nouvelle des traumatismes fermés de l'abdomen. La disponibilité d'un plateau technique performant constitue classiquement une des principales conditions pour la réussite de cette attitude. Nous essayons d’étudier les différents aspects épidémiologiques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques de cette affection dans le contexte d'un pays en voie de développement, à travers les résultats d'une série de 106 malades. une série de 106 patients est prise en charge par le traitement non opératoire. La gravité des lésions est appréciée par les données cliniques et paracliniques, ainsi que la morbidité et la mortalité sont analysées. les accidents de la circulation étaient la première cause des contusions abdominales, dans notre contexte. Les lésions hépatiques étaient les plus fréquentes (65% des cas), suivit des lésions spléniques chez 19 patients. La notion de polytraumatisme était très fréquente. La durée moyenne de surveillance était de 9,5 jours. Seize malades étaient transfusés, et le nombre moyen de culots globulaires (CG) était de 3,5 culots par patient. Une laparotomie en urgence était indiquée chez 10 patients (9.4%) devant l'instabilité hémodynamique. Trois malades ont nécessité un traitement chirurgical secondaire. On avait noté un taux de mortalité de 3.7% soit 4 cas. il semble à partir de notre expérience que l'abstention chirurgicale peut constituer, dans des conditions strictes de surveillance, une alternative thérapeutique de référence dans les pays en voie de développement, sûre et justifiée à une chirurgie d'urgence toujours difficile. PMID:26097636

  12. Prise de remèdes de phytothérapie et implications opératoires: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Dhouib, Firas; Frikha, Mohammed; Zineddine, Walid

    2014-01-01

    Les interactions médicamenteuses sont nombreuses et doivent faire l'objet d'une attention particulière à la consultation préanesthésique. Certains médicaments ne sont pas toujours spontanément révélés au médecin anesthésiste. Il s'agit le plus souvent de thérapeutiques dites “non traditionnelles” telle que la phytothérapie, méthode thérapeutique qui utilise l'action des plantes médicinales. On rapporte le cas d'un homme âgé de 38 ans, proposé pour ostéosynthèse d'une fracture des corps vertébraux de D11 et D12, ayant présenté un saignement per opératoire inhabituel rapporté à une consommation de grandes quantités d'ail. PMID:25309668

  13. Synthesis and characterization of phosphates in molten systems Cs 2O-P 2O 5-CaO- MIII2O 3 ( MIII—Al, Fe, Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatovsky, Igor V.; Strutynska, Nataliya Yu.; Baumer, Vyacheslav N.; Slobodyanik, Nikolay S.; Ogorodnyk, Ivan V.; Shishkin, Oleg V.

    2011-03-01

    The crystallization of complex phosphates from the melts of Cs 2O-P 2O 5-CaO- MIII2O 3 ( MIII—Al, Fe, Cr) systems have been investigated at fixed value Cs/P molar ratios equal to 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 and Са/Р=0.2 and Ca/ МIII=1. The fields of crystallization of CsCaP 3O 9, β-Ca 2P 2O 7, Cs 2CaP 2O 7, Cs 3CaFe(P 2O 7) 2, Ca 9MIII(PO 4) 7 ( MIII—Fe, Cr), Cs 0.63Ca 9.63Fe 0.37(PO 4) 7 and CsCa 10(PO 4) 7 were determined. Obtained phosphates were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Novel whitlockite-related phases CsCa 10(PO 4) 7 and Cs 0.63Ca 9.63Fe 0.37(PO 4) 7 have been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction: space group R3c, a=10.5536(5) and 10.5221(4) Å, с=37.2283(19) and 37.2405(17) Å, respectively.

  14. Neutron scattering study on cathode LiMn2O4 and solid electrolyte 5(Li2O)(P2O5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartini, E.; Putra, Teguh P.; Jahya, A. K.; Insani, A.; Adams, S.

    2014-09-01

    Neutron scattering is very important technique in order to investigate the energy storage materials such as lithium-ion battery. The unique advantages, neutron can see the light atoms such as Hydrogen, Lithium, and Oxygen, where those elements are negligible by other corresponding X-ray method. On the other hand, the energy storage materials, such as lithium ion battery is very important for the application in the electric vehicles, electronic devices or home appliances. The battery contains electrodes (anode and cathode), and the electrolyte materials. There are many challenging to improve the existing lithium ion battery materials, in order to increase their life time, cyclic ability and also its stability. One of the most scientific challenging is to investigate the crystal structure of both electrode and electrolyte, such as cathodes LiCoO2, LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4, and solid electrolyte Li3PO4. Since all those battery materials contain Lithium ions and Oxygen, the used of neutron scattering techniques to study their structure and related properties are very important and indispensable. This article will review some works of investigating electrodes and electrolytes, LiMn2O4 and 5(Li2O)(P2O5), by using a high resolution powder diffraction (HRPD) at the multipurpose research reactor, RSG-Sywabessy of the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Indonesia.

  15. Determination of inverse electric field strength of Ta 218O 5 film produced in biological electrolytes using 18O(p, α) 15N nuclear reaction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosu, Sylvanus N.

    2005-08-01

    A 18O(p, α) 15N nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) method was developed for the determination of inverse electric field strengths (also referred to as anodic constants) of Ta 2O 5 oxide films prepared in biological solutions (urine, blood plasma and serum). The results show that fresh biological electrolytes have inverse electric field strengths equal to 17.5 ± 1.2, 17.3 ± 1.2, 17.3 ± 0.8 Å/V for plasma, serum and urine, respectively compared to 16.2 ± 0.2 and 15.7 Å/V, for 3% ammonium citrate water and distilled water, respectively. The inverse electric field strength is shown to depend on the pH variation, the metal substrate and the electrolytic ionic concentration. Freezing or aging of the biological sample results in greater variation and reduction of solution pH. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analyses show no incorporation of ions of Z > 11.

  16. Overview: oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (the OP3 project): introduction, rationale, location characteristics and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, C. N.; Lee, J. D.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Barkley, M. P.; Carslaw, N.; Carver, G. D.; Chappell, N. A.; Coe, H.; Collier, C.; Commane, R.; Davies, F.; Davison, B.; Dicarlo, P.; di Marco, C. F.; Dorsey, J. R.; Edwards, P. M.; Evans, M. J.; Fowler, D.; Furneaux, K. L.; Gallagher, M.; Guenther, A.; Heard, D. E.; Helfter, C.; Hopkins, J.; Ingham, T.; Irwin, M.; Jones, C.; Karunaharan, A.; Langford, B.; Lewis, A. C.; Lim, S. F.; MacDonald, S. M.; Mahajan, A. S.; Malpass, S.; McFiggans, G.; Mills, G.; Misztal, P.; Moller, S.; Monks, P. S.; Nemitz, E.; Nicolas-Perea, V.; Oetjen, H.; Oram, D. E.; Palmer, P. I.; Phillips, G. J.; Pike, R.; Plane, J. M. C.; Pugh, T.; Pyle, J. A.; Reeves, C. E.; Robinson, N. H.; Stewart, D.; Stone, D.; Whalley, L. K.; Yin, X.

    2010-01-01

    In April-July 2008, intensive measurements were made of atmospheric composition and chemistry in Sabah, Malaysia, as part of the "Oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest" (OP3) project. Fluxes and concentrations of trace gases and particles were made from and above the rainforest canopy at the Bukit Atur Global Atmosphere Watch station and at the nearby Sabahmas oil palm plantation, using both ground-based and airborne measurements. Here, the measurement and modelling strategies used, the characteristics of the sites and an overview of data obtained are described. Composition measurements show that the rainforest site was not significantly impacted by anthropogenic pollution, and this is confirmed by satellite retrievals of NO2 and HCHO. The dominant modulators of atmospheric chemistry at the rainforest site were therefore emissions of BVOCs and soil emissions of reactive nitrogen oxides. At the observed BVOC:NOx volume mixing ratio (~100 pptv/pptv), current chemical models suggest that daytime maximum OH concentrations should be ca. 105 radicals cm-3, but observed OH concentrations were an order of magnitude greater than this. We confirm, therefore, previous measurements that suggest that an unexplained source of OH must exist above tropical rainforest and we continue to interrogate the data to find explanations for this.

  17. Oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a south-east Asian tropical rain forest (the OP3 project): introduction, rationale, location characteristics and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, C. N.; Lee, J.; Barkley, M. P.; Carslaw, N.; Chappell, N. A.; Coe, H.; Collier, C.; Commane, R.; Davies, F.; Dicarlo, P.; di Marco, C. F.; Edwards, P. M.; Evans, M. J.; Fowler, D.; Furneaux, K. L.; Gallagher, M.; Guenther, A.; Heard, D. E.; Helfter, C.; Hopkins, J.; Ingham, T.; Irwin, M.; Jones, C.; Karunaharan, A.; Langford, B.; Lewis, A. C.; Lim, S. F.; MacDonald, S. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Mahajan, A. S.; Malpass, S.; McFiggans, G.; Mills, G.; Misztal, P.; Moller, S.; Monks, P. S.; Nemitz, E.; Nicolas-Perea, V.; Oetjen, H.; Oram, D.; Palmer, P. I.; Phillips, G. J.; Plane, J. M. C.; Pugh, T.; Pyle, J. A.; Reeves, C. E.; Robinson, N. H.; Stewart, D.; Stone, D.; Whalley, L. K.

    2009-09-01

    In April-July 2008, intensive measurements were made of atmospheric composition and chemistry in Sabah, Malaysia, as part of the "Oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a South-East Asian tropical rain forest" (OP3) project. Fluxes and concentrations of trace gases and particles were made from and above the rain forest canopy at the Bukit Atur Global Atmosphere Watch station and at the nearby Sabahmas oil palm plantation, using both ground-based and airborne measurements. Here, the measurement and modelling strategies used, the characteristics of the sites and an overview of data obtained are described. Composition measurements show that the rainforest site was not impacted by significant sources of anthropogenic pollution, and this is confirmed by satellite retrievals of NO2 and HCHO. The dominant modulators of atmospheric chemistry at the rain forest site were therefore emissions of BVOCs and soil emissions of reactive nitrogen oxides. At the observed BVOC:NOx volume mixing ratio (~104 pptv/pptv), current chemical models suggest that daytime maximum OH concentrations should be ca. 105 radicals cm-3, but observed OH concentrations were an order of magnitude greater than this. We confirm, therefore, previous measurements which suggest that an unexplained source of OH must exist above tropical forests and continue to interrogate the data to find explanations for this.

  18. Effect of Regional-Scale Transport on Oxidants in the Vicinity of Philadelphia During the 1999 NE-OPS Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Bian, Randy X.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Easter, Richard C.

    2002-08-28

    A new meteorological-chemical modeling system is used to determine the relative contribution of regional-scale transport and local photochemical production on air quality over Philadelphia. The model performance is evaluated using surface and airborne meteorological and chemical measurements made during a 30-day period in July and August of 1999 as part of the Northeast Oxidant and Particulate Study (NE-OPS). Good agreement between the simulations and observations was obtained. The bias in the vicinity of Philadelphia over the simulation period was -5.8 ppb for the peak ozone mixing ratio during the day and 2.0 ppb for the minimum ozone mixing ratio at night. Layers of ozone above the convective boundary layer were measured by both research aircraft and ozonesondes during the morning between 09 and 11 EDT. The modeling system demonstrates that upwind vertical mixing processes the previous afternoon, subsequent horizontal transport aloft, and depletion of ozone by NO titration within the stable boundary layer at night lead to the development of these layers. Ozone aloft was then entrained into the growing convective boundary, contributing to surface ozone concentrations. Through a series of sensitivity studies, we find that most of the ozone is the result of emissions in the vicinity of Philadelphia and Chesapeake Bay area, but up to 30-40% of the ozone during high-ozone episodes was due to transport from upwind sources. Local emissions and meteorological conditions were largely responsible for one high-ozone episode because of light winds.

  19. Comparative analysis of properties of channels of deuteron and tritium production in {sup 16}Op collisions at a projectile momentum of 3.25 GeV/c per nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Olimov, K.; Glagolev, V. V.; Gulamov, K. G.; Kurbanov, A.; Lutpullaev, S. L.; Olimov, A. K.; Petrov, V. I.; Yuldashev, A. A.

    2014-12-15

    The results of a comparative analysis of channels involving the inclusive production of deuterons and tritons in {sup 16}Op collisions at a projectile momentum of 3.25 GeV/c per nucleon are presented. The mechanisms governing proton, deuteron, and triton production in the fragmentation of oxygen nuclei are found to be independent. It is shown that the observed proton-multiplicity correlations are associated predominantly with the character of the primary event of a proton-nucleon collision in {sup 16}Op interactions. It is found that, in reactions involving triton production, the contributions of processes leading to an increase in the mean proton multiplicity (n → p + π{sup −} and np → pn) and processes leading to its decrease (p → n + π{sup +}) compensate each other.

  20. L’érysipèle sur cicatrice post opératoire en traumatologie: à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Hatim; El Idrissi, Mohamed; Shimi, Mohamed; El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; El Mrini, Abdelmajid; Amraoui, Nissrine; Mernissi, Fatima Zohra

    2015-01-01

    L’érysipèle sur cicatrice post opératoire est une entité rare, décrite principalement chez des patients présentant les facteurs de risque classiques de la maladie au niveau des sites de veinectomie pour pontage coronarien. En traumatologie orthopédie, nous n'avons que les 3 cas rapportés dans le travail de Dhrif survenus au décours d'une implantation prothétique chez des malades à risque. Nous présentons à travers cet article, le cas d'un érysipèle post opératoire sur une cicatrice d'ostéosynthèse d'une fracture fermée du pilon tibial, ayant la particularité du terrain et des circonstances de survenues, pour enfin conclure aux principes de la prévention primaire à adopter. PMID:26401204

  1. Cyberspace Mission Focus: NW Ops vs. NetOps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    look forward to seeing great things from each of you! - Travis vii Table of Contents Abstract...complex of physical, chemical and biotic factors that act upon an organism or an ecological community and ultimately determine its form and survival...Air: the mixture of gases that surround the earth • Land: the solid part of the earth • Sea: great bodies of salt water that cover much of

  2. Data Fusion Approaches to Close the Spatial and Temporal Scale Gaps between MetOp-ASCAT and Sentinel-1 Soil Moisture Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer-Marschallinger, Bernhard; Mistelbauer, Thomas; Hochstöger, Simon; Paulik, Christoph; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Earth observation (EO), and more specifically, spaceborne radar remote sensing had made much progress toward its high potential to retrieve Soil Moisture (SM) at different scales. Yet, for a single sensing system there always exists a trade-off between spatial and temporal resolution of the observations: While scatterometer-derived SM products can well describe temporal soil moisture dynamics, they lack of spatial details. They do not facilitate analysis of local hydrological patterns, such as effects from convectional rains and topography and thus miss the requirements of many users. Contrary, SM products from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors can resolve dynamics at this level. However, they observe individual locations less frequently and are thus not suitable for acquisition of short-term variations. To overcome these spatial and temporal scale gaps, data fusion of C-Band scatterometer and SAR radar observations is the method of choice, yielding a high-resolution, high-frequency soil profile wetness product called SCAT-SAR Soil Water Index (SWI). Benefiting from the input's either high temporal or spatial resolution, respectively, this 500m-sampling product bears great potential for operational use, even at local scale. In this study, different approaches to fuse MetOp ASCAT scatterometer data (12.5km and almost-daily sampling) with SAR data from the new Sentinel-1 (10m and 3-6-day sampling) are examined. Methods entailed in the fusion process comprise spatial resampling, spatial correlation analysis, data matching, temporal matching and filtering as well as signal-to-noise estimation. Different sets of methods for data fusion are employed for SM derivation. The results are evaluated against alone-standing ASCAT and Sentinel-1 SM data, as well as against in-situ measurements at the Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen, Lower Austria.

  3. CO Seasonal Variability and Trend over Paris Megacity Using Ground-Based QualAir FTS and Satellite IASI-MetOp Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Te, Yao; Jeseck, Pascal; Hadji-Lazaro, Juliette

    2012-11-01

    In a growing world with more than 7 billion inhabitants and big emerging countries such as China, Brazil and India, emissions of anthropogenic pollutants are increasing continuously. Monitoring and control of atmospheric pollutants in megacities have become a major challenge for scientists and public health authorities in environmental research area. The QualAir platform at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is an innovating experimental research platform dedicated to survey urban atmospheric pollution and air quality. A Bruker Optics IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer belonged to the Laboratoire de Physique Moléculaire pour l'Atmosphère et l'Astrophysique (LPMAA), was adapted for ground-based atmospheric measurements. As one of the major instruments of the QualAir platform, this ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS) analyses the composition of the urban atmosphere of Paris, which is the third largest European megacity. The continuous monitoring of atmospheric pollutants is essential to improve the understanding of urban air pollution processes. Associated with a sun-tracker, the QualAir remote sensing FTS operates in solar infrared absorption and enables to monitor many trace gases, and to follow up their variability in the Ile-de-France region. Concentrations of atmospheric pollutants are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT. These ground-based remote sensing measurements are compared to ground in-situ measurements and to satellite data from IASI-MetOp (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer). The remote sensing total column of the carbon monoxide (CO) obtained from January 2009 to June 2012, has a seasonal variability with a maximum in April and a minimum in October. While, after 2008, the mean CO level is quite stable (no significant decrease as before 2008).

  4. Comparison of total water vapor column from GOME-2 on MetOp-A against ground-based GPS measurements at the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Román, R; Antón, M; Cachorro, V E; Loyola, D; Ortiz de Galisteo, J P; de Frutos, A; Romero-Campos, P M

    2015-11-15

    Water vapor column (WVC) obtained by GOME-2 instrument (GDP-4.6 version) onboard MetOp-A satellite platform is compared against reference WVC values derived from GPS (Global Positioning System) instruments from 2007 to 2012 at 21 places located at Iberian Peninsula. The accuracy and precision of GOME-2 to estimate the WVC is studied for different Iberian Peninsula zones using the mean (MBE) and the standard deviation (SD) of the GOME-2 and GPS differences. A direct comparison of all available data shows an overestimation of GOME-2 compared to GPS with a MBE of 0.7 mm (10%) and a precision quantified by a SD equals to 4.4mm (31%). South-Western zone presents the highest overestimation with a MBE of 1.9 mm (17%), while Continental zone shows the lowest SD absolute value (3.3mm) due mainly to the low WVC values reached at this zone. The influence of solar zenith angle (SZA), cloud fraction (CF), and the type of surface and its albedo on the differences between GOME-2 and GPS is analyzed in detail. MBE and SD increase when SZA increases, but MBE decreases (taking negative values) when CF increases and SD shows no significant dependence on CF. Under cloud-free conditions, the differences between WVC from GOME-2 and GPS are within the WVC error given by GOME-2. The changes of MBE and SD on Surface Albedo are not so evident, but MBE slightly decreases when the Surface Albedo increases. WVC from GOME-2 is, in general, more precise for land than for sea pixels.

  5. OpTIIX: An ISS-Based Testbed Paving the Roadmap Toward a Next Generation Large Aperture UV/Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Etemad, Shar; Seery, Bernard D.; Thronson, Harley; Burdick, Gary M.; Coulter, Dan; Goullioud, Renaud; Green, Joseph J.; Liu, Fengchuan; Ess, Kim; Postman, Marc; Sparks, Williams

    2012-01-01

    The next generation large aperture UV/Optical space telescope will need a diameter substantially larger than even that of JWST in order to address some of the most compelling unanswered scientific quests. These quests include understanding the earliest phases of the Universe and detecting life on exo-planets by studying spectra of their atmospheres. Such 8-16 meter telescopes face severe challenges in terms of cost and complexity and are unlikely to be affordable unless a new paradigm is adopted for their design and construction. The conventional approach is to use monolithic or preassembled segmented mirrors requiring complicated and risky deployments and relying on future heavy-lift vehicles, large fairings and complex geometry. The new paradigm is to launch component modules on relatively small vehicles and then perform in-orbit robotic assembly of those modules. The Optical Testbed and Integration on ISS eXperiment (OpTIIX) is designed to demonstrate, at low cost by leveraging the infrastructure provided by ISS, telescope assembly technologies and end-to-end optical system technologies. The use of ISS as a testbed permits the concentration of resources on reducing the technical risks associated with robotically integrating the components. These include laser metrology and wavefront sensing and control (WFS&C) systems, an imaging instrument, lightweight, low-cost deformable primary mirror segments and the secondary mirror. These elements are then aligned to a diffraction-limited optical system in space. The capability to assemble the optical system and remove and replace components via the existing ISS robotic systems like the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), or by the ISS flight crew, allows for future experimentation, as well as repair.

  6. Microbial Community Analysis in the Roots of Aquatic Plants and Isolation of Novel Microbes Including an Organism of the Candidate Phylum OP10

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Matsuzawa, Hiroaki; Nigaya, Masahiro; Mori, Kazuhiro; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    A number of molecular ecological studies have revealed complex and unique microbial communities in various terrestrial plant roots; however, little is known about the microbial communities of aquatic plant roots in spite of their potential use for water quality improvement in aquatic environments (e.g. floating treatment wetland system). Here, we report the microbial communities inhabiting the roots of emerged plants, reed (Phragmites australis) and Japanese loosestrife (Lythrum anceps), collected from a floating treatment wetland in a pond by both culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Culture-independent analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the microbial compositions between the two aquatic plant roots were clearly different (e.g. the predominant microbe was Betaproteobacteria for reed and Alphaproteobacteria for Japanese loosestrife). In comparisons of microbial communities between the plant roots and pond water taken from near the plants, the microbial diversity in the plant roots (e.g. 4.40–4.26 Shannon-Weiner index) were higher than that of pond water (e.g. 3.15 Shannon-Weiner index). Furthermore, the plant roots harbored 2.5–3.5 times more phylogenetically novel clone phylotypes than pond water. The culture-dependent approach also revealed differences in the microbial composition and diversity among the two plant roots and pond water. More importantly, compared to pond water, we succeeded in isolating approximately two times more novel isolate phylotypes, including a bacterium of candidate phylum OP10 (recently named Armatimonadetes) from the plant roots. These findings suggest that aquatic plants roots are significant sources for a variety of novel organisms. PMID:22791047

  7. Magnetic polyoxometalates: anisotropic exchange interactions in the moiety of [(NaOH2)Co3(H2O)(P2W15O56)2]17-.

    PubMed

    Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Coronado, Eugenio; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro; Giménez-Saiz, Carlos; Güdel, Hans-Ulrich; Sieber, Andreas; Bircher, Roland; Mutka, Hannu

    2005-05-16

    The magnetic exchange interactions in a C0(3)(11) moiety encapsulated in Na(17) [(NaOH(2))Co(3)(H(2)O)(P(2)W(15)O(56))(2)] (NaCo(3)) were studied by a combination of magnetic measurements (magnetic susceptibility and low-temperature magnetization), with a detailed Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) investigation. The novel structure of the salt was determined by X-ray crystallography. The ferromagnetic Co(3)O(14) triangular cluster core consists of three octahedrally oxo-coordinated Co(II) ions sharing edges. According to the single-ion anisotropy and spin-orbit coupling usually assumed for octahedral Co(II) ions, the appropiate exchange Hamiltonian to describe the ground-state properties of the isosceles triangular Co(3) spin cluster is anisotropic and is expressed as H = - 2sigma(alpha)(=)(x,y,z)(J(alpha)(12)S(1alpha)S(2alpha) + J(alpha)(23)S(2alpha)S(3alpha) + J(alpha)(13)S(1alpha)S(3alpha)), where J(alpha) are the components of the exchange interactions between the Co(II) ions. To reproduce the INS data, nonparallel anisotropic exchange tensors needed to be introduced, which were directly connected to the molecular symmetry of the complex. The following range of parameters (value +/- 0.5 cm(-1)) was found to reproduce all experimental information while taking magnetostructural relations into account: J(x)(12) = J(y)(13) = 8.6 cm(-1); J(y)(12) = J(x)(13) = 1.4 cm(-1); J(z)(12) = J(z)(13) = 10.0 cm(-1); J(x)(23) = J(y)(23) = 6.5 cm(-1) and = 3.4 cm(-1).

  8. Microbial community analysis in the roots of aquatic plants and isolation of novel microbes including an organism of the candidate phylum OP10.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Matsuzawa, Hiroaki; Nigaya, Masahiro; Mori, Kazuhiro; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    A number of molecular ecological studies have revealed complex and unique microbial communities in various terrestrial plant roots; however, little is known about the microbial communities of aquatic plant roots in spite of their potential use for water quality improvement in aquatic environments (e.g. floating treatment wetland system). Here, we report the microbial communities inhabiting the roots of emerged plants, reed (Phragmites australis) and Japanese loosestrife (Lythrum anceps), collected from a floating treatment wetland in a pond by both culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Culture-independent analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the microbial compositions between the two aquatic plant roots were clearly different (e.g. the predominant microbe was Betaproteobacteria for reed and Alphaproteobacteria for Japanese loosestrife). In comparisons of microbial communities between the plant roots and pond water taken from near the plants, the microbial diversity in the plant roots (e.g. 4.40-4.26 Shannon-Weiner index) were higher than that of pond water (e.g. 3.15 Shannon-Weiner index). Furthermore, the plant roots harbored 2.5-3.5 times more phylogenetically novel clone phylotypes than pond water. The culture-dependent approach also revealed differences in the microbial composition and diversity among the two plant roots and pond water. More importantly, compared to pond water, we succeeded in isolating approximately two times more novel isolate phylotypes, including a bacterium of candidate phylum OP10 (recently named Armatimonadetes) from the plant roots. These findings suggest that aquatic plants roots are significant sources for a variety of novel organisms.

  9. Distributions of δD observations from IASI/MetOp across the globe and intercomparison with other instruments/measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacour, Jean-Lionel; Clarisse, Lieven; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy; Worden, John; Schneider, Matthias; Risi, Camille; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2014-05-01

    The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) onboard MetOp, through its observations of the water isotopologues, has great potential to support research on hydrological processes responsible for the moistening/drying of the atmosphere. The instrumental characteristics of the spectrometer (low radiometric noise and good spectral resolution) combined with its high sampling (global coverage twice a day) make it particularly suitable for providing numerous observations of the isotopologues ratio (δD) of water vapour in the troposphere. Retrieving isotopologues ratios at the required accuracy is, however, a challenging task. To get meaningful results, the retrieval needs to be well constrained. This can be achieved, with the optimal estimation method, by using an a priori probability density function containing correlation information between HDO and H2O. In this presentation, first, we will show that the measurements are mainly sensitive to δD in the troposphere between 3 and 6 km. We will illustrate the capabilities of IASI to provide δD observations at high spatio-temporal resolution with some distributions across the globe and we will discuss their added values to constrain hydrological processes. Second, we will document how IASI observations compare to other remote sounding observations of δD in the troposphere. Comparisons of IASI observations with the TES sounder and with three ground-based NDACC FTIR (Izaña, Kalsruhe and Kiruna, data generated within the project MUSICA) will be presented. The differences between the instruments as well as the methodology to compare them will be exposed. We will show that the different instruments agree within their own uncertainties and vertical sensitivities, asserting the use of IASI δD observations for scientific purposes.

  10. Intelligent Systems Technologies for Ops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ernest E.; Korsmeyer, David J.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA supports International Space Station assembly complete operations through 2020 (or later) and prepares for future human exploration programs, there is additional emphasis in the manned spaceflight program to find more efficient and effective ways of providing the ground-based mission support. Since 2006 this search for improvement has led to a significant cross-fertilization between the NASA advanced software development community and the manned spaceflight operations community. A variety of mission operations systems and tools have been developed over the past decades as NASA has operated the Mars robotic missions, the Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station. NASA Ames Research Center has been developing and applying its advanced intelligent systems research to mission operations tools for both unmanned Mars missions operations since 2001 and to manned operations with NASA Johnson Space Center since 2006. In particular, the fundamental advanced software development work under the Exploration Technology Program, and the experience and capabilities developed for mission operations systems for the Mars surface missions, (Spirit/Opportunity, Phoenix Lander, and MSL) have enhanced the development and application of advanced mission operation systems for the International Space Station and future spacecraft. This paper provides an update on the status of the development and deployment of a variety of intelligent systems technologies adopted for manned mission operations, and some discussion of the planned work for Autonomous Mission Operations in future human exploration. We discuss several specific projects between the Ames Research Center and the Johnson Space Centers Mission Operations Directorate, and how these technologies and projects are enhancing the mission operations support for the International Space Station, and supporting the current Autonomous Mission Operations Project for the mission operation support of the future human exploration programs.

  11. Suited Contingency Ops Food - 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, J. W.; Leong, M. L.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The contingency scenario for an emergency cabin depressurization event may require crewmembers to subsist in a pressurized suit for up to 144 hours. This scenario requires the capability for safe nutrition delivery through a helmet feed port against a 4 psi pressure differential to enable crewmembers to maintain strength and cognition to perform critical tasks. Two nutritional delivery prototypes were developed and analyzed for compatibility with the helmet feed port interface and for operational effectiveness against the pressure differential. The bag-in-bag (BiB) prototype, designed to equalize the suit pressure with the beverage pouch and enable a crewmember to drink normally, delivered water successfully to three different subjects in suits pressurized to 4 psi. The Boa restrainer pouch, designed to provide mechanical leverage to overcome the pressure differential, did not operate sufficiently. Guidelines were developed and compiled for contingency beverages that provide macro-nutritional requirements, a minimum one-year shelf life, and compatibility with the delivery hardware. Evaluation results and food product parameters have the potential to be used to improve future prototype designs and develop complete nutritional beverages for contingency events. These feeding capabilities would have additional use on extended surface mission EVAs, where the current in-suit drinking device may be insufficient.

  12. The CO-OP Twist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polatajko, Helene J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author comments on the article by Sylvia Rodger and Alysha Vishram appearing in this issue, titled "Mastering Social and Organizational Goals: Strategy Use by Two Children with Asperger Syndrome during Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance." In the article, the authors explore the use of cognitive strategies,…

  13. Evénements indésirables peropératoire: lecture critique du registre du bloc opératoire de l’hôpital militaire Moulay Ismail Meknès

    PubMed Central

    Kechna, Hicham; Ouzzad, Omar; Chkoura, Khalid; Loutid, Jaouad; Hachimi, Moulay Ahmed; Hanafi, Sidi Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Malgré les importants progrès qui ont été faits dans le domaine de la sécurité en anesthésie, la morbidité (grave ou non, liée complètement ou partiellement à l’anesthésie) reste cependant fréquente, et aucun praticien n’est aujourd’hui à l’abri d’un accident. Dans le contexte actuel où la priorité est donnée à la formation, à l’amélioration de la qualité et de la sécurité des soins, la survenue d’un accident d’anesthésie au bloc opératoire est un événement extrêmement traumatisant. La crainte de poursuite, le contexte émotionnel rendent cette gestion parfois très difficile. Pour cette raison, elle doit faire l’objet d’une codification, à la manière des protocoles de bloc, avec trois grands axes de gestion: le patient victime, le personnel médical et paramédical impliqué et l’analyse de l’incident pour éviter une récidive. Méthodes Dans un but d’améliorer les soins prodigués au bloc opératoire nous avons établi un registre où sont consignés continuellement les différents incidents et accidents survenu soit en salle opératoire ou en salle de surveillance post interventionnelle. Une première lecture a été faite à l’occasion des Journées d'Enseignement Post Universitaire (JEPU) de Fès (Maroc) organisées en partenariat avec les JEPU de la Pitié salpêtrière de Paris à la faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie de Fès sous le thème: «Les Situations Critiques Au Bloc Opératoire» les 17 et 18 Avril 2015. Résultats 1761 patients ont été admis aux différentes salles du bloc opératoire dont 96 en salle d’endoscopie et 17 sédations en radiologie. 29 patients (1.64%) ont présentés un incident et/ou un accident en péri opératoire. La plupart des effets indésirables sont survenus en per opératoire (58,6%). Dans 28,6% des cas en postopératoire immédiat ou en salle de surveillance post interventionnelle (SSPI). La plupart des complications survenues sont d

  14. Combining Ambient Measurements of OH Radicals and OH Reactivity in a Tropical Rainforest during the OP-3 Project: Resolving the Magnitude of the Missing OH Sources and Sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, L. K.; Edwards, P.; Furneaux, K. L.; Goddard, A.; George, I. J.; Evans, M. J.; Heard, D. E.; Team Op-3

    2010-12-01

    The self cleansing capacity of the troposphere and the lifetime of key greenhouse gases are controlled to a large extent by the OH radical. In environments where biogenic VOC emissions are high and NOx concentrations are low, for example in tropical rainforests, the current understanding of tropospheric chemistry suggests that OH radical concentrations should be suppressed. OH measurements made in such regions, however, have highlighted higher than expected OH radical concentrations that cannot be replicated by chemical models constrained with the currently known OH formation pathways [1]. Here we report OH and OH reactivity measurements made during the OP-3 project that took place in the Borneo rainforest in 2008. Concentrations of OH displayed a clear diurnal cycle, peaking at solar noon, with significant concentrations observed: up to 8.7×106 molecule cm-3 (60 min average). Although j(O1D) levels and humidity were high, low O3 concentrations limited the rate of primary OH production from ozone photolysis. OH reactivity measurements were made using a sliding injector flow-tube reactor technique, with OH detection by LIF. Mean OH reactivities of 15.5 s-1 were observed with daily maximum OH reactivity of 24.7 ± 11.1 s-1 shortly after local solar noon, coinciding with peak isoprene concentrations. Minimum values of 7.2 ± 2.2 s-1 were observed just before sun rise. Using the measured OH and OH reactivity in a constrained box model containing detailed MCM chemistry we are able to fully resolve the magnitude of the missing OH source. We find that significant OH sources must be present - in addition to primary production - in order to maintain the elevated levels of OH levels recorded. Inclusion of an additional OH source formed as a recycled product of isoprene oxidation [2] improves the modelled OH agreement but reduces the modelled to measured HO2 agreement. To replicate both OH and HO2, a process that recycles HO2 to OH is required; equivalent to the OH recycling

  15. Does point of care prothrombin time measurement reduce the transfusion of fresh frozen plasma in patients undergoing major surgery? The POC-OP randomized-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Bleeding is a frequent complication during surgery. The intraoperative administration of blood products, including packed red blood cells, platelets and fresh frozen plasma (FFP), is often live saving. Complications of blood transfusions contribute considerably to perioperative costs and blood product resources are limited. Consequently, strategies to optimize the decision to transfuse are needed. Bleeding during surgery is a dynamic process and may result in major blood loss and coagulopathy due to dilution and consumption. The indication for transfusion should be based on reliable coagulation studies. While hemoglobin levels and platelet counts are available within 15 minutes, standard coagulation studies require one hour. Therefore, the decision to administer FFP has to be made in the absence of any data. Point of care testing of prothrombin time ensures that one major parameter of coagulation is available in the operation theatre within minutes. It is fast, easy to perform, inexpensive and may enable physicians to rationally determine the need for FFP. Methods/Design The objective of the POC-OP trial is to determine the effectiveness of point of care prothrombin time testing to reduce the administration of FFP. It is a patient and assessor blind, single center randomized controlled parallel group trial in 220 patients aged between 18 and 90 years undergoing major surgery (any type, except cardiac surgery and liver transplantation) with an estimated blood loss during surgery exceeding 20% of the calculated total blood volume or a requirement of FFP according to the judgment of the physicians in charge. Patients are randomized to usual care plus point of care prothrombin time testing or usual care alone without point of care testing. The primary outcome is the relative risk to receive any FFP perioperatively. The inclusion of 110 patients per group will yield more than 80% power to detect a clinically relevant relative risk of 0.60 to receive FFP of

  16. Evaluating a New Homogeneous Total Ozone Climate Data Record from GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koukouli, M.E.; Lerot, C.; Granville, J.; Goutail, F.; Lambert, J.-C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Balis, D.; Zyrichidou, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; Coldewey-Egbers, M.; Loyola, D.; Labow, G.; Frith, S.; Spurr, R.; Zehner, C.

    2015-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Ozone Climate Change Initiative (O3-CCI) project aims at producing and validating a number of high-quality ozone data products generated from different satellite sensors. For total ozone, the O3-CCI approach consists of minimizing sources of bias and systematic uncertainties by applying a common retrieval algorithm to all level 1 data sets, in order to enhance the consistency between the level 2 data sets from individual sensors. Here we present the evaluation of the total ozone products from the European sensors Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME)/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A produced with the GOME-type Direct FITting (GODFIT) algorithm v3. Measurements from the three sensors span more than 16 years, from 1996 to 2012. In this work, we present the latest O3-CCI total ozone validation results using as reference ground-based measurements from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers archived at the World Ozone and UV Data Centre of the World Meteorological Organization as well as from UV-visible differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS)/Système D'Analyse par Observations Zénithales (SAOZ) instruments from the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. In particular, we investigate possible dependencies in these new GODFIT v3 total ozone data sets with respect to latitude, season, solar zenith angle, and different cloud parameters, using the most adequate type of ground-based instrument. We show that these three O3-CCI total ozone data products behave very similarly and are less sensitive to instrumental degradation, mainly as a result of the new reflectance soft-calibration scheme. The mean bias to the ground-based observations is found to be within the 1 plus or minus 1 percent level for all three sensors while the near-zero decadal stability of the total ozone columns (TOCs) provided by the three European instruments falls well within the 1-3 percent requirement of the European Space

  17. Evaluating a new homogeneous total ozone climate data record from GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukouli, M. E.; Lerot, C.; Granville, J.; Goutail, F.; Lambert, J.-C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Balis, D.; Zyrichidou, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; Coldewey-Egbers, M.; Loyola, D.; Labow, G.; Frith, S.; Spurr, R.; Zehner, C.

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency's Ozone Climate Change Initiative (O3-CCI) project aims at producing and validating a number of high-quality ozone data products generated from different satellite sensors. For total ozone, the O3-CCI approach consists of minimizing sources of bias and systematic uncertainties by applying a common retrieval algorithm to all level 1 data sets, in order to enhance the consistency between the level 2 data sets from individual sensors. Here we present the evaluation of the total ozone products from the European sensors Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME)/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A produced with the GOME-type Direct FITting (GODFIT) algorithm v3. Measurements from the three sensors span more than 16 years, from 1996 to 2012. In this work, we present the latest O3-CCI total ozone validation results using as reference ground-based measurements from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers archived at the World Ozone and UV Data Centre of the World Meteorological Organization as well as from UV-visible differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS)/Système D'Analyse par Observations Zénithales (SAOZ) instruments from the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. In particular, we investigate possible dependencies in these new GODFIT v3 total ozone data sets with respect to latitude, season, solar zenith angle, and different cloud parameters, using the most adequate type of ground-based instrument. We show that these three O3-CCI total ozone data products behave very similarly and are less sensitive to instrumental degradation, mainly as a result of the new reflectance soft-calibration scheme. The mean bias to the ground-based observations is found to be within the 1 ± 1% level for all three sensors while the near-zero decadal stability of the total ozone columns (TOCs) provided by the three European instruments falls well within the 1-3% requirement of the European Space Agency's Ozone Climate Change

  18. Comparison of CO2 total column retrieved from IASI/MetOp-A using KLIMA algorithm and TANSO-FTS/GOSAT level 2 products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenza, Lucia Maria; Cortesi, Ugo; DelBianco, Samuele; Gai, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Carbon dioxide is a key constituent of the terrestrial atmosphere with both natural and anthropogenic sources. It is one of the primary forcing agents of the greenhouse effect, as well as from being the most mobile component of the global carbon cycle that is critically coupled to the Earth's climate system. In this study, one year of observations from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), onboard of MetOp-A satellite, are used to retrieve the columnar abundance of atmospheric carbon dioxide, for a global geographical coverage and in clear-sky conditions. The dedicated software is based on the KLIMA inversion algorithm (originally proposed by IFAC-CNR for cycle 6 of ESA Earth Explorer Core Missions) and has been adapted into a non-operational inversion code to process Level-1 data acquired by the IASI instrument and to retrieve the CO2 total column with a target accuracy of 1%. In order to obtain the a reasonable capacity to bulk processing IASI data, it was chosen to integrate the KLIMA code into the ESA grid based operational environment G-POD system (Grid Processing On-Demand). A series of approximations has been implemented in the radiative transfer code with the aim to achieve adequate features in term of program size and computing time necessary for the integration into G-POD system and to meet the requirements of comparison with TANSO-FTS/GOSAT SWIR Level-2 products. The KLIMA-IASI retrieval code integration on G-POD has been completed and considering the capacity of G-POD computing resources, it was decided to process, for global geographical coverage, one week per month of a complete year of IASI measurements, from March 1, 2010 to February 28, 2011. In this selected temporal range, TANSO-FTS SWIR Level-2 data were obtained from the GOSAT User Interface Gateway (GUIG), and data from selected stations covers a different latitudes of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) were collected from TCCON Data Archive. We performed an

  19. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=1999-07-17] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  20. Incidence des infections du site opératoire en Afrique sub-saharienne: revue systématique et méta-analyse

    PubMed Central

    Ngaroua; Ngah, Joseph Eloundou; Bénet, Thomas; Djibrilla, Yaouba

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Les Infections du Sites Opératoire (ISO) sont à l’origine de morbi-mortalité et des dépenses supplémentaires en santé. Les pays en développement en sont les plus touchés. L’objectif était d’estimer l’incidence poolée des ISO en Afrique Sub-saharienne et décrire ses principaux facteurs de risque. Méthodes Une revue systématique et une méta-analyse ont été effectuées à partir des bases de données de l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé pour la Région Afrique, de PubMed et par recherche standard afin de sélectionner des articles électroniquespubliés entre 2006 et 2015. Seuls les articlestraitants de l’incidence et desfacteurs de risque des ISOdans les pays del’Afrique subsaharienneétaient retenus. Résultats Sur 95 articles trouvés, 11 ont répondu aux critères d’inclusion. Seulement 9 pays sur les 45 y ont contribués avec une grandereprésentation du Nigéria (5 articles sur 11). L’incidence des ISO variaient de 6,8% à 26% avec une prédominance en chirurgie générale. L’incidence poolée des ISO était de 14.8% (IC à 95%: 15,5-16,2%), avec une importante hétérogénéité selon la spécialité et le mode de surveillance. Les facteurs de risque les plus citésétaient la longue durée d’intervention et la classe de contamination d’Altemeir 3 et 4. Les autres facteurs concernaient l’environnement hospitalier, les pratiques de soins inadéquats et les pathologies sous-jacentes. Conclusion L’incidence des ISO est élevée en Afrique subsaharienne, des études dans cette région pourrait améliorer la connaissance, laprévention et la maitrise deces multiples facteurs de risques. PMID:27795768

  1. Variabilité inter et intra-opérateur de l’analyse des paramètres spermatiques: résultat d’un programme de contrôle de qualité

    PubMed Central

    Daoud, Salima; Chakroun-Feki, Nozha; Sellami, Afifa; Ammar-Keskes, Leila; Rebai, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction L’analyse du sperme est d’une importance majeure dans l’exploration de l'infertilité masculine. Afin de s’assurer de la fiabilité des résultats rendus, l’implantation du management de qualité en spermiologie est devenue une nécessité.Le but de ce travail a été d’évaluer la variabilité intra- et inter-opérateurau cours de l’analyse des paramètres spermatiques au sein de notre laboratoire de spermiologie, à travers la mise en place d’un programme de contrôle de qualité. Méthodes Quatre opérateurs ayant des niveaux d’expérience différents ont participé à l’étude. La variabilité inter-individuelle des résultats des lectures de la mobilité, la concentration et la morphologie spermatique a été évaluée sur plusieurs échantillons de sperme de qualités différentes. Pour chaque paramètre spermatique, la variabilité intra-individuelle a été évaluée en analysant les résultats des lectures de plusieurs aliquotes issus de chacun des échantillons utilisés. Résultats Les coefficients de variation moyens inter-opérateurs ont été de12.8%, 19.8% et 48.9% pour la mobilité, la concentration et la morphologie spermatique, respectivement. Les coefficients de variation moyens intra-opérateurs ont été de6.9%, 12.3%et 42.7% pour la mobilité, la concentration, et la morphologie spermatique, respectivement. Mis à part quelques écarts (erreurs aléatoires), la plupart des mesures réalisées ont été dans les limites d’acceptabilité pour l’ensemble des opérateurs.La variabilité de l’évaluation morphologique des spermatozoïdes a été particulièrement influencée par le niveau d’expérience de l’opérateur. Conclusion Les résultats de cette étude mettent l’accent sur la nécessité d’une formation adéquate du personnel de laboratoire, et de la participation régulière aux contrôles de qualité internes afin de minimiser les divergences et d’améliorer la fiabilité des r

  2. Identification of opsA, a gene involved in solute stress mitigation and survival in soil, in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium Novosphingobium sp. strain LH128.

    PubMed

    Fida, Tekle Tafese; Breugelmans, Philip; Lavigne, Rob; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; De Mot, René; Vaysse, Pierre-Joseph; Springael, Dirk

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify genes involved in solute and matric stress mitigation in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading Novosphingobium sp. strain LH128. The genes were identified using plasposon mutagenesis and by selection of mutants that showed impaired growth in a medium containing 450 mM NaCl as a solute stress or 10% (wt/vol) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 as a matric stress. Eleven and 14 mutants showed growth impairment when exposed to solute and matric stresses, respectively. The disrupted sequences were mapped on a draft genome sequence of strain LH128, and the corresponding gene functions were predicted. None of them were shared between solute and matric stress-impacted mutants. One NaCl-affected mutant (i.e., NA7E1) with a disruption in a gene encoding a putative outer membrane protein (OpsA) was susceptible to lower NaCl concentrations than the other mutants. The growth of NA7E1 was impacted by other ions and nonionic solutes and by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), suggesting that opsA is involved in osmotic stress mitigation and/or outer membrane stability in strain LH128. NA7E1 was also the only mutant that showed reduced growth and less-efficient phenanthrene degradation in soil compared to the wild type. Moreover, the survival of NA7E1 in soil decreased significantly when the moisture content was decreased but was unaffected when soluble solutes from sandy soil were removed by washing. opsA appears to be important for the survival of strain LH128 in soil, especially in the case of reduced moisture content, probably by mitigating the effects of solute stress and retaining membrane stability.

  3. Effectiveness of functional hand splinting and the cognitive orientation to occupational performance (CO-OP) approach in children with cerebral palsy and brain injury: two randomised controlled trial protocols

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebral palsy (CP) and brain injury (BI) are common conditions that have devastating effects on a child’s ability to use their hands. Hand splinting and task-specific training are two interventions that are often used to address deficits in upper limb skills, both in isolation or concurrently. The aim of this paper is to describe the method to be used to conduct two randomised controlled trials (RCT) investigating (a) the immediate effect of functional hand splints, and (b) the effect of functional hand splints used concurrently with task-specific training compared to functional hand splints alone, and to task-specific training alone in children with CP and BI. The Cognitive Orientation to Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach will be the task-specific training approach used. Methods/Design Two concurrent trials; a two group, parallel design, RCT with a sample size of 30 participants (15 per group); and a three group, parallel design, assessor blinded, RCT with a sample size of 45 participants (15 per group). Inclusion criteria: age 4-15 years; diagnosis of CP or BI; Manual Abilities Classification System (MACS) level I – IV; hand function goals; impaired hand function; the cognitive, language and behavioural ability to participate in CO-OP. Participants will be randomly allocated to one of 3 groups; (1) functional hand splint only (n=15); (2) functional hand splint combined with task-specific training (n=15); (3) task-specific training only (n=15). Allocation concealment will be achieved using sequentially numbered, sealed opaque envelopes opened by an off-site officer after baseline measures. Treatment will be provided for a period of 2 weeks, with outcome measures taken at baseline, 1 hour after randomisation, 2 weeks and 10 weeks. The functional hand splint will be a wrist cock-up splint (+/- thumb support or supination strap). Task-specific training will involve 10 sessions of CO-OP provided in a group of 2-4 children. Primary outcome

  4. Etats hémodynamiques et respiratoires des opérées de fistules obstétricales sous rachianesthésie au CHRR Manakara, Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Martinetti, Andrianimaro Florelia; Franklin, Rabenjarison; Lalao, Randriamboavonjy Rado; Judicael, Harioly Nirina Marie Osé; Yvonne, Rasolonjatovo Tsiorintsoa; Andriambelo, Rajaonera Tovohery; Nicole, Rakotoarison Ratsaraharimanana Catherine; Enintsoa, Raveloson Nasolotsiry; Edwige, Ravaomanana

    2016-01-01

    L'objectif était d'évaluer les états hémodynamiques et respiratoires des opérées de fistules obstétricales et rapporter nos expériences sur la prise en charge de ces malades. Il s'agit d'une étude transversale descriptive effectuée au Bloc opératoire et Réanimation du CHRR Manakara allant du 20 au 30 aout 2013. Etaient incluses les patientes opérées de fistules obstétricales sous rachianesthésie. Nous avons exclu les patientes classées ASA >2 et celles ayant des tares cardio-vasculaires ou respiratoires. Après consultations préanesthésiques, et bilans préopératoires, nous avons administré chez les patientes 12,5mg de bupivacaïne adrénalinée 0,5% isobare en intrathécal. Elles étaient mises en position de Trendelenburg 5 minutes après l'injection du produit anesthésique et durant toute l'intervention. Le niveau sensitif, la pression artérielle, la fréquence cardiaque, la fréquence respiratoire et la saturation pulsée en oxygène (SpO2) étaient enregistrés pendant l'intervention. Nous avons retenues 57 malades. Le bloc sensitivomoteur était excellent pour toutes les malades. Un niveau métamérique supérieur à T6 était atteint chez 56,36% des malades. A part quelques épisodes d'hypertension artérielle et tachycardie, nous n'avons trouvé aucune difficulté respiratoire ni cardiovasculaire en rapport avec la position. Seuls, le niveau sensitif et la fréquence respiratoire présentaient une corrélation (p=0,01). Cette étude suggère que la position de Trendelenburg est réalisable au cours de la rachianesthésie en utilisant un produit anesthésique approprié, en faisant attention, notamment aux changements de position et en tenant compte de l'examen préanesthésique. PMID:28292102

  5. Factors associated with improved glycemic control following continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled with bolus-basal insulin regimens: an analysis from the OpT2mise randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Muriel; Castañeda, Javier; Reznik, Yves; Giorgino, Francesco; Conget, Ignacio; Aronson, Ronnie; de Portu, Simona; Runzis, Sarah; Lee, Scott W; Cohen, Ohad

    2017-04-04

    This analysis investigated factors associated with the decrease in HbA1c in patients receiving continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in the OpT2mise randomized trial. In this study, patients with type 2 diabetes and HbA1C >8% following multiple daily injections (MDI) optimization were randomized to receive CSII (n = 168) or MDI (n = 163) for 6 months. Patient-related and treatment-related factors associated with decreased HbA1c in the CSII arm were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. CSII produced a significantly greater reduction in HbA1c than MDI, and the treatment difference increased with baseline HbA1c . In the CSII arm, the only factors significantly associated with decreased HbA1C were higher baseline HbA1C (P<0.001), geographical region (P<0.001), higher educational level (P=0.012), higher total cholesterol level (P=0.002), lower variability of baseline glucose values on continuous glucose monitoring (P<0.001), and the decrease in average fasting self-monitored blood glucose at 6 months (P<0.001). These findings suggest that CSII offers an option to improve glycemic control in a broad range of type 2 diabetes patients in whom control cannot be achieved with MDI. OpT2mise ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01182493 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/).

  6. Les myélopathies cervicarthrosiques: résultat clinique et radiologique de la chirurgie sur une série de 135 patients opérés au service de neurochirurgie CHU Avicenne

    PubMed Central

    Djoubairou, Ben Ousmanou; Nabil, Moussé; Karekezi, Claire; Diawara, Seylan; El Fatemi, Nizar; Gana, Rachid; El Abbadi, Najia; Maaqili, Moulay Rachid

    2014-01-01

    La myélopathie cervicarthrosique est un syndrome clinique en relation avec la diminution des dimensions du canal rachidien, la cervicarthrose est l’étiologie principale après 50 ans. L'objectif du traitement est de rétablir les dimensions du canal rachidien cervical. Le choix de la technique chirurgicale sera guidé par l'analyse des signes cliniques, imageries, pré opératoire en fonction de laquelle sera pratiquée soit la voie antérieure, postérieure, ou exceptionnellement la voie combinée. Notre étude a pour but dans un premier temps d’évaluer à long terme les résultats cliniques et radiologiques de la chirurgie ensuite répondre à cette préoccupation: La lordose cervicale pré opératoire et postopératoire sont t-elles des facteurs de bon pronostic? Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective entre 2000 et 2013 portant sur 135 patients opérés dans notre formation et remplissant les critères inclusions. La collecte des données s'est faite en s'aidant du dossier médical des patients (échelle d'Association des orthopédistes Japonais), Imagerie (Radio, TDM, IRM), mesure de l'angle de courbure rachidienne en pré et postopératoire, ceci dans le but d’évaluer à long terme les résultats clinique et radiologique de la chirurgie. Ont été inclus dans notre étude 135 patients, 82 Hommes (60%), 53 femmes (40%) avec un âge moyen de 52 ans, ayant consulté pour des motifs divers (Névralgies cervicobrachiales, lourdeur des membres, troubles génito-sphinctériens). Soixante cinq patients (48%) ont bénéficié d'un abord antérieur (dissectomie, cloward, somatotomie médiane), 64 patients (47%) ont été opérés par voie postérieure (laminectomie de 1 à 3 niveaux) et 6 patients (5%) ont bénéficié d'un abord combiné dans un délai moyen de 3 mois devant la persistance des symptômes. Le niveau cervical le plus touché était C5C6 suivie de C4C5. L’évolution globale de nos patients était favorable dans 58% des cas, stationnaire

  7. Identification of plant cells in black pigments of prehistoric Spanish Levantine rock art by means of a multi-analytical approach. A new method for social identity materialization using chaîne opératoire.

    PubMed

    López-Montalvo, Esther; Roldán, Clodoaldo; Badal, Ernestina; Murcia-Mascarós, Sonia; Villaverde, Valentín

    2017-01-01

    We present a new multi-analytical approach to the characterization of black pigments in Spanish Levantine rock art. This new protocol seeks to identify the raw materials that were used, as well as reconstruct the different technical gestures and decision-making processes involved in the obtaining of these black pigments. For the first of these goals, the pictorial matter of the black figurative motifs documented at the Les Dogues rock art shelter (Ares del Maestre, Castellón, Spain) was characterized through the combination of physicochemical and archeobotanical analyses. During the first stage of our research protocol, in situ and non-destructive analyses were carried out by means of portable Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF); during the second stage, samples were analyzed by Optical Microscopy (OM), Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Two major conclusions have been drawn from these analyses: first, charred plant matter has been identified as a main component of these prehistoric black pigments; and second, angiosperm and conifer charcoal was a primary raw material for pigment production, identified by means of the archaeobotanical study of plant cells. For the second goal, black charcoal pigments were replicated in the laboratory by using different raw materials and binders and by reproducing two main chaînes opératoires. The comparative study of the structure and preservation of plant tissues of both prehistoric and experimental pigments by means of SEM-EDX underlines both a complex preparation process and the use of likely pigment recipes, mixing raw material with fatty or oily binders. Finally, the formal and stylistic analysis of the motifs portrayed at Les Dogues allowed us to explore the relationship between identified stylistic phases and black charcoal pigment use, raising new archaeological questions concerning the acquisition of know-how and the

  8. Identification of plant cells in black pigments of prehistoric Spanish Levantine rock art by means of a multi-analytical approach. A new method for social identity materialization using chaîne opératoire

    PubMed Central

    Roldán, Clodoaldo; Badal, Ernestina; Murcia-Mascarós, Sonia; Villaverde, Valentín

    2017-01-01

    We present a new multi-analytical approach to the characterization of black pigments in Spanish Levantine rock art. This new protocol seeks to identify the raw materials that were used, as well as reconstruct the different technical gestures and decision-making processes involved in the obtaining of these black pigments. For the first of these goals, the pictorial matter of the black figurative motifs documented at the Les Dogues rock art shelter (Ares del Maestre, Castellón, Spain) was characterized through the combination of physicochemical and archeobotanical analyses. During the first stage of our research protocol, in situ and non-destructive analyses were carried out by means of portable Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF); during the second stage, samples were analyzed by Optical Microscopy (OM), Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Two major conclusions have been drawn from these analyses: first, charred plant matter has been identified as a main component of these prehistoric black pigments; and second, angiosperm and conifer charcoal was a primary raw material for pigment production, identified by means of the archaeobotanical study of plant cells. For the second goal, black charcoal pigments were replicated in the laboratory by using different raw materials and binders and by reproducing two main chaînes opératoires. The comparative study of the structure and preservation of plant tissues of both prehistoric and experimental pigments by means of SEM-EDX underlines both a complex preparation process and the use of likely pigment recipes, mixing raw material with fatty or oily binders. Finally, the formal and stylistic analysis of the motifs portrayed at Les Dogues allowed us to explore the relationship between identified stylistic phases and black charcoal pigment use, raising new archaeological questions concerning the acquisition of know-how and the

  9. Un anévrysme sacciforme de l'aorte abdominale révélant une maladie de Behçet: quand faut-il opérer?

    PubMed Central

    Ajili, Faida; Tounsi, Haifa; Aouini, Fatma; Bousetta, Najeh; Ben Abdelhafidh, Nadia; Louzir, Bassem; Laabidi, Janet; Othmani, Salah

    2014-01-01

    L'atteinte vasculaire est fréquente au cours de la maladie de Behçet. Elle est essentiellement représentée par les thromboses veineuses alors que l'atteinte artérielle est plus rare. Elle peut être isolée ou multifocale et peut toucher tous les territoires avec prédilection pour l'aorte abdominale, les artères pulmonaires et les artères des membres inférieurs. L'atteinte anévrysmale de l'aorte abdominale est trompeuse se manifestant par une symptomatologie atypique responsable d'un retard diagnostique favorisant la rupture. Dans notre cas, des douleurs abdominales paroxystiques ont incité le patient à consulter rapidement. L'enquête étiologique a conclue à un angio Behcet. Rarement, l'anévrysme de l'aorte abdominale est révélé par une complication telle que la rupture dans le rétro péritoine ou le tube digestif. Les indications chirurgicales des anévrysmes de l'aorte sont discutées ici. Un traitement immunosuppresseur au long cours s'impose en post opératoire pour limiter le risque de récidive. PMID:25852795

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 containing BaO-Fe2O3 glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenakul, W.; Kantha, P.; Pisitpipathsin, N.; Rujijanagul, G.; Eitssayeam, S.; Pengpat, K.

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation method was employed to produce bioactive glass-ceramics from the BaFe12O19-SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 glass system. The ferrimagnetic BaFe12O19 was first prepared using a simple mixed oxide method, where the oxide precursors of 45S5 bioglass were initially mixed and then melted to form glass. The devitrification of Na3Ca6(PO4)5 and Fe3O4 was observed in all of the quenched glass samples. The glass samples were then subjected to a heat treatment schedule for further crystallization. It was found that the small traces of BaFe12O19 phases started to crystallize in high BF content samples of 20 and 40 wt%. These samples also exhibited good magnetic properties comparable to that of other magnetic glass-ceramics. The bioactivity of the BF glass-ceramics improved with increasing BF content as was evident by the formation of bone-like apatite layers on the surface of all of the glass-ceramics after soaking in SBF for 14 days. The results support the use of these bioactive glass-ceramics for hyperthermia treatment within the human body.

  11. Effects of CaO/P2O5 ratio on the structure and elastic properties of SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 bioglasses.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Cherng; Chen, Shih-Fan; Leung, Kak Si; Shen, Pouyan

    2012-02-01

    The evolution of elastic properties and structure upon the change of CaO/P(2)O(5) ratio in SiO(2)-CaO-Na(2)O-P(2)O(5) glasses (45S5-derived and 55S4-derived) at ambient conditions has been studied by using both Brillouin and Raman spectroscopy coupled with X-ray diffraction. Under the same SiO(2)/Na(2)O ratio, it is found that a decrease in CaO/P(2)O(5) molar ratio has caused a more-polymerized silicate network via a net consumption of Q(0), Q(1), and Q(2) species yet enriching in Q(3) and Q(4) species. Brillouin experiments revealed that all the bulk, shear and Young's moduli of the glasses studied increases with the increase of CaO/P(2)O(5) molar ratio. The unexpected variation trend in shear modulus can be correlated to the contribution from cohesion, the less-polymerized phosphate Q species, and density. Compared to the 45S5-derived, the more-polymerized 55S4-deived glass has a lower bulk but slightly higher shear modulus at the given CaO/P(2)O(5) ratio.

  12. Chthonomonas calidirosea gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic, pigmented, thermophilic micro-organism of a novel bacterial class, Chthonomonadetes classis nov., of the newly described phylum Armatimonadetes originally designated candidate division OP10.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kevin C-Y; Dunfield, Peter F; Morgan, Xochitl C; Crowe, Michelle A; Houghton, Karen M; Vyssotski, Mikhail; Ryan, Jason L J; Lagutin, Kirill; McDonald, Ian R; Stott, Matthew B

    2011-10-01

    An aerobic, saccharolytic, obligately thermophilic, motile, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain T49(T), was isolated from geothermally heated soil at Hell's Gate, Tikitere, New Zealand. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, T49(T) is the first representative of a new class in the newly described phylum Armatimonadetes, formerly known as candidate division OP10. Cells of strain T49(T) stained Gram-negative and were catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Cells possessed a highly corrugated outer membrane. The major fatty acids were 16 : 0, i17 : 0 and ai17 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 54.6 mol%. Strain T49(T) grew at 50-73 °C with an optimum temperature of 68 °C, and at pH 4.7-5.8 with an optimum growth pH of 5.3. A growth rate of 0.012 h(-1) was observed under optimal temperature and pH conditions. The primary respiratory quinone was MK-8. Optimal growth was achieved in the absence of NaCl, although growth was observed at NaCl concentrations as high as 2 % (w/v). Strain T49(T) was able to utilize mono- and disaccharides such as cellobiose, lactose, mannose and glucose, as well as branched or amorphous polysaccharides such as starch, CM-cellulose, xylan and glycogen, but not highly linear polysaccharides such as crystalline cellulose or cotton. On the basis of its phylogenetic position and phenotypic characteristics, we propose that strain T49(T) represents a novel bacterial genus and species within the new class Chthonomonadetes classis nov. of the phylum Armatimonadetes. The type strain of Chthonomonas calidirosea gen. nov., sp. nov. is T49(T) ( = DSM 23976(T) = ICMP 18418(T)).

  13. Co-op Student Work Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    Projects: (1) Boeing Launch Abort Analysis My first project for the summer was analyzing the Boeing CCDev Vehicle's abort aerodynamics using an inviscid solver (CART3D). The goal of the project was to develop the grid and CFD inputs necessary to use CART3D as a quick tool for investigating loading trends at various points along abort trajectories. As a supplementary task, I analyzed a few cases and compared them to the aerodatabase from the last generation geometry. (2) My second project for the summer dealt with investigating how heating changes as the height of a protuberance on top of a flat plate changes. The goal of this investigation is to better understand how to properly model heating on and around a protuberance. This is one of the biggest challenges when designing a re ]entry vehicle because very small changes in the shape and conditions leading up to a protuberance, not to mention the protuberance geometry, will greatly impact the local heating.

  14. Fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell (OPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2015-04-01

    Biomass is an important renewable source of energy. Residues that are obtained from harvesting and agricultural products can be utilised as fuel for energy generation by conducting any thermal energy conversion technology. The conversion of biomass to bio oil is one of the prospective alternative energy resources. Therefore, in this study fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell was conducted. The main objective of this study was to find the optimum condition for high yield bio-oil production. The experiment was conducted using fixed-bed fluidizing pyrolysis system. The biomass sample was pyrolysed at variation temperature of 450°C - 650°C and at variation residence time of 0.9s - 1.35s. The results obtained were further discussed in this paper. The basic characteristic of the biomass sample was also presented here. The experiment shows that the optimum bio-oil yield was obtained at temperature of 500°C at residence time 1.15s.

  15. Op-Ed: Curriculum Implementation Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, Pinchas

    2004-01-01

    In 1978, more than 100 science educators from Israel and approximately 50 leading science educators and researchers representing 13 countries convened at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (23-28 July) and The Hebrew University, Jerusalem (30 July-2 August) to discuss problems and issues of curriculum development and curriculum…

  16. Architectural Implications of DevOps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    Project Management Approach Size Metrics Years In Use Release Cadence CI Cadence A Agile/ Scrum (last 2 years and traditional before...that) 1M SLOC 17 Client release available every 2 months (not all accept it) Daily CI build B Water/ Scrum /F all 3M SLOC, team size 6– 8...90,000 users 3+ Internal release every 2–3 weeks, external release as needed Daily CI build C Agile/ Scrum Team size 30 2+ Internal release every

  17. The Art of Writing Op-Eds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Linda Chion

    2006-01-01

    When John Whritner was hired for his first superintendency, the school system he soon would lead had recently approved a town budget for education. By the time Whritner showed up for work in East Lyme, Conn., the fickle electorate had changed its collective mindset and reversed its approval by referendum. This article discusses how superintendents…

  18. O&P (Ova and Parasite) Test

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  19. Creative Analytics of Mission Ops Event Messages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Historically, tremendous effort has been put into processing and displaying mission health and safety telemetry data; and relatively little attention has been paid to extracting information from missions time-tagged event log messages. Todays missions may log tens of thousands of messages per day and the numbers are expected to dramatically increase as satellite fleets and constellations are launched, as security monitoring continues to evolve, and as the overall complexity of ground system operations increases. The logs may contain information about orbital events, scheduled and actual observations, device status and anomalies, when operators were logged on, when commands were resent, when there were data drop outs or system failures, and much much more. When dealing with distributed space missions or operational fleets, it becomes even more important to systematically analyze this data. Several advanced information systems technologies make it appropriate to now develop analytic capabilities which can increase mission situational awareness, reduce mission risk, enable better event-driven automation and cross-mission collaborations, and lead to improved operations strategies: Industry Standard for Log Messages. The Object Management Group (OMG) Space Domain Task Force (SDTF) standards organization is in the process of creating a formal standard for industry for event log messages. The format is based on work at NASA GSFC. Open System Architectures. The DoD, NASA, and others are moving towards common open system architectures for mission ground data systems based on work at NASA GSFC with the full support of the commercial product industry and major integration contractors. Text Analytics. A specific area of data analytics which applies statistical, linguistic, and structural techniques to extract and classify information from textual sources. This presentation describes work now underway at NASA to increase situational awareness through the collection of non-telemetry mission operations information into a common log format and then providing display and analytics tools to provide in-depth assessment of the log contents. The work includes: Common interface formats for acquiring time-tagged text messages Conversion of common files for schedules, orbital events, and stored commands to the common log format Innovative displays to depict thousands of messages on a single display Structured English text queries against the log message data store, extensible to a more mature natural language query capability Goal of speech-to-text and text-to-speech additions to create a personal mission operations assistant to aid on-console operations. A wide variety of planned uses identified by the mission operations teams will be discussed.

  20. VLAP: results immediately post-op

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, Robert S.

    1996-05-01

    Visual laser ablation of the prostate (VLAP) has been shown to be as effective with fewer complications than TURP in the treatment of bladder outlet obstruction secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Questions have been raised about VLAP regarding prolonged irritative and obstructive voiding symptoms postoperatively. It is postulated that these symptoms are due to the slow slough of necrotic debris following VLAP. In an effort to improve upon the technique of VLAP, patients underwent lasing of the prostate in the routine manner (2, 4, 8, and 10 o'clock positions with sixty watts for sixty seconds) using Nd:YAG free beam energy. A bladder neck incision was then performed using a contact laser fiber. International prostate symptom score assessments were done preoperatively; one week and six weeks postoperatively. Post void residual urine volumes and prostate size were also evaluated. The findings indicate that symptom scores and post void residual urine volumes have significantly improved within ten days postoperatively using this technique.

  1. Mother Stephanie Mohun, O.P.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspar, Ruth; Graham, Rosalie

    2006-01-01

    It is often stated that Catholic schools in the US were built on the foundation of the poverty of vowed women religious. Dozens of communities fit this description, none more so than the Dominican Sisters of St. Mary of the Springs. Sister Stephanie Mohun's service as mother general spanned a period of tremendous growth in Catholic education at…

  2. Social enterprise. The co-op conundrum.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Alexis

    2006-04-13

    Social enterprise has opponents at both ends of the political spectrum, viewing it as either having an unfair advantage or the first stage of privatising the NHS. Supporters say there is less bureaucracy and it will focus commissioners on getting better services. In future providers will need to improve their business and financial skills.

  3. Adding "Missed" Science to Cassini's Ops Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Mou; Burton, Marcia E.; Edgington, Scott; Pitesky, Jo E.; Steadman, Kimberly B.; Ray, Trina L.; Evans, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenal success of the Cassini Mission at Saturn is largely due to flagship instruments, in a target rich environment, for a long period of time, executing almost error free complex mission operations. A smooth transition from cruise operations through the prime science mission and extended science (Equinox) mission culminating in the currently executing Solstice mission has folded in necessary procedural alterations due to improved understanding of the spacecraft, instruments, uplink and planning systems as well as additional science objectives. These have come with the maturation of the mission along with management of workforce reductions. One important set of operational changes has been initiated due to scientific findings highlighting "missed" science opportunities. This is the case for the Titan Meteorology Campaigns and Saturn Storm Watch Campaigns. These observations involve long term monitoring of the atmospheres of Titan and Saturn while the spacecraft and science teams are focused on other high priority targets of opportunity (like Enceladus). Our objective in this paper is to emphasize how a non-invasive strategy to get additional remarkable science was conceived and implemented in a mission with an already well defined operational plan. To illustrate this we will detail Titan Meteorology Campaign and Saturn Storm Watch Campaign integration and implementation strategies as well as the scientific goals and achievements of both.

  4. Tonsillectomy and Adenoids PostOp

    MedlinePlus

    ... Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly prohibited without prior written ... Copyright 2017. American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery 1650 Diagonal Rd Alexandria, VA 22314 tel (703) ...

  5. A brief intervention for drug use, sexual risk behaviours and violence prevention with vulnerable women in South Africa: a randomised trial of the Women’s Health CoOp

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Jewkes, Rachel; Novak, Scott P; Kline, Tracy; Myers, Bronwyn; Browne, Felicia A; Carney, Tara; Morgan Lopez, Antonio A; Parry, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of the Women's Health CoOp (WHC) on drug abstinence among vulnerable women having HIV counselling and testing (HCT). Design Randomised trial conducted with multiple follow-ups. Setting 15 communities in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants 720 drug-using women aged 18–33, randomised to an intervention (360) or one of two control arms (181 and 179) with 91.9% retained at follow-up. Interventions The WHC brief peer-facilitated intervention consisted of four modules (two sessions), 2 h addressing knowledge and skills to reduce drug use, sex risk and violence; and included role-playing and rehearsal, an equal attention nutrition intervention, and an HCT-only control. Primary outcome measures Biologically confirmed drug abstinence measured at 12-month follow-up, sober at last sex act, condom use with main and casual sex partners, and intimate partner violence. Results At the 12-month endpoint, 26.9% (n=83/309) of the women in the WHC arm were abstinent from drugs, compared with 16.9% (n=27/160) in the Nutrition arm and 20% (n=31/155) in the HCT-only control arm. In the random effects model, this translated to an effect size on the log odds scale with an OR of 1.54 (95% CI 1.07 to 2.22) comparing the WHC arm with the combined control arms. Other 12-month comparison measures between arms were non-significant for sex risk and victimisation outcomes. At 6-month follow-up, women in the WHC arm (65.9%, 197/299) were more likely to be sober at the last sex act (OR1.32 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.84)) than women in the Nutrition arm (54.3%, n=82/152). Conclusions This is the first trial among drug-using women in South Africa showing that a brief intervention added to HCT results in greater abstinence from drug use at 12 months and a larger percentage of sexual activity not under the influence of substances. Trial registration number NCT00729391 ClinicalTrials.gov PMID:23793683

  6. OP09O-OP404-9 Wide Field Camera 3 CCD Quantum Efficiency Hysteresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The HST/Wide Field Camera (WFC) 3 UV/visible channel CCD detectors have exhibited an unanticipated quantum efficiency hysteresis (QEH) behavior. At the nominal operating temperature of -83C, the QEH feature contrast was typically 0.1-0.2% or less. The behavior was replicated using flight spare detectors. A visible light flat-field (540nm) with a several times full-well signal level can pin the detectors at both optical (600nm) and near-UV (230nm) wavelengths, suppressing the QEH behavior. We are characterizing the timescale for the detectors to become unpinned and developing a protocol for flashing the WFC3 CCDs with the instrument's internal calibration system in flight. The HST/Wide Field Camera 3 UV/visible channel CCD detectors have exhibited an unanticipated quantum efficiency hysteresis (QEH) behavior. The first observed manifestation of QEH was the presence in a small percentage of flat-field images of a bowtie-shaped contrast that spanned the width of each chip. At the nominal operating temperature of -83C, the contrast observed for this feature was typically 0.1-0.2% or less, though at warmer temperatures contrasts up to 5% (at -50C) have been observed. The bowtie morphology was replicated using flight spare detectors in tests at the GSFC Detector Characterization Laboratory by power cycling the detector while cold. Continued investigation revealed that a clearly-related global QE suppression at the approximately 5% level can be produced by cooling the detector in the dark; subsequent flat-field exposures at a constant illumination show asymptotically increasing response. This QE "pinning" can be achieved with a single high signal flat-field or a series of lower signal flats; a visible light (500-580nm) flat-field with a signal level of several hundred thousand electrons per pixel is sufficient for QE pinning at both optical (600nm) and near-UV (230nm) wavelengths. We are characterizing the timescale for the detectors to become unpinned and developing a protocol for flashing the WFC3 CCDs with the instrument's internal calibration system in flight. A preliminary estimate of the decay timescale for one detector is that a drop of 0.1-0.2% occurs over a ten day period, indicating that relatively infrequent cal lamp exposures can mitigate the behavior to extremely low levels.

  7. A Behavior Focused Assessment of Co-Op Performance: A Comparison of Co-Op and Non-Co-Op Graduating Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennaforte, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how student-workers' performance can be assessed through the notion of work-role performance, on the basis of three behavioral-related dimensions (proficiency, adaptivity, and proactivity), and proposes a definition of performance prior to graduation. By taking into account the accumulation of work experience, this article…

  8. Flight Planning Branch NASA Co-op Tour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, Aja M.

    2013-01-01

    This semester I worked with the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center. I learned about the different aspects of flight planning for the International Space Station as well as the software that is used internally and ISSLive! which is used to help educate the public on the space program. I had the opportunity to do on the job training in the Mission Control Center with the planning team. I transferred old timeline records from the planning team's old software to the new software in order to preserve the data for the future when the software is retired. I learned about the operations of the International Space Station, the importance of good communication between the different parts of the planning team, and enrolled in professional development classes as well as technical classes to learn about the space station.

  9. Tera-OP Reliable Intelligently Adaptive Processing System (TRIPS) Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    ITs in a two-dimensional, wormhole -routed, 5x5 mesh topology. The OPN has separate control and data channels, and can deliver one 64-bit data operand...communicate through the secondary memory system, which is interconnected by the On-Chip Network (OCN). The OCN is a 4x10, wormhole -routed mesh network

  10. Grand mission versus small OPS team: Can we have both?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Perez, Raul

    1994-01-01

    Space Missions are growing more ambitious, but resources are getting smaller. Is this is a contradiction in terms, or is it a healthy challenge? This paper offers the author's point of view as a member of a small Mission Operations Team that carries out an ambitious international mission (Ulysses ESA/NASA).

  11. Op. Amps in Power Amplification: A Laboratory Exercise on Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borcherds, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    To demonstrate negative feedback a power amplifier is constructed from an operational amplifier together with a complementary pair of transistors as an output stage. The amplifier is developed and tested stage by stage, and at each stage the defects apparent at the previous stage are eliminated. (JN)

  12. Interactive telemedical applications in OP 2000 via satellite.

    PubMed

    Graschew, Georgi; Roelofs, Theo A; Rakowsky, Stefan; Schlag, Peter M

    2002-01-01

    Using off-the-shelf hardware components and a specially developed high-end software communication system (WinVicos) satellite networks for interactive telemedicine have been designed and developed. These networks allow for various telemedical applications, like teleteaching, telementoring, intraoperative teleconsultation, second opinioning, etc.. Based on the successful GALENOS network, several projects are currently being realized: MEDASHIP (Medical Assistance for Ships); DELTASS (Disaster Emergency Logistic Telemedicine Advanced Satellites Systems) and EMISPHER (Euro-Mediterranean Internet-Satellite Platform for Health, medical Education and Research).

  13. Co-op Program Extends Student Work Periods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes a cooperative education program at Fairleigh Dickinson University's Rutherford (New Jersey) campus in which the time students spend working at a particular business/industry is increased from the traditional semester/quarter to nine-, seven-, and three-month periods. Advantages of the program are discussed. (JN)

  14. School Co-ops and Shared Media Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Thomas E.

    1973-01-01

    Examines shared services through school system cooperatives as one of the most promising alternatives to the reorganization of small school districts. Criteria are proposed for selection of services to be shared. Nine types of media services are discussed that could be provided appropriately through school cooperatives. (Author/WM)

  15. OP-AMPS on Flexible Substrates with Printable Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-10

    interdigitated parts of the S/D electrodes are fully overlapped with the gate electrode , is employed to improve the performance uniformity of solution...above. frequency is determined by the overlap capacitance between the gate and the S/D electrodes , or the area of the interdigitated fingers of...employed [8]. Patterned-gate structure introduces surface relief by means such as the step height of the gate electrode and spikes around the electrode

  16. Neuroprotection From Op-Induced Seizures and Neuropathology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    relative levels of NR subunits in the PC and other cortical regions. The comparative expressions of NR1, NR2A, NR2B , NR2C, NR2D and NR3 subunits were...analyzed in the PC, entorhinal, visual and motor cortices, and the olfactory bulb. This analysis showed that NR2B was the most heavily expressed subunit...in all of the brain regions examined. These results suggest that NR2B is an important component of the NRs while NR2C, NR2D and NR-L are not

  17. Positioning the Co-op Program for Maximum Marketing Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ronald R.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the concept of positioning, which is the way that individuals perceive and are made aware of a program and believe in its benefit to them and its application to cooperative education programs. Includes a five-step plan for assessing the position of cooperative programs and six ways to implement a positioning strategy. (JOW)

  18. Blue Darts: Award-Winning OP-EDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    natural guides—the compass, charts, sextants , timepieces, and so forth. In the last half century, perhaps the greatest advances in navigation tech...simple one—don’t eliminate the basic skill sets upon which our technology of today was built. There is still a use for wet compasses, sextants

  19. Mechanisms and Treatment of OP-Induced Seizures and Neuropathology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-18

    recording of rat olfactory bulb mitral cells: biophysical and synaptic properties...1 0 5 Figure 31. Biocytin filled mitral cells in olfactory bulb slices... Mitral cell membrane currents measured under voltage clamp .......................................... 117 Figure 34. Spontaneous excitatory potentials

  20. Industrial Cooperative Education Co-op: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This guide, which was written as an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System, outlines the suggested scope and sequence of a 2-year cooperative program in industrial education. The guide consists of a course description;…

  1. Large bandwidth op-amp based white noise current source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusi, Gino; Scandurra, Graziella; Ciofi, Carmine

    2014-02-01

    Electrical noise sources are basic building blocks in many measurement and instrumentation applications and in communication systems. In this paper, we propose a quite simple topology for the realization of a programmable, wide bandwidth, white noise current source that requires only two resistors and one operational amplifier. We validate the proposed approach by means of SPICE simulations and demonstrate, by means of proper measurements, the capability of generating a flat current noise spectrum in a frequency range up to four decades from a few Hz up to 100 kHz.

  2. Private loan enables co-op to mitigate 'rate shock'

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    An unsecured bank loan from the Irving Trust Company will enable the Sunflower Electric Cooperative to moderate the rate increase it would have needed to recover the costs of the new 296 MW Holcomb coal-fired plant. Simultaneous agreements with the Kansas Corporation Commission, the state commission, other state cooperatives, the Rural Electrification Administration, and with Sunflower's distribution systems will provide the cooperative with a $60 million revolving line of credit for five years. Other utilities are watching the Sunflower scheme to see if it has the potential for broader application in mitigating the rate increases caused by new plant construction.

  3. [NASA Johnson Space Center Co-Op Student Experience Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, David

    2011-01-01

    My primary task on my first tour at JSC was to assist my mentor, Sheikh Ahsan, with a research study he is conducting on aluminum wire. While assisting my mentor with the aluminum wire study, I've also had an opportunity to complete work for other projects including the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Project and an Electrolysis Project for Innovation Day at JSC.

  4. Toekomstvisie op Verstrekking en Ontwikkeling van Kleding op Basis van Scangegenereerde Gegevens (Scan Based Distribution and Development of Clothing)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    kleding) bruikbaar zijn. Bekende normen hierin zijn: "* ISO 7250 - Basic human body measurements for technological design [ISO 1996]; "* ISO 8559...kunnen worden. Ten derde worden de eerder genoemde normen ISO 7250 en ISO 8559 niet meer als toereikend gezien in de kleding: reikte het doel vroeger...aangeduid met de term ’clothometry’, ziet er anders uit dan hetgeen is vastgelegd in ISO- normen over antropometrische maten. Bovendien is bij bet

  5. Optimising BMW four-cylinder two-valve engines Optimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOpt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flierl, R.; Kramer, F.; Rech, H.; Stanski, U.; Wenzel, M.

    1993-11-01

    In model year 1994, BMW will present two essentially redesigned 4-cylinder, 2-valve engines. BMW has upgraded its 1.6 1 and 1.8 1 2-valve engines using technical features previously reserved for the 4-valve engines, such as knock control system, distributorless semiconductor ignition, variable induction system (DISA) and ribbed V-belt accessory drive, along with measures to reduce power losses, noise levels and exhaust emissions. BMW models equipped with these two engines offer customers improved response characteristics and fuel consumption, as well as reduced emissions and maintenance requirements.

  6. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Horticulture Technology Cluster (Program CIP: 01.0601--Horticulture Serv. Op. & Mgmt., Gen.) (Program CIP: 01.0605--Landscaping Op. & Mgmt.). Postsecondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the horticulture technology programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a framework of programs and courses, description of the programs, and suggested course sequences for…

  7. Op weg naar een didactiek voor natuurkunde-experimenten op afstand : Ontwerp en evaluatie van een via internet uitvoerbaar experiment voor leerlingen uit het voortgezet onderwijs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbarts, M. B. A.

    2009-02-01

    The subject of this thesis is a developmental study on “remote experimenting” in education. It concerns the development of a remote experiment that enables pre-university students to carry out a physics experiment at a distance via the internet. Remote experiments can offer several (practical) benefits when compared to conventional experiments but the desire to exploit these benefits put special demands on the design of the experiment, since the students might be conducting the experiment without a teacher in the vicinity. As a consequence of these demands it was decided to focus on exploring the possibilities and problems of remote experiments conducted in the absence of a teacher. The research was carried out in two cycles and focused on the development of a remote experiment that could be conducted autonomously by pre-university students to measure the speed of light in several media. This should answer the global question: What should a technically, as well as didactically, well-functioning remote experiment look like? The first cycle had an explorative character. It showed that technically the experiment already functioned quite well. However, many problems were observed concerning the content, and the way the students were tackling it. This led to two categories of recommendations. Concerning the content, the material should aim at making the students more aware of what they are doing and why they are doing it and several content related problems needed to be avoided. The second category of recommendations concerned the format of the material: the design and the working method. Special attention should be paid to designing a clear structure for the website and adding interaction and control, (feedback- and reflection facilities) to activate the students and guide them through the material. In the second research cycle these recommendations were followed by designing the material within the theoretical framework of the problem posing theory. A didactical structure was designed before writing the actual lesson material for the website describing the inter-related conceptual and content-related motivational pathway of the intended teaching-learning process. The lesson material was set up in such a way that the students are repeatedly confronted with a practical problem to solve and they play an active role in developing the method of measurement. Secondly, in an attempt to compensate for the absence of the teacher and support the teaching-learning process some format elements were developed and deployed like an automated question-, and feedback system that supported the students, activated them and gave them insight into their learning process and a ‘Where-am-I’-window that showed their current position within the material. This all had led to a technically as well as didactically well functioning remote experiment in which, at a global level, the line of reasoning was made explicit and recognizable for the students, and ad a local level was build up out of well connected successive activities and required the students to adopt an active attitude.

  8. Experimental investigations of low-energy (4 to 40 eV) collisions of O(-)(P2) ions and O(P3) atoms with surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Orient, O. J.; Murad, E.

    1990-01-01

    Using a newly-developed, magnetically confined source, low-energy, ground state oxygen negative ions and neutral atoms are generated. The energy range is variable, and atom and neutrals have been generated at energies varying from 2 eV to 40 eV and higher. It was found that the interaction of these low-energy species with a solid magnesium fluoride target leads to optical emissions in the (at least) visible and infrared regions of the spectrum. Researchers describe y details of the photodetachment source, and present spectra of the neutral and ion glows in the wavelength range 250 to 850 nm (for O(-)) and 600 to 850 nm (for O), and discuss the variability of the emissions for incident energies between 4 and 40 eV.

  9. A New Venture in Graduate Education: Co-Op Ph.D. Programme in Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahidy, Thomas Z.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a cooperative Ph.D. program at the University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, in which industrial and governmental employers participate with the Department of Chemical Engineering in training chemical engineers. (CS)

  10. Stability Ops In The Western Hemisphere (CALL Newsletter, Number 11-15, February 2011)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    Jesuits priests, and the massacre at El Mozote) were still under investigation, even though the truth commission had effectively established...Congressional Session, watched one documentary and read more than 2,000 pages of books and articles. Since no one focuses solely on this topic

  11. 2 + 2 + Co-op = 2 + 3 = A Job-Ready Technologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, James D.

    1975-01-01

    Describes co-operative programs which provide baccalaureate degrees to electrical, mechanical, and civil engineering technology students who have just completed a two-year associate degree program. The co-operative programs are two or three years in length, with alternating quarters of coursework and job assignments. (MLH)

  12. Mechanisms of Organophosphorus (OP) Injury: Sarin-Induced Hippocampal Gene Expression Changes and Pathway Perturbation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    nigra neurons from Parkinson disease patients. Ddit4 can be induced by DNA alkylation, ionizing radiation, amyloid beta-peptide and hypoxia. b...related to dopaminergic dysfunction, including Parkinson disease , schizophrenia, and manic depression. Nr4a2 is rapidly and transiently expressed...Neurodegenerative Diseases in Hippocampus Following Sarin Treatment .........32 viii

  13. Marketing and Distribution: New Minimum Wage Legislation: Impact on Co-Op DE Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husted, Stewart W.

    1978-01-01

    Impact on distributive education cooperative programs due to the legislation increasing the minimum wage effective January 1, 1978, indicates that the change could greatly restrict future cooperative placements, thereby reducing distributive education enrollments. Employer strategies (for example, reducing student work hours) to overcome wage…

  14. Op-Amps as Building Blocks in an Undergraduate Project-Type Electronics Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, L. E.; Vignos, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a project-type undergraduate laboratory in electronics which utilizes integrated circuit operational amplifiers. Includes a brief account of ideal and nonideal operational amplifiers and a detailed description of the projects. (DF)

  15. Treatment of Early Post-Op Wound Infection after Internal Fixation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    having difficulty maintaining equipoise when prescribing antibiotics . Informational slides have been developed for the sites to use to present the study...to their Infectious Disease teams to assist with this problem. 15. SUBJECT TERMS PO, IV, Antibiotics , plate, fixation, infection 16. SECURITY...and either: (Group 1) operative debridement and PO antibiotic treatment for 6 weeks; or (Group 2) operative debridement and IV antibiotics for 6

  16. Balancing the stability and the catalytic specificities of OP hydrolases with enhanced V-agent activities.

    PubMed

    Reeves, T E; Wales, M E; Grimsley, J K; Li, P; Cerasoli, D M; Wild, J R

    2008-06-01

    Rational site-directed mutagenesis and biophysical analyses have been used to explore the thermodynamic stability and catalytic capabilities of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) and its genetically modified variants. There are clear trade-offs in the stability of modifications that enhance catalytic activities. For example, the H254R/H257L variant has higher turnover numbers for the chemical warfare agents VX (144 versus 14 s(-1) for the native enzyme (wild type) and VR (Russian VX, 465 versus 12 s(-1) for wild type). These increases are accompanied by a loss in stability in which the total Gibb's free energy for unfolding is 19.6 kcal/mol, which is 5.7 kcal/mol less than that of the wild-type enzyme. X-ray crystallographic studies support biophysical data that suggest amino acid residues near the active site contribute to the chemical and thermal stability through hydrophobic and cation-pi interactions. The cation-pi interactions appear to contribute an additional 7 kcal/mol to the overall global stability of the enzyme. Using rational design, it has been possible to make amino acid changes in this region that restored the stability, yet maintained effective V-agent activities, with turnover numbers of 68 and 36 s(-1) for VX and VR, respectively. This study describes the first rationally designed, stability/activity balance for an OPH enzyme with a legitimate V-agent activity, and its crystal structure.

  17. CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-02-22

    ... Tool: CERES Order Tool Order Data:  CERES Order Tool:  Order Data  (netCDF) Guide Documents:  SSF ... Collection Guide:  SSF CG R2V1  (PDF) Data Products Catalog:  DPC SSF-Ed3 R5V2  (PDF) SCAR-B Block:  ...

  18. Diskless supercomputers: Scalable, reliable I/O for the Tera-Op technology base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Randy H.; Ousterhout, John K.; Patterson, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Computing is seeing an unprecedented improvement in performance; over the last five years there has been an order-of-magnitude improvement in the speeds of workstation CPU's. At least another order of magnitude seems likely in the next five years, to machines with 500 MIPS or more. The goal of the ARPA Teraop program is to realize even larger, more powerful machines, executing as many as a trillion operations per second. Unfortunately, we have seen no comparable breakthroughs in I/O performance; the speeds of I/O devices and the hardware and software architectures for managing them have not changed substantially in many years. We have completed a program of research to demonstrate hardware and software I/O architectures capable of supporting the kinds of internetworked 'visualization' workstations and supercomputers that will appear in the mid 1990s. The project had three overall goals: high performance, high reliability, and scalable, multipurpose system.

  19. 1994 Winds of Change Guide to Summer Co-ops, Internships and Minority School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winds of Change, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Profiles 40 companies, agencies, and colleges that offer summer internships and cooperative education programs for American Indian high school, college, and graduate students. Includes program descriptions, prerequisites, deadline and requirements for application, and name and address of contact persons. (LP)

  20. CO OP2.0 Distributed Decision Support System for Strategic Planning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    DISTRIBUTION/ AVAILABILITY OF REPORT Approved for public release; 2b. DECLASSIFICATIONIDOWNGRADING SCHEDULE distribution is unlimited. 4. PERFORMING ...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) S MONITORING ORGANIZ.ATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 6.. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7. NAME OF MONITORING...Access with Collision Detection (CMSA/CD) protocol. The CMSA/CD protocol is known by its relatively good performance , simplicity of implementation, and

  1. Mentoring for Administrator Renewal. Occasional Papers: School Leadership and Education Reform. OP #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Dianne E.

    Findings of a study that examined the effects of a statewide mentoring program for Illinois principals are presented in this paper, with a focus on the reasons for principals' behavior changes. Methodology involved interviews with six pairs of mentors and proteges, site observations, and artifact collection. Conclusions are that: (1) principals…

  2. Do Parent Co-Op Preschools Float on Kondratieff's Economic Waves?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    Certain economic theories can help explain the rise to prominence of parent participation preschools in the 1950s and help to make predictions about their future. Specifically, the long-wave cycle of economic behavior and its explanation of social systems and innovations can be useful. One popular approach is that of the Soviet economist Nikolai…

  3. 1998 Winds of Change Guide to Summer Internships, Co-op and Minority School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winds of Change, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Lists internships, work experience, cooperative education, and university research programs for American-Indian and minority college students, as well as summer programs for middle school and high school students. Lists 28 programs alphabetically; entries contain a short program description, prerequisites, deadlines and requirements for…

  4. Treatment of Early Post-op Wound Infection after Internal Fixation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Approximately 10%-40% of severe fractures fixed with internal fixation develop a deep wound infection during the healing process. Thus, the overall...stable while the bone heals. Approximately 10%-40% of severe fractures fixed with internal fixation develop a deep wound infection during the...a web based system we be able to track medication adherence in a similar fashion as we did with the GlowCaps. The amendment including this adherence

  5. 49 CFR 365.105 - Starting the application process: Form OP-1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Offices and Service Centers can be found at: http://www.fmcsa.dot.gov/aboutus/fieldoffices. The forms and information about filing procedures can be downloaded at: http://www.fmcsa.dot.gov/factsfigs/formspubs; and from the do-it-yourself website at: http://www.diy.dot.gov....

  6. Aqua-Aura QuickDAM (QDAM) 2.0 Ops Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nidhiry, John

    2015-01-01

    The presentation describes the Quick Debris Avoidance Maneuver (QDAM) 2.0 process used the Aqua and Aura flight teams to (a) reduce the work load and dependency on staff and systems; (b) reduce turn-around time and provide emergency last minute capabilities; and (c) increase burn parameter flexibility. The presentation also compares the QDAM 2.0 process to previous approaches.

  7. ISS Plasma Environment: Status of CCMC Products for ISS Mission Ops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    ISS Program currently using FPMU Ne, Te in-situ measurements to support operations and anomaly investigations. Working to acquire alternative data sources if FPMU is not available. Work is progressing on CCMC tools for low Earth orbit ionosphere characterization. Validation against FPMU data required before model output can be used for ISS operational support. MSFC plans to continue comparing CTIP output during FPMU campaigns. Results to date have been useful in identifying ionospheric origins of high latitude charging environments.

  8. NASA Pathways Co-op Tour Johnson Space Center Fall 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masood, Amir; Osborne-Lee, Irwin W.

    2013-01-01

    This report outlines the tasks and objectives completed during a co-operative education tour with National Aeronautics and Space Association (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. I worked for the Attitude & Pointing group of the Flight Dynamics Division within the Mission Operations Directorate at Johnson Space Center. NASA's primary mission is to support and expand the various ongoing space exploration programs and any research and development activities associated with it. My primary project required me to develop and a SharePoint web application for my group. My secondary objective was to become familiar with the role of my group which was primarily to provide spacecraft attitude and line of sight determination, including Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) communications coverage for various NASA, International, and commercial partner spacecraft. My projects required me to become acquainted with different software systems, fundamentals of aerospace engineering, project management, and develop essential interpersonal communication skills. Overall, I accomplished multiple goals which included laying the foundations for an updated SharePoint which will allow for an organized platform to communicate and share data for group members and external partners. I also successfully learned about the operations of the Attitude & Pointing Group and how it contributes to the Missions Operations Directorate and NASA's Space Program as a whole

  9. H216O and HDO measurements with IASI/MetOp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbin, H.; Hurtmans, D.; Clerbaux, C.; Clarisse, L.; Coheur, P.-F.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we analyze distributions of water vapour isotopologues in the troposphere using infrared spectra recorded by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), which operates onboard the Metop satellite in nadir geometry. The simultaneous uncorrelated retrievals of H216O and HDO are performed on radiance measurements using a line-by-line radiative transfer model and an inversion procedure based on the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM). The characterizations of the retrieved products in terms of vertical sensitivity and error budgets show that IASI measurements contain up to 6 independent pieces of information on the vertical distribution of H216O and up to 3.5 for HDO from the surface up to the upper troposphere (0-20 km). Although the purpose of the paper is not validation, a restricted comparison with sonde measurements shows that the retrieved H216O profiles capture the seasonal/latitudinal variations of the water content, with good accuracy in the lowest layer but with larger uncertainties higher in the free and upper troposphere. Our results then demonstrate the ability of the IASI instrument to monitor atmospheric isotopologic water vapour distributions and to provide information on the partitioning of HDO as compared to H216O. The derivation of the δD is challenging and associated with large errors in the uncorrelated retrieval approach chosen here. As a result averaging on the vertical to produce a column-averaged δD is required to produce meaningful results for geophysical interpretation. As a case study, we analyse concentration distributions and spatio-temporal variations of H216O and δD during the October 2007 Krosa super-typhoon over South-East Asia. We show that individual δD have uncertainties of 37‰ for the vertically averaged values. Using the latter, we suggest that the typhoon produces a so-called amount-effect, where the δD is negatively correlated to the water amounts as a result of intense depletion of the deuterated species.

  10. H216O and HDO measurements with IASI/MetOp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbin, H.; Hurtmans, D.; Clerbaux, C.; Clarisse, L.; Coheur, P.-F.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we analyze distributions of water vapour isotopologues in the troposphere using infrared spectra recorded by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), which operates onboard the Metop satellite in nadir geometry. The simultaneous uncorrelated retrieval of H216O and HDO was performed on radiance measurements using a line-by-line radiative transfer model and an inversion procedure based on the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM). The characterizations of the retrieved products in terms of vertical sensitivity and error budgets show that IASI measurements contain up to 6 independent pieces of information on the vertical distribution of H216O and up to 3.5 for HDO from the surface up to the upper troposphere (0-20 km). The H216O retrieved profiles are in good agreement with local sonde measurements at different latitudes during different times of the year. Our results demonstrate the ability of the IASI instrument to monitor atmospheric isotopologic water vapour distributions with unprecedented sensitivity. As a case study, we analyse concentration distributions and spatio-temporal variations of H216O and HDO during the October 2007 Krosa super-typhoon over South-East Asia and show with this example the IASI potential to capture variations in the HDO/H216O isotopologic ratio values over space and time.

  11. The Changing Role of Fathers in Co-op Nursery Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    Fathers' roles in cooperative nursery schools have changed considerably since the 1920s. In the 1920s, American families had a strict father-mother role differentiation. These stereotyped sex roles broke down somewhat in the 1930s and 1940s due to the Depression and World War II, but they returned in the 1950s. A more egalitarian approach to…

  12. Effects of Shift Work and Sustained Operations: Operator Performance in Remotely Piloted Aircraft (OP-REPAIR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    higher than the prevalence reported for shift workers in general (Czeisler et al., 2005; Drake, Roehrs , Richardson, Walsh, & Roth, 2004; Schorr, 2004... Roehrs , T., Richardson, G., Walsh, J.,K., & Roth, T. (2004). Shift work sleep disorder: Prevalence and consequences beyond that of symptomatic day

  13. Increased contraction frequency in rat uterine strips treated in vitro with o,p prime -DDT

    SciTech Connect

    Juberg, D.R.; Loch-Caruso, R. )

    1991-05-01

    Elevated levels of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides have been associated with spontaneous abortion and preterm birth in several species, including humans. Despite the prevalence of organochlorine pesticides in the environment, a mechanistic basis for this association has not been explored. Furthermore, while DDT has been associated with inhibition of calcium ATPases, altered gap junctional communication and electrophysiological changes, all of which could affect the excitation-contraction process characteristic of smooth muscle, direct effects of DDT on uterine smooth muscle have not been reported. This study was initiated to assess the direct effects of o,p{prime}-DDT (an estrogenic isomer present in the technical grade preparation) on pregnant rat uterine tissue.

  14. How To Start a Co-op. Together for Children: Cooperative Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent Cooperative Preschools International, Indianapolis, IN.

    This compilation of materials and information serves as a step-by-step how-to guide to creating and building a parent cooperative preschool. After brief sections discussing where to begin and how cooperatives originated, contents explore basic considerations in planning, planning for community meetings, and the permanent organizational structure…

  15. An Assessment of Some Watch Schedule Variants Used in Cdn Patrol Frigates: OP Nanook 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    abstracts in both official languages unless the text is bilingual .) Background. Previous research conducted by DRDC Toronto to evaluate watch schedule...of the trial (day 7), while minimum daily cognitive effectiveness was in excess of BAC 0.05% on second day of the trail (day 3), and reached BAC...available at awakening and during various phases of the circadian rhythm. The table shows the mission split into two work intervals, first half and second

  16. Generation and Evaluation of PEGylated Recombinant Human Acetylcholinesterase as an Optimal OP-Bioscavenger

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-27

    acetylcholinesterase-fasciculin complex: interaction of a three-fingered toxin from snake venom with its target. Structure 3:1355-1366. 24 Kronman, C., Velan, B... snake venom toxin fasciculin-II. ACTA Cryst. D56: 1385-1394. Li, B., Stribley, J.A., Ticu, A., Xie, W., Schopfer, L.M., Hammond, P., Brimijoin, S

  17. 75 FR 35816 - Establishment of the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... insurance industry involvement and interference. Any vacancy on the advisory board shall be filled in the...: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Consumer Information & Insurance Oversight. ACTION... qualified nonprofit health insurance issuers to offer qualified health plans in the individual and...

  18. Summary of Higher Education Accountability Statutes in Other States. OP/04-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Public Law Research Institute at the University of California Hastings College of the Law, with whom the California Postsecondary Education Commission (CPEC) forged a partnership to research, analyze, and make sound recommendations regarding an accountability structure, provides an excellent opportunity for CPEC regarding federal and state…

  19. 75 FR 17918 - Advisory Board to the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... Protection and Affordable Care Act gave the Comptroller General of the United States responsibility for... 1805(c)(2) of the Social Security Act. Appointments are to be made not later than three months...

  20. Generation of Recombinant Human AChE Op-Scavengers With Extended Circulatory Longevity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    AChE PEGylation results in a major reduction of the immunogenicity of the enzyme. In structure -function studies of AChE, we compared the reactivities...BChE). Extensive structural and biochemical analyses of over twenty forms of recombinant AChEs allowed us to determine an hierarchical pattern by...glycan structures that do not conform with the classical complex-type of oligosaccharides typical of animal cell proteins or which were entirely devoid of

  1. Bone and gallium scanning in the pre-op evaluation of the infected dysvascular foot

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.; Sakimura, I.; Dillon, A.; Siegel, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the value of bone and gallium scans in predicting healing levels in the dysvascular foot with an infection requiring amputation. Healing requires amputation at a level both free of infection and with adequate blood flow. Forty-one such patients had bone and gallium scans and Doppler studies prior to amputation at a level selected by the surgeon. Eight patients required multiple surgeries before healing was obtained. Bone and soft tissue infections were determined from scans and healing levels predicted (SPHL) as the most distal amputation level free from infection: toectomy, Reye's, transmetatarsal, calcanectomy, Syme's, below knee. Doppler healing levels (DPHL) were predicted using a standard ischemic index. Doppler alone predicted the final healing level (FHL) in 41% with 59% needing more proximal amputation. Scans alone predicted FHL in 64% with 26% needing more proximal amputation. Ten percent were distal to the SPHL and all healed. These scans showed infection at transition sites between amputation levels, and the more proximal level had been predicted. Using the more proximal of the DPHL and SPHL the FHL was predicted in 78% with another 12% having more proximal amputation for nursing reasons. In 10% amputation was performed between DPHL and SPHL or at the more distal level. In no case was successful surgery performed distal to the more distal SPHL or DPHL. Bone and gallium scans used with Doppler studies are useful in optimizing the choice of amputation level in the infected, dysvascular foot.

  2. Evaluating Neurotoxicity of a Mixture of Five OP Pesticides Using a Composite Score

    EPA Science Inventory

    The evaluation of the cumulative effects of neurotoxic pesticides often involves the analysis of both neurochemical and behavioral endpoints. Multiple statistical tests on many endpoints can greatly inflate Type I error rates. Multiple comparison adjustments are often overly con...

  3. Power to the People: Developing Electrical Co-Ops to Improve Stability in Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    business&Itemid=266. 11. Linda Van Buren, " Europa World Plus, Nigeria: Economy," Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, accessed 29 August 2012, http...Haram." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Accessed 10 October 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boko_Haram. Buren, Linda Van. " Europa World Plus, Nigeria

  4. Design and Synthesis of Bifunctional Oxime Reactivators of OP- inhibited Cholinesterase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    increase the rate-limiting step of reactivation using substrate assisted catalysis. One of the key proposed strategies was to develop an approach to...capable of substrate -assisted catalysis. We have explored way to synthesize non-cationic analogs of 2-PAM that can be used to lower the oxime pKa to...oximes have been synthesized SOW objective 3. Assess the synthetic feasibility of making MINA and RS41A analogs designed to support a substrate

  5. Outcome revealed by preference in schizophrenia (OPS): development of a new class of outcome measurements.

    PubMed

    Falissard, Bruno; Bazin, Nadine; Hardy-Bayle, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the development of a new type of outcome measurement, based on revealed preference, which can be used in serious chronic illnesses. Fifteen texts of about 200 words each were written by one of the authors on the day-to-day life of 15 schizophrenic patients. These 15 'slices of life' thus described were then ranked in terms of acceptability by a second group of 10 schizophrenic patients and by a group of 12 relatives of schizophrenic patients. From these rankings, six situations were selected so as to obtain evenly distributed positioning on an axis of acceptability. These six situations comprised the final instrument. In administration, the patients were first asked if the 'slices of life' that were described were acceptable or not, then if the 'slices of life' described were more or less acceptable than their own lives. Two scores were derived, one for an absolute level and the other for a relative level of the patient's satisfaction with his or her existence. Validation results were presented to a new sample of 229 schizophrenic patients. Internal consistency appeared good and the initial ranking of the six situations in terms of acceptability was confirmed. This study encourages the development of global outcome measures based on revealed preference in chronic serious illnesses.

  6. Gauging Workplace Readiness: Assessing the Information Needs of Engineering Co-op Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffryes, Jon; Lafferty, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Librarians at the Science and Engineering Library at the University of Minnesota surveyed engineering students participating in a work placement as part of the cooperative education program. The survey asked about students' on-the-job information usage, comfort level accessing different types of engineering literature, and experience learning to…

  7. Optical measurement system for preparation and after-OP-check of a hip joint endoprothetic implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maschke, R.; Lempe, B.; Taudt, Ch.; Rudek, F.; Baselt, T.; Basan, F.; Grunert, R.; Hartmann, P.

    2014-02-01

    With 332,000 operations carried out every year, the implantation of an artificial hip joint is one of the most common surgical operations performed in the US. According to prognosis which takes the demographical change into account, the number of these operations will increase in the coming years. One of the essential requirements is the perfect reconstruction of the biomechanical functions, especially the knowledge about the center of the hip rotation and the length of the leg. Based on this information it is possible to ensure the right position of the newly set leg during surgery. The aim of this work is to present and evaluate an optical measurement method in order to gather information about the center of the hip joint and the leg length. An appropriate laboratory setup has been designed and implemented in order to evaluate two different approaches: a structured light-method consisting of a DLP-Beamer or a laser source which projects defined patterns onto the patient and a marker-based system. Together with this both methods are combined with custom software to determine the hip joint center and the leg length with an accuracy of around +/- 0.2 inches. The clinical use of the tested approaches would give the surgeon the opportunity to reset the implant-parameters in the course of the surgery. In this way subsequent illnesses such as scoliotic pelvis can be prevented.

  8. Joint Force Air Component Commander (JFACC) Active Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    8217NBC Chemical ’ | //Ground Ops ’NBC Smoke’ | //Ground Ops ’Personnel Land’ | //Ground Ops ’Personnel Airborne’ | //Ground Ops ’Forward Arming...8217 | //Naval Ops ’Minesweeper Ops Hunt’ | //Naval Ops ’Minesweeper Ops Sweep’ | //Naval Ops ’Minesweeper Ops EOD Divers’ //Naval Ops ’NBC Chemical

  9. The Impact of Collision Avoidance Systems on Driver Behavior and Traffic Safety: Preliminaries to Studies within the ’Gids’ Project (Het Effect van anti- bots systemen op bestuurdersgedrag en op de verkeersveiligheid)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-23

    ELECTE N FEB 20 1990 D Number of pages: 23 DI3TRmIm. oN sn~!TmrNT A ApProved fei p rhc release Lisuibuuan Uui~ited ’U, 3 CONTENTS Page SUMMARY 5... CONTENT AND ALLOCATION OF EVASIVE ACTIONS 14 4.1 Displaying the relevant variable 15 4.2 Warnings 15 4.3 Suggestions and active controls 15 4.4 Total...beantwoord inoeten warden willen anti-bats systemen zinnig geacht kunnen warden: (1) Wat moet het criteriun zijn voor activatie van het systeem ? (2

  10. STS-49 DTO 648 ESC image shows INTELSAT VI F-3 prior to retrieval/capture ops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 crewmember captured this image of the International Telecommunications Organization Satellite (INTELSAT) VI F-3 using the electronic still camera (ESC) as part of Development Test Objective (DTO) 648, Electronic Still Photography Test (With Downlink), during Endeavour's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105's, proximity operations with the satellite. STS-49 crewmembers were surveying the satellite while considering the next step, following two unsuccessful efforts to grapple INTELSAT. Electronic still photography is a new technology which provides the means for a handheld camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality.

  11. Using Performance-Based Funding to Incentivize Change. Occasional Paper. RTI Press Publication OP-0020-1501

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Performance-based funding is a resource distribution strategy used in education to reward service providers for the outcomes they achieve. Institutions that produce above-average results earn additional financing, while those that fall short may face funding reductions and may be targeted for technical assistance to address their performance…

  12. The Effect of Required Cooperative Education (Co-Op) on the Pursuit of an Undergraduate Engineering Degree for Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Vickie L.

    2009-01-01

    Female enrollment in engineering has been historically low. Researchers claim chilly classroom environments and societal expectations of gender and work as reasons why so few women pursue engineering. This qualitative study explores the effects of required cooperative education on a female student's choice of and persistence in an undergraduate…

  13. A Major Data Processing Co-op: Past Present and Future. Where Do We Stand After 10 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Rex L.

    This paper examines the establishment and maintenance of a major data processing cooperative in the intermediate districts of the state of Michigan. It traces the development of the computer software system from its early stages as RAMS software to the data base IMS architecture, a level of system software that matches the technological advance of…

  14. [Efficient OP management. Suggestions for optimisation of organisation and administration as a basis for establishing statutes for operating theatres].

    PubMed

    Geldner, G; Eberhart, L H J; Trunk, S; Dahmen, K G; Reissmann, T; Weiler, T; Bach, A

    2002-09-01

    Economic aspects have gained increasing importance in recent years. The operating room (OR) is the most cost-intensive sector and determines the turnover process of a surgical patient within the hospital. Thus, optimisation of workflow processes is of particular interest for health care providers. If the results of surgery are viewed as a product, everything associated with surgery can be evaluated analogously to a manufacturing process. All steps involved in producing the end-result can and should be analysed with the goal of producing an efficient, economical and quality product. The leadership that physicians can provide to manage this process is important and leads to the introduction of a specialised "OR manager". This position must have the authority to issue directives to all other members of the OR team. An OR management subordinates directly to the administration of the hospital. By integrating and improving management of various elements of the surgical process, health care institutions are able to rationally trim costs while maintaining high-quality services. This paper gives a short introduction into the difficulties of organising an OR. Some suggestions are made to overcome common shortcomings in the daily practise. A proposal for an "OR statute" is presented that should be a basis for discussion within the OR team. It must be modified according to individual needs and prerequisites in every hospital. The single best opportunity for dramatic improvement in effective resource use in surgical services lies in the perioperative process. The management strategy must focus on process measurement using information technology and feed-back implementing modern quality management tools.However, no short-term effects can be expected from these changes. Improvements take about a year and continuous feed-back of all measures must accompany the reorganisation process.

  15. Opponent actor learning (OpAL): modeling interactive effects of striatal dopamine on reinforcement learning and choice incentive.

    PubMed

    Collins, Anne G E; Frank, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The striatal dopaminergic system has been implicated in reinforcement learning (RL), motor performance, and incentive motivation. Various computational models have been proposed to account for each of these effects individually, but a formal analysis of their interactions is lacking. Here we present a novel algorithmic model expanding the classical actor-critic architecture to include fundamental interactive properties of neural circuit models, incorporating both incentive and learning effects into a single theoretical framework. The standard actor is replaced by a dual opponent actor system representing distinct striatal populations, which come to differentially specialize in discriminating positive and negative action values. Dopamine modulates the degree to which each actor component contributes to both learning and choice discriminations. In contrast to standard frameworks, this model simultaneously captures documented effects of dopamine on both learning and choice incentive-and their interactions-across a variety of studies, including probabilistic RL, effort-based choice, and motor skill learning.

  16. Prof. James Stuart and the Rochdale Pioneers: How Astronomy as food for thought became a Co-op dividend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P. A. J.

    2013-03-01

    In the mid-nineteenth century, formal education for many people, of all ages and especially the poorer members of society, left much to be desired. The Acts of Parliament needed to redress the deficiency lay in the future. For adults at this time community organisations such as The Rochdale Equitable Pioneers Society, and the Mechanics' Institutes set up by local industrialists and railway companies, became vehicles for self-improvement. James Stuart (1843-1913) of the University of Cambridge became one of the most important advocates of universal education, and he used astronomy as one means of achieving his goal - University Extension.

  17. Specific activation of operculum 3 (OP3) brain region during provoked tinnitus-related phantom auditory perceptions in humans.

    PubMed

    Job, Agnès; Jacob, Roland; Pons, Yoann; Raynal, Marc; Kossowski, Michel; Gauthier, Jérôme; Lombard, Bertrand; Delon-Martin, Chantal

    2016-03-01

    The phantom sound perception mechanism by which a sound perception occurs without any external sound source is still enigmatic. According to our previous fMRI study, a small region in the parietal operculum 3 was hyperactivated as a function of tinnitus periodicity in subjects with acoustic trauma tinnitus sequelae. This region was localized in the vicinity of neural correlates of middle-ear tympano-ossicular chain movements due to pressure variations. Disturbed proprioceptors are known to trigger illusory perceptions; therefore, we hypothesized that a disturbance of middle-ear proprioceptors may originate phantom sound perceptions. We designed an fMRI study that aimed to stimulate middle-ear proprioceptors by repetitive vibrations using various rates of click trains. In this study, we report that exposure to specific rates of stimuli for a few minutes at comfortable intensity level in healthy subjects distinctly triggered transient tinnitus-like aftereffects. The fMRI neural correlates of the aftereffects were unequivocally localized in the same parietal region as in acoustic trauma tinnitus sufferers. Our results strongly suggest that a middle-ear kinesthetic/proprioceptive illusion exists at the origin of acoustic trauma tinnitus via a somatosensory pathway encompassing the trigeminal system.

  18. On the introduction of {sup 17}O+p reaction rates evaluated through the THM in AGB nucleosynthesis calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Palmerini, S.; Sergi, M. L.; La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R. G.; Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.

    2014-05-09

    The rates for the {sup 17}O(p,αα{sup 14}N, {sup 17}O(p,α){sup 18}F and {sup 18}O(p,α){sup 15}N reactions deduced trough the Trojan Horse Method (THM) have been introduced into a state-of-the-art asymptotic giant branch (AGB) models for proton-capture nucleosynthesis and cool bottom process. The predicted abundances have been compared with isotopic compositions provided by geochemical analysis of presolar grains. As a result, an improved agreement is found between the models and the isotopic mix of oxide grains of AGB origins, whose composition is the signature of low-temperature proton-capture nucleosynthesis.

  19. The emerging role of veterinary orthotics and prosthetics (V-OP) in small animal rehabilitation and pain management.

    PubMed

    Mich, Patrice M

    2014-03-01

    In veterinary school, we learn much about how to repair bone fractures, ligament injuries, and neuropathies. The idea, of course, is to return some level of function to a damaged appendage and decrease pain. When a limb cannot be salvaged for medical or financial reasons, we are taught that dogs and cats do "great" on 3 legs. Three legs may mean a less functional limb or outright total amputation. We espouse this doctrine to our clients. Indeed, most of us have countless stories of triped patients acclimating to their disability with aplomb. Although it is true that many patients adapt, learning to ambulate and negotiate their environment, this is functional adaptation-not necessarily the highest quality of life. As a profession, we have come to expect-even accept-that limited mobility, limb breakdown, and chronic neck or back pain are unavoidable consequences. The short- and long-term consequences of limb loss or altered limb function are not benign as once thought. Furthermore, the quality of care demanded by clients is rising and the breadth of knowledge afforded by technology and global communication spawns innovative therapies readily accessible to the computer-savvy pet owner. Recent examples of therapeutic innovations include the following: dentistry, acupuncture, chiropractic, and rehabilitation. Often there is no precedent for these new therapies in animals, and the onus rests with the veterinary community to educate itself to provide best care for patients and clients and to establish evidence-informed best practice. The newest emerging therapeutic modality is veterinary orthotics and prosthetics. Like the previously mentioned modalities, the origin lies in human health care and subsequently leaps to veterinary health care.

  20. OP32A COMBINED STRATEGY FOR THE DETECTION OF BRAF FUSIONS IN PILOCYTIC ASTROCYTOMA USING RT-PCR AND FISH

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, C.; Shaw, A.; Wragg, C.; Greenslade, M.; Haynes, H.; Williams, H.; Lowis, S.; Williams, M.; Kurian, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pilocytic astrocytomas can show a wide morphological spectrum making definitive histological diagnosis challenging. The FISH test for KIAA1549-BRAF fusions is most commonly used, but this is difficult to interpret. We aimed to develop a real-time PCR (RT-PCR) test as a first-line screen for the three most common KIAA1549-BRAF fusion variants. METHOD: A RT-PCR method for detecting KIAA1549-BRAF fusions from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) brain tumour tissues (pilocytic astrocytoma). The three most common fusion variants are detected using this assay: exon 16 of KIAA1549 fused to exon 9 of BRAF, exon 15 of KIAA1549 fused to exon 9 of BRAF and exon 16 of KIAA1549 fused to exon 11 of BRAF fusion. GAPDH expression was used as a control. RESULTS: The RT-PCR assay was initially validated on 12 samples previously tested by FISH or RT-PCR in a different laboratory. The RT-PCR assay had a sensitivity of 89% (8/9 - one sample tested positive by FISH but negative on RT-PCR) and a specificity of 100% (2/2). The failure rate was 8.3% (1/12). Sensitivity experiments showed that the fusion can be detected when present at a least 5% of the total cDNA content. 51 Neuropathology diagnostic FFPE samples from 42 pilocytic astrocytoma patients were then tested using the BRAF fusion RT-PCR assay. The overall pick-up rate was 54% (20/37 patients) Of the positive patients (20), 55% (11/20) had the 16-9 fusion and 45% (9/20) had the 15-9 fusion. Two patients had multiple fusions (2/20 positive patients, 10%) showing the 16-9 fusion and a low-level 16-11 fusion. No patients exclusively had the 16-11 fusion. CONCLUSION: We propose RTPCR first line for fusion analysis followed by FISH, for pilocytic astrocytoma.

  1. Orbiter fuel cell performance constraints. STS/OPS Pratt Whitney fuel cells. Operating limits for mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolkhorst, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    The orbiter fuel cell powerplant (FCP) performance constraints listed in the Shuttle Operational Data Book (SODB) were analyzed using the shuttle environmental control requirements evaluation tool. The effects of FCP lifetime, coolant loops, and FCP voltage output were considered. Results indicate that the FCP limits defined in the SODB are not valid.

  2. Smart Mom's Baby-Sitting Co-Op Handbook: How We Solved the Baby-Sitter Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Gary

    Noting that a family with young children is under tremendous pressure and that a babysitting cooperative can give parents relief during a vital stage of a family's development, this book provides guidance for mothers of preschool children in starting and maintaining a Smart Mom's Babysitting Cooperative based on the University Place Baby-Sitting…

  3. THE EFFECTS OF AN ORGANOPHOSPHATE (OP)-CARBAMATE (CB) PESTICIDE MIXTURE ON CORE TEMPERATURE AND MOTOR ACTIVITY IN THE RAT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticide risk assessment has traditionally been based on the toxicological response to single agents. Dose-additivity has been the default in risk assessment evaluations of pesticides with a common mechanism of action, but there could be supra-additive or infra-additive inter...

  4. Energy Sources for Soldier Modernisation Programme Systems (Overzicht van Ontwikkelingen op het Gebied van Draagbare Energieopslag en Energieopwekking)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    34* Combustion engines/generator "* Fuel cells "* Microturbine /generator "• Thermophotovoltafc generator 3. Human powered systems "* Active tags...342 december 1999 7300 AH Apeldoorn Telefoon: 055 549 34 93 Auteur(s) Fax: 055 541 9837 Ir . J.W. Raadschelders DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT AInternet www...mep.tno.nI Dr.ir. D. Schmal Approved for Public Release ProjctnumerDistribution Unlimited 30255 ThO-DO opdrachtnummer A99/KL/1 58 Trefwoorden WNIJ -i~ lM

  5. 76 FR 17653 - Public Meeting of the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) Advisory Board, April 15, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Services' through CCIIO strategy to foster the creation of qualified nonprofit consumer- operated health... Information and Insurance Oversight (CCIIO) on the Department's strategy to foster the creation of...

  6. Evaluation of a weighted test in the analysis of ordinal gait scores in an additivity model for five OP pesticides.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appropriate statistical analyses are critical for evaluating interactions of mixtures with a common mode of action, as is often the case for cumulative risk assessments. Our objective is to develop analyses for use when a response variable is ordinal, and to test for interaction...

  7. Operator Trainer (OpTrain): The United States (U.S.) Army Aerial Targets Simulator and Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    MissileLab Produced 3-D Model The moments of inertia were determined through pendulum testing in the Aerial Targets Laboratory. The tow was balanced...on a knife edge stand to determine the CG, and a pendulum system was clamped to the tow at the CG. Clamping at θ = 180 degrees is used for IZZ and...IYY; clamping at 90 degrees is used for IXX measurements. The pendulum and tow assembly were hung on a frame, as shown in Figure 5. Swinging the

  8. Negotiating governance in virtual worlds: grief play, hacktivism, and LeakOps in Second Life®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakioğlu, Burcu S.

    2012-12-01

    The acts of transgression in cyberspace have grown in visibility with grief play and griefing in virtual worlds. Briefly defined, griefing is the intentional harassment of other players. This paper argues that in recent years, griefing has developed from a set of trolling practices that manifests itself as offensive language and tasteless pranks into political initiatives with hacktivist undertones. Because the tactical nature of role-playing and gaming provides the anonymity and the cunningness required for hacktivistic initiatives, griefing bears the potential to take part in the transgressive politics of civil disobedience. Arguing that grief play and griefing are tactical uses of media that lead to transgressive politics, this paper will examine the role of such activities in influencing virtual politics. In order to demonstrate how this transformation has occurred, this paper will discuss the birth of vigilante organizations, specifically, that of Justice League Unlimited (JLU), and the operation conducted against them by The Wrong Hands. The said operation, whose intention was to leak JLU's secret papers, Brainiac Wiki, exposed a grid-wide surveillance operation that the vigilante group was conducting in Second Life®.

  9. OP09STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGERY FOR BRAIN METASTASES AT THE CHRISTIE AT SALFORD ROYAL HOSPITAL: OUR TWO-YEAR EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Helbrow, J.; McBain, C.; Gattamaneni, R.; Tran, A.; McCarthy, C.; Edwards, R.; Redikin, J.; Handley, J.; O'Hara, C.; Kennedy, J.; Mills, S.; Soh, C.; Leggate, J.; Whitfield, G.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases (BMs) commenced at The Christie at Salford in Dec 11 using the Novalis TxTM and BrainLab ExacTrac® system. We report our first 2 years' data. METHOD: Patients meeting NHS commissioning criteria were referred via MDT for assessment and if suitable consent. We used the BrainLab mask, CT and MRI. Gross tumour volumes (GTVs) were grown by 2mm if <4cm3 and by 1mm if >4cm3 to a planning target volume. The dose to the 80% isodose was 21Gy/1 fraction(#), 18Gy/1# and 25.5Gy/3# alternate days for PTVs <7cm3, 7-13cm3 and >13cm3 respectively and 30Gy/5# on alternate days to the 90% isodose in critical locations or where organ at risk constraints were exceeded. Follow up was 3-monthly with MRI and clinic review. Radiological response was classified as complete, unequivocal, enlargement consistent with treatment, enlargement suspicious of progression or unequivocal progression. RESULTS: Between Dec 11-Jan 14, 89 patients were consented, 51% female. Median age was 61 years (range 16-81). Primaries included lung (34%), breast (22%) and melanoma (15%), which was controlled in 67%; 42% had no extracranial metastases. A total of 170 BMs were treated (1 a retreat); per course a median of 2 (1-5) BMs were treated with median total GTV 4.87cm3 (0.05-29.9cm3). Prescribed dose was 21Gy/1# in 101 BMs, 18Gy/1# in 43, 25.5Gy/3# in 10 and 30Gy/5# in 16. One year survival from first SRS was: overall 48% (95% CI 34%-60%), lung 39% (18%-59%), breast 89% (62%-97%) and melanoma 44% (10%-75%). CONCLUSION: Overall survival results are encouraging and suggest appropriate patient selection. More detailed analysis including toxicity and time to intracranial progression will be presented.

  10. Opération multimode transverse des OPOs: des structures classiques aux corrélations quantiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, M.; Ducci, S.; Gigan, S.; Treps, N.; Maître, A.; Fabre, C.

    2002-06-01

    Nous démontrons la formation de structures transverses sur les faisceaux émis par un oscillateur paramétrique optique (OPO) de type II en configuration confocale. D'un point de vue classique nous mettons en évidence le caractère multimode transverse de telles structures. A travers l'étude des corrélations spatiales des faisceaux générés nous montrons que ces structures sont également multimodes d'un point de vue quantique.

  11. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Fashion Marketing Technology (Program CIP: 08.0101--Apparel and Accessories Mkt. Op., Gen.). Postsecondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the fashion marketing technology programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies,…

  12. PREDICTIVE ORGANOPHOSPHORUS (OP) PESTICIDE QSARS AND PBPK/PD MODELS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT OF SUSCEPTIBLE SUB-POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Successful use of the Exposure Related Dose Estimating Model (ERDEM) in risk assessment of susceptible human sub-populations, e.g., infants and children, requires input of quality experimental data. In the clear absence of quality data, PBPK models can be developed and possibl...

  13. Education Finance in Egypt: Problems and a Possible Solution. Occasional Paper. RTI Press Publication OP-0017-1401

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, F. Henry; Crouch, Luis; Hanna, Rafik

    2014-01-01

    Egypt, currently in the throes of major political change, will likely undergo reforms of various sorts in the next few years. Some of these reforms are likely to give local entities, including schools, greater control over education finances. In 2007, the Government of Egypt began to decentralize some non-personnel recurrent finances from the…

  14. Experimental measurements for the effect of dilution procedure in blood esterases as animals biomarker for exposure to OP compounds.

    PubMed

    Abass, Kasim Sakran

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate compounds can bind to carboxylesterase, which may lower the concentration of organophosphate pesticides at the target site enzyme, cholinesterase. It is unclear from the literature whether it is the carboxylesterase affinity for the organophosphate and/or the number of carboxylesterase molecules that is the dominant factor in determining the protective potential of carboxylesterase. The fundamental dilutions and kinetic effects of esterase enzyme are still poorly understood. This study aims to confirm and extend our current knowledge about the effects of dilutions on esterases activities in the blood for birds with respect to protecting the enzyme from organophosphate inhibition. There was significantly higher esterases activities in dilution 1 : 10 in the all blood samples from quail, duck, and chick compared to other dilutions (1 : 5, 1 : 15, 1 : 20, and 1 : 25) in all cases. Furthermore, our results also pointed to the importance of estimating different dilutions effects prior to using in birds as biomarker tools of environmental exposure. Concentration-inhibition curves were determined for the inhibitor in the presence of dilutions 1 : 5, 1 : 10, plus 1 : 15 (to stimulate carboxylesterase). Point estimates (concentrations calculated to produce 20, 50, and 80% inhibition) were compared across conditions and served as a measure of esterase-mediated detoxification. Results with well-known inhibitors (malathion) were in agreement with the literature, serving to support the use of this assay. Among the thiol-esters dilution 1 : 5 was observed to have the highest specificity constant (k(cat)/K(m)), and the K m and k cat values were 176 μM and 16,765 s(-1), respectively, for S-phenyl thioacetate ester, while detected in dilution 1: 15 was the lowest specificity constant (k(cat)/K(m)), and the Km and k cat values were 943 μM and 1154 s(-1), respectively, for acetylthiocholine iodide ester.

  15. Experimental Measurements for the Effect of Dilution Procedure in Blood Esterases as Animals Biomarker for Exposure to OP Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Abass, Kasim Sakran

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate compounds can bind to carboxylesterase, which may lower the concentration of organophosphate pesticides at the target site enzyme, cholinesterase. It is unclear from the literature whether it is the carboxylesterase affinity for the organophosphate and/or the number of carboxylesterase molecules that is the dominant factor in determining the protective potential of carboxylesterase. The fundamental dilutions and kinetic effects of esterase enzyme are still poorly understood. This study aims to confirm and extend our current knowledge about the effects of dilutions on esterases activities in the blood for birds with respect to protecting the enzyme from organophosphate inhibition. There was significantly higher esterases activities in dilution 1 : 10 in the all blood samples from quail, duck, and chick compared to other dilutions (1 : 5, 1 : 15, 1 : 20, and 1 : 25) in all cases. Furthermore, our results also pointed to the importance of estimating different dilutions effects prior to using in birds as biomarker tools of environmental exposure. Concentration-inhibition curves were determined for the inhibitor in the presence of dilutions 1 : 5, 1 : 10, plus 1 : 15 (to stimulate carboxylesterase). Point estimates (concentrations calculated to produce 20, 50, and 80% inhibition) were compared across conditions and served as a measure of esterase-mediated detoxification. Results with well-known inhibitors (malathion) were in agreement with the literature, serving to support the use of this assay. Among the thiol-esters dilution 1 : 5 was observed to have the highest specificity constant (kcat/Km), and the Km and kcat values were 176 μM and 16,765 s−1, respectively, for S-phenyl thioacetate ester, while detected in dilution 1 : 15 was the lowest specificity constant (kcat/Km), and the Km and kcat values were 943 μM and 1154 s−1, respectively, for acetylthiocholine iodide ester. PMID:24864243

  16. Phylogenetic Delineation of the Novel Phylum Armatimonadetes (Former Candidate Division OP10) and Definition of Two Novel Candidate Divisions

    PubMed Central

    Herbold, C. W.; Dunfield, P. F.; Morgan, X. C.; McDonald, I. R.; Stott, M. B.

    2013-01-01

    Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences associated with the phylum Armatimonadetes were analyzed using multiple phylogenetic methods, clarifying both the phylum boundary and the affiliation of previously ambiguous groupings. Here we define the Armatimonadetes as 10 class-level groups and reclassify two previously associated groups as candidate divisions WS1 and FBP. PMID:23377935

  17. FLOW INJECTION AMPEROMETRIC DETECTION OF OP NERVE AGENTS BASED ON AN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS-HYDROLASE BIOSENSOR DETECTOR. (R828160)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. Airborne Armed Full Motion Video: The Nexus of OPS/INTEL Integration in the Joint/Coalition Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-03

    49 Intelligence , Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Concept of Operations.....................49 RECOMMENDATIONS...problems with their use of these terms. The tasking chapter summarizes and analyzes joint intelligence , surveillance, and reconnaissance ( ISR ...operations. This chapter will explore the use of video technology in recent military operations. Historically, details of airborne intelligence

  19. “Toxic Pancreatitis with an Intra-Abdominal Abscess which was Caused by Organophosphate Poisoning (OP)”

    PubMed Central

    L, Venugopal; Rao V, Dharma; Rao M, Srinivas; Y, Mallikarjuna

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphate insecticides are the potent inhibitors of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme which lead to an increased acetylcholine activity, which are responsible for symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting and hypersalivation. We are reporting on a young male with acute organophosphate poisoning, who presented with unusual complications like toxic pancreatitis with an intraabdominal abscess. PMID:23543622

  20. Well-Being and Human-Animal Interactions in Schools: The Case of "Dog Daycare Co-Op"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth; Foulkes, Donna

    2015-01-01

    This study draws on Martha Nussbaum's (2000) account of the nature of human well-being in order to explore the role of animals in formal education settings. Nussbaum's capabilities approach identifies the ability "to have concern for and live with other animals, plants and the environment" (p. 80) as a necessary component for well-being.…

  1. In Second Year Of Marketplaces, New Entrants, ACA 'Co-Ops,' And Medicaid Plans Restrain Average Premium Growth Rates.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Jon R; Whitmore, Heidi; Green, Matthew; Stromberg, Sam T; Weinstein, Daniel S; Oran, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    Premiums for health insurance plans offered through the federally facilitated and state-based Marketplaces remained steady or increased only modestly from 2014 to 2015. We used data from the Marketplaces, state insurance departments, and insurer websites to examine patterns of premium pricing and the factors behind these patterns. Our data came from 2,964 unique plans offered in 2014 and 4,153 unique plans offered in 2015 in forty-nine states and the District of Columbia. Using descriptive and multivariate analysis, we found that the addition of a carrier in a rating area lowered average premiums for the two lowest-cost silver plans and the lowest-cost bronze plan by 2.2 percent. When all plans in a rating area were included, an additional carrier was associated with an average decline in premiums of 1.4 percent. Plans in the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan Program and Medicaid managed care plans had lower premiums and average premium increases than national commercial and Blue Cross and Blue Shield plans. On average, premiums fell by an appreciably larger amount for catastrophic and bronze plans than for gold plans, and premiums for platinum plans increased. This trend of low premium increases overall is unlikely to continue, however, as insurers are faced with mounting medical claims.

  2. Intra-op measurement of the mechanical axis deviation: an evaluation study on 19 human cadaver legs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lejing; Fallavollita, Pascal; Brand, Alexander; Erat, Okan; Weidert, Simon; Thaller, Peter-Helmut; Euler, Ekkehard; Navab, Nassir

    2012-01-01

    The alignment of the lower limb in high tibial osteotomy (HTO) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) must be determined intraoperatively. One way to do so is to deform the mechanical axis deviation (MAD), for which a tolerance measurement of 10 mm is widely accepted. Many techniques are proposed in clinical practice such as visual inspection, cable method, grid with lead impregnated reference lines, or more recently, navigation systems. Each has their disadvantages including reliability of the MAD measurement, excess radiation, prolonged operation time, complicated setup and high cost. To alleviate such shortcomings, we propose a novel clinical protocol that allows quick and accurate intraoperative calculation of MAD. This is achieved by an X-ray stitching method requiring only three X-ray images placed into a panoramic image frame during the entire procedure. The method has been systematically analyzed in a simulation framework in order to investigate its accuracy and robustness. Furthermore, we validated our protocol via a preclinical study comprising 19 human cadaver legs. Four surgeons determined MAD measurements using our X-ray panorama and compared these values to a gold-standard CT-based technique. The maximum average MAD error was 3.5mm which shows great potential for the technique.

  3. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Horticulture (Program CIP: 01.0601--Horticulture Serv. Op. & Mgmt., Gen.). Secondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for horticulture I and II. Presented first are a program description and…

  4. SpaceOps 1992: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Ground Data Systems for Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Second International Symposium featured 135 oral presentations in these 12 categories: Future Missions and Operations; System-Level Architectures; Mission-Specific Systems; Mission and Science Planning and Sequencing; Mission Control; Operations Automation and Emerging Technologies; Data Acquisition; Navigation; Operations Support Services; Engineering Data Analysis of Space Vehicle and Ground Systems; Telemetry Processing, Mission Data Management, and Data Archiving; and Operations Management. Topics focused on improvements in the productivity, effectiveness, efficiency, and quality of mission operations, ground systems, and data acquisition. Also emphasized were accomplishments in management of human factors; use of information systems to improve data retrieval, reporting, and archiving; design and implementation of logistics support for mission operations; and the use of telescience and teleoperations.

  5. Op-ed Essays: Sharing the Perspective of Alabama's Two-Year Colleges, Volume I-III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainous, Fred

    This document consists of three separately-published collections of essays by the chancellor of the Alabama College System, presenting his perspectives on aspects of the two-year college system in that state. The document begins with the system's mission statement, and an explanation of the principles underlying the mission. The essays that follow…

  6. The Evaluation of Undergraduate Nursing Students' Knowledge of Post-op Pain Management after Participation in Simulation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Cecile B; Mixon, Diana K

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to assess undergraduate nursing students' pain knowledge after participation in a simulation scenario. The Knowledge and Attitudes of Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP) was used to assess pain knowledge. In addition, reflective questions related to the simulation were examined. Student preferences for education method and reactions to the simulation (SIM) were described. Undergraduate nursing students' knowledge of pain management is reported as inadequate. An emerging pedagogy used to educate undergraduate nurses in a safe, controlled environment is simulation. Literature reports of simulation to educate students' about pain management are limited. As part of the undergraduate nursing student clinical coursework, a post-operative pain management simulation, the SIM was developed. Students were required to assess pain levels and then manage the pain for a late adolescent male whose mother's fear of addiction was a barrier to pain management. The students completed an anonymous written survey that included selected questions from the KASRP and an evaluation of the SIM experience. The students' mean KASRP percent correct was 70.4% ± 8.6%. Students scored the best on items specific to pain assessment and worst on items specific to opiate equivalents and decisions on PRN orders. The students' overall KASRP score post simulation was slightly better than previous studies of nursing students. These results suggest that educators should consider simulations to educate about pain assessment and patient/family education. Future pain simulations should include more opportunities for students to choose appropriate pain medications when provided PRN orders.

  7. 75 FR 81612 - The Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) Advisory Board; Office of Consumer Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... foster the creation of qualified nonprofit health insurance issuers. Specifically, the Committee shall... the phone number password 78030350 . Meeting Registration, Presentations, and Written Comments: Brian... Information and Insurance Oversight (OCIIO) on the Department's strategy to foster the creation of...

  8. On the Robustness of Herlihy’s Hierarchy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    s op ’. 5 Thus, the order...includes all complete operations in H. 2. if two operations op and op’ are in S , op < s op ’ if and only if response of op precedes the response of op...in S different from (eý’, eje), op < S op ’ if and only if the response of op precedes the response of op’ in H. It is easy to verify that (i) S is

  9. Oxidative potential (OP) and mineralogy of iron ore particulate matter at the Gol-E-Gohar Mining and Industrial Facility (Iran).

    PubMed

    Soltani, Naghmeh; Keshavarzi, Behnam; Sorooshian, Armin; Moore, Farid; Dunster, Christina; Dominguez, Ana Oliete; Kelly, Frank J; Dhakal, Prakash; Ahmadi, Mohamad Reza; Asadi, Sina

    2017-03-09

    Concentrations of total suspended particulate matter, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5), particulate matter <10 μm (PM10), and fallout dust were measured at the Iranian Gol-E-Gohar Mining and Industrial Facility. Samples were characterized in terms of mineralogy, morphology, and oxidative potential. Results show that indoor samples exceeded the 24-h PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentration limits (35 and 150 µg m(-3), respectively) set by the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Calcite, magnetite, tremolite, pyrite, talc, and clay minerals such as kaolinite, vermiculite, and illite are the major phases of the iron ore PM. Accessory minerals are quartz, dolomite, hematite, actinolite, biotite, albite, nimite, laumontite, diopside, and muscovite. The scanning electron microscope structure of fibrous-elongated minerals revealed individual fibers in the range of 1.5 nm to 71.65 µm in length and 0.2 nm to 3.7 µm in diameter. The presence of minerals related to respiratory diseases, such as talc, crystalline silica, and needle-shaped minerals like amphibole asbestos (tremolite and actinolite), strongly suggests the need for detailed health-based studies in the region. The particulate samples show low to medium oxidative potential per unit of mass, in relation to an urban road side control, being more reactive with ascorbate than with glutathione or urate. However, the PM oxidative potential per volume of air is exceptionally high, confirming that the workers are exposed to a considerable oxidative environment. PM released by iron ore mining and processing activities should be considered a potential health risk to the mine workers and nearby employees, and strategies to combat the issue are suggested.

  10. Summary of Coating Surveys on the Four Air Command Frigates (Zeven Provincien Class) (Onderzoek naar de conditie van de coatingsystemen op vier luchtcommandofregatten (Zeven Provincien Klasse))

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-26

    of these inspections have been drafted into the following extensive reports for each frigate: * TQS-RAP-07-855/ gge of March 30, 2007 for Hr.Ms...34Evertsen" (LCF 4) * TQS-RAP-07-856/ gge of March 30, 2007 for Hr.Ms. "Tromp" (LCF 2) • TQS-RAP-07-857/ gge of March 30, 2007 for Hr.Ms. "De Ruyter" (LCF 3...34 TQS-RAP-08-3316/ gge of January 10, 2008 for Hr.Ms. -Zeven Provincien" (LCF 1) Each report consists of a description of results and all protocols made

  11. Kennislacunes op het gebied van wapens en munitie in OVG (Knowledge Gaps in the Area of Weapons and Munitions in MOUT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Militaire activiteiten Tabel 4 koppelt een overzicht van relevante militaire activiteiten in OVG aan operationele effecten volgens [2]. De koppeling ...Divert, Deter 6 Beheersen van menigten Degrade, Control 7 Uitwerkingsgebied " 8 Nevenschade - 9 Eigen veiligheid Met de koppeling van activiteiten en

  12. STUDY OP THE 12C(α, γ)16O REACTION BY BREAKUP OF A 16O -BEAM AT 100 MeV/A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatischeff, V.; Kiener, J.; Aguer, P.; Angulo-Perez, C.; Bogaert, G.; Coc, A.; Disdier, D.; Ichihara, T.; Kraus, L.; Lefebvre, A.; Linck, I.; Mittig, W.; Motobayashi, T.; Oliveira, F.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Stephan, C.; Thibaud, J. P.

    We present some preliminary calculations on cross sections for the breakup of 16O around 100 MeV/A with emphasis on the effect of nuclear breakup on the angular distributions. Underlying the results of these calculations, the possibilities and problems of extracting the astrophysical S-factor for the 12C(α, γ)16O reaction at very low energies are discussed. Some considerations on the experimental conditions for a 16O breakup experiment aiming at this astrophysical information, are given.

  13. Situationeel Bewustzijn en Vestibulaire Stimulatie: De Invloed Van Draaibewegingen op de Taakprestatie (Situational Awareness and Vestibular Stimulation: The Influence of Whole-Body Rotation upon Task Performance)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    ondorzook zijn van belang voor do problomatiek rond T situationel bowuatzijn*, omdat dorgelijko roacties zich ook kunnen voordoon bij do vestibulaire...Academisch Ziekenkiuis van de Vrije Universitoit to Amsterdam. Do troweol hooft eon cylindorvorm on eon diamoter van 1.50 m. Do wandon zijn boachildord...Naderiandse organisatie ft-.. nstituut voor/ )*voor toegepast * Zintuigfysioogie TNOnatuurwetenschapplijk onderzoek ~ T ~FILE COPY iZF 1989-14

  14. DEVELOPMENT, VALIDATION AND FIELD USE OF NOVEL METHOD FOR EXTRACTING AND ANALYZING ORGANOPHOSPHATE (OP) AND PYRETHROID PESTICIDE METABOLITES AND CREATININE FROM COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DISPOSABLE DIAPERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to efficiently extract urine from disposable diapers ensures an easy to use urine collection protocol and ready compliance for caregivers of very young children. The use of disposable diapers is also desirable because of their high capacity- urine is retained effecti...

  15. Effects of Practice in Selecting and Executing Keypressing Sequences (Effecten van oefening op het selecteren en uitvoeren van een sequentiele toetsdruktaak).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-07

    is concurrent with execution ( Klapp & Wyatt, 1976; Portier et al., 1990; Portier & Van Galen, in press; Rosenbaum et al., 1986). The second aspect is...1980). Use of simple reaction time in motor programming studies: A reply to Klapp , Wyatt, and Lingo. Journal of Motor Behavior 12, 163-168. Henry, EM...and analysis: A researcher’s handbook. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Klapp , S.T. & Wyatt, E.P. (1976). Motor programming within a sequence of

  16. Consequences of the Introduction of Insensitive Munitions on Safety, Collateral Damage and Operations (consequenties van de invoering van mkm-munitie op veiligheid, gevolgschade en (internationaal) opereren

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    fragmenten. Pumice filled voids PumicePumice flled pan Figuur 8 SLAM-ER met puimnsteen-epoxy lijm als ’mitigation’ van sympathische reactie. Figuur 9...24/28 SD Test rrnBLIC RELEASE Pumice Modified Container "* SD test conducted 11 February 2004 at China Lake Cactus Flats Test Range "* Passing...puimsteen en epoxy-lijm met links in het midden de donor en rondom de acceptor systemen. SD Test Results PUBLIC RELEASE Pumice Modified Container * No

  17. Inrichting Gemeenschappelijke Ops-Room Voor DTO, JCG en C2000 (A Common Operations Room for DTO, JCG and C2000)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    een 3D digitale eisen en wensen leiden tot nieuwe Beschrijving van de mockup en een 2D plattegrond van de uitgangspunten en tot herontwerp...initiele ontwerp is gemodelleerd in een 3D digitale mockup en 2D plattegrond van de ruimte. De unifornie werkplek, met gescheiden toegang tot secure en...geplaatst kunnen worden. Digitale 24-uurs klokken, minstens 5 of 6 tijdzones tegeijik. Er is 66n crisisruimate opgenomen in het ontwerp. Onduidelijk is

  18. Addressing Social, Emotional, and Organizational Goals for a Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Using the Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czmowski, Gina M.; Willert, Shea L.; Nielsen, Sarah K.

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have social, emotional, and organizational skill deficits which are frequently addressed through behavioral-based skills training. However, these approaches often do not result in generalization of skills. This case study sought to understand if the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational…

  19. Sleep and Alertness Management II: Effects on Sleep Pattern and Sleep Quality in Marmosets (slaap- en alertheidsmanagement II: effecten op slaapritme en slaapkwaliteit in marmosetapen)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    II: Effects on F +31 15 284 39 91 sleep pattern and sleep quality in marmosets Info-DenV@tno.nf Date October 2006 Author(s) Dr I.l1.C.H.M. Philippens...5126 Summary In this study, the marmoset monkey model was validated using nocturnal electroencephalogram measurements for evaluating effects on sleep...the effects of the short acting hypnotic drugs temazepam, zolpidem and zaleplon on sleep were determined in the marmoset monkey. The results showed

  20. Evaluation of the carbon content of aerosols from the burn- ing of biomass in the Brazilian Amazon using thermal, op- tical and thermal-optical analysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Soto-Garcia, Lydia L.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Andreae, Tracey W.; taxo, Paulo Ar-; Maenhaut, Willy; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Novakov, T.; Chow, Judith C.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

    2011-06-03

    Aerosol samples were collected at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin as part of the project LBA-SMOCC-2002 (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate: Aerosols from Biomass Burning Perturb Global and Regional Climate). Sampling was conducted during the late dry season, when the aerosol composition was dominated by biomass burning emissions, especially in the submicron fraction. A 13-stage Dekati low-pressure impactor (DLPI) was used to collect particles with nominal aerodynamic diameters (D{sub p}) ranging from 0.03 to 0.10 m. Gravimetric analyses of the DLPI substrates and filters were performed to obtain aerosol mass concentrations. The concentrations of total, apparent elemental, and organic carbon (TC, EC{sub a}, and OC) were determined using thermal and thermal-optical analysis (TOA) methods. A light transmission method (LTM) was used to determine the concentration of equivalent black carbon (BC{sub e}) or the absorbing fraction at 880 nm for the size-resolved samples. During the dry period, due to the pervasive presence of fires in the region upwind of the sampling site, concentrations of fine aerosols (D{sub p} < 2.5 {mu}m: average 59.8 {mu}g m{sup -3}) were higher than coarse aerosols (D{sub p} > 2.5 {mu}m: 4.1 {mu}g m{sup -3}). Carbonaceous matter, estimated as the sum of the particulate organic matter (i.e., OC x 1.8) plus BC{sub e}, comprised more than 90% to the total aerosol mass. Concentrations of EC{sub a} (estimated by thermal analysis with a correction for charring) and BCe (estimated by LTM) averaged 5.2 {+-} 1.3 and 3.1 {+-} 0.8 {mu}g m{sup -3}, respectively. The determination of EC was improved by extracting water-soluble organic material from the samples, which reduced the average light absorption {angstrom} exponent of particles in the size range of 0.1 to 1.0 {mu}m from > 2.0 to approximately 1.2. The size-resolved BC{sub e} measured by the LTM showed a clear maximum between 0.4 and 0.6 m in diameter. The concentrations of OC and BC{sub e} varied diurnally during the dry period, and this variation is related to diurnal changes in boundary layer thickness and in fire frequency.

  1. The Impact of BIB-Spiralling Induced Missing Data Patterns on Goodness-of-Fit Tests in Factor Analysis. Occasional Paper OP93-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David

    The impact of the use of data arising from balanced incomplete block (BIB) spiralled designs on the chi-square goodness-of-fit test in factor analysis is considered. Data from BIB designs posses a unique pattern of missing data that can be characterized as missing completely at random (MCAR). Standard approaches to factor analyzing such data rest…

  2. OP04QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT OF BLOOD FLOW IN PAEDIATRIC BRAIN TUMOURS - A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DYNAMIC SUSCEPTIBILITY CONTRAST AND MULTI-TIMEPOINT ARTERIAL SPIN LABEL IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, L.J.; Vidyasagar, R.; Pizer, B.L.; Mallucci, C.L.; Avula, S.; Parkes, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a MR technique that allows for noninvasive quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF). This technique, predominately used in research, has seen significant technical developments in the last few years that have led to more clinical applications. Currently, the main MR method used to provide perfusion measures in brain tumours is dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC). DSC traces the signal changes caused by the transit of a bolus of gadolinium contrast agent. ASL has the advantage of not requiring bolus injection of contrast. We have performed a comparative study of DSC and multi-timepoint ASL in paediatric brain tumours (PBT). METHOD: Data from a total of 19 PBT patients (mean age: 9 ± 5 years; 10 females, 9 males) were included in the analyses for this study. Data used were from first presentation scans performed before any surgical intervention. Comparisons of the quantitative measures of CBF and blood arrival time between the two techniques were carried out to test the feasibility of ASL to provide useful quantification measures of CBF in PBT. RESULTS: DSC measurements of tumour blood flow showed a significant decrease in flow in comparison with normal brain, but this is not seen with ASL. There was a strong correlation between ASL and DSC measures of blood flow in normal brain (r = 0.65, p = 0.009), but not in tumour blood flow (r = 0.33, p = 0.2). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the feasibility and potential utility of ASL as a non-invasive technique for measuring blood flow in PBT. However, there is a discrepancy between ASL and DSC measures, that may be due to leakage of gadolinium contrast, reflecting the abnormal characteristics of tumour blood vessels in PBT.

  3. A Structural Biology and Protein Engineering Approach to the Development of Antidotes against the Inhibition of Human Acetylcholinesterase by OP-based Nerve Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    2J3D and 1EA5, respectively) (Dvir et al, 2002; Greenblatt et al, 2004; Harel et al, 2006); Drosophila melanogaster AChE (DmAChE) in space group...G, Rosenberry TL, Mallender WD, Lewis T, Fletcher RJ, Guss JM, Silman I, Sussman JL (2000) Three-dimensional structures of Drosophila melanogaster ... Drosophila P43212 tetragonal 1QO9 35.9 25 2-15 1 8 1 In the 1C2O and 1C2 PDB structures the sequence of mAChE was used due to the low

  4. Multicentric and contralateral invasive tumors identified with pre-op MRI in patients newly diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Alan B; Stough, Rebecca G

    2012-09-01

    Preoperative breast MRI in newly diagnosed cancer patients has several potential benefits. Improved survival for patients with invasive disease as the index lesion is unlikely to be one of these benefits, given what is known from variations in locoregional management in the historic conservation trials. However, this may not be the case for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), as the discovery of unsuspected invasive cancer located elsewhere from the biopsy-proven DCIS could result in decreased survival if left undetected and untreated. In support of this hypothesis, a previous observational study of a large cohort of DCIS patients revealed the development of invasive cancer to be the most common event after unilateral DCIS treatment, occurring in 3.9%, mostly in the opposite breast. These cancers appeared on mammography or clinical exam within a short time frame (median 2.9 years) and were associated with a diminution in survival. Given these second events occurring so soon after DCIS treatment, it must be considered that invasive cancers were present elsewhere, but mammographically occult, at the time of DCIS diagnosis. To examine this possibility, 288 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed DCIS underwent preoperative MRI, with the discovery of separate foci of invasive cancer, either multicentric or contralateral, occurring in 3.5% of patients, a similar incidence to the short-term observational study. These "elsewhere" invasive cancers are presented here with details of pathology such that both Stage I and Stage II disease can be seen as clinically significant, with the usual stage-based survival implications.

  5. Remuneration of Graduates, as at 1 July 1994. Human Resources, Financial, and Economic Occupations = Vergoeding van Gegradueerdes, soos op 1 Julie 1994. Menslike Hulpbronne, Finansiele en Ekonomiese Beroepe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Johan

    This report, in both English and Afrikaans, is based on data gathered during a September 1994 mail survey of 215,284 South African graduates that elicited a total response rate of 18.3%. It details the remuneration of graduates (as of July 1, 1994) in a wide range of human resources, accounting and financial, economic, and sales occupations in the…

  6. The MUSICA MetOp/IASI H2O and δD products: characterisation and long-term comparison to NDACC/FTIR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegele, A.; Schneider, M.; Hase, F.; Barthlott, S.; García, O. E.; Sepúlveda, E.; González, Y.; Blumenstock, T.; Raffalski, U.; Gisi, M.; Kohlhepp, R.

    2014-04-01

    Within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) ground- and space-based remote sensing as well as in-situ datasets of tropospheric water vapour isotopologues are provided. The space-based remote-sensing dataset is produced from spectra measured by the IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) sensor and is potentially available on a global scale. Here, we present the MUSICA IASI data for three different geophysical locations (subtropics, mid-latitudes, and arctic) and we provide a comprehensive characterisation of the complex nature of such space-based isotopologue remote sensing products. The quality assessment study is complemented by a comparison to MUSICA's ground-based FTIR (Fourier-Transform InfraRed) remote sensing data retrieved from the spectra recorded at three different locations within the framework of NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change). We confirm that IASI is able to measure tropospheric H2O profiles with a vertical resolution of about 4 km and a random error of about 10%. In addition IASI can observe middle tropospheric δD that adds complementary value to IASI's middle tropospheric H2O observations. Our study is both, a theoretical and an empirical proof that IASI has the capability for a global observation of middle tropospheric water vapour isotopologues on a daily timescale and at a quality that is sufficiently high for water cycle research purposes.

  7. The MUSICA MetOp/IASI H2O and δD products: characterisation and long-term comparison to NDACC/FTIR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegele, A.; Schneider, M.; Hase, F.; Barthlott, S.; García, O. E.; Sepúlveda, E.; González, Y.; Blumenstock, T.; Raffalski, U.; Gisi, M.; Kohlhepp, R.

    2014-08-01

    Within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) ground- and space-based remote sensing as well as in situ data sets of tropospheric water vapour isotopologues are provided. The space-based remote-sensing data set is produced from spectra measured by the IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) sensor and is potentially available on a global scale. Here, we present the MUSICA IASI data for three different geophysical locations (subtropics, midlatitudes, and Arctic), and we provide a comprehensive characterisation of the complex nature of such space-based isotopologue remote-sensing products. The quality assessment study is complemented by a comparison to MUSICA's ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) remote-sensing data retrieved from the spectra recorded at three different locations within the framework of NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change). We confirm that IASI is able to measure tropospheric H2O profiles with a vertical resolution of about 4 km and a random error of about 10%. In addition IASI can observe middle tropospheric δD that adds complementary value to IASI's middle tropospheric H2O observations. Our study presents theoretical and empirical proof that IASI has the capability for a global observation of middle tropospheric water vapour isotopologues on a daily timescale and at a quality that is sufficiently high for water cycle research purposes.

  8. Algorithme de type `sweeping process' pour un problème de vibro-impact avec un opérateur d'inertie non trivial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzonou, Raoul; Monteiro Marques, Manuel D. P.; Paoli, Laetitia

    2007-01-01

    We consider a mechanical system with a finite number of degrees of freedom submitted to a perfect unilateral constraint. We assume that the inertia operator is nontrivial and the impact law consists in the transmission of the tangential component of the velocity and the reflexion of its normal component which is multiplied by the restitution coefficient e∈[0,1]. By adopting the measure-differential formulation of J.J. Moreau, a velocity-based time-stepping method is developed, reminiscent of the catching-up algorithm for sweeping processes. We prove that the numerical solutions converge to a solution of the vibro-impact problem. To cite this article: R. Dzonou et al., C. R. Mecanique 335 (2007).

  9. A Method for Fast Assessment of OP/CB Exposure in the Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Using Combined Esterases Enzyme Activity as Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Abass, Kasim Sakran

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of different esterase activities in plasma and liver for Japanese quail and to combine determination of both carboxylesterase and cholinesterase as biochemical biomarker in order to identify the effects of carbamate and organophosphate compounds exposure. Carboxylesterase exhibits larger sensitivity to carbamate and organophosphate compounds than to cholinesterase and is present at higher levels. This permitted nature and distribution of carboxylesterase or cholinesterase to be measured. One predominant toxicological form of enzyme level constant in its patterns of motivation and inhibition with cholinesterase was identified in plasma with an apparent Michaelis constant for butyrylthiocholine iodide of 0.394 mM. Carboxylesterase activity in liver was considered by its preferential hydrolysis of the S-phenyl thioacetate. A concentration dependent decrease of carboxylesterase and cholinesterase has demonstrated during in vitro incubation of malathion, parathion, and trichlorfon in the range 0.125–2 mM, while with methomyl was in the range 0.25–4 mM. When quail (n = 15) was exposed orally for 48 h to concentrations of carbamate or organophosphate compounds of 3–200 mg/kg, the percentage inhibition of cholinesterase was in each case larger than that of carboxylesterase and reached statistical significance (P < 0.05) at lower concentrations. PMID:24527206

  10. Building GIS on Top of the Open DBMS ’Postgres’ (Het Bouwen van een GIS op Basis van het Open DBMS ’Postgres’)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    solution based on the extendable database management system Postgres, in which thematic and spatial data are stored together. The contents of this report...EXTENDABLE DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM "POSTGRES. IN WHICH THEMATIC AND SPATIAL DATA ARE STORED TOGETHER. THE CONTENTS OF THIS REPORT WAS PRESENTED AT THE...hebben en duale architectwr: de themnatisdie informatie is opgeslagen in een relationeel database management systeem en de ruimtekike infor- matie is

  11. Factors Limiting Eligibility for the University of California: An Analysis in Response to a Request from the Assembly Higher Education Committee. OP/04-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In April 2004, the Postsecondary Education Commission released its 2003 University Eligibility study. This study estimated the percentage of California public high school graduates who met the admission requirements of the California State University and the University of California (UC). The Assembly Higher Education Committee requested that the…

  12. Effectiveness of Oral Proficiency in English for Secondary Schools (OPS-English) Programme in Improving English Language Vocabulary among Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Manesha Kaur Rajendra; Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar; Eng, Lin Siew

    2015-01-01

    Speaking is an important skill that needs to be mastered as it is the best way to communicate with other people in order to deliver opinions and express ideas, but the fact is that secondary school students' ability in speaking English is low in Malaysia. It is caused by several factors such as lack of vocabulary, poor pronunciation, weak grammar…

  13. Life-Span and Life-Space Literacy: Research and Policy in National and International Perspective. Occasional Paper OP92-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    A more literate society cannot be created in the United States or elsewhere without a more comprehensive conceptual framework. This framework attempts explicitly to link children's acquisition of literacy with that of adults and assumes there is no single normative theory to literacy development. In a life-span and life-space approach, literacy…

  14. Commander Naval Air Forces (CNAF) Flight Hour Program: Budgeting and Execution Response to the Implementation of the Fleet Response Plan and OP-20 Pricing Model Changes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    explanations. If over spending is severe, the manager 69 Pappalardo , Joe, "Keeping Up the Fleet," National Defense, January 2005, http...Air Forces Pacific (CNAP) FHP Underfunding. Masters Thesis. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, December 1998. 69 Pappalardo , Joe

  15. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Siemens AG Siemens BS2000 Ada Compiler, Version 1.0 Siemens 7.57OP.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-26

    STD-]815A, FEB 1983. 2. Ada Validation Organization: Policies and Procedures, MITRE Corporation , JUN 1982, PB 83-110601. 3. Ada Compiler Validation...expression’s suhtyne is comnatible with the target’s sub- type. In assigning two-dimensional array types, the expression does not appear to be evaluated...owner’s corporate name. Siemens Aktiengesellschaft -- 7 ,Spa . ’. ’.,,,, .- ’.% ’ " ’ ,-.-,ŗ’/ ,’,’ ’ ’,,- ’ % 3

  16. Gestion péri opératoire d'un paragangliome rétro-péritonéal

    PubMed Central

    Bouslama, Amine; Sakhri, Jaballah; Echehoumi, Hamdi; Brahim, Afraa; Ferhi, Fehmi; Létaifa, Dhafer Ben

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons l'observation d'un patient âgé de 62 ans qui présente des douleurs abdominales avec une masse du flanc droit. Les explorations morphologiques ainsi que les données biologiques ont permis de faire le diagnostic d'un paragangliome secrétant. Les particularités diagnostiques ainsi que la gestion périopératoire sont envisagées. PMID:26587149

  17. Economic/Trade-Off Analysis: Common Hardware-Software Computer Resources for the Advanced Attack Helicopter (YAH-64) Fire Control System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    CMPW S R0 DS0 Op 6 JR2S MP (R16)+0ff DS1 Op 6 JR2C MP (R16)+0ff Input/Output f INA Op 6 MOVW MP R0/R8 INB Op 6 MOVW MP R^Rg OTA OTB Op 6...Op 6 MOVW MOVW RQ/RQ VR9 MP MP Double Precision DAD Op 1 ADCD s R0/R8 DSU Op 1 SBCD VR8 S DLD Op 1 MOVD M R DST Op 1 MOVD R M DML Op 1 MPYD

  18. A Decision Criteria to Select an Associative-Memory Organization That Minimizes the Execution Time of a Mix of Associative-Search Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    s )) = Op (C(s), db(s))" (26) Equation (27) defines OP. Brt(JxBR’T()-,BR as the complement of Op,. Op,(C(s), db(s)) = 0p,(C(s), db(s))’" (27) The...9.5 tf=13.0 t= 11.0 tf= 12.8 128 words tr-13.5 tf=16.9 t,=14.3 t(=17.3 t,=16.5 tf=22.0 Op,,(C(s), db( s )), Op .<(C(s), db( s )), Op ,(C(s), db( s )), Op >(C...OP.(C(s), db( s )), Op •(C(s), db( s )), Op <(C(s), db( s )), Op >(C(s), db( s )), Op .(C(s), db( s

  19. An Office Automation Needs Assessment Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    success of the business. should be reviewed by the executive sponsor. Defining Data clase Starting the Study It is at this point that data is grouped...OP Records Memo / Phone Time of-appointment All OP Clinics/OP Records Memo / Phone Pat i R n.men OP Records/OP Clinics Memo Sponsors social security

  20. Type 1 Hot Corrosion Furnace Testing and Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    Mixed Temperature Mode Burner Rig Test, Aprigliano, L. F., pp. 6-7, September 1980. 18. Giggins, C. S. and Pettit, F. S ., op . cit. 19. David W. Taylor...X. and Duhl, D. N., op. cit. 24. Green, K. A. and Nichols, E. S ., op . cit. 25. Aprigliano, L. F., op. cit. 26. Green, K. A. and Nichols, E. S ., op . cit

  1. Evaluation Results Report for Next Generation Computer Resources Operating Systems Interface Baseline Selection by Next Generation Computer Resources (NGCR) Operating Systems Standards Working Group (SSWG)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-07

    Code AIR-5466 (Barry Corson ) OP-22 1 Washington, DC 20361 OP-35 1 OP-55 1 Commander 30 OP-94 1 Technical Director 1 OP-95 1 Naval Air Systems Command...MD 20899 SSC/XPT Gunter AFB Attn: Elizabeth Crouse 1 Advanced System Technologies, Inc. AL 36114 Attn: Gary J. Wright 5113 Leesburg Pike, Suite 514

  2. Evaluation Process Report for Next Generation Computer Resources Operating Systems Interface Baseline Selection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-07

    Command Attn: Codes OP-04 1 Attn: Code AIR-5466 (Barry Corson ) OP-22 I Washington, DC 20361 OP-35 I OP-55 1 Commander 30 OP-94 I Technical Director 1...Attn: Gary Fisher 1 Jim Hall 1 USAF Gaithersburg, MD 20899 SSC/XPT Gunter AFB Attn: Elizabeth Crouse Advanced System Technologies, Inc. AL 36114 Attn

  3. Coop Creek Bridge with Checkerboard Mesa in background, historic photograph, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Co-op Creek Bridge with Checkerboard Mesa in background, historic photograph, no date, Zion National Park collection - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Co-op Creek Bridge, Spanning Co-op Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  4. 13. Detail of marking for recentering of road, south end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail of marking for re-centering of road, south end of Co-op Creek Bridge, looking north. - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Co-op Creek Bridge, Spanning Co-op Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  5. Ex ante Implementatietoetsing van Beleid, Een Methodiek Gebaseerd op Synergie Tussen Risicomanagement en Verandermanagement (Ex Ante Test for Policy Implementation - A Method Based Upon Synergy Between Risk Management an Change Management)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    management) en specifieke middelen ( geld , ingehuurde capaciteit) die er tijdens het implementeren nog waren zijn er vaak niet meer. Tegelijkertijd komnen...zaken als bet beschikbaar stellen van middelen voor de verandering (tijd. geld , capaciteit); het ontwikkelen van nieuwe competenties en vaardigbeden...verlies uit te drukken in geld , of een explosie in een chem-ische installatie in aantal doden. Echter. vaak is een gevolg moeilijker te kwantificeren. zoals

  6. Blood-brain barrier permeability of ginkgolide: Comparison of the behavior of PET probes 7α-[(18)F]fluoro- and 10-O-p-[(11)C]methylbenzyl ginkgolide B in monkey and rat brains.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hisashi; Sato, Kengo; Shindou, Hideo; Sumi, Kengo; Koyama, Hiroko; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Ishii, Satoshi; Tsukada, Hideo; Nakanishi, Koji; Suzuki, Masaaki

    2016-11-01

    The blood-brain barrier permeability of ginkgolide B was examined using positron emission tomography (PET) probes of a (18)F-incorporated ginkgolide B ([(18)F]-2) and a (11)C-incorporated methylbenzyl-substituted ginkgolide B ([(11)C]-3). PET studies in monkeys showed low uptake of [(18)F]-2 into the brain, but small amounts of [(11)C]-3 were accumulated in the parenchyma. Furthermore, when cyclosporine A was preadministered to rats, the accumulation of [(18)F]-2 in the rat brain did not significantly change, however, the accumulation of [(11)C]-3 was five times higher than that in the control rat. These results provide effective approaches for investigating the drug potential of ginkgolides.

  7. La contribución de los Centros Colaboradores de la OMS/OPS en los avances de la promoción de la salud en América Latina.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Hiram V; Mantilla Uribe, Blanca P; Contreras Rengifo, Adolfo; Westphal, Marcia F; Mendes, Rosilda

    2016-09-01

    Los "Centros Colaboradores" de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) son instituciones designadas para prestar apoyo estratégico en el desarrollo de los objetivos y la ejecución de las actividades de la OMS, y para generar capacidad institucional en países y regiones. En las Américas existen ocho Centros Colaboradores directamente relacionados a la promoción de la salud. Cuatro centros se ubican en Norteamérica y los otros cuatro en América Latina. El propósito de este artículo es describir los Centros Colaboradores de la Región de América Latina. Los centros han sido importantes en el desarrollo de la agenda de promoción de la salud de la región, la consolidación de la estrategia de entornos saludables y el fortalecimiento de las redes académicas y profesionales de promoción de la salud.

  8. Formation and emission of nitrogen oxide in gas turbine engines: plume effluent characteristics of TF3O-P111+ and TF33-P9 engines. Final technical report, 1 November-17 December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, J.W.; Sowa, W.A.; Samuelsen, G.S.

    1996-06-30

    Phase I of this project focused on the creation of a spatial emissions map of the plume effluent in the exhaust stream directly behind the engine in a jet engine test cell (JETC). Both afterburning TF30-P111+ and non-after-burning TF33-P9 engines were tested. Measurements were taken in conjunction with actual engine tests for validity of the data. Temperature, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) concentration, and velocity were among the characteristics measured radially and axially in the plume for each engine type. The main focus of this study was on NOx, consisting of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Measurements in the P111+ plume reveal levels of NOx above 300 ppm along the centerline of the effluent. A dip in the NOx emissions at afterburner shows signs of a reburning and/or dilution effect by the atmospheric combustion in the effluent. Significant amounts of NO2 are present in the effluent over the entire power range. Temperatures at military power reach 1100 deg F along the centerline, and CO values are below 80 ppm. Carbon monoxide concentrations decrease from idle to military power (full power, no afterburner), then rise sharply in afterburner. The CO peaks shift outward from centerline as do the temperatures due to the radial geometry of the afterburner combustion (over 10 percent CO at 2850 deg F).

  9. Mapping the Relevance of Complex Decision Making to Canadian Forces Land Operations (Mappage de la pertinence de la prise de d cisions complexes pour les op rations terrestres des Forces canadiennes)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    control  of  the DM (due to changing operations, changing governments, etc.) Challenge Planning 114 PME  Staff Unpredictable requests for information that...Pushing something up the authority hierarchy for resolution means that the DM risks delays etc. Challenge Authority Loss of  control 137 PME  Supervisor... gestions ...... ity literature . d to facilitate ..................... factors .......... viours ........... t

  10. Comparaison des effets de la xylazine et de la romifidine administrées en période péri-opératoire sur le réveil de chevaux anesthésiés

    PubMed Central

    Bauquier, Sébastien H.; Kona-Boun, Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Cette étude prospective compare les effets de la xylazine et de la romifidine sur la qualité du réveil de chevaux anesthésiés. Vingt-huit chevaux sains présentés pour des arthroscopies étaient aléatoirement distribués entre 2 groupes. Le protocole anesthésique intraveineux du groupe xylazine comprenait : butorphanol (0,02 mg/kg) et xylazine (0,5–0,7 mg/kg) en prémédication, diazépam (0,1 mg/kg), kétamine (2,2 mg/kg) et isoflurane comme agents anesthésiques, et xylazine (0,1 mg/kg) comme sédatif au réveil. La xylazine était remplacée par la romifidine 0,05–0,08 mg/kg (prémédication) et 0,01 mg/kg (réveil) dans le groupe romifidine. La qualité du réveil était évaluée à l’aveugle au moyen d’une grille d’évaluation. Le test de la somme des rangs de Wilcoxon (P < 0,05) a été utilisé pour l’analyse statistique. Les notes de la qualité du réveil n’étaient pas statiquement différentes entre les deux groupes. Dans cette étude, la romifidine et la xylazine influençaient de façon similaire la qualité du réveil. PMID:22379199

  11. One-pot preparation of a series of glycoconjugates with predetermined antigen-carrier ratio from oligosaccharides that mimic the O-PS of Vibrio cholerae O:1, serotype Ogawa.

    PubMed

    Saksena, Rina; Ma, Xingquan; Kovác, Pavol

    2003-11-14

    Di-through the pentasaccharide that mimic the upstream terminus of the O-specific polysaccharide of Vibrio cholerae O:1, serotype Ogawa were synthesized in the form of 5-methoxycarbonylpentyl glycosides and linked to BSA using squaric acid diester chemistry. The conjugation reactions were monitored by surface-enhanced laser-desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS), which allowed conducting the conjugation of the synthetic oligosaccharides in a controlled way and termination of the reaction when the desired molar hapten-BSA ratio had been reached. This made it possible to prepare, from one hapten in a one-pot reaction, a series of neoglycoconjugates having different, predetermined carbohydrate-carrier ratios. The accuracy of molecular mass determination in SELDI-TOF MS analysis could be increased by using the carrier protein as the internal standard.

  12. Sustained efficacy of insulin pump therapy compared with multiple daily injections in type 2 diabetes: 12‐month data from the OpT2mise randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Reznik, Y.; Conget, I.; Castañeda, J. A.; Runzis, S.; Lee, S. W.; Cohen, O.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To compare insulin pump therapy and multiple daily injections (MDI) in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving basal and prandial insulin analogues. Methods After a 2‐month dose‐optimization period, 331 patients with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels ≥8.0% and ≤12% were randomized to pump therapy or continued MDI for 6 months [randomization phase (RP)]. The MDI group was subsequently switched to pump therapy during a 6‐month continuation phase (CP). The primary endpoint was the between‐group difference in change in mean HbA1c from baseline to the end of the RP. Results The mean HbA1c at baseline was 9% in both groups. At the end of the RP, the reduction in HbA1c was significantly greater with pump therapy than with MDI (−1.1 ± 1.2% vs −0.4 ± 1.1%; p < 0.001). The pump therapy group maintained this improvement to 12 months while the MDI group, which was switched to pump therapy, showed a 0.8% reduction: the final HbA1c level was identical in both arms. In the RP, total daily insulin dose (TDD) was 20.4% lower with pump therapy than with MDI and remained stable in the CP. The MDI–pump group showed a 19% decline in TDD, such that by 12 months TDD was equivalent in both groups. There were no differences in weight gain or ketoacidosis between groups. In the CP, one patient in each group experienced severe hypoglycaemia. Conclusions Pump therapy has a sustained durable effect on glycaemic control in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. PMID:26854123

  13. The Influence of Protection, Mobility and Risk Perception on the Behaviour and Physical Performance of a Combat Soldier (De Invloed van Bescherming, Mobiliteit en Risicoperceptie op het Gedrag en de Fysieke Prestatie van een Gevechtssoldaat)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    which threat consisted of environmental stress (cold) and psychological pressure ( Liebermann et al., 2002). However, no reports were found in which...down on the ground during the last 40m, this could not explain the lower velocity in condition A. Liebermann et al. (2002) studied in exercises...vigilance were significantly impaired, as were more complex functions, including memory and logical reasoning. Liebermann et al. (2002) used environmental

  14. A Comparison of Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein (1–36) and Parathyroid Hormone (1–34) on Markers of Bone Turnover and Bone Density in Postmenopausal Women: The PrOP Study

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Mara J; Augustine, Marilyn; Kahn, Leila; Martin, Emily; Oakley, Christine C; Carneiro, Raquel M; Tedesco, Mary Beth; Laslavic, Angela; Sereika, Susan M; Bisello, Alessandro; Garcia-Ocaña, Adolfo; Gundberg, Caren M; Cauley, Jane A; Stewart, Andrew F

    2013-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP)(1–36) increases lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD), acting as an anabolic agent when injected intermittently, but has not been directly compared to parathyroid hormone (PTH)(1–34). We performed a three month, randomized, prospective study in 105 postmenopausal women with low bone density or osteoporosis comparing daily subcutaneous injections of PTHrP(1–36) to PTH(1–34). Thirty-five women were randomized to each of three groups: PTHrP(1–36) 400 μg/d; PTHrP(1–36) 600 μg/d; and PTH(1–34) 20 μg/d. The primary outcomes measures were changes in amino-terminal telopeptides of procollagen 1 (PINP) and carboxy-terminal telopeptides of collagen 1 (CTX). Secondary measures included safety parameters, 1,25(OH)2vitamin D and BMD. The increase in bone resorption (CTX) by PTH(1–34) (92%) (p<0.005) was greater than for PTHrP(1–36) (30%) (p<0.05). PTH(1–34) also increased bone formation (PINP) (171%) (p<0.0005) more than either dose of PTHrP(1–36) (46 & 87%). The increase in PINP was earlier (day 15) and greater than the increase in CTX for all three groups. LS BMD increased equivalently in each group (p<0.05 for all). Total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN) BMD increased equivalently in each group but were only significant for the two doses of PTHrP(1–36) (p<0.05) at the TH, and for PTHrP(1–36) 400 (p<0.05) at the FN. PTHrP(1–36) 400 induced mild, transient (day 15) hypercalcemia. PTHrP(1–36) 600 required a dose reduction for hypercalcemia in three subjects. PTH(1–34) was not associated with hypercalcemia. Each peptide induced a marked biphasic increase in 1,25(OH)2D. Adverse events (AE) were similar among the three groups. This study demonstrates that PTHrP(1–36) and PTH(1–34) cause similar increases in LS BMD. PTHrP(1–36) also increased hip BMD. PTH(1–34) induced greater changes in bone turnover than PTHrP(1–36). PTHrP(1–36) was associated with mild transient hypercalcemia. Longer term studies using lower doses of PTHrP(1–36) are needed to define both the optimal dose and full clinical benefits of PTHrP. PMID:23661240

  15. An Estimation of Profitability of Investment Projects in The Oil and Gas Industry Using Real Options Theory / Ocena Opłacalności Projektów Inwestycyjnych W Przemyśle Naftowym Z Wykorzystaniem Teorii Opcji Realnych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosowski, Piotr; Stopa, Jerzy

    2012-11-01

    Paper discusses issues relating to the valuation of investment efficiency in the oil and gas industry using a real options theory. The example of investment pricing using real options was depicted and it was confronted with the analysis executed with the use of traditional methods. Indicators commonly used to evaluate profitability of investment projects, based on a discounted cash flow method, have a few significant drawbacks, the most meaningful of which is staticity which means that any changes resulting from a decision process during the time of investment cannot be taken into consideration. In accordance with a methodology that is currently used, investment projects are analysed in a way that all the key decisions are made at the beginning and are irreversible. This approach assumes, that all the cash flows are specified and does not let the fact that during the time of investment there may appear new information, which could change its original form. What is also not analysed is the possibility of readjustment, due to staff managment's decisions, to the current market conditions, by expanding, speeding up/slowing down, abandoning or changing an outline of the undertaking. In result, traditional methods of investment projects valuation may lead to taking wrong decisions, e.g. giving up an owned exploitation licence or untimely liquidation of boreholes, which seem to be unprofitable. Due to all the above-mentioned there appears the necessity of finding some other methods which would let one make real and adequate estimations about investments in a petroleum industry especially when it comes to unconventional resources extraction. One of the methods which has been recently getting more and more approval in a world petroleum economics, is a real options pricing method. A real option is a right (but not an obligation) to make a decision connected with an investment in a specified time or time interval. According to the method a static model of pricing using DCF is no longer used; an investment project is divided into a series of steps and after each one there is a range of possible investment decisions, technical and organizational issues and all the others called `real options'. This lets one take many different varieties of modyfiying a strategy while pricing the project. This also makes it possible to react to the changing inner and outer situation and introducing new information while accomplishing the investment project. Owing to those, the decision process is a continuous operation, what is an actual vision of a real investment project management in the petroleum industry.

  16. Mössbauer study and magnetic properties of MgFe2O4 crystallized from the glass system B2O3/K2O/P2O5/MgO/Fe2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabrawy, S. El; Bocker, C.; Miglierini, M.; Schaaf, P.; Tzankov, D.; Georgieva, M.; Harizanova, R.; Rüssel, C.

    2017-01-01

    An iron containing magnesium borate glass with the mol% composition 51.7 B2O3/9.3 K2O /1 P2O5/27.6MgO/10.4Fe2O3was prepared by the conventional melts quenching method followed by a thermal treatment process at temperatures in the range from 530 to 604 °C.The thermally treated samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that superparamagnetic MgFe2O4 nanoparticles were formed during thermal treatment. The size of the spinel type crystals was in the range from 6 to 15 nm. Mössbauer spectra of the powdered glass ceramic samples and the extracted nanoparticles after dissolving the glass matrix in diluted acid were recorded at room temperature. The deconvolution of the spectra revealed the crystallization of two spinel phases MgFe2O4 (as a dominant phase) and superparamagnetic maghemite, γ-Fe2O3 (as a secondary phase). Room temperature magnetic measurements showed that, increasing the crystallization temperature changed the superparamagnetic behavior of the samples to ferrimagnetic behavior. The Curie temperatures of the samples were measured and showed a higher value than that of the pure bulk MgFe2O4.

  17. Using multiple calibration sets to improve the quantitative accuracy of partial least squares (PLS) regression on open-path fourier transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectra of ammonia over wide concentration ranges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A technique of using multiple calibration sets in partial least squares regression (PLS) was proposed to improve the quantitative determination of ammonia from open-path Fourier transform infrared spectra. The spectra were measured near animal farms, and the path-integrated concentration of ammonia...

  18. Framing the Zionist Movement: The Effects of Zionist Discourse on the Arab-Israeli Peace Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Ibid. , 10. 37. Sidney Tarrow , Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action and Politics, 2d ed. (New York: Cambridge University Press...1998), 188. 38. Tarrow , Op. Cit., 188; Tessler, Op. Cit., 191-192. 39. Tessler, Ibid., 194. 40. Hertzberg, Op. Cit., 47. 41. Tessler, Op. Cit., 145

  19. Orthostatically Induced Panic Attacks among Cambodian Refugees: Flashbacks, Catastrophic Cognitions, and Associated Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Devon E.; Pollack, Mark H.; Pich, Vuth; Fama, Jeanne M.; Barlow, David H.

    2005-01-01

    Consecutive Cambodian refugees (N = 100) attending a psychiatric clinic were assessed for the presence and severity of current orthostatic panic (OP), which is defined as panic triggered by standing up. The patients with current OP (n = 36) had significantly greater psychopathology than patients without current OP. During OP, trauma associations…

  20. Lifetime Organophosphorous Insecticide Use among Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, Jane A.; Long, Stuart; Umbach, David M.; Lubin, Jay H.; Starks, Sarah; Gerr, Fred; Thomas, Kent; Hines, Cynthia J; Weichenthal, Scott; Kamel, Freya; Koutros, Stella; Alavanja, Michael; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous insecticides (OPs) are the most commonly used insecticides in US agriculture, but little information is available regarding specific OP use by individual farmers. We describe OP use for licensed private pesticide applicators from Iowa and North Carolina in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) using lifetime pesticide use data from 701 randomly selected male participants collected at three time periods. Of 27 OPs studied, 20 were used by >1%. Overall, 95% had ever applied at least one OP. The median number of different OPs used was 4 (maximum=13). Malathion was the most commonly used OP (74%) followed by chlorpyrifos (54%). OP use declined over time. At the first interview (1993–1997), 68% of participants had applied OPs in the past year; by the last interview (2005–2007), only 42% had. Similarly, median annual application days of OPs declined from 13.5 to 6 days. While OP use was common, the specific OPs used varied by state, time period, and individual. Much of the variability in OP use was associated with the choice of OP, rather than the frequency or duration of application. Information on farmers’ OP use enhances our ability to characterize and understand the potential health effects of multiple OP exposures. PMID:22854518

  1. Passion and dependency in online shopping activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Chien; Yang, Hui-Wen

    2007-04-01

    This study examines the influence of harmonious passion (HP) and obsessive passion (OP) to online shopping dependency. The results show that both HP and OP might lead to online shopping dependency and online shoppers with OP are more dependent on online shopping activities. In addition, this study also found out that HP and OP could be denoted as a sequence of different intensities of passion, where HP might be a necessity of OP.

  2. Healthy Dietary Patterns and Oxidative Stress as Measured by Fluorescent Oxidation Products in Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seungyoun; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.; Willett, Walter C.; Wang, Molin; Wu, Tianying; Jensen, Majken; Hankinson, Susan E.; Eliassen, A. Heather

    2016-01-01

    Healthy diets may lower oxidative stress and risk of chronic diseases. However, no previous studies examined associations between diet and fluorescent oxidation products (FlOP), a global marker of oxidative stress. We evaluated associations between healthy eating patterns (Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED)) and FlOP, measured at three excitation/emission wavelengths (FlOP_360, FlOP_320, FlOP_400) from 2021 blood samples collected from 1688 women within the Nurses’ Health Study. AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were significantly positively associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320 concentrations (p-trend ≤ 0.04), but not associated with FlOP_400. Among specific food groups that contribute to these diet scores, significantly positive associations were observed with legumes and vegetables for FlOP_360, vegetables and fruits for FlOP_320, and legumes and alcohol for FlOP_400. Inverse associations were observed with nuts, sweets or desserts, and olive oil for FlOP_360, nuts for FlOP_320 and sweets or desserts for FlOP_400 (all p-trend ≤ 0.05). However, FlOP variation due to diet was small compared to overall FlOP variation. In conclusion, AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were unexpectedly positively, but weakly, associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously as the determinants of FlOP concentrations are not fully understood. PMID:27657128

  3. Proteomic analysis of adducted butyrylcholinesterase for biomonitoring organophosphorus exposures

    PubMed Central

    Marsillach, Judit; Hsieh, Edward J.; Richter, Rebecca J.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Furlong, Clement E.

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) compounds include a broad group of toxic chemicals such as insecticides, chemical warfare agents and antiwear agents. The liver cytochromes P450 bioactivate many OPs to potent inhibitors of serine hydrolases. Cholinesterases were the first OP targets discovered and are the most studied. They are used to monitor human exposures to OP compounds. However, the assay that is currently used has limitations. The mechanism of action of OP compounds is the inhibition of serine hydrolases by covalently modifying their active-site serine. After structural rearrangement, the complex OP inhibitor-enzyme is irreversible and will remain in circulation until the modified enzyme is degraded. Mass spectrometry is a sensitive technology for analyzing protein modifications, such as OP-adducted enzymes. These analyses also provide some information about the nature of the OP adduct. Our aim is to develop high-throughput protocols for monitoring OP exposures using mass spectrometry. PMID:23123252

  4. Agreement of central site measurements and land use regression modeled oxidative potential of PM{sub 2.5} with personal exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Aileen; Hoek, Gerard; Montagne, Denise; Leseman, Daan L.A.C.; Hellack, Bryan; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A.J.; Cassee, Flemming R.; Brunekreef, Bert; Janssen, Nicole A.H.

    2015-07-15

    Oxidative potential (OP) of ambient particulate matter (PM) has been suggested as a health-relevant exposure metric. In order to use OP for exposure assessment, information is needed about how well central site OP measurements and modeled average OP at the home address reflect temporal and spatial variation of personal OP. We collected 96-hour personal, home outdoor and indoor PM{sub 2.5} samples from 15 volunteers living either at traffic, urban or regional background locations in Utrecht, the Netherlands. OP was also measured at one central reference site to account for temporal variations. OP was assessed using electron spin resonance (OP{sup ESR}) and dithiothreitol (OP{sup DTT}). Spatial variation of average OP at the home address was modeled using land use regression (LUR) models. For both OP{sup ESR} and OP{sup DTT}, temporal correlations of central site measurements with home outdoor measurements were high (R>0.75), and moderate to high (R=0.49–0.70) with personal measurements. The LUR model predictions for OP correlated significantly with the home outdoor concentrations for OP{sup DTT} and OP{sup ESR} (R=0.65 and 0.62, respectively). LUR model predictions were moderately correlated with personal OP{sup DTT} measurements (R=0.50). Adjustment for indoor sources, such as vacuum cleaning and absence of fume-hood, improved the temporal and spatial agreement with measured personal exposure for OP{sup ESR}. OP{sup DTT} was not associated with any indoor sources. Our study results support the use of central site OP for exposure assessment of epidemiological studies focusing on short-term health effects. - Highlights: • Oxidative potential (OP) of PM was proposed as a health-relevant exposure metric. • We evaluated the relationship between measured and modeled outdoor and personal OP. • Temporal correlations of central site with personal OP are moderate to high. • Adjusting for indoor sources improved the agreement with personal OP. • Our results

  5. Chemical Characterization and Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of South Brazilian Organic Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Tiveron, Ana Paula; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Franchin, Marcelo; Lacerda, Risia Cristina Coelho; Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Benso, Bruna; Denny, Carina; Ikegaki, Masaharu; de Alencar, Severino Matias

    2016-01-01

    South Brazilian organic propolis (OP), which has never been studied before, was assessed and its chemical composition, scavenging potential of reactive oxygen species, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities are herein presented. Based on the chemical profile obtained using HPLC, OP was grouped into seven variants (OP1–OP7) and all of them exhibited high scavenging activity, mainly against superoxide and hypochlorous acid species. OP1, OP2, and OP3 had the smallest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus aureus (12.5–100 μg/mL). OP1, OP2, OP3, and OP4 were more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative), with MIC values ranging from 100 to 200 μg/mL. OP6 showed anti-inflammatory activity by decreasing NF-kB activation and TNF-α release in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and expressing the NF-κB-luciferase reporter stable gene. Therefore, south Brazilian OP can be considered an excellent source of bioactive compounds with great potential of application in the pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:27802316

  6. ENZYME DEGRADATION OF CHIRAL ORGANIC PHOSPHORUS INSECTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chiral organic phosphorus pesticides (OPs) are expected to be biologically degraded enantioselectively by endogenous enzymes. Various chiral Ops were treated with the enzyme phosphotriesterase (PTE) obtained from partially purified extracts of Escherichia coli strain DH-5- carryi...

  7. HPLC SEPARATION OF CHIRAL ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES ON POLYSACCHARIDE CHIRAL STATIONARY PHASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of the individual enantiomers of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) were obtained on polysaccharide chiral HPLC columns using an alkane-alcohol mobile phase. The OP pesticides were crotoxyphos, dialifor, dyfonate, fenamiphos, ...

  8. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work was to investigate organophosphorus (OP) pesticide transformation pathways as a class in the presence of aqueous chlorine. Seven priority OP pesticides were examined for their reactivity with aqueous chlorine: chlorpyrifos (CP), parathion (PA), diazino...

  9. Chloramination of Organophosphorus Pesticides Found in Drinking Water Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The degradation of commonly detected organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, in drinking water sources, was investigated under simulated chloramination conditions. Due to monochloramine autodecomposition, it is difficult to observe the direct reaction of monochloramine with each OP pe...

  10. EEG SPECTRA, BEHAVIORAL STATES AND MOTOR ACTIVITY IN RATS EXPOSED TO ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE INHIBITOR CHLORPYRIFOS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OP) has been associated with sleep disorders: insomnia and ?excessive dreaming'. However neuronal mechanisms of these effects have not been analyzed. OP inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity leading to a hyperativity of the brain cholin...

  11. HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF THE ENANTIOMERS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES ON POLYSACCHARIDE CHIRAL STATIONARY PHASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of the individual enantiomers of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was obtained on polysaccharide enantioselective HPLC columns using alkane-alcohol mobile phase. The OP pesticides were crotoxyphos, dialifor, fonofos, fenamiph...

  12. Prosthetic aspects in adult osteopetrosis.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Yoichiro; Ayukawa, Yasunori; Tomita, Yoko; Koyano, Kiyoshi

    2014-10-01

    Osteopetrosis (OP) is a rare condition characterized by skeletal sclerosis caused by dysfunctional osteoclasts. Though many reports have described severe infantile-malignant autosomal recessive OP, few have described the prosthetic management of adult OP. This report discusses the prosthetic treatment of adult OP. Although prosthodontists should try to reconstruct occlusal function as much as possible, a conservative prosthodontic approach may be a reasonable and recommended treatment option for minimizing the risk of further osteomyelitis and osteonecrosis.

  13. Determinants and a Measure of Navy Recruiter Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    cialist categories that are esoential for maintaintng and operaLing the combat elements of the Navy . The ED12 category identifies the high school graducte...source of management policy could be the three Navy recruiting districts (NRDs), since the NID is the operating command in the field. HnnagefenL pullcy...al Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Manpowv06 and Reserve Affairs) Chiof f Naval Operations (OP-01CR), (OP-964D), (OP-98ý). (OP-991B) Chief

  14. Air leak: An unusual manifestation of organizing pneumonia secondary to bleomycin

    PubMed Central

    Namitha, R; Nimisha, KP; Yusuf, Nasser; Rauf, CP

    2017-01-01

    Organizing pneumonia (OP) is a less common interstitial lung disease with varying clinical picture. The development of pulmonary air leak in a case of OP is an extremely rare complication. Here, we report the case of a 46-year-old female with carcinoma ovary, postchemotherapy who developed respiratory distress with pneumomediastinum, and subcutaneous emphysema. Lung biopsy showed evidence of OP. This turned out to be a rare case of OP, secondary to bleomycin chemotherapy, presenting with pulmonary air leak. PMID:28360468

  15. Analysis and Feedback

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Light2 Curr Ops Flt Ops & S-2 1 1 Cdr Rm 4 Plans Curr Ops Flt Ops & S-2 ALOC BaTS C2 TF Desperado ASTi ASIP / HHTs Simulyzer White Cell Mayor Cell... ASTi 3 3 2 3 2 PFPS / AMPS / C2 EMailFBCB2 MPDD 2 2 Grd Veh W/S Simple Room 54 3 OCs A/1-104Medevac Functional Data Collection Quantitative vs

  16. Acetylcholinesterase of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Phlebotomus papatasi: Gene Identification, Expression, and Biochemical Properties of Recombinant Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory, United States Department of Agricultural-Agricultural Research Service2, 2700 Fredericksburg Road...stranded RNA ; OP, organophosphate; OP-R, organophosphate resistant; OP-S, organophosphate susceptible; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PpAChE, Phlebotomus... RNA , ribonucleic acid; RNAi, RNA interference (gene silencing). q Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do

  17. 78 FR 69873 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision and Final Supplemental Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... June 8, 2010, Ruby Pipeline Biological Opinion (BiOp). The Revised BiOp was published on July 5, 2013..., Final Supplemental EIS, and Revised BiOp were developed in response to an order from the 9th U.S... entities, filed petitions for review of the 2010 BiOp and the BLM's ROD in the 9th U.S. Circuit Court...

  18. Security Modeling and Correctness Proof Using Specware and Isabelle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Table op currently_accessible?(at: AccessTuple): StateMonad Boolean = fn (S: State) -> (at in? S, S ) op addAccess(at: AccessTuple): StateMonad...State) -> (S.atset, S ) op put_current_access(inatset: Set Flow): StateMonad () = fn (S: State) -> ((), {atset = inatset, resrcset = S.resrcset...RSet) = fn (S: State) -> (S.resrcset, S ) op get_resource_memory: Resource -> StateMonad (Set Bit) Figure 86 State Monads for state access and

  19. 45 CFR 156.500 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Affordable Care Act by establishing the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) program to foster the creation of new consumer-governed, private, nonprofit health insurance issuers, known as “CO-OPs.” Under this program, loans are awarded to encourage the development of CO-OPs. Applicants that meet...

  20. DETERMINATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS BY GC-ICPMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accidental or intentional release of neurotoxic organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and OP chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are potential threats to public health and the environment. Such a release could involve any number of a large suite of OP chemicals. These compounds, as well a...

  1. Transformation of Organophosphorus Pesticides in the Presence of Aqueous Chlorine: Kinetics, Pathways, and Structure-Activity Relationships

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides in the presence of aqueous chlorine was investigated under simulated drinking water treatment conditions. Intrinsic rate coefficients were found for the reaction of hypochlorous acid (kHOCl,OP) and hypochlorite ion (kOCl,OP) for eight...

  2. Lifetime Organophosphorous Insecticide Used among Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organophosphorous insecticides (OPs) are the most commonly used insecticides in US agriculture, but little information is available regarding specific OP use by individual farmers. We describe OP use for licensed private pesticide applicators from Iowa and North Carolina in the Ag...

  3. 75 FR 2926 - Pipeline Safety: Reporting Drug and Alcohol Test Results for Contractors and Multiple Operator...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... pipeline systems operated under more than one OPS issued OpID. II. Advisory Bulletin (ADB-09-04) To... (OPS), is modifying the Drug & Alcohol Management Information System (DAMIS) to allow the reporting of... contractor employees with Management Information System (MIS) reports due March 15, 2010. The collection...

  4. URINARY METABOLITES OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride plastics, cellulose esters, and polystyrene resins. The metabolism of DnOP results in the hydrolysis of one ester linkage to produce mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), which subsequently metabolizes to form oxida...

  5. Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Migrant Farmworker Children of Mexican Origin from Urban and Agricultural Regions of Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some organophosphate pesticides (OPs) induce chromosome aberrations (CA) in experimental systems and may be genotoxic in persons exposed to home-use levels of OPs. However, the genotoxic effects of OPs have not been studied extensively in environmentally exposed children, such a...

  6. PROTEIN ADDUCTS AS BIOMAKERS OF EXPOSURE TO ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS

    PubMed Central

    Marsillach, Judit; Costa, Lucio G.; Furlong, Clement E.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to organophosphorus (OP) compounds can lead to serious neurological damage or death. Following bioactivation by the liver cytochromes P450, the OP metabolites produced are potent inhibitors of serine active-site enzymes including esterases, proteases and lipases. OPs may form adducts on other cellular proteins. Blood cholinesterases (ChEs) have long served as biomarkers of OP exposure in humans. However, the enzymatic assays used for biomonitoring OP exposures have several drawbacks. A more useful approach will focus on multiple biomarkers and avoid problems with the enzymatic activity assays. OP inhibitory effects result from a covalent bond with the active-site serine of the target enzymes. The serine OP adducts become irreversible following a process referred to as aging where one alkyl group dissociates over variable lengths of time depending on the OP adduct. The OP-adducted enzyme then remains in circulation until it is degraded, allowing for a longer window of detection compared with direct analysis of OPs or their metabolites. Mass spectrometry (MS) provides a very sensitive method for identification of post-translational protein modifications. MS analyses of the percentage adduction of the active-site serine of biomarker proteins such as ChEs will eliminate the need for basal activity levels of the individual and will provide for a more accurate determination of OP exposure. MS analysis of biomarker proteins also provides information about the OP that has caused inhibition. Other useful biomarker proteins include other serine hydrolases, albumin, tubulin and transferrin. PMID:23261756

  7. A Model of Medical Countermeasures for Organophosphates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Animal Data ................................................................. 51 6.2.1. Verifying AChE Activity...28 Table 5-2. Rate Constants for Three OPs Considered in the Animal Injury Model ..................... 29 Table 5...model OP injury and to be able to compare output to available animal data, we modeled the route of exposure for the OP. We account for three different

  8. A Routing Protocol for Packet Radio Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    table of node K is a matrix containing, for each destination L and each neighbor of K (say M ), the distance to L ( NEOPRQ ) and the predecessor ( S OP Q...identifier T The distance to the destination ( N OP ) T The predecessor of the shortest path chosen toward L ( S OP ) T The successor ( U OP ) of the shortest...P and the predecessor is updated as S OP À ¾ S Q P . Thus, a node can determine whether or not an update received from M affects its other distance

  9. An Implementation of the REpresentation and MAintenance of Process Knowledge(REMAP) Model in the Knowledge-Based Software Assistant Concept Demonstration System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    D.M. Elefante , p. 8, 1988. 8. Debellis, M., "The Concept Demonstration Rapid Prototype System", PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIFTH CONFERENCE ON KBSA, p. 222...1987. 11. Elefante , loc. cit., p. 8. 12. White, op. cit., p. 3. 13. White, op. cit., p. 4. 14. Goldberg, A., et al., "KBSA Performance Estimation...Assistant Program Specification," Documentation, RADC Contract F30602-86-C-0026. 71 15. White, op.cit., p. 5. 16. White, op. cit., pp. 3-4. 17. Elefante , op

  10. Het testen van een 1 kW De Nora vaste polymeer elekrolyt brandstofcel voor toepassing op oppervlakteschepen. Deel 2. Eindrapport fase 1 (Testing of a 1kW De Nora Solid Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell for Application on Board of Naval Surface Ships. Part 2. Final Report, Phase I).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) has good chances for this application also for application on board of ships. A 1 kW PEFC stack was purchased from the...Italian firm De Nora to obtain practical experience with this type of stack. Via a dedicated computer controlled fuel cell test system the fuel cell can...150 A) and 83% (0 A). The tested fuel cell meets the given vibration and shock requirements and shows no sign of damage at pressure differences up to 10 bars between the hydrogen and air compartment.

  11. A User's View of BALLOTS; Numbers 4, 5, 6, and 7. The PO/OC Module; The ACC/NPO Modules (A Supplement to No. 4); The SO Module (A Supplement to Nos, 4 and 5); the OP Module (A Supplement to Nos. 4, 5, and 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Timothy; And Others

    The "Purchase Order and Original Cataloging" (PO/OC) module is one of 11 units that make up the Bibliographic Automation of Large Library Operations Using a Time-sharing System (BALLOTS) used in the Stanford University Libraries. As part of this on-line, interactive system, the PO/OC module provides for the computerized production of…

  12. Hydrogen bonding strength of diblock copolymers affects the self-assembled structures with octa-functionalized phenol POSS nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Syuan; Yu, Chia-Yu; Lin, Yung-Chih; Kuo, Shiao-Wei

    2016-02-28

    In this study, the influence of the functional groups by the diblock copolymers of poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP), poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP), and poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) on their blends with octa-functionalized phenol polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (OP-POSS) nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated. The relative hydrogen bonding strengths in these blends follow the order PS-b-P4VP/OP-POSS > PS-b-P2VP/OP-POSS > PS-b-PMMA/OP-POSS based on the Kwei equation from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopic analyses show that the morphologies of the self-assembly structures are strongly dependent on the hydrogen bonding strength at relatively higher OP-POSS content. The PS-b-P4VP/OP-POSS hybrid complex system with the strongest hydrogen bonds shows the order-order transition from lamellae to cylinders and finally to body-centered cubic spheres upon increasing OP-POSS content. However, PS-b-P2VP/OP-POSS and PS-b-PMMA/OP-POSS hybrid complex systems, having relatively weaker hydrogen bonds, transformed from lamellae to cylinder structures at lower OP-POSS content (<50 wt%), but formed disordered structures at relatively high OP-POSS contents (>50 wt%).

  13. Regulatory cascade and biological activity of Beauveria bassiana oosporein that limits bacterial growth after host death.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanhua; Liu, Xi; Keyhani, Nemat O; Tang, Guirong; Pei, Yan; Zhang, Wenwen; Tong, Sheng

    2017-02-28

    The regulatory network and biological functions of the fungal secondary metabolite oosporein have remained obscure. Beauveria bassiana has evolved the ability to parasitize insects and outcompete microbial challengers for assimilation of host nutrients. A novel zinc finger transcription factor, BbSmr1 (B. bassiana secondary metabolite regulator 1), was identified in a screen for oosporein overproduction. Deletion of Bbsmr1 resulted in up-regulation of the oosporein biosynthetic gene cluster (OpS genes) and constitutive oosporein production. Oosporein production was abolished in double mutants of Bbsmr1 and a second transcription factor, OpS3, within the oosporein gene cluster (ΔBbsmr1ΔOpS3), indicating that BbSmr1 acts as a negative regulator of OpS3 expression. Real-time quantitative PCR and a GFP promoter fusion construct of OpS1, the oosporein polyketide synthase, indicated that OpS1 is expressed mainly in insect cadavers at 24-48 h after death. Bacterial colony analysis in B. bassiana-infected insect hosts revealed increasing counts until host death, with a dramatic decrease (∼90%) after death that correlated with oosporein production. In vitro studies verified the inhibitory activity of oosporein against bacteria derived from insect cadavers. These results suggest that oosporein acts as an antimicrobial compound to limit microbial competition on B. bassiana-killed hosts, allowing the fungus to maximally use host nutrients to grow and sporulate on infected cadavers.

  14. Exploring the physicochemical properties of oxime-reactivation therapeutics for cyclosarin, sarin, tabun, and VX inactivated acetylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Emilio Xavier; Stouch, Terry R; Wymore, Troy; Madura, Jeffry D

    2014-01-21

    The inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by organophosphorus agent (OP) compounds is a serious problem regardless of how the individual was exposed. The reactivation of OP-inactivated AChE is dependent on the OP conjugate, and commonly a specific oxime is better at reactivating a specific OP conjugate than several diverse OP conjugates. The presented research explores the physicochemical properties needed for the reactivation of OP-inactivated AChE. Four different OPs, cyclosarin, sarin, tabun, and VX, were analyzed using the same set of oxime reactivators. A trial descriptor pool of semiempirical, traditional, and molecular interaction field descriptors was used to construct an ensemble of QSAR models for each OP-conjugate pair. Based on the molecular information and the cross-validation ability, individual QSAR models were selected to be part of an OP-conjugate consensus model. The OP-conjugate specific models provide important insight into the physicochemical properties required to reactivate the OP conjugates of interest. The reactivation of AChE inactivated with either cyclosarin or tabun requires the oxime therapeutic to possess an overall polar-positive surface area. Oxime therapeutics for the reactivation of sarin-inactivated AChE are conformationally dependent while oxime reverse therapeutics for VX require a compact region with a highly hydrophilic region and two positively charged pyridine rings.

  15. Health Aspects of Organophosphorous Pesticides in Asian Countries

    PubMed Central

    Balali-Mood, M; Balali-Mood, K; Moodi, M; Balali-Mood, B

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) pesticides are used frequently in agriculture, particularly in Asian countries over the past decades. Poisoning by these agents, either as acute or chronic in these nations, is a serious health problem. OP pesticides residue in fruits and vegetables that may not induce early clinical features, could also affect the human health. Therefore, medical and health professionals should be aware and learn more on the toxicology, prevention and proper management of OP poisoning. The well-known mechanism of OP toxicity is the inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase, resulting in an accumulation of acetylcholine and continued stimulation of acetylcholine receptors. Therefore, they are also called anticholinesterase agents. Determination of blood acetyl cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase activities remains a mainstay for the rapid initial screening of OP pesticides. Quantitative analysis of OP and their degradation products in plasma and urine by mass spectrometric methods is a more specific method, but is expensive and limited to specialized laboratories. Therefore, history of OP pesticides exposure and clinical manifestations of a cholinergic syndrome is sufficient for management of the exposed patients. However, electrophysiological tests may be required for the diagnosis of delayed neuropathy of OP poisoning. The standard management of OP poisoning includes decontamination, atropine sulphate with an oxime. Recent advances focus on blood alkalinisation and magnesium sulphate as promising adjunctive therapies. Preventive measures in OP exposure are of great importance in human health in developing countries. Therefore, regulations and controls on safe use of OP particularly in Asian countries are recommended. PMID:23304659

  16. A cross-sectional study to evaluate the associations between hypertension and osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Keqin; Shi, Haiming; Tang, Zihui

    2015-01-01

    Background: This relationship between hypertension (HTN) and osteoporosis (OP) is not well documented among the population in China. The study sought to study the relationship between HTN and OP in Chinese postmenopausal women. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 1878 Chinese postmenopausal women with an average age of 62.38 years. OP was diagnosed by standardized quantitative ultrasound at the calcaneus and HTN was defined by blood pressure data and/or the use of antihypertensive medication. The relationship for OP and HTN were calculated using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results: The prevalence of OP was 28.17% in the postmenopausal women, and there was a significant difference in the prevalence of OP between the two groups according to HTN (P value = 0.003). Univariate analysis demonstrates a positive correlation between HTN and OP. After adjustment for relevant potential confounding factors, multivariate logistic regression analyses detected significant associations between HTN and OP (P value = 0.096). In participants with HTN, the OR for OP was 1.209 (95% CI: 0.967-1.513). Conclusion: The prevalence of OP was more frequent in Chinese postmenopausal women with HTN, and HTN was independently and significantly associated with OP. PMID:26885054

  17. Phenotypic effects of an allele causing obligate parthenogenesis in a rotifer.

    PubMed

    Scheuerl, Thomas; Riss, Simone; Stelzer, Claus-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Transitions to obligate asexuality have been documented in almost all metazoan taxa, yet the conditions favoring such transitions remained largely unexplored. We address this problem in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. In this species, a polymorphism at a single locus, op, can result in transitions to obligate parthenogenesis. Homozygotes for the op allele reproduce strictly by asexual reproduction, whereas heterozygous clones (+/op) and wild-type clones (+/+) are cyclical parthenogens that undergo sexual reproduction at high population densities. Here, we examine dosage effects of the op allele by analyzing various life-history characteristics and population traits in 10 clones for each of the 3 possible genotypes (op/op, +/op, and +/+). For most traits, we found that op/op clones differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the 2 cyclical parthenogenetic genotypes (+/+ and +/op). By contrast, the 2 cyclical parthenogenetic genotypes were almost indistinguishable, except that heterozygote individuals were slightly but significantly smaller in body size compared with wild-type individuals. Overall, this indicates that the op allele is selectively neutral in the heterozygous state. Thus, selective sweeps of this allele in natural populations would first require conditions favoring the generation of homozygotes. This may be given by inbreeding in very small populations or by double mutants in very large populations.

  18. The Electrical Response of the Planarian Ocellus

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H. Mack; Ogden, Thomas E.

    1968-01-01

    The planarian ocellar potential (OP), an action potential evoked from the planarian ocellus by a light flash, was recorded with microelectrodes. OP amplitude, latency, and peak delay varied as a function of stimulus intensity and state of adaptation in a manner similar to the responses of other photoreceptors. Changes in the OP that occurred with different directions of incident light are described and attributed to screening effects of the ocellar pigment cells. The temperature coefficient (Q10) of OP latency was 1.5; latency decreased continuously as temperature was increased to destructive levels. The energy of activation of the rate of OP formation was calculated to approximate 10 kcal. These findings suggest dependence of OP latency on ionic diffusion and of OP formation on a biocatalytic process. PMID:5641637

  19. Organisational performance and business continuity management: a theoretical perspective and a case study.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Ihab Hanna Salman

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to extend the research relating to the strategic view of business continuity management (BCM) to the context of organisational performance (OP). It discusses potential performance consequences resulting from applying BCM aspects/elements within an organisation. The paper contributes to the understanding of the role of BCM in OP by discussing how deployment of BCM key aspects/elements can improve OP. Two main issues are discussed: first, background to performance and the elements of OP; and secondly, the role of BCM in achieving optimised OP. These issues are significant, as they go further than the extant literature relating to the significance of BCM and its potential influence on OP. The study focuses on Jordanian banks as a case study and as a way of illustrating how BCM helps improve OP for those organisations facing performance shortcomings or difficulties.

  20. Central respiratory failure during acute organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Carey, Jennifer L; Dunn, Courtney; Gaspari, Romolo J

    2013-11-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning is a global health problem with over 250,000 deaths per year. OPs affect neuronal signaling through acetylcholine (Ach) neurotransmission via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), leading to accumulation of Ach at the synaptic cleft and excessive stimulation at post-synaptic receptors. Mortality due to OP agents is attributed to respiratory dysfunction, including central apnea. Cholinergic circuits are integral to many aspects of the central control of respiration, however it is unclear which mechanisms predominate during acute OP intoxication. A more complete understanding of the cholinergic aspects of both respiratory control as well as neural modification of pulmonary function is needed to better understand OP-induced respiratory dysfunction. In this article, we review the physiologic mechanisms of acute OP exposure in the context of the known cholinergic contributions to the central control of respiration. We also discuss the potential central cholinergic contributions to the known peripheral physiologic effects of OP intoxication.

  1. Organophosphate Flame Retardants and Plasticizers in Aqueous Solution: pH-Dependent Hydrolysis, Kinetics, and Pathways.

    PubMed

    Su, Guanyong; Letcher, Robert J; Yu, Hongxia

    2016-08-02

    Despite the growing ubiquity of organophosphate (OP) triesters as environmental contaminants, parameters affecting their aquatic chemical stabilities are currently unknown. The present study examined the pH-dependent (7, 9, 11, or 13) hydrolysis of 16 OP triesters in mixtures of 80 ng/mL for each OP triester over a period of 35 days at 20 °C. For the pH = 7, 9, and 11 solutions, 10 of the 16 OP triesters were stable and with no significant (p > 0.05) degradation. For the remaining 6 OP triesters, significant degradation occurred progressing from the pH = 7 to 11 solutions. At pH = 13, except for tributyl phosphate and tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate, 14 OP triesters were degraded with half-lives ranging from 0.0053 days (triphenyl phosphate) to 47 days (tripropyl phosphate). With increasingly basic pH the order of OP triester stability was group A (with alkyl moieties) > group B (chlorinated alkyl) > group C (aryl). Numerous OP diesters were identified depending on the pH level of the solution, whereas OP monoesters were not detectable. This is consistent with no significant (p > 0.05) depletion observed for 5 OP diesters in the same 4 solutions and over same 35 day period, suggesting OP diesters are end products of base-catalyzed hydrolysis of OP triesters. Our results demonstrated that pH-dependent hydrolysis of OP triesters does occur, and such instability would likely affect the fate of OP triesters in aqueous environments where the pH can be variable and basic.

  2. Mitochondrial dysfunction and organophosphorus compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Karami-Mohajeri, Somayyeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Organophosphorous (OPs) pesticides are the most widely used pesticides in the agriculture and home. However, many acute or chronic poisoning reports about OPs have been published in the recent years. Mitochondria as a site of cellular oxygen consumption and energy production can be a target for OPs poisoning as a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity of OPs. In the present review, we have reviewed and criticized all the evidences about the mitochondrial dysfunctions as a mechanism of toxicity of OPs. For this purpose, all biochemical, molecular, and morphological data were retrieved from various studies. Some toxicities of OPs are arisen from dysfunction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation through alteration of complexes I, II, III, IV and V activities and disruption of mitochondrial membrane. Reductions of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis or induction of its hydrolysis can impair the cellular energy. The OPs disrupt cellular and mitochondrial antioxidant defense, reactive oxygen species generation, and calcium uptake and promote oxidative and genotoxic damage triggering cell death via cytochrome C released from mitochondria and consequent activation of caspases. The mitochondrial dysfunction induced by OPs can be restored by use of antioxidants such as vitamin E and C, alpha-tocopherol, electron donors, and through increasing the cytosolic ATP level. However, to elucidate many aspect of mitochondrial toxicity of Ops, further studies should be performed. - Highlights: • As a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity, mitochondria is a target for OPs. • OPs affect action of complexes I, II, III, IV and V in the mitochondria. • OPs reduce mitochondrial ATP. • OPs promote oxidative and genotoxic damage via release of cytochrome C from mitochondria. • OP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can be restored by increasing the cytosolic ATP.

  3. Butyrylcholinesterase for protection from organophosphorus poisons; catalytic complexities and hysteretic behavior

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Patrick; Lockridge, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase is a promiscuous enzyme that displays complex kinetic behavior. It is toxicologically important because it detoxifies organophosphorus poisons (OP) by making a covalent bond with the OP. The OP and the butyrylcholinesterase are both inactivated in the process. Inactivation of butyrylcholinesterase has no adverse effects. However inactivation of acetylcholinesterase in nerve synapses can be lethal. OP-inhibited butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase can be reactivated with oximes provided the OP has not aged. Strategies for preventing the toxicity of OP include a) treatment with an OP scavenger, b) reaction of nonaged enzyme with oximes, c) reactivation of aged enzyme, d) slowing down aging with peripheral site ligands, and e) design of mutants that rapidly hydrolyze OP. Option (a) has progressed through phase I clinical trials with human butyrylcholinesterase. Option (b) is in routine clinical use. The others are at the basic research level. Butyrylcholinesterase displays complex kinetic behavior including activation by positively charged esters, ability to hydrolyze amides, and a lag time (hysteresis) preceding hydrolysis of benzoylcholine and N-methyl indoxyl acetate. Mass spectrometry has identified new OP binding motifs on tyrosine and lysine in proteins that have no active site serine. It is proposed, but not yet proven, that low dose exposure involves OP modification of proteins that have no active site serine. PMID:20004171

  4. Fungal biosynthesis of the bibenzoquinone oosporein to evade insect immunity

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Peng; Shang, Yanfang; Cen, Kai; Wang, Chengshu

    2015-01-01

    Quinones are widely distributed in nature and exhibit diverse biological or pharmacological activities; however, their biosynthetic machineries are largely unknown. The bibenzoquinone oosporein was first identified from the ascomycete insect pathogen Beauveria bassiana >50 y ago. The toxin can also be produced by different plant pathogenic and endophytic fungi with an array of biological activities. Here, we report the oosporein biosynthetic machinery in fungi, a polyketide synthase (PKS) pathway including seven genes for quinone biosynthesis. The PKS oosporein synthase 1 (OpS1) produces orsellinic acid that is hydroxylated to benzenetriol by the hydroxylase OpS4. The intermediate is oxidized either nonenzymatically to 5,5′-dideoxy-oosporein or enzymatically to benzenetetrol by the putative dioxygenase OpS7. The latter is further dimerized to oosporein by the catalase OpS5. The transcription factor OpS3 regulates intrapathway gene expression. Insect bioassays revealed that oosporein is required for fungal virulence and acts by evading host immunity to facilitate fungal multiplication in insects. These results contribute to the known mechanisms of quinone biosynthesis and the understanding of small molecules deployed by fungi that interact with their hosts. PMID:26305932

  5. Octylphenol induces vitellogenin production and cell death in fish hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Toomey, B.H.; Monteverdi, G.H.; Di Giulio, R.T.

    1999-04-01

    The effects of octylphenol (OP) on vitellogenin production and cell death in hepatocytes from brown bullhead catfish (Americurus nebulosus) were studied. Production of vitellogenin was induced in hepatocytes exposed to 10 to 50 {micro}M OP, whereas a higher concentration of OP (100 {micro}M) induced apoptotic cell death. By 3 h after the addition of 100 {micro}M OP, dying cells showed chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation as determined by fluorescence microscopy and gel electrophoresis. Later stages of cell death (nuclear membrane breakdown and cell fragmentation into apoptotic bodies) were identified in cells exposed to OP for at least 6 h. Hepatocytes exposed to 100 {micro}M OP also produced less vitellogenin than cells exposed to 50 {micro}M OP. An estrogen receptor antagonist, tamoxifen, greatly decreased vitellogenin production in OP-exposed hepatocytes from male fish but did not decrease cell death in these cells. Thus, although the ability of OP to induce vitellogenin production is likely mediated through interactions with the estrogen receptor, the induction of apoptotic cell death by OP does not appear to be dependent on its estrogenic activity but may be a more general toxic effect.

  6. Muscular strength and vibration thresholds during two years after acute poisoning with organophosphate insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J; McConnell, R; Wesseling, C; Cuadra, R; Delgado, E; Torres, E; Keifer, M; Lundberg, I

    2004-01-01

    Methods: This study concerns the third of a series of three examinations of hand strength and vibration thresholds in a two year period after acute OP poisoning among 48 Nicaraguan men. The first two examinations were performed at hospital discharge and seven weeks after poisoning, and the present examination two years later. Twenty eight cattle ranchers and fishermen who had never experienced pesticide poisoning were examined as controls, also three times over the two year period. The poisonings were categorised as caused by "non-neuropathic" OPs and "neuropathic" OPs, each subdivided in moderate and severe poisonings. Results: Men poisoned with OP insecticides had persistent reduced hand strength. We previously reported weakness at hospital discharge for OP poisoned in all categories that worsened seven weeks later for those severely poisoned with neuropathic OPs. Strength improved over time, but the poisoned were still weaker than controls two years after the poisoning, most noticeably among the subjects most severely poisoned with neuropathic OPs. Also, index finger and toe vibration thresholds were slightly increased at the end of the two year period, among men with OP poisonings in all categories, but patterns of onset and evolvement of impairment of vibration sensitivity were less clear than with grip and pinch strength. Conclusions: Persistent, mainly motor, impairment of the peripheral nervous system was found in men two years after OP poisoning, in particular in severe occupational and intentional poisonings with neuropathic OPs. This finding is possibly due to remaining organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy. PMID:14691285

  7. Organizing Pneumonia in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Case-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Shunsuke; Koga, Yukinori; Sugimoto, Mineharu

    2015-01-01

    We treated 21 patients with organizing pneumonia (OP) associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or related to biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) at our institution between 2006 and 2014. Among these cases, 3 (14.3%) preceded articular symptoms of RA, 4 (19.0%) developed simultaneously with RA onset, and 14 (66.7%) occurred during follow-up periods for RA. In the case of OP preceding RA, increased levels of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factor were observed at the OP onset. RA disease activity was related to the development of OP in the simultaneous cases. In the cases of OP developing after RA diagnosis, 10 of 14 patients had maintained low disease activity with biological DMARD therapy at the OP onset, and among them, 6 patients developed OP within the first year of this therapy. In the remaining four patients, RA activity was not controlled at the OP onset. All patients responded well to systemic steroid therapy, but two patients suffered from relapses of articular and pulmonary symptoms upon steroid tapering. In most of the RA patients, DMARD therapy was introduced or restarted during the steroid tapering. We successfully restarted a biological DMARD that had not been previously used for patients whose RA would otherwise have been difficult to control. In this study, we also perform a review of the literature on RA-associated or biological DMARD-related OP and discuss the pathogenesis and management of OP occurring in RA patients. PMID:26543387

  8. Isokinetic imbalance of hip muscles in soccer players with osteitis pubis.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Walaa Sayed; Abdelraouf, Osama Ragaa; Elhafez, Salam Mohamed; Abdel-Aziem, Amr Almaz; Nassif, Nagui Sobhi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared the isokinetic torques of hip flexors/extensors and abductors/adductors in soccer players suffering from osteitis pubis (OP), with normal soccer players. Twenty soccer male athletes with OP and 20 normal soccer athletes were included in this study. Peak torque/body weight (PT/BW) was recorded from hip flexor/extensor and abductor/adductor muscles during isokinetic concentric contraction modes at angular velocity of 2.1 rad · s(-1), for both groups. The results showed a significant difference between the normal and OP groups for hip flexors (P < 0.05). The normal group had significant, lower PT/BW value than the OP group for their hip flexors (P < 0.05). The hip flexor/extensor PT ratio of OP affected and non-affected limbs was significantly different from that of normal dominant and non-dominant limbs. There were no significant differences between the normal and OP groups for hip extensor, adductor and abductor muscles (P > 0.05). Regarding the hip adductor/abductor PT ratio, there was no significant difference between the normal and OP groups of athletes (P > 0.05). The OP group displayed increase in hip flexor strength that disturbed the hip flexor/extensor torque ratio of OP. Therefore, increasing the hip extensor strength should be part of rehabilitation programmes of patients with OP.

  9. The genetics of obligate parthenogenesis in an aphid species and its consequences for the maintenance of alternative reproductive modes.

    PubMed

    Dedryver, C-A; Le Gallic, J-F; Mahéo, F; Simon, J-C; Dedryver, F

    2013-01-01

    Although loss of sex is widespread among metazoans, the genetic mechanisms underlying the transition to asexuality are poorly understood. Aphids are good models to address this issue because they frequently show reproductive-mode variation at the species level, involving cyclical parthenogens (CP) that reproduce sexually once a year and obligate parthenogens (OP) that reproduce asexually all year round. Here, we explore the genetic basis of OP in the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae by crossing several genotypes with contrasting reproductive modes and then characterising the reproductive phenotypes of F1 and F2 offspring. The analysis of phenotypic variation in F1 and F2 progenies suggests that at least two autosomal loci control OP in S. avenae. First, the transition to asexuality seems to depend on a single recessive locus, because the offspring from self-crossed cyclical parthenogenetic genotypes contain either 0 or 25% OP. Second, as we observed OP in the F1 progenies from crosses between CP and OP, and some CP in the offspring from outcrossed OP, a dominant 'suppressor' gene may also be involved, being inactive when in a recessive homozygous state in CP; this is the most parsimonious explanation for these results. This oligogenic inheritance of OP in S. avenae appears to be an efficient genetic system to generate new OP genotypes continually. It also allows asexuality-inducing alleles to be protected locally during harsh winters when extreme frost kills most OP, and then to spread very quickly after winter.

  10. Within-limb somatotopic organization in human SI and parietal operculum for the leg: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ruixue; Wei, Pengxu; Li, Kuncheng; Lu, Jie; Zhao, Cheng; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Tong

    2012-03-22

    Somatotopic organizations in human somatosensory cortex (SI and SII) for scattered portions of the leg have not been systematically observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this research we compared functional representations in the contralateral SI and bilateral parietal operculum (that contained subregions OP1, 3-4 of SII and OP2) of four acupoints in right leg in proximal-distal and medial-lateral arrangement. The results were: (1) somatotopy of SI demonstrated a lateral-to-medial and inferior-to-superior pattern when acupoints were shifting from proximal to distal or from medial to lateral; (2) the contralateral OP1 also showed a clear somatotopic organization for the four separated leg portions, and the ipsilateral OP1 showed a similar pattern to the contralateral OP1, thus arrangements of responses in the two areas were mirror-symmetric against y-axis; (3) the contralateral OP2 showed a somatotopic organization when acupoints shifting from proximal to distal, while the contralateral OP3 presented a trend of somatotopy opposite to that of the contralateral OP1. These results first show definite within-leg somatotopy of human SI for scattered leg portions in medial-lateral arrangement using fMRI. Within-limb somatotopic organization of OP1 for leg portions arranging from proximal to distal as well as from medial to lateral, and somatotopy of OP2 for leg portions arranging from proximal to distal, are also shown for the first time. Our results also reinforce the proposal of a somatotopic map existing in human OP3, and indicating a fourth somatotopic map in OP2 in human parietal operculum, which suggests that OP 2 is not just a vestibular area. In addition, separable activations in somatosensory cortex induced by adjacent acupoints should play a fundamental role in acupoint-specific effects in the brain.

  11. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in osteoporotic osteoarthritis of the knee in rats: an experiment in animals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated the effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) in osteoporotic (OP) osteoarthritis (OA) of rat knee. Methods Fifty-six rats were divided into seven groups including sham, OA, OP, OA + OP, OA + ESWT, OP + ESWT, and OA + OP + ESWT groups. The evaluations included gross pathology, bone mineral density (BMD), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scan, bone-strength test, histopathologic examination, and immunohistochemical analysis. Results On gross pathology, group OA + OP showed larger areas of osteoarthritic changes than did groups OA and OP, as compared with the sham group. BMD and bone strength significantly decreased in groups OA, OP, and OA + OP relative to the sham group, and ESWT significantly improved BMD and bone-strength changes. On micro-CT scan, the subchondral plate thickness significantly decreased, and the bone porosity increased in groups OA, OP, and OA + OP, and ESWT significantly improved the changes in subchondral-plate thickness and bone porosity. In histopathologic examination, Mankin score and safranin O score significantly increased in groups OA and group OA + OP, but not in group OP relative to the sham group, and ESWT significantly improved the changes. In immunohistochemical analysis, Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) significantly increased, but vessel endothelial growth factor (VEGF), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) decreased in groups OA, OP, and OA + OP relative to the sham group, and ESWT significantly reversed the changes. Conclusions Osteoporosis increased the severity of cartilage damage in osteoarthritis of the knee. ESWT showed effectiveness in the reduction of osteoporotic osteoarthritis of the knee in rats. PMID:24994452

  12. Allergic sensitization to ornamental plants in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ömür; Erkekol, Ferda Öner; Misirloigil, Zeynep; Demirel, Yavuz Selim; Mungan, Dilşad

    2014-01-01

    Ornamental plants (OPs) can lead to immediate-type sensitization and even asthma and rhinitis symptoms in some cases. This study aimed to evaluate sensitization to OPs in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and to determine the factors affecting the rate of sensitization to OPs. A total of 150 patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographics and disease characteristics were recorded. Skin-prick tests were performed with a standardized inhalant allergen panel. Skin tests by "prick-to-prick" method with the leaves of 15 Ops, which are known to lead to allergenic sensitization, were performed. Skin tests with OPs were positive in 80 patients (47.1%). There was no significant difference between OP sensitized and nonsensitized patients in terms of gender, age, number of exposed OPs, and duration of exposure. Skin test positivity rate for OPs was significantly high in atopic subjects, patients with allergic rhinitis, food sensitivity, and indoor OP exposure, but not in patients with pollen and latex allergy. Most sensitizing OPs were Yucca elephantipes (52.5%), Dieffenbachia picta (50.8%), and Euphorbia pulcherrima (47.5%). There was significant correlation between having Saintpaulia ionantha, Croton, Pelargonium, Y. elephantipes, and positive skin test to these plants. Sensitivity to OPs was significantly higher in atopic subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and indoor OP exposure. Furthermore, atopy and food sensitivity were found as risk factors for developing sensitization to indoor plants. Additional trials on the relationship between sensitization to OPs and allergic symptoms are needed.

  13. Alkylphenolic contaminants in the diet: Sparus aurata juveniles hepatic response.

    PubMed

    Traversi, I; Gioacchini, G; Scorolli, A; Mita, D G; Carnevali, O; Mandich, A

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of endocrine disrupter chemicals can mimic steroid hormones causing adverse health effects. Nonylphenol (NP) and t-octhylphenol (t-OP) are man-made alkylphenolic environmental contaminants possessing controversial endocrine disruption properties. This study has investigated the effects of NP and t-OP enriched diets on hepatic tissue and biotransformation activities in the liver. To this aim, sea bream juveniles were fed with commercial diet enriched with three different doses of NP (NP1: 5mg/kg bw, NP2: 50mg/kg bw and NP3: 100mg/kg bw) or t-OP (t-OP1: 5mg/kg bw, t-OP2: 50mg/kg bw and t-OP3: 100mg/kg bw) for 21 days. A significant increase of the hepatosomatic index was observed in NP1 and t-OP1. Alteration of liver morphology was observed in both NP and t-OP exposed juveniles although the most altered endpoints were observed in t-OP2 with 100% of tissue degeneration. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was significantly inhibited by NP and t-OP (p<0.05), while catalase activity was significantly induced, at both doses. A different pattern of protein expression of different isoforms of both vitellogenin and zona radiata protein was evidenced within the treatments. In addition, a significant increase in the abundance of the stress induced heat shock protein 70 gene in the liver of t-OP2 fish and a significant increase in the abundance of the estrogen induced cathepsin D gene in the liver of NP1 and t-OP2 fish, were observed. Finally, estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) plasma levels and E2/T showed significantly different patterns in NP and t-OP exposed against control fish.

  14. Lateral interbody fusion combined with open posterior surgery for adult spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Strom, Russell G; Bae, Junseok; Mizutani, Jun; Valone, Frank; Ames, Christopher P; Deviren, Vedat

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Lateral interbody fusion (LIF) with percutaneous screw fixation can treat adult spinal deformity (ASD) in the coronal plane, but sagittal correction is limited. The authors combined LIF with open posterior (OP) surgery using facet osteotomies and a rod-cantilever technique to enhance lumbar lordosis (LL). It is unclear how this hybrid strategy compares to OP surgery alone. The goal of this study was to evaluate the combination of LIF and OP surgery (LIF+OP) for ASD. METHODS All thoracolumbar ASD cases from 2009 to 2014 were reviewed. Patients with < 6 months follow-up, prior fusion, severe sagittal imbalance (sagittal vertical axis > 200 mm or pelvic incidence-LL > 40°), and those undergoing anterior lumbar interbody fusion were excluded. Deformity correction, complications, and outcomes were compared between LIF+OP and OP-only surgery patients. RESULTS LIF+OP (n = 32) and OP-only patients (n = 60) had similar baseline features and posterior fusion levels. On average, 3.8 LIFs were performed. Patients who underwent LIF+OP had less blood loss (1129 vs 1833 ml, p = 0.016) and lower durotomy rates (0% vs 23%, p = 0.002). Patients in the LIF+OP group required less ICU care (0.7 vs 2.8 days, p < 0.001) and inpatient rehabilitation (63% vs 87%, p = 0.015). The incidence of new leg pain, numbness, or weakness was similar between groups (28% vs 22%, p = 0.609). All leg symptoms resolved within 6 months, except in 1 OP-only patient. Follow-up duration was similar (28 vs 25 months, p = 0.462). LIF+OP patients had significantly less pseudarthrosis (6% vs 27%, p = 0.026) and greater improvement in visual analog scale back pain (mean decrease 4.0 vs 1.9, p = 0.046) and Oswestry Disability Index (mean decrease 21 vs 12, p = 0.035) scores. Lumbar coronal correction was greater with LIF+OP surgery (mean [± SD] 22° ± 13° vs 14° ± 13°, p = 0.010). LL restoration was 22° ± 13°, intermediately between OP-only with facet osteotomies (11° ± 7°, p < 0.001) and

  15. Pancreatic pseudocyst after acute organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Ken; Ito, Tetsuhide; Arita, Yoshiyuki; Sadamoto, Yojiro; Harada, Naohiko; Yamaguchi, Koji; Tanaka, Masao; Nakano, Itsuro; Nawata, Hajime; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2006-04-01

    Acute organophosphate poisoning (OP) shows several severe clinical symptoms due to its strong blocking effect on cholinesterase. Acute pancreatitis is one of the complications associated with acute OP, but this association still may not be widely recognized. We report here the case of a 73-year-old man who had repeated abdominal pain during and after the treatment of acute OP. Hyperamylasemia and a 7-cm pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail were noted on investigations. We diagnosed pancreatic pseudocyst that likely was secondary to an episode of acute pancreatitis following acute OP. He was initially treated with a long-term intravenous hyperalimentation, protease inhibitors and octerotide, but eventually required surgical intervention, a cystgastrostomy. Acute pancreatitis and hyperamylasemia are known to be possible complications of acute OP. It is necessary to examine and assess pancreatic damage in patients with acute OP.

  16. Estimation of Overtopping Flow Velocities on Earthen Levees Due to Irregular Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Burcharth and Hughes 2002). 9 ERDC/CHL CHETN-III-77 January 2008 First, calculate the Iribarren number (surf-similarity parameter) for the given wave...sec) 328 ft 2 2op p gL T π π = = =2 (15) and the corresponding Iribarren number is 0 tan 0.25 1.85 / (6 ft) / (328 ft)op m opH L θξ = = = (16...to the value of Iribarren number. For ξop ≤ 2: 2% 01.5u opR mHξ= ⋅ (17) (0 3 0 tan 1ln 5.2 0.06 m op w c opm H qR g H )r b h β ξ θ γ γ γ γ ξ

  17. Portable Analytical Systems for On-Site Diagnosis of Exposure to Pesticides and Nerve Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Timchalk, Chuck

    2009-12-01

    In this chapter, we summarize recent work in our laboratory on the development of sensitive portable analytical systems for use in on-site detection of exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and chemical nerve agents. These systems are based on various nanomaterials functioning as transducers; recognition agents or labels and various elelectrochemical/immunoassay techniques. The studied nanomaterials included functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT), zirconia nanoparticles (NPs) and quantum dots (QDs). Three biomarkers e.g. the free OPs, metabolites of OPs and protein-OP adducts in biological matrices have been employed for biomonitoring of OP exposure with our developed system. It has been found that the nanomaterial-based portable analytical systems have high sensitivity for the detection of the biomarkers, which suggest that these technologies offer great promise for the rapid and on-site detection and evaluation of OP exposure.

  18. IPOPv2 online service for the generation of opacity tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delahaye, Franck; Zwölf, Carlo Maria; Zeippen, Claude J.; Mendoza, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    In the framework of the present phase - IPOPv2 - of the international Opacity Project (OP), a new web service has been implemented based on the latest release of the OP opacities. The user may construct online opacity tables to be conveniently included in stellar evolution codes in the format most commonly adopted by stellar physicists, namely the OPAL format. This facility encourages the use and comparison of both the OPAL and OP data sets in applications. The present service allows for the calculation of multi-element mixtures containing the 17 species (H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe and Ni) considered by the OP, and underpins the latest release of OP opacities. This new service provides tables of Rosseland mean opacites using OP atomic data. We provide an alternative to the OPAL opacity services allowing direct comparison as well as study of the effect of uncertainties in stellar modeling due to mean opacities.

  19. Evaluation of orientation program for fresh MBBS entrants: Faculty and students’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Rajiv; Gupta, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    Context: One-day orientation program (OP) for fresh MBBS entrants is running in our institute since 2010, but has never been evaluated. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the OP from students’ and faculty perspectives and to recommend a revised program. Methodology: Totally 439 students of three MBBS batches were enrolled in the study. Students were asked to fill an anonymous semi-structured, pretested questionnaire. Views of faculty members were recorded by conducting three focus group discussions. Results: More than half of the students have never attended the institutional OP due to timings issue. Overall rating of the program was good, but many students and faculty members suggested changes in the duration, timings and course content of the OP. A revised OP was proposed to the authorities. Conclusion: The current institutional program though rated good, requires a lot of amendments. The revised proposed OP should be implemented from the coming session. PMID:26380212

  20. Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers: sources, occurrence, toxicity and human exposure.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gao-Ling; Li, Ding-Qiang; Zhuo, Mu-Ning; Liao, Yi-Shan; Xie, Zhen-Yue; Guo, Tai-Long; Li, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Si-Yi; Liang, Zhi-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Due to the restricted use and ban of brominated flame retardants, organophosphorus compounds (OPs), extensively used as flame retardants and plasticizers, are ubiquitous in various environmental compartments worldwide. The present study shows that the release of OPs from a wide variety of commercial products and wastewater discharge might be considered as primary emission sources and that high potential of long-range atmospheric transport and persistence of OPs would be responsible for their presence in various matrices on a global scale. The occurrence and environmental behaviors of OPs in diverse matrices (e.g., dust, air, water, sediment, soil and biota) are reviewed. Human exposures to OPs via dermal contact, dust ingestion, inhalation and dietary intake are comprehensively evaluated. Finally, this study identifies gaps in the existing issues and generates a future agenda for the emerging contaminants OPs.