Science.gov

Sample records for open access circuit

  1. Open access to technology platforms for InP-based photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ławniczuk, Katarzyna; Augustin, Luc M.; Grote, Norbert; Wale, Michael J.; Smit, Meint K.; Williams, Kevin A.

    2015-04-01

    Open access to generic technology platforms for photonic integrated circuit manufacturing enables low-cost development of application-specific photonic chips for novel or improved products. It brings photonic ICs within reach for many industrial users and research institutes, by moving toward a fabless business model. In the current status, InP-based open access manufacturing services are offered through multi-project wafer runs by Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institut, SMART Photonics, and Oclaro. In this paper, we review state-of-the-art InP photonic integration technology platforms, present examples of complex InP photonic ICs developed in the generic technologies, and give a prospect for further development of these photonic integration platforms.

  2. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  3. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  4. APS and Open Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    The movement toward Open Access continues to gain momentum. A brief review of APS efforts in this area will be presented by APS Editor in Chief, Gene Sprouse. Editors from Physical Review A, B, E, Focus, Letters, and X, Reviews of Modern Physics, and Physics will address your questions about publishing in this evolving environment.

  5. Opening Up Access to Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Ross

    2008-01-01

    As the corpus of gray literature grows and the price of serials rises, it becomes increasingly important to explore ways to integrate the free and open Web seamlessly into one's collections. Users, after all, are discovering these materials all the time via sites such as Google Scholar and Scirus or by searching arXiv.org or CiteSeer directly.…

  6. Digital Scholarship and Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

  7. Success factors for open access.

    PubMed

    Till, James E

    2003-01-01

    Open access to the peer-reviewed primary research literature would greatly facilitate knowledge transfer between the creators and the users of the results of research and scholarship. Criteria are needed to assess the impact of recent initiatives, such as the Budapest Open Access Initiative. For example, how many open-access research journals exist within a given field, and what is the reputation of each one? And, how many openly-accessible institutional e-print archives have been created and how many are actually are being used by researchers and scholars? A simple approach to an assessment of the open-access portion of the medical literature is described, and some preliminary results are summarized. These preliminary results point to the need for incentives to foster the implementation of initiatives such as the Budapest Open Access Initiative. An example of an incentive model is proposed, where an agency or foundation that provides peer-reviewed grants-in-aid to researchers establishes an e-print archive. Only current grantees of the agency would be eligible to post reports about the results of research projects or programs that have been supported by the agency. Some advantages and implications of this particular model are outlined. It is suggested that incentive models of this kind are needed to increase the likelihood that open access to the primary medical research literature will soon reach a "tipping point" and move quickly toward wide acceptance.

  8. Disability access. Open season.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Brian

    2003-04-24

    A disability access audit carried out at a trust operating over 50 sites revealed that a 2.3m Pounds programme of work was needed. The audit took four months, with the team spending a day at each of the premises. The audit has been followed by a staff training programme in disability awareness. The trust's information systems now show if a patient did not attend an appointment because of difficulties with physical access. All letters to patients are produced in a minimum 12-point type.

  9. UK to support open access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The UK government has "widely accepted" the recommendations of a major report into open-access publishing that was released in June by a 15-strong working group led by the British sociologist Janet Finch.

  10. Tester Detects Steady-Short Or Intermittent-Open Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bobby L.

    1990-01-01

    Momentary open circuits or steady short circuits trigger buzzer. Simple, portable, lightweight testing circuit sounds long-duration alarm when it detects steady short circuit or momentary open circuit in coaxial cable or other two-conductor transmission line. Tester sensitive to discontinuities lasting 10 microseconds or longer. Used extensively for detecting intermittent open shorts in accelerometer and extensometer cables. Also used as ordinary buzzer-type continuity checker to detect steady short or open circuits.

  11. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries (CUUL), The Right to Research Coalition, Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), Makerere University, International Health Sciences University (IHSU), Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) and the Centre for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD). All these organizations are based or have offices in Kampala. The event culminated in a meeting with the Science and Technology Committee of Parliament of Uganda in order to receive the support of the Ugandan Members of Parliament and to make a concrete change for Open Access in the country.

  12. The Inevitability of Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Open access (OA) is an alternative business model for the publication of scholarly journals. It makes articles freely available to readers on the Internet and covers the costs associated with publication through means other than subscriptions. This article argues that Gold OA, where all of the articles of a journal are available at the time of…

  13. Commentary: open access, open business, closed fairness!

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    A strong trend to move from print to online publication is largely perceived in scientific and nonscientific fields. A growing number of publishers increasingly opt for online publication as an option or a compulsory alternative. From readers' perspective, this is a highly appreciated facility, but from the author's, things are different mainly because of excessive article processing charges (APC) that make the open access system sometimes as a hindrance for many authors but a lucrative enterprise for many shareholders, enticing the most traditional and conservative publishers.

  14. [Medical journals and open access].

    PubMed

    Sember, Marijan

    2008-01-01

    The open access (OA) or the idea of a free access to scholarly literature published in electronic form has been already well established in the field of medicine. Medline has already been free for a decade, PubMed Central has been growing steadily. The global crisis of the scientific publishing, becoming increasingly dominated by multinational companies and constant increase of journal prices have moved to action not only individuals and institutions but governments and research charities too. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the main open access initiatives and resources in biomedicine (PubMed, PubMed Central, BioMed Central, PLoS). The OA pros and cons are briefly discussed emphasizing the benefits of OA to medical research and practice.

  15. LERU roadmap towards Open Access.

    PubMed

    Ayris, Paul; Björnshauge, Lars; Collier, Mel; Ferwerda, Eelco; Jacobs, Neil; Sinikara, Kaisa; Swan, Alma; de Bries, Saskia; van Wesenbeeck, Astrid

    2015-09-01

    Money which is not directly spent on research and education, even though it is largely taxpayers´ money. As Harvard University already denounced in 2012, many large journal publishers have rendered the situation "fiscally unsustainable and academically restrictive", with some journals costing as much as $40,000 per year (and publishers drawing profits of 35% or more). If one of the wealthiest universities in the world can no longer afford it, who can? It is easy to picture the struggle of European universities with tighter budgets. In addition to subscription costs, academic research funding is also largely affected by "Article Processing Charges" (APC), which come at an additional cost of €2000/article, on average, when making individual articles Gold Open Access. Some publishers are in this way even being paid twice for the same content ("double dipping"). In the era of Open Science, Open Access to publications is one of the cornerstones of the new research paradigm and business models must support this transition. It should be one of the principal objectives of Commissioner Carlos Moedas and the Dutch EU Presidency (January-June 2016) to ensure that this transition happens. Further developing the EU´s leadership in research and innovation largely depends on it. With this statement "Moving Forwards on Open Access", LERU calls upon all universities, research institutes, research funders and researchers to sign this statement and give a clear signal towards the European Commission and the Dutch EU Presidency.

  16. Predatory Open Access in Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Manca, Andrea; Martinez, Gianluca; Cugusi, Lucia; Dragone, Daniele; Mercuro, Giuseppe; Deriu, Franca

    2017-01-20

    Increasingly scholars and researchers are being solicited by predatory open access journals seeking manuscript submissions and abusing the author-pays model by charging authors with publishing fees without any or proper peer review. Such questionable editorial practices are threatening the reputation and credibility of scholarly publishing. To date, no investigation has been conducted on this phenomenon in the field of rehabilitation. This study attempts to identify specific predatory journals operating in this field to quantify the phenomenon and its geographic distribution. Beall's List has been used to this end which, although not perfect, is a comprehensive and up-to-date report of predatory publishers. Of the 1113 publishers on the list, 59 journals were identified, for a total of 5610 published articles. The median number of articles published by each journal was 21, and the median amount of article processing charges was $499. Only 1 out of 59 journals was included in the Directory of Open Access Journals, whereas 7 (12%) were indexed by PubMed. Most of the publishers were based in India (36%) followed by the United States (25%) and Pakistan (5%), and 25% were without a verifiable address. The data indicate that the threat of predatory publishing in rehabilitation is real. Physiatrists, physiotherapists, researchers, and academics operating in this field are advised to use the tools available to recognize predatory practices before considering publishing in open access journals.

  17. Open Access Publishing: What Authors Want

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nariani, Rajiv; Fernandez, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Campus-based open access author funds are being considered by many academic libraries as a way to support authors publishing in open access journals. Article processing fees for open access have been introduced recently by publishers and have not yet been widely accepted by authors. Few studies have surveyed authors on their reasons for publishing…

  18. Method of determining the open circuit voltage of a battery in a closed circuit

    DOEpatents

    Brown, William E.

    1980-01-01

    The open circuit voltage of a battery which is connected in a closed circuit is determined without breaking the circuit or causing voltage upsets therein. The closed circuit voltage across the battery and the current flowing through it are determined under normal load and then a fractional change is made in the load and the new current and voltage values determined. The open circuit voltage is then calculated, according to known principles, from the two sets of values.

  19. Open access: changing global science publishing

    PubMed Central

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D.

    2013-01-01

    The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability. PMID:23986284

  20. Open access: changing global science publishing.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D

    2013-08-01

    The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability.

  1. Public Access and Open Access: Is There a Difference? | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Robin Meckley, Contributing Writer, and Tracie Frederick, Guest Writer Open access and public access—are they different concepts or are they the same? What do they mean for the researchers at NCI at Frederick? “Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the Internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder,” according to an open access website maintained by Peter Suber, director, Harvard Open Access Project.

  2. Perilous terra incognita--open-access journals.

    PubMed

    Balon, Richard

    2014-04-01

    The author focuses on a new rapidly spreading practice of publication in open-access journals. The pros and cons of open-access journals are discussed. Publishing in these journals may be cost prohibitive for educators and junior faculty members. Some authors may be lured by the ease of publishing in open-access journals (and their, at times, inflated self-description, e.g., "international", "scientific"), and their possibly valuable contributions will escape the attention of Academic Psychiatry readership in the vast sea of open-access journals. The readership may be flooded with a large number of low-quality articles (maybe not even properly peer-reviewed) from open-access journals. It may take some time to sort out what is and what is not relevant and useful. Open-access publishing represents a problematic and controversial practice and may be associated with a conflict of interest for the editors and publishers of these journals.

  3. Achieving open access to conservation science.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Richard A; Lee, Jasmine R; Watson, James E M

    2014-12-01

    Conservation science is a crisis discipline in which the results of scientific enquiry must be made available quickly to those implementing management. We assessed the extent to which scientific research published since the year 2000 in 20 conservation science journals is publicly available. Of the 19,207 papers published, 1,667 (8.68%) are freely downloadable from an official repository. Moreover, only 938 papers (4.88%) meet the standard definition of open access in which material can be freely reused providing attribution to the authors is given. This compares poorly with a comparable set of 20 evolutionary biology journals, where 31.93% of papers are freely downloadable and 7.49% are open access. Seventeen of the 20 conservation journals offer an open access option, but fewer than 5% of the papers are available through open access. The cost of accessing the full body of conservation science runs into tens of thousands of dollars per year for institutional subscribers, and many conservation practitioners cannot access pay-per-view science through their workplace. However, important initiatives such as Research4Life are making science available to organizations in developing countries. We urge authors of conservation science to pay for open access on a per-article basis or to choose publication in open access journals, taking care to ensure the license allows reuse for any purpose providing attribution is given. Currently, it would cost $51 million to make all conservation science published since 2000 freely available by paying the open access fees currently levied to authors. Publishers of conservation journals might consider more cost effective models for open access and conservation-oriented organizations running journals could consider a broader range of options for open access to nonmembers such as sponsorship of open access via membership fees.

  4. Open Access and Civic Scientific Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuccala, Alesia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We examine how residents and citizens of The Netherlands perceive open access to acquire preliminary insight into the role it might play in cultivating civic scientific literacy. Open access refers to scientific or scholarly research literature available on the Web to scholars and the general public in free online journals and…

  5. Open Access, Education Research, and Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlough, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: The open access movement has successfully drawn attention to economic and political aspects of scholarly communication through a significant body of commentary that debates the merits of open access and the potential damage it may do to scholarly publishing. Researchers within the field of education research, notably John…

  6. A New Era of Open Access?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Paul; Macauley, Peter

    2008-01-01

    There has been a push for open access journals for more than a decade in a higher education and research environment in which the "publish or perish" syndrome is as dominant as ever. This article examines the success, or otherwise, of open access schemes in light of the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative. It compares…

  7. Open-Access Electronic Textbooks: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovadia, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Given the challenging economic climate in the United States, many academics are looking to open-access electronic textbooks as a way to provide students with traditional textbook content at a more financially advantageous price. Open access refers to "the free and widely available information throughout the World Wide Web. Once an article's…

  8. [Open access :an opportunity for biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Duchange, Nathalie; Autard, Delphine; Pinhas, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Open access within the scientific community depends on the scientific context and the practices of the field. In the biomedical domain, the communication of research results is characterised by the importance of the peer reviewing process, the existence of a hierarchy among journals and the transfer of copyright to the editor. Biomedical publishing has become a lucrative market and the growth of electronic journals has not helped lower the costs. Indeed, it is difficult for today's public institutions to gain access to all the scientific literature. Open access is thus imperative, as demonstrated through the positions taken by a growing number of research funding bodies, the development of open access journals and efforts made in promoting open archives. This article describes the setting up of an Inserm portal for publication in the context of the French national protocol for open-access self-archiving and in an international context.

  9. Open circuit mouthpiece ventilation: Concise clinical review.

    PubMed

    Garuti, G; Nicolini, A; Grecchi, B; Lusuardi, M; Winck, J C; Bach, J R

    2014-01-01

    In 2013 new "mouthpiece ventilation" modes are being introduced to commercially available portable ventilators. Despite this, there is little knowledge of how to use noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIV) as opposed to bi-level positive airway pressure (PAP) and both have almost exclusively been reported to have been used via nasal or oro-nasal interfaces rather than via a simple mouthpiece. Non-invasive ventilation is often reported as failing because of airway secretion encumbrance, because of hypercapnia due to inadequate bi-level PAP settings, or poor interface tolerance. The latter can be caused by factors such as excessive pressure on the face from poor fit, excessive oral air leak, anxiety, claustrophobia, and patient-ventilator dys-synchrony. Thus, the interface plays a crucial role in tolerance and effectiveness. Interfaces that cover the nose and/or nose and mouth (oro-nasal) are the most commonly used but are more likely to cause skin breakdown and claustrophobia. Most associated drawbacks can be avoided by using mouthpiece NIV. Open-circuit mouthpiece NIV is being used by large populations in some centers for daytime ventilatory support and complements nocturnal NIV via "mask" interfaces for nocturnal ventilatory support. Mouthpiece NIV is also being used for sleep with the mouthpiece fixed in place by a lip-covering flange. Small 15 and 22mm angled mouthpieces and straw-type mouthpieces are the most commonly used. NIV via mouthpiece is being used as an effective alternative to ventilatory support via tracheostomy tube (TMV) and is associated with a reduced risk of pneumonias and other respiratory complications. Its use facilitates "air-stacking" to improve cough, speech, and pulmonary compliance, all of which better maintain quality of life for patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) than the invasive alternatives. Considering these benefits and the new availability of mouthpiece ventilator modes, wider knowledge of this

  10. Open Access Publishing - Strengths and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The journal crisis and the demand for free accessibility to the results of publicly funded research were the main drivers of the Open Access movement since the late 1990's. Besides many academic institutions that support the different ways of Open Access publishing, there is a growing number of publishing houses that are specialized on this new access and business model of scholarly literature. The lecture provides an overview of the different kinds of Open Access publishing, discusses the variety of underlying business models, names the advantages and potentials for researches and the public, and overcomes some objections against Open Access. Besides the increased visibility and information supply, the topic of copyrights and exploitation rights will be discussed. Furthermore, it is a central aim of the presentation to show that Open Access does not only support full peer-review, but also provides the potential for even enhanced quality assurance. The financing of business models based on open accessible literature is another important part to be outlined in the lecture.

  11. The ethics of open access publishing.

    PubMed

    Parker, Michael

    2013-03-22

    Should those who work on ethics welcome or resist moves to open access publishing? This paper analyses arguments in favour and against the increasing requirement for open access publishing and considers their implications for bioethics research. In the context of biomedical science, major funders are increasingly mandating open access as a condition of funding and such moves are also common in other disciplines. Whilst there has been some debate about the implications of open-access for the social sciences and humanities, there has been little if any discussion about the implications of open access for ethics. This is surprising given both the central role of public reason and critique in ethics and the fact that many of the arguments made for and against open access have been couched in moral terms. In what follows I argue that those who work in ethics have a strong interest in supporting moves towards more open publishing approaches which have the potential both to inform and promote richer and more diverse forms of public deliberation and to be enriched by them. The importance of public deliberation in practical and applied ethics suggests that ethicists have a particular interest in the promotion of diverse and experimental forms of publication and debate and in supporting new, more creative and more participatory approaches to publication.

  12. [The publishing industry against open access journals].

    PubMed

    Camargo Junior, Kenneth Rochel de

    2012-12-01

    Open-access journal publishing has significantly grown in recent years. Restricted access publications have, in turn, increasing access costs as they benefit from a unique economic model in which relevant work and essential inputs are provided free of charge to vendors who have a captive market that has almost no competition. An additional issue typical of industries that work under the copyright regime is that the oligopoly market structure of the publishing industry which in turn further contributes to increase their products' prices. Mandatory open-access policies, as determined by the NIH, constitute a threat to this business model and are being challenged by the industry on several fronts, including the passage of legislation to undermine these initiatives. The purpose of this commentary article was to review key aspects of this confrontation and to suggest potential strategies for encouraging open-access publishing in Brazil.

  13. Development of Disruptive Open Access Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry; McConkey, Brigette

    2009-01-01

    Open access (OA) publication has emerged, with disruptive effects, as a major outlet for scholarly publication. OA publication is usually associated with on-line distribution and provides access to scholarly publications to anyone, anywhere--regardless of their ability to pay subscription fees or their association with an educational institution.…

  14. Librarians and Libraries Supporting Open Access Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Jennifer; Koufogiannakis, Denise; Ryan, Pam

    2009-01-01

    As new models of scholarly communication emerge, librarians and libraries have responded by developing and supporting new methods of storing and providing access to information and by creating new publishing support services. This article will examine the roles of libraries and librarians in developing and supporting open access publishing…

  15. Open access in the critical care environment.

    PubMed

    South, Tabitha; Adair, Brigette

    2014-12-01

    Open access has become an important topic in critical care over the last 3 years. In the past, critical care had restricted access and set visitation guidelines to protect patients. This article provides a review of the literature related to open access in the critical care environment, including the impact on patients, families, and health care providers. The ultimate goal is to provide care centered on patients and families and to create a healing environment to ensure safe passage of patients through their hospital stays. This outcome could lead to increased patient/family satisfaction.

  16. Evaluation of a Modified AGA Full Face Mask with Open Circuit/Closed Circuit Switchover Capability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    MK 15 FFM. A modified manifold I. provides both open circuit and closed circuit functioning. The closed circuit portion of the manifold and...hand secured shut by pressing the lever flush against the exhaust valve cover. This lever is designed to snap shut, and is located where the purge ...valve is normally located. A purge valve is not provided in this configuration, and is not considered essential when the positive pressure regulator

  17. Web accessibility and open source software.

    PubMed

    Obrenović, Zeljko

    2009-07-01

    A Web browser provides a uniform user interface to different types of information. Making this interface universally accessible and more interactive is a long-term goal still far from being achieved. Universally accessible browsers require novel interaction modalities and additional functionalities, for which existing browsers tend to provide only partial solutions. Although functionality for Web accessibility can be found as open source and free software components, their reuse and integration is complex because they were developed in diverse implementation environments, following standards and conventions incompatible with the Web. To address these problems, we have started several activities that aim at exploiting the potential of open-source software for Web accessibility. The first of these activities is the development of Adaptable Multi-Interface COmmunicator (AMICO):WEB, an infrastructure that facilitates efficient reuse and integration of open source software components into the Web environment. The main contribution of AMICO:WEB is in enabling the syntactic and semantic interoperability between Web extension mechanisms and a variety of integration mechanisms used by open source and free software components. Its design is based on our experiences in solving practical problems where we have used open source components to improve accessibility of rich media Web applications. The second of our activities involves improving education, where we have used our platform to teach students how to build advanced accessibility solutions from diverse open-source software. We are also partially involved in the recently started Eclipse projects called Accessibility Tools Framework (ACTF), the aim of which is development of extensible infrastructure, upon which developers can build a variety of utilities that help to evaluate and enhance the accessibility of applications and content for people with disabilities. In this article we briefly report on these activities.

  18. An open source model for open access journal publication.

    PubMed

    Blesius, Carl R; Williams, Michael A; Holzbach, Ana; Huntley, Arthur C; Chueh, Henry

    2005-01-01

    We describe an electronic journal publication infrastructure that allows a flexible publication workflow, academic exchange around different forms of user submissions, and the exchange of articles between publishers and archives using a common XML based standard. This web-based application is implemented on a freely available open source software stack. This publication demonstrates the Dermatology Online Journal's use of the platform for non-biased independent open access publication.

  19. Improving Open Access through Prior Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Shuangxu; Kawachi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores and presents new data on how to improve open access in distance education through using prior learning assessments. Broadly there are three types of prior learning assessment (PLAR): Type-1 for prospective students to be allowed to register for a course; Type-2 for current students to avoid duplicating work-load to gain…

  20. Publishing in Open Access Education Journals: The Authors' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coonin, Bryna; Younce, Leigh M.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publishing is now an accepted method of scholarly communication. However, the greatest traction for open access publishing thus far has been in the sciences. Penetration of open access publishing has been much slower among the social sciences. This study surveys 309 authors from recent issues of open access journals in education to…

  1. 50 CFR 660.311 - Open access fishery-definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open access fishery-definitions. 660.311... Groundfish-Open Access Fisheries § 660.311 Open access fishery—definitions. General definitions for the... specific to the open access fishery covered in this subpart and are in addition to those specified at §...

  2. Publishing in open access era: focus on respiratory journals.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ni; Xu, Dingyao; Zhong, Xiyao; Li, Li; Ling, Qibo; Bu, Zhaode

    2014-05-01

    We have entered an open access publishing era. The impact and significance of open access is still under debate after two decades of evolution. Open access journals benefit researchers and the general public by promoting visibility, sharing and communicating. Non-mainstream journals should turn the challenge of open access into opportunity of presenting best research articles to the global readership. Open access journals need to optimize their business models to promote the healthy and continuous development.

  3. Quantum game theory and open access publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanauske, Matthias; Bernius, Steffen; Dugall, Berndt

    2007-08-01

    The digital revolution of the information age and in particular the sweeping changes of scientific communication brought about by computing and novel communication technology, potentiate global, high grade scientific information for free. The arXiv, for example, is the leading scientific communication platform, mainly for mathematics and physics, where everyone in the world has free access on. While in some scientific disciplines the open access way is successfully realized, other disciplines (e.g. humanities and social sciences) dwell on the traditional path, even though many scientists belonging to these communities approve the open access principle. In this paper we try to explain these different publication patterns by using a game theoretical approach. Based on the assumption, that the main goal of scientists is the maximization of their reputation, we model different possible game settings, namely a zero sum game, the prisoners’ dilemma case and a version of the stag hunt game, that show the dilemma of scientists belonging to “non-open access communities”. From an individual perspective, they have no incentive to deviate from the Nash equilibrium of traditional publishing. By extending the model using the quantum game theory approach it can be shown, that if the strength of entanglement exceeds a certain value, the scientists will overcome the dilemma and terminate to publish only traditionally in all three settings.

  4. Open-circuit voltage improvements in low resistivity solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godlewski, M. P.; Klucher, T. M.; Mazaris, G. A.; Weizer, V. G.

    1980-01-01

    Improvements in the open circuit voltage of 0.1 ohm-cm silicon solar cells were achieved using a multistep diffusion technique. Experimental details are given along with the results of an analysis that indicate that anomalous behavior of the electron mobility in the cell base limits attainment of higher voltages.

  5. Open Access: From Myth to Paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, Paul

    2009-05-06

    True open access to scientific publications not only gives readers the possibility to read articles without paying subscription, but also makes the material available for automated ingestion and harvesting by 3rd parties. Once articles and associated data become universally treatable as computable objects, openly available to 3rd party aggregators and value-added services, what new services can we expect, and how will they change the way that researchers interact with their scholarly communications infrastructure? I will discuss straightforward applications of existing ideas and services, including citation analysis, collaborative filtering, external database linkages, interoperability, and other forms of automated markup, and speculate on the sociology of the next generation of users.

  6. Open Access: From Myth to Paradox

    ScienceCinema

    Ginsparg, Paul [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States

    2016-07-12

    True open access to scientific publications not only gives readers the possibility to read articles without paying subscription, but also makes the material available for automated ingestion and harvesting by 3rd parties. Once articles and associated data become universally treatable as computable objects, openly available to 3rd party aggregators and value-added services, what new services can we expect, and how will they change the way that researchers interact with their scholarly communications infrastructure? I will discuss straightforward applications of existing ideas and services, including citation analysis, collaborative filtering, external database linkages, interoperability, and other forms of automated markup, and speculate on the sociology of the next generation of users.

  7. Open Access, Open Source and Digital Libraries: A Current Trend in University Libraries around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnamurthy, M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the open access and open source movement in the digital library world. Design/methodology/approach: A review of key developments in the open access and open source movement is provided. Findings: Open source software and open access to research findings are of great use to scholars in developing…

  8. Do open access data policies inhibit innovation?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katzner, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    There has been a great deal of attention paid recently to the idea of data sharing (Van Noorden 2014, Beardsley 2015, Nature Publishing Group2015, www.copdess.com). However, the vast majority of these arguments are in agreement and present as fait accompli the idea that data are a public good and that therefore, once published, they should become open access. In fact, although there are many good reasons for data sharing, there also are a number of cogent and coherent cases to be made against open-access policies (e.g., Fenichel and Skelly 2015). The goal of this piece is not to debate the relevance or accuracy of the points made in favor of data sharing but to elevate the discussion by pointing out key problems with open-access policies and to identify central issues that, if solved, will enhance the utility of data sharing to science and society.

  9. Open access data sharing in genomic research.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Stacey; Gibbs, Richard A; McGuire, Amy L

    2014-08-29

    The current emphasis on broad sharing of human genomic data generated in research in order to maximize utility and public benefit is a significant legacy of the Human Genome Project. Concerns about privacy and discrimination have led to policy responses that restrict access to genomic data as the means for protecting research participants. Our research and experience show, however, that a considerable number of research participants agree to open access sharing of their genomic data when given the choice. General policies that limit access to all genomic data fail to respect the autonomy of these participants and, at the same time, unnecessarily limit the utility of the data. We advocate instead a more balanced approach that allows for individual choice and encourages informed decision making, while protecting against the misuse of genomic data through enhanced legislation.

  10. Achieving Open Access to Conservation Science

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Richard A; Lee, Jasmine R; Watson, James E M

    2014-01-01

    Conservation science is a crisis discipline in which the results of scientific enquiry must be made available quickly to those implementing management. We assessed the extent to which scientific research published since the year 2000 in 20 conservation science journals is publicly available. Of the 19,207 papers published, 1,667 (8.68%) are freely downloadable from an official repository. Moreover, only 938 papers (4.88%) meet the standard definition of open access in which material can be freely reused providing attribution to the authors is given. This compares poorly with a comparable set of 20 evolutionary biology journals, where 31.93% of papers are freely downloadable and 7.49% are open access. Seventeen of the 20 conservation journals offer an open access option, but fewer than 5% of the papers are available through open access. The cost of accessing the full body of conservation science runs into tens of thousands of dollars per year for institutional subscribers, and many conservation practitioners cannot access pay-per-view science through their workplace. However, important initiatives such as Research4Life are making science available to organizations in developing countries. We urge authors of conservation science to pay for open access on a per-article basis or to choose publication in open access journals, taking care to ensure the license allows reuse for any purpose providing attribution is given. Currently, it would cost $51 million to make all conservation science published since 2000 freely available by paying the open access fees currently levied to authors. Publishers of conservation journals might consider more cost effective models for open access and conservation-oriented organizations running journals could consider a broader range of options for open access to nonmembers such as sponsorship of open access via membership fees. Obtención de Acceso Abierto a la Ciencia de la Conservación Resumen La ciencia de la conservación es una

  11. "The Open Library at AU" (Athabasca University): Supporting Open Access and Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Colin; Fabbro, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    To address challenges that learners, course creators, librarians and academics involved with OER and MOOCs are facing when looking for scholarly materials, Athabasca University Library has initiated the development of "the Open Library at AU." This open library is a full library website that provides easy access to open and free…

  12. Electricity transactions in an open access market

    SciTech Connect

    Flory, J.

    1996-01-01

    The electric power industry is becoming increasingly competitive. A number of other regulated industries have recently been deregulated. Federal and state regulators are increasingly opening up the electric power industry to competition. These ideas have not suddenly been brought down from the mountain top. Rather, they are part of an evolution in the energy marketplace. A 1995 Winter Meeting panel session, sponsored by the IEEE PES Power System Engineering Committee, explored Electricity Transactions in an Open Access Market. Panelists included: Richard Tabors, chairman of Tabors Caramanis and Associates, and assistant director of MIT laboratory for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems; Brad Leach, director of Electricity and Natural Gas Research at the New York Mercantile Exchange; Dennis Meany, vice president of Louis Dreyfus Electric Power, Inc.; Steve Kean, vice president of Enron Gas services Group; John Flory, principal in charge of the Western Division, Tabors Caramanis and Associates. This article summarizes the panel session by describing the evolution of deregulation, discussing the benefits of deregulation, describing what an electricity transaction might look like in this open access market, and describing the implications of this market for current participants and the possible contributions of new participants.

  13. Chemical Detection using Electrically Open Circuits having no Electrical Connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Olgesby, Donald M.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents investigations to date on chemical detection using a recently developed method for designing, powering and interrogating sensors as electrically open circuits having no electrical connections. In lieu of having each sensor from a closed circuit with multiple electrically connected components, an electrically conductive geometric pattern that is powered using oscillating magnetic fields and capable of storing an electric field and a magnetic field without the need of a closed circuit or electrical connections is used. When electrically active, the patterns respond with their own magnetic field whose frequency, amplitude and bandwidth can be correlated with the magnitude of the physical quantities being measured. Preliminary experimental results of using two different detection approaches will be presented. In one method, a thin film of a reactant is deposited on the surface of the open-circuit sensor. Exposure to a specific targeted reactant shifts the resonant frequency of the sensor. In the second method, a coating of conductive material is placed on a thin non-conductive plastic sheet that is placed over the surface of the sensor. There is no physical contact between the sensor and the electrically conductive material. When the conductive material is exposed to a targeted reactant, a chemical reaction occurs that renders the material non-conductive. The change in the material s electrical resistance within the magnetic field of the sensor alters the sensor s response bandwidth and amplitude, allowing detection of the reaction without having the reactants in physical contact with the sensor.

  14. Methods for improving solar cell open circuit voltage

    DOEpatents

    Jordan, John F.; Singh, Vijay P.

    1979-01-01

    A method for producing a solar cell having an increased open circuit voltage. A layer of cadmium sulfide (CdS) produced by a chemical spray technique and having residual chlorides is exposed to a flow of hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2 S) heated to a temperature of 400.degree.-600.degree. C. The residual chlorides are reduced and any remaining CdCl.sub.2 is converted to CdS. A heterojunction is formed over the CdS and electrodes are formed. Application of chromium as the positive electrode results in a further increase in the open circuit voltage available from the H.sub.2 S-treated solar cell.

  15. Is Open Access Right for Astronomy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, T. J.

    2010-10-01

    The underlying ethos of Open Access is that the public should have the right to free access to the published results of all publicly funded academic and scientific research. Such has been the political success of OA campaigners that some funding agencies (e.g. Wellcome) now make OA publication of funded research a necessary condition for the award of grants. Learned societies and publishers in astronomy are now looking at ways of best implementing OA in varying degrees of rigour. However, OA does not mean costless access: somewhere down the line, somebody has to pay for the added value (professional copyediting and typesetting, presentation, anonymous peer review, etc.) supplied to author manuscripts by learned-society and commercial publishers in the better journals. I take a critical look at the methods of finance employed within astronomical publishing and review the different flavours of OA. I also raise the question of whether it might make more sense to ensure free access to authors rather than to readers.

  16. Open Access Platforms in Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Kramer, John L K; Geisler, Fred; Ramer, Leanne; Plunet, Ward; Cragg, Jacquelyn J

    2017-01-01

    Recovery from acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by extensive heterogeneity, resulting in uncertain prognosis. Reliable prediction of recovery in the acute phase benefits patients and their families directly, as well as improves the likelihood of detecting efficacy in clinical trials. This issue of heterogeneity is not unique to SCI. In fields such as traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, one approach to understand variability in recovery has been to make clinical trial data widely available to the greater research community. We contend that the SCI community should adopt a similar approach in providing open access clinical trial data.

  17. The history of open access medical publishing: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Sukhov, Andrea; Burrall, Barbara; Maverakis, Emanual

    2016-09-15

    Dermatology Online Journal became the first medical open access journal in the early 1990's. Today, thousands of open access medical journals are available on the Internet. Despite criticisms surrounding open access, these journals have allowed research to be rapidly available to the public. In addition, open access journal policies allow public health research to reach developing countries where this research has the potential to make a substantial impact. In the future, open access medical journals will likely continue to evolve with technology, changing how medical research is accessed and presented.

  18. COAST: Cascadia Open-Access Seismic Transects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, W.; Johnson, H. P.; Kent, G.; Keranen, K. M.; Tobin, H. J.; Trehu, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Cascadia margin is the site of active subduction, where the Juan de Fuca plate subducts under the North American plate at a rate of ~35 mm/yr. This system is of great scientific and societal interest, as it is capable of very large (Mw~9) earthquakes, creates volcanic hazards in the Cascades, and hosts periodic episodic tremor and slip (ETS) episodes. Despite evidence that the system has generated large megathrust earthquakes, limited seismicity creates large uncertainties in the position, structure, and physical state of the plate boundary. The COAST (Cascadia Open-Access Seismic Transects) project conducted an open-access, open-participation 2D seismic survey of the Cascadia subduction margin off Grays Harbor, WA, that will provide benchmark seismic images to address key scientific issues regarding the location, physical state, fluid budget, and associated methane systems of the subducting plate boundary and overlying crust. We collected seismic reflection, multibeam bathymetric, sidescan sonar, gravity, and magnetic data on the Cascadia subduction margin from the R/V Langseth in July 2012 in a high-priority GeoPRISMS corridor off Grays Harbor, Washington. The cruise was open-participation, with an organized shipboard education and training program, and the data are open-access, with immediate, full release to the community of all geophysical data. Project goals include (1) determining the location of the offshore plate boundary, (2) constraining sediment subduction and plate boundary roughness, (3) estimating pore fluid pathways, (4) determining controls on methane distribution, and (5) imaging compressional and extensional structures that may pose geohazards on the Cascadia margin. Initial observations include the following: (1) The Pleistocene accretionary wedge is well imaged and shows landward-vergent thrust faulting throughout our survey area. An outboard series of ramp-and-thrust structures gives way to a region characterized by folds that separate

  19. 50 CFR 648.88 - Multispecies open access permit restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multispecies open access permit... Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.88 Multispecies open access permit restrictions. (a) Handgear permit. A vessel issued a valid open access NE multispecies Handgear permit...

  20. Open access: the changing face of scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Pranab; Biswas, Tamoghna; Mishra, Vishala

    2013-04-01

    The debate on open access to scientific literature that has been raging in scholarly circles for quite some time now has been fueled further by the recent developments in the realm of the open access movement. This article is a short commentary on the current scenario, challenges, and the future of the open access movement.

  1. Is open access sufficient? A review of the quality of open-access nursing journals.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Marie; Carlyle, Dave

    2015-02-01

    The present study aims to review the quality of open-access nursing journals listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals that published papers in 2013 with a nursing focus, written in English, and were freely accessible. Each journal was reviewed in relation to their publisher, year of commencement, number of papers published in 2013, fee for publication, indexing, impact factor, and evidence of requirements for ethics and disclosure statements. The quality of the journals was assessed by impact factors and the requirements for indexing in PubMed. A total of 552 were published in 2013 in the 19 open-access nursing journals that met the inclusion criteria. No journals had impact factors listed in Web of Knowledge, but three had low Scopus impact factors. Only five journals were indexed with PubMed. The quality of the 19 journals included in the review was evaluated as inferior to most subscription-fee journals. Mental health nursing has some responsibility to the general public, and in particular, consumers of mental health services and their families, for the quality of papers published in open-access journals. The way forward might involve dual-platform publication or a process that enables assessment of how research has improved clinical outcomes.

  2. 42 CFR 84.95 - Service time test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service time test; open-circuit apparatus. 84.95...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.95 Service time test; open-circuit apparatus. (a) Service time will be measured with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88. (b) The open-circuit apparatus will...

  3. 42 CFR 84.95 - Service time test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service time test; open-circuit apparatus. 84.95...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.95 Service time test; open-circuit apparatus. (a) Service time will be measured with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88. (b) The open-circuit apparatus will...

  4. 42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. 84.93...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. (a) A static-flow test will be performed on all open-circuit apparatus. (b) The flow from the apparatus shall be greater than 200...

  5. 42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. 84.93...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. (a) A static-flow test will be performed on all open-circuit apparatus. (b) The flow from the apparatus shall be greater than 200...

  6. An open access thyroid ultrasound image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedraza, Lina; Vargas, Carlos; Narváez, Fabián.; Durán, Oscar; Muñoz, Emma; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Computer aided diagnosis systems (CAD) have been developed to assist radiologists in the detection and diagnosis of abnormalities and a large number of pattern recognition techniques have been proposed to obtain a second opinion. Most of these strategies have been evaluated using different datasets making their performance incomparable. In this work, an open access database of thyroid ultrasound images is presented. The dataset consists of a set of B-mode Ultrasound images, including a complete annotation and diagnostic description of suspicious thyroid lesions by expert radiologists. Several types of lesions as thyroiditis, cystic nodules, adenomas and thyroid cancers were included while an accurate lesion delineation is provided in XML format. The diagnostic description of malignant lesions was confirmed by biopsy. The proposed new database is expected to be a resource for the community to assess different CAD systems.

  7. Trap seal for open circuit liquid cooled turbines

    DOEpatents

    Grondahl, Clayton M.; Germain, Malcolm R.

    1980-01-01

    An improved trap seal for open circuit liquid cooled turbines is disclosed. The trap seal of the present invention includes an annular recess formed in the supply conduit of cooling channels formed in the airfoil of the turbine buckets. A cylindrical insert is located in the annular recesses and has a plurality of axial grooves formed along the outer periphery thereof and a central recess formed in one end thereof. The axial grooves and central recess formed in the cylindrical insert cooperate with the annular recess to define a plurality of S-shaped trap seals which permit the passage of liquid coolant but prohibit passage of gaseous coolant.

  8. Open Circuit Resonant Sensors for Composite Damage Detection and Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielnik, John J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Under the Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) program work was begun to investigate the feasibility of sensor systems for detecting and diagnosing damage to aircraft composite structures and materials. Specific interest for this study was in damage initiated by environmental storm hazards and the direct effect of lightning strikes on the material structures of a composite aircraft in flight. A series of open circuit resonant sensors was designed, fabricated, characterized, and determined to be a potentially viable means for damage detection and diagnosis of composite materials. The results of this research and development effort are documented in this report.

  9. On testing stuck-open faults in CMOS combinational circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandramouli, R.

    1982-01-01

    Recently it has been found that a class of failure related to a particular technology (CMOS) cannot be modelled as the conventional stuck-at fault model. These failures change the combinational behavior of CMOS logic gates into a sequential one. Such a failure is modelled as a fault, called the Stuck-Open fault (SOP). The object of this paper is to develop a procedure to detect single SOPs in combinational circuits. It is shown, that in general, tests generated for stuck-at faults when applied in a particular sequence will detect all single SOP faults. In case of single redundancy in the network, the SOP fault on the redundant line cannot be detected. When there is reconvergent fan-out in the network, there is a one-one correspondence between the conditions for stuck-at fault and stuck-open fault detectability.

  10. Open Access Publishing in the Electronic Age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The principle of open-access (OA) publishing is more and more prevalent also on the field of laboratory medicine. Open-access journals (OAJs) are available online to the reader usually without financial, legal, or technical barriers. Some are subsidized, and some require payment on behalf of the author. OAJs are one of the two general methods for providing OA. The other one is self-archiving in a repository. The electronic journal of the IFCC (eJIFCC) is a platinum OAJ— i.e. there is no charge to read, or to submit to this journal. Traditionally, the author was required to transfer the copyright to the journal publisher. Publishers claimed this was necessary in order to protect author’s rights. However, many authors found this unsatisfactory, and have used their influence to affect a gradual move towards a license to publish instead. Under such a system, the publisher has permission to edit, print, and distribute the article commercially, but the author(s) retain the other rights themselves. An OA mandate is a policy adopted by a research institution, research funder, or government which requires researchers to make their published, peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers OA by self-archiving their peer-reviewed drafts in a repository (“green OA”) or by publishing them in an OAJ (“gold OA”). Creative Commons (CC) is a nonprofit organization that enables the sharing and use of creativity and knowledge through free legal tools. The free, easy-to-use copyright licenses provide a simple, standardized way to give the public permission to share and use creative work. CC licenses let you easily change your copyright terms from the default of “all rights reserved” to “some rights reserved.” OA publishing also raises a number of new ethical problems (e.g. predatory publishers, fake papers). Laboratory scientists are encouraged to publish their scientific results OA (especially in eJIFCC). They should, however, be aware of their rights

  11. Open Access Publishing in the Electronic Age.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Gábor L

    2014-10-01

    The principle of open-access (OA) publishing is more and more prevalent also on the field of laboratory medicine. Open-access journals (OAJs) are available online to the reader usually without financial, legal, or technical barriers. Some are subsidized, and some require payment on behalf of the author. OAJs are one of the two general methods for providing OA. The other one is self-archiving in a repository. The electronic journal of the IFCC (eJIFCC) is a platinum OAJ- i.e. there is no charge to read, or to submit to this journal. Traditionally, the author was required to transfer the copyright to the journal publisher. Publishers claimed this was necessary in order to protect author's rights. However, many authors found this unsatisfactory, and have used their influence to affect a gradual move towards a license to publish instead. Under such a system, the publisher has permission to edit, print, and distribute the article commercially, but the author(s) retain the other rights themselves. An OA mandate is a policy adopted by a research institution, research funder, or government which requires researchers to make their published, peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers OA by self-archiving their peer-reviewed drafts in a repository ("green OA") or by publishing them in an OAJ ("gold OA"). Creative Commons (CC) is a nonprofit organization that enables the sharing and use of creativity and knowledge through free legal tools. The free, easy-to-use copyright licenses provide a simple, standardized way to give the public permission to share and use creative work. CC licenses let you easily change your copyright terms from the default of "all rights reserved" to "some rights reserved." OA publishing also raises a number of new ethical problems (e.g. predatory publishers, fake papers). Laboratory scientists are encouraged to publish their scientific results OA (especially in eJIFCC). They should, however, be aware of their rights, institutional mandate

  12. Positioning Your Library in an Open-Access Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Anjana H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the project that the author completed at Florida Gulf Coast University (FGCU) library for providing online access to 80 open access E-journals and digital collections. Although FGCU uses SerialsSolutions products to establish online access, any one can provide access to these collections as they are free for all. Paper…

  13. Open-access dielectric elastomer material database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertechy, R.; Fontana, M.; Stiubianu, G.; Cazacu, M.

    2014-03-01

    Dielectric Elastomer Transducers (DETs) are deformable capacitors that can be used as sensors, actuators and generators. The design of effective and optimized DETs requires the knowledge of a set of relevant properties of the employed Dielectric Elastomer (DE) material, which make it possible to accurately predict their electromechanical dynamic behavior. In this context, an open-access database for DE materials has been created with the aim of providing the practicing engineer with the essential information for the design and optimization of new kinds of DET. Among the electrical properties, dielectric susceptibility, dielectric strength and conductivity are considered along with their dependence on mechanical strain. As regards mechanical behavior, experimental stress-strain curves are provided to predict hyperelasticity, plasticity, viscosity, Mullins effect and mechanical rupture. Properties of commercial elastomeric membranes have been entered in the database and made available to the research community. This paper describes the instrumentations, experimental setups and procedures that have been employed for the characterization of the considered DE materials. To provide an example, the experimental data acquired for a commercially available natural rubber membrane (OPPO Band Red 8012) are presented.

  14. "Open Access" Requires Clarification: Medical Journal Publication Models Evolve.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Rossi, Michael J; Provencher, Matthew T

    2017-03-01

    While Arthroscopy journal is a traditional subscription model journal, our companion journal Arthroscopy Techniques is "open access." We used to believe open access simply meant online and free of charge. However, while open-access journals are free to readers, in 2017 authors must make a greater sacrifice in the form of an article-processing charge (APC). Again, while this does not apply to Arthroscopy, the APC will apply to Arthroscopy Techniques.

  15. Open versus Controlled-Access Data | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    OCG employs stringent human subjects’ protection and data access policies to protect the privacy and confidentiality of the research participants. Depending on the risk of patient identification, OCG programs data are available to the scientific community in two tiers: open or controlled access. Both types of data can be accessed through its corresponding OCG program-specific data matrix or portal. Open-access Data

  16. Open circuit versus closed circuit enrichment of anodic biofilms in MFC: effect on performance and anodic communities.

    PubMed

    Larrosa-Guerrero, Amor; Scott, Keith; Katuri, Krishna P; Godinez, Carlos; Head, Ian M; Curtis, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    The influence of various carbon anodes; graphite, sponge, paper, cloth, felt, fiber, foam and reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC); on microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance is reported. The feed was brewery wastewater diluted in domestic wastewater. Biofilms were grown at open circuit or under an external load. Microbial diversity was analysed as a function of current and anode material. The bacterial community formed at open circuit was influenced by the anode material. However at closed circuit its role in determining the bacterial consortia formed was less important than the passage of current. The rate and extent of organic matter removal were similar for all materials: over 95% under closed circuit. The biofilm in MFCs working at open circuit and in the control reactors, increased COD removal by up to a factor of nine compared with that for baseline reactors. The average voltage output was 0.6 V at closed circuit, with an external resistor of 300 kOmega and 0.75 V at open circuit for all materials except RVC. The poor performance of this material might be related to the surface area available and concentration polarizations caused by the morphology of the material and the structure of the biofilm. Peak power varied from 1.3 mW m(-2) for RVC to 568 mW m(-2) for graphite with biofilm grown at closed circuit.

  17. Citation advantage of open access articles.

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2006-05-01

    Open access (OA) to the research literature has the potential to accelerate recognition and dissemination of research findings, but its actual effects are controversial. This was a longitudinal bibliometric analysis of a cohort of OA and non-OA articles published between June 8, 2004, and December 20, 2004, in the same journal (PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). Article characteristics were extracted, and citation data were compared between the two groups at three different points in time: at "quasi-baseline" (December 2004, 0-6 mo after publication), in April 2005 (4-10 mo after publication), and in October 2005 (10-16 mo after publication). Potentially confounding variables, including number of authors, authors' lifetime publication count and impact, submission track, country of corresponding author, funding organization, and discipline, were adjusted for in logistic and linear multiple regression models. A total of 1,492 original research articles were analyzed: 212 (14.2% of all articles) were OA articles paid by the author, and 1,280 (85.8%) were non-OA articles. In April 2005 (mean 206 d after publication), 627 (49.0%) of the non-OA articles versus 78 (36.8%) of the OA articles were not cited (relative risk = 1.3 [95% Confidence Interval: 1.1-1.6]; p = 0.001). 6 mo later (mean 288 d after publication), non-OA articles were still more likely to be uncited (non-OA: 172 [13.6%], OA: 11 [5.2%]; relative risk = 2.6 [1.4-4.7]; p < 0.001). The average number of citations of OA articles was higher compared to non-OA articles (April 2005: 1.5 [SD = 2.5] versus 1.2 [SD = 2.0]; Z = 3.123; p = 0.002; October 2005: 6.4 [SD = 10.4] versus 4.5 [SD = 4.9]; Z = 4.058; p < 0.001). In a logistic regression model, controlling for potential confounders, OA articles compared to non-OA articles remained twice as likely to be cited (odds ratio = 2.1 [1.5-2.9]) in the first 4-10 mo after publication (April 2005), with the odds ratio increasing to 2.9 (1.5-5.5) 10

  18. Open Access Scholarly Publications as OER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale, common practices, challenges, and some personal anecdotes from a journal editor on the production, use, and re-use of peer-reviewed scholarly articles as open educational resources (OER). The scholarly and professional discourse related to open educational resources has largely focused on open learning objects,…

  19. The Open Access Availability of Library and Information Science Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Doug

    2010-01-01

    To examine the open access availability of Library and Information Science (LIS) research, a study was conducted using Google Scholar to search for articles from 20 top LIS journals. The study examined whether Google Scholar was able to find any links to full text, if open access versions of the articles were available and where these articles…

  20. Prospect for Development of Open Access in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Sandra; Bongiovani, Paola C.; Gomez, Nancy D.; Bueno-de-la-Fuente, Gema

    2013-01-01

    This perspective article presents an overview of the Open Access movement in Argentina, from a global and regional (Latin American) context. The article describes the evolution and current state of initiatives by examining two principal approaches to Open Access in Argentina: "golden" and "green roads". The article will then…

  1. Open Access Publishing in Indian Premier Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Mohammad Hanief

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Publishing research findings in open access journals is a means of enhancing visibility and consequently increasing the impact of publications. This study provides an overview of open access publishing in premier research institutes of India. Method: The publication output of each institution from 2003 to 2007 was ascertained through…

  2. Frame of Reference: Open Access Starts with You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetsch, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Federal legislation now requires the deposit of some taxpayer-funded research in "open-access" repositories--that is, sites where scholarship and research are made freely available over the Internet. The institutions whose faculty produce the research have begun to see the benefit of open-access publication as well. From the perspective of faculty…

  3. The Impact Factor: Implications of Open Access on Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grozanick, Sara E.

    2010-01-01

    There has been debate about the extent to which open access affects the quality of scholarly work. At the same time, researchers have begun to look for ways to evaluate the quality of open access publications. Dating back to the growth of citation indexes during the 1960s and 1970s, citation analysis--examining citation statistics--has since been…

  4. Open Access to Mexican Academic Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adame, Silvia I.; Llorens, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the metadata harvester software development. This system provides access to reliable and quality educational resources, shared by Mexican Universities through their repositories, to anyone with Internet Access. We present the conceptual and contextual framework, followed by the technical basis, the results and…

  5. Open Access Publishing in the Field of Medical Informatics.

    PubMed

    Kuballa, Stefanie

    2017-05-01

    The open access paradigm has become an important approach in today's information and communication society. Funders and governments in different countries stipulate open access publications of funded research results. Medical informatics as part of the science, technology and medicine disciplines benefits from many research funds, such as National Institutes of Health in the US, Wellcome Trust in UK, German Research Foundation in Germany and many more. In this study an overview of the current open access programs and conditions of major journals in the field of medical informatics is presented. It was investigated whether there are suitable options and how they are shaped. Therefore all journals in Thomson Reuters Web of Science that were listed in the subject category "Medical Informatics" in 2014 were examined. An Internet research was conducted by investigating the journals' websites. It was reviewed whether journals offer an open access option with a subsequent check of conditions as for example the type of open access, the fees and the licensing. As a result all journals in the field of medical informatics that had an impact factor in 2014 offer an open access option. A predominantly consistent pricing range was determined with an average fee of 2.248 € and a median fee of 2.207 €. The height of a journals' open access fee did not correlate with the height of its Impact Factor. Hence, medical informatics journals have recognized the trend of open access publishing, though the vast majority of them are working with the hybrid method. Hybrid open access may however lead to problems in questions of double dipping and the often stipulated gold open access.

  6. The organization of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits: open interconnected rather than closed segregated.

    PubMed

    Joel, D; Weiner, I

    1994-11-01

    Anatomical findings in primates and rodents have led to a description of several parallel segregated basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits leading from a distinct frontocortical area, via separate regions in the basal ganglia and the thalamus, back to the frontocortical area from which the circuit originates. One of the questions raised by the concept of parallelism is whether and how the different circuits interact. The present Commentary proposes that interaction is inherent in the neural architecture of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. This proposal is based on the re-examination of the data on the topographical organization of the frontocortical-basal ganglia connections which indicates that each circuit-engaged striatal region sends divergent projections to parts of both substantia nigra pars reticulata and the internal segment of the globus pallidus (each ventral striatal region sends divergent projections to parts of ventral pallidum, substantia nigra pars reticulata and globus pallidus), and this segregation is maintained at subsequent thalamic and frontocortical levels. This results in an asymmetry in the frontal cortex-basal ganglia relationships, so that while each frontocortical subfield innervates one striatal region, each striatal region influences the basal ganglia output to two frontocortical subfields. Because of this asymmetry, at least one of the frontocortical targets of a given circuit-engaged striatal region is not the source of its frontocortical input. Since this organization is inconsistent with an arrangement in closed segregated circuits we introduce the concept of a "split circuit". A split circuit emanates from one frontocortical area, but terminates in two frontocortical areas. Thus, a split circuit contains at least one "open" striato-fronto-cortical pathway, that leads from a circuit-engaged striatal region to a frontocortical area which is a source of a different circuit. In this manner split circuits are interconnected

  7. 42 CFR 84.95 - Service time test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.95 Service time test; open-circuit apparatus. (a) Service time will be measured with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88. (b) The open-circuit apparatus will be classified according to the length of time it supplies air or oxygen to the breathing machine. (c)...

  8. 42 CFR 84.95 - Service time test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.95 Service time test; open-circuit apparatus. (a) Service time will be measured with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88. (b) The open-circuit apparatus will be classified according to the length of time it supplies air or oxygen to the breathing machine. (c)...

  9. 42 CFR 84.95 - Service time test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.95 Service time test; open-circuit apparatus. (a) Service time will be measured with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88. (b) The open-circuit apparatus will be classified according to the length of time it supplies air or oxygen to the breathing machine. (c)...

  10. Facility Accessibility: Opening the Doors to All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jeffrey C.; Piletic, Cindy K.

    2006-01-01

    A facility developed for fitness, physical activity, recreation, or sport is a vital community resource that contributes to the overall health and wellness of that community's citizens. In order to maximize the benefits derived from these facilities, it is imperative that they be accessible to as wide a range of people as possible. The Americans…

  11. 42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. (a) Open-circuit apparatus. (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in open-circuit apparatus...

  12. 42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. (a) Open-circuit apparatus. (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in open-circuit apparatus...

  13. 17. Sliding access doors typical of those covering opening to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Sliding access doors typical of those covering opening to filtration bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  14. Open Access and Institutional Policy: Time for Reexamination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Focuses on the changes caused in community colleges by open access policies and the resultant influx of underprepared students. Recommends that community colleges accept a decline in student enrollment in exchange for improvement in student achievement. (DMM)

  15. [Reconceptualising the meaning of scientific communication: open access].

    PubMed

    Guédon, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    The recent US law (H.R.2764) affecting NIH policy and the recent unanimous vote by the Arts and Science faculty of Harvard University in favour of a mandatory deposit of researchers' publications in a suitable repository have brought the Open Access movement into public light. After reviewing the historical background of Open Access, its evolution and extension in the United States, Great Britain, France and Canada are examined. Policies aiming at strengthening Open Access to scientific research are viewed as the direct consequence of treating scientific publishing as an integral part of the research cycle. It should, therefore, be wrapped into the financing of research. As the greater part of research is funded by public money, it appears legitimate to make its results as widely available as is possible. Open Access journals and repositories with strong deposit mandates form the backbone of the strategies to achieve the objective of Open Access. Despite the claims of some publishers, Open Access does not weaken or threaten the peer review process, and it does not conflict with copyright laws.

  16. Celebrations and Tough Questions Follow Harvard's Move to Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    In light of a decision by members of Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences to make access to their scholarly papers free, advocates of open access celebrated, but some publishers expressed concern. Members of Harvard's Faculty of Arts and Sciences voted unanimously to provide the university with copies of their published articles and…

  17. Open Access: What You Need to Know Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    2011-01-01

    Academic libraries routinely struggle to afford access to expensive journals, and patrons may not be able to obtain every scholarly paper they need. Is Open Access (OA) the answer? In this ALA Editions Special Report, Crawford helps readers understand what OA is (and isn't), as he concisely: (1) Analyzes the factors that have brought libraries to…

  18. Expanding access to published research: open access and self-archiving.

    PubMed

    Mower, Allyson; Youngkin, Mary E

    2008-03-01

    Academic libraries traditionally provide access to the life science journal literature for their respective institutions by purchasing annual subscriptions to journals. However, with skyrocketing subscription prices and decreased or flattened library budgets, fewer journals are being purchased. This trend results in diminished access to the literature for members of that institution. Open access and self-archiving are possible solutions to this crisis.

  19. An Open Access future? Report from the eurocancercoms project

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, R; Warden, R

    2011-01-01

    In March 2011, as part of the background research to the FP7 Eurocancercoms project, the European Association for Cancer Research (EACR) conducted an online survey of its members working in Europe to discover their experiences of and attitudes to the issues surrounding academic publishing and Open Access. This paper presents the results from this survey and compares them to the results from a much larger survey on the same topic from the Study of Open Access Publishing (SOAP). The responses from both surveys show very positive attitudes to the Open Access publishing route; perhaps the most challenging statistic from the EACR survey is that 88% of respondents believe that publicly funded research should be made available to be read and used without access barriers As a conclusion and invitation to further discussion, this paper also contributes to the debate around subscription and Open Access publishing, supporting the case for accelerating the progress towards Open Access publishing of cancer research articles as a particularly supportive way of assisting all researchers to make unhindered progress with their work. PMID:22276063

  20. Gold or green: the debate on open access policies.

    PubMed

    Abadal, Ernest

    2013-09-01

    The movement for open access to science seeks to achieve unrestricted and free access to academic publications on the Internet. To this end, two mechanisms have been established: the gold road, in which scientific journals are openly accessible, and the green road, in which publications are self-archived in repositories. The publication of the Finch Report in 2012, advocating exclusively the adoption of the gold road, generated a debate as to whether either of the two options should be prioritized. The recommendations of the Finch Report stirred controversy among academicians specialized in open access issues, who felt that the role played by repositories was not adequately considered and because the green road places the burden of publishing costs basically on authors. The Finch Report's conclusions are compatible with the characteristics of science communication in the UK and they could surely also be applied to the (few) countries with a powerful publishing industry and substantial research funding. In Spain, both the current national legislation and the existing rules at universities largely advocate the green road. This is directly related to the structure of scientific communication in Spain, where many journals have little commercial significance, the system of charging a fee to authors has not been adopted, and there is a good repository infrastructure. As for open access policies, the performance of the scientific communication system in each country should be carefully analyzed to determine the most suitable open access strategy.

  1. An Open Access future? Report from the eurocancercoms project.

    PubMed

    Kenney, R; Warden, R

    2011-01-01

    In March 2011, as part of the background research to the FP7 Eurocancercoms project, the European Association for Cancer Research (EACR) conducted an online survey of its members working in Europe to discover their experiences of and attitudes to the issues surrounding academic publishing and Open Access. This paper presents the results from this survey and compares them to the results from a much larger survey on the same topic from the Study of Open Access Publishing (SOAP). The responses from both surveys show very positive attitudes to the Open Access publishing route; perhaps the most challenging statistic from the EACR survey is that 88% of respondents believe that publicly funded research should be made available to be read and used without access barriersAs a conclusion and invitation to further discussion, this paper also contributes to the debate around subscription and Open Access publishing, supporting the case for accelerating the progress towards Open Access publishing of cancer research articles as a particularly supportive way of assisting all researchers to make unhindered progress with their work.

  2. Taking the Plunge: Open Access at the "Canadian Journal of Sociology." Case Studies in Open Access Publishing. Number Five

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggerty, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Presents a personal account of the transfer to open access of the leading Canadian journal of sociology. Background: The Canadian Journal of Sociology had established a strong position, internationally, among sociology journals. However, subscriptions were falling as readers increasingly accessed the resource through libraries and a…

  3. 49 CFR 236.73 - Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.73 Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits. Open-wire transmission line operating at voltage of 750 volts...

  4. 49 CFR 236.73 - Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.73 Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits. Open-wire transmission line operating at voltage of 750 volts...

  5. 49 CFR 236.73 - Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.73 Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits. Open-wire transmission line operating at voltage of 750 volts...

  6. 49 CFR 236.73 - Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.73 Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits. Open-wire transmission line operating at voltage of 750 volts...

  7. 49 CFR 236.73 - Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.73 Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits. Open-wire transmission line operating at voltage of 750 volts...

  8. 50 CFR 660.332 - Open access daily trip limit (DTL) fishery for sablefish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open access daily trip limit (DTL) fishery... COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish-Open Access Fisheries § 660.332 Open access daily trip limit (DTL) fishery for sablefish. (a) Open access DTL fisheries both north and south of 36° N. lat. Open...

  9. Availability and Accessibility in an Open Access Institutional Repository: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jongwook; Burnett, Gary; Vandegrift, Micah; Baeg, Jung Hoon; Morris, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores the extent to which an institutional repository makes papers available and accessible on the open Web by using 170 journal articles housed in DigiNole Commons, the institutional repository at Florida State University. Method: To analyse the repository's impact on availability and accessibility, we conducted…

  10. Differential biofilms characteristics of Shewanella decolorationis microbial fuel cells under open and closed circuit conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yonggang; Sun, Guoping; Guo, Jun; Xu, Meiying

    2011-07-01

    Biofilms formation capacities of Shewanella species in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and their roles in current generation have been documented to be species-dependent. Understandings of the biofilms growth and metabolism are essential to optimize the current generation of MFCs. Shewanella decolorationis S12 was used in both closed-circuit and open-circuit MFCs in this study. The anodic S. decolorationis S12 biofilms could generate fivefold more current than the planktonic cells, playing a dominant role in current generation. Anodic biofilms viability was sustained at 98 ± 1.2% in closed-circuit while biofilms viability in open-circuit decreased to 72 ± 7% within 96 h. The unviable domain in open-circuit MFCs biofilms majorly located at the inner layer of biofilm. The decreased biofilms viability in open-circuit MFCs could be recovered by switching into closed-circuit, indicating that the current-generating anode in MFCs could serve as a favorable electron acceptor and provide sufficient energy to support cell growth and metabolism inside biofilms.

  11. Diffusion of treatment research: does Open Access matter?

    PubMed

    Hardisty, David J; Haaga, David A F

    2008-07-01

    Advocates of the Open Access movement claim that removing access barriers will substantially increase the diffusion of academic research. If successful, this movement could play a role in efforts to increase utilization of psychotherapy research by mental health practitioners. In a pair of studies, mental health professionals were given either no citation, a normal citation, a linked citation, or a free access citation and were asked to find and read the cited article. After 1 week, participants read a vignette on the same topic as the article and gave recommendations for an intervention. In both studies, those given the free access citation were more likely to read the article, yet only in one study did free access increase the likelihood of making intervention recommendations consistent with the article.

  12. Maximum Output Power Control Using Short-Circuit Current and Open-Circuit Voltage of a Solar Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takahiro; Miyake, Takuma; Tashima, Daisuke; Sakoda, Tatsuya; Otsubo, Masahisa; Hombu, Mitsuyuki

    2012-10-01

    A control method to optimize the output power of a solar cell is necessary because the output of a solar cell strongly depends on solar radiation. We here proposed two output power control methods using the short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage of a solar panel. One of them used a current ratio and a voltage ratio (αβ control), and the other used a current ratio and a short-circuit current-electric power characteristic coefficient (αγ control). The usefulness of the αβ and the αγ control methods was evaluated. The results showed that the output power controlled by our proposed methods was close to the maximum output power of a solar panel.

  13. Excellence, Equity, and Access: Educators' Perceptions of Students in Open Access Advanced Placement Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Justyna Plichta

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines educators' perceptions regarding open access Advanced Placement (AP) program courses and their impact on non-traditional AP students in one suburban school district. The data were collected during the 2009-2010 school year through a 15-item Likert scale (and one open-ended item) survey which was disseminated during…

  14. The Role of Open Access and Open Educational Resources: A Distance Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzipanagos, Stylianos; Gregson, Jon

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the role of Open Access (in licensing, publishing and sharing research data) and Open Educational Resources within Distance Education, with a focus on the context of the University of London International Programmes. We report on a case study where data were gathered from librarians and programme directors relating to existing…

  15. Community College Selective Enrollment and the Challenge to Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David Brian

    2012-01-01

    The open access mission is central to the community college role and mission in higher education. Although initially implemented by four-year colleges and universities, adoption of formal enrollment management initiatives in community colleges is on the increase. Admission, matriculation, retention, and persistence are affected by enrollment…

  16. Higher Education as an Open-Access Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harland, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I draw mainly on an analysis of my research experiences in science and higher education. My aim is to construct a conceptual argument that will help explain some of the evident complexity of the higher education field and inform future developments. I propose that the study of higher education is an open-access discipline with the…

  17. Characteristics of Open Access Journals in Six Subject Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, William H.; Linvill, Anne C.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the characteristics of 663 Open Access (OA) journals in biology, computer science, economics, history, medicine, and psychology, then compare the OA journals with impact factors to comparable subscription journals. There is great variation in the size of OA journals; the largest publishes more than 2,700 articles per year, but half…

  18. Communicating the Open Access Message: A Case Study from Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Aoife

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, Open Access (OA) Week has been celebrated worldwide in October each year. It is an opportunity for librarians to engage with the research community and demonstrate the value that they bring to their organisations in the area of disseminating scholarly output. Although thousands of events have been held since the inception of OA Week, a…

  19. Open Access, Satellite Education Service (OASES): Final Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Oklahoma City Junior Coll., OK.

    This report assesses the Open Access, Satellite Education Services (OASES) program, a joint venture between South Oklahoma City Junior College and the Metropolitan Library System of Oklahoma County designed to provide adult education opportunities to all segments of the area's urban population. Program goals are outlined in terms of numbers of…

  20. Open Access Publishing Trend Analysis: Statistics beyond the Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poltronieri, Elisabetta; Bravo, Elena; Curti, Moreno; Maurizio Ferri,; Mancini, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this analysis was twofold: to track the number of open access journals acquiring impact factor, and to investigate the distribution of subject categories pertaining to these journals. As a case study, journals in which the researchers of the National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità) in Italy have…

  1. Positioning Open Access Journals in a LIS Journal Ranking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Jingfeng

    2012-01-01

    This research uses the h-index to rank the quality of library and information science journals between 2004 and 2008. Selected open access (OA) journals are included in the ranking to assess current OA development in support of scholarly communication. It is found that OA journals have gained momentum supporting high-quality research and…

  2. 50 CFR 660.311 - Open access fishery-definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Open access fishery-definitions. 660.311... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast... sighting distance or within 0.25 nm (463 m) of the gear as determined by electronic navigational equipment....

  3. Open Access: A User Information System. Professional Paper Series, #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Bernard W.

    Focusing on the need for information systems that provide faculty, staff, and students with open access to all necessary information resources, this paper begins by discussing the issues involved in developing such systems. A review of the traditional environment looks at the traditional centralized resources versus the current trend toward…

  4. A Review of Open Access Self-Archiving Mandate Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Jingfeng; Gilchrist, Sarah B.; Smith, Nathaniel X. P.; Kingery, Justin A.; Radecki, Jennifer R.; Wilhelm, Marcia L.; Harrison, Keith C.; Ashby, Michael L.; Mahn, Alyson J.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the history of open access (OA) policies and examines the current status of mandate policy implementations. It finds that hundreds of policies have been proposed and adopted at various organizational levels and many of them have shown a positive effect on the rate of repository content accumulation. However, it also detects…

  5. Open Access Initiatives in Africa--Structure, Incentives and Disincentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwagwu, Williams E.

    2013-01-01

    Building open access in Africa is imperative not only for African scholars and researchers doing scientific research but also for the expansion of the global science and technology knowledgebase. This paper examines the structure of homegrown initiatives, and observes very low level of awareness prevailing in the higher educational institutions…

  6. Evolution of Nursing Science: Is Open Access the Answer?

    PubMed

    Clarke, Pamela N; Garcia, Jenny

    2015-10-01

    The open access movement where journal content is made freely available over the Internet is purported to increase scientific exchange, yet has pros and cons. There are issues related to quality that need to be examined in relation to evolution of nursing science.

  7. University Supports for Open Access: A Canadian National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greyson, Devon; Vezina, Kumiko; Morrison, Heather; Taylor, Donald; Black, Charlyn

    2009-01-01

    The advent of policies at research-funding organizations requiring grantees to make their funded research openly accessible alters the life cycle of scholarly research. This survey-based study explores the approaches that libraries and research administration offices at the major Canadian universities are employing to support the…

  8. Virtual Hubs for facilitating access to Open Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Latre, Miguel Á.; Ernst, Julia; Brumana, Raffaella; Brauman, Stefan; Nativi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    In October 2014 the ENERGIC-OD (European NEtwork for Redistributing Geospatial Information to user Communities - Open Data) project, funded by the European Union under the Competitiveness and Innovation framework Programme (CIP), has started. In response to the EU call, the general objective of the project is to "facilitate the use of open (freely available) geographic data from different sources for the creation of innovative applications and services through the creation of Virtual Hubs". In ENERGIC-OD, Virtual Hubs are conceived as information systems supporting the full life cycle of Open Data: publishing, discovery and access. They facilitate the use of Open Data by lowering and possibly removing the main barriers which hampers geo-information (GI) usage by end-users and application developers. Data and data services heterogeneity is recognized as one of the major barriers to Open Data (re-)use. It imposes end-users and developers to spend a lot of effort in accessing different infrastructures and harmonizing datasets. Such heterogeneity cannot be completely removed through the adoption of standard specifications for service interfaces, metadata and data models, since different infrastructures adopt different standards to answer to specific challenges and to address specific use-cases. Thus, beyond a certain extent, heterogeneity is irreducible especially in interdisciplinary contexts. ENERGIC-OD Virtual Hubs address heterogeneity adopting a mediation and brokering approach: specific components (brokers) are dedicated to harmonize service interfaces, metadata and data models, enabling seamless discovery and access to heterogeneous infrastructures and datasets. As an innovation project, ENERGIC-OD will integrate several existing technologies to implement Virtual Hubs as single points of access to geospatial datasets provided by new or existing platforms and infrastructures, including INSPIRE-compliant systems and Copernicus services. ENERGIC OD will deploy a

  9. Open Access to Research Articles and Data: Library Roles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Heather

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, a handful of key developments have caused scholars and researchers to rethink not only the way they conduct their work, but also the way in which they communicate it to others. The advent of the Internet has provided unprecedented opportunities for immediate, cost effective global connectivity, opening up new possibilities for collaboration and communication. This has resulted in scholarship increasingly being conducted in the online environment, and a vast amount of new digital information being generated and made widely available to those interested in using it. Additionally, the Internet is a dynamic environment, with new channels for producing and sharing information in a myriad of formats emerging frequently.In higher education, the momentum of the burgeoning movement towards "open" sharing of information of all kinds continues to gain traction. In particular, advancements in the areas of opening up access to articles and reserch data are increasingly visible. In both of these areas, academic and research libraries are playing important, central roles in promoting the awareness of the potential costs and benefits of a more open research environment, as well as defining new roles for libraries in this digital environment.As this push for grater openness continues, these fronts are intersecting in interesting and potentially transformative ways. The Open Access and Open Data movements share fundamental philosophical commonalities that make collaboration a natural outcome. Both movements place a premium on reducing barriers to discovering and accessing pertinent digital information. Perhaps even more significantly, both explicitly recognize that enabling productive use of digital information is key to unlocking its full value. As a result of these shared priorities, there are a wide variety of common strategies that libraries can take to help advance research, presenting new opportunities for deeper collaboration to take place.This talk will

  10. Education Scholars' Perceptions and Practices toward Open Access Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellingford, Lori Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Although open access publishing has been available since 1998, we know little regarding scholars' perceptions and practices toward publishing in open access outlets, especially in the social science community. Open access publishing has been slow to penetrate the field of education, yet the potential impact of open access could make this…

  11. 50 CFR 660.320 - Open access fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open access fishery-crossover provisions... West Coast Groundfish-Open Access Fisheries § 660.320 Open access fishery—crossover provisions. (a) Operating in both limited entry and open access fisheries. See provisions at § 660.60, subpart C....

  12. 50 CFR 660.313 - Open access fishery-recordkeeping and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open access fishery-recordkeeping and... West Coast Groundfish-Open Access Fisheries § 660.313 Open access fishery—recordkeeping and reporting... to open access fisheries. (b) Declaration reports for vessels using nontrawl gear....

  13. 50 CFR 660.319 - Open access fishery gear identification and marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open access fishery gear identification... COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish-Open Access Fisheries § 660.319 Open access fishery gear identification and marking. (a) Gear identification. (1) Open access fixed gear (longline, trap or pot, set...

  14. Open access mandate threatens dissemination of scientific information.

    PubMed

    McMullan, Erin

    2008-03-01

    The public good is served when researchers can most easily access current, high-quality research through articles that have undergone rigorous peer review and quality control processes. The free market has allowed researchers excellent access to quality research articles through the investment of societies and commercial publishers in these processes for publication of scholarly journals in a wide variety of specialty and subspecialty areas. Government legislation mandating "open access" to copyrighted articles through a government Web site could result in a reduction of financially sustainable peer-reviewed journals and a reduction in the overall quality of articles available as publishers, societies, and authors are forced to hand over their intellectual property or restrict the peer review process because of lost sales opportunities. The public is best served when the work of researchers advances science to its benefit. If researchers have fewer current resources, diminished quality control, or access to fewer trusted peer-reviewed journals, the public could ultimately lose more than it could gain from open access legislation.

  15. The Azimuth Project: an Open-Access Educational Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baez, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Azimuth Project is an online collaboration of scientists, engineers and programmers who are volunteering their time to do something about a wide range of environmental problems. The project has several aspects: 1) a wiki designed to make reliable, sourced information easy to find and accessible to a technically literate nonexperts, 2) a blog featuring expository articles and news items, 3) a project to write programs that explain basic concepts of climate physics and illustrate principles of good open-source software design, and 4) a project to develop mathematical tools for studying complex networked systems. We discuss the progress so far and some preliminary lessons. For example, enlisting the help of experts outside academia highlights the problems with pay-walled journals and the benefits of open access, as well as differences between how software development is done commercially, in the free software community, and in academe.

  16. Open Access and the Future of the ASP Conference Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, J. B.; Moody, J. W.; Barnes, J.

    2010-10-01

    The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) has been publishing the proceedings of conferences in astronomy and astrophysics for more than twenty years. The ASP Conference Series (ASPCS) is widely known for its affordable and high-quality printed volumes. The ASPCS is adapting to the changing ways astronomers use our proceedings volumes, both electronically and in print. Recently there has been increasing pressure from government agencies and the academic community for "open access" (electronic copies of scholarly publications made freely available immediately after publication), and we discuss how the ASPCS is responding to the needs of the professional astronomical community, the scholarly society that supports us (the ASP), and humanity at large. While we cannot yet provide full open access and stay in business, we are actively pursuing several initiatives to improve the quality of our product and the impact of the papers we publish.

  17. 2015 Relaunch as Open Access Pediatric Neurology Briefs.

    PubMed

    Millichap, John J; Millichap, J Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric Neurology Briefs (PNB) has been published monthly since 1987 as a continuing education service designed to expedite and facilitate review of current medical literature concerning pediatric neurology. In 2015, PNB is relaunched as an open access, peer-reviewed, journal with an expanded editorial board. PNB has a new website and content management system capable of organizing peer-review and providing improved indexing, DOI assignment, and online full-text article view. Digitization of back issues, archiving, and inclusion in PubMed are future goals. The new online open access PNB aims to reach more physicians, researchers, and other healthcare providers with highlights of the latest advances in pediatric neurology and commentaries by specialists in the field.

  18. APS Editorial Q&A: APS and Open Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    The movement toward Open Access continues to gain momentum. A brief review of APS efforts in this area will be presented by APS Editor in Chief, Gene Sprouse. Editors from Physical Review C, D, Letters, and X, Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research, and Reviews of Modern Physics will address your questions about publishing in this evolving environment.

  19. Update on AGU Publishing: A Focus on Open Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der Hilst, Rob; Hanson, Brooks

    2013-09-01

    In the 23 July 2013 issue of Eos, we provided a broad update on recent events in AGU publishing, focusing on the partnership with John Wiley & Sons (Eos, 94(30), 264-266, doi:10.1002/2013EO300009). Here we briefly comment on the latest developments in the partnership, but the main focus is on recent events regarding open access as it relates to AGU publishing.

  20. Facilitating Full-text Access to Biomedical Literature Using Open Access Resources.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hongyu; Hou, Zhen; Li, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Open access (OA) resources and local libraries often have their own literature databases, especially in the field of biomedicine. We have developed a method of linking a local library to a biomedical OA resource facilitating researchers' full-text article access. The method uses a model based on vector space to measure similarities between two articles in local library and OA resources. The method achieved an F-score of 99.61%. This method of article linkage and mapping between local library and OA resources is available for use. Through this work, we have improved the full-text access of the biomedical OA resources.

  1. Selecting An Open Access Journal for Publication: Be Cautious

    PubMed

    Hoffecker, Lilian; Hastings-Tolsma, Marie; Vincent, Deborah; Zuniga, Heidi

    2015-12-04

    Nurse scholars and clinicians seek to publish their research and scholarly findings to strengthen both nursing science and clinical practice. Traditionally subscription-based publications have been the mainstay of knowledge dissemination. However, subscription costs have tended to restrict access to many journals to a small, specialized, academic community, a limitation that has contributed to the development of open access (OA) publications. OA journals have a powerful appeal as they allow greater access to scholars and consumers on a global level. However, many OA journals depend on an author-pays model that may lead to unintended and undesirable consequences for authors. Today, it is easier than ever to share scholarly findings, but authors need to be vigilant when selecting a journal in which to publish. In this article, we discuss the background of open access journals and describe key consideration to distinguish between reputable publications and those that may lead authors astray. We conclude that despite controversy and concerns related to publishing in OA journals, these journals do provide opportunities for researchers and clinicians to raise the profile of their work and ensure a robust, scholarly communication system.

  2. The effect of hydrogen crossover on open-circuit voltage in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilekar, Saurabh A.; Datta, Ravindra

    Even though the measured open-circuit voltage in a H 2-O 2 PEM fuel cell is invariably about 200-250 mV lower than that predicted from thermodynamics (1.229 V at 25 °C), there is no unequivocal explanation of this phenomenon available in the literature, although several hypotheses exist. Based on a theoretical model of mixed potential with a priori parameters, it is shown here that this voltage loss under open-circuit conditions can be attributed exclusively to hydrogen crossover and the resulting oxygen reduction reaction overpotential at the cathode. The analytical model predictions agree well with available experimental results.

  3. 50 CFR 660.316 - Open access fishery-observer requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open access fishery-observer requirements... West Coast Groundfish-Open Access Fisheries § 660.316 Open access fishery—observer requirements. (a...(s) access to, and the use of, the vessel's navigation equipment and personnel, on request,...

  4. XMetDB: an open access database for xenobiotic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Spjuth, Ola; Rydberg, Patrik; Willighagen, Egon L; Evelo, Chris T; Jeliazkova, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Xenobiotic metabolism is an active research topic but the limited amount of openly available high-quality biotransformation data constrains predictive modeling. Current database often default to commonly available information: which enzyme metabolizes a compound, but neither experimental conditions nor the atoms that undergo metabolization are captured. We present XMetDB, an open access database for drugs and other xenobiotics and their respective metabolites. The database contains chemical structures of xenobiotic biotransformations with substrate atoms annotated as reaction centra, the resulting product formed, and the catalyzing enzyme, type of experiment, and literature references. Associated with the database is a web interface for the submission and retrieval of experimental metabolite data for drugs and other xenobiotics in various formats, and a web API for programmatic access is also available. The database is open for data deposition, and a curation scheme is in place for quality control. An extensive guide on how to enter experimental data into is available from the XMetDB wiki. XMetDB formalizes how biotransformation data should be reported, and the openly available systematically labeled data is a big step forward towards better models for predictive metabolism.

  5. OpenCourseWare, Global Access and the Right to Education: Real Access or Marketing Ploy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huijser, Henk; Bedford, Tas; Bull, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the potential opportunities that OpenCourseWare (OCW) offers in providing wider access to tertiary education, based on the ideal of "the right to education." It first discusses the wider implications of OCW, and its underlying philosophy, before using a case study of a tertiary preparation program (TPP) at the…

  6. Modes of Access: The Influence of Dissemination Channels on the Use of Open Access Monographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snijder, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper studies the effects of several dissemination channels in an open access environment by analysing the download data of the OAPEN Library. Method: Download data were obtained containing the number of downloads and the name of the Internet provider. Based on public information, each Internet provider was categorised. The…

  7. From Open Content to Open Course Models: Increasing Access and Enabling Global Participation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Tannis; Carey, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Two of the major challenges to international students' right of access to higher education are geographical/economic isolation and academic literacy in English (Carey, 1999; Hamel, 2007). The authors propose that adopting open course models in traditional universities, through blended or online delivery, can offer benefits to the institutions and…

  8. The Open Course Library: Using Open Educational Resources to Improve Community College Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Mary Ann Lund

    2011-01-01

    Community colleges are committed to meeting the educational needs of the communities they serve and they have increased access to higher education by offering new and innovative services to students often unable to attend traditional baccalaureate institutions. An innovation known as Open Educational Resources (OER) promises to make college more…

  9. Medical education and information literacy in the era of open access.

    PubMed

    Brower, Stewart M

    2010-01-01

    The Open Access movement in scholarly communications poses new issues and concerns for medical education in general and information literacy education specifically. For medical educators, Open Access can affect the availability of new information, instructional materials, and scholarship in medical education. For students, Open Access materials continue to be available to them post-graduation, regardless of affiliation. Libraries and information literacy librarians are challenged in their responses to the Open Access publishing movement in how best to support Open Access endeavors within their own institutions, and how best to educate their user base about Open Access in general.

  10. A Study of Innovative Features in Scholarly Open Access Journals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence of the Internet has triggered tremendous changes in the publication of scientific peer-reviewed journals. Today, journals are usually available in parallel electronic versions, but the way the peer-review process works, the look of articles and journals, and the rigid and slow publication schedules have remained largely unchanged, at least for the vast majority of subscription-based journals. Those publishing firms and scholarly publishers who have chosen the more radical option of open access (OA), in which the content of journals is freely accessible to anybody with Internet connectivity, have had a much bigger degree of freedom to experiment with innovations. Objective The objective was to study how open access journals have experimented with innovations concerning ways of organizing the peer review, the format of journals and articles, new interactive and media formats, and novel publishing revenue models. Methods The features of 24 open access journals were studied. The journals were chosen in a nonrandom manner from the approximately 7000 existing OA journals based on available information about interesting journals and include both representative cases and highly innovative outlier cases. Results Most early OA journals in the 1990s were founded by individual scholars and used a business model based on voluntary work close in spirit to open-source development of software. In the next wave, many long-established journals, in particular society journals and journals from regions such as Latin America, made their articles OA when they started publishing parallel electronic versions. From about 2002 on, newly founded professional OA publishing firms using article-processing charges to fund their operations have emerged. Over the years, there have been several experiments with new forms of peer review, media enhancements, and the inclusion of structured data sets with articles. In recent years, the growth of OA publishing has also been

  11. Effect of polymer aggregation on the open circuit voltage in organic photovoltaic cells: aggregation-induced conjugated polymer gel and its application for preventing open circuit voltage drop.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Gi; Jeong, Eun Jeong; Park, Hui Joon; Bilby, David; Guo, L Jay; Kim, Jinsang

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the structure-dependent aggregation behavior of conjugated polymers and the effect of aggregation on the device performance of conjugated polymer photovoltaic cells, new conjugated polymers (PVTT and CN-PVTT) having the same regioregularity but different intermolecular packing were prepared and characterized by means of UV-vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Photovoltaic devices were prepared with these polymers under different polymer-aggregate conditions. Polymer aggregation induced by thermal annealing increases the short circuit current but provides no advantage in the overall power conversion efficiency because of a decrease in the open circuit voltage. The device fabricated from a pre-aggregated polymer suspension, acquired from ultrasonic agitation of a conjugated polymer gel, showed enhanced performance because of better phase separation and reduced recombination between polymer/PCBM.

  12. Finite size effects in ferroelectric-semiconductor thin films under open-circuit electric boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Eliseev, Eugene A.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Morozovska, Anna N.

    2015-01-21

    General features of finite size effects in the ferroelectric-semiconductor film under open-circuit electric boundary conditions are analyzed using Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory and continuum media electrostatics. The temperature dependence of the film critical thickness, spontaneous polarization and depolarization field profiles of the open-circuited films are found to be significantly different from the characteristics of short-circuited ones. In particular, we predict the re-entrant type transition boundary between the mono-domain and poly-domain ferroelectric states due to reduced internal screening efficiency and analyzed possible experimental scenarios created by this mechanism. Performed analysis is relevant for the quantitative description of free-standing ferroelectric films phase diagrams and polar properties. Also our results can be useful for the explanation of the scanning-probe microscopy experiments on free ferroelectric surfaces.

  13. Analysis of quench properties of the Q3 magnets with and without open circuit heater elements

    SciTech Connect

    Lackey, Sharon; Marriner, John; Pfeffer, Howie; /Fermilab

    1995-11-01

    The Q3 magnets have 2 independent heater elements that are energized by the quench protection system. One heater element in the Q3 magnet at A4 became an open circuit after the initial cooldown. Recently the second element became an open circuit. The Q3 magnet at A4 is powered in series with a Q3 magnet at B1. The heaters in the magnet at B1 are still intact. The purpose of this study is to determine if the magnet circuit can be operated without undue risk of damage to the magnets. The risk of damage to the magnet at A4 is less of a concern since repairing the heaters is expected to be a major effort in any event. There is one spare Q3 magnet.

  14. Finite size effects in ferroelectric-semiconductor thin films under open-circuit electric boundary conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Eliseev, Eugene A.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Morozovska, Anna N.

    2015-01-21

    General features of finite size effects in the ferroelectric-semiconductor film under open-circuit electric boundary conditions are analyzed using Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory and continuum media electrostatics. The temperature dependence of the film critical thickness, spontaneous polarization and depolarization field profiles of the open-circuited films are found to be significantly different from the characteristics of short-circuited ones. In particular, we predict the re-entrant type transition boundary between the mono-domain and poly-domain ferroelectric states due to reduced internal screening efficiency and analyzed possible experimental scenarios created by this mechanism. Performed analysis is relevant for the quantitative description of free-standing ferroelectric films phase diagrams andmore » polar properties. Also our results can be useful for the explanation of the scanning-probe microscopy experiments on free ferroelectric surfaces.« less

  15. Unmanned Evaluation of Mares Abyss 22 Navy Open Circuit Scuba Regulator for Cold Water Diving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-05

    scuba regulator was conducted, and the results were compared to the U.S. Navy performance limits and goals for use in cold water diving applications...resistive effort; work of breathing; unmanned evaluation; open circuit scuba regulator; cold water diving ; Mares Abyss 22 Navy; UBA; underwater

  16. 42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. (a) A static-flow test will be... compressed-breathing-gas containers are tested, the flow test shall also be made with 3,450 kN/m.2 (500...

  17. 42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. (a) A static-flow test will be... compressed-breathing-gas containers are tested, the flow test shall also be made with 3,450 kN/m.2 (500...

  18. 42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. (a) A static-flow test will be... compressed-breathing-gas containers are tested, the flow test shall also be made with 3,450 kN/m.2 (500...

  19. Electrochemical studies of the film formation on lithium in propylene carbonate solutions under open circuit conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Geronov, Y.; Schwager, F.; Muller, R. H.

    1981-06-01

    The nature of protective surface layers formed on lithium in propylene carbonate solutions of and at open circuit has been investigated by electrochemical pulse measurements. The results are consistent with the fast formation of a compact thin layer resulting from the reaction with residual water. This layer acts as a solid ionic conductor. Slow corrosion or decomposition processes produce a thicker porous overlayer.

  20. Studies of silicon p-n junction solar cells. [open circuit photovoltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, F. A.

    1976-01-01

    Single crystal silicon p-n junction solar cells made with low resistivity substrates show poorer solar energy conversion efficiency than traditional theory predicts. The physical mechanisms responsible for this discrepancy are identified and characterized. The open circuit voltage in shallow junction cells of about 0.1 ohm/cm substrate resistivity is investigated under AMO (one sun) conditions.

  1. Collection Overview: Ten Years of Wonderful Open Access Science

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Roland G.; Alfred, Jane

    2013-01-01

    To mark our tenth Anniversary at PLOS Biology, we are launching a special, celebratory Tenth Anniversary PLOS Biology Collection which showcases 10 specially selected PLOS Biology research articles drawn from a decade of publishing excellent science. It also features newly commissioned articles, including thought-provoking pieces on the Open Access movement (past and present), on article-level metrics, and on the history of the Public Library of Science. Each research article highlighted in the collection is also accompanied by a PLOS Biologue blog post to extend the impact of these remarkable studies to the widest possible audience. PMID:24167446

  2. Concentric wrench for blind access opening in a turbine

    DOEpatents

    Laurer, Kurt Neal; Drlik, Gary Joseph; Gibler, Edward Eugene

    2001-01-01

    The concentric wrench includes an outer tube having flats at one end and a gripping surface at an opposite end. An inner tube has interior flats at one end and a gripping surface at its opposite end. With the inner and outer tubes disposed about a pressure transmitting conduit, the tubes may be inserted into a blind access opening in the outer turbine casing to engage the flats of the tubes against hex nuts of an internal fitting. By relatively rotating the tubes using the externally exposed gripping surfaces, the threaded connection between the parts of the fitting bearing the respective hex nuts can be tightened or loosened.

  3. Collection overview: ten years of wonderful open access science.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Roland G; Alfred, Jane

    2013-10-01

    To mark our tenth Anniversary at PLOS Biology, we are launching a special, celebratory Tenth Anniversary PLOS Biology Collection which showcases 10 specially selected PLOS Biology research articles drawn from a decade of publishing excellent science. It also features newly commissioned articles, including thought-provoking pieces on the Open Access movement (past and present), on article-level metrics, and on the history of the Public Library of Science. Each research article highlighted in the collection is also accompanied by a PLOS Biologue blog post to extend the impact of these remarkable studies to the widest possible audience.

  4. Open access for operational research publications from low- and middle-income countries: who pays?

    PubMed

    Zachariah, R; Kumar, A M V; Reid, A J; Van den Bergh, R; Isaakidis, P; Draguez, B; Delaunois, P; Nagaraja, S B; Ramsay, A; Reeder, J C; Denisiuk, O; Ali, E; Khogali, M; Hinderaker, S G; Kosgei, R J; van Griensven, J; Quaglio, G L; Maher, D; Billo, N E; Terry, R F; Harries, A D

    2014-09-21

    Open-access journal publications aim to ensure that new knowledge is widely disseminated and made freely accessible in a timely manner so that it can be used to improve people's health, particularly those in low- and middle-income countries. In this paper, we briefly explain the differences between closed- and open-access journals, including the evolving idea of the 'open-access spectrum'. We highlight the potential benefits of supporting open access for operational research, and discuss the conundrum and ways forward as regards who pays for open access.

  5. Open access for operational research publications from low- and middle-income countries: who pays?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A. M. V.; Reid, A. J.; Van den Bergh, R.; Isaakidis, P.; Draguez, B.; Delaunois, P.; Nagaraja, S. B.; Ramsay, A.; Reeder, J. C.; Denisiuk, O.; Ali, E.; Khogali, M.; Hinderaker, S. G.; Kosgei, R. J.; van Griensven, J.; Quaglio, G. L.; Maher, D.; Billo, N. E.; Terry, R. F.; Harries, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    Open-access journal publications aim to ensure that new knowledge is widely disseminated and made freely accessible in a timely manner so that it can be used to improve people's health, particularly those in low- and middle-income countries. In this paper, we briefly explain the differences between closed- and open-access journals, including the evolving idea of the ‘open-access spectrum’. We highlight the potential benefits of supporting open access for operational research, and discuss the conundrum and ways forward as regards who pays for open access. PMID:26400799

  6. The Crisis in Scholarly Communication, Open Access, and Open Data Policies: The Libraries' Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besara, Rachel

    2015-03-01

    For years the cost of STEM databases have exceeded the rate of inflation. Libraries have reallocated funds for years to continue to provide support to their scientific communities, but they are reaching a point at many institutions where they are no longer able to provide access to many databases considered standard to support research. A possible or partial alleviation to this problem is the federal open access mandate. However, this shift challenges the current model of publishing and data management in the sciences. This talk will discuss these topics from the perspective of research libraries supporting physics and the STEM disciplines.

  7. 46 CFR 45.113 - Access openings in bulkheads at ends of enclosed superstructures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access openings in bulkheads at ends of enclosed... LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.113 Access openings in bulkheads at ends of enclosed superstructures. (a) Access openings in bulkheads at ends of enclosed superstructures must...

  8. A Bibliometric Study of Scholarly Articles Published by Library and Information Science Authors about Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandbois, Jennifer; Beheshti, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to gain a greater understanding of the development of open access practices amongst library and information science authors, since their role is integral to the success of the broader open access movement. Method: Data were collected from scholarly articles about open access by library and information science authors…

  9. A Matter of Discipline: Open Access, the Humanities, and Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Recent events suggest that open access has gained new momentum in the humanities, but the slow and uneven development of open-access initiatives in humanist fields continues to hinder the consolidation of efforts across the university. Although various studies have traced the general origins of the humanities' reticence to embrace open access, few…

  10. Almost Halfway There: An Analysis of the Open Access Behaviors of Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Academic librarians are increasingly expected to advocate for scholarly communications reforms such as open access to scholarly publications, yet librarians do not always practice what they preach. Previous research examined librarian attitudes toward open access, whereas this article presents results of a study of open access publishing and…

  11. Open Access Theses in Institutional Repositories: An Exploratory Study of the Perceptions of Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Kate Valentine; Liew, Chern Li

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: We examine doctoral students' awareness of and attitudes to open access forms of publication. Levels of awareness of open access and the concept of institutional repositories, publishing behaviour and perceptions of benefits and risks of open access publishing were explored. Method: Qualitative and quantitative data were collected…

  12. 50 CFR 660.331 - Limited entry and open access fisheries-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited entry and open access fisheries... West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.331 Limited entry and open access fisheries—general. All... entry and open access fisheries, except such fishing by treaty Indian tribes as may be...

  13. The SciELO Open Access: A Gold Way from the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Abel L.

    2009-01-01

    Open access has long emphasized access to scholarly materials. However, open access can also mean access to the means of producing visible and recognized journals. This issue is particularly important in developing and emergent countries. The SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library On-line) project, first started in Brazil and, shortly afterward, in…

  14. Effect of doping on the short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage of polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Liang, Chunjun; Sun, Mengjie; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Fujun; Li, Dan; He, Zhiqun

    2014-10-01

    The change in doping density in P3HT:PCBM based polymer solar cells (PSCs) with different processing solvents and with/without post-fabrication thermal treatment is investigated with capacitance-voltage measurement and optical microscopic imaging. The results suggest that both slow drying and thermal treatment facilitate the phase-separation and crystallinity of P3HT and PCBM, leading to low defect density and thus low p-type doping. Direct links between the doping density and the performance of the PSCs, specifically the short-circuit current (Jsc) and open-circuit voltage (Voc), are observed. The results show that doping density is one of the decisive factors affecting the photocurrent of the PSCs. Lower doping density leads to a wider depletion region, which is beneficial for carrier collection. The agreement between the calculation and the experiment suggests that the Voc increases monotonically with increasing doping densities in the PSCs. These rules consistently explain our results on the change of Jsc and Voc after thermal annealing in the PSCs with different processing solvents.

  15. Open Access to Data - Central Role for Geoinformatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, W. S.

    2006-12-01

    The open access to scientific information has become a contentious issue. In the United States there are calls to make all published literature available for free within 6 months of publication, the notion being that this will promote better science and policy decisions based on science. Here, I argue that this is the incorrect approach to the issue of open access to scientific information. A fundamental problem raised by the call for open access to government-supported research results is the viability of our not-for-profit professional scientific societies. These societies provide the base level framework for the exchange of scientific ideas, and hence the very core of how we do science and how scientific knowledge is advanced. Why should a scientist subscribe to a journal if they can read the article for free in six months? A large portion of a society's operational costs come from these subscriptions and the sale of specialized books, all of which contain the results of federally-funded research. Without revenue from journal subscriptions and book sales, not only will these publications disappear, but many of societies may as well. Without a broad venue to publish and in which to interact, our science suffers - many subdisciplines may fade or even die - those that don't "sell well." Very popular publications such as "Nature", "Science", "Tectonics", and "Geology" will continue to thrive, but what about the more specialized journals such as "Journal of Paleontology"? They are costly to publish yet fill a very critical niche for our science. Many will still pay for reading the Nature/Science/Tectonics/Geology article, but where do we publish the mainstream science paper? We have to guard against becoming a "Hollywood Science" - where only the glitzy gets published because those are the articles that sell. We must have peer-reviewed, independent publications and viable professional societies, or our science will severely suffer. We can better approach the need for

  16. Polymer defect states modulate open-circuit voltage in bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ripolles, Teresa S.; Guerrero, Antonio; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà

    2013-12-09

    Defect states influence the operation of organic solar cells altering transport, recombination, and energetic mechanisms. This work investigates how processing conditions induce morphology-related, electrically active defects in the donor polymer of bulk-heterojunction solar cells. Structural order is inferred from absorption and X-ray diffraction data, while defect density is determined from capacitance methods. A correlation is observed between the polymer nanocrystallite size, the defect concentration, and the output voltage. For the case of poly(3-hexylthiophene), processing that promote crystallinity is beneficial for the device performance as it decreases the defect density (energy disorder) that finally enlarges the maximum achievable open-circuit voltage. Defect states within the effective bandgap modulate the downshift of the hole Fermi level upon illumination that in turn establishes the achievable open-circuit voltage.

  17. Photoluminescence imaging for determining the spatially resolved implied open circuit voltage of silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallam, Brett; Augarten, Yael; Tjahjono, Budi; Trupke, Thorsten; Wenham, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Photoluminescence imaging has widely been used as a characterisation tool for the development of silicon solar cells. However, photoluminescence images typically only give qualitative information due to the presence of an unknown calibration constant. In this work, quasi-steady-state photoconductance measurements on partially processed solar cells and I-V measurements on finished solar cells are used to determine the calibration constants to yield spatially resolved implied open circuit voltage images. This technique is then applied to determine the implied open circuit voltage of laser doped selective emitter solar cells at various stages of cell fabrication after the formation of the full area aluminium back surface field when other characterisation techniques such as photoconductance cannot be used.

  18. Stranded cost recovery presents stumbling block to open access

    SciTech Connect

    Del Roccili, J.A.

    1996-04-01

    Much of the impetus for the movement to competitive power markets is a result of the tremendous variance in energy prices across the country. Large commercial and industrial customers are becoming increasingly aware of these discrepancies and are marshaling the market and political forces required to guarantee the eventual development of a national open-access transmission policy. Such a policy will facilitate competition and equalize prices on a regional, and to some extent, national level. The stumbling block, however, is the recovery of stranded investment. Under traditional regulation, historical costs could be collected through approved rates for a bundled service. With the protection of a monopoly franchise, average electricity prices provide the possibility of cost recovery for assets that might not be recoverable in a competitive market.

  19. Relationship of Open-Circuit Voltage to CdTe Hole Concentration and Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Duenow, Joel N.; Burst, James M.; Albin, David S.; Reese, Matthew O.; Jensen, Soren A.; Johnston, Steven W.; Kuciauskas, Darius; Swain, Santosh K.; Ablekim, Tursun; Lynn, Kelvin G.; Fahrenbruch, Alan L.; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the correlation of bulk CdTe and CdZnTe material properties with experimental open-circuit voltage (Voc) through fabrication and characterization of diverse single-crystal solar cells with different dopants. Several distinct crystal types reach Voc >900 mV. Correlations are in general agreement with Voc limits modeled from bulk minority-carrier lifetime and hole concentration.

  20. Driving CZTS to the SQ Limit: Solving the Open Circuit Voltage Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, Richard A.; McCandless, Brian E.; Kummel, Andrew C.; Gordon, Roy G.

    2016-12-15

    A key objective of this 3 year research effort was to reduce the open circuit voltage (Voc) deficit, defined as the difference between the absorber band gap and the measured Voc to below 475mV from values at the beginning of this work of 630-730mV. To achieve this reduction, along with the attendant goals of higher Voc and efficiency, detailed studies into the fundamental understanding of existing limitations were undertaken.

  1. Wireless Sensing System Using Open-circuit, Electrically-conductive Spiral-trace Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A wireless sensing system includes a sensor made from an electrical conductor shaped to form an open-circuit, electrically-conductive spiral trace having inductance and capacitance. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the sensor resonates to generate a harmonic response having a frequency, amplitude and bandwidth. A magnetic field response recorder wirelessly transmits the time-varying magnetic field to the sensor and wirelessly detects the sensor's response frequency, amplitude and bandwidth.

  2. FILM FORMATION ON LITHIUM IN PROPYLENE CARBONATE SOLUTIONS UNDER OPEN CIRCUIT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Geronov, Y.; Schwager, F.; Muller, R.H.

    1980-06-01

    The nature of protective surface layers formed on lithium in propylene carbonate solutions of LiClO{sub 4} and LiAsF{sub 6} at open circuit has been investigated by electrochemical pulse measurements. The results are consistent with the fastformation of a compact thin layer resulting from the reaction with residual water. This layer acts as a solid ionicconductor. Slow corrosion or decomposition processes produce a thicker porous overlayer.

  3. Relationship between the blue response and open-circuit voltage of high performance silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. A.; Blakers, A. W.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between the response at blue wavelengths and the open-circuit voltage of high performance silicon solar cells with a virtually 'transparent' emitter is analyzed. It is shown that a one-dimensional cell model cannot simultaneously model the optical collection properties and operating characteristics of such cells. The analysis highlights the importance of surface conditions and shows that previous conclusions regarding bounds on Auger coefficients imposed by correlating these parameters must be treated with caution.

  4. Nonfullerene Tandem Organic Solar Cells with High Open-Circuit Voltage of 1.97 V.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenqing; Li, Shuixing; Huang, Jiang; Yang, Shida; Chen, Jiehuan; Zuo, Lijian; Shi, Minmin; Zhan, Xiaowei; Li, Chang-Zhi; Chen, Hongzheng

    2016-11-01

    Small-molecule nonfullerene-based tandem organic solar cells (OSCs) are fabricated for the first time by utilizing P3HT:SF(DPPB)4 and PTB7-Th:IEIC bulk heterojunctions as the front and back subcells, respectively. A power conversion efficiency of 8.48% is achieved with an ultrahigh open-circuit voltage of 1.97 V, which is the highest voltage value reported to date among efficient tandem OSCs.

  5. Improving open access to the results of USGS research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristol, S.

    2013-12-01

    Since its establishment under the Organic Act of March 3, 1879, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been committed to classifying and characterizing 'the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.' Over time, the pursuit of this mission and understanding the products of the national domain has involved a broad scientific pursuit to understand complex Earth system processes and includes topographic, geologic, biogeographic, and other types of mapping; chemical, physical, hydrological, and biological research; and the application of computer and data science. As science and technology have evolved, classification and characterization of the Nation's natural resources has come to be embodied in digital data of various structure and form. Fundamentally, scientific publications and data produced through research and monitoring form the core of the USGS mission. They are an organizational and national treasure held and provided in trust for the American people and for the global scientific community. The recent memo from the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) on 'Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research' is part of an overall initiative toward open digital government that dovetails well with the USGS mission. The objectives outlined in the memo correspond directly to goals and objectives of the 2007 USGS Science Strategy ('Facing Tomorrow's Challenges--U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017') and the recently released Science Strategy Plans across all USGS Mission Areas. The USGS response to the OSTP memo involves reinforcing aspects of the USGS commitment to open and free access to scholarly publications and data along with improvements to some of the underlying technological systems that facilitate search and discovery. These actions also align with the USGS response to the Executive Order on May 9, 2013, entitled 'Making Open and Machine Readable the New Default for

  6. Open access: implications for scholarly publishing and medical libraries

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper reviews and analyzes the evolution of the open access (OA) publishing movement and its impact on the traditional scholarly publishing model. Procedures: A literature survey and analysis of definitions of OA, problems with the current publishing model, historical developments, funding agency responses, stakeholder viewpoints, and implications for scientific libraries and publishing are performed. Findings: The Internet's transformation of information access has fueled interest in reshaping what many see as a dysfunctional, high-cost system of scholarly publishing. For years, librarians alone advocated for change, until relatively recently when interest in OA and related initiatives spread to the scientific community, governmental groups, funding agencies, publishers, and the general public. Conclusions: Most stakeholders acknowledge that change in the publishing landscape is inevitable, but heated debate continues over what form this transformation will take. The most frequently discussed remedies for the troubled current system are the “green” road (self-archiving articles published in non-OA journals) and the “gold” road (publishing in OA journals). Both movements will likely intensify, with a multiplicity of models and initiatives coexisting for some time. PMID:16888657

  7. In ... and out: open access publishing in scientific journals.

    PubMed

    Boumil, Marcia M; Salem, Deeb N

    2014-01-01

    Open access (OA) journals are a growing phenomenon largely of the past decade wherein readers can access the content of scientific journals without paying for a subscription. The costs are borne by authors (or their institutions) who pay a fee to be published, thus allowing readers to access, search, print, and cite the journals without cost. Although the OA model, in and of itself, need not diminish scientific rigor, selectivity, or peer review, the "author pays" model creates an inherent conflict of interest: it operates with the incentive on the part of the journal to publish more and reject less. This is coupled with cost containment measures that affect the journals' ability to engage experienced editors and professional staff to scrutinize data, data analyses, and author conflicts of interest. While some OA journals appear to be comparable to their print competitors, others are "predatory" and have no legitimacy at all. Two recent "scams"--one recently published in Science--highlight the urgency of addressing the issues raised by OA publication so that OA does not lose its credibility just as it begins to gather substantial momentum. High-quality journals develop their reputations over time, and OA outlets will be no exception. For this to occur, however, the OA audience will need to be satisfied that OA can deliver high-quality publications utilizing rigorous peer review, editing, and conflict of interest scrutiny. Academic tenure and promotion committees that review scholarly credentials are understandably skeptical of publications in unrecognized journals, and the large number of new OA outlets contributes to this urgency from their perspective as well.

  8. Memorandum "Open Metadata". Open Access to Documentation Forms and Item Catalogs in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Dugas, M; Jöckel, K-H; Friede, T; Gefeller, O; Kieser, M; Marschollek, M; Ammenwerth, E; Röhrig, R; Knaup-Gregori, P; Prokosch, H-U

    2015-01-01

    At present, most documentation forms and item catalogs in healthcare are not accessible to the public. This applies to assessment forms of routine patient care as well as case report forms (CRFs) of clinical and epidemiological studies. On behalf of the German chairs for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology six recommendations to developers and users of documentation forms in healthcare were developed. Open access to medical documentation forms could substantially improve information systems in healthcare and medical research networks. Therefore these forms should be made available to the scientific community, their use should not be unduly restricted, they should be published in a sustainable way using international standards and sources of documentation forms should be referenced in scientific publications.

  9. Institutional open access funds: now is the time.

    PubMed

    Eckman, Charles D; Weil, Beth T

    2010-05-25

    particularly heightened during this economic crisis when investments in subscriptions are increasingly difficult to justify, particularly given the alternate forms of open access to content and decreasing ability for libraries to reliably distinguish OA and non-OA content within the journal. We believe that institutions (and the sub-institutional units that manage collection funds) should be open to exploring alternative funding models for scholarly communication. Institutions should highly value funding models that promote universal access to their research output. And during an economic crisis, these institutions should question the extensive financial and human resource investments required by the subscription model, a model that both excludes nonauthorized users and entails large-scale and complex licensing and legal obligations. The time is now for broad-scale adoption of institutional OA funds.

  10. Origin of the high open circuit voltage in planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells: Role of the reduced bimolecular recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenchao; Yao, Yao; Wu, Chang-Qin

    2015-03-01

    The high open circuit voltage is an attractive feature for the currently popular organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells. In this paper, by employing the macroscopic device model simulation, we investigate its origin for the planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Based on the calculated current density-voltage characteristics, it is revealed that compared to the excitonic solar cells, the fast thermal-activated exciton dissociation in the bulk due to the small exciton binding energy may improve the short circuit current and the fill factor, but its beneficial role on the open circuit voltage is marginal. The most significant contribution for the open circuit voltage comes from the reduced bimolecular recombination. In the perovskites, with the recombination prefactor many orders of magnitude smaller than that based on the Langevin's theory, the internal charge density level is significantly enhanced and the density gradient is removed, leading to the high quasi-Fermi level splitting and thus the small open circuit voltage loss. For the nonradiative recombination pathway due to the deep trap states, it may induce significant loss of open circuit voltage as the trap density is high, while for the moderately low density its effect on the open circuit voltage is small and negligible.

  11. Measuring, Rating, Supporting, and Strengthening Open Access Scholarly Publishing in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neto, Silvio Carvalho; Willinsky, John; Alperin, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the extent and nature of open access scholarly publishing in Brazil, one of the world's leaders in providing universal access to its research and scholarship. It utilizes Brazil's Qualis journal evaluation system, along with other relevant data bases to address the association between scholarly quality and open access in the…

  12. Controlled conjugated backbone twisting for an increased open-circuit voltage while having a high short-circuit current in poly(hexylthiophene) derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sangwon; Hoke, Eric T; Pandey, Laxman; Hong, Sanghyun; Mondal, Rajib; Risko, Chad; Yi, Yuanping; Noriega, Rodrigo; McGehee, Michael D; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Salleo, Alberto; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-03-21

    Conjugated polymers with nearly planar backbones have been the most commonly investigated materials for organic-based electronic devices. More twisted polymer backbones have been shown to achieve larger open-circuit voltages in solar cells, though with decreased short-circuit current densities. We systematically impose twists within a family of poly(hexylthiophene)s and examine their influence on the performance of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. A simple chemical modification concerning the number and placement of alkyl side chains along the conjugated backbone is used to control the degree of backbone twisting. Density functional theory calculations were carried out on a series of oligothiophene structures to provide insights on how the sterically induced twisting influences the geometric, electronic, and optical properties. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering measurements were performed to investigate how the thin-film packing structure was affected. The open-circuit voltage and charge-transfer state energy of the polymer:fullerene BHJ solar cells increased substantially with the degree of twist induced within the conjugated backbone--due to an increase in the polymer ionization potential--while the short-circuit current decreased as a result of a larger optical gap and lower hole mobility. A controlled, moderate degree of twist along the poly(3,4-dihexyl-2,2':5',2''-terthiophene) (PDHTT) conjugated backbone led to a 19% enhancement in the open-circuit voltage (0.735 V) vs poly(3-hexylthiophene)-based devices, while similar short-circuit current densities, fill factors, and hole-carrier mobilities were maintained. These factors resulted in a power conversion efficiency of 4.2% for a PDHTT:[6,6]-phenyl-C(71)-butyric acid methyl ester (PC(71)BM) blend solar cell without thermal annealing. This simple approach reveals a molecular design avenue to increase open-circuit voltage while retaining the short-circuit current.

  13. Supporting Access to Open Online Courses for Learners of Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nti, Kwame

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how access to, and use of, open online courses may be enhanced for learners of developing countries from a learner perspective. Using analysis of the open education concept, factors that affect access to open educational resources content, and universal standards for delivering online learning, the author demonstrates that the…

  14. 28 CFR 31.203 - Open meetings and public access to records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open meetings and public access to... Grants General Requirements § 31.203 Open meetings and public access to records. The State must assure... advisory group established pursuant to section 223(a)(3) will follow applicable State open meeting...

  15. 78 FR 69121 - Information Collection Activities: Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ...; 134E1700D2 EEEE500000 ET1SF0000.DAQ000] Information Collection Activities: Open and Nondiscriminatory Access.... These regulations concern open and nondiscriminatory access to pipelines, and are the subject of this...) concerns a renewal to the paperwork requirements in the regulations under 30 Part 291, Open...

  16. Correlation of energy disorder and open-circuit voltage in hybrid perovskite solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Shao, Yuchuan; Yuan, Yongbo; Huang, Jinsong

    2016-01-11

    Organometal trihalide perovskites have been demonstrated as excellent light absorbers for high efficiency photovoltaic applications. Previous approaches to increasing the solar cell efficiency have focussed on optimisation of the grain morphology of perovskite thin films. Here, we show that the structural order of the electron-transport layers also has a significant impact on solar cell performance. We demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency of CH3NH3PbI3 planar-heterojunction photovoltaic cells increases from 17.1% to 19.4% when the energy disorder in the fullerene electron-transport layer is reduced by a simple solvent annealing process. The increase in efficiency is the result of the enhancement inmore » open-circuit voltage from 1.04 V to 1.13 V without sacrificing the short-circuit current and fill factor. Finally, these results shed light on the origin of open-circuit voltage in perovskite solar cells, and provide a new path to further increase their efficiency« less

  17. Correlation of energy disorder and open-circuit voltage in hybrid perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuchuan; Yuan, Yongbo; Huang, Jinsong

    2016-01-11

    Organometal trihalide perovskites have been demonstrated as excellent light absorbers for high efficiency photovoltaic applications. Previous approaches to increasing the solar cell efficiency have focussed on optimisation of the grain morphology of perovskite thin films. Here, we show that the structural order of the electron-transport layers also has a significant impact on solar cell performance. We demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency of CH3NH3PbI3 planar-heterojunction photovoltaic cells increases from 17.1% to 19.4% when the energy disorder in the fullerene electron-transport layer is reduced by a simple solvent annealing process. The increase in efficiency is the result of the enhancement in open-circuit voltage from 1.04 V to 1.13 V without sacrificing the short-circuit current and fill factor. Finally, these results shed light on the origin of open-circuit voltage in perovskite solar cells, and provide a new path to further increase their efficiency

  18. Correlation of energy disorder and open-circuit voltage in hybrid perovskite solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Shao, Yuchuan; Yuan, Yongbo; Huang, Jinsong

    2016-01-11

    Organometal trihalide perovskites have been demonstrated as excellent light absorbers for high efficiency photovoltaic applications. Previous approaches to increasing the solar cell efficiency have focussed on optimisation of the grain morphology of perovskite thin films. Here, we show that the structural order of the electron-transport layers also has a significant impact on solar cell performance. We demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency of CH3NH3PbI3 planar-heterojunction photovoltaic cells increases from 17.1% to 19.4% when the energy disorder in the fullerene electron-transport layer is reduced by a simple solvent annealing process. The increase in efficiency is the result of the enhancement inmore » open-circuit voltage from 1.04 V to 1.13 V without sacrificing the short-circuit current and fill factor. Lastly, these results shed light on the origin of open-circuit voltage in perovskite solar cells, and provide a new path to further increase their efficiency.« less

  19. Correlation of energy disorder and open-circuit voltage in hybrid perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuchuan; Yuan, Yongbo; Huang, Jinsong

    2016-01-11

    Organometal trihalide perovskites have been demonstrated as excellent light absorbers for high efficiency photovoltaic applications. Previous approaches to increasing the solar cell efficiency have focussed on optimisation of the grain morphology of perovskite thin films. Here, we show that the structural order of the electron-transport layers also has a significant impact on solar cell performance. We demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency of CH3NH3PbI3 planar-heterojunction photovoltaic cells increases from 17.1% to 19.4% when the energy disorder in the fullerene electron-transport layer is reduced by a simple solvent annealing process. The increase in efficiency is the result of the enhancement in open-circuit voltage from 1.04 V to 1.13 V without sacrificing the short-circuit current and fill factor. Lastly, these results shed light on the origin of open-circuit voltage in perovskite solar cells, and provide a new path to further increase their efficiency.

  20. Virtual slides in peer reviewed, open access medical publication

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Application of virtual slides (VS), the digitalization of complete glass slides, is in its infancy to be implemented in routine diagnostic surgical pathology and to issues that are related to tissue-based diagnosis, such as education and scientific publication. Approach Electronic publication in Pathology offers new features of scientific communication in pathology that cannot be obtained by conventional paper based journals. Most of these features are based upon completely open or partly directed interaction between the reader and the system that distributes the article. One of these interactions can be applied to microscopic images allowing the reader to navigate and magnify the presented images. VS and interactive Virtual Microscopy (VM) are a tool to increase the scientific value of microscopic images. Technology and Performance The open access journal Diagnostic Pathology http://www.diagnosticpathology.org has existed for about five years. It is a peer reviewed journal that publishes all types of scientific contributions, including original scientific work, case reports and review articles. In addition to digitized still images the authors of appropriate articles are requested to submit the underlying glass slides to an institution (DiagnomX.eu, and Leica.com) for digitalization and documentation. The images are stored in a separate image data bank which is adequately linked to the article. The normal review process is not involved. Both processes (peer review and VS acquisition) are performed contemporaneously in order to minimize a potential publication delay. VS are not provided with a DOI index (digital object identifier). The first articles that include VS were published in March 2011. Results and Perspectives Several logistic constraints had to be overcome until the first articles including VS could be published. Step by step an automated acquisition and distribution system had to be implemented to the corresponding article. The acceptance of

  1. 42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. 84.97 Section 84.97 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.97 Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. (a)...

  2. Open access part II: the structure, resources, and implications for nurses.

    PubMed

    Nick, Jan

    2011-11-23

    Electronic publishing has changed the landscape for broadcasting scholarly information. Now Open Access is globalizing scholarly work. Open Access facilitates lifelong learning habits; enhances dissemination and distribution of information; impacts the informatics curriculum; supports active learning; and provides areas for nursing informatics research. In the last 10 years the Open Access Movement has formalized into a distinct publishing paradigm. Many free, full-text resources are now available to guide nursing practice. This article describes the Open Access structure, and provides suggestions for using Open Access resources in classroom and practice settings. The nursing community is only beginning to accept and use Open Access. Yet all nurses should be aware of the unique opportunity to obtain free, current, and scholarly information through a variety of avenues and also to incorporate this information into their daily practice. The resources presented in this article can be used to increase nursing knowledge and support evidence-based practice.

  3. Access to Education with Online Learning and Open Educational Resources: Can They Close the Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geith, Christine; Vignare, Karen

    2008-01-01

    One of the key concepts in the right to education is access: access to the means to fully develop as human beings as well as access to the means to gain skills, knowledge and credentials. This is an important perspective through which to examine the solutions to access enabled by Open Educational Resources (OER) and online learning. The authors…

  4. Customized Open Access Journal for Astronomy and Physics/Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Henneken, E.; Kurtz, M. J.; Thompson, D. M.; Murray, S. S.

    2005-12-01

    The ADS provides a search system for over 4.4 million records. It covers astronomy, physics, and geosciences. We continue to extract a large number of references from article reference lists. We now have 18 million citing/cited reference pairs. During the last year we implemented an improved version of the "Private Library". This lets you collect articles in different private libraries. This is for instance useful when writing an article to collect all references for this article and have them available at the click of a button. We recently expanded our customized notification service, called myADS. This service lets you specify several queries that are executed against new entries in the database whenever the database is updated. This is basically an Open Access customized journal. It also informs about new citations to your articles. You can setup these notifications for the Astronomy, Physics/Geosciences, and arXiv e-print databases. The arXiv notification can be daily and/or weekly. This provides the user with a regular view of the relevant literature. The ADS now provides the capability to search the full text of all scanned articles in the ADS. In addition our users can select several other publishers for searching through the same interface. The results are collated and presented as a combined list of search results from all external search systems as well as the ADS internals full text search. The ADS is funded by NASA Grant NCC5-18.

  5. Thermocleavable materials for polymer solar cells with high open circuit voltage-a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Tromholt, Thomas; Gevorgyan, Suren A; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C; Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O

    2009-12-01

    The search for polymer solar cells giving a high open circuit voltage was conducted through a comparative study of four types of bulk-heterojunction solar cells employing different photoactive layers. As electron donors the thermo-cleavable polymer poly-(3-(2-methylhexyloxycarbonyl)dithiophene) (P3MHOCT) and unsubstituted polythiophene (PT) were used, the latter of which results from thermo cleaving the former at 310 degrees C. As reference, P3HT solar cells were built in parallel. As electron acceptors, either PCBM or bis-[60]PCBM were used. In excess of 300 solar cells were produced under as identical conditions as possible, varying only the material combination of the photo active layer. It was observed that on replacing PCBM with bis[60]PCBM, the open circuit voltage on average increased by 100 mV for P3MHOCT and 200 mV for PT solar cells. Open circuit voltages approaching 1 V were observed for the PT:bis[60]PCBM solar cells and a maximum conversion efficiency of 1.3% was obtained for solar cells with P3MHOCT:PCBM as the photoactive material. For the reference solar cells maximum efficiencies of 2.1 and 2.4% were achieved for P3HT:PCBM and P3HT:bis[60]PCBM, respectively. Despite special measures taken in terms of substrate design and device processing, a substantial spread in the photovoltaic properties was generally observed. This spread could not be correlated with the optical properties of the solar cells, the thickness of the photo active layer or the electrode deposition conditions of the aluminum top electrode.

  6. Open Access in the Natural and Social Sciences: The Correspondence of Innovative Moves to Enhance Access, Inclusion and Impact in Scholarly Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armbruster, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Online, open access is the superior model for scholarly communication. A variety of scientific communities in physics, the life sciences and economics have gone furthest in innovating their scholarly communication through open access, enhancing accessibility for scientists, students and the interested public. Open access enjoys a comparative…

  7. Physical mechanisms for reduction of the breakdown voltage in the circuit of a rod lightning protector with an opening microswitch

    SciTech Connect

    Bobrov, Yu. K.; Zhuravkov, I. V.; Ostapenko, E. I.; Starikov, V. V.; Yurgelenas, Yu. V.

    2010-12-15

    The effect of air gap breakdown voltage reduction in the circuit with an opening microswitch is substantiated from the physical point of view. This effect can be used to increase the efficiency of lightning protection system with a rod lightning protector. The processes which take place in the electric circuit of a lightning protector with a microswitch during a voltage breakdown are investigated. Openings of the microswitch are shown to lead to resonance overvoltages in the dc circuit and, as a result, efficient reduction in the breakdown voltage in a lightning protector-thundercloud air gap.

  8. Lifetime measurements by open circuit voltage decay in GaAs and InP diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhimnathwala, H. G.; Tyagi, S. D.; Bothra, S.; Ghandhi, S. K.; Borrego, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Minority carrier lifetimes in the base of solar cells made on GaAs and InP were measured by the open-circuit voltage decay method. The measurement technique and the conditions under which the minority carrier lifetimes can be measured are described. Minority carrier lifetimes ranging from 1.6 to 34 ns in InP of different doping concentrations were measured. A minority carrier lifetime of 6 ns was measured in n-type GaAs, which agrees well with the lifetime of 5.7 ns measured by transient microwave reflection.

  9. Further research on high open circuit voltage in silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, M. B.; Keavney, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a new research on the use of controlled dopant profiles and oxide passivation to achieve high open circuit voltage V sub oc in silicon solar cells is presented. Ion implantation has been used to obtain nearly optimal values of surface dopant concentration. The concentrations are selected so as to minimize heavy doping effects and thereby provide both high blue response and high V sub oc ion implantation technique has been successfully applied to fabrication of both n-type and p-type emitters. V sub oc of up to 660 mV is reported and AMO efficiency of 16.1% has been obtained.

  10. Closed and open breathing circuit function in healthy volunteers during exercise at Mount Everest base camp (5300 m).

    PubMed

    McMorrow, R C N; Windsor, J S; Hart, N D; Richards, P; Rodway, G W; Ahuja, V Y; O'Dwyer, M J; Mythen, M G; Grocott, M P W

    2012-08-01

    We present a randomised, controlled, crossover trial of the Caudwell Xtreme Everest (CXE) closed circuit breathing system vs an open circuit and ambient air control in six healthy, hypoxic volunteers at rest and exercise at Everest Base Camp, at 5300 m. Compared with control, arterial oxygen saturations were improved at rest with both circuits. There was no difference in the magnitude of this improvement as both circuits restored median (IQR [range]) saturation from 75%, (69.5-78.9 [68-80]%) to > 99.8% (p = 0.028). During exercise, the CXE closed circuit improved median (IQR [range]) saturation from a baseline of 70.8% (63.8-74.5 [57-76]%) to 98.8% (96.5-100 [95-100]%) vs the open circuit improvement to 87.5%, (84.1-88.6 [82-89]%; p = 0.028). These data demonstrate the inverse relationship between supply and demand with open circuits and suggest that ambulatory closed circuits may offer twin advantages of supplying higher inspired oxygen concentrations and/or economy of gas use for exercising hypoxic adults.

  11. Open-Access Mega-Journals: A Bibliometric Profile

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Peter; Creaser, Claire; Fry, Jenny; Pinfield, Stephen; Spezi, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the first comprehensive bibliometric analysis of eleven open-access mega-journals (OAMJs). OAMJs are a relatively recent phenomenon, and have been characterised as having four key characteristics: large size; broad disciplinary scope; a Gold-OA business model; and a peer-review policy that seeks to determine only the scientific soundness of the research rather than evaluate the novelty or significance of the work. Our investigation focuses on four key modes of analysis: journal outputs (the number of articles published and changes in output over time); OAMJ author characteristics (nationalities and institutional affiliations); subject areas (the disciplinary scope of OAMJs, and variations in sub-disciplinary output); and citation profiles (the citation distributions of each OAMJ, and the impact of citing journals). We found that while the total output of the eleven mega-journals grew by 14.9% between 2014 and 2015, this growth is largely attributable to the increased output of Scientific Reports and Medicine. We also found substantial variation in the geographical distribution of authors. Several journals have a relatively high proportion of Chinese authors, and we suggest this may be linked to these journals’ high Journal Impact Factors (JIFs). The mega-journals were also found to vary in subject scope, with several journals publishing disproportionately high numbers of articles in certain sub-disciplines. Our citation analsysis offers support for Björk & Catani’s suggestion that OAMJs’s citation distributions can be similar to those of traditional journals, while noting considerable variation in citation rates across the eleven titles. We conclude that while the OAMJ term is useful as a means of grouping journals which share a set of key characteristics, there is no such thing as a “typical” mega-journal, and we suggest several areas for additional research that might help us better understand the current and future role of

  12. The dawn of open access to phylogenetic data.

    PubMed

    Magee, Andrew F; May, Michael R; Moore, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    The scientific enterprise depends critically on the preservation of and open access to published data. This basic tenet applies acutely to phylogenies (estimates of evolutionary relationships among species). Increasingly, phylogenies are estimated from increasingly large, genome-scale datasets using increasingly complex statistical methods that require increasing levels of expertise and computational investment. Moreover, the resulting phylogenetic data provide an explicit historical perspective that critically informs research in a vast and growing number of scientific disciplines. One such use is the study of changes in rates of lineage diversification (speciation--extinction) through time. As part of a meta-analysis in this area, we sought to collect phylogenetic data (comprising nucleotide sequence alignment and tree files) from 217 studies published in 46 journals over a 13-year period. We document our attempts to procure those data (from online archives and by direct request to corresponding authors), and report results of analyses (using Bayesian logistic regression) to assess the impact of various factors on the success of our efforts. Overall, complete phylogenetic data for [Formula: see text] of these studies are effectively lost to science. Our study indicates that phylogenetic data are more likely to be deposited in online archives and/or shared upon request when: (1) the publishing journal has a strong data-sharing policy; (2) the publishing journal has a higher impact factor, and; (3) the data are requested from faculty rather than students. Importantly, our survey spans recent policy initiatives and infrastructural changes; our analyses indicate that the positive impact of these community initiatives has been both dramatic and immediate. Although the results of our study indicate that the situation is dire, our findings also reveal tremendous recent progress in the sharing and preservation of phylogenetic data.

  13. Open-Access Mega-Journals: A Bibliometric Profile.

    PubMed

    Wakeling, Simon; Willett, Peter; Creaser, Claire; Fry, Jenny; Pinfield, Stephen; Spezi, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the first comprehensive bibliometric analysis of eleven open-access mega-journals (OAMJs). OAMJs are a relatively recent phenomenon, and have been characterised as having four key characteristics: large size; broad disciplinary scope; a Gold-OA business model; and a peer-review policy that seeks to determine only the scientific soundness of the research rather than evaluate the novelty or significance of the work. Our investigation focuses on four key modes of analysis: journal outputs (the number of articles published and changes in output over time); OAMJ author characteristics (nationalities and institutional affiliations); subject areas (the disciplinary scope of OAMJs, and variations in sub-disciplinary output); and citation profiles (the citation distributions of each OAMJ, and the impact of citing journals). We found that while the total output of the eleven mega-journals grew by 14.9% between 2014 and 2015, this growth is largely attributable to the increased output of Scientific Reports and Medicine. We also found substantial variation in the geographical distribution of authors. Several journals have a relatively high proportion of Chinese authors, and we suggest this may be linked to these journals' high Journal Impact Factors (JIFs). The mega-journals were also found to vary in subject scope, with several journals publishing disproportionately high numbers of articles in certain sub-disciplines. Our citation analsysis offers support for Björk & Catani's suggestion that OAMJs's citation distributions can be similar to those of traditional journals, while noting considerable variation in citation rates across the eleven titles. We conclude that while the OAMJ term is useful as a means of grouping journals which share a set of key characteristics, there is no such thing as a "typical" mega-journal, and we suggest several areas for additional research that might help us better understand the current and future role of OAMJs in

  14. Fast resonator reset in circuit QED using open quantum system optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutin, Samuel; Andersen, Christian Kraglund; Venkatraman, Jayameenakshi; Blais, Alexandre

    Practical implementations of quantum information processing requires repetitive qubit readout. In circuit QED, where readout is performed using a resonator dispersively coupled to the qubits, the measurement repetition rate is limited by the resonator reset time. This reset is usually performed passively by waiting several resonator decay times. Alternatively, it was recently shown that a simple pulse sequence allows to decrease the reset time to twice the resonator decay time. In this work, we show how to further optimize the ring-down pulse sequence by using optimal control theory for open quantum systems. Using a new implementation of the open GRAPE algorithm that is well suited to large Hilbert spaces, we find active resonator reset procedures that are faster than a single resonator decay time. Simple quantum speed limits for this kind of active reset processes will be discussed

  15. Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage of PbS Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Woojun; Boercker, Janice E.; Lumb, Matthew P.; Placencia, Diogenes; Foos, Edward E.; Tischler, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystal quantum dots (QD) show great promise toward improving solar cell efficiencies through the use of quantum confinement to tune absorbance across the solar spectrum and enable multi-exciton generation. Despite this remarkable potential for high photocurrent generation, the achievable open-circuit voltage (Voc) is fundamentally limited due to non-radiative recombination processes in QD solar cells. Here we report the highest open-circuit voltages to date for colloidal QD based solar cells under one sun illumination. This Voc of 692 ± 7 mV for 1.4 eV PbS QDs is a result of improved passivation of the defective QD surface, demonstrating as a function of the QD bandgap (Eg). Comparing experimental Voc variation with the theoretical upper-limit obtained from one diode modeling of the cells with different Eg, these results clearly demonstrate that there is a tremendous opportunity for improvement of Voc to values greater than 1 V by using smaller QDs in QD solar cells. PMID:23868514

  16. Design and preparation of open circuit potential biosensor for in vitro and in vivo glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Song, Yonggui; Su, Dan; Shen, Yuan; Liu, Hongyu; Wang, Li

    2017-01-01

    A novel open circuit potential biosensor (OCPS) composed of a working electrode and a Ag/AgCl reference electrode was designed for in vivo continuous glucose monitoring in this work. The macroporous carbon derived from kenaf stem (KSC) was used to construct a KSC microelectrode (denoted as KSCME) which was subsequently used to load glucose oxidase (GOD) as the working electrode. The resulting GOD/KSCMEs could catalyze the oxidation of glucose directly to result in changes of the open circuit potential (V oc) of the OCPS. The V oc of OCPS was dependent on the glucose concentration, showing a linear range of 0.03-10.0 mM (R = 0.999) with a detection limit of 10 μM. In addition, the OCPS exhibited good selectivity for glucose over other common endogenous interferences. The feasibility of the proposed OCPS for glucose detection in mice skin tumors and normal tissue homogenate samples (in vitro experiment) and rat subcutaneous glucose monitoring (in vivo experiment) was also demonstrated with satisfactory results. The biosensor represents a novel example of a superficial cancer diagnostic device, and the proposed OCPS also provides new ideas for the development of a simple and highly selective device for continuous glucose sensing.

  17. Kelvin probe force microscopy: imaging open-circuit voltage in optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennyson, Elizabeth; Garrett, Joseph; Frantz, Jesse; Myers, Jason; Bekele, Robel; Sanghera, Jasbinder; Munday, Jeremy; Leite, Marina

    2015-03-01

    Scanning probe microscopy has been successfully implemented to probe the electrical characteristics of optoelectronic devices. Currently, a method that directly correlates measured signals to device performance is missing. We implement illuminated Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) to spatially resolve the open-circuit voltage of optoelectronics with nanoscale resolution, 5 orders of magnitude better than previous methods. In illuminated-KPFM, the surface photovoltage, is the difference between the contact potential difference under illumination and in the dark, and proportional to the Fermi level splitting. We apply our imaging method to a variety of solar cells and find that the open-circuit voltage in some materials varies locally by >0.2 V, suggesting the spatial variation of non-radiative recombination strongly affects performance. A detailed examination of possible topography pick-up was excluded by measuring samples with modified surface morphology and considering the tip-sample separation dependence of the signal. This novel metrology enables new insights into the loss mechanisms that hinder solar cells and provides a new platform to image device performance with nanoscale resolution.

  18. Effect of energetic disorder on the open-circuit voltage in organic bulk heterojunction composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Kazuhiko; Marumoto, Kazuhiro; Tachiya, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    Under open-circuit condition, the current is not extracted and the photogenerated carriers in principle disappear only by recombination. We study the open-circuit voltage V_{\\text{OC}} and transient photovoltage under the effect of bulk recombination in a medium with energetic disorder by using the multiple trapping (MT) model. The key parameter in the MT model is the dispersion parameter \\alpha given by the ratio of thermal energy to the characteristic energy of trap states. We show that V_{\\text{OC}} depends linearly on the logarithm of the light intensity and the slope depends on the \\alpha of the MT model. Under the continuous irradiation of light, the photovoltage response to the weak perturbation by a pulsed light obeys pseudo-first-order decay. The rate as a function of V_{\\text{OC}} is independent of the dispersion parameter. However, it obeys the power law as a function of light intensity, and the exponent is given by 1/(1 + \\alpha ), which reduces to 1/2 in the absence of energetic disorder.

  19. Surface study of films formed on copper and brass at open circuit potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procaccini, R.; Schreiner, W. H.; Vázquez, M.; Ceré, S.

    2013-03-01

    The corrosion resistance of Cu-Zn alloys strongly depends on the quality of the protective passive film. This study focuses on the influence of Zn on the composition of oxide films on copper and brass (Cu77Zn21Al2) in borax 0.1 mol L-1 (pH 9.2) solution, where the solubility of copper oxides is minimal. The effect of the presence of chloride ions at low concentration (0.01 mol L-1) in the electrolyte was also evaluated. Both conditions were studied using a set of different electrochemical, optical and surface techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, differential reflectance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. A duplex Cu2O/CuO layer forms on copper at potentials positive to the open circuit potential (OCP), while in the case of brass, zinc compounds are also incorporated to the surface film. It also became evident that a surface film can be formed on these materials even at potentials negative to the OCP. Zn(II) species are the main constituents of the films growing on brass, while copper oxides are incorporated to the surface film when approaching the OCP. The presence of chloride ions at low concentrations contributes to the dissolution of the oxo-hydroxides formed during the early stages of the aging process at open circuit potential. Also, copper chloro-compounds are formed, as shown by Raman spectroscopy for both copper and brass electrodes.

  20. The Starchive: An open access, open source archive of nearby and young stars and their planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Angelle; Gelino, Chris; Elfeki, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Historically, astronomers have utilized a piecemeal set of archives such as SIMBAD, the Washington Double Star Catalog, various exoplanet encyclopedias and electronic tables from the literature to cobble together stellar and exo-planetary parameters in the absence of corresponding images and spectra. As the search for planets around young stars through direct imaging, transits and infrared/optical radial velocity surveys blossoms, there is a void in the available set of to create comprehensive lists of the stellar parameters of nearby stars especially for important parameters such as metallicity and stellar activity indicators. For direct imaging surveys, we need better resources for downloading existing high contrast images to help confirm new discoveries and find ideal target stars. Once we have discovered new planets, we need a uniform database of stellar and planetary parameters from which to look for correlations to better understand the formation and evolution of these systems. As a solution to these issues, we are developing the Starchive - an open access stellar archive in the spirit of the open exoplanet catalog, the Kepler Community Follow-up Program and many others. The archive will allow users to download various datasets, upload new images, spectra and metadata and will contain multiple plotting tools to use in presentations and data interpretations. While we will highly regulate and constantly validate the data being placed into our archive the open nature of its design is intended to allow the database to be expanded efficiently and have a level of versatility which is necessary in today's fast moving, big data community. Finally, the front-end scripts will be placed on github and users will be encouraged to contribute new plotting tools. Here, I will introduce the community to the content and expected capabilities of the archive and query the audience for community feedback.

  1. Open access is almost here: navigating through copyright, fair use, and the TEACH Act.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Margaret G

    2010-02-01

    Dealing with the complexities of copyright, fair use, the TEACH Act, and the concept of open access can confuse even the most experienced educator. Online education has added to the dilemma. This article discusses the latest information on copyright issues, current guidelines for interpreting fair use and incorporating the TEACH Act, and recent developments in open access publishing.

  2. Acceptance and Adoption of Open Access Publication (OAP) in University Libraries in South East Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambe, Manasseh Tyungu; Raphael, Gabriel Okplogidi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the kinds of open access scholarly publication or information resources accepted and adopted by federal university libraries in South East Nigeria. The purpose was to determine the factors that affect open access scholarly publication or information resources acceptance and adoption in university libraries. The study adopted…

  3. 46 CFR 154.1868 - Portable blowers in personnel access openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable blowers in personnel access openings. 154.1868 Section 154.1868 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Portable blowers in personnel access openings. The master shall ensure that a portable blower in...

  4. Analysis of FERC's Final EIS for Electricity Open Access & Recovery of Stranded Costs

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) prepared by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for its electricity transmission system open access prepared in April 1996 and uses the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to analyze the open access rule (Orders 888 and 889).

  5. Open-Access Colleges Responsible for Greatest Gains in Graduation Rates. Policy Alert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.

    2010-01-01

    The largest gains in graduation rates over the past decade have been accomplished at open-access or nearly open-access colleges and universities. In addition, states could see even bigger increases if they directed their policies and supports toward improving graduation rates at these nonselective institutions. These findings from the author's…

  6. Strategies for Success: Open Access Policies at North American Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruin, Christine; Sutton, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the paucity of quantitative and qualitative data from North American educational institutions that have pursued open access policies, the authors devised a survey to collect information on the characteristics of these institutions, as well as the elements of the open access policies, the methods of promoting these policies, faculty…

  7. 50 CFR 660.24 - Limited entry and open access fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited entry and open access fisheries... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.24 Limited entry and open access fisheries. (a) General. All commercial fishing for groundfish must be conducted in accordance with the regulations governing limited entry and...

  8. EUA's Open Access Checklist for Universities: A Practical Guide on Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morais, Rita; Lourenço, Joana; Smith, John H.; Borrell-Damian, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Open Access (OA) to research publications has received increased attention from the academic community, scientific publishers, research funding agencies and governments. This movement has been growing exponentially in recent years, both in terms of the increasing number of Open Access journals and the proliferation of policies on this topic. The…

  9. The Future of Open Access Publishing in the Netherlands: Constant Dripping Wears Away the Stone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woutersen-Windhouwer, Saskia

    2013-01-01

    At present, about 20% of the scientific publications worldwide are freely (open-access) available (Bjork, Welling, Laakso, Majlender, Hedlund, & Guonason, 2010) and this percentage is constantly on the rise. In the Netherlands, a similar trend is visible (see Fig. 1). Why is open-access (OA) publishing important, and why will it become even…

  10. Perspective on Open-Access Publishing: An Interview with Peter Suber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Reid; Suber, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this edition of Perspectives, Reid Cornwell discusses open-access publishing with Peter Suber, senior researcher at the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition, senior research professor of philosophy at Earlham College, and currently visiting fellow at Yale Law School. Open access means that scholarly work is freely and openly…

  11. Supporting open access to clinical trial data for researchers: The Duke Clinical Research Institute-Bristol-Myers Squibb Supporting Open Access to Researchers Initiative.

    PubMed

    Pencina, Michael J; Louzao, Darcy M; McCourt, Brian J; Adams, Monique R; Tayyabkhan, Rehbar H; Ronco, Peter; Peterson, Eric D

    2016-02-01

    There are growing calls for sponsors to increase transparency by providing access to clinical trial data. In response, Bristol-Myers Squibb and the Duke Clinical Research Institute have collaborated on a new initiative, Supporting Open Access to Researchers. The aim is to facilitate open sharing of Bristol-Myers Squibb trial data with interested researchers. Key features of the Supporting Open Access to Researchers data sharing model include an independent review committee that ensures expert consideration of each proposal, stringent data deidentification/anonymization and protection of patient privacy, requirement of prespecified statistical analysis plans, and independent review of manuscripts before submission for publication. We believe that these approaches will promote open science by allowing investigators to verify trial results as well as to pursue interesting secondary uses of trial data without compromising scientific integrity.

  12. Patterns of citations of open access and non-open access conservation biology journal papers and book chapters.

    PubMed

    Calver, Michael C; Bradley, J Stuart

    2010-06-01

    Open access (OA) publishing, whereby authors, their institutions, or their granting bodies pay or provide a repository through which peer-reviewed work is available online for free, is championed as a model to increase the number of citations per paper and disseminate results widely, especially to researchers in developing countries. We compared the number of citations of OA and non-OA papers in six journals and four books published since 2000 to test whether OA increases number of citations overall and increases citations made by authors in developing countries. After controlling for type of paper (e.g., review or research paper), length of paper, authors' citation profiles, number of authors per paper, and whether the author or the publisher released the paper in OA, OA had no statistically significant influence on the overall number of citations per journal paper. Journal papers were cited more frequently if the authors had published highly cited papers previously, were members of large teams of authors, or published relatively long papers, but papers were not cited more frequently if they were published in an OA source. Nevertheless, author-archived OA book chapters accrued up to eight times more citations than chapters in the same book that were not available through OA, perhaps because there is no online abstracting service for book chapters. There was also little evidence that journal papers or book chapters published in OA received more citations from authors in developing countries relative to those journal papers or book chapters not published in OA. For scholarly publications in conservation biology, only book chapters had an OA citation advantage, and OA did not increase the number of citations papers or chapters received from authors in developing countries.

  13. Open-access databases as unprecedented resources and drivers of cultural change in fisheries science

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Utz, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Open-access databases with utility in fisheries science have grown exponentially in quantity and scope over the past decade, with profound impacts to our discipline. The management, distillation, and sharing of an exponentially growing stream of open-access data represents several fundamental challenges in fisheries science. Many of the currently available open-access resources may not be universally known among fisheries scientists. We therefore introduce many national- and global-scale open-access databases with applications in fisheries science and provide an example of how they can be harnessed to perform valuable analyses without additional field efforts. We also discuss how the development, maintenance, and utilization of open-access data are likely to pose technical, financial, and educational challenges to fisheries scientists. Such cultural implications that will coincide with the rapidly increasing availability of free data should compel the American Fisheries Society to actively address these problems now to help ease the forthcoming cultural transition.

  14. The Growing Impact of Open Access Distance Education Journals: A Bibliometric Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Anderson, Terry; Tuncay, Nazime

    2010-01-01

    Open access dissemination resonates with many distance education researchers and practitioners because it aligns with their fundamental mission of extending access to learning opportunity. However, there remains lingering doubt whether this increase in access comes at a cost of reducing prestige, value (often determined in promotion and tenure…

  15. Usage Trends of Open Access and Local Journals: A Korean Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hosik; Yun, Jungmin; Park, Jin Young; Park, Eunsun; Ahn, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Articles from open access and local journals are important resources for research in Korea and the usage trends of these articles are important indicators for the assessment of the current research practice. We analyzed an institutional collection of published papers from 1998 to 2014 authored by researchers from Seoul National University, and their references from papers published between 1998 and 2011. The published papers were collected from Web of Science or Scopus and were analyzed according to the proportion of articles from open access journals. Their cited references from published papers in Web of Science were analyzed according to the proportion of local (South Korean) or open access journals. The proportion of open access papers was relatively stable until 2006 (2.5 ~ 5.2% in Web of Science and 2.7 ~ 4.2% in Scopus), but then increased to 15.9% (Web of Science) or 18.5% (Scopus) in 2014. We analyzed 2,750,485 cited references from 52,295 published papers. We found that the overall proportion of cited articles from local journals was 1.8% and that for open access journals was 3.0%. Citations of open access articles have increased since 2006 to 4.1% in 2011, although the increase in open access article citations was less than for open access publications. The proportion of citations from local journals was even lower. We think that the publishing / citing mismatch is a term to describe this difference, which is an issue at Seoul National University, where the number of published papers at open access or local journals is increasing but the number of citations is not. The cause of this discrepancy is multi-factorial but the governmental / institutional policies, social / cultural issues and authors' citing behaviors will explain the mismatch. However, additional measures are also necessary, such as the development of an institutional citation database and improved search capabilities with respect to local and open access documents. PMID:27195948

  16. Usage Trends of Open Access and Local Journals: A Korean Case Study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Wook; Chung, Hosik; Yun, Jungmin; Park, Jin Young; Park, Eunsun; Ahn, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Articles from open access and local journals are important resources for research in Korea and the usage trends of these articles are important indicators for the assessment of the current research practice. We analyzed an institutional collection of published papers from 1998 to 2014 authored by researchers from Seoul National University, and their references from papers published between 1998 and 2011. The published papers were collected from Web of Science or Scopus and were analyzed according to the proportion of articles from open access journals. Their cited references from published papers in Web of Science were analyzed according to the proportion of local (South Korean) or open access journals. The proportion of open access papers was relatively stable until 2006 (2.5 ~ 5.2% in Web of Science and 2.7 ~ 4.2% in Scopus), but then increased to 15.9% (Web of Science) or 18.5% (Scopus) in 2014. We analyzed 2,750,485 cited references from 52,295 published papers. We found that the overall proportion of cited articles from local journals was 1.8% and that for open access journals was 3.0%. Citations of open access articles have increased since 2006 to 4.1% in 2011, although the increase in open access article citations was less than for open access publications. The proportion of citations from local journals was even lower. We think that the publishing / citing mismatch is a term to describe this difference, which is an issue at Seoul National University, where the number of published papers at open access or local journals is increasing but the number of citations is not. The cause of this discrepancy is multi-factorial but the governmental / institutional policies, social / cultural issues and authors' citing behaviors will explain the mismatch. However, additional measures are also necessary, such as the development of an institutional citation database and improved search capabilities with respect to local and open access documents.

  17. Open access, readership, citations: a randomized controlled trial of scientific journal publishing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Philip M

    2011-07-01

    Does free access to journal articles result in greater diffusion of scientific knowledge? Using a randomized controlled trial of open access publishing, involving 36 participating journals in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities, we report on the effects of free access on article downloads and citations. Articles placed in the open access condition (n=712) received significantly more downloads and reached a broader audience within the first year, yet were cited no more frequently, nor earlier, than subscription-access control articles (n=2533) within 3 yr. These results may be explained by social stratification, a process that concentrates scientific authors at a small number of elite research universities with excellent access to the scientific literature. The real beneficiaries of open access publishing may not be the research community but communities of practice that consume, but rarely contribute to, the corpus of literature.

  18. 30 CFR 291.113 - What actions may MMS take to remedy denial of open and nondiscriminatory access?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... open and nondiscriminatory access? 291.113 Section 291.113 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPEALS OPEN AND NONDISCRIMINATORY ACCESS TO OIL AND GAS PIPELINES... grantee or transporter has not provided open access or nondiscriminatory access, then the decision...

  19. 76 FR 17430 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activities: 1010-0172, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...: 1010-0172, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines; Comment Request AGENCY: Bureau...: Title: 30 CFR Part 291, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines under the OCS Lands... nondiscriminatory access to both owner and non-owner shippers* * * .'' Ensuring open and nondiscriminatory access...

  20. Open Textbooks and Increased Student Access and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Andrew; Martin, Mirta; Hudson, Amy; Warren, Kiara; Hilton, John, III; Wiley, David

    2012-01-01

    This study reports findings from a year-long pilot study during which 991 students in 9 core courses in the Virginia State University School of Business replaced traditional textbooks with openly licensed books and other digital content. The university made a deliberate decision to use open textbooks that were copyrighted under the Creative…

  1. The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access: an evidence-based review

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, Jonathan P.; Waldner, François; Jacques, Damien C.; Masuzzo, Paola; Collister, Lauren B.; Hartgerink, Chris. H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing debates surrounding Open Access to the scholarly literature are multifaceted and complicated by disparate and often polarised viewpoints from engaged stakeholders. At the current stage, Open Access has become such a global issue that it is critical for all involved in scholarly publishing, including policymakers, publishers, research funders, governments, learned societies, librarians, and academic communities, to be well-informed on the history, benefits, and pitfalls of Open Access. In spite of this, there is a general lack of consensus regarding the potential pros and cons of Open Access at multiple levels. This review aims to be a resource for current knowledge on the impacts of Open Access by synthesizing important research in three major areas: academic, economic and societal. While there is clearly much scope for additional research, several key trends are identified, including a broad citation advantage for researchers who publish openly, as well as additional benefits to the non-academic dissemination of their work. The economic impact of Open Access is less well-understood, although it is clear that access to the research literature is key for innovative enterprises, and a range of governmental and non-governmental services. Furthermore, Open Access has the potential to save both publishers and research funders considerable amounts of financial resources, and can provide some economic benefits to traditionally subscription-based journals. The societal impact of Open Access is strong, in particular for advancing citizen science initiatives, and leveling the playing field for researchers in developing countries. Open Access supersedes all potential alternative modes of access to the scholarly literature through enabling unrestricted re-use, and long-term stability independent of financial constraints of traditional publishers that impede knowledge sharing. However, Open Access has the potential to become unsustainable for research communities if

  2. The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Jonathan P; Waldner, François; Jacques, Damien C; Masuzzo, Paola; Collister, Lauren B; Hartgerink, Chris H J

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing debates surrounding Open Access to the scholarly literature are multifaceted and complicated by disparate and often polarised viewpoints from engaged stakeholders. At the current stage, Open Access has become such a global issue that it is critical for all involved in scholarly publishing, including policymakers, publishers, research funders, governments, learned societies, librarians, and academic communities, to be well-informed on the history, benefits, and pitfalls of Open Access. In spite of this, there is a general lack of consensus regarding the potential pros and cons of Open Access at multiple levels. This review aims to be a resource for current knowledge on the impacts of Open Access by synthesizing important research in three major areas: academic, economic and societal. While there is clearly much scope for additional research, several key trends are identified, including a broad citation advantage for researchers who publish openly, as well as additional benefits to the non-academic dissemination of their work. The economic impact of Open Access is less well-understood, although it is clear that access to the research literature is key for innovative enterprises, and a range of governmental and non-governmental services. Furthermore, Open Access has the potential to save both publishers and research funders considerable amounts of financial resources, and can provide some economic benefits to traditionally subscription-based journals. The societal impact of Open Access is strong, in particular for advancing citizen science initiatives, and leveling the playing field for researchers in developing countries. Open Access supersedes all potential alternative modes of access to the scholarly literature through enabling unrestricted re-use, and long-term stability independent of financial constraints of traditional publishers that impede knowledge sharing. However, Open Access has the potential to become unsustainable for research communities if

  3. High open circuit voltages of solar cells based on quantum dot and dye hybrid-sensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yujie; Zhao, Wanyu; Chen, Jingkuo; Li, Huayang; Fu, Wuyou E-mail: fuwy56@163.com; Sun, Guang; Cao, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhanying; Bala, Hari E-mail: fuwy56@163.com

    2014-01-06

    A type of solar cell based on quantum dot (QD) and dye hybrid-sensitized mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film electrode was designed and reported. The electrode was consisted of a TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle (NP) thin film layer sensitized with CdS quantum dot (QD) and an amorphous TiO{sub 2} coated TiO{sub 2} NP thin film layer that sensitized with C106 dye. The amorphous TiO{sub 2} layer was obtained by TiCl{sub 4} post-treatment to improve the properties of solar cells. Research showed that the solar cells fabricated with as-prepared hybrid-sensitized electrode exhibited excellent photovoltaic performances and a fairly high open circuit voltage of 796 mV was achieved.

  4. Lithium-ion Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) curve modelling and its ageing adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, L.; Sabatier, J.; Francisco, J. Mbala; Guillemard, F.; Noury, A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper is a contribution to lithium-ion batteries modelling taking into account aging effects. It first analyses the impact of aging on electrode stoichiometry and then on lithium-ion cell Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) curve. Through some hypotheses and an appropriate definition of the cell state of charge, it shows that each electrode equilibrium potential, but also the whole cell equilibrium potential can be modelled by a polynomial that requires only one adjustment parameter during aging. An adjustment algorithm, based on the idea that for two fixed OCVs, the state of charge between these two equilibrium states is unique for a given aging level, is then proposed. Its efficiency is evaluated on a battery pack constituted of four cells.

  5. Enhancement in open circuit voltage through a cascade-type energy band structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sista, Srinivas; Yao, Yan; Yang, Yang; Tang, Ming Lee; Bao, Zhenan

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we report a method to increase the open-circuit voltage (VOC) of an organic solar cell by inserting an interfacial layer between the donor and acceptor layers to form a cascade-type energy band structure. We demonstrate its feasibility using a recently reported asymmetric pentacene derivative, tetraceno[2,3-b]thiophene (TT) as a donor material, C60 as an acceptor material, and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) as the sandwich layer. The VOC was increased from 0.3V for the device with no CuPc sandwich layer to 0.56V for 13nm thick CuPc layer. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device with 13nm CuPc layer was 1.53% and the fill factor (FF) was 0.64, in comparison to TT /C60 device which had a PCE of 0.78% and a FF of 0.52.

  6. Organic-silicon heterojunction solar cells: Open-circuit voltage potential and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jan; Titova, Valeriya; Zielke, Dimitri

    2013-10-01

    We characterize the electronic properties of crystalline silicon (c-Si)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) junctions by means of contactless carrier lifetime measurements. The measurements demonstrate that this type of heterojunction has an unexpectedly high open-circuit voltage (Voc) potential exceeding 690 mV, making it relevant for the implementation into high-efficiency c-Si solar cells. Hybrid n-type c-Si solar cells featuring a PEDOT:PSS hole-transport layer on the front reach an energy conversion efficiency of 12.3%. We observe a humidity-related degradation in cell efficiency during storage in air. The degradation is reduced by capping the entire device by an atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide film and is completely avoided in a dehumidified environment.

  7. Relation Between Open Circuit Potential and Polarization Resistance with Rust and Corrosion Monitoring of Mild Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, S.; Garg, A.; Mondal, K.

    2016-07-01

    The present work discusses continuous corrosion assessment from a unique correlation of open circuit potential (OCP) and linear polarization resistance with rust formation on mild steel after prolong exposure in 3.5% NaCl salt fog environment. The OCP measurement and linear polarization tests were carried out of the rusted samples only without the removal of rust. It also discusses the strong influence of the composition, fraction, and morphology of the rust layers with OCP and linear polarization resistance. The rust characterization was done after the measurement of OCP and linear polarization resistance of the rusted steel samples. Therefore, monitoring of both the OCP and linear polarization resistance of the rusted mild steels coupled with rust characterization could be used for easy and dynamic assessment of the nature of corrosion.

  8. Super NiCd Open-Circuit Storage and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Life Test Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Jean Marie; Hwang, Warren C.; Ang, Valerie J.; Hayden, Jeff; Rao, Gopalakrishna; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation discusses Air Force tests performed on super NiCd cells to measure their performance under conditions simulating Low Earth Orbit (LEO) conditions. Super NiCd cells offer potential advantages over existing NiCd cell designs including advanced cell design with improved separator material and electrode making processes, but handling and storage requires active charging. These tests conclude that the super NiCd cells support generic Air Force qualifications for conventional LEO missions (up to five years duration) and that handling and storage may not actually require active charging as previously assumed. Topics covered include: Test Plan, Initial Characterization Tests, Open-Circuit Storage Tests, and post storage capacities.

  9. High Open-Circuit Voltage Solar Cells Based on Organic-Inorganic Lead Bromide Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Edri, Eran; Kirmayer, Saar; Cahen, David; Hodes, Gary

    2013-03-21

    Mesoscopic solar cells, based on solution-processed organic-inorganic perovskite absorbers, are a promising avenue for converting solar to electrical energy. We used solution-processed organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite absorbers, in conjunction with organic hole conductors, to form high voltage solar cells. There is a dire need for low-cost cells of this type, to drive electrochemical reactions or as the high photon energy cell in a system with spectral splitting. These perovskite materials, although spin-coated from solution, form highly crystalline materials. Their simple synthesis, along with high chemical versatility, allows tuning their electronic and optical properties. By judicious selection of the perovskite lead halide-based absorber, matching organic hole conductor, and contacts, a cell with a ∼ 1.3 V open circuit voltage was made. While further study is needed, this achievement provides a general guideline for additional improvement of cell performance.

  10. The Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell with high open circuit voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Min; Ma, Xun; Jiang, Zhi; Li, Zhishan; Liu, Sijia; Lu, Yilei; Wang, Shurong

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the effects of two different sulfurization processes on the CZTS films were investigated, and the results indicated that a rapid high-temperature crystallization process after sulfurization was beneficial for CZTS thin films to obtain a compact and flat surface with large grains. However, a common sulfurization without rapid high-temperature crystallization process would easily lead to undesirable properties of films, such as rough surface with pin holes, which degenerate the performance of devices. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cell based on a rapid high-temperature process after sulfurization achieved a high open circuit voltage of 722 mV and the best efficiency 3.32% was obtained.

  11. Open Access to General Practice Was Associated with Burnout among General Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Vedsted, Peter; Sokolowski, Ineta; Olesen, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Walk-in open access in general practice may influence the general practitioner's (GP's) work, but very little research has been done on the consequences. In this study from Danish general practice, we compare the prevalence of burnout between GPs with a walk-in open access and those without. In a questionnaire study (2004), we approached all 458 active GPs in the county of Aarhus, Denmark, and 376 (82.8%) GPs returned the questionnaire. Walk-in open access was defined as at least 30 minutes every weekday where patients could attend practice without an appointment. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Analyses using logistic regression were adjusted for gender, age, marital status, job satisfaction, minutes per consultation, practice organisation, working hours, number of listed patients per GP, number of contacts per GP, continuing medical education- (CME-) activities, and clusters of GPs. In all, 8% of GPs had open access and the prevalence of burnout was 24%. GPs with walk-in open access were more likely to suffer from burnout. Having open access was associated with a 3-fold increased likelihood of burnout (OR = 3.1 (95% CI: 1.1-8.8, P = 0.035)). Although the design cannot establish causality, it is recommended to closely monitor possible negative consequences of open access in general practice.

  12. Do open access biomedical journals benefit smaller countries? The Slovenian experience.

    PubMed

    Turk, Nana

    2011-06-01

    Scientists from smaller countries have problems gaining visibility for their research. Does open access publishing provide a solution? Slovenia is a small country with around 5000 medical doctors, 1300 dentists and 1000 pharmacists. A search of Slovenia's Bibliographic database was carried out to identity all biomedical journals and those which are open access. Slovenia has 18 medical open access journals, but none has an impact factor and only 10 are indexed by Slovenian and international bibliographic databases. The visibility and quality of medical papers is poor. The solution might be to reduce the number of journals and encourage Slovenian scientists to publish their best articles in them.

  13. Revisiting an open access monograph experiment: measuring citations and tweets 5 years later.

    PubMed

    Snijder, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    An experiment run in 2009 could not assess whether making monographs available in open access enhanced scholarly impact. This paper revisits the experiment, drawing on additional citation data and tweets. It attempts to answer the following research question: does open access have a positive influence on the number of citations and tweets a monograph receives, taking into account the influence of scholarly field and language? The correlation between monograph citations and tweets is also investigated. The number of citations and tweets measured in 2014 reveal a slight open access advantage, but the influence of language or subject should also be taken into account. However, Twitter usage and citation behaviour hardly overlap.

  14. The Academic Ethics of Open Access to Research and Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willinsky, John; Alperin, Juan Pablo

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present the case for regarding the principles by which scholarly publications are disseminated and shared as a matter of academic ethics. The ethics of access have to do with recognizing people's right to know what is known, as well as the value to humanity of having one of its best forms of arriving at knowledge as widely…

  15. NSF Anticipates Pushing Boundaries on Open-Access Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF), in carrying out the Obama administration's new push for greater public access to research published in scientific journals, will consider exclusivity periods shorter than the 12-month standard in the White House directive, as well as trade-offs involving data-sharing and considerations of publishers'…

  16. Publishing Research Results: The Challenges of Open Access. Policy Briefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Governments, public funders of research and universities worldwide are increasingly recognising that improving the dissemination of research raises their research profile and contributes to national competitiveness. The traditional system of research publishing is inefficient, uncompetitive and restrictive. It limits access by researchers and…

  17. Past and Present Scenario of Open Access Movement in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawant, Sarika

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of open archives developed during the period of 2004-2012 in India including institutional, subject, cross repositories, etc. It also depicts the actions taken by the Indian government in response to the OA developments. The paper highlights that there are one cross institutional repository, three cross institutional…

  18. Scientific Journal Publishing: Yearly Volume and Open Access Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Bo-Christer; Roos, Annikki; Lauri, Mari

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: We estimate the total yearly volume of peer-reviewed scientific journal articles published world-wide as well as the share of these articles available openly on the Web either directly or as copies in e-print repositories. Method: We rely on data from two commercial databases (ISI and Ulrich's Periodicals Directory) supplemented by…

  19. Going beyond the textbook: The need to integrate open access primary literature into the Chemistry curriculum.

    PubMed

    Pence, Harry E; Losoff, Barbara

    2011-04-06

    Unrestricted, open access to scholarly scientific literature provides an opportunity for chemistry educators to go beyond the textbook, introducing students to the real work of scientists. Despite the best efforts of textbook authors to provide information about recent research results, textbooks are not a substitute for learning to use the primary literature. Chemical educators can use open access articles to develop research-related skills, to foster curiosity, and to cultivate the next generation of scientists. It is becoming increasingly important for chemical educators to teach undergraduates how online journals are changing the nature of chemical research. Some institutions can not afford online subscription costs, and open access journals can be an important resource to provide practical experience. Open access publications eliminate the barriers to the central work of scientists providing chemistry educators (whether at well-endowed or economically limited colleges) with the key resources for enhancing student learning through current, relevant research.

  20. 30 CFR 18.29 - Access openings and covers, including unused lead-entrance holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.29 Access openings and covers,...

  1. 30 CFR 18.29 - Access openings and covers, including unused lead-entrance holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.29 Access openings and covers,...

  2. Access under Siege: Are the Gains of Open Education Keeping Pace with the Growing Barriers to University Access?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcott, Don, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional and affordable access to a university education is under siege from all sides. National realpolitiks and global economic downturns have driven open education into the mainstream to stand against educational elitism, the growing digital divide, and to support the core values that give education its fundamental credence as a human right.…

  3. Anomalous open-circuit voltage from a high-Tc superconducting dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumby, C. W.; Jiang, Zhenan; Storey, J. G.; Pantoja, A. E.; Badcock, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    We report on the behavior of a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) homopolar dynamo which outputs a DC open-circuit voltage when the stator is in the superconducting state, but behaves as a conventional AC alternator when the stator is in the normal state. We observe that this time-averaged DC voltage arises from a change in the shape of the AC voltage waveform that is obtained from a normal conducting stator. The measured DC voltage is proportional to frequency, and decreases with increasing flux gap between the rotor magnet and the HTS stator wire. We observe that the DC output voltage decreases to zero at large flux gaps, although small differences between the normal-conducting and superconducting waveforms are still observed, which we attribute to screening currents in the HTS stator wire. Importantly, the normalised pulse shape is found to be a function of the rotor position angle only. Based on these observations, we suggest that the origin of this unexpected DC effect can be explained by a model first proposed by Giaever, which considers the impact of time-varying circulating eddy currents within the HTS stator wire. Such circulating currents form a superconducting shunt path which "short-circuits" the high field region directly beneath the rotor magnet, at those points in the cycle when the rotor magnet partially overlaps the superconducting stator wire. This reduces the output voltage from the device during these periods of the rotor cycle, leading to partial rectification of the output voltage waveform and hence the emergence of a time-averaged DC voltage.

  4. Hyaluronan Based Heparin Free Coated Open and Closed Extracorporeal Circuits for High Risk Coronary Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Gunaydin, Serdar; Ucar, Halil Ibrahim; Serter, Tanzer; McCusker, Kevin; Ozcelik, Gokhan; Salman, Nevriye; Yorgancioglu, Ali Cem

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: This prospective randomized study compares the inflammatory response and fibrinolytic activation of fully coated/uncoated and open/closed extracorporeal circuits (ECC) in high risk patients. Over a 2-month period, 48 patients with EuroSCOREs 6 or greater undergoing coronary revascularization were pro spectively randomized to one of the four perfusion protocols: Group 1: Closed and totally hyaluronan based heparin free coated (Vision HFO-GBS-HF™, Gish Biomedical, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA) ECC with a soft-shell coated venous reservoir (SVR11S2-HFC™, Gish Biomedical) and a hard-shell cardiotomy (CAPVRF44, Gish Biomedical) (n = 12); Group 2: Closed and totally uncoated identical ECC with soft-shell uncoated venous reservoir and a hard-shell cardiotomy (n = 12); Group 3: Open, totally hyaluronan based heparin free coated ECC (n = 12); and Group 4: Control-open, uncoated ECC (n = 12). Blood samples were collected at T1: Baseline; T2: 15 minutes after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) initiation; T3: before cessation of CPB; T4: 15 minutes after protamine reversal, and T5: in the intensive care unit. Serum IL-6 levels were significantly lower at T2 in all study groups, at T3 for coated groups, and T4 for closed+coated group (p < .05 versus control). Creatine kinase M-band (MB) levels in coronary sinus blood demonstrated well preserved myocardium after CPB in both coated groups versus Control (p < .05). Neutrophil CD11b/CD18 levels were significantly lower for all study groups versus control at T2, for both coated groups at T3 and only for closed+coated group at T4 (p < .05). Postoperative hemorrhage (mL) was 510 ± 40 in closed+coated and 536 ± 40 in open+coated groups (control: 784 ± 48, p ≤ .05). No significant differences in thrombin-antithrombin complex and free plasma hemoglobin were observed. Desorbed protein amount on ECC (mg/dL) was 1.7 ± .01 in closed+coated, 2.01 ± .01 in open+coated, and 3.3 ± .015 in control groups (p ≤ .05). Use of a

  5. Hyaluronan based heparin free coated open and closed extracorporeal circuits for high risk coronary revascularization.

    PubMed

    Gunaydin, Serdar; Ucar, Halil Ibrahim; Serter, Tanzer; McCusker, Kevin; Ozcelik, Gokhan; Salman, Nevriye; Yorgancioglu, Ali Cem

    2010-12-01

    This prospective randomized study compares the inflammatory response and fibrinolytic activation of fully coated/uncoated and open/closed extracorporeal circuits (ECC) in high risk patients. Over a 2-month period, 48 patients with EuroSCOREs 6 or greater undergoing coronary revascularization were prospectively randomized to one of the four perfusion protocols: Group 1: Closed and totally hyaluronan based heparin free coated (Vision HFO-GBS-HF, Gish Biomedical, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA) ECC with a soft-shell coated venous reservoir (SVR11S2-HFC, Gish Biomedical) and a hard-shell cardiotomy (CAPVRF44, Gish Biomedical) (n = 12); Group 2: Closed and totally uncoated identical ECC with soft-shell uncoated venous reservoir and a hard-shell cardiotomy (n = 12); Group 3: Open, totally hyaluronan based heparin free coated ECC (n = 12); and Group 4: Control-open, uncoated ECC (n = 12). Blood samples were collected at T1: Baseline; T2: 15 minutes after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) initiation; T3: before cessation of CPB; T4: 15 minutes after protamine reversal, and T5: in the intensive care unit. Serum IL-6 levels were significantly lower at T2 in all study groups, at T3 for coated groups, and T4 for closed+coated group (p < .05 versus control). Creatine kinase M-band (MB) levels in coronary sinus blood demonstrated well preserved myocardium after CPB in both coated groups versus Control (p < .05). Neutrophil CD11b/CD18 levels were significantly lower for all study groups versus control at T2, for both coated groups at T3 and only for closed + coated group at T4 (p < .05). Postoperative hemorrhage (mL) was 510 +/- 40 in closed + coated and 536 +/- 40 in open + coated groups (control: 784 +/- 48, p < .05). No significant differences in thrombin-antithrombin complex and free plasma hemoglobin were observed. Desorbed protein amount on ECC (mg/dL) was 1.7 +/- .01 in closed+coated, 2.01 +/- .01 in open+coated, and 3.3 +/- .015 in control groups (p < or = .05). Use of a closed

  6. Mobilising Open Access to Research Data: Recommendations from the RECODE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Rachel; Sveinsdottir, Thordis

    2015-04-01

    This paper will introduce the findings and policy recommendations from the FP7 project RECODE (Policy RECommendations for Open Access to Research Data in Europe) which aims to leverage existing networks, communities and projects to address challenges within the open access and data dissemination and preservation sector. We will introduce the key recommendations, which provide solutions relevant to opening access to PSI. The project is built on case study research of five scientific disciplines with the aim of recognizing and working with disciplinary fragmentation associated with open access to research data. The RECODE findings revealed that the mobilisation of open access to research data requires a partnership approach for developing a coherent and flexible ecosystem that is easy and transparent to embed in research practice and process. As such, the development of open access to research data needs to be: • Informed by research practices and processes in different fields • Supported by an integrated institutional and technological data infrastructure and guided by ethical and regulatory frameworks • Underpinned by infrastructure and guiding frameworks that allow for differences in disciplinary research and data management practices • Characterised by a partnership approach involving the key stakeholders, researchers, and institutions The proposed presentation will examine each of these aspects in detail and use information and good practices from the RECODE project to consider how stakeholders within the PSI movement might action each of these points. It will also highlight areas where RECODE findings and good practice recommendations have clear relevance for the PSI sector.

  7. Free or Open Access to Scholarly Documentation: Google Scholar or Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, C. Sean

    2013-01-01

    Soon after the university movement started in the late 1800s, academic libraries became the dominant providers of the tools and services required to locate and access scholarly information. However, with the advent of alternate discovery services, such as Google Scholar, in conjunction with open access scholarly content, researchers now have the…

  8. Life after the NIH: After a Flawed Policy, What's next for Librarians and Open Access?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Andrew Richard

    2005-01-01

    On January 15, 2005, a standing-room-only crowd of librarians listened as a panel of experts, moderated by Columbia University's Jim Neal, voiced support for the National Institute of Health's (NIH) proposal to mandate free online access to the research it funds. This article briefly discusses some personal accounts where open access would have…

  9. The Rise of Open Access in the Creative, Educational and Science Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiel-Chisholm, Scott; Fitzgerald, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Management of intellectual property and, in particular, copyright is one of the most challenging issues in an increasingly digital world. The rise of the open access (OA) movement provides a new model for managing intellectual property in educational and research environments. OA aims to promote greater and more efficient access to educational and…

  10. Measuring Confidence Levels of Male and Female Students in Open Access Enabling Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atherton, Mirella

    2015-01-01

    The study of confidence was undertaken at the University of Newcastle with students selecting science courses at two campuses. The students were enrolled in open access programs and aimed to gain access to undergraduate studies in various disciplines at University. The "third person effect" was used to measure the confidence levels of…

  11. Publishing in Discipline-Specific Open Access Journals: Opportunities and Outreach for Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaszewski, Robert; Poulin, Sonia; MacDonald, Karen I.

    2013-01-01

    Open access (OA) journals promote the opportunity for peer-reviewed journal articles to be freely accessible. In recent years, the number of OA journals has exploded in all disciplines. Previous studies have identified print-based pedagogical discipline-specific journals outside the field of Library and Information Science (LIS) for librarians to…

  12. Access of primary and secondary literature by health personnel in an academic health center: implications for open access*

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Ryan M.; Moorhead, Laura; O'Brien, Bridget; Willinsky, John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The research sought to ascertain the types and quantity of research evidence accessed by health personnel through PubMed and UpToDate in a university medical center over the course of a year in order to better estimate the impact that increasing levels of open access to biomedical research can be expected to have on clinical practice in the years ahead. Methods: Web log data were gathered from the 5,042 health personnel working in the Stanford University Hospitals (SUH) during 2011. Data were analyzed for access to the primary literature (abstracts and full-text) through PubMed and UpToDate and to the secondary literature, represented by UpToDate (research summaries), to establish the frequency and nature of literature consulted. Results: In 2011, SUH health personnel accessed 81,851 primary literature articles and visited UpToDate 110,336 times. Almost a third of the articles (24,529) accessed were reviews. Twenty percent (16,187) of the articles viewed were published in 2011. Conclusion: When it is available, health personnel in a clinical care setting frequently access the primary literature. While further studies are needed, this preliminary finding speaks to the value of the National Institutes of Health public access policy and the need for medical librarians and educators to prepare health personnel for increasing public access to medical research. PMID:23930091

  13. Increasing Access to Higher Education through Open and Distance Learning: Empirical Findings from Mzuzu University, Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawinga, Winner Dominic; Zozie, Paxton Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Slowly but surely, open and distance learning (ODL) programmes are being regarded as one of the most practical ways that universities across the world are increasingly adopting in order to increase access to university education. Likewise, Mzuzu University (MZUNI) set up the Centre for Open and Distance Learning (CODL) to oversee the running of…

  14. Institutional Repositories, Open Access, and Scholarly Communication: A Study of Conflicting Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Chawner, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    The Open Access movement of the past decade, and institutional repositories developed by universities and academic libraries as a part of that movement, have openly challenged the traditional scholarly communication system. This article examines the growth of repositories around the world, and summarizes a growing body of evidence of the response…

  15. Balancing Open Access with Academic Standards: Implications for Community College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Anita; Mupinga, Davison M.

    2013-01-01

    Community colleges act as the gateway for students to higher education. Many of these colleges realize this mission through open-door policies where students lacking in basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills can enroll. But, this open-access policy often creates challenges when meeting academic standards. Based on data collected from…

  16. Accessing Queensland's soil information - an open data revolution!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Kelly; O'Brien, Lauren; Brough, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The Queensland government is the custodian of soil and land resource information with an estimated value of 75 million. The Soil and Land Information (SALI) system houses this data from over 600 distinct studies with some 96,000 soil observations dating back to the 1940s. This data is now not only used by government but by universities, councils, landowners, consultants and schools. Providing this information to the public in an easy and accessible way, with a focus towards online delivery is crucial. Previous issues with distribution of online soils information in Queensland have stemmed not only from limits to technology but also, changing departmental structures and multiple websites. The department which manages soils information in Queensland has undergone nine name changes in the last 12 years due to Machinery of Government (MoG) restructures. This constantly changing web presence and branding is as confusing for people sourcing soils information as it is for those providing it. The Queensland government has now moved to a whole of government online environment. This is a single website with no reference to the convoluted structures within government or department names. The aim is to prevent impacts from future MoG changes on the provision of data and information to the public. Queensland government soils now has a single dedicated website (qld.gov.au/environment/land/soil) which has allowed us to start to build a repository for soils information and is a single portal for people to access soils data. It has been demonstrated that this consistent approach to websites improves trust and confidence of users [1] and from this, confidence in using Queensland soils information and data and ultimately better land management decisions.

  17. A study of institutional spending on open access publication fees in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Tullney, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Publication fees as a revenue source for open access publishing hold a prominent place on the agendas of researchers, policy makers, and academic publishers. This study contributes to the evolving empirical basis for funding these charges and examines how much German universities and research organisations spent on open access publication fees. Using self-reported cost data from the Open APC initiative, the analysis focused on the amount that was being spent on publication fees, and compared these expenditure with data from related Austrian (FWF) and UK (Wellcome Trust, Jisc) initiatives, in terms of both size and the proportion of articles being published in fully and hybrid open access journals. We also investigated how thoroughly self-reported articles were indexed in Crossref, a DOI minting agency for scholarly literature, and analysed how the institutional spending was distributed across publishers and journal titles. According to self-reported data from 30 German universities and research organisations between 2005 and 2015, expenditures on open access publication fees increased over the years in Germany and amounted to € 9,627,537 for 7,417 open access journal articles. The average payment was € 1,298, and the median was € 1,231. A total of 94% of the total article volume included in the study was supported in accordance with the price cap of € 2,000, a limit imposed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) as part of its funding activities for open access funding at German universities. Expenditures varied considerably at the institutional level. There were also differences in how much the institutions spent per journal and publisher. These differences reflect, at least in part, the varying pricing schemes in place including discounted publication fees. With an indexing coverage of 99%, Crossref thoroughly indexed the open access journals articles included in the study. A comparison with the related openly available cost data from Austria and

  18. A study of institutional spending on open access publication fees in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Najko; Tullney, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Publication fees as a revenue source for open access publishing hold a prominent place on the agendas of researchers, policy makers, and academic publishers. This study contributes to the evolving empirical basis for funding these charges and examines how much German universities and research organisations spent on open access publication fees. Using self-reported cost data from the Open APC initiative, the analysis focused on the amount that was being spent on publication fees, and compared these expenditure with data from related Austrian (FWF) and UK (Wellcome Trust, Jisc) initiatives, in terms of both size and the proportion of articles being published in fully and hybrid open access journals. We also investigated how thoroughly self-reported articles were indexed in Crossref, a DOI minting agency for scholarly literature, and analysed how the institutional spending was distributed across publishers and journal titles. According to self-reported data from 30 German universities and research organisations between 2005 and 2015, expenditures on open access publication fees increased over the years in Germany and amounted to € 9,627,537 for 7,417 open access journal articles. The average payment was € 1,298, and the median was € 1,231. A total of 94% of the total article volume included in the study was supported in accordance with the price cap of € 2,000, a limit imposed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) as part of its funding activities for open access funding at German universities. Expenditures varied considerably at the institutional level. There were also differences in how much the institutions spent per journal and publisher. These differences reflect, at least in part, the varying pricing schemes in place including discounted publication fees. With an indexing coverage of 99%, Crossref thoroughly indexed the open access journals articles included in the study. A comparison with the related openly available cost data from Austria and

  19. Effect of dislocations on the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current and efficiency of heteroepitaxial indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    Excellent radiation resistance of indium phosphide solar cells makes them a promising candidate for space power applications, but the present high cost of starting substrates may inhibit their large scale use. Thin film indium phosphide cells grown on Si or GaAs substrates have exhibited low efficiencies, because of the generation and propagation of large number of dislocations. Dislocation densities were calculated and its influence on the open circuit voltage, short circuit current, and efficiency of heteroepitaxial indium phosphide cells was studied using the PC-1D. Dislocations act as predominant recombination centers and are required to be controlled by proper transition layers and improved growth techniques. It is shown that heteroepitaxial grown cells could achieve efficiencies in excess of 18 percent AMO by controlling the number of dislocations. The effect of emitter thickness and surface recombination velocity on the cell performance parameters vs. dislocation density is also studied.

  20. Through the Open Door--Today's Revolution in Open Access and Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Roger, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Consists of eight articles discussing the topic of open learning. Articles address (1) definitions, (2) corporate training, (3) further education programs, (4) university-based training, (5) distance learning, (6) learning to learn, (7) Britain's Open University, (8) the Business-Technical Education Council. (CH)

  1. The maxillary molar endodontic access opening: A microscope-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Mamoun, John Sami

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the basic clinical techniques of performing a maxillary molar endodontic access opening, starting from the initial access opening into the pulp chamber, to the point where a size #10 file has been advanced to the apices of all three or four (or more) canals. The article explains how the use of the dental surgical operating microscope or microscope-level loupes magnification of ×6–8 or greater, combined with head-mounted or coaxial illumination, improve the ability of a dentist to identify microscopic root canal orifices, which facilitates the efficient creation of conservative access openings with adequate straight-line access in maxillary molars. Magnified photos illustrate various microscopic anatomical structures or landmarks of the initial access opening. Techniques are explored for implementing an access opening for teeth with vital versus necrotic pulpal tissues. The article also explores the use of piezoelectric or ultrasonic instruments for revealing root canal orifices and for removing pulp stones or calcified pulpal tissue inside the pulp chamber. PMID:27403069

  2. The Oxford Probe: an open access five-hole probe for aerodynamic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, B. F.; Povey, T.

    2017-03-01

    The Oxford Probe is an open access five-hole probe designed for experimental aerodynamic measurements. The open access probe can be manufactured by the end user via additive manufacturing (metal or plastic). The probe geometry, drawings, calibration maps, and software are available under a creative commons license. The purpose is to widen access to aerodynamic measurement techniques in education and research environments. There are many situations in which the open access probe will allow results of comparable accuracy to a well-calibrated commercial probe. We discuss the applications and limitations of the probe, and compare the calibration maps for 16 probes manufactured in different materials and at different scales, but with the same geometrical design.

  3. Wireless Open-Circuit In-Plane Strain and Displacement Sensor Requiring No Electrical Connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A wireless in-plane strain and displacement sensor includes an electrical conductor fixedly coupled to a substrate subject to strain conditions. The electrical conductor is shaped between its ends for storage of an electric field and a magnetic field, and remains electrically unconnected to define an unconnected open-circuit having inductance and capacitance. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the electrical conductor so-shaped resonates to generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. The sensor also includes at least one electrically unconnected electrode having an end and a free portion extending from the end thereof. The end of each electrode is fixedly coupled to the substrate and the free portion thereof remains unencumbered and spaced apart from a portion of the electrical conductor so-shaped. More specifically, at least some of the free portion is disposed at a location lying within the magnetic field response generated by the electrical conductor. A motion guidance structure is slidingly engaged with each electrode's free portion in order to maintain each free portion parallel to the electrical conductor so-shaped.

  4. Real-Time Nanoscale Open-Circuit Voltage Dynamics of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Joseph L; Tennyson, Elizabeth M; Hu, Miao; Huang, Jinsong; Munday, Jeremy N; Leite, Marina S

    2017-03-10

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites based on methylammonium lead (MAPbI3) are an emerging material with great potential for high-performance and low-cost photovoltaics. However, for perovskites to become a competitive and reliable solar cell technology their instability and spatial variation must be understood and controlled. While the macroscopic characterization of the devices as a function of time is very informative, a nanoscale identification of their real-time local optoelectronic response is still missing. Here, we implement a four-dimensional imaging method through illuminated heterodyne Kelvin probe force microscopy to spatially (<50 nm) and temporally (16 s/scan) resolve the voltage of perovskite solar cells in a low relative humidity environment. Local open-circuit voltage (Voc) images show nanoscale sites with voltage variation >300 mV under 1-sun illumination. Surprisingly, regions of voltage that relax in seconds and after several minutes consistently coexist. Time-dependent changes of the local Voc are likely due to intragrain ion migration and are reversible at low injection level. These results show for the first time the real-time transient behavior of the Voc in perovskite solar cells at the nanoscale. Understanding and controlling the light-induced electrical changes that affect device performance are critical to the further development of stable perovskite-based solar technologies.

  5. Tuning Open-Circuit Voltage in Organic Solar Cells with Molecular Orientation.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Brent; Awartani, Omar; Kline, R Joseph; McAfee, Terry; Ade, Harald; O'Connor, Brendan T

    2015-06-24

    The role of molecular orientation of a polar conjugated polymer in polymer-fullerene organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells is investigated. A planar heterojunction (PHJ) OPV cell composed of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is used as a model system to isolate the effect of the interfacial orientation on the photovoltaic properties. The molecular orientation of the aggregate P3HT relative to the PCBM layer is varied from highly edge-on (conjugated ring plane perpendicular to the interface plane) to appreciably face-on (ring plane parallel to the interface). It is found that as the P3HT stacking becomes more face-on there is a positive correlation to the OPV open-circuit voltage (V(OC)), attributed to a shift in the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level of P3HT. In addition, the PHJ OPV cell with a broad P3HT stacking orientation distribution has a V(OC) comparable to an archetypal bulk heterojunction (BHJ) device. These results suggest that, in the BHJ OPV cell, the hole energy level in the charge transfer state is defined in part by the orientation distribution of the P3HT at the interface with PCBM. Finally, the photoresponses of the devices are also shown to have a dependence on P3HT stacking orientation.

  6. Doping effects of fluorinated organic dyes on the open-circuit voltage of bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tomoki; Yamashita, Kenichi

    2015-08-01

    We have investigated photovoltaic properties of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic absorption layer doped with fluorinated Coumarin dyes. By dilute doping of a fluorinated Coumarin dye, Coumarin 307, into poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) BHJ absorption layer, the open-circuit voltage of photovoltaic device increased by ∼90 mV without the significant degradation in the short-circuit current density. On the other hand, the doping of non-fluorinated Coumarin dye such as Coumarin 2 did not induce such the enhancement effect in the open-circuit voltage. In ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies, the doping of Coumarin 307 was found to have no impact on P3HT, but the density of state of PCBM was significantly modified by the doping. The change in the density of state was confirmed also in ultraviolet absorption measurement. Possible explanations for the enhancement in the open-circuit voltage are discussed from the experimental results, and a shift of the vacuum level by the doping can be considered as a direct origin.

  7. Open access to scientific research: where are we and where are we going? Facts and figures on the occasion of the 2010 Open Access Week (October 18-24).

    PubMed

    Giglia, E

    2010-09-01

    This contribution is aimed at presenting a sort of "state of the art" of Open Access on the occasion of the 2010 international Open Access Week, to be held from October 18 to October 24. We shall see facts and figures about open archives and the mandates to deposit; about Open Access journals; about impact and citation advantages for the researchers, and about economic sustainability.

  8. Organic solar cells with a multicharge separation structure consisting of a thin rubrene fluorescent dye for open circuit voltage enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiang; Yu, Junsheng; Wang, Wan; Jiang, Yadong

    2011-01-01

    Organic solar cells were fabricated by inserting a thin rubrene fluorescent dye between pentacene and fullerene heterojunction with a multicharge separation (MCS) structure, which was adopted to inherently further improve maximum open circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency. The morphology of organic films showed that a more surface roughness of pentacene film could be beneficial for an effective MCS interface, exciton dissociation, and charge carrier transportation. Moreover, a slight improvement of short-circuit current density when adding a 1 or 2 nm rubrene layer was also analyzed in detail based on external quantum efficiency spectra and optical transfer matrix theory.

  9. CMOS Interface Circuits for Spin Tunneling Junction Based Magnetic Random Access Memories

    SciTech Connect

    Saripalli, Ganesh

    2002-01-01

    Magneto resistive memories (MRAM) are non-volatile memories which use magnetic instead of electrical structures to store data. These memories, apart from being non-volatile, offer a possibility to achieve densities better than DRAMs and speeds faster than SRAMs. MRAMs could potentially replace all computer memory RAM technologies in use today, leading to future applications like instan-on computers and longer battery life for pervasive devices. Such rapid development was made possible due to the recent discovery of large magnetoresistance in Spin tunneling junction devices. Spin tunneling junctions (STJ) are composite structures consisting of a thin insulating layer sandwiched between two magnetic layers. This thesis research is targeted towards these spin tunneling junction based Magnetic memories. In any memory, some kind of an interface circuit is needed to read the logic states. In this thesis, four such circuits are proposed and designed for Magnetic memories (MRAM). These circuits interface to the Spin tunneling junctions and act as sense amplifiers to read their magnetic states. The physical structure and functional characteristics of these circuits are discussed in this thesis. Mismatch effects on the circuits and proper design techniques are also presented. To demonstrate the functionality of these interface structures, test circuits were designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.35μ CMOS process. Also circuits to characterize the process mismatches were fabricated and tested. These results were then used in Matlab programs to aid in design process and to predict interface circuit's yields.

  10. Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics: A Brief Introduction for the Non-Expert

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Travis C.; /SLAC

    2007-06-06

    Open Access to particle physics literature does not sound particularly new or exciting, since particle physicists have been reading preprints for decades, and arXiv.org for 15 years. However new movements in Europe are attempting to make the peer-reviewed literature of the field fully Open Access. This is not a new movement, nor is it restricted to this field. However, given the field's history of preprints and eprints, it is well suited to a change to a fully Open Access publishing model. Data shows that 90% of HEP published literature is freely available online, meaning that HEP libraries have little need for expensive journal subscriptions. As libraries begin to cancel journal subscriptions, the peer review process will lose its primary source of funding. Open Access publishing models can potentially address this issue. European physicists and funding agencies are proposing a consortium, SCOAP3, that might solve many of the objections to traditional Open Access publishing models in Particle Physics. These proposed changes should be viewed as a starting point for a serious look at the field's publication model, and are at least worthy of attention, if not adoption.

  11. Open access in the biomedical field: a unique opportunity for researchers (and research itself).

    PubMed

    Giglia, E

    2007-06-01

    Aim of this article is to offer an overview of the Open Access strategy and its innovative idea of a free scholarly communication. Following the worldwide debate on the crisis of the scholarly communication and the new opportunities of a networked environment, definitions, purposes and real advantages of the Open Access pathway are presented from a researcher's point of view. To maximize the impact and dissemination, by providing free access to the result of the research, two complementary roads are pointed out and explained self-archiving in open archives and publishing in Open Access journals. To let authors make their choice the most useful tools to find one's way in this new reality are shown: directories, search engines, citation tracking projects. The starting survey being done, the article deals in its conclusions with the Open Access challenges and most debated themes: impact and dissemination, new assessment measures alternative to the Impact Factor, new mandatory policies of the funding agencies, questions related to the copyright issue.

  12. Enhancement in open-circuit voltage of implantable CMOS-compatible glucose fuel cell by improving the anodic catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niitsu, Kiichi; Ando, Takashi; Kobayashi, Atsuki; Nakazato, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an implantable CMOS-compatible glucose fuel cell that generates an open-circuit voltage (OCV) of 880 mV. The developed fuel cell is solid-catalyst-based and manufactured from biocompatible materials; thus, it can be implanted to the human body. Additionally, since the cell can be manufactured using a semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication process, it can also be manufactured together with CMOS circuits on a single silicon wafer. In the literature, an implantable CMOS-compatible glucose fuel cell has been reported. However, its OCV is 192 mV, which is insufficient for CMOS circuit operation. In this work, we have enhanced the performance of the fuel cell by improving the electrocatalytic ability of the anode. The prototype with the newly proposed Pt/carbon nanotube (CNT) anode structure successfully achieved an OCV of 880 mV, which is the highest ever reported.

  13. Maze solving automatons for self-healing of open interconnects: Modular add-on for circuit boards

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Aswathi; Raghunandan, Karthik; Yaswant, Vaddi; Sambandan, Sanjiv E-mail: ssanjiv@isu.iisc.ernet.in; Pillai, Sreelal S.

    2015-03-23

    We present the circuit board integration of a self-healing mechanism to repair open faults. The electric field driven mechanism physically restores fractured interconnects in electronic circuits and has the ability to solve mazes. The repair is performed by conductive particles dispersed in an insulating fluid. We demonstrate the integration of the healing module onto printed circuit boards and the ability of maze solving. We model and perform experiments on the influence of the geometry of conductive particles as well as the terminal impedances of the route on the healing efficiency. The typical heal rate is 10 μm/s with healed route having mean resistance of 8 kΩ across a 200 micron gap and depending on the materials and concentrations used.

  14. Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) Solutions for Interoperable Open Data Access Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. L.; Richard, S. M.; Patten, K.

    2014-12-01

    The geosciences are leading development of free, interoperable open access to data. US Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) is a freely available data integration framework, jointly developed by the USGS and the Association of American State Geologists (AASG), in compliance with international standards and protocols to provide easy discovery, access, and interoperability for geoscience data. USGIN standards include the geologic exchange language 'GeoSciML' (v 3.2 which enables instant interoperability of geologic formation data) which is also the base standard used by the 117-nation OneGeology consortium. The USGIN deployment of NGDS serves as a continent-scale operational demonstration of the expanded OneGeology vision to provide access to all geoscience data worldwide. USGIN is developed to accommodate a variety of applications; for example, the International Renewable Energy Agency streams data live to the Global Atlas of Renewable Energy. Alternatively, users without robust data sharing systems can download and implement a free software packet, "GINstack" to easily deploy web services for exposing data online for discovery and access. The White House Open Data Access Initiative requires all federally funded research projects and federal agencies to make their data publicly accessible in an open source, interoperable format, with metadata. USGIN currently incorporates all aspects of the Initiative as it emphasizes interoperability. The system is successfully deployed as the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS), officially launched at the White House Energy Datapalooza in May, 2014. The USGIN Foundation has been established to ensure this technology continues to be accessible and available.

  15. Stakeholder values and ecosystems in developing open access to research data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Bridgette; Sveinsdottir, Thordis; Smallwood, Rod

    2014-05-01

    One aspect of understanding how to develop open access to research data is to understand the values of stakeholders in the emerging open data ecosystem. The EU FP7 funded project Policy RECommendations for Open Access to Research Data in Europe (RECODE) (Grant Agreement No: 321463) undertook such research to identify stakeholder values and mapped the emerging ecosystem. In this paper we outline and discuss the findings of this research. We address three key objectives, which are: (a) the identification and mapping of the diverse range of stakeholder values in Open Access data and data dissemination and preservation; (b) mapping stakeholder values on to research ecosystems using case studies from different disciplinary perspectives; and (c) evaluate and identify good practice in addressing conflicting value chains and stakeholder fragmentation. The research was structured on three related actions: (a) an analysis of policy and related documents and protocols, in order to map the formal expression of values and motivations; (b) conducting five case studies in particle physics, health sciences, bioengineering, environmental research and archaeology. These explored issues of data size; quality control, ethics and data security; replication of large datasets; interoperability; and the preservation of diverse types of data; and (c) undertaking a validation and dissemination workshop that sought to better understand how to match policies with stakeholder drivers and motivations to increase their effectiveness in promoting Open Access to research data. The research findings include that there is clearly an overall drive for Open Data Access within the policy documents, which is part of a wider drive for open science in general. This is underpinned by the view of science as an open enterprise. Although there is a strong argument for publicly funded science to be made open to the public the details of how to make research data open as yet still unclear. Our research found

  16. STS-51 pad abort. OV103-engine 2033 (ME-2) fuel flowmeter sensor open circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    The STS-51 initial launch attempt of Discovery (OV-103) was terminated on KSC launch pad 39B on 12 Aug. 1993 at 9:12 AM E.S.T. due to a sensor redundancy failure in the liquid hydrogen system of ME-2 (Engine 2033). The event description and time line are summarized. Propellant loading was initiated on 12 Aug. 1993 at 12:00 AM EST. All space shuttle main engine (SSME) chill parameters and Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) were nominal. At engine start plus 1.34 seconds a Failure Identification (FID) was posted against Engine 2033 for exceeding the 1800 spin intra-channel (A1-A2) Fuel Flowrate sensor channel qualification limit. The engine was shut down at 1.50 seconds followed by Engines 2032 and 2030. All shut down sequences were nominal and the mission was safely aborted. SSME Avionics hardware and software performed nominally during the incident. A review of vehicle data table (VDT) data and controller software logic revealed no failure indications other than the single FID 111-101, Fuel Flowrate Intra-Channel Test Channel A disqualification. Software logic was executed according to requirements and there was no anomalous controller software operation. Immediately following the abort, a Rocketdyne/NASA failure investigation team was assembled. The team successfully isolated the failure cause to an open circuit in a Fuel Flowrate Sensor. This type of failure has occurred eight previous times in ground testing. The sensor had performed acceptably on three previous flights of the engine and SSME flight history shows 684 combined fuel flow rate sensor channel flights without failure. The disqualification of an Engine 2 (SSME No. 2033) Fuel Flowrate sensor channel was a result of an instrumentation failure and not engine performance. All other engine operations were nominal. This disqualification resulted in an engine shutdown and safe sequential shutdown of all three engines prior to ignition of the solid boosters.

  17. STS-51 pad abort. OV103-engine 2033 (ME-2) fuel flowmeter sensor open circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The STS-51 initial launch attempt of Discovery (OV-103) was terminated on KSC launch pad 39B on 12 Aug. 1993 at 9:12 AM E.S.T. due to a sensor redundancy failure in the liquid hydrogen system of ME-2 (Engine 2033). The event description and time line are summarized. Propellant loading was initiated on 12 Aug. 1993 at 12:00 AM EST. All space shuttle main engine (SSME) chill parameters and Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) were nominal. At engine start plus 1.34 seconds a Failure Identification (FID) was posted against Engine 2033 for exceeding the 1800 spin intra-channel (A1-A2) Fuel Flowrate sensor channel qualification limit. The engine was shut down at 1.50 seconds followed by Engines 2032 and 2030. All shut down sequences were nominal and the mission was safely aborted. SSME Avionics hardware and software performed nominally during the incident. A review of vehicle data table (VDT) data and controller software logic revealed no failure indications other than the single FID 111-101, Fuel Flowrate Intra-Channel Test Channel A disqualification. Software logic was executed according to requirements and there was no anomalous controller software operation. Immediately following the abort, a Rocketdyne/NASA failure investigation team was assembled. The team successfully isolated the failure cause to an open circuit in a Fuel Flowrate Sensor. This type of failure has occurred eight previous times in ground testing. The sensor had performed acceptably on three previous flights of the engine and SSME flight history shows 684 combined fuel flow rate sensor channel flights without failure. The disqualification of an Engine 2 (SSME No. 2033) Fuel Flowrate sensor channel was a result of an instrumentation failure and not engine performance. All other engine operations were nominal. This disqualification resulted in an engine shutdown and safe sequential shutdown of all three engines prior to ignition of the solid boosters.

  18. Understanding device-structure-induced variations in open-circuit voltage for organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiping; Uemura, Yu; Zhou, Ying; Miyadera, Tetsuhiko; Azumi, Reiko; Yoshida, Yuji; Chikamatsu, Masayuki

    2015-05-27

    We investigate the structural influences on the device performance, especially on open-circuit voltage (V(OC)) in squaraine (SQ)/fullerene (C60) bilayer cells. Simply changing the SQ thickness could lead to 40% variation in V(OC) from 0.62 to 0.86 V. The ionization potential (IP) of SQ films and recombination at the anode surface as well as donor/acceptor (D/A) interface sensitively vary with film thicknesses, which account for the shifts in V(OC). The anode recombination can be effectively suppressed by preventing direct contact between C60 and the anode with a buffer layer, delivering an elevated V(OC). Through polarized infrared-multiple-angle incidence resolution spectroscopy measurement, the molecular structure of SQ films is found to gradually evolve from lying-down on indium-tin oxide substrates with noncentrosymmetric orientation at low thicknesses to random structure at high thicknesses. The different molecular orientation may yield different strengths of electronic coupling, which affects the charge-carrier recombination and thus V(OC). Moreover, the oriented SQ films would spontaneously compose aligned dipole moments at the D/A interface because of the strong dipolar effects in SQ molecules identified by density functional theory calculations, whereas no aligned interfacial dipole moment exists in the random structure. The resulting interfacial dipole moments would form an electric field at the D/A interface, leading to variations in the IP and thus impacting V(OC). Our findings demonstrate that V(OC) in organic photovoltaic cells is critically associated with the molecular orientation that affects the charge-carrier recombination and interfacial dipole alignment, which should be seriously taken into consideration for the design of organic molecules and optimization of the cell efficiency.

  19. The Dark Side of Dissemination: Traditional and Open Access Versus Predatory Journals

    PubMed Central

    Masten, Yondell B.; Ashcraft, Alyce S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract AIM The purpose of the article is to alert faculty about predatory online journals, review characteristics of three broad categories of journals, and provide suggestions for faculty evaluation of journals before submission of scholarship for publication. BACKGROUND The availability of online journals in recent years has rapidly increased the number of journals available for publication of faculty scholarship. However, not all online journals meet the same standards as traditional journals. METHOD The article is not a report for a research study. RESULTS Currently, there are three broad categories of journals for faculty scholarship publication: traditional, open access scholarly, and predatory open access journals. CONCLUSION Faculty authors need to carefully evaluate the journal characteristics and publisher business practices before submitting a manuscript for publication to prevent inadvertent submission to a predatory open access journal. PMID:27740559

  20. An open access pilot freely sharing cancer genomic data from participants in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Becnel, Lauren B.; Pereira, Stacey; Drummond, Jennifer A.; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Covington, Kyle R.; Kovar, Christie L.; Doddapaneni, Harsha Vardhan; Hu, Jianhong; Muzny, Donna; McGuire, Amy L.; Wheeler, David A.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic data sharing in cancer has been restricted to aggregate or controlled-access initiatives to protect the privacy of research participants. By limiting access to these data, it has been argued that the autonomy of individuals who decide to participate in data sharing efforts has been superseded and the utility of the data as research and educational tools reduced. In a pilot Open Access (OA) project from the CPRIT-funded Texas Cancer Research Biobank, many Texas cancer patients were willing to openly share genomic data from tumor and normal matched pair specimens. For the first time, genetic data from 7 human cancer cases with matched normal are freely available without requirement for data use agreements nor any major restriction except that end users cannot attempt to re-identify the participants (http://txcrb.org/open.html). PMID:26882539

  1. Future mobile access for open-data platforms and the BBC-DaaS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edlich, Stefan; Singh, Sonam; Pfennigstorf, Ingo

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we develop an open data platform on multimedia devices to act as marketplace of data for information seekers and data providers. We explore the important aspects of Data-as-a-Service (DaaS) service in the cloud with a mobile access point. The basis of the DaaS service is to act as a marketplace for information, utilizing new technologies and recent new scalable polyglot architectures based on NoSql databases. Whereas Open-Data platforms are beginning to be widely accepted, its mobile use is not. We compare similar products, their approach and a possible mobile usage. We discuss several approaches to address the mobile access as a native app, html5 and a mobile first approach together with the several frontend presentation techniques. Big data visualization itself is in the early days and we explore some possibilities to get big data / open data accessed by mobile users.

  2. An open access pilot freely sharing cancer genomic data from participants in Texas.

    PubMed

    Becnel, Lauren B; Pereira, Stacey; Drummond, Jennifer A; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Covington, Kyle R; Kovar, Christie L; Doddapaneni, Harsha Vardhan; Hu, Jianhong; Muzny, Donna; McGuire, Amy L; Wheeler, David A; Gibbs, Richard A

    2016-02-16

    Genomic data sharing in cancer has been restricted to aggregate or controlled-access initiatives to protect the privacy of research participants. By limiting access to these data, it has been argued that the autonomy of individuals who decide to participate in data sharing efforts has been superseded and the utility of the data as research and educational tools reduced. In a pilot Open Access (OA) project from the CPRIT-funded Texas Cancer Research Biobank, many Texas cancer patients were willing to openly share genomic data from tumor and normal matched pair specimens. For the first time, genetic data from 7 human cancer cases with matched normal are freely available without requirement for data use agreements nor any major restriction except that end users cannot attempt to re-identify the participants (http://txcrb.org/open.html).

  3. Open access part I: the movement, the issues, and the benefits.

    PubMed

    Nick, Jan M

    2011-11-23

    The advent of Open Access (OA) has changed the landscape of accessing digital information globally. OA offers valuable free, full-text, online resources for all health-related professionals, regardless of the practice setting. Because much scholarly information may now be accessed without charge, nurses worldwide can reach a higher level of information competency-a prime requirement for evidence-based practice. This article provides a brief account of the OA movement, introduces new terminology, discusses various publishing models, and elucidates issues surrounding the choice to publish in OA journals. Many stakeholders derive benefits from Open Access. Nursing must take action to participate in and promote the OA movement in order to derive the maximum gain for our science.

  4. Open access to scientific articles: a review of benefits and challenges.

    PubMed

    Björk, Bo-Christer

    2017-03-01

    The Internet has fundamentally changed the publishing of scholarly peer reviewed journals, and the way readers find and access articles. Digital access is nowadays the norm, in particular for researchers. The Internet has enabled a totally new business model, Open Access (OA), in which an article is openly available in full text for anyone with Internet access. This article reviews the different options to achieve this, whether by journals changing their revenue structures from subscription to publishing charges, or authors utilizing a number of options for posting OA versions of article manuscripts in repositories. It also discusses the regrettable emergence of "predatory" publishers, who spam academics, and make money by promising them rapid publication with only the semblance of peer review. The situation is further discussed from the viewpoints of different stakeholders, including academics as authors and readers, practicing physicians and the general public.

  5. Study program to improve the open-circuit voltage of low resistivity single crystal silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnucci, J. A.; Matthei, K. W.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a 14 month program to improve the open circuit voltage of low resistivity silicon solar cells are described. The approach was based on ion implantation in 0.1- to 10.0-ohm-cm float-zone silicon. As a result of the contract effort, open circuit voltages as high as 645 mV (AMO 25 C) were attained by high dose phosphorus implantation followed by furnace annealing and simultaneous SiO2 growth. One key element was to investigate the effects of bandgap narrowing caused by high doping concentrations in the junction layer. Considerable effort was applied to optimization of implant parameters, selection of furnace annealing techniques, and utilization of pulsed electron beam annealing to minimize thermal process-induced defects in the completed solar cells.

  6. Open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and efficiency of a CdS/CdTe solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Kosyachenko, L. A. Grushko, E. V.

    2010-10-15

    The dependences of the open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and efficiency of the thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cell on the resistivity {rho} and carrier lifetime {tau} in the absorbing CdTe layer were studied. In the common case in which the uncompensated acceptor concentration and the electron lifetime in the CdTe layer are within 10{sup 15}-10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} and 10{sup -10}-10{sup -9} s, the calculation results correspond to the achieved efficiency of the best thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cells. It was shown that, by decreasing {rho} and increasing {tau} in the absorbing CdTe layer, the open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and efficiency can be substantially increased, with their values approaching the theoretical limit for such devices.

  7. The effect of diffusion induced lattice stress on the open-circuit voltage in silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, V. G.; Godlewski, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    It is demonstrated that diffusion induced stresses in low resistivity silicon solar cells can significantly reduce both the open-circuit voltage and collection efficiency. The degradation mechanism involves stress induced changes in both the minority carrier mobility and the diffusion length. Thermal recovery characteristics indicate that the stresses are relieved at higher temperatures by divacancy flow (silicon self diffusion). The level of residual stress in as-fabricated cells was found to be negligible in the cells tested.

  8. Potential formalism of optical spatial soliton propagation in a two-photon photovoltaic-photorefractive material under open circuit condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhouri, B. P.; Gupta, P. K.

    2014-04-01

    Propagation characteristics of optical spatial solitons in a two-photon photovoltaic-photorefractive medium under open circuit condition have been investigated using the formalism of a particle in a potential well. Optical nonlinearity has been evaluated using Castro-Camus model. Variational formalism has been employed to investigate the resulting modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Potential formalism has been examined to identify localized optical spatial solitons.

  9. 75 FR 57285 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0172, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ...: 1010-0172, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines, Extension of a Collection... INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR Part 291, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines under the OCS... collection request (ICR) concerns the paperwork requirements in 30 CFR Part 291, Open and...

  10. Direct Determination of Equilibrium Potentials for Hydrogen Oxidation/Production by Open Circuit Potential Measurements in Acetonitrile

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, John A. S.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2013-04-01

    Open circuit potentials were measured for acetonitrile solutions of a variety of acids and their conjugate bases under 1 atm H2. Acids examined were triethylammonium, dimethylformamidium, 2,6-dichloroanilinium, 4-cyanoanilinium, 4-bromoanilinium, and 4-anisidinium salts. These potentials, along with the pKa values of the acids, establish the value of the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) potential in acetonitrile as -0.028(4) V vs the ferrocenium/ferrocene couple. Dimethylformamidium forms homoconjugates and other aggregates with dimethylformamide; open circuit potentials (OCPs) were used to quantify the extent of these reactions. Overpotentials for electrocatalytic hydrogen production and oxidation were determined from open circuit potentials and voltammograms of acidic or basic catalyst solutions under H2. For these solutions, agreement between OCP values and potentials calculated using the Nernst equation is within 12 mV. Finally, use of the measured equilibrium potential allows direct comparison of catalytic systems in different media; it requires neither pKa values, homoconjugation constants, nor the SHE potential.

  11. Direct determination of equilibrium potentials for hydrogen oxidation/production by open circuit potential measurements in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Roberts, John A S; Bullock, R Morris

    2013-04-01

    Open circuit potentials were measured for acetonitrile solutions of a variety of acids and their conjugate bases under 1 atm H2. Acids examined were triethylammonium, dimethylformamidium, 2,6-dichloroanilinium, 4-cyanoanilinium, 4-bromoanilinium, and 4-anisidinium salts. These potentials, along with the pKa values of the acids, establish the value of the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) potential in acetonitrile as -0.028(4) V vs the ferrocenium/ferrocene couple. Dimethylformamidium forms homoconjugates and other aggregates with dimethylformamide; open circuit potentials (OCPs) were used to quantify the extent of these reactions. Overpotentials for electrocatalytic hydrogen production and oxidation were determined from open circuit potentials and voltammograms of acidic or basic catalyst solutions under H2. For these solutions, agreement between OCP values and potentials calculated using the Nernst equation is within 12 mV. Use of the measured equilibrium potential allows direct comparison of catalytic systems in different media; it requires neither pKa values, homoconjugation constants, nor the SHE potential.

  12. Interface band gap narrowing behind open circuit voltage losses in Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Palsgaard, Mattias L. N.; Gunst, Tue; Markussen, Troels; Stokbro, Kurt; Brandbyge, Mads; Hansen, Ole

    2017-02-01

    We present evidence that bandgap narrowing at the heterointerface may be a major cause of the large open circuit voltage deficit of Cu2ZnSnS4/CdS solar cells. Bandgap narrowing is caused by surface states that extend the Cu2ZnSnS4 valence band into the forbidden gap. Those surface states are consistently found in Cu2ZnSnS4, but not in Cu2ZnSnSe4, by first-principles calculations. They do not simply arise from defects at surfaces but are an intrinsic feature of Cu2ZnSnS4 surfaces. By including those states in a device model, the outcome of previously published temperature-dependent open circuit voltage measurements on Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells can be reproduced quantitatively without necessarily assuming a cliff-like conduction band offset with the CdS buffer layer. Our first-principles calculations indicate that Zn-based alternative buffer layers are advantageous due to the ability of Zn to passivate those surface states. Focusing future research on Zn-based buffers is expected to significantly improve the open circuit voltage and efficiency of pure-sulfide Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells.

  13. Guanidinium: A Route to Enhanced Carrier Lifetime and Open-Circuit Voltage in Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Nicholas; Zhou, Huanping; Chen, Qi; Sun, Pengyu; Liu, Zonghao; Meng, Lei; Yao, En-Ping; Liu, Yongsheng; Schiffer, Andy; Yang, Yang

    2016-02-10

    Hybrid perovskites have shown astonishing power conversion efficiencies owed to their remarkable absorber characteristics including long carrier lifetimes, and a relatively substantial defect tolerance for solution-processed polycrystalline films. However, nonradiative charge carrier recombination at grain boundaries limits open circuit voltages and consequent performance improvements of perovskite solar cells. Here we address such recombination pathways and demonstrate a passivation effect through guanidinium-based additives to achieve extraordinarily enhanced carrier lifetimes and higher obtainable open circuit voltages. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements yield carrier lifetimes in guanidinium-based films an order of magnitude greater than pure-methylammonium counterparts, giving rise to higher device open circuit voltages and power conversion efficiencies exceeding 17%. A reduction in defect activation energy of over 30% calculated via admittance spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence intensity mapping indicates successful passivation of recombination/trap centers at grain boundaries. We speculate that guanidinium ions serve to suppress formation of iodide vacancies and passivate under-coordinated iodine species at grain boundaries and within the bulk through their hydrogen bonding capability. These results present a simple method for suppressing nonradiative carrier loss in hybrid perovskites to further improve performances toward highly efficient solar cells.

  14. Monocrystalline CdTe solar cells with open-circuit voltage over 1 V and efficiency of 17%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuan; Boccard, Mathieu; Liu, Shi; Becker, Jacob; Zhao, Xin-Hao; Campbell, Calli M.; Suarez, Ernesto; Lassise, Maxwell B.; Holman, Zachary; Zhang, Yong-Hang

    2016-06-01

    The open-circuit voltages of mature single-junction photovoltaic devices are lower than the bandgap energy of the absorber, typically by a gap of 400 mV. For CdTe, which has a bandgap of 1.5 eV, the gap is larger; for polycrystalline samples, the open-circuit voltage of solar cells with the record efficiency is below 900 mV, whereas for monocrystalline samples it has only recently achieved values barely above 1 V. Here, we report a monocrystalline CdTe/MgCdTe double-heterostructure solar cell with open-circuit voltages of up to 1.096 V. The latticed-matched MgCdTe barrier layers provide excellent passivation to the CdTe absorber, resulting in a carrier lifetime of 3.6 μs. The solar cells are made of 1- to 1.5-μm-thick n-type CdTe absorbers, and passivated hole-selective p-type a-SiCy:H contacts. This design allows CdTe solar cells to be made thinner and more efficient. The best power conversion efficiency achieved in a device with this structure is 17.0%.

  15. Critical interfaces in organic solar cells and their influence on the open-circuit voltage.

    PubMed

    Potscavage, William J; Sharma, Asha; Kippelen, Bernard

    2009-11-17

    Organic photovoltaics, which convert sunlight into electricity with thin films of organic semiconductors, have been the subject of active research over the past 20 years. The global energy challenge has greatly increased interest in this technology in recent years. Low-temperature processing of organic small molecules from the vapor phase or of polymers from solution can confer organic semiconductors with a critical advantage over inorganic photovoltaic materials since the high-temperature processing requirements of the latter limit the range of substrates on which they can be deposited. Unfortunately, despite significant advances, the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells remains low, with maximum values in the range of 6%. A better understanding of the physical processes that determine the efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells is crucial to enhancing their competitiveness with other thin-film technologies. Maximum values for the photocurrent can be estimated from the light-harvesting capability of the individual molecules or polymers in the device. However, a better understanding of the materials-level processes, particularly those in layer-to-layer interfaces, that determine the open-circuit voltage (V(OC)) in organic solar cells is critical and remains the subject of active research. The conventional wisdom is to use organic semiconductors with smaller band gaps to harvest a larger portion of the solar spectrum. This method is not always an effective prescription for increasing efficiency: it ignores the fact that the value of V(OC) is generally decreased in devices employing materials with smaller band gaps, as is the case with inorganic semiconductors. In this Account, we discuss the influence of the different interfaces formed in organic multilayer photovoltaic devices on the value of V(OC); we use pentacene-C(60) solar cells as a model. In particular, we use top and bottom electrodes with different work function values, finding that V(OC) is

  16. Open Access to research data - final perspectives from the RECODE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo; Sondervan, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    Many networks, initiatives, and communities are addressing the key barriers to Open Access to data in scientific research. These organizations are typically heterogeneous and fragmented by discipline, location, sector (publishers, academics, data centers, etc.), as well as by other features. Besides, they often work in isolation, or with limited contacts with one another. The Policy RECommendations for Open Access to Research Data in Europe (RECODE) project, which will conclude in the first half of 2015, has scoped and addressed the challenges related to Open Access, dissemination and preservation of scientific data, leveraging the existing networks, initiatives, and communities. The overall objective of RECODE was to identify a series of targeted and over-arching policy recommendations for Open Access to European research data based on existing good practice. RECODE has undertaken a review of the existing state of the art and examined five case studies in different scientific disciplines: particle physics and astrophysics, clinical research, medicine and technical physiology (bioengineering), humanities (archaeology), and environmental sciences (Earth Observation). In particular for the latter discipline, GEOSS has been an optimal test bed for investigating the importance of technical and multidisciplinary interoperability, and what the challenges are in sharing and providing Open Access to research data from a variety of sources, and in a variety of formats. RECODE has identified five main technological and infrastructural challenges: • Heterogeneity - relates to interoperability, usability, accessibility, discoverability; • Sustainability - relates to obsolescence, curation, updates/upgrades, persistence, preservation; • Volume - also related to Big Data, which is somehow implied by Open Data; in our context, it relates to discoverability, accessibility (indexing), bandwidth, storage, scalability, energy footprint; • Quality - relates to completeness

  17. Closed circuit cardiopulmonary bypass with centrifugal pump for open-heart surgery: new trial for air removal.

    PubMed

    Morita, M; Yozu, R; Matayoshi, T; Mitsumaru, A; Shin, H; Kawada, S

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of venous air removal with a new cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit design for conventional open-heart surgeries. A main concern with a closed circuit for open-heart surgeries is air entrainment into the venous line. A venous filter was placed proximal to the centrifugal pump. The circuit proximal to the centrifugal pump was divided into two lines; one line was attached to the venous reservoir outlet. By clamping the line to the reservoir, this circuit becomes closed. Negative pressure was applied to the purge line connected to the venous reservoir for venous air removal. Micro bubbles were measured at two locations, both distal to the venous and arterial filters. When the injection rate reached 100 ml/min, with the air-injection over 30 s, micro bubbles greater than 40 micro were observed at the outlet of venous filter. However, there was no micro bubble greater than 40 micro detected at the outlet of arterial filter. Although micro bubbles greater than 40 micro were not detected at the outlet of the arterial filter up to the injection rate of 300 ml/min, when the injection rate reached 400 ml/min, micro bubbles greater than 50 microm were detected distal to the arterial filter. From this examination, we determined that air entrained in the venous line up to approximately 300 ml/min is automatically removed by this method with the pressure-balanced condition. This pressure balance means that resistance of venous return, gravity siphon, negative pressure by centrifugal pump, and negative pressure applied to the air-purge line of the filter are balanced; that is, the venous return is sufficient, and the venous reservoir volume is kept stable. From this study we determined that this circuit design efficiently removes the entrained air in the venous line.

  18. Open access

    PubMed Central

    Franck, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Scientific communication is a misnomer. The process of scientific publication is much less a forum where information is exchanged for information than a market where information is exchanged for attention. Nevertheless, the exchange of information for attention is a somewhat peculiar market, since it seems much more natural to sell the information one has produced laboriously for money. Why publish a discovery, why share it with other researchers when knowledge is power? PMID:23032307

  19. Key factors limiting the open circuit voltage of n(+)pp(+) indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, Chandra; Thesling, William; Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    Solar cells made from gallium arsenide (GaAs), with a room temperature bandgap of E(sub g) = 1.43 eV have exhibited the best measured open circuit voltage (V sub OC) of 1.05 V at 1 AMO, 25 C. The material InP is in many ways similar to GaAs. A simple calculation comparing InP to GaAs then shows that solar cells made from InP, with E(sub g) = 1.35 at 300 K, should exhibit the best measured (V sub OC) of approximately 950 mV at 1 AMO, 300 K. However, to date, the best measured V(sub OC) for InP solar cells made by any fabrication method is 899 mV at AM1.5, 25 C which would translate to 912 mV at 1 AMO, 25 C. The V(sub OC) of an n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell is governed by several factors. Of these, some factors, such as the thickness and doping of the emitter and base regions, are easily controlled and can be adjusted to desired values dictated by a good performance optimizing model. Such factors were not considered. There are other factors which also govern V(sub OC), and their values are not so easily controlled. The primary ones among these are (1) the indirect or Hall-Shockley-Read lifetimes in the various regions of the cell, (2) the low-doping intrinsic carrier concentration n(sub i) of the InP material, (3) the heavy doping factors in the emitter and BSF regions, and (4) the front surface recombination velocity S(sub F). The influence of these latter factors on the V(sub OC) of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell and the results were used to produce a near-optimum design of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell.

  20. Key factors limiting the open circuit voltage of n(+)pp(+) indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, Chandra; Thesling, William; Weinberg, Irving

    1990-01-01

    Solar cells made from gallium arsenide (Gaas), with a room temperature bandgap of E(sub g) = 1.43 eV have exhibited the best measured open circuit voltage (V sub oc) of 1.05 V at 1 AM0, 25 C. The material InP is in many ways similar to GaAs. A simple calculation comparing InP to GaAs then shows that solar cells made from InP, with E(sub g) = 1.35 at 300 K, should exhibit the best measured V sub oc of approximately 950 mV at 1 AM0, 300 K. However, to date, the best measured V sub oc for InP solar cells made by any fabrication method is 899 mV at AM1.5, 25 C which would translate to 912 mV at 1 AM0, 25 C. The V sub oc of an n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell is governed by several factors. Of these, some factors, such as the thickness and doping of the emitter and base regions, are easily controlled and can be adjusted to desired values dictated by a good performance optimizing model. Such factors were not considered. There are other factors which also govern V sub oc, and their values are not so easily controlled. The primary ones among these are (1) the indirect or Hall-Shockley-Read lifetimes in the various regions of the cell, (2) the low-doping intrinsic carrier concentration n(sub i) of the InP material, (3) the heavy doping factors in the emitter and BSF regions, and (4) the front surface recombination velocity S(sub F). The influence of these latter factors on the V sub oc of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell and the results were used to produce a near-optimum design of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell.

  1. Damage Detection Response Characteristics of Open Circuit Resonant (SansEC) Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Kenneth L.; Szatkowski, George N.; Smith, Laura J.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Wang, Chuantong; Ticatch, Larry A.; Mielnik, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The capability to assess the current or future state of the health of an aircraft to improve safety, availability, and reliability while reducing maintenance costs has been a continuous goal for decades. Many companies, commercial entities, and academic institutions have become interested in Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) and a growing effort of research into "smart" vehicle sensing systems has emerged. Methods to detect damage to aircraft materials and structures have historically relied on visual inspection during pre-flight or post-flight operations by flight and ground crews. More quantitative non-destructive investigations with various instruments and sensors have traditionally been performed when the aircraft is out of operational service during major scheduled maintenance. Through the use of reliable sensors coupled with data monitoring, data mining, and data analysis techniques, the health state of a vehicle can be detected in-situ. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is developing a composite aircraft skin damage detection method and system based on open circuit SansEC (Sans Electric Connection) sensor technology. Composite materials are increasingly used in modern aircraft for reducing weight, improving fuel efficiency, and enhancing the overall design, performance, and manufacturability of airborne vehicles. Materials such as fiberglass reinforced composites (FRC) and carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) are being used to great advantage in airframes, wings, engine nacelles, turbine blades, fairings, fuselage structures, empennage structures, control surfaces and aircraft skins. SansEC sensor technology is a new technical framework for designing, powering, and interrogating sensors to detect various types of damage in composite materials. The source cause of the in-service damage (lightning strike, impact damage, material fatigue, etc.) to the aircraft composite is not relevant. The sensor will detect damage independent of the cause

  2. Development of Thin Heterojunction Solar Cells with High Open Circuit Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monga, Tanmay

    The aim of this thesis research is the development of thin silicon heterojunction solar cells with high open circuit voltage (Voc). Heterojunction solar cells are higher in efficiency than diffused junction c-Si solar cells, and they are less vulnerable to light degradation. Furthermore, the low temperature processing of heterojunction cells favour a decrease in production costs and improve cell performance at the same time. Since about 30 % of the module cost is a result of substrate cost, thin solar cells are of economic advantage than their thicker counterparts. This lead to the research for development of thin heterojunction solar cells. For high cell efficiencies and performance, it is important for cells to have a high operating voltage and Voc. Development of heterojunction cells with high Voc required a stable and repeatable baseline process on which further improvements could be made. Therefore a baseline process for heterojunction solar cells was developed and demonstrated as a pilot line at the Solar Power Lab at ASU. All the processes involved in fabrication of cells with the baseline process were optimized to have a stable and repeatable process. The cells produced with the baseline process were 19-20% efficient. The baseline process was further used as a backbone to improve and develop thin cells with even higher Voc. The process recipe was optimized with an aim to explore the limits of Voc that could be achieved with this structure on a much thinner substrate than used for the baseline process. A record Voc greater than 760mV was recorded at SPL using Suns-Voc tester on a 50 microns thick heterojunction cell without metallization. Furthermore, Voc of 754.2 mV was measured on a 50 microns thick cell with metallization by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), which is a record for Voc for heterojunction cells with metallization. High Voc corresponds to high cell efficiency and therefore, higher module voltage and power with using the same number

  3. Patients' experiences of an open access follow up arrangement in managing inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, A; Kennedy, A; Nelson, E; Robinson, A

    2004-01-01

    Background: Improving access is a key policy issue in improving quality of care and extending patient choice and participation. People's experience of changing from fixed outpatient appointments to more flexible direct access arrangements for chronic disease has been underexplored. Objectives: To examine patients' views on using an open system of access compared with fixed outpatient appointments as part of a guided self-management intervention for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Design: Embedded qualitative study undertaken alongside a randomised controlled trial. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to obtain an in depth understanding of patients' experience of the change in access arrangements. Participants: A purposive sample (n = 30) was drawn from the intervention group (n = 700) according to a range of responses to the trial baseline and follow up quantitative measures. Results: 28 interviews were included in the analysis. Compared with the previous system of fixed appointments, preference for the new open access system was based on enhanced personal control in contacting services and the view that it fitted better with everyday routine management and the requirement for urgent medical contact when symptoms fail to respond to medication. Preference for retaining fixed appointments was based on a sense of security from gaining access which did not require the individual to initiate the request for medical help. Conclusions: Open access may fit better with patients' self-management of their condition and everyday routines, roles and responsibilities. Ensuring that outpatient organisational arrangements and personnel are responsive to patient initiated requests for appointments is likely to impact on the acceptability of this type of access arrangement. Some people may continue to prefer the fixed appointment system which should be retained if patient choice is to be respected. PMID:15465941

  4. Open Access, Retention and Throughput at the Central University of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Beer, K. J.

    2006-01-01

    The most debatable question in higher education today is: Why first "open access" to promote massafication and now "capping" to restrict learner intake? (cf. SA Media Information 2004). Concerning the managing of this difficult and extremely sensitive issue, the Central University of Technology, Free State (CUT) has come a long…

  5. 50 CFR 660.313 - Open access fishery-recordkeeping and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Open access fishery-recordkeeping and reporting. 660.313 Section 660.313 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST...

  6. 50 CFR 660.313 - Open access fishery-recordkeeping and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Open access fishery-recordkeeping and reporting. 660.313 Section 660.313 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST...

  7. 50 CFR 660.313 - Open access fishery-recordkeeping and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Open access fishery-recordkeeping and reporting. 660.313 Section 660.313 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST...

  8. Open Access Metadata, Catalogers, and Vendors: The Future of Cataloging Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Emily Alinder

    2013-01-01

    The open access (OA) movement is working to transform scholarly communication around the world, but this philosophy can also apply to metadata and cataloging records. While some notable, large academic libraries, such as Harvard University, the University of Michigan, and the University of Cambridge, released their cataloging records under OA…

  9. On Open Access to Research: The Green, the Gold, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Audra K.; Gainer, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    In this column the authors discuss barriers to worldwide open access to peer-reviewed journal articles online and how they might be addressed by literacy scholars. They highlight economic and ethical problems associated with the current subscription-based system for distributing articles (which sometimes works against the ideals of research and…

  10. A Survey of Physical Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics Faculty Regarding Author Fees in Open Access Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusker, Jeremy; Rauh, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of the potential of open access publishing frequently must contend with the skepticism of research authors regarding the need to pay author fees (also known as publication fees). With that in mind, the authors undertook a survey of faculty, postdocs, and graduate students in physical science, mathematics, and engineering fields at two…

  11. 18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... voluntary compliance with jurisdictional transmission tariff reciprocity conditions. (b) Definitions—(1... otherwise have to comply with the requirement. (e) Non-public utility procedures for tariff reciprocity... reciprocity conditions contained in a public utility open access tariff, for good cause shown. An...

  12. 18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... jurisdictional transmission tariff reciprocity conditions. (b) Definitions—(1) Requirements service agreement... procedures for tariff reciprocity compliance. (1) A non-public utility may submit a transmission tariff and a... or part of the reciprocity conditions contained in a public utility open access tariff, for...

  13. Managing an Open Access, Multi-Institutional, International Digital Library: The Digital Library of the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldridge, Brooke; Taylor, Laurie; Sullivan, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Developing an Open Access, multi-institutional, multilingual, international digital library requires robust technological and institutional infrastructures that support both the needs of individual institutions alongside the needs of the growing partnership and ensure continuous communication and development of the shared vision for the digital…

  14. 30 CFR 18.29 - Access openings and covers, including unused lead-entrance holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lead-entrance holes. 18.29 Section 18.29 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... unused lead-entrance holes. (a) Access openings in explosion-proof enclosures will be permitted only... Figure 1 in Appendix II.) (c) Holes in enclosures that are provided for lead entrances but which are...

  15. Patterns of Student Enrolment and Attrition in Australian Open Access Online Education: A Preliminary Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenland, Steven J.; Moore, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Swinburne University of Technology has experienced tremendous growth in open access online learning and as such is typical of the many Australian institutions that have ventured into online tertiary education. While research in online education continues to expand, comparatively little investigates students' enrolment and attrition. This research…

  16. The Situation of Open Access Institutional Repositories in Spain: 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melero, Remedios; Abadal, Ernest; Abad, Francisca; Rodriguez-Gairin, Josep Manel

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The DRIVER I project drew up a detailed report of European repositories based on data gathered in a survey in which Spain's participation was very low. This created a highly distorted image of the implementation of repositories in Spain. This study aims to analyse the current state of Spanish open-access institutional repositories…

  17. Disappearing Act: Persistence and Attrition of Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) in an Open Access Medical Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaraja, Aragudige; Joseph, Shine A.; Polen, Hyla H.; Clauson, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to assess and catalogue the magnitude of URL attrition in a high-impact, open access (OA) general medical journal. Design/methodology/approach: All "Public Library of Science Medicine (PLoS Medicine)" articles for 2005-2007 were evaluated and the following items were assessed: number of entries per issue; type of…

  18. Open access of evidence-based publications: the case of the orthopedic and musculoskeletal literature.

    PubMed

    Yammine, Kaissar

    2015-11-01

    The open access model, where researchers can publish their work and make it freely available to the whole medical community, is gaining ground over the traditional type of publication. However, fees are to be paid by either the authors or their institutions. The purpose of this paper is to assess the proportion and type of open access evidence-based articles in the form of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the field of musculoskeletal disorders and orthopedic surgery. PubMed database was searched and the results showed a maximal number of hits for low back pain and total hip arthroplasty. We demonstrated that despite a 10-fold increase in the number of evidence-based publications in the past 10 years, the rate of free systematic reviews in the general biomedical literature did not change for the last two decades. In addition, the average percentage of free open access systematic reviews and meta-analyses for the commonest painful musculoskeletal conditions and orthopedic procedures was 20% and 18%, respectively. Those results were significantly lower than those of the systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the remaining biomedical research. Such findings could indicate a divergence between the efforts engaged at promoting evidence-based principles and those at disseminating evidence-based findings in the field of musculoskeletal disease and trauma. The high processing fee is thought to be a major limitation when considering open access model for publication.

  19. Commentary: Open Access to Research and the Individual Responsibility of Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanier, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    Readers of "Language Learning & Technology" (LLT) are undoubtedly aware of the debate raging through the international research community about open (i.e., free) access to research and knowledge. As readers of the journal, they may not feel very concerned with this debate, because when LLT was established in 1997 (and "ALSIC" Journal in 1998) it…

  20. MOOCs: When Opening Doors to Education, Institutions Must Ensure That People with Disabilities Have Equal Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasopoulos, Nicholas; Baer, Amanda Marie

    2013-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses ("MOOCs") are free online courses offered by institutions of higher education to individuals across the world, without any admissions criteria. Through web-based courses hosted by MOOC platforms, student-participants learn by accessing media, including documents, pictures and uploaded lectures on the course…

  1. "Medical Education Online": A Case Study of an Open Access Journal in Health Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The development of the World Wide Web (WWW) has made it possible of small groups of colleagues or even single individuals to create peer-reviewed scholarly journals. This paper discusses the development of Medical Education Online (MEO) an open access peer-reviewed journal in health professional education. Description: MEO was first…

  2. Publishers' PR Tactic Angers University Presses and Open-Access Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on reactions to the Association of American Publishers' new public-relations campaign, which has upset many university presses and research librarians, as well as open-access advocates. The effort, known as the "Partnership for Research Integrity in Science & Medicine," or Prism, is the latest tactic in a continuing…

  3. Indexing the medical open access literature for textual and content-based visual retrieval.

    PubMed

    Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years an increasing amount of scientific journals have been created in an open access format. Particularly in the medical field the number of openly accessible journals is enormous making a wide body of knowledge available for analysis and retrieval. Part of the trend towards open access publications can be linked to funding bodies such as the NIH1 (National Institutes of Health) and the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF2) requiring funded projects to make all articles of funded research available publicly. This article describes an approach to make part of the knowledge of open access journals available for retrieval including the textual information but also the images contained in the articles. For this goal all articles of 24 journals related to medical informatics and medical imaging were crawled from the web pages of BioMed Central. Text and images of the PDF (Portable Document Format) files were indexed separately and a web-based retrieval interface allows for searching via keyword queries or by visual similarity queries. Starting point for a visual similarity query can be an image on the local hard disk that is uploaded or any image found via the textual search. Search for similar documents is also possible.

  4. The Principle and the Pragmatist: On Conflict and Coalescence for Librarian Engagement with Open Access Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article considers Open Access (OA) training and the supports and structures in place in academic libraries in the United States from the perspective of a new librarian. OA programming is contextualized by the larger project of Scholarly Communication in academic libraries, and the two share a historical focus on journal literature and a…

  5. Open-Access Metabolomics Databases for Natural Product Research: Present Capabilities and Future Potential

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sean R.; Lange, Bernd Markus

    2015-01-01

    Various databases have been developed to aid in assigning structures to spectral peaks observed in metabolomics experiments. In this review article, we discuss the utility of currently available open-access spectral and chemical databases for natural products discovery. We also provide recommendations on how the research community can contribute to further improvements. PMID:25789275

  6. Perspectives on open access high resolution digital elevation models to produce global flood hazard layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Christopher; Smith, Andrew; Bates, Paul; Neal, Jeffrey; Trigg, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Global flood hazard models have recently become a reality thanks to the release of open access global digital elevation models, the development of simplified and highly efficient flow algorithms, and the steady increase in computational power. In this commentary we argue that although the availability of open access global terrain data has been critical in enabling the development of such models, the relatively poor resolution and precision of these data now limit significantly our ability to estimate flood inundation and risk for the majority of the planet's surface. The difficulty of deriving an accurate 'bare-earth' terrain model due to the interaction of vegetation and urban structures with the satellite-based remote sensors means that global terrain data are often poorest in the areas where people, property (and thus vulnerability) are most concentrated. Furthermore, the current generation of open access global terrain models are over a decade old and many large floodplains, particularly those in developing countries, have undergone significant change in this time. There is therefore a pressing need for a new generation of high resolution and high vertical precision open access global digital elevation models to allow significantly improved global flood hazard models to be developed.

  7. Student Access to and Skills in Using Technology in an Open and Distance Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebenberg, Hanlie; Chetty, Yuraisha; Prinsloo, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Amidst the different challenges facing higher education, and particularly distance education (DE) and open distance learning (ODL), access to information and communication technology (ICT) and students' abilities to use ICTs are highly contested issues in the South African higher education landscape. While there are various opinions about the…

  8. 50 CFR 660.24 - Limited entry and open access fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limited entry and open access fisheries. 660.24 Section 660.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  9. AUPress: A Comparison of an Open Access University Press with Traditional Presses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGreal, Rory; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2011-01-01

    This study is a comparison of AUPress with three other traditional (non-open access) Canadian university presses. The analysis is based on the rankings that are correlated with book sales on Amazon.com and Amazon.ca. Statistical methods include the sampling of the sales ranking of randomly selected books from each press. The results of one-way…

  10. Academic Administrator Influence on Institutional Commitment to Open Access of Scholarly Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinsfelder, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the interrelationships among faculty researchers, publishers, librarians, and academic administrators when dealing with the open access of scholarly research. This study sought to identify the nature of any relationship between the perceived attitudes and actions of academic administrators and an…

  11. MaizeGDB: Global support for maize research through open access information [abstract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB is the open-access global repository for maize genetic and genomic information – from single genes that determine nutritional quality to whole genome-scale data for complex traits including yield and drought tolerance. The data and tools at MaizeGDB enable researchers from Ethiopia to Ghan...

  12. Does It Make a Sound: Are Open Access Monographs Discoverable in Library Catalogs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollough, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    This article describes an exploratory study examining the common perception among library-based publishers that open access academic publications (especially monographs) are not readily discoverable in library catalogs. Using titles from the Michigan Publishing imprint, digital culture books, the study provides an empirical basis for evaluating…

  13. Student Assessment of Quality of Access at the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inegbedion, Juliet O.; Adu, Folorunso I.; Ofulue, Christine Y.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study conducted by Inegbedion, Adu and Ofulue from the National Open University of Nigeria. The study focused on the quality of access (admission and registration) at NOUN from a student perspective. A survey design was used for the study while a multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the sample size. All the…

  14. Global review of open access risk assessment software packages valid for global or continental scale analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Simpson, Alanna; Gunasekara, Rashmin; Baca, Abigail; Schaefer, Andreas; Ishizawa, Oscar; Murnane, Rick; Tijssen, Annegien; Deparday, Vivien; Forni, Marc; Himmelfarb, Anne; Leder, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Over the past few decades, a plethora of open access software packages for the calculation of earthquake, volcanic, tsunami, storm surge, wind and flood have been produced globally. As part of the World Bank GFDRR Review released at the Understanding Risk 2014 Conference, over 80 such open access risk assessment software packages were examined. Commercial software was not considered in the evaluation. A preliminary analysis was used to determine whether the 80 models were currently supported and if they were open access. This process was used to select a subset of 31 models that include 8 earthquake models, 4 cyclone models, 11 flood models, and 8 storm surge/tsunami models for more detailed analysis. By using multi-criteria analysis (MCDA) and simple descriptions of the software uses, the review allows users to select a few relevant software packages for their own testing and development. The detailed analysis evaluated the models on the basis of over 100 criteria and provides a synopsis of available open access natural hazard risk modelling tools. In addition, volcano software packages have since been added making the compendium of risk software tools in excess of 100. There has been a huge increase in the quality and availability of open access/source software over the past few years. For example, private entities such as Deltares now have an open source policy regarding some flood models (NGHS). In addition, leaders in developing risk models in the public sector, such as Geoscience Australia (EQRM, TCRM, TsuDAT, AnuGA) or CAPRA (ERN-Flood, Hurricane, CRISIS2007 etc.), are launching and/or helping many other initiatives. As we achieve greater interoperability between modelling tools, we will also achieve a future wherein different open source and open access modelling tools will be increasingly connected and adapted towards unified multi-risk model platforms and highly customised solutions. It was seen that many software tools could be improved by enabling user

  15. Perspectives in understanding open access to research data - infrastructure and technology challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo; Sondervan, Jeroen

    2014-05-01

    The Policy RECommendations for Open Access to Research Data in Europe (RECODE) project, started in February 2013 with a duration of two years, has the objective to identify a series of targeted and over-arching policy recommendations for Open Access to European research data, based on existing good practice and addressing such hindering factors as stakeholder fragmentation, technical and infrastructural issues, ethical and legal issues, and financial and institutional policies. In this work we focus on the technical and infrastructural aspect, where by "infrastructure" we mean the technological assets (hardware and software), the human resources, and all the policies, processes, procedures and training for managing and supporting its continuous operation and evolution. The context targeted by RECODE includes heterogeneous networks, initiatives, projects and communities that are fragmented by discipline, geography, stakeholder category (publishers, academics, repositories, etc.) as well as other boundaries. Many of these organizations are already addressing key technical and infrastructural barriers to Open Access to research data. Such barriers may include: lack of automatic mechanisms for policy enforcement, lack of metadata and data models supporting open access, obsolescence of infrastructures, scarce awareness about new technological solutions, lack of training and/or expertise on IT and semantics aspects. However, these organizations are often heterogeneous and fragmented by discipline, geography, stakeholder category (publishers, academics, repositories, etc.) as well as other boundaries, and often work in isolation, or with limited contact with one another. RECODE has addressed these challenges, and the possible solutions to mitigate them, engaging all the identified stakeholders in a number of ways, including an online questionnaire, case studies interviews, literature review, a workshop. The conclusions have been validated by the RECODE Advisory Board and

  16. The textual characteristics of traditional and Open Access scientific journals are similar

    PubMed Central

    Verspoor, Karin; Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen an increased amount of natural language processing (NLP) work on full text biomedical journal publications. Much of this work is done with Open Access journal articles. Such work assumes that Open Access articles are representative of biomedical publications in general and that methods developed for analysis of Open Access full text publications will generalize to the biomedical literature as a whole. If this assumption is wrong, the cost to the community will be large, including not just wasted resources, but also flawed science. This paper examines that assumption. Results We collected two sets of documents, one consisting only of Open Access publications and the other consisting only of traditional journal publications. We examined them for differences in surface linguistic structures that have obvious consequences for the ease or difficulty of natural language processing and for differences in semantic content as reflected in lexical items. Regarding surface linguistic structures, we examined the incidence of conjunctions, negation, passives, and pronominal anaphora, and found that the two collections did not differ. We also examined the distribution of sentence lengths and found that both collections were characterized by the same mode. Regarding lexical items, we found that the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the two collections was low, and was lower than the divergence between either collection and a reference corpus. Where small differences did exist, log likelihood analysis showed that they were primarily in the area of formatting and in specific named entities. Conclusion We did not find structural or semantic differences between the Open Access and traditional journal collections. PMID:19527520

  17. Effects of a parallel resistor on electrical characteristics of a piezoelectric transformer in open-circuit transient state.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kuo-Tsai

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates electrical transient characteristics of a Rosen-type piezoelectric transformer (PT), including maximum voltages, time constants, energy losses and average powers, and their improvements immediately after turning OFF. A parallel resistor connected to both input terminals of the PT is needed to improve the transient characteristics. An equivalent circuit for the PT is first given. Then, an open-circuit voltage, involving a direct current (DC) component and an alternating current (AC) component, and its related energy losses are derived from the equivalent circuit with initial conditions. Moreover, an AC power control system, including a DC-to-AC resonant inverter, a control switch and electronic instruments, is constructed to determine the electrical characteristics of the OFF transient state. Furthermore, the effects of the parallel resistor on the transient characteristics at different parallel resistances are measured. The advantages of adding the parallel resistor also are discussed. From the measured results, the DC time constant is greatly decreased from 9 to 0.04 ms by a 10 k(omega) parallel resistance under open output.

  18. Charged grain boundaries reduce the open-circuit voltage of polycrystalline solar cells—An analytical description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaury, Benoit; Haney, Paul M.

    2016-12-01

    Analytical expressions are presented for the dark current-voltage relation J(V) of a pn+ junction with positively charged columnar grain boundaries with high defect density. These expressions apply to non-depleted grains with sufficiently high bulk hole mobilities. The accuracy of the formulas is verified by direct comparison to numerical simulations. Numerical simulations further show that the dark J(V) can be used to determine the open-circuit potential Voc of an illuminated junction for a given short-circuit current density Jsc . A precise relation between the grain boundary properties and Voc is provided, advancing the understanding of the influence of grain boundaries on the efficiency of thin film polycrystalline photovoltaics like CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 .

  19. First-principles calculation of charged capacitors under open-circuit conditions using the orbital-separation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasamatsu, Shusuke; Watanabe, Satoshi; Han, Seungwu

    2015-09-01

    In a previous work [Phys. Rev. B 84, 085120 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.085120], we presented the orbital-separation approach for simulating metal/insulator/metal capacitors under bias voltage within the Kohn-Sham framework of density functional theory. A limitation mentioned in that work was that it is not straightforward to calculate the amount of free charge transferred from one electrode to the other, and thus the application of the method was limited to the closed-circuit (constant-voltage) condition. Here, we show that it is actually possible in practice to calculate the free charge by examining the change in the occupation of the Kohn-Sham eigenstates near the Fermi level. Thus it is also possible to perform open-circuit (constant-charge) simulations, and we demonstrate this on a metal/ferroelectric/metal capacitor.

  20. Open access to an outpatient intravenous diuresis program in a systolic heart failure disease management program.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Kathy; Dias, Andre; Franco, Emiliana; Tamariz, Leonardo; Steen, Dylan; Arcement, Lee M

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide efficient utilization of resources in an outpatient setting for acute exacerbation of heart failure (HF), the authors piloted an open-access outpatient intravenous (IV) diuretic program (IVDP) to evaluate utilization in an HF disease management program (HFDMP), patient characteristics for users of the program, and safety. An outpatient HFDMP at Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami, Florida, enrolling 577 patients 18 years and older with an ejection fraction ≤40% was implemented. For symptoms or weight gain ≥5 pounds, patients were eligible to use an open-access IVDP during clinic hours. A total of 130 HFDM patients (22.5%) used the IVDP. IVDP users were more likely to be diabetic, with lower body mass indices than non-IVDP users. New York Heart Association class IV patients and previously hospitalized patients were more likely to use the IVDP. There were no documented adverse reactions for patients receiving treatment and no difference in mortality between groups. This open-access outpatient IVDP model for patients with HF was readily utilized by the HFDMP participants and appears safe for use in this population. This unique model may provide alternative access for acute HF treatment. Congest Heart Fail.

  1. Open access, library and publisher competition, and the evolution of general commerce.

    PubMed

    Odlyzko, Andrew M

    2015-02-01

    Discussions of the economics of scholarly communication are usually devoted to Open Access, rising journal prices, publisher profits, and boycotts. That ignores what seems a much more important development in this market. Publishers, through the oft-reviled Big Deal packages, are providing much greater and more egalitarian access to the journal literature, an approximation to true Open Access. In the process, they are also marginalizing libraries and obtaining a greater share of the resources going into scholarly communication. This is enabling a continuation of publisher profits as well as of what for decades has been called "unsustainable journal price escalation." It is also inhibiting the spread of Open Access and potentially leading to an oligopoly of publishers controlling distribution through large-scale licensing. The Big Deal practices are worth studying for several general reasons. The degree to which publishers succeed in diminishing the role of libraries may be an indicator of the degree and speed at which universities transform themselves. More importantly, these Big Deals appear to point the way to the future of the whole economy, where progress is characterized by declining privacy, increasing price discrimination, increasing opaqueness in pricing, increasing reliance on low-paid or unpaid work of others for profits, and business models that depend on customer inertia.

  2. Accessing and managing open medical resources in Africa over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Rada; Khalifa, Aly; Jimenez-Castellanos, Ana; de la Calle, Guillermo; Ramirez-Robles, Maximo; Crespo, Jose; Perez-Rey, David; Garcia-Remesal, Miguel; Anguita, Alberto; Alonso-Calvo, Raul; de la Iglesia, Diana; Barreiro, Jose M.; Maojo, Victor

    2014-10-01

    Recent commentaries have proposed the advantages of using open exchange of data and informatics resources for improving health-related policies and patient care in Africa. Yet, in many African regions, both private medical and public health information systems are still unaffordable. Open exchange over the social Web 2.0 could encourage more altruistic support of medical initiatives. We have carried out some experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of using this approach to disseminate open data and informatics resources in Africa. After the experiments we developed the AFRICA BUILD Portal, the first Social Network for African biomedical researchers. Through the AFRICA BUILD Portal users can access in a transparent way to several resources. Currently, over 600 researchers are using distributed and open resources through this platform committed to low connections.

  3. Demonstration of an SOA-assisted open metro-access infrastructure for heterogeneous services.

    PubMed

    Schmuck, H; Bonk, R; Poehlmann, W; Haslach, C; Kuebart, W; Karnick, D; Meyer, J; Fritzsche, D; Weis, E; Becker, J; Freude, W; Pfeiffer, T

    2014-01-13

    An open converged metro-access network approach allows for sharing optical layer resources like fibers and optical spectrum among different services and operators. We demonstrated experimentally the feasibility of such a concept by the simultaneous operation of multiple services showing different modulation formats and multiplexing techniques. Flexible access nodes are implemented including semiconductor optical amplifiers to create a transparent and reconfigurable optical ring network. The impact of cascaded optical amplifiers on the signal quality is studied along the ring. In addition, the influence of high power rival signals in the same waveband and in the same fiber is analyzed.

  4. An Azulene-Containing Low Bandgap Small Molecule for Organic Photovoltaics with High Open-Circuit Voltage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Zhu, Youqin; Yang, Daobin; Zhao, Suling; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Lin; Wu, Jianglin; Huang, Yan; Xu, Zheng; Lu, Zhiyun

    2016-10-04

    A simple azulene-containing squaraine dye (AzUSQ) showing bandgap of 1.38 eV and hole mobility up to 1.25×10(-4)  cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1) was synthesized. With its low bandgap, an organic photovoltaic (OPV) device based on it has been made that exhibits an impressive open-circuit voltages (Voc ) of 0.80 V. Hence, azulene might be a promising structural unit to construct OPV materials with simultaneous low bandgap, high hole mobility and high Voc .

  5. "I've Never Heard of It Before": Awareness of Open Access at a Small Liberal Arts University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocken, Gregory J.; Wical, Stephanie H.

    2013-01-01

    Small colleges and universities, often late adopters of institutional repositories and open access initiatives, face challenges that have not fully been explored in the professional literature. In an effort to gauge the level of awareness of open access and institutional repositories at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire (UWEC), the authors of…

  6. Brokered virtual hubs for facilitating access and use of geospatial Open Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Latre, Miguel; Kamali, Nargess; Brumana, Raffaella; Braumann, Stefan; Nativi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Open Data is a major trend in current information technology scenario and it is often publicised as one of the pillars of the information society in the near future. In particular, geospatial Open Data have a huge potential also for Earth Sciences, through the enablement of innovative applications and services integrating heterogeneous information. However, open does not mean usable. As it was recognized at the very beginning of the Web revolution, many different degrees of openness exist: from simple sharing in a proprietary format to advanced sharing in standard formats and including semantic information. Therefore, to fully unleash the potential of geospatial Open Data, advanced infrastructures are needed to increase the data openness degree, enhancing their usability. In October 2014, the ENERGIC OD (European NEtwork for Redistributing Geospatial Information to user Communities - Open Data) project, funded by the European Union under the Competitiveness and Innovation framework Programme (CIP), has started. In response to the EU call, the general objective of the project is to "facilitate the use of open (freely available) geographic data from different sources for the creation of innovative applications and services through the creation of Virtual Hubs". The ENERGIC OD Virtual Hubs aim to facilitate the use of geospatial Open Data by lowering and possibly removing the main barriers which hampers geo-information (GI) usage by end-users and application developers. Data and services heterogeneity is recognized as one of the major barriers to Open Data (re-)use. It imposes end-users and developers to spend a lot of effort in accessing different infrastructures and harmonizing datasets. Such heterogeneity cannot be completely removed through the adoption of standard specifications for service interfaces, metadata and data models, since different infrastructures adopt different standards to answer to specific challenges and to address specific use-cases. Thus

  7. Hybrid Josephson-CMOS Random Access Memory with Interfacing to Josephson Digital Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-16

    as reliable high-speed Josephson voltage drivers, Superconductor Science and Technology, (01 2013): 1. doi: TOTAL: 4 (b) Papers published in non...Theodore Van Duzer, ISEC, Washington, DC 2011 "Hybrid Josephson-CMOS Random Access Memory, T. Van Duzer, US Workshop on Superconductor Electronics: Devices...Proceeding publications (other than abstracts): Received Paper 08/22/2013 2.00 Thomas Ortlepp. Vortex transitional superconductor random access memory

  8. Cyberscience and the Knowledge-Based Economy. Open Access and Trade Publishing: From Contradiction to Compatibility with Non-Exclusive Copyright Licensing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armbruster, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Open source, open content and open access are set to fundamentally alter the conditions of knowledge production and distribution. Open source, open content and open access are also the most tangible result of the shift towards e-science and digital networking. Yet, widespread misperceptions exist about the impact of this shift on knowledge…

  9. Intellectual property rights in synthetic biology: an anti-thesis to open access to research?

    PubMed

    Saukshmya, Trichi; Chugh, Archana

    2010-12-01

    Synthetic Biology is a surging area of contemporary life science based research that is rapidly evolving by virtue of its multidisciplinary composition and applications. Biology never before has seen such a gold rush and demonstrated potential for knowledge based economy. The area of synthetic biology is in a nascent and tender stage, however issues pertaining to open access to research versus the monopolistic intellectual property regime (specifically patents) have already started raising concerns in the emerging bio-based economy. The present study critically analyses the comparative benefits as well as lacunas of open access to research and patenting issues. It is noteworthy that both approaches for synthetic biology development have to co-exist in order to optimally benefit the society at large.

  10. Stem cell research funding policies and dynamic innovation: a survey of open access and commercialization requirements.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Maroussia; Kim, Jihyun Rosel; Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Plomer, Aurora; Joly, Yann

    2014-08-01

    This article compares and contrasts the pressures of both open access data sharing and commercialization policies in the context of publicly funded embryonic stem cell research (SCR). First, normative guidelines of international SCR organizations were examined. We then examined SCR funding guidelines and the project evaluation criteria of major funding organizations in the EU, the United Kingdom (UK), Spain, Canada and the United States. Our survey of policies revealed subtle pressures to commercialize research that include: increased funding availability for commercialization opportunities, assistance for obtaining intellectual property rights (IPRs) and legislation mandating commercialization. In lieu of open access models, funders are increasingly opting for limited sharing models or "protected commons" models that make the research available to researchers within the same region or those receiving the same funding. Meanwhile, there still is need for funding agencies to clarify and standardize terms such as "non-profit organizations" and "for-profit research," as more universities are pursuing for-profit or commercial opportunities.

  11. Open Access Wind Tunnel Measurements of a Downwind Free Yawing Wind Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verelst, David; Larsen, Torben; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2016-09-01

    A series of free yawing wind tunnel experiments was held in the Open Jet Facility (OJF) of the TU Delft. The ≈ 300 W turbine has three blades in a downwind configuration and is optionally free to yaw. Different 1.6m diameter rotor configurations are tested such as blade flexibility and sweep. This paper gives a brief overview of the measurement setup and challenges, and continues with presenting some key results. This wind tunnel campaign has shown that a three bladed downwind wind turbine can operate in a stable fashion under a minimal yaw error. Finally, a description of how to obtain this open access dataset, including the post-processing scripts and procedures, is made available via a publicly accessible website.

  12. Tools for Inspecting and Sampling Waste in Underground Radioactive Storage Tanks with Small Access Riser Openings

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, T.A.

    1998-12-17

    Underground storage tanks with 2 inches to 3 inches diameter access ports at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site have been used to store radioactive solvents and sludge. In order to close these tanks, the contents of the tanks need to first be quantified in terms of volume and chemical and radioactive characteristics. To provide information on the volume of waste contained within the tanks, a small remote inspection system was needed. This inspection system was designed to provide lighting and provide pan and tilt capabilities in an inexpensive package with zoom abilities and color video. This system also needed to be utilized inside of a plastic tent built over the access port to contain any contamination exiting from the port. This system had to be build to travel into the small port opening, through the riser pipe, into the tank evacuated space, and out of the riser pipe and access port with no possibility of being caught and blocking the access riser. Long thin plates were found in many access riser pipes that blocked the inspection system from penetrating into the tank interiors. Retrieval tools to clear the plates from the tanks using developed sampling devices while providing safe containment for the samples. This paper will discuss the inspection systems, tools for clearing access pipes, and solvent sampling tools developed to evaluate the tank contents of the underground solvent storage tanks.

  13. Open access: academic publishing and its implications for knowledge equity in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Matheka, Duncan Mwangangi; Nderitu, Joseph; Mutonga, Daniel; Otiti, Mary Iwaret; Siegel, Karen; Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll

    2014-04-09

    Traditional, subscription-based scientific publishing has its limitations: often, articles are inaccessible to the majority of researchers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where journal subscriptions or one-time access fees are cost-prohibitive. Open access (OA) publishing, in which journals provide online access to articles free of charge, breaks this barrier and allows unrestricted access to scientific and scholarly information to researchers all over the globe. At the same time, one major limitation to OA is a high publishing cost that is placed on authors. Following recent developments to OA publishing policies in the UK and even LMICs, this article highlights the current status and future challenges of OA in Africa. We place particular emphasis on Kenya, where multidisciplinary efforts to improve access have been established. We note that these efforts in Kenya can be further strengthened and potentially replicated in other African countries, with the goal of elevating the visibility of African research and improving access for African researchers to global research, and, ultimately, bring social and economic benefits to the region. We (1) offer recommendations for overcoming the challenges of implementing OA in Africa and (2) call for urgent action by African governments to follow the suit of high-income countries like the UK and Australia, mandating OA for publicly-funded research in their region and supporting future research into how OA might bring social and economic benefits to Africa.

  14. Recommendations for mass spectrometry data quality metrics for open access data (corollary to the Amsterdam principles).

    PubMed

    Kinsinger, Christopher R; Apffel, James; Baker, Mark; Bian, Xiaopeng; Borchers, Christoph H; Bradshaw, Ralph; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Chan, Daniel W; Deutsch, Eric W; Domon, Bruno; Gorman, Jeff; Grimm, Rudolf; Hancock, William; Hermjakob, Henning; Horn, David; Hunter, Christie; Kolar, Patrik; Kraus, Hans-Joachim; Langen, Hanno; Linding, Rune; Moritz, Robert L; Omenn, Gilbert S; Orlando, Ron; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ping, Peipei; Rahbar, Amir; Rivers, Robert; Seymour, Sean L; Simpson, Richard J; Slotta, Douglas; Smith, Richard D; Stein, Stephen E; Tabb, David L; Tagle, Danilo; Yates, John R; Rodriguez, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Policies supporting the rapid and open sharing of proteomic data are being implemented by the leading journals in the field. The proteomics community is taking steps to ensure that data are made publicly accessible and are of high quality, a challenging task that requires the development and deployment of methods for measuring and documenting data quality metrics. On September 18, 2010, the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) convened the "International Workshop on Proteomic Data Quality Metrics" in Sydney, Australia, to identify and address issues facing the development and use of such methods for open access proteomics data. The stakeholders at the workshop enumerated the key principles underlying a framework for data quality assessment in mass spectrometry data that will meet the needs of the research community, journals, funding agencies, and data repositories. Attendees discussed and agreed upon two primary needs for the wide use of quality metrics: (i) an evolving list of comprehensive quality metrics and (ii) standards accompanied by software analytics. Attendees stressed the importance of increased education and training programs to promote reliable protocols in proteomics. This workshop report explores the historic precedents, key discussions, and necessary next steps to enhance the quality of open access data. By agreement, this article is published simultaneously in Proteomics, Proteomics Clinical Applications, Journal of Proteome Research, and Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, as a public service to the research community. The peer review process was a coordinated effort conducted by a panel of referees selected by the journals.

  15. Recommendations for mass spectrometry data quality metrics for open access data (corollary to the Amsterdam principles).

    PubMed

    Kinsinger, Christopher R; Apffel, James; Baker, Mark; Bian, Xiaopeng; Borchers, Christoph H; Bradshaw, Ralph; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Chan, Daniel W; Deutsch, Eric W; Domon, Bruno; Gorman, Jeff; Grimm, Rudolf; Hancock, William; Hermjakob, Henning; Horn, David; Hunter, Christie; Kolar, Patrik; Kraus, Hans-Joachim; Langen, Hanno; Linding, Rune; Moritz, Robert L; Omenn, Gilbert S; Orlando, Ron; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ping, Peipei; Rahbar, Amir; Rivers, Robert; Seymour, Sean L; Simpson, Richard J; Slotta, Douglas; Smith, Richard D; Stein, Stephen E; Tabb, David L; Tagle, Danilo; Yates, John R; Rodriguez, Henry

    2011-12-01

    Policies supporting the rapid and open sharing of proteomic data are being implemented by the leading journals in the field. The proteomics community is taking steps to ensure that data are made publicly accessible and are of high quality, a challenging task that requires the development and deployment of methods for measuring and documenting data quality metrics. On September 18, 2010, the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) convened the "International Workshop on Proteomic Data Quality Metrics" in Sydney, Australia, to identify and address issues facing the development and use of such methods for open access proteomics data. The stakeholders at the workshop enumerated the key principles underlying a framework for data quality assessment in mass spectrometry data that will meet the needs of the research community, journals, funding agencies, and data repositories. Attendees discussed and agreed up on two primary needs for the wide use of quality metrics: (i) an evolving list of comprehensive quality metrics and (ii) standards accompanied by software analytics. Attendees stressed the importance of increased education and training programs to promote reliable protocols in proteomics. This workshop report explores the historic precedents, key discussions, and necessary next steps to enhance the quality of open access data. By agreement, this article is published simultaneously in Proteomics, Proteomics Clinical Applications, Journal of Proteome Research, and Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, as a public service to the research community. The peer review process was a coordinated effort conducted by a panel of referees selected by the journals.

  16. Recommendations for mass spectrometry data quality metrics for open access data (corollary to the Amsterdam Principles).

    PubMed

    Kinsinger, Christopher R; Apffel, James; Baker, Mark; Bian, Xiaopeng; Borchers, Christoph H; Bradshaw, Ralph; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Chan, Daniel W; Deutsch, Eric W; Domon, Bruno; Gorman, Jeff; Grimm, Rudolf; Hancock, William; Hermjakob, Henning; Horn, David; Hunter, Christie; Kolar, Patrik; Kraus, Hans-Joachim; Langen, Hanno; Linding, Rune; Moritz, Robert L; Omenn, Gilbert S; Orlando, Ron; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ping, Peipei; Rahbar, Amir; Rivers, Robert; Seymour, Sean L; Simpson, Richard J; Slotta, Douglas; Smith, Richard D; Stein, Stephen E; Tabb, David L; Tagle, Danilo; Yates, John R; Rodriguez, Henry

    2012-02-03

    Policies supporting the rapid and open sharing of proteomic data are being implemented by the leading journals in the field. The proteomics community is taking steps to ensure that data are made publicly accessible and are of high quality, a challenging task that requires the development and deployment of methods for measuring and documenting data quality metrics. On September 18, 2010, the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) convened the "International Workshop on Proteomic Data Quality Metrics" in Sydney, Australia, to identify and address issues facing the development and use of such methods for open access proteomics data. The stakeholders at the workshop enumerated the key principles underlying a framework for data quality assessment in mass spectrometry data that will meet the needs of the research community, journals, funding agencies, and data repositories. Attendees discussed and agreed up on two primary needs for the wide use of quality metrics: (1) an evolving list of comprehensive quality metrics and (2) standards accompanied by software analytics. Attendees stressed the importance of increased education and training programs to promote reliable protocols in proteomics. This workshop report explores the historic precedents, key discussions, and necessary next steps to enhance the quality of open access data. By agreement, this article is published simultaneously in the Journal of Proteome Research, Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, Proteomics, and Proteomics Clinical Applications as a public service to the research community. The peer review process was a coordinated effort conducted by a panel of referees selected by the journals.

  17. Recommendations for mass spectrometry data quality metrics for open access data (corollary to the Amsterdam Principles).

    PubMed

    Kinsinger, Christopher R; Apffel, James; Baker, Mark; Bian, Xiaopeng; Borchers, Christoph H; Bradshaw, Ralph; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Chan, Daniel W; Deutsch, Eric W; Domon, Bruno; Gorman, Jeff; Grimm, Rudolf; Hancock, William; Hermjakob, Henning; Horn, David; Hunter, Christie; Kolar, Patrik; Kraus, Hans-Joachim; Langen, Hanno; Linding, Rune; Moritz, Robert L; Omenn, Gilbert S; Orlando, Ron; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ping, Peipei; Rahbar, Amir; Rivers, Robert; Seymour, Sean L; Simpson, Richard J; Slotta, Douglas; Smith, Richard D; Stein, Stephen E; Tabb, David L; Tagle, Danilo; Yates, John R; Rodriguez, Henry

    2011-12-01

    Policies supporting the rapid and open sharing of proteomic data are being implemented by the leading journals in the field. The proteomics community is taking steps to ensure that data are made publicly accessible and are of high quality, a challenging task that requires the development and deployment of methods for measuring and documenting data quality metrics. On September 18, 2010, the United States National Cancer Institute convened the "International Workshop on Proteomic Data Quality Metrics" in Sydney, Australia, to identify and address issues facing the development and use of such methods for open access proteomics data. The stakeholders at the workshop enumerated the key principles underlying a framework for data quality assessment in mass spectrometry data that will meet the needs of the research community, journals, funding agencies, and data repositories. Attendees discussed and agreed up on two primary needs for the wide use of quality metrics: 1) an evolving list of comprehensive quality metrics and 2) standards accompanied by software analytics. Attendees stressed the importance of increased education and training programs to promote reliable protocols in proteomics. This workshop report explores the historic precedents, key discussions, and necessary next steps to enhance the quality of open access data. By agreement, this article is published simultaneously in the Journal of Proteome Research, Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, Proteomics, and Proteomics Clinical Applications as a public service to the research community. The peer review process was a coordinated effort conducted by a panel of referees selected by the journals.

  18. Recommendations for Mass Spectrometry Data Quality Metrics for Open Access Data (Corollary to the Amsterdam Principles)*

    PubMed Central

    Kinsinger, Christopher R.; Apffel, James; Baker, Mark; Bian, Xiaopeng; Borchers, Christoph H.; Bradshaw, Ralph; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Chan, Daniel W.; Deutsch, Eric W.; Domon, Bruno; Gorman, Jeff; Grimm, Rudolf; Hancock, William; Hermjakob, Henning; Horn, David; Hunter, Christie; Kolar, Patrik; Kraus, Hans-Joachim; Langen, Hanno; Linding, Rune; Moritz, Robert L.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Orlando, Ron; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ping, Peipei; Rahbar, Amir; Rivers, Robert; Seymour, Sean L.; Simpson, Richard J.; Slotta, Douglas; Smith, Richard D.; Stein, Stephen E.; Tabb, David L.; Tagle, Danilo; Yates, John R.; Rodriguez, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Policies supporting the rapid and open sharing of proteomic data are being implemented by the leading journals in the field. The proteomics community is taking steps to ensure that data are made publicly accessible and are of high quality, a challenging task that requires the development and deployment of methods for measuring and documenting data quality metrics. On September 18, 2010, the United States National Cancer Institute convened the “International Workshop on Proteomic Data Quality Metrics” in Sydney, Australia, to identify and address issues facing the development and use of such methods for open access proteomics data. The stakeholders at the workshop enumerated the key principles underlying a framework for data quality assessment in mass spectrometry data that will meet the needs of the research community, journals, funding agencies, and data repositories. Attendees discussed and agreed up on two primary needs for the wide use of quality metrics: 1) an evolving list of comprehensive quality metrics and 2) standards accompanied by software analytics. Attendees stressed the importance of increased education and training programs to promote reliable protocols in proteomics. This workshop report explores the historic precedents, key discussions, and necessary next steps to enhance the quality of open access data. By agreement, this article is published simultaneously in the Journal of Proteome Research, Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, Proteomics, and Proteomics Clinical Applications as a public service to the research community. The peer review process was a coordinated effort conducted by a panel of referees selected by the journals. PMID:22052993

  19. Recommendations for Mass Spectrometry Data Quality Metrics for Open Access Data (Corollary to the Amsterdam Principles)

    PubMed Central

    Kinsinger, Christopher R.; Apffel, James; Baker, Mark; Bian, Xiaopeng; Borchers, Christoph H.; Bradshaw, Ralph; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Chan, Daniel W.; Deutsch, Eric W.; Domon, Bruno; Gorman, Jeff; Grimm, Rudolf; Hancock, William; Hermjakob, Henning; Horn, David; Hunter, Christie; Kolar, Patrik; Kraus, Hans-Joachim; Langen, Hanno; Linding, Rune; Moritz, Robert L.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Orlando, Ron; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ping, Peipei; Rahbar, Amir; Rivers, Robert; Seymour, Sean L.; Simpson, Richard J.; Slotta, Douglas; Smith, Richard D.; Stein, Stephen E.; Tabb, David L.; Tagle, Danilo; Yates, John R.; Rodriguez, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Policies supporting the rapid and open sharing of proteomic data are being implemented by the leading journals in the field. The proteomics community is taking steps to ensure that data are made publicly accessible and are of high quality, a challenging task that requires the development and deployment of methods for measuring and documenting data quality metrics. On September 18, 2010, the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) convened the “International Workshop on Proteomic Data Quality Metrics” in Sydney, Australia, to identify and address issues facing the development and use of such methods for open access proteomics data. The stakeholders at the workshop enumerated the key principles underlying a framework for data quality assessment in mass spectrometry data that will meet the needs of the research community, journals, funding agencies, and data repositories. Attendees discussed and agreed up on two primary needs for the wide use of quality metrics: (1) an evolving list of comprehensive quality metrics and (2) standards accompanied by software analytics. Attendees stressed the importance of increased education and training programs to promote reliable protocols in proteomics. This workshop report explores the historic precedents, key discussions, and necessary next steps to enhance the quality of open access data. By agreement, this article is published simultaneously in the Journal of Proteome Research, Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, Proteomics, and Proteomics Clinical Applications as a public service to the research community. The peer review process was a coordinated effort conducted by a panel of referees selected by the journals. PMID:22053864

  20. Using Open and Interoperable Ways to Publish and Access LANCE AIRS Near-Real Time Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P.; Lynnes, C.; Vollmer, B.; Savtchenko, A. K.; Yang, W.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Near-Real Time (NRT) data from the Land Atmosphere Near real time Capability for EOS (LANCE) provide the information on the global and regional atmospheric state with very low latency. An open and interoperable platform is useful to facilitate access to and integration of LANCE AIRS NRT data. This paper discusses the use of open-source software components to build Web services for publishing and accessing AIRS NRT data in the context of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). The AIRS NRT data have also been made available through an OPeNDAP server. OPeNDAP allows several open-source netCDF-based tools such as Integrated Data Viewer, Ferret and Panoply to directly display the Level 2 data over the network. To enable users to locate swath data files in the OPeNDAP server that lie within a certain geographical area, graphical "granule maps" are being added to show the outline of each file on a map of the Earth. The metadata of AIRS NRT data and services is then explored to implement information advertisement and discovery in catalogue systems. Datacasting, an RSS-based technology for accessing Earth Science data and information to facilitate the subscriptions to AIRS NRT data availability, filtering, downloading and viewing data, is also discussed. To provide an easy entry point to AIRS NRT data and services, a Web portal designed for customized data downloading and visualization is introduced.

  1. Inducing optimal substitution between antibiotics under open access to the resource of antibiotic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Markus; Nkuiya, Bruno

    2016-05-15

    This paper designs a bio-economic model to examine the use of substitute antibiotic drugs (analogs) sold by an industry that has open access to the resource of the antibiotic class's susceptibility (treatment effectiveness). Antibiotics are characterized by different expected recovery rates and production costs, which in conjunction with the class's treatment susceptibility determines their relative effectiveness. Our analysis reveals that the high-quality antibiotic drug loses its comparative advantage over time making the low-quality drug the treatment of last resort in the market equilibrium and the social optimum when antibiotic susceptibility cannot replenish. However, when antibiotic susceptibility is renewable, both antibiotics may be used in the long run, and the comparative advantage of the high-quality drug may be restored in the social optimum that allows lowering infection in the long run. We develop the optimal tax/subsidy scheme that would induce antibiotic producers under open access to behave optimally and account for the social cost of infection and value of antibiotic susceptibility. We show that the welfare loss associated with the uncorrected open-access allocation is highest; when the resource of antibiotic susceptibility is non-renewable, high morbidity costs are incurred by individuals, and low social discount rates apply. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. JHelioviewer: Open-Source Software for Discovery and Image Access in the Petabyte Age (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, D.; Dimitoglou, G.; Langenberg, M.; Pagel, S.; Dau, A.; Nuhn, M.; Garcia Ortiz, J. P.; Dietert, H.; Schmidt, L.; Hughitt, V. K.; Ireland, J.; Fleck, B.

    2010-12-01

    The unprecedented torrent of data returned by the Solar Dynamics Observatory is both a blessing and a barrier: a blessing for making available data with significantly higher spatial and temporal resolution, but a barrier for scientists to access, browse and analyze them. With such staggering data volume, the data is bound to be accessible only from a few repositories and users will have to deal with data sets effectively immobile and practically difficult to download. From a scientist's perspective this poses three challenges: accessing, browsing and finding interesting data while avoiding the proverbial search for a needle in a haystack. To address these challenges, we have developed JHelioviewer, an open-source visualization software that lets users browse large data volumes both as still images and movies. We did so by deploying an efficient image encoding, storage, and dissemination solution using the JPEG 2000 standard. This solution enables users to access remote images at different resolution levels as a single data stream. Users can view, manipulate, pan, zoom, and overlay JPEG 2000 compressed data quickly, without severe network bandwidth penalties. Besides viewing data, the browser provides third-party metadata and event catalog integration to quickly locate data of interest, as well as an interface to the Virtual Solar Observatory to download science-quality data. As part of the Helioviewer Project, JHelioviewer offers intuitive ways to browse large amounts of heterogeneous data remotely and provides an extensible and customizable open-source platform for the scientific community.

  3. Energy-level alignment and open-circuit voltage at graphene/polymer interfaces: theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori, Keian; Konios, Dimitrios; Stylianakis, Minas M.; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Giustino, Feliciano

    2016-03-01

    Functionalized graphene promises to become a key component of novel solar cell architectures, owing to its versatile ability to act either as transparent conductor, electron acceptor, or buffer layer. In spite of this promise, the solar energy conversion efficiency of graphene-based devices falls short of the performance of competing solution-processable photovoltaic technologies. Here we address the question of the maximum achievable open-circuit voltage of all-organic graphene: polymer solar cells using a combined theoretical/experimental approach, going from the atomic scale level to the device level. Our calculations on very large atomistic models of the graphene/polymer interface indicate that the ideal open-circuit voltage approaches one volt, and that epoxide functional groups can have a dramatic effect on the photovoltage. Our predictions are confirmed by direct measurements on complete devices where we control the concentration of functional groups via chemical reduction. Our findings indicate that the selective removal of epoxide groups and the use of ultradisperse polymers are key to achieving graphene solar cells with improved energy conversion efficiency.

  4. Effect of transient winds on the flow quality of an open-circuit wind-tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breunlin, D. C.; Sargent, N. B.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of a transient wind on the test-section flow quality of an open-circuit wind tunnel was investigated experimentally. The investigation was restricted to transient wind effects associated with the inlet. A small open-circuit wind tunnel was placed outside in the real wind environment. Test-section speed and angularity as well as wind speed and direction was measured by high-response instrumentation. The inlet configuration was varied with a set of screens, a removable honeycomb, and a removable inlet lip. Acceptable flow was obtained at all wind angles and for wind- to test-section-velocity ratios up to 0.4 with an inlet configuration having five screens, a honeycomb, and a lip. With inlet configurations sensitive to winds, a transient wind parallel to the tunnel axis produced local fluctuations in test-section speed and angularity; however, oscillation of the average test-section speed was not evident. The effect of wind direction was negligible up to wind angles of 45 deg relative to the tunnel axis. At larger wind angles, flow distortions occurred primarily on the windward side of the test section.

  5. For 481 biomedical open access journals, articles are not searchable in the Directory of Open Access Journals nor in conventional biomedical databases

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Background. Open access (OA) journals allows access to research papers free of charge to the reader. Traditionally, biomedical researchers use databases like MEDLINE and EMBASE to discover new advances. However, biomedical OA journals might not fulfill such databases’ criteria, hindering dissemination. The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) is a database exclusively listing OA journals. The aim of this study was to investigate DOAJ’s coverage of biomedical OA journals compared with the conventional biomedical databases. Methods. Information on all journals listed in four conventional biomedical databases (MEDLINE, PubMed Central, EMBASE and SCOPUS) and DOAJ were gathered. Journals were included if they were (1) actively publishing, (2) full OA, (3) prospectively indexed in one or more database, and (4) of biomedical subject. Impact factor and journal language were also collected. DOAJ was compared with conventional databases regarding the proportion of journals covered, along with their impact factor and publishing language. The proportion of journals with articles indexed by DOAJ was determined. Results. In total, 3,236 biomedical OA journals were included in the study. Of the included journals, 86.7% were listed in DOAJ. Combined, the conventional biomedical databases listed 75.0% of the journals; 18.7% in MEDLINE; 36.5% in PubMed Central; 51.5% in SCOPUS and 50.6% in EMBASE. Of the journals in DOAJ, 88.7% published in English and 20.6% had received impact factor for 2012 compared with 93.5% and 26.0%, respectively, for journals in the conventional biomedical databases. A subset of 51.1% and 48.5% of the journals in DOAJ had articles indexed from 2012 and 2013, respectively. Of journals exclusively listed in DOAJ, one journal had received an impact factor for 2012, and 59.6% of the journals had no content from 2013 indexed in DOAJ. Conclusions. DOAJ is the most complete registry of biomedical OA journals compared with five conventional biomedical

  6. For 481 biomedical open access journals, articles are not searchable in the Directory of Open Access Journals nor in conventional biomedical databases.

    PubMed

    Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Andresen, Kristoffer; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Background. Open access (OA) journals allows access to research papers free of charge to the reader. Traditionally, biomedical researchers use databases like MEDLINE and EMBASE to discover new advances. However, biomedical OA journals might not fulfill such databases' criteria, hindering dissemination. The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) is a database exclusively listing OA journals. The aim of this study was to investigate DOAJ's coverage of biomedical OA journals compared with the conventional biomedical databases. Methods. Information on all journals listed in four conventional biomedical databases (MEDLINE, PubMed Central, EMBASE and SCOPUS) and DOAJ were gathered. Journals were included if they were (1) actively publishing, (2) full OA, (3) prospectively indexed in one or more database, and (4) of biomedical subject. Impact factor and journal language were also collected. DOAJ was compared with conventional databases regarding the proportion of journals covered, along with their impact factor and publishing language. The proportion of journals with articles indexed by DOAJ was determined. Results. In total, 3,236 biomedical OA journals were included in the study. Of the included journals, 86.7% were listed in DOAJ. Combined, the conventional biomedical databases listed 75.0% of the journals; 18.7% in MEDLINE; 36.5% in PubMed Central; 51.5% in SCOPUS and 50.6% in EMBASE. Of the journals in DOAJ, 88.7% published in English and 20.6% had received impact factor for 2012 compared with 93.5% and 26.0%, respectively, for journals in the conventional biomedical databases. A subset of 51.1% and 48.5% of the journals in DOAJ had articles indexed from 2012 and 2013, respectively. Of journals exclusively listed in DOAJ, one journal had received an impact factor for 2012, and 59.6% of the journals had no content from 2013 indexed in DOAJ. Conclusions. DOAJ is the most complete registry of biomedical OA journals compared with five conventional biomedical databases

  7. OpenTopography: Enabling Online Access to High-Resolution Lidar Topography Data and Processing Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Baru, Chaitan; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon

    2013-04-01

    High-resolution topography data acquired with lidar (light detection and ranging) technology are revolutionizing the way we study the Earth's surface and overlying vegetation. These data, collected from airborne, tripod, or mobile-mounted scanners have emerged as a fundamental tool for research on topics ranging from earthquake hazards to hillslope processes. Lidar data provide a digital representation of the earth's surface at a resolution sufficient to appropriately capture the processes that contribute to landscape evolution. The U.S. National Science Foundation-funded OpenTopography Facility (http://www.opentopography.org) is a web-based system designed to democratize access to earth science-oriented lidar topography data. OpenTopography provides free, online access to lidar data in a number of forms, including the raw point cloud and associated geospatial-processing tools for customized analysis. The point cloud data are co-located with on-demand processing tools to generate digital elevation models, and derived products and visualizations which allow users to quickly access data in a format appropriate for their scientific application. The OpenTopography system is built using a service-oriented architecture (SOA) that leverages cyberinfrastructure resources at the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California San Diego to allow users, regardless of expertise level, to access these massive lidar datasets and derived products for use in research and teaching. OpenTopography hosts over 500 billion lidar returns covering 85,000 km2. These data are all in the public domain and are provided by a variety of partners under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding with OpenTopography. Partners include national facilities such as the NSF-funded National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping (NCALM), as well as non-governmental organizations and local, state, and federal agencies. OpenTopography has become a hub for high-resolution topography

  8. Institutional Change for Improving Accessibility in the Design and Delivery of Distance Learning--The Role of Faculty Accessibility Specialists at the Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Rachel; Pearson, Victoria K.; Warren, James P.; Forbes, Tina

    2015-01-01

    The Open University (OU) has an established infrastructure for supporting disabled students. Historically, the thrust of this has focused on providing accessible adjustments post-production. In 2012, the OU implemented securing greater accessibility (SeGA) to raise awareness and bring about an institutional change to curriculum design so that the…

  9. Review of access, licenses and understandability of open datasets used in hydrology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenroth, Esa; Arheimer, Berit; Lagerbäck Adolphi, Emma

    2015-04-01

    The amount of open data available for hydrology research is continually growing. In the EU-funded project SWITCH-ON (Sharing Water-related Information to Tackle Changes in the Hydrosphere - for Operational Needs), we are addressing water concerns by exploring and exploiting the untapped potential of these new open data. This work is enabled by many ongoing efforts to facilitate the use of open data. For instance, a number of portals (such as the GEOSS Portal and the INSPIRE community geoportal) provide the means to search for such open data sets and open spatial data services. However, in general, the systematic use of available open data is still fairly uncommon in hydrology research. Factors that limits (re)usability of a data set include: (1) accessibility, (2) understandability and (3) licences. If you cannot access the data set, you cannot use if for research. If you cannot understand the data set you cannot use it for research. Finally, if you are not permitted to use the data, you cannot use it for research. Early on in the project, we sent out a questionnaire to our research partners (SMHI, Universita di Bologna, University of Bristol, Technische Universiteit Delft and Technische Universitaet Wien) to find out what data sets they were planning to use in their experiments. The result was a comprehensive list of useful open data sets. Later, this list of data sets was extended with additional information on data sets for planned commercial water-information products and services. With the list of 50 common data sets as a starting point, we reviewed issues related to access, understandability and licence conditions. Regarding access to data sets, a majority of data sets were available through direct internet download via some well-known transfer protocol such as ftp or http. However, several data sets were found to be inaccessible due to server downtime, incorrect links or problems with the host database management system. One possible explanation for this

  10. JHelioviewer: Open-Source Software for Discovery and Image Access in the Petabyte Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, D.; Dimitoglou, G.; Garcia Ortiz, J.; Langenberg, M.; Nuhn, M.; Dau, A.; Pagel, S.; Schmidt, L.; Hughitt, V. K.; Ireland, J.; Fleck, B.

    2011-12-01

    The unprecedented torrent of data returned by the Solar Dynamics Observatory is both a blessing and a barrier: a blessing for making available data with significantly higher spatial and temporal resolution, but a barrier for scientists to access, browse and analyze them. With such staggering data volume, the data is accessible only from a few repositories and users have to deal with data sets effectively immobile and practically difficult to download. From a scientist's perspective this poses three challenges: accessing, browsing and finding interesting data while avoiding the proverbial search for a needle in a haystack. To address these challenges, we have developed JHelioviewer, an open-source visualization software that lets users browse large data volumes both as still images and movies. We did so by deploying an efficient image encoding, storage, and dissemination solution using the JPEG 2000 standard. This solution enables users to access remote images at different resolution levels as a single data stream. Users can view, manipulate, pan, zoom, and overlay JPEG 2000 compressed data quickly, without severe network bandwidth penalties. Besides viewing data, the browser provides third-party metadata and event catalog integration to quickly locate data of interest, as well as an interface to the Virtual Solar Observatory to download science-quality data. As part of the ESA/NASA Helioviewer Project, JHelioviewer offers intuitive ways to browse large amounts of heterogeneous data remotely and provides an extensible and customizable open-source platform for the scientific community. In addition, the easy-to-use graphical user interface enables the general public and educators to access, enjoy and reuse data from space missions without barriers.

  11. Widening Access through Openness in Higher Education in the Developing World: A Bourdieusian Field Analysis of Experiences from the National Open University of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olakulehin, Felix Kayode; Singh, Gurmit

    2013-01-01

    Bourdieu has argued that higher education is a field that reproduces social inequality, thus complicating how openness widens access to higher education in the developing world. Drawing on the experiences of the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), this paper critically analyses and evaluates the rationale, approach, difficulties,…

  12. Use Cases for Server Operators Extending the Open-Source Data-Access Protocol (DAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, J. H. R.; Fulker, D. W.; Blanton, B.; Businger, S.; Cornillon, P.

    2014-12-01

    On the premise that EarthCube must incorporate data-access (Web) services that are effective even in big-data contexts, we articulate three use cases where a common form of data reduction, namely array-subset selection, falls short. These cases—addressing climate-model downscaling for native-Hawaiian use, real-time storm-surge prediction for U.S. coastal areas, and analysis of sea-surface-temperature (SST) fronts using satellite imagery—share three traits: a) each requires access to vast and remote volumes of source data, though the end-user applications need much less (by orders of magnitude); b) the volume reduction cannot be realized solely via subsetting, especially if limited to subarray-specification via index constraints; c) each data-reduction need can be met by extending a well-used data-access protocol (DAP) to embrace new data-proximate (I.e., pre-retrieval) server functions; and d) the required new functions will be useful across many geoscience (EarthCube) domains. Reflecting OpenDAP progress on designing this extension—dubbed ODSIP for Open Data-Services Protocol, to be prototyped under an NSF/EarthCube award—this talk sketches the near-source operations needed for the three use-cases, highlighting potential for abstraction and thus broad applicability.

  13. IAU astroEDU: an open-access platform for peer-reviewed astronomy education activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heenatigala, Thilina; Russo, Pedro; Strubbe, Linda; Gomez, Edward

    2015-08-01

    astroEDU is an open access platform for peer-reviewed astronomy education activities. It addresses key problems in educational repositories such as variability in quality, not maintained or updated regularly, limited content review, and more. This is achieved through a peer-review process similar to what scholarly articles are based on. Activities submitted are peer-reviewed by an educator and a professional astronomer which gives the credibility to the activities. astroEDU activities are open-access in order to make the activities accessible to educators around the world while letting them discover, review, distribute and remix the activities. The activity submission process allows authors to learn how to apply enquiry-based learning into the activity, identify the process skills required, how to develop core goals and objectives, and how to evaluate the activity to determine the outcome. astroEDU is endorsed by the International Astronomical Union meaning each activity is given an official stamp by the international organisation for professional astronomers.

  14. Open access of publications by veterinary faculty in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Nault, André J

    2011-01-01

    The free availability of full-text veterinary publications in MEDLINE-indexed journals by US and Canadian veterinary faculty from 2006-7 was determined. Additionally, publishing databases were searched to obtain general statistics on veterinary publishing. A survey of institutional initiatives to promote open-access journals and institutional repositories was also performed. Veterinary faculty published a total of 4,872 articles indexed by MEDLINE in 679 different journals. Of these articles, 1,334 (27%) were available as free full text and were published in 245 different journals. Although 51 veterinary-specific journals offering immediate and free full-text access were identified, few articles in this study appeared in these titles. Rather, most free scholarly articles by veterinary faculty appeared in journals with an embargo period. Academic veterinary institutions may want to recommend acceptance of alternate forms of information dissemination (such as open-access journals and journals published only digitally) to encourage greater global dissemination of their research findings. The promotion and use of digital institutional repositories is also an area for future investment and warrants additional research.

  15. Open data used in water sciences - Review of access, licenses and understandability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenroth, Esa; Lagerbäck Adolphi, Emma; Arheimer, Berit

    2016-04-01

    The amount of open data available for hydrology research is continually growing. In the EU-funded project SWITCH-ON (Sharing Water-related Information to Tackle Changes in the Hydrosphere - for Operational Needs: www.water-switch-on.eu), we are addressing water concerns by exploring and exploiting the untapped potential of these new open data. This work is enabled by many ongoing efforts to facilitate the use of open data. For instance, a number of portals provide the means to search for open data sets and open spatial data services (such as the GEOSS Portal, INSPIRE community geoportal or various Climate Services and public portals). However, in general, many research groups in water sciences still hesitate in using this open data. We therefore examined some limiting factors. Factors that limit usability of a dataset include: (1) accessibility, (2) understandability and (3) licences. In the SWITCH-ON project we have developed a search tool for finding and accessing data with relevance to water science in Europe, as the existing ones are not addressing data needs in water sciences specifically. The tool is filled with some 9000 sets of metadata and each one is linked to water related key-words. The keywords are based on the ones developed within the CUAHSI community in USA, but extended with non-hydrosphere topics, additional subclasses and only showing keywords actually having data. Access to data sets: 78% of the data is directly accessible, while the rest is either available after registration and request, or through a web client for visualisation but without direct download. However, several data sets were found to be inaccessible due to server downtime, incorrect links or problems with the host database management system. One possible explanation for this could be that many datasets have been assembled by research project that no longer are funded. Hence, their server infrastructure would be less maintained compared to large-scale operational services

  16. Minimized open-circuit voltage reduction in GaAs/InGaAs quantum well solar cells with bandgap-engineered graded quantum well depths

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaohan; Dasika, Vaishno D.; Li, Ping-Chun; Ji, Li; Bank, Seth R.; Yu, Edward T.

    2014-09-22

    The use of InGaAs quantum wells with composition graded across the intrinsic region to increase open-circuit voltage in p-i-n GaAs/InGaAs quantum well solar cells is demonstrated and analyzed. By engineering the band-edge energy profile to reduce photo-generated carrier concentration in the quantum wells at high forward bias, simultaneous increases in both open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density are achieved, compared to those for a structure with the same average In concentration, but constant rather than graded quantum well composition across the intrinsic region. This approach is combined with light trapping to further increase short-circuit current density.

  17. SFO-Project: The New Generation of Sharable, Editable and Open-Access CFD Tutorials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaherchi, Teymour; Javaherchi, Ardeshir; Aliseda, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    One of the most common approaches to develop a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation for a new case study of interest is to search for the most similar, previously developed and validated CFD simulation among other works. A simple search would result into a pool of written/visual tutorials. However, users should spend significant amount of time and effort to find the most correct, compatible and valid tutorial in this pool and further modify it toward their simulation of interest. SFO is an open-source project with the core idea of saving the above-mentioned time and effort. This is done via documenting/sharing scientific and methodological approaches to develop CFD simulations for a wide spectrum of fundamental and industrial case studies in three different CFD solvers; STAR-CCM +, FLUENT and Open FOAM (SFO). All of the steps and required files of these tutorials are accessible and editable under the common roof of Github (a web-based Git repository hosting service). In this presentation we will present the current library of 20 + developed CFD tutorials, discuss the idea and benefit of using them, their educational values and explain how the next generation of open-access and live resource of CFD tutorials can be built further hand-in-hand within our community.

  18. Capitalizing on Global Demands for Open Data Access and Interoperability - the USGIN Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. L.; Richard, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. National Geothermal Data System's (NGDS - www.geothermaldata.org) provides free open access to ~ 10 million data records, maps, and reports, sharing relevant geoscience and land use data to propel geothermal development and production in the U.S. Since the NGDS is built using the U.S. Geoscience Information Network (USGIN - http://usgin.org) data integration framework the system is compliant with international standards and protocols, scalable, extensible, and can be deployed throughout the world for a myriad of applications. NGDS currently serves information from hundreds of the U.S. Department of Energy's sponsored projects and geologic data feeds from 60+ data providers in all 50 states, using free and open source software, in a federated system where data owners maintain control of their data. This interactive online system is opening new exploration opportunities and shortening project development by making data easily discoverable, accessible, and interoperable at no cost to users. USGIN Foundation, Inc. was established in 2014 as a not-for-profit company to deploy the USGIN data integration framework for other natural resource (energy, water, and minerals), natural hazards, and geoscience investigations applications, nationally and worldwide. The USGIN vision is that as each data node adds to its data repositories, the system-wide USGIN functions become increasingly valuable to it. Each data provider will have created a value-added service that is transportable and scalable to cover all data in its possession. Thus, there are benefits to each participant to continue to add data to the system and maintain it. The long term goal is that the data network reach a 'tipping point' at which it becomes like a data equivalent to the World Wide Web - where everyone will maintain the function because it is expected by its clientele and it fills critical needs. Applying this vision to NGDS, it also opens the door for additional data providers external to

  19. Does an Open Recirculation Line Affect the Flow Rate and Pressure in a Neonatal Extracorporeal Life Support Circuit With a Centrifugal or Roller Pump?

    PubMed

    Wang, Shigang; Spencer, Shannon B; Woitas, Karl; Glass, Kristen; Kunselman, Allen R; Ündar, Akif

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of an open or closed recirculation line on flow rate, circuit pressure, and hemodynamic energy transmission in simulated neonatal extracorporeal life support (ECLS) systems. The two neonatal ECLS circuits consisted of a Maquet HL20 roller pump (RP group) or a RotaFlow centrifugal pump (CP group), Quadrox-iD Pediatric oxygenator, and Biomedicus arterial and venous cannulae (8 Fr and 10 Fr) primed with lactated Ringer's solution and packed red blood cells (hematocrit 35%). Trials were conducted at flow rates ranging from 200 to 600 mL/min (200 mL/min increments) with a closed or open recirculation line at 36°C. Real-time pressure and flow data were recorded using a custom-based data acquisition system. In the RP group, the preoxygenator flow did not change when the recirculation line was open while the prearterial cannula flow decreased by 15.7-20.0% (P < 0.01). Circuit pressure, total circuit pressure drop, and hemodynamic energy delivered to patients also decreased (P < 0.01). In the CP group, the prearterial cannula flow did not change while preoxygenator flow increased by 13.6-18.8% (P < 0.01). Circuit pressure drop and hemodynamic energy transmission remained the same. The results showed that the shunt of an open recirculation line could decrease perfusion flow in patients in the ECLS circuit using a roller pump, but did not change perfusion flow in the circuit using a centrifugal pump. An additional flow sensor is needed to monitor perfusion flow in patients if any shunts exist in the ECLS circuit.

  20. MAAC: a software tool for user authentication and access control to the electronic patient record in an open distributed environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Gustavo H.; Furuie, Sergio S.

    2004-04-01

    Designing proper models for authorization and access control for the electronic patient record (EPR) is essential to wide scale use of the EPR in large health organizations. This work presents MAAC (Middleware for Authentication and Access Control), a tool that implements a contextual role-based access control (RBAC) authorization model. RBAC regulates user"s access to computers resources based on their organizational roles. A contextual authorization uses environmental information available at access-request time, like user/patient relationship, in order to decide whether a user has the right to access an EPR resource. The software architecture where MAAC is implemented uses Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, Java programming language and the CORBA/OMG standards CORBA Security Service and Resource Access Decision Facility. With those open and distributed standards, heterogeneous EPR components can request user authentication and access authorization services in a unified and consistent fashion across multiple platforms.

  1. The impact of opening visitation access on patient and family experience.

    PubMed

    Nuss, Terri; Kelly, Kecia M; Campbell, Karen R; Pierce, Cathy; Entzminger, Janna K; Blair, Brenda K; Wissinger, Laurie; Bryant, Lona; Walker, Janice L

    2014-01-01

    Restrictive visiting hours have been an obstacle to family participation in care. To support increased and consistent access to patients, Baylor Health Care System implemented a system-wide approach to open access for visitation across all facilities. Nursing and medical leadership led the communication efforts, and shared nursing governance guided revisions to existing policies. Data collected from 13 hospitals demonstrated that patients and families felt more informed; that the nursing staff were more courteous and respectful and explained things in a way that could be understood; that the staff attitude toward visitors was markedly improved; and that comfort and accommodations for guests were extended and improved. The resources needed to deploy these changes are outlined as well as the iterative process needed to create a positive impact on the family partnership in care.

  2. Supporting the advancement of science: open access publishing and the role of mandates.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Lisa; Fox, Bernard A; Marincola, Francesco M

    2012-01-24

    In December 2011 the United States House of Representatives introduced a new bill, the Research Works Act (H.R.3699), which if passed could threaten the public's access to US government funded research. In a digital age when professional and lay parties alike look more and more to the online environment to keep up to date with developments in their fields, does this bill serve the best interests of the community? Those in support of the Research Works Act argue that government open access mandates undermine peer-review and take intellectual property from publishers without compensation, however journals like Journal of Translational Medicine show that this is not the case. Journal of Translational Medicine in affiliation with the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer demonstrates how private and public organisations can work together for the advancement of science.

  3. The importance of band tail recombination on current collection and open-circuit voltage in CZTSSe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, James E.; Hages, Charles J.; Agrawal, Rakesh; Lundstrom, Mark S.; Gray, Jeffery L.

    2016-07-01

    Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells typically exhibit high short-circuit current density (Jsc), but have reduced cell efficiencies relative to other thin film technologies due to a deficit in the open-circuit voltage (Voc), which prevent these devices from becoming commercially competitive. Recent research has attributed the low Voc in CZTSSe devices to small scale disorder that creates band tail states within the absorber band gap, but the physical processes responsible for this Voc reduction have not been elucidated. In this paper, we show that carrier recombination through non-mobile band tail states has a strong voltage dependence and is a significant performance-limiting factor, and including these effects in simulation allows us to simultaneously explain the Voc deficit, reduced fill factor, and voltage-dependent quantum efficiency with a self-consistent set of material parameters. Comparisons of numerical simulations to measured data show that reasonable values for the band tail parameters (characteristic energy, capture rate) can account for the observed low Voc, high Jsc, and voltage dependent collection efficiency. These results provide additional evidence that the presence of band tail states accounts for the low efficiencies of CZTSSe solar cells and further demonstrates that recombination through non-mobile band tail states is the dominant efficiency limiting mechanism.

  4. Globalization, Open Access Publishing, and the Disappearance of Print: Threat or Opportunity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, J. J.

    Academic publishing is changing rapidly as a result of mutually dependent developments. Electronic publishing was born through the emergence of the Internet. The Internet has accelerated globalization, which in turn has enhanced the consolidation of commercial publishing houses and the collaboration between libraries. Old business models are being replaced by new business models, such as open access publishing. The familiar print format is disappearing for journals and perhaps for books. This chapter presents an overview of these developments and addresses potential threats and opportunities to the parties involved in publishing.

  5. National Geothermal Data System: Open Access to Geoscience Data, Maps, and Documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caudill, C. M.; Richard, S. M.; Musil, L.; Sonnenschein, A.; Good, J.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) provides free open access to millions of geoscience data records, publications, maps, and reports via distributed web services to propel geothermal research, development, and production. NGDS is built on the US Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) data integration framework, which is a joint undertaking of the USGS and the Association of American State Geologists (AASG), and is compliant with international standards and protocols. NGDS currently serves geoscience information from 60+ data providers in all 50 states. Free and open source software is used in this federated system where data owners maintain control of their data. This interactive online system makes geoscience data easily discoverable, accessible, and interoperable at no cost to users. The dynamic project site http://geothermaldata.org serves as the information source and gateway to the system, allowing data and applications discovery and availability of the system's data feed. It also provides access to NGDS specifications and the free and open source code base (on GitHub), a map-centric and library style search interface, other software applications utilizing NGDS services, NGDS tutorials (via YouTube and USGIN site), and user-created tools and scripts. The user-friendly map-centric web-based application has been created to support finding, visualizing, mapping, and acquisition of data based on topic, location, time, provider, or key words. Geographic datasets visualized through the map interface also allow users to inspect the details of individual GIS data points (e.g. wells, geologic units, etc.). In addition, the interface provides the information necessary for users to access the GIS data from third party software applications such as GoogleEarth, UDig, and ArcGIS. A redistributable, free and open source software package called GINstack (USGIN software stack) was also created to give data providers a simple way to release data using

  6. Influence of a MoOx interlayer on the open-circuit voltage in organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yunlong; Holmes, Russell J.

    2013-07-01

    Metal-oxides have been used as interlayers at the anode-organic interface in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) to increase the open-circuit voltage (VOC). We examine the role of MoOx in determining the maximum VOC in a planar heterojunction OPV and find that the interlayer strongly affects the temperature dependence of VOC. Boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc)-C60 OPVs that contain no interlayer show a maximum VOC of 1.2 V at low temperature, while those with MoOx show no saturation, reaching VOC > 1.4 V. We propose that the MoOx-SubPc interface forms a Schottky junction that provides an additional contribution to VOC at low temperature.

  7. A System for Open-Access 3He Human Lung Imaging at Very Low Field

    PubMed Central

    RUSET, I.C.; TSAI, L.L.; MAIR, R.W.; PATZ, S.; HROVAT, M.I.; ROSEN, M.S.; MURADIAN, I.; NG, J.; TOPULOS, G.P.; BUTLER, J.P.; WALSWORTH, R.L.; HERSMAN, F.W.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a prototype system built to allow open-access very-low-field MRI of human lungs using laser-polarized 3He gas. The system employs an open four-coil electromagnet with an operational B0 field of 4 mT, and planar gradient coils that generate gradient fields up to 0.18 G/cm in the x and y direction and 0.41 G/cm in the z direction. This system was used to obtain 1H and 3He phantom images and supine and upright 3He images of human lungs. We include discussion on challenges unique to imaging at 50 –200 kHz, including noise filtering and compensation for narrow-bandwidth coils. PMID:20354575

  8. FreeSASA: An open source C library for solvent accessible surface area calculations

    PubMed Central

    Mitternacht, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Calculating solvent accessible surface areas (SASA) is a run-of-the-mill calculation in structural biology. Although there are many programs available for this calculation, there are no free-standing, open-source tools designed for easy tool-chain integration. FreeSASA is an open source C library for SASA calculations that provides both command-line and Python interfaces in addition to its C API. The library implements both Lee and Richards’ and Shrake and Rupley’s approximations, and is highly configurable to allow the user to control molecular parameters, accuracy and output granularity. It only depends on standard C libraries and should therefore be easy to compile and install on any platform. The library is well-documented, stable and efficient. The command-line interface can easily replace closed source legacy programs, with comparable or better accuracy and speed, and with some added functionality. PMID:26973785

  9. Characterization of bacterial and archaeal communities in air-cathode microbial fuel cells, open circuit and sealed-off reactors.

    PubMed

    Shehab, Noura; Li, Dong; Amy, Gary L; Logan, Bruce E; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2013-11-01

    A large percentage of organic fuel consumed in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) is lost as a result of oxygen transfer through the cathode. In order to understand how this oxygen transfer affects the microbial community structure, reactors were operated in duplicate using three configurations: closed circuit (CC; with current generation), open circuit (OC; no current generation), and sealed off cathodes (SO; no current, with a solid plate placed across the cathode). Most (98 %) of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed during power production in the CC reactor (maximum of 640 ± 10 mW/m(2)), with a low percent of substrate converted to current (coulombic efficiency of 26.5 ± 2.1 %). Sealing the cathode reduced COD removal to 7 %, but with an open cathode, there was nearly as much COD removal by the OC reactor (94.5 %) as the CC reactor. Oxygen transfer into the reactor substantially affected the composition of the microbial communities. Based on analysis of the biofilms using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, microbes most similar to Geobacter were predominant on the anodes in the CC MFC (72 % of sequences), but the most abundant bacteria were Azoarcus (42 to 47 %) in the OC reactor, and Dechloromonas (17 %) in the SO reactor. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens were most predominant, with sequences most similar to Methanobacterium in the CC and SO reactor, and Methanocorpusculum in the OC reactors. These results show that oxygen leakage through the cathode substantially alters the bacterial anode communities, and that hydrogenotrophic methanogens predominate despite high concentrations of acetate. The predominant methanogens in the CC reactor most closely resembled those in the SO reactor, demonstrating that oxygen leakage alters methanogenic as well as general bacterial communities.

  10. National Geothermal Data System (USA): an Exemplar of Open Access to Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. Lee; Richard, Stephen; Blackman, Harold; Anderson, Arlene; Patten, Kim

    2014-05-01

    The National Geothermal Data System's (NGDS - www.geothermaldata.org) formal launch in April, 2014 will provide open access to millions of data records, sharing -relevant geoscience and longer term to land use data to propel geothermal development and production. NGDS serves information from all of the U.S. Department of Energy's sponsored development and research projects and geologic data from all 50 states, using free and open source software. This interactive online system is opening new exploration opportunities and potentially shortening project development by making data easily discoverable, accessible, and interoperable. We continue to populate our prototype functional data system with multiple data nodes and nationwide data online and available to the public. Data from state geological surveys and partners includes more than 6 million records online, including 1.72 million well headers (oil and gas, water, geothermal), 670,000 well logs, and 497,000 borehole temperatures and is growing rapidly. There are over 312 interoperable Web services and another 106 WMS (Web Map Services) registered in the system as of January, 2014. Companion projects run by Southern Methodist University and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are adding millions of additional data records. The DOE Geothermal Data Repository, currently hosted on OpenEI, is a system node and clearinghouse for data from hundreds of U.S. DOE-funded geothermal projects. NGDS is built on the US Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) data integration framework, which is a joint undertaking of the USGS and the Association of American State Geologists (AASG). NGDS complies with the White House Executive Order of May 2013, requiring all federal agencies to make their data holdings publicly accessible online in open source, interoperable formats with common core and extensible metadata. The National Geothermal Data System is being designed, built, deployed, and populated primarily with support from the US

  11. SensorWeb Hub infrastructure for open access to scientific research data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Filippis, Tiziana; Rocchi, Leandro; Rapisardi, Elena

    2015-04-01

    The sharing of research data is a new challenge for the scientific community that may benefit from a large amount of information to solve environmental issues and sustainability in agriculture and urban contexts. Prerequisites for this challenge is the development of an infrastructure that ensure access, management and preservation of data, technical support for a coordinated and harmonious management of data that, in the framework of Open Data Policies, should encourages the reuse and the collaboration. The neogeography and the citizen as sensors approach, highlight that new data sources need a new set of tools and practices so to collect, validate, categorize, and use / access these "crowdsourced" data, that integrate the data sets produced in the scientific field, thus "feeding" the overall available data for analysis and research. When the scientific community embraces the dimension of collaboration and sharing, access and re-use, in order to accept the open innovation approach, it should redesign and reshape the processes of data management: the challenges of technological and cultural innovation, enabled by web 2.0 technologies, bring to the scenario where the sharing of structured and interoperable data will constitute the unavoidable building block to set up a new paradigm of scientific research. In this perspective the Institute of Biometeorology, CNR, whose aim is contributing to sharing and development of research data, has developed the "SensorWebHub" (SWH) infrastructure to support the scientific activities carried out in several research projects at national and international level. It is designed to manage both mobile and fixed open source meteorological and environmental sensors, in order to integrate the existing agro-meteorological and urban monitoring networks. The proposed architecture uses open source tools to ensure sustainability in the development and deployment of web applications with geographic features and custom analysis, as requested

  12. In an Age of Open Access to Research Policies: Physician and Public Health NGO Staff Research Use and Policy Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Lauren A.; Steinberg, Ryan M.; Willinsky, John

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Through funding agency and publisher policies, an increasing proportion of the health sciences literature is being made open access. Such an increase in access raises questions about the awareness and potential utilization of this literature by those working in health fields. Methods A sample of physicians (N=336) and public health non-governmental organization (NGO) staff (N=92) were provided with relatively complete access to the research literature indexed in PubMed, as well as access to the point-of-care service UpToDate, for up to one year, with their usage monitored through the tracking of web-log data. The physicians also participated in a one-month trial of relatively complete or limited access. Results The study found that participants' research interests were not satisfied by article abstracts alone nor, in the case of the physicians, by a clinical summary service such as UpToDate. On average, a third of the physicians viewed research a little more frequently than once a week, while two-thirds of the public health NGO staff viewed more than three articles a week. Those articles were published since the 2008 adoption of the NIH Public Access Policy, as well as prior to 2008 and during the maximum 12-month embargo period. A portion of the articles in each period was already open access, but complete access encouraged a viewing of more research articles. Conclusion Those working in health fields will utilize more research in the course of their work as a result of (a) increasing open access to research, (b) improving awareness of and preparation for this access, and (c) adjusting public and open access policies to maximize the extent of potential access, through reduction in embargo periods and access to pre-policy literature. PMID:26200794

  13. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    DOEpatents

    Premerlani, William J.

    1981-01-01

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components.

  14. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    DOEpatents

    Premerlani, W.J.

    1981-11-10

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components. 13 figs.

  15. 50 CFR Table 2c to Part 660... - 2010, and Beyond, Open Access and Limited Entry Allocations by Species or Species Goup (weights...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 2010, and Beyond, Open Access and Limited... Part 660, Subpart G—2010, and Beyond, Open Access and Limited Entry Allocations by Species or Species... Whiting Trawl, 2.2 mt for limited entry fixed gear, 2.5 mt for directed open access, 4.9 mt for...

  16. 50 CFR Table 1c to Part 660... - 2009, Open Access and Limited Entry Allocations by Species or Species Group (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 2009, Open Access and Limited Entry... Part 660, Subpart G—2009, Open Access and Limited Entry Allocations by Species or Species Group... limited entry fixed gear, 2.5 mt for directed open access, 4.9 mt for Washington recreational, 16.0 mt...

  17. Tessellated permanent magnet circuits for flow-through, open gradient separations of weakly magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Lee R.; Williams, P. Stephen; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Zborowski, Maciej

    2017-04-01

    Emerging microfluidic-based cell assays favor label-free red blood cell (RBC) depletion. Magnetic separation of RBC is possible because of the paramagnetism of deoxygenated hemoglobin but the process is slow for open-gradient field configurations. In order to increase the throughput, periodic arrangements of the unit magnets were considered, consisting of commercially available Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets and soft steel flux return pieces. The magnet design is uniquely suitable for multiplexing by magnet tessellation, here meaning the tiling of the magnet assembly cross-sectional plane by periodic repetition of the magnet and the flow channel shapes. The periodic pattern of magnet magnetizations allows a reduction of the magnetic material per channel with minimal distortion of the field cylindrical symmetry inside the magnet apertures. A number of such magnet patterns are investigated for separator performance, size and economy with the goal of designing an open-gradient magnetic separator capable of reducing the RBC number concentration a hundred-fold in 1 mL whole blood per hour.

  18. The CT Scanner Facility at Stellenbosch University: An open access X-ray computed tomography laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    du Plessis, Anton; le Roux, Stephan Gerhard; Guelpa, Anina

    2016-10-01

    The Stellenbosch University CT Scanner Facility is an open access laboratory providing non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT) and a high performance image analysis services as part of the Central Analytical Facilities (CAF) of the university. Based in Stellenbosch, South Africa, this facility offers open access to the general user community, including local researchers, companies and also remote users (both local and international, via sample shipment and data transfer). The laboratory hosts two CT instruments, i.e. a micro-CT system, as well as a nano-CT system. A workstation-based Image Analysis Centre is equipped with numerous computers with data analysis software packages, which are to the disposal of the facility users, along with expert supervision, if required. All research disciplines are accommodated at the X-ray CT laboratory, provided that non-destructive analysis will be beneficial. During its first four years, the facility has accommodated more than 400 unique users (33 in 2012; 86 in 2013; 154 in 2014; 140 in 2015; 75 in first half of 2016), with diverse industrial and research applications using X-ray CT as means. This paper summarises the existence of the laboratory's first four years by way of selected examples, both from published and unpublished projects. In the process a detailed description of the capabilities and facilities available to users is presented.

  19. [Scientific writing, scientific communication and open access: an international, multidisciplinary project--NECOBELAC].

    PubMed

    Pulido, Diony; Robledo, Rocío; Agudelo, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    A collaboration network involving 6 countries in Europe, Latin-America and the Caribbean has embarked on a project (Network of Collaboration Between Europe and Latin American Caribbean Countries-NECOBELAC; www.necobelac.eu) aimed at improving scientific writing open access and scholarly communication to spread know-how regarding current and future issues and information related to health. The NECOBELAC project is sponsored by the European Community (7th Framework Programme) and will last for 3 years. The project recognises the challenge arising from socio-cultural differences between the participating countries and will deal with generating networks involving institutions working in close collaboration for carrying out training and know-how exchange programmes aimed at producing open access information and spreading it (including technical and ethical aspects). The NECOBELAC project currently involves the Istituto Superiore di Sanità - ISS from Italy (coordinating the project), the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) from Spain, the University of Nottingham (SHERPA) from the United Kingdom, BIREME from Brazil, the Instituto de Salud Pública (ISP) from Colombia and the Universidade de Minho from Portugal.

  20. Open-Access, Low-Magnetic-Field MRI System for Lung Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, Ross W.; Rosen, Matthew S.; Tsai, Leo L.; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Patz, Samuel; Ruset, Iullian C.; Hersman, F. William

    2009-01-01

    An open-access magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system is being developed for use in research on orientational/gravitational effects on lung physiology and function. The open-access geometry enables study of human subjects in diverse orientations. This system operates at a magnetic flux density, considerably smaller than the flux densities of typical other MRI systems, that can be generated by resistive electromagnet coils (instead of the more-expensive superconducting coils of the other systems). The human subject inhales air containing He-3 or Xe-129 atoms, the nuclear spins of which have been polarized by use of a laser beam to obtain a magnetic resonance that enables high-resolution gas space imaging at the low applied magnetic field. The system includes a bi-planar, constant-current, four-coil electromagnet assembly and associated electronic circuitry to apply a static magnetic field of 6.5 mT throughout the lung volume; planar coils and associated circuitry to apply a pulsed magnetic-field-gradient for each spatial dimension; a single, detachable radio-frequency coil and associated circuitry for inducing and detecting MRI signals; a table for supporting a horizontal subject; and electromagnetic shielding surrounding the electromagnet coils.

  1. Using Open and Interoperable Ways to Publish and Access LANCE AIRS Near-Real Time Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Peisheng; Lynnes, Christopher; Vollmer, Bruce; Savtchenko, Andrey; Theobald, Michael; Yang, Wenli

    2011-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Near-Real Time (NRT) data from the Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) element at the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) provides information on the global and regional atmospheric state, with very low temporal latency, to support climate research and improve weather forecasting. An open and interoperable platform is useful to facilitate access to, and integration of, LANCE AIRS NRT data. As Web services technology has matured in recent years, a new scalable Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is emerging as the basic platform for distributed computing and large networks of interoperable applications. Following the provide-register-discover-consume SOA paradigm, this presentation discusses how to use open-source geospatial software components to build Web services for publishing and accessing AIRS NRT data, explore the metadata relevant to registering and discovering data and services in the catalogue systems, and implement a Web portal to facilitate users' consumption of the data and services.

  2. Comparison of Traditional and Open-Access Appointment Scheduling for Exponentially Distributed Service Time.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chongjun; Tang, Jiafu; Jiang, Bowen; Fung, Richard Y K

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the performance measures of traditional appointment scheduling (AS) with those of an open-access appointment scheduling (OA-AS) system with exponentially distributed service time. A queueing model is formulated for the traditional AS system with no-show probability. The OA-AS models assume that all patients who call before the session begins will show up for the appointment on time. Two types of OA-AS systems are considered: with a same-session policy and with a same-or-next-session policy. Numerical results indicate that the superiority of OA-AS systems is not as obvious as those under deterministic scenarios. The same-session system has a threshold of relative waiting cost, after which the traditional system always has higher total costs, and the same-or-next-session system is always preferable, except when the no-show probability or the weight of patients' waiting is low. It is concluded that open-access policies can be viewed as alternative approaches to mitigate the negative effects of no-show patients.

  3. Capitalizing on global demands for open data access and interoperability - the USGIN story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Stephen; Allison, Lee

    2016-04-01

    U.S. Geoscience Information Network (USGIN - http://usgin.org) data integration framework packages data so that it can be accessible through a broad array of open-source software and applications, including GeoServer, QGIS, GrassGIS, uDig, and gvSIG. USGIN data-sharing networks are designed to interact with other data exchange systems and have the ability to connect information on a granular level without jeopardizing data ownership. The system is compliant with international standards and protocols, scalable, extensible, and can be deployed throughout the world for a myriad of applications. Using GeoSciML as its data transfer standard and a collaborative approach to Content Model development and management, much of the architecture is publically available through GitHub. Initially developed by the USGS and Association of American State Geologists as a distributed, self-maintained platform for sharing geoscience information, USGIN meets all the requirements of the White House Open Data Access Initiative that applies to (almost) all federally-funded research and all federally-maintained data, opening up huge opportunities for further deployment. In December 2015, the USGIN Content Model schema was recommended for adoption by the White House-led US Group on Earth Observations (USGEO) "Draft Common Framework for Earth-Observation Data" for all US earth observation (i.e., satellite) data. The largest USGIN node is the U.S. National Geothermal Data System (NGDS - www.geothermaldata.org). NGDS provides free open access to ~ 10 million data records, maps, and reports, sharing relevant geoscience and land use data to propel geothermal development and production in the U.S. NGDS currently serves information from hundreds of the U.S. Department of Energy's sponsored projects and geologic data feeds from 60+ data providers in all 50 states, using free and open source software, in a federated system where data owners maintain control of their data. This interactive online

  4. Open-access public-private partnerships to enable drug discovery--new approaches.

    PubMed

    Müller, Susanne; Weigelt, Johan

    2010-03-01

    The productivity of the pharmaceutical industry, as assessed by the number of NMEs produced per US dollar spent in R&D, has been in steady decline during the past 40 years. This decline in productivity not only poses a significant challenge to the pharmaceutical industry, but also to society because of the importance of developing drugs for the treatment of unmet medical needs. The major challenge in progressing a new drug to the market is the successful completion of clinical trials. However, the failure rate of drugs entering trials has not decreased, despite various technological and scientific breakthroughs in recent decades, and despite intense target validation efforts. This lack of success suggests limitations in the fundamental understanding of target biology and human pharmacology. One contributing factor may be the traditional secrecy of the pharmaceutical sector, a characteristic that does not promote scientific discovery in an optimal manner. Access to broader knowledge relating to target biology and human pharmacology is difficult to obtain because interactions between researchers in industry and academia are typically restricted to closed collaborations in which the knowledge gained is confidential.However, open-access collaborative partnerships are gaining momentum in industry, and are also favored by funding agencies. Such open-access collaborations may be a powerful alternative to closed collaborations; the sharing of early-stage research data is expected to enable scientific discovery by engaging a broader section of the scientific community in the exploration of new findings. Potentially, the sharing of data could contribute to an increased understanding of biological processes and a decrease in the attrition of clinical programs.

  5. Montreal Archive of Sleep Studies: an open-access resource for instrument benchmarking and exploratory research.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Christian; Gosselin, Nadia; Carrier, Julie; Nielsen, Tore

    2014-12-01

    Manual processing of sleep recordings is extremely time-consuming. Efforts to automate this process have shown promising results, but automatic systems are generally evaluated on private databases, not allowing accurate cross-validation with other systems. In lacking a common benchmark, the relative performances of different systems are not compared easily and advances are compromised. To address this fundamental methodological impediment to sleep study, we propose an open-access database of polysomnographic biosignals. To build this database, whole-night recordings from 200 participants [97 males (aged 42.9 ± 19.8 years) and 103 females (aged 38.3 ± 18.9 years); age range: 18-76 years] were pooled from eight different research protocols performed in three different hospital-based sleep laboratories. All recordings feature a sampling frequency of 256 Hz and an electroencephalography (EEG) montage of 4-20 channels plus standard electro-oculography (EOG), electromyography (EMG), electrocardiography (ECG) and respiratory signals. Access to the database can be obtained through the Montreal Archive of Sleep Studies (MASS) website (http://www.ceams-carsm.ca/en/MASS), and requires only affiliation with a research institution and prior approval by the applicant's local ethical review board. Providing the research community with access to this free and open sleep database is expected to facilitate the development and cross-validation of sleep analysis automation systems. It is also expected that such a shared resource will be a catalyst for cross-centre collaborations on difficult topics such as improving inter-rater agreement on sleep stage scoring.

  6. Physical and Visual Accessibilities in Intensive Care Units: A Comparative Study of Open-Plan and Racetrack Units.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mahbub; Khan, Nayma; Jones, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    This study compared physical and visual accessibilities and their associations with staff perception and interaction behaviors in 2 intensive care units (ICUs) with open-plan and racetrack layouts. For the study, physical and visual accessibilities were measured using the spatial analysis techniques of Space Syntax. Data on staff perception were collected from 81 clinicians using a questionnaire survey. The locations of 2233 interactions, and the location and length of another 339 interactions in these units were collected using systematic field observation techniques. According to the study, physical and visual accessibilities were different in the 2 ICUs, and clinicians' primary workspaces were physically and visually more accessible in the open-plan ICU. Physical and visual accessibilities affected how well clinicians' knew their peers and where their peers were located in these units. Physical and visual accessibilities also affected clinicians' perception of interaction and communication and of teamwork and collaboration in these units. Additionally, physical and visual accessibilities showed significant positive associations with interaction behaviors in these units, with the open-plan ICU showing stronger associations. However, physical accessibilities were less important than visual accessibilities in relation to interaction behaviors in these ICUs. The implications of these findings for ICU design are discussed.

  7. Leveraging Open Standard Interfaces in Accessing and Processing NASA Data Model Outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falke, S. R.; Alameh, N. S.; Hoijarvi, K.; de La Beaujardiere, J.; Bambacus, M. J.

    2006-12-01

    An objective of NASA's Earth Science Division is to develop advanced information technologies for processing, archiving, accessing, visualizing, and communicating Earth Science data. To this end, NASA and other federal agencies have collaborated with the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) to research, develop, and test interoperability specifications within projects and testbeds benefiting the government, industry, and the public. This paper summarizes the results of a recent effort under the auspices of the OGC Web Services testbed phase 4 (OWS-4) to explore standardization approaches for accessing and processing the outputs of NASA models of physical phenomena. Within the OWS-4 context, experiments were designed to leverage the emerging OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS) specifications to access, filter and manipulate the outputs of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) and Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) forecast models. In OWS-4, the intent is to provide the users with more control over the subsets of data that they can extract from the model results as well as over the final portrayal of that data. To meet that goal, experiments have been designed to test the suitability of use of OGC's Web Processing Service (WPS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS) for filtering, processing and portraying the model results (including slices by height or by time), and to identify any enhancements to the specs to meet the desired objectives. This paper summarizes the findings of the experiments highlighting the value of the Web Processing Service in providing standard interfaces for accessing and manipulating model data within spatial and temporal frameworks. The paper also points out the key shortcomings of the WPS especially in terms in comparison with a SOAP/WSDL approach towards solving the same problem.

  8. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N.; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A.; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A.; Ngogang, Jeanne Y.

    2016-01-01

    Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs. PMID:27508058

  9. Inviting patients and care partners to read doctors' notes: OpenNotes and shared access to electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jennifer L; Darer, Jonathan D; Berger, Andrea; Clarke, Deserae; Green, Jamie A; Stametz, Rebecca A; Delbanco, Tom; Walker, Jan

    2016-08-07

    We examined the acceptability and effects of delivering doctors' visit notes electronically (via OpenNotes) to patients and care partners with authorized access to patients' electronic medical records. Adult patients and care partners at Geisinger Health System were surveyed at baseline and after 12 months of exposure to OpenNotes. Reporting on care partner access to OpenNotes, patients and care partners stated that they had better agreement about patient treatment plans and more productive discussions about their care. At follow-up, patients were more confident in their ability to manage their health, felt better prepared for office visits, and reported understanding their care better than at baseline. Care partners were more likely to access and use patient portal functionality and reported improved communication with patients' providers at follow-up. Our findings suggest that offering patients and care partners access to doctors' notes is acceptable and improves communication and patients' confidence in managing their care.

  10. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa?

    PubMed

    Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Ngogang, Jeanne Y

    2016-01-01

    Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs.

  11. NATIONAL GEOTHERMAL DATA SYSTEM: AN EXEMPLAR OF OPEN ACCESS TO DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Blackman, Harold; Blackman, Harold M.; Blackman, Harold M.; Blackman, Harold; Blackman, Harold; Blackman, Harold

    2013-11-15

    The formal launch of National Geothermal Data System (NGDS – www.geothermaldata.org) in 2014 will provide open access to technical geothermal-relevant data from all of the Department of Energy- sponsored geothermal development and research projects and geologic data from all 50 states. By making data easily discoverable and accessible this system will open new exploration opportunities and shorten project development. The prototype data system currently includes multiple data nodes, and nationwide data online and available to the public, indexed through a single catalog under construction at http://search.geothermaldata.org. Data from state geological surveys and partners includes more than 5 million records online, including 1.48 million well headers (oil and gas, water, geothermal), 732,000 well logs, and 314,000 borehole temperatures and is growing rapidly. There are over 250 Web services and another 138 WMS (Web Map Services) registered in the system as of August, 2013. Additional data record is being added by companion projects run by Boise State University, Southern Methodist University, and the USGS. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is managing the Geothermal Data Repository, an NGDS node that will be a clearinghouse for data from hundreds of DOE-funded geothermal projects. NGDS is built on the US Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) data integration framework, which is a joint undertaking of the USGS and the Association of American State Geologists (AASG). NGDS is fully compliant with the White House Executive Order of May 2013, requiring all federal agencies to make their data holdings publicly accessible online in open source, interoperable formats with common core and extensible metadata. The National Geothermal Data System is being designed, built, deployed, and populated primarily with grants from the US Department of Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office. To keep this operational system sustainable after the original implementation will

  12. The InSAR Italy portal for open access to crustal deformation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvi, Stefano; Tolomei, Cristiano; Pezzo, Giuseppe; Lanari, Riccardo; Pepe, Antonio; Marchetti, Pier Giorgio; Della Vecchia, Andrea; Mantovani, Simone

    2014-05-01

    InSAR Italy is a web portal devised to provide open access services to crustal deformation data measured using multitemporal SAR Interferometry techniques over the Italian territory. It is an evolution of the VELISAR initiative, promoted in 2006 by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, and originally participated by IREA-CNR and TRE srl. InSAR Italy was developed tailoring the Multi-sensor Evolution Analysis (MEA) environment, an Earth Observation and geospatial data analysis tool empowered with OGC standard interfaces. The web interface allows an easy browsing of the ground deformation maps obtained for each satellite image dataset, leading to a clear picture and improved analysis of the displacement time series over single pixels or large areas. Web Coverage Service (WCS) and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS) are used to access and process the maps, respectively. The crustal deformation data are provided by INGV and IREA-CNR as products of publicly-funded research projects, and are disseminated in compliance with the national legislation on the Open Data Access; metadata associated to the products are published according to the INSPIRE specifications. The information provided through InSAR Italy is mainly based on InSAR data maintained in the ESA archives, in particular from the ERS satellites for the 1992-2000 period, and ENVISAT for the period 2003-2010, however, ground velocity maps obtained from COSMO-SkyMed data will also be released in the near future. The InSAR Italy deformation maps consist of time series of ground displacement at resolution varying between 5 and 80 m, and the relative mean velocity values. The data sets can be queried and mean velocities can be recalculated over user-defined time periods, to account for possible non-linear displacement trends. The MEA spatiotemporal data analysis capability allows to investigate deformation phenomena occurring at very different spatial scales, from single buildings to entire regions

  13. National Geothermal Data System: an Exemplar of Open Access to Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. L.; Richard, S. M.; Blackman, H.; Anderson, A.

    2013-12-01

    The National Geothermal Data System's (NGDS - www.geothermaldata.org) formal launch in 2014 will provide open access to millions of datasets, sharing technical geothermal-relevant data across the geosciences to propel geothermal development and production. With information from all of the Department of Energy's sponsored development and research projects and geologic data from all 50 states, this free, interactive tool is opening new exploration opportunities and shortening project development by making data easily discoverable and accessible. We continue to populate our prototype functional data system with multiple data nodes and nationwide data online and available to the public. Data from state geological surveys and partners includes more than 5 million records online, including 1.48 million well headers (oil and gas, water, geothermal), 732,000 well logs, and 314,000 borehole temperatures and is growing rapidly. There are over 250 Web services and another 138 WMS (Web Map Services) registered in the system as of August, 2013. Companion projects run by Boise State University, Southern Methodist University, and USGS are adding millions of additional data records. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is managing the Geothermal Data Repository which will serve as a system node and clearinghouse for data from hundreds of DOE-funded geothermal projects. NGDS is built on the US Geoscience Information Network data integration framework, which is a joint undertaking of the USGS and the Association of American State Geologists (AASG). NGDS is fully compliant with the White House Executive Order of May 2013, requiring all federal agencies to make their data holdings publicly accessible online in open source, interoperable formats with common core and extensible metadata. The National Geothermal Data System is being designed, built, deployed, and populated primarily with grants from the US Department of Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office. To keep this operational

  14. Open Core Data: Semantic driven data access and distribution for terrestrial and marine scientific drilling data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fils, D.; Noren, A. J.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Open Core Data (OCD) is a science-driven, innovative, efficient, and scalable infrastructure for data generated by scientific drilling and coring projects across all Earth sciences. It is designed to make make scientific drilling data semantically discoverable, persistent, citable, and approachable to maximize their utility to present and future geoscience researchers. Scientific drilling and coring is crucial for the advancement of the Earth Sciences, unlocking new frontiers in the geologic record. Open Core Data will utilize and link existing data systems, services, and expertise of the JOIDES Resolution Science Operator (JRSO), the Continental Scientific Drilling Coordination Office (CSDCO), the Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (IEDA) data facility, and the Consortium for Ocean Leadership (OL). Open Core Data will leverage efforts currently taking place under the EarthCube GeoLink Building Block and other previous efforts in Linked Open Data around ocean drilling data coordinated by OL. The OCD architecture for data distribution blends Linked Data Platform approaches with web services and schema.org use. OCD will further enable integration and tool development by assigning and using vocabularies, provenance, and unique IDs (DOIs, IGSN, URIs) in scientific drilling resources. A significant focus of this effort is to enable large scale automated access to the data by domain specific communities such as MagIC and Neotoma. Providing them a process to integrate the facility data into their data models, workflows and tools. This aspect will encompass methods to maintain awareness of authority information enabling users to trace data back to the originating facility. Initial work on OCD is taking place under a supplemental awarded to IEDA. This talk gives an overview of that work to date and planned future directions for the distribution of scientific drilling data by this effort.

  15. Access and preservation of digital research content: Linked open data services - A research library perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Angelina; Sens, Irina; Löwe, Peter; Dreyer, Britta

    2016-04-01

    (collaborative) data in an organizational workspace. In such a workspace, administrators and curators can manage access and editorial rights before the data enters the preservation and optional publication phase. RADAR applies different PID strategies for closed vs. open data. For closed datasets, RADAR uses handles as identifiers and offers format-independent data preservation between 5 and 15 years, which can also be prolonged. By default, preserved data are only available to the respective data curators, which may selectively grant other researches access to preserved data. For open datasets, RADAR provides a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to enable researchers to clearly reference and reuse data and to guarantee data accessibility. RADAR offers the publication service of research data together with format-independent data preservation for an unlimited time period. Each published dataset can be enriched with discipline-specific metadata and an optional embargo period can be specified. With these two services, RADAR aims to meet demands from a broad range of specialized research disciplines: To provide a secure, citable data storage and citability for researchers which need to retain restricted access to data on one hand, and an e-infrastructure which allows for research data to be stored, found, managed, annotated, cited, curated and published in a digital platform available 24/7, on the other.

  16. Open Access Integrated Therapeutic and Diagnostic Platforms for Personalized Cardiovascular Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gladding, Patrick A.; Cave, Andrew; Zareian, Mehran; Smith, Kevin; Hussan, Jagir; Hunter, Peter; Erogbogbo, Folarin; Aguilar, Zoraida; Martin, David S.; Chan, Eugene; Homer, Margie L.; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Kassemi, Mohammad; Thomas, James D.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2013-01-01

    It is undeniable that the increasing costs in healthcare are a concern. Although technological advancements have been made in healthcare systems, the return on investment made by governments and payers has been poor. The current model of care is unsustainable and is due for an upgrade. In developed nations, a law of diminishing returns has been noted in population health standards, whilst in the developing world, westernized chronic illnesses, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease have become emerging problems. The reasons for these trends are complex, multifactorial and not easily reversed. Personalized medicine has the potential to have a significant impact on these issues, but for it to be truly successful, interdisciplinary mass collaboration is required. We propose here a vision for open-access advanced analytics for personalized cardiac diagnostics using imaging, electrocardiography and genomics. PMID:25562653

  17. "Big data" and "open data": What kind of access should researchers enjoy?

    PubMed

    Chatellier, Gilles; Varlet, Vincent; Blachier-Poisson, Corinne

    2016-02-01

    The healthcare sector is currently facing a new paradigm, the explosion of "big data". Coupled with advances in computer technology, the field of "big data" appears promising, allowing us to better understand the natural history of diseases, to follow-up new technologies (devices, drugs) implementation and to participate in precision medicine, etc. Data sources are multiple (medical and administrative data, electronic medical records, data from rapidly developing technologies such as DNA sequencing, connected devices, etc.) and heterogeneous while their use requires complex methods for accurate analysis. Moreover, faced with this new paradigm, we must determine who could (or should) have access to which data, how to combine collective interest and protection of personal data and how to finance in the long-term both operating costs and databases interrogation. This article analyses the opportunities and challenges related to the use of open and/or "big data", from the viewpoint of pharmacologists and representatives of the pharmaceutical and medical device industry.

  18. Organic materials database: An open-access online database for data mining

    PubMed Central

    Geilhufe, R. Matthias; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2017-01-01

    We present an organic materials database (OMDB) hosting thousands of Kohn-Sham electronic band structures, which is freely accessible online at http://omdb.diracmaterials.org. The OMDB focus lies on electronic structure, density of states and other properties for purely organic and organometallic compounds that are known to date. The electronic band structures are calculated using density functional theory for the crystal structures contained in the Crystallography Open Database. The OMDB web interface allows users to retrieve materials with specified target properties using non-trivial queries about their electronic structure. We illustrate the use of the OMDB and how it can become an organic part of search and prediction of novel functional materials via data mining techniques. As a specific example, we provide data mining results for metals and semiconductors, which are known to be rare in the class of organic materials. PMID:28182744

  19. Open access resources for genome-wide association mapping in rice

    PubMed Central

    McCouch, Susan R.; Wright, Mark H.; Tung, Chih-Wei; Maron, Lyza G.; McNally, Kenneth L.; Fitzgerald, Melissa; Singh, Namrata; DeClerck, Genevieve; Agosto-Perez, Francisco; Korniliev, Pavel; Greenberg, Anthony J.; Naredo, Ma. Elizabeth B.; Mercado, Sheila Mae Q.; Harrington, Sandra E.; Shi, Yuxin; Branchini, Darcy A.; Kuser-Falcão, Paula R.; Leung, Hei; Ebana, Kowaru; Yano, Masahiro; Eizenga, Georgia; McClung, Anna; Mezey, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Increasing food production is essential to meet the demands of a growing human population, with its rising income levels and nutritional expectations. To address the demand, plant breeders seek new sources of genetic variation to enhance the productivity, sustainability and resilience of crop varieties. Here we launch a high-resolution, open-access research platform to facilitate genome-wide association mapping in rice, a staple food crop. The platform provides an immortal collection of diverse germplasm, a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism data set tailored for gene discovery, well-documented analytical strategies, and a suite of bioinformatics resources to facilitate biological interpretation. Using grain length, we demonstrate the power and resolution of our new high-density rice array, the accompanying genotypic data set, and an expanded diversity panel for detecting major and minor effect QTLs and subpopulation-specific alleles, with immediate implications for rice improvement. PMID:26842267

  20. Organic materials database: An open-access online database for data mining.

    PubMed

    Borysov, Stanislav S; Geilhufe, R Matthias; Balatsky, Alexander V

    2017-01-01

    We present an organic materials database (OMDB) hosting thousands of Kohn-Sham electronic band structures, which is freely accessible online at http://omdb.diracmaterials.org. The OMDB focus lies on electronic structure, density of states and other properties for purely organic and organometallic compounds that are known to date. The electronic band structures are calculated using density functional theory for the crystal structures contained in the Crystallography Open Database. The OMDB web interface allows users to retrieve materials with specified target properties using non-trivial queries about their electronic structure. We illustrate the use of the OMDB and how it can become an organic part of search and prediction of novel functional materials via data mining techniques. As a specific example, we provide data mining results for metals and semiconductors, which are known to be rare in the class of organic materials.

  1. Democratizing education? Examining access and usage patterns in massive open online courses.

    PubMed

    Hansen, John D; Reich, Justin

    2015-12-04

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are often characterized as remedies to educational disparities related to social class. Using data from 68 MOOCs offered by Harvard and MIT between 2012 and 2014, we found that course participants from the United States tended to live in more-affluent and better-educated neighborhoods than the average U.S. resident. Among those who did register for courses, students with greater socioeconomic resources were more likely to earn a certificate. Furthermore, these differences in MOOC access and completion were larger for adolescents and young adults, the traditional ages where people find on-ramps into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) coursework and careers. Our findings raise concerns that MOOCs and similar approaches to online learning can exacerbate rather than reduce disparities in educational outcomes related to socioeconomic status.

  2. The Development of Open Access Journal Publishing from 1993 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Laakso, Mikael; Welling, Patrik; Bukvova, Helena; Nyman, Linus; Björk, Bo-Christer; Hedlund, Turid

    2011-01-01

    Open Access (OA) is a model for publishing scholarly peer reviewed journals, made possible by the Internet. The full text of OA journals and articles can be freely read, as the publishing is funded through means other than subscriptions. Empirical research concerning the quantitative development of OA publishing has so far consisted of scattered individual studies providing brief snapshots, using varying methods and data sources. This study adopts a systematic method for studying the development of OA journals from their beginnings in the early 1990s until 2009. Because no comprehensive index of OA articles exists, systematic manual data collection from journal web sites was conducted based on journal-level data extracted from the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). Due to the high number of journals registered in the DOAJ, almost 5000 at the time of the study, stratified random sampling was used. A separate sample of verified early pioneer OA journals was also studied. The results show a very rapid growth of OA publishing during the period 1993–2009. During the last year an estimated 191 000 articles were published in 4769 journals. Since the year 2000, the average annual growth rate has been 18% for the number of journals and 30% for the number of articles. This can be contrasted to the reported 3,5% yearly volume increase in journal publishing in general. In 2009 the share of articles in OA journals, of all peer reviewed journal articles, reached 7,7%. Overall, the results document a rapid growth in OA journal publishing over the last fifteen years. Based on the sampling results and qualitative data a division into three distinct periods is suggested: The Pioneering years (1993–1999), the Innovation years (2000–2004), and the Consolidation years (2005–2009). PMID:21695139

  3. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas: Opening Access to the Biology of Nuclear Receptor Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Becnel, Lauren B.; Darlington, Yolanda F.; Ochsner, Scott A.; Easton-Marks, Jeremy R.; Watkins, Christopher M.; McOwiti, Apollo; Kankanamge, Wasula H.; Wise, Michael W.; DeHart, Michael; Margolis, Ronald N.; McKenna, Neil J.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling pathways involving nuclear receptors (NRs), their ligands and coregulators, regulate tissue-specific transcriptomes in diverse processes, including development, metabolism, reproduction, the immune response and neuronal function, as well as in their associated pathologies. The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is a Consortium focused around a Hub website (www.nursa.org) that annotates and integrates diverse ‘omics datasets originating from the published literature and NURSA-funded Data Source Projects (NDSPs). These datasets are then exposed to the scientific community on an Open Access basis through user-friendly data browsing and search interfaces. Here, we describe the redesign of the Hub, version 3.0, to deploy “Web 2.0” technologies and add richer, more diverse content. The Molecule Pages, which aggregate information relevant to NR signaling pathways from myriad external databases, have been enhanced to include resources for basic scientists, such as post-translational modification sites and targeting miRNAs, and for clinicians, such as clinical trials. A portal to NURSA’s Open Access, PubMed-indexed journal Nuclear Receptor Signaling has been added to facilitate manuscript submissions. Datasets and information on reagents generated by NDSPs are available, as is information concerning periodic new NDSP funding solicitations. Finally, the new website integrates the Transcriptomine analysis tool, which allows for mining of millions of richly annotated public transcriptomic data points in the field, providing an environment for dataset re-use and citation, bench data validation and hypothesis generation. We anticipate that this new release of the NURSA database will have tangible, long term benefits for both basic and clinical research in this field. PMID:26325041

  4. The Open Access Model of Meteorologische Zeitschrift and other meteorological journals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emeis, S.

    2009-09-01

    Today's availability and possibilities of the internet have already brought significant changes to the means of scientific communication. This also affects the publication and reception of peer-reviewed papers in scientific journals. In pre-internet times, the publication of scientific journals was mainly financed through subscription fees paid by libraries and other subscribers. The readers went to the libraries of their institution to search, read, and photocopy these papers. Today, everybody expects to have scientific papers more or less freely available on their desktop computers and from their printers. This has forced the publishers to change the financial model for the publication of scientific papers. An increasing number of journals now publish papers whose production costs have to be paid before the publication by the author or its institution. Those "pre-paid” papers are then freely available from the internet. This publication model has become known as "Open Access (OA)” model. Also the 126-year old Meteorologische Zeitschrift has changed its publication model to an Optional Open Access model. The features of this model will be presented and compared to other OA models with meteorological journals. This change in the publication models with a shift of its payment from the end (libraries and subscribers) to the beginning of the publication process (authors) has also confronted the scientific research and funding institutions with some problems. They must now also change their structures in financing one of their major outputs, the publications of their researchers. A few aspects of the present state of this shift will be addressed.

  5. Positioning Extension Massive Open Online Courses (xMOOCs) within the Open Access and the Lifelong Learning Agendas in a Developing Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkuyubwatsi, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports on xMOOCs indicate that underprivileged learners in need of higher education have minimally been reached by these courses. While the "open access" agenda is needed to reach such learners, most MOOCs have been developed in societies that have shifted toward the "lifelong learning" agenda. In this paper, xMOOCs are…

  6. Accessing the Inaccessible: The Case for Opening up Russia's Closed Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D Y

    2001-03-21

    The selling of weapons-related nuclear knowledge by Russian scientists for economic gain constitutes a threat to US national security. Some estimate that the number of Russian scientists seeking permanent employment abroad constitute five to ten percent of all researchers who have left the field of science. And, there is concern that those who have left are ''the better minds.'' Moreover, the issue of brain drain concerns not only those who move abroad permanently, but those who still reside in Russia and travel abroad to sell their knowledge. Of particular concern to the US is the potential sale of WMD knowledge by some. To ''mitigate the risk that economic difficulties...might create the temptation for individuals or institutes to sell expertise to countries of proliferation concern and terrorist organizations,'' the Department of Energy launched a Nuclear Cities Initiative (NCI) in 1998 with the goal of creating commercial jobs and economic diversification in the ten closed cities that form the core of Russia's nuclear weapons complex to accommodate the loss of employment in the nuclear weapons industry. However, unless Russia opens access to the areas of its closed cities that are, or could become, involved in commercial activities-while of course carefully controlling access to the sensitive areas of the institutes and laboratories-economic development will be stymied.

  7. SPDF Ancillary Services and Technologies Supporting Open Access, Use and Archiving of MMS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candey, R. M.; Bilitza, D.; Chimiak, R.; Cooper, J. F.; Garcia, L. N.; Harris, B. T.; Hills, H. K.; Johnson, R. C.; Kovalick, T. J.; Lal, N.; Leckner, H. A.; Liu, M. H.; McGuire, R. E.; Papitashvili, N. E.; Roberts, D. A.; Yurow, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    The primary data and orbit services of NASA's Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) now or soon to be supporting direct and correlative analysis of MMS survey and burst science data products are discussed in the McGuire et.al. paper "SPDF Data and Orbit Services Supporting Open Access, Use and Archiving of MMS Data." This present paper will review additional services and elements of the SPDF program relevant to SPDF's support of MMS and SPDF's broader long-term role as an active heliophysics final archive. Specific topics include - Additional detail on options and APIs for accessing data in SPDF; - Status and plans for the Common Data Format (CDF) and ISTP/SPDF metadata standard, including extension of the metadata standard to planned science data in netCDF from the upcoming GOLD and ICON missions; - Future missions to be supported by SPDF; - Overview and status of MMS and other data descriptions in the Heliophysics Data Portal (HDP)/Virtual Space Physics Observatory (VSPO) - Status and plans for the OMNI database and services, as baseline solar wind data for interpreting magnetospheric data such as that of MMS; - An overview of SPDF's ingest and archiving architecture, including our ongoing effort to bring online legacy heliophysics data originally archived at NSSDC. All SPDF data and services are available from the SPDF home page at http://spdf.gsfc.nasa.gov .

  8. Use of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Standards to Disseminate and Access Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, M.; Justice, B.; Borsholm, A.; Harris, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    With the proliferation of scientific data in the public domain, improved methods for facilitating the discovery and dissemination of the data are sorely needed. NASA recently confronted this challenging problem within the context of the NextGen 4-D Weather Cube, a virtual database of weather observations and forecasts that, among other applications, will principally serve the reinvented US air traffic management system. Acknowledging the current trends toward the use of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards, ITT VIS worked closely with NASA sponsors to implement the ebXML RegRep standard, which defines support for the registration, management and retrieval of georeferenced data and related metadata. Use of this standard within a web-enabled software infrastructure allows consumers to discover datasets and access them via methods called "services". The OGC WFS, WMS, and WCS services provide different delivery mechanisms for datasets stored in public repositories and give users on-demand access within their local computing environment. Examples of how NASA, working on the NextGen project, researched and developed ways of using these technologies to further enhance their research will be emphasized. Lessons learned here may provide guidance for other scientific projects with similar requirements for disseminating public datasets.

  9. Making Water Chemistry Data From Volcano-Hydrothermal Systems Accessible Using Open Source Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venezky, D. Y.; Mariner, R. H.; Hurwitz, S.; Evans, W. C.

    2004-12-01

    Chemical and isotopic data collected over several decades by the U.S. Geological Survey from volcano-hydrothermal systems were recently organized into a web-accessible database for public use. The data were collected by members of the Barnes and/or Mariner projects and were supplemented with data from samples submitted for analysis by other researchers with similar interests. The data are primarily chemical and isotopic analyses of waters (thermal, mineral, or fresh) and associated gas (free and/or dissolved) collected from hot springs, mineral springs, cold springs, geothermal wells, fumaroles, and gas seeps. Additional data for a few streams, lakes, and oil wells are included. The web site follows a multi-stage design, first allowing for basic access to the MySQL database, then a user-friendly GIS (Geographic Information System) interface, and finally access to additional documentation and searching features. The initial web pages allow the user to choose the type of data (site, physical parameters, major and minor dissolved constituents, dissolved and free gas composition, water isotopes, and other isotopes) and the sample location. The data are then shown in a table that can be downloaded in several formats. The second stage of the project added an open-source GIS package called WorldKit, which gives easy-to-code and easy-to-use clickable icons on a base map using XML (Extensible Markup Language). WorldKit is also adding a zoom interface (zoomify) that uses new technology to reduce the display time. The final stage of the project involves more complex queries, alternative data presentation, and integrated background information. The more complex queries allow users to select multiple types of data from multiple sites. The data can be found at http://hotspringchem.wr.usgs.gov/.

  10. Current state of open access to journal publications from the University of Zagreb School of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Škorić, Lea; Vrkić, Dina; Petrak, Jelka

    2016-01-01

    Aims To identify the share of open access (OA) papers in the total number of journal publications authored by the members of the University of Zagreb School of Medicine (UZSM) in 2014. Methods Bibliographic data on 543 UZSM papers published in 2014 were collected using PubMed advanced search strategies and manual data collection methods. The items that had “free full text” icons were considered as gold OA papers. Their OA availability was checked using the provided link to full-text. The rest of the UZSM papers were analyzed for potential green OA through self-archiving in institutional repository. Papers published by Croatian journals were particularly analyzed. Results Full texts of approximately 65% of all UZSM papers were freely available. Most of them were published in gold OA journals (55% of all UZSM papers or 85% of all UZSM OA papers). In the UZSM repository, there were additional 52 freely available authors’ manuscripts from subscription-based journals (10% of all UZSM papers or 15% of all UZSM OA papers). Conclusion The overall proportion of OA in our study is higher than in similar studies, but only half of gold OA papers are accessible via PubMed directly. The results of our study indicate that increased quality of metadata and linking of the bibliographic records to full texts could assure better visibility. Moreover, only a quarter of papers from subscription-based journals that allow self-archiving are deposited in the UZSM repository. We believe that UZSM should consider mandating all faculty members to deposit their publications in UZSM OA repository to increase visibility and improve access to its scientific output. PMID:26935617

  11. From Open Geographical Data to Tangible Maps: Improving the Accessibility of Maps for Visually Impaired People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducasse, J.; Macé, M.; Jouffrais, C.

    2015-08-01

    Visual maps must be transcribed into (interactive) raised-line maps to be accessible for visually impaired people. However, these tactile maps suffer from several shortcomings: they are long and expensive to produce, they cannot display a large amount of information, and they are not dynamically modifiable. A number of methods have been developed to automate the production of raised-line maps, but there is not yet any tactile map editor on the market. Tangible interactions proved to be an efficient way to help a visually impaired user manipulate spatial representations. Contrary to raised-line maps, tangible maps can be autonomously constructed and edited. In this paper, we present the scenarios and the main expected contributions of the AccessiMap project, which is based on the availability of many sources of open spatial data: 1/ facilitating the production of interactive tactile maps with the development of an open-source web-based editor; 2/ investigating the use of tangible interfaces for the autonomous construction and exploration of a map by a visually impaired user.

  12. The Earth System Grid Federation: An Open Infrastructure for Access to Distributed Geo-Spatial Data

    SciTech Connect

    Cinquini, Luca; Crichton, Daniel; Miller, Neill; Mattmann, Chris; Harney, John F; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi; Bell, Gavin; Drach, Bob; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Pascoe, Stephen; Fiore, Sandro; Schweitzer, Roland; Danvil, Sebastian; Morgan, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is a multi-agency, international collaboration that aims at developing the software infrastructure needed to facilitate and empower the study of climate change on a global scale. The ESGF s architecture employs a system of geographically distributed peer nodes, which are independently administered yet united by the adoption of common federation protocols and application programming interfaces (APIs). The cornerstones of its interoperability are the peer-to-peer messaging that is continuously exchanged among all nodes in the federation; a shared architecture and API for search and discovery; and a security infrastructure based on industry standards (OpenID, SSL, GSI and SAML). The ESGF software is developed collaboratively across institutional boundaries and made available to the community as open source. It has now been adopted by multiple Earth science projects and allows access to petabytes of geophysical data, including the entire model output used for the next international assessment report on climate change (IPCC-AR5) and a suite of satellite observations (obs4MIPs) and reanalysis data sets (ANA4MIPs).

  13. The Earth System Grid Federation: An Open Infrastructure for Access to Distributed Geospatial Data

    SciTech Connect

    Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Bell, Gavin; Cinquini, Luca; Crichton, Daniel; Danvil, Sebastian; Drach, Bob; Fiore, Sandro; Gonzalez, Estanislao; Harney, John F; Mattmann, Chris; Kershaw, Philip; Morgan, Mark; Pascoe, Stephen; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi

    2013-01-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is a multi-agency, international collaboration that aims at developing the software infrastructure needed to facilitate and empower the study of climate change on a global scale. The ESGF s architecture employs a system of geographically distributed peer nodes, which are independently administered yet united by the adoption of common federation protocols and application programming interfaces (APIs). The cornerstones of its interoperability are the peer-to-peer messaging that is continuously exchanged among all nodes in the federation; a shared architecture and API for search and discovery; and a security infrastructure based on industry standards (OpenID, SSL, GSI and SAML). The ESGF software is developed collaboratively across institutional boundaries and made available to the community as open source. It has now been adopted by multiple Earth science projects and allows access to petabytes of geophysical data, including the entire model output used for the next international assessment report on climate change (IPCC-AR5) and a suite of satellite observations (obs4MIPs) and reanalysis data sets (ANA4MIPs).

  14. Performance analysis and overload control of an open service access (OSA) architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Jens K.; Nyberg, Christian; Kihl, Maria

    2003-08-01

    The trend of the service architectures developed in telecommunications today is that they should be open in the sense that they can communicate over the borders of different networks. Instead of each network having their own service architecture with their own applications, all networks should be able to use the same applications. 3GPP, the organization developing specifications for the 3G networks has specified the standard Open Service Access (OSA), as a part of the 3G specification. OSA offers different Application Protocol Interfaces that enable an application that resides outside a network to use the capabilities of the network. This paper analyses the performance of an OSA gateway. It is examined how the overload control can be dealt with in a way to best satisfy the operators and the 3'rd parties. There are some guiding principles in the specifications, but a lot of decisions have to be made by the implementors of application servers and OSA gateways. Proposals of different requirements for an OSA architecture exist such as, minimum amount of accepted calls per second and time constraint for the maximal total delay for an application. Maximal and fair throughput have to be prioritized from the 3'rd parties view, but profit is the main interest from the operators point of view. Therefore this paper examines a priority based proposal of an overload control mechanism taking these aspects and requirements into account.

  15. Analyzing the Energy and Power Consumption of Remote Memory Accesses in the OpenSHMEM Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, Siddhartha; Hernandez, Oscar R; Poole, Stephen W; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Chapman, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    PGAS models like OpenSHMEM provide interfaces to explicitly initiate one-sided remote memory accesses among processes. In addition, the model also provides synchronizing barriers to ensure a consistent view of the distributed memory at different phases of an application. The incorrect use of such interfaces affects the scalability achievable while using a parallel programming model. This study aims at understanding the effects of these constructs on the energy and power consumption behavior of OpenSHMEM applications. Our experiments show that cost incurred in terms of the total energy and power consumed depends on multiple factors across the software and hardware stack. We conclude that there is a significant impact on the power consumed by the CPU and DRAM due to multiple factors including the design of the data transfer patterns within an application, the design of the communication protocols within a middleware, the architectural constraints laid by the interconnect solutions, and also the levels of memory hierarchy within a compute node. This work motivates treating energy and power consumption as important factors while designing compute solutions for current and future distributed systems.

  16. MetaboLights: An Open-Access Database Repository for Metabolomics Data.

    PubMed

    Kale, Namrata S; Haug, Kenneth; Conesa, Pablo; Jayseelan, Kalaivani; Moreno, Pablo; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Nainala, Venkata Chandrasekhar; Spicer, Rachel A; Williams, Mark; Li, Xuefei; Salek, Reza M; Griffin, Julian L; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2016-03-24

    MetaboLights is the first general purpose, open-access database repository for cross-platform and cross-species metabolomics research at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI). Based upon the open-source ISA framework, MetaboLights provides Metabolomics Standard Initiative (MSI) compliant metadata and raw experimental data associated with metabolomics experiments. Users can upload their study datasets into the MetaboLights Repository. These studies are then automatically assigned a stable and unique identifier (e.g., MTBLS1) that can be used for publication reference. The MetaboLights Reference Layer associates metabolites with metabolomics studies in the archive and is extensively annotated with data fields such as structural and chemical information, NMR and MS spectra, target species, metabolic pathways, and reactions. The database is manually curated with no specific release schedules. MetaboLights is also recommended by journals for metabolomics data deposition. This unit provides a guide to using MetaboLights, downloading experimental data, and depositing metabolomics datasets using user-friendly submission tools.

  17. The Earth System Grid Federation : an Open Infrastructure for Access to Distributed Geospatial Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cinquini, Luca; Crichton, Daniel; Mattmann, Chris; Harney, John; Shipman, Galen; Wang, Feiyi; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Miller, Neill; Denvil, Sebastian; Morgan, Mark; Pobre, Zed; Bell, Gavin M.; Drach, Bob; Williams, Dean; Kershaw, Philip; Pascoe, Stephen; Gonzalez, Estanislao; Fiore, Sandro; Schweitzer, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is a multi-agency, international collaboration that aims at developing the software infrastructure needed to facilitate and empower the study of climate change on a global scale. The ESGF's architecture employs a system of geographically distributed peer nodes, which are independently administered yet united by the adoption of common federation protocols and application programming interfaces (APIs). The cornerstones of its interoperability are the peer-to-peer messaging that is continuously exchanged among all nodes in the federation; a shared architecture and API for search and discovery; and a security infrastructure based on industry standards (OpenID, SSL, GSI and SAML). The ESGF software is developed collaboratively across institutional boundaries and made available to the community as open source. It has now been adopted by multiple Earth science projects and allows access to petabytes of geophysical data, including the entire model output used for the next international assessment report on climate change (IPCC-AR5) and a suite of satellite observations (obs4MIPs) and reanalysis data sets (ANA4MIPs).

  18. The Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S): Open Access to a Climate Data Store

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thepaut, Jean-Noel; Dee, Dick

    2016-04-01

    In November 2014, The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) signed an agreement with the European Commission to deliver two of the Copernicus Earth Observation Programme Services on the Commission's behalf. The ECMWF delivered services - the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) and Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) - will bring a consistent standard to how we monitor and predict atmospheric conditions and climate change. They will maximise the potential of past, current and future earth observations - ground, ocean, airborne, satellite - and analyse these to monitor and predict atmospheric conditions and in the future, climate change. With the wealth of free and open data that the services provide, they will help business users to assess the impact of their business decisions and make informed choices, delivering a more energy efficient and climate aware economy. These sound investment decisions now will not only stimulate growth in the short term, but reduce the impact of climate change on the economy and society in the future. C3S is in its proof of concept phase and through its Climate Data Store will provide • global and regional climate data reanalyses; • multi-model seasonal forecasts; • customisable visual data to enable examination of wide range of scenarios and model the impact of changes; • access to all the underlying data, including climate data records from various satellite and in-situ observations. In addition, C3S will provide key indicators on climate change drivers (such as carbon dioxide) and impacts (such as reducing glaciers). The aim of these indicators will be to support European adaptation and mitigation policies in a number of economic sectors. At the heart of the Service is the provision of open access to a one stop shop (the Climate Data Store) of climate data and modelling, analysing more than 20 Essential Climate Variables to build a global picture of our past, present and future climate and developing

  19. Anatomy of open access publishing: a study of longitudinal development and internal structure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Open access (OA) is a revolutionary way of providing access to the scholarly journal literature made possible by the Internet. The primary aim of this study was to measure the volume of scientific articles published in full immediate OA journals from 2000 to 2011, while observing longitudinal internal shifts in the structure of OA publishing concerning revenue models, publisher types and relative distribution among scientific disciplines. The secondary aim was to measure the share of OA articles of all journal articles, including articles made OA by publishers with a delay and individual author-paid OA articles in subscription journals (hybrid OA), as these subsets of OA publishing have mostly been ignored in previous studies. Methods Stratified random sampling of journals in the Directory of Open Access Journals (n = 787) was performed. The annual publication volumes spanning 2000 to 2011 were retrieved from major publication indexes and through manual data collection. Results An estimated 340,000 articles were published by 6,713 full immediate OA journals during 2011. OA journals requiring article-processing charges have become increasingly common, publishing 166,700 articles in 2011 (49% of all OA articles). This growth is related to the growth of commercial publishers, who, despite only a marginal presence a decade ago, have grown to become key actors on the OA scene, responsible for 120,000 of the articles published in 2011. Publication volume has grown within all major scientific disciplines, however, biomedicine has seen a particularly rapid 16-fold growth between 2000 (7,400 articles) and 2011 (120,900 articles). Over the past decade, OA journal publishing has steadily increased its relative share of all scholarly journal articles by about 1% annually. Approximately 17% of the 1.66 million articles published during 2011 and indexed in the most comprehensive article-level index of scholarly articles (Scopus) are available OA through journal

  20. Investigations of detail design issues for the high speed acoustic wind tunnel using a 60th scale model tunnel. Part 1: Tests with open circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barna, P. Stephen

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the tests on the 1:60 scale model of the High Speed Acoustic Wind Tunnel (HSAWT) performed during the period of November 1989 to December 1990. Throughout the testing the tunnel was operated in the 'open circuit mode', that is when the airflow was induced by a powerful exhaust fan located outside the tunnel circuit. The tests were first performed with the closed test section and were subsequently repeated with the open test section. While operating with the open test section, a novel device, called the 'nozzle-diffuser,' was also tested in order to establish its usefulness of increasing pressure recovery in the first diffuser. The tests established the viability of the tunnel design. The flow distribution in each tunnel component was found acceptable and pressure recovery in the diffusers were found satisfactory. The diffusers appeared to operate without flow separation. All tests were performed at NASA LaRC.

  1. Reduced voltage losses yield 10% efficient fullerene free organic solar cells with >1 V open circuit voltages.

    PubMed

    Baran, D; Kirchartz, T; Wheeler, S; Dimitrov, S; Abdelsamie, M; Gorman, J; Ashraf, R S; Holliday, S; Wadsworth, A; Gasparini, N; Kaienburg, P; Yan, H; Amassian, A; Brabec, C J; Durrant, J R; McCulloch, I

    2016-12-01

    Optimization of the energy levels at the donor-acceptor interface of organic solar cells has driven their efficiencies to above 10%. However, further improvements towards efficiencies comparable with inorganic solar cells remain challenging because of high recombination losses, which empirically limit the open-circuit voltage (Voc) to typically less than 1 V. Here we show that this empirical limit can be overcome using non-fullerene acceptors blended with the low band gap polymer PffBT4T-2DT leading to efficiencies approaching 10% (9.95%). We achieve Voc up to 1.12 V, which corresponds to a loss of only Eg/q - Voc = 0.5 ± 0.01 V between the optical bandgap Eg of the polymer and Voc. This high Voc is shown to be associated with the achievement of remarkably low non-geminate and non-radiative recombination losses in these devices. Suppression of non-radiative recombination implies high external electroluminescence quantum efficiencies which are orders of magnitude higher than those of equivalent devices employing fullerene acceptors. Using the balance between reduced recombination losses and good photocurrent generation efficiencies achieved experimentally as a baseline for simulations of the efficiency potential of organic solar cells, we estimate that efficiencies of up to 20% are achievable if band gaps and fill factors are further optimized.

  2. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell degradation under close to open-circuit conditions. Part I: In situ diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinfeng; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Martin, Jonathan J.; Wang, Haijiang; Yang, Daijun; Qiao, Jinli; Ma, Jianxin

    Durability of polymer exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells under a wide range of operational conditions has been generally identified as one of the top technical gaps that need to be overcome for the acceptance of this fuel cell technology as a commercially viable power source, especially for automotive and portable applications. In this study, a 1200 h lifetime test was conducted with a six-cell PEM fuel cell stack under close to open-circuit conditions. In situ measurements of the hydrogen crossover rate through the membrane, high frequency resistance and electrochemically active surface area of each single cell, in combination with cell polarization curves, were used to investigate the degradation mechanisms. Direct gas mass spectrometry of the cathode exhaust gas indicated the formation of HF, H 2O 2 and CO 2 during the durability testing. The overall cell degradation rate under this accelerated stress testing is approximately 0.128 mV h -1. The cell degradation rate for the first 800 h is much lower than that after 800 h, which may result from the dominance of different degradation mechanisms. For the first period, the degradation of fuel cell performance was mainly attributed to catalyst decay, while the subsequent dramatic degradation is likely caused by membrane failure.

  3. Engineering of Sub-Nanometer SiOx Thickness in Si Photocathodes for Optimized Open Circuit Potential.

    PubMed

    Das, Chittaranjan; Kot, Malgorzata; Henkel, Karsten; Schmeisser, Dieter

    2016-09-08

    Silicon is one of the most promising materials to be used for tandem-cell water-splitting devices. However, the electrochemical instability of bare Si makes it difficult to be used for stable devices. Besides that, the photovoltage loss in Si, caused by several factors (e.g., metal oxide protection layer and/or SiO2 /Si or catalyst/Si interface), limits its use in these devices. In this work, we present that an optimized open circuit potential (OCP) of Si can be obtained by controlling the SiOx thickness in sub-nanometer range. It can be done by means of a simple and cost-effective way using the combination of a wet chemical etching and the low temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO2 . We have found that a certain thickness of the native SiOx is necessary to prevent further oxidation of the Si photocathode during the ALD growth of TiO2 . Moreover, covering the Si photocathode with an ALD TiO2 layer enhances its stability.

  4. Model parameter estimation approach based on incremental analysis for lithium-ion batteries without using open circuit voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongjie; Yuan, Shifei; Zhang, Xi; Yin, Chengliang; Ma, Xuerui

    2015-08-01

    To improve the suitability of lithium-ion battery model under varying scenarios, such as fluctuating temperature and SoC variation, dynamic model with parameters updated realtime should be developed. In this paper, an incremental analysis-based auto regressive exogenous (I-ARX) modeling method is proposed to eliminate the modeling error caused by the OCV effect and improve the accuracy of parameter estimation. Then, its numerical stability, modeling error, and parametric sensitivity are analyzed at different sampling rates (0.02, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 s). To identify the model parameters recursively, a bias-correction recursive least squares (CRLS) algorithm is applied. Finally, the pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) and urban dynamic driving sequences (UDDSs) profiles are performed to verify the realtime performance and robustness of the newly proposed model and algorithm. Different sampling rates (1 Hz and 10 Hz) and multiple temperature points (5, 25, and 45 °C) are covered in our experiments. The experimental and simulation results indicate that the proposed I-ARX model can present high accuracy and suitability for parameter identification without using open circuit voltage.

  5. Elimination of burn-in open-circuit voltage degradation by ZnO surface modification in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kam, Zhiming; Wang, Xizu; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Jishan

    2015-01-28

    Photodegradation of inverted organic solar cells based on ZnO as an electron transport layer (ETL) was studied over short time scales of 5 min and 8 h. Devices with ZnO as ETL reproducibly exhibited a steep loss of open-circuit voltage, VOC, and shunt resistance, RSH, in a matter of minutes upon illumination. Removing the UV-content of illumination minimized VOC loss and impact on the device's shunting behavior, indicating its role in the loss. Application of an ultrathin layer of Al on ZnO led to almost negligible photoinduced VOC loss up to 8 h of exposure. By applying the fundamental Shockley diode equation, we approximated the VOC loss to be caused by dramatic increases in reverse saturation current I0. We attribute the increased rate of recombination to diminished carrier selectivity at the ZnO/organic interface. Devices with Al modified ZnO ETL demonstrated remarkable RSH (1.4 kΩ cm(2) at 1 sun), rectification ratio (10(6)) and reverse saturation current density (2.1 × 10(-7) mA/cm(2)).

  6. Nonreduction-Active Hole-Transporting Layers Enhancing Open-Circuit Voltage and Efficiency of Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiefeng; Jiang, Fangyuan; Qin, Fei; Meng, Wei; Jiang, Youyu; Xiong, Sixing; Tong, Jinhui; Li, Zaifang; Liu, Yun; Zhou, Yinhua

    2016-12-14

    Inverted planar perovskite solar cells using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the hole-transporting layer (HTL) are very attractive because of their low-temperature and easy processing. However, the planar cells with the PEDOT:PSS HTL typically display lower open-circuit voltage (VOC) (about 0.90 V) than that of devices with TiO2-based conventional structure (1.0-1.1 V). The underlying reasons are still not clear. In this work, we report the PEDOT:PSS that is intrinsically p-doped can be chemically reduced by methylamine iodide (MAI) and MAPbI3. The reaction reduces the work function (WF) of PEDOT:PSS, which suppresses the efficient hole collection and yields lower VOC. To overcome this issue, we adopt undoped semiconducting polymers that are intrinsically nonreduction-active (NRA) as the HTL for inverted planar perovskite solar cells. The cells display enhanced VOC from 0.88 ± 0.04 V (PEDOT:PSS HTL, reference cells) to 1.02 ± 0.03 V (P3HT HTL) and 1.04 ± 0.03 V (PTB7 and PTB-Th HTL). The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices with these NRA HTL reaches about 17%.

  7. Open-circuit voltage deficit, radiative sub-bandgap states, and prospects in quantum dot solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Chia-Hao Marcus; Maurano, Andrea; Brandt, Riley E; Hwang, Gyu Weon; Jean, Joel; Buonassisi, Tonio; Bulović, Vladimir; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2015-05-13

    Quantum dot photovoltaics (QDPV) offer the potential for low-cost solar cells. To develop strategies for continued improvement in QDPVs, a better understanding of the factors that limit their performance is essential. Here, we study carrier recombination processes that limit the power conversion efficiency of PbS QDPVs. We demonstrate the presence of radiative sub-bandgap states and sub-bandgap state filling in operating devices by using photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) spectroscopy. These sub-bandgap states are most likely the origin of the high open-circuit-voltage (VOC) deficit and relatively limited carrier collection that have thus far been observed in QDPVs. Combining these results with our perspectives on recent progress in QDPV, we conclude that eliminating sub-bandgap states in PbS QD films has the potential to show a greater gain than may be attainable by optimization of interfaces between QDs and other materials. We suggest possible future directions that could guide the design of high-performance QDPVs.

  8. Open Circuit Resonant (SansEC) Sensor for Composite Damage Detection and Diagnosis in Aircraft Lightning Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Chuantong; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2012-01-01

    Composite materials are increasingly used in modern aircraft for reducing weight, improving fuel efficiency, and enhancing the overall design, performance, and manufacturability of airborne vehicles. Materials such as fiberglass reinforced composites (FRC) and carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) are being used to great advantage in airframes, wings, engine nacelles, turbine blades, fairings, fuselage and empennage structures, control surfaces and coverings. However, the potential damage from the direct and indirect effects of lightning strikes is of increased concern to aircraft designers and operators. When a lightning strike occurs, the points of attachment and detachment on the aircraft surface must be found by visual inspection, and then assessed for damage by maintenance personnel to ensure continued safe flight operations. In this paper, a new method and system for aircraft in-situ damage detection and diagnosis are presented. The method and system are based on open circuit (SansEC) sensor technology developed at NASA Langley Research Center. SansEC (Sans Electric Connection) sensor technology is a new technical framework for designing, powering, and interrogating sensors to detect damage in composite materials. Damage in composite material is generally associated with a localized change in material permittivity and/or conductivity. These changes are sensed using SansEC. Unique electrical signatures are used for damage detection and diagnosis. NASA LaRC has both experimentally and theoretically demonstrated that SansEC sensors can be effectively used for in-situ composite damage detection.

  9. Evaluating OpenSHMEM Explicit Remote Memory Access Operations and Merged Requests

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, Swen; Pophale, Swaroop S; Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath

    2016-01-01

    The OpenSHMEM Library Specification has evolved consid- erably since version 1.0. Recently, non-blocking implicit Remote Memory Access (RMA) operations were introduced in OpenSHMEM 1.3. These provide a way to achieve better overlap between communication and computation. However, the implicit non-blocking operations do not pro- vide a separate handle to track and complete the individual RMA opera- tions. They are guaranteed to be completed after either a shmem quiet(), shmem barrier() or a shmem barrier all() is called. These are global com- pletion and synchronization operations. Though this semantic is expected to achieve a higher message rate for the applications, the drawback is that it does not allow fine-grained control over the completion of RMA operations. In this paper, first, we introduce non-blocking RMA operations with requests, where each operation has an explicit request to track and com- plete the operation. Second, we introduce interfaces to merge multiple requests into a single request handle. The merged request tracks multiple user-selected RMA operations, which provides the flexibility of tracking related communication operations with one request handle. Lastly, we explore the implications in terms of performance, productivity, usability and the possibility of defining different patterns of communication via merging of requests. Our experimental results show that a well designed and implemented OpenSHMEM stack can hide the overhead of allocating and managing the requests. The latency of RMA operations with requests is similar to blocking and implicit non-blocking RMA operations. We test our implementation with the Scalable Synthetic Compact Applications (SSCA #1) benchmark and observe that using RMA operations with requests and merging of these requests outperform the implementation using blocking RMA operations and implicit non-blocking operations by 49% and 74% respectively.

  10. CH3 NH3 PbBr3 -CH3 NH3 PbI3 Perovskite-Perovskite Tandem Solar Cells with Exceeding 2.2 V Open Circuit Voltage.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jin Hyuck; Im, Sang Hyuk

    2016-07-01

    Perovskite-perovskite tandem solar cells with open-circuit voltages of over 2.2 V are reported. These cost-effective, solution-processible perovskite hybrid tandem solar cells with high open-circuit voltages are fabricated by the simple lamination of a front planar MAPbBr3 perovskite cell and a back MAPbI3 planar perovskite solar cell.

  11. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Standards and Semantics for Open Access to Research Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, Robert; Carbotte, Suzanne; Chandler, Cynthia; Smith, Shawn; Stocks, Karen

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, a growing number of funding agencies and professional societies have issued policies calling for open access to research data. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is working to ensure open access to the environmental sensor data routinely acquired by the U.S. academic research fleet. Currently 25 vessels deliver 7 terabytes of data to R2R each year, acquired from a suite of geophysical, oceanographic, meteorological, and navigational sensors on over 400 cruises worldwide. R2R is working to ensure these data are preserved in trusted repositories, discoverable via standard protocols, and adequately documented for reuse. R2R maintains a master catalog of cruises for the U.S. academic research fleet, currently holding essential documentation for over 3,800 expeditions including vessel and cruise identifiers, start/end dates and ports, project titles and funding awards, science parties, dataset inventories with instrument types and file formats, data quality assessments, and links to related content at other repositories. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is published for 1) each cruise, 2) each original field sensor dataset, 3) each post-field data product such as quality-controlled shiptrack navigation produced by the R2R program, and 4) each document such as a cruise report submitted by the science party. Scientists are linked to personal identifiers, such as the Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID), where known. Using standard global identifiers such as DOIs and ORCIDs facilitates linking with journal publications and generation of citation metrics. Since its inception, the R2R program has worked in close collaboration with other data repositories in the development of shared semantics for oceanographic research. The R2R cruise catalog uses community-standard terms and definitions hosted by the NERC Vocabulary Server, and publishes ISO metadata records for each cruise that use community-standard profiles developed with the NOAA Data

  12. Realizing Small Energy Loss of 0.55 eV, High Open-Circuit Voltage >1 V and High Efficiency >10% in Fullerene-Free Polymer Solar Cells via Energy Driver.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pei; Zhang, Mingyu; Lau, Tsz-Ki; Wu, Yao; Jia, Boyu; Wang, Jiayu; Yan, Cenqi; Qin, Meng; Lu, Xinhui; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2017-03-01

    A new, easy, and efficient approach is reported to enhance the driving force for charge transfer, break tradeoff between open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current, and simultaneously achieve very small energy loss (0.55 eV), very high open-circuit voltage (>1 V), and very high efficiency (>10%) in fullerene-free organic solar cells via an energy driver.

  13. Interaction of ecological and angler processes: experimental stocking in an open access, spatially structured fishery.

    PubMed

    Mee, Jonathan A; Post, John R; Ward, Hillary; Wilson, Kyle L; Newton, Eric; Cantin, Ariane

    2016-09-01

    Effective management of socioecological systems requires an understanding of the complex interactions between people and the environment. In recreational fisheries, which are prime examples of socioecological systems, anglers are analogous to mobile predators in natural predator-prey systems, and individual fisheries in lakes across a region are analogous to a spatially structured landscape of prey patches. Hence, effective management of recreational fisheries across large spatial scales requires an understanding of the dynamic interactions among ecological density dependent processes, landscape-level characteristics, and angler behaviors. We focused on the stocked component of the open access rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fishery in British Columbia (BC), and we used an experimental approach wherein we manipulated stocking densities in a subset of 34 lakes in which we monitored angler effort, fish abundance, and fish size for up to seven consecutive years. We used an empirically derived relationship between fish abundance and fish size across rainbow trout populations in BC to provide a measure of catch-based fishing quality that accounts for the size-abundance trade off in this system. We replicated our experimental manipulation in two regions known to have different angler populations and broad-scale access costs. We hypothesized that angler effort would respond to variation in stocking density, resulting in spatial heterogeneity in angler effort but homogeneity in catch-based fishing quality within regions. We found that there is an intermediate stocking density for a given lake or region at which angler effort is maximized (i.e., an optimal stocking density), and that this stocking density depends on latent effort and lake accessibility. Furthermore, we found no clear effect of stocking density on our measure of catch-based fishing quality, suggesting that angler effort homogenizes catch-related attributes leading to an eroded relationship between

  14. 50 CFR 25.21 - When and how do we open and close areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... we open and close areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access and use or continue a... closed to public access until and unless we open the area for a use or uses in accordance with the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When and how do we open and close areas...

  15. Socio-hydrology of the Thippagondanahalli catchment in India - from common property to open-access.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.; Thomas, B.; Lele, S.

    2014-12-01

    Developing countries face difficult challenge as they must adapt to an uncertain climate future even as land use, demography and the composition of their economies are rapidly changing. Achieving a secure water future requires making reliable predictions of water cycle dynamics in future years. This necessitates understanding societal feedbacks and predicting how these will change in the future. We explore this "Predictions Under Change" problem in the Thippagondanahalli (TG Halli) catchment of the Arkavathy Basin in South India. Here, river flows have declined sharply over the last thirty years. The TG Halli Reservoir that once supplied 148 MLD to Bangalore city only yields 30 MLD today. Our analyses suggest that these declines cannot be attributed to climatic factors; groundwater depletion is probably the major cause. We analysed the interlinked human and hydrologic factors and feedbacks between them that have resulted in the present situation using extensive primary data, including weather stations, stream gaging, soil moisture sensing, household surveys, oral histories, interviews, and secondary data including census data, crop reports, satellite imagery and historical hydro-climatic data. Our analysis suggests that several factors have contributed to a continuous shift from surface to groundwater in the TG Halli catchment. First, cheap borewell technology has made groundwater more accessible. Second, as demand for high-value produce from the city and wealth increased, farmers became increasingly willing to invest in risky borewell drilling. Third, differences in governance in groundwater (open access) versus surface water (community managed tanks) hastened the break-down of community managed water systems allowing unchecked exploitation of groundwater. Finally, the political economy of water spurred groundwater development through provision of free electricity and "watershed development" programmes.

  16. Do Croatian open access journals support ethical research? Content analysis of instructions to authors

    PubMed Central

    Stojanovski, Jadranka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of our study was to investigate the extent to which Instructions to authors of the Croatian open access (OA) journals are addressing ethical issues. Do biomedical journals differ from the journals from other disciplines in that respect? Our hypothesis was that biomedical journals maintain much higher publication ethics standards. Materials and methods This study looked at 197 Croatian OA journals Instructions to authors to address the following groups of ethical issues: general terms; guidelines and recommendations; research approval and registration; funding and conflict of interest; peer review; redundant publications, misconduct and retraction; copyright; timeliness; authorship; and data accessibility. We further compared a subset of 159 non-biomedical journals with a subset of 38 biomedical journals. Content analysis was used to discern the ethical issues representation in the instructions to authors. Results The groups of biomedical and non-biomedical journals were similar in terms of originality (χ2 = 2.183, P = 0.140), peer review process (χ2 = 0.296, P = 0.586), patent/grant statement (χ2 = 2.184, P = 0.141), and timeliness of publication (χ2 = 0.369, P = 0.544). We identified significant differences among categories including ethical issues typical for the field of biomedicine, like patients (χ2 = 47.111, P < 0.001), and use of experimental animals (χ2 = 42.543, P < 0.001). Biomedical journals also rely on international editorial guidelines formulated by relevant professional organizations heavily, compared with non-biomedical journals (χ2 = 42.666, P < 0.001). Conclusion Low representation or absence of some key ethical issues in author guidelines calls for more attention to the structure and the content of Instructions to authors in Croatian OA journals. PMID:25672463

  17. Vascular Complications and Bleeding After Transfemoral Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Performed Through Open Surgical Access.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Florence; Akodad, Mariama; Macia, Jean-Christophe; Gandet, Thomas; Lattuca, Benoit; Schmutz, Laurent; Gervasoni, Richard; Nogue, Erika; Nagot, Nicolas; Levy, Gilles; Maupas, Eric; Robert, Gabriel; Targosz, Frederic; Vernhet, Hélène; Cayla, Guillaume; Albat, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    Major vascular complications (VC) remain frequent after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and may be associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of VC after transfemoral TAVI performed using an exclusive open surgical access strategy. From 2010 to 2014, we included in a monocentric registry all consecutive patients who underwent transfemoral TAVI. The procedures were performed with 16Fr to 20Fr sheath systems. VC were evaluated within 30 days and classified as major or minor according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 definition. The study included 396 patients, 218 were women (55%), median age was 85 years (81 to 88), and the median logistic Euroscore was 15.2% (11 to 23). The balloon-expandable SAPIEN XT and the self-expandable Medtronic Core Valve prosthesis were used in 288 (72.7%) and 108 patients (27.3%), respectively. The total length of the procedure was 68 ± 15 minutes including 13 ± 5 minutes for the open surgical access. Major and minor VC were observed in 9 (2.3%) and 16 patients (4%), respectively, whereas life-threatening and major bleeding concerned 18 patients (4.6%). The median duration of hospitalization was 5 days (interquartile range 2 to 7), significantly higher in patients with VC (7 days [5 to 15], p <0.001). Mortality at 1-month and 1-year follow-up (n = 26, 6.6%; and n = 67, 17.2%, respectively) was not related to major or minor VC (p = 0.6). In multivariable analysis, only diabetes (odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 6.1, p = 0.034) and chronic kidney failure (odds ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 9.0, p = 0.046) were predictive of VC, whereas body mass index, gender, Euroscore, and lower limb arteriopathy were not. In conclusion, minimal rate of VC and bleeding can be obtained after transfemoral TAVI performed using an exclusive surgical strategy, with a particular advantage observed in high-risk bleeding patients.

  18. SPDF Data and Orbit Services Supporting Open Access, Use and Archiving of MMS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, R. E.; Bilitza, D.; Candey, R. M.; Chimiak, R.; Cooper, J. F.; Garcia, L. N.; Harris, B. T.; Johnson, R. C.; Kovalick, T. J.; Lal, N.; Leckner, H. A.; Liu, M. H.; Papitashvili, N. E.; Roberts, D. A.; Yurow, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) project is now serving MMS definitive and predictive interactive orbit plots, listings and conjunction calculations through our SSCWeb and 4D Orbit Viewer services. In March 2016 and in parallel with the MMS Science Data Center (SDC) at LASP, SPDF will begin publicly serving a complete set of MMS Level-2 and higher, survey and burst-mode science data products from all four spacecraft and all instruments. The initial Level-2 data available will be from September 2015 to early February 2016, with Level-2 products subsequently validated and publicly available with an approximate one month lag. All MMS Level-2 and higher data products are produced in standard CDF format with standard ISTP/SPDF metadata and will be served by SPDF through our CDAWeb data service, including our web services and associated APIs for IDL and Matlab users, and through direct FTP/HTTP directory browse and file downloads. SPDF's ingest, archival preservation and active serving of current MMS science data is part of our role as an active heliophysics final archive. SPDF's ingest of complete and current science data products from other active heliophysics missions with SPDF services will help enable coordinated and correlative MMS science analysis by the open international science community with current data from THEMIS, the Van Allen Probes and other missions including TWINS, Cluster, ACE, Wind, >120 ground magnetometer stations as well as instruments on the NOAA GOES and POES spacecraft. Please see the related Candey et.al. paper on "SPDF Ancillary Services and Technologies Supporting Open Access, Use and Archiving of MMS Data" for other aspects of what SPDF is doing. All SPDF data and services are available from the SPDF home page at http://spdf.gsfc.nasa.gov .

  19. Open Circuit Resonant (SansEC) Sensor Technology for Lightning Mitigation and Damage Detection and Diagnosis for Composite Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatkowski, George N.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Smith, Laura J.; Wang, Chuantong; Ticatch, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods to protect composite aircraft from lightning strike damage rely on a conductive layer embedded on or within the surface of the aircraft composite skin. This method is effective at preventing major direct effect damage and minimizes indirect effects to aircraft systems from lightning strike attachment, but provides no additional benefit for the added parasitic weight from the conductive layer. When a known lightning strike occurs, the points of attachment and detachment on the aircraft surface are visually inspected and checked for damage by maintenance personnel to ensure continued safe flight operations. A new multi-functional lightning strike protection (LSP) method has been developed to provide aircraft lightning strike protection, damage detection and diagnosis for composite aircraft surfaces. The method incorporates a SansEC sensor array on the aircraft exterior surfaces forming a "Smart skin" surface for aircraft lightning zones certified to withstand strikes up to 100 kiloamperes peak current. SansEC sensors are open-circuit devices comprised of conductive trace spiral patterns sans (without) electrical connections. The SansEC sensor is an electromagnetic resonator having specific resonant parameters (frequency, amplitude, bandwidth & phase) which when electromagnetically coupled with a composite substrate will indicate the electrical impedance of the composite through a change in its resonant response. Any measureable shift in the resonant characteristics can be an indication of damage to the composite caused by a lightning strike or from other means. The SansEC sensor method is intended to diagnose damage for both in-situ health monitoring or ground inspections. In this paper, the theoretical mathematical framework is established for the use of open circuit sensors to perform damage detection and diagnosis on carbon fiber composites. Both computational and experimental analyses were conducted to validate this new method and system for

  20. Effects of mass airflow rate through an open-circuit gas quantification system when measuring carbon emissions.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Stacey A; Bradford, James A; Moffet, Corey A

    2017-01-01

    Methane (CH) and carbon dioxide (CO) represent 11 and 81%, respectively, of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural CH emissions account for approximately 43% of all anthropogenic CH emissions. Most agricultural CH emissions are attributed to enteric fermentation within ruminant livestock; hence, the heightened interest in quantifying and mitigating this source. The automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS; GreenFeed, C-Lock, Inc., Rapid City, SD) evaluated here can be placed in a pasture with grazing cattle and can measure their CH and CO emissions with spot sampling. However, improper management of the GQS can have an erroneous effect on emission estimates. One factor affecting the quality of emission estimates is the airflow rates through the GQS to ensure a complete capture of the breath cloud emitted by the animal. It is hypothesized that at lower airflow rates this cloud will be incompletely captured. To evaluate the effect of airflow rate through the GQS on emission estimates, a data set was evaluated with 758 CO and CH emission estimates with a range in airflows of 10.7 to 36.6 L/s. When airflow through the GQS was between 26.0 and 36.6 L/s, CO and CH emission estimates were not affected ( = 0.14 and 0.05, respectively). When airflow rates were less than 26.0 L/s, CO and CH emission estimates were lower and decreased as airflow rate decreased ( < 0.0001). We hypothesize that when airflow through the GQS decreases below 26 L/s, breath capture was incomplete and CO and CH emissions are underestimated. Maintaining mass airflow through a GQS at rates greater than 26 L/s is important for producing high quality CO and CH emission estimates.

  1. Influence of MoOx interlayer on the maximum achievable open-circuit voltage in organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yunlong; Holmes, Russell

    2013-03-01

    Transition metal oxides including molybdenum oxide (MoOx) are characterized by large work functions and deep energy levels relative to the organic semiconductors used in photovoltaic cells (OPVs). These materials have been used in OPVs as interlayers between the indium-tin-oxide anode and the active layers to increase the open-circuit voltage (VOC) and power conversion efficiency. We examine the role of MoOx in determining the maximum achievable VOC in planar heterojunction OPVs based on the donor-acceptor pairing of boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc) and C60. While causing minor changes in VOC at room temperature, the inclusion of MoOx significantly changes the temperature dependence of VOC. Devices containing no interlayer show a maximum VOC\\ of 1.2 V, while devices containing MoOx show no saturation in VOC, reaching a value of >1.4 V at 110 K. We propose that the MoOx-SubPc interface forms a dissociating Schottky junction that provides an additional contribution to VOC at low temperature. Separate measurements of photoluminescence confirm that excitons in SubPc can be quenched by MoOx. Charge transfer at this interface is by hole extraction from SubPc to MoOx, and this mechanism favors donors with a deep highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level. Consistent with this expectation, the temperature dependence of VOC for devices constructed using a donor with a shallower HOMO level, e.g. copper phthalocyanine, is independent of the presence of MoOx.

  2. Public Funding and Open Access to Research: A Review of Canadian Multiple Sclerosis Research

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Carol; Stephenson, Erin; Chaves, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS), a progressive demyelinating disease of the brain and spinal cord, is the leading cause of nontraumatic neurological damage in young adults. Canada has one of the highest reported incidents of MS, with estimates between 55 and 240 per 100,000 individuals. Between 2009 and 2014, the MS Society of Canada provided over Can $90 million to researchers and, since 2013, has encouraged researchers to make both current and previous research products openly available. Objective The goal of the study was to determine the open access (OA) cost implications and repository policies of journals frequently used by a sample of MS researchers. This study benchmarked current publishing preferences by MS Society of Canada researchers by examining the OA full-text availability of journal articles written by researchers funded between 2009 and 2014. Methods Researchers were identified from the 2009 to 2014 annual MS Society of Canada Research Summaries. Articles were identified through searches in Web of Science, Scopus, Medline and Embase (both via OVID). Journal level analysis included comparison of OA policies, including article processing charges (APCs) and repository policies. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results There were 758 articles analyzed in this study, of which 288 (38.0%) were OA articles. The majority of authors were still relying on journal policies for deposit in PubMed Central or availability on publisher websites for OA. Gold OA journals accounted for 10.2% of the journals in this study and were associated with significantly lower APCs (US $1900) than in hybrid journals (US $3000). Review of the journal self-archiving options highlighted the complexity of stipulations that authors would have to navigate to legally deposit a version of their article. Conclusions This study found that there are currently researcher- and publisher-imposed barriers to both the gold and green roads to OA. These results provide a

  3. JASPAR 2010: the greatly expanded open-access database of transcription factor binding profiles.

    PubMed

    Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Thongjuea, Supat; Kwon, Andrew T; Arenillas, David; Zhao, Xiaobei; Valen, Eivind; Yusuf, Dimas; Lenhard, Boris; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Sandelin, Albin

    2010-01-01

    JASPAR (http://jaspar.genereg.net) is the leading open-access database of matrix profiles describing the DNA-binding patterns of transcription factors (TFs) and other proteins interacting with DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Its fourth major release is the largest expansion of the core database to date: the database now holds 457 non-redundant, curated profiles. The new entries include the first batch of profiles derived from ChIP-seq and ChIP-chip whole-genome binding experiments, and 177 yeast TF binding profiles. The introduction of a yeast division brings the convenience of JASPAR to an active research community. As binding models are refined by newer data, the JASPAR database now uses versioning of matrices: in this release, 12% of the older models were updated to improved versions. Classification of TF families has been improved by adopting a new DNA-binding domain nomenclature. A curated catalog of mammalian TFs is provided, extending the use of the JASPAR profiles to additional TFs belonging to the same structural family. The changes in the database set the system ready for more rapid acquisition of new high-throughput data sources. Additionally, three new special collections provide matrix profile data produced by recent alternative high-throughput approaches.

  4. Repurposing the Open Access Malaria Box To Discover Potent Inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii and Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Fokou, Patrick V. T.; Tchokouaha, Lauve R. Y.; Spangenberg, Thomas; Mfopa, Alvine N.; Kouipou, Ruffin M. T.; Mbouna, Cedric J.; Donfack, Valerie F. Donkeng; Zollo, Paul H. A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis and amebiasis are important public health concerns worldwide. The drugs currently available to control these diseases have proven limitations. Therefore, innovative approaches should be adopted to identify and develop new leads from novel scaffolds exhibiting novel modes of action. In this paper, we describe results from the screening of compounds in the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) open access Malaria Box in a search for new anti-Toxoplasma and anti-Entamoeba agents. Standard in vitro phenotypic screening procedures were adopted to assess their biological activities. Seven anti-Toxoplasma compounds with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of <5 μM and selectivity indexes (SI) of >6 were identified. The most interesting compound was MMV007791, a piperazine acetamide, which has an IC50 of 0.19 μM and a selectivity index of >157. Also, we identified two compounds, MMV666600 and MMV006861, with modest activities against Entamoeba histolytica, with IC50s of 10.66 μM and 15.58 μM, respectively. The anti-Toxoplasma compounds identified in this study belong to scaffold types different from those of currently used drugs, underscoring their novelty and potential as starting points for the development of new antitoxoplasmosis drugs with novel modes of action. PMID:25049259

  5. A longitudinal study of independent scholar-published open access journals

    PubMed Central

    Björk, Bo-Christer; Laakso, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Open Access (OA) is nowadays increasingly being used as a business model for the publishing of scholarly peer reviewed journals, both by specialized OA publishing companies and major, predominantly subscription-based publishers. However, in the early days of the web OA journals were mainly founded by independent academics, who were dissatisfied with the predominant print and subscription paradigm and wanted to test the opportunities offered by the new medium. There is still an on-going debate about how OA journals should be operated, and the volunteer model used by many such ‘indie’ journals has been proposed as a viable alternative to the model adopted by big professional publishers where publishing activities are funded by authors paying expensive article processing charges (APCs). Our longitudinal quantitative study of 250 ‘indie’ OA journals founded prior to 2002, showed that 51% of these journals were still in operation in 2014 and that the median number of articles published per year had risen from 11 to 18 among the survivors. Of these surviving journals, only 8% had started collecting APCs. A more detailed qualitative case study of five such journals provided insights into how such journals have tried to ensure the continuity and longevity of operations. PMID:27190709

  6. An unbiased index to quantify participant’s phenotypic contribution to an open-access cohort

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yingleong; Tung, Michael; Garruss, Alexander S.; Zaranek, Sarah W.; Chan, Ying Kai; Lunshof, Jeantine E.; Zaranek, Alexander W.; Ball, Madeleine P.; Chou, Michael F.; Lim, Elaine T.; Church, George M.

    2017-01-01

    The Personal Genome Project (PGP) is an effort to enroll many participants to create an open-access repository of genome, health and trait data for research. However, PGP participants are not enrolled for studying any specific traits and participants choose the phenotypes to disclose. To measure the extent and willingness and to encourage and guide participants to contribute phenotypes, we developed an algorithm to score and rank the phenotypes and participants of the PGP. The scoring algorithm calculates the participation index (P-index) for every participant, where 0 indicates no reported phenotypes and 100 indicate complete phenotype reporting. We calculated the P-index for all 5,015 participants in the PGP and they ranged from 0 to 96.7. We found that participants mainly have either high scores (P-index > 90, 29.5%) or low scores (P-index < 10, 57.8%). While, there are significantly more males than female participants (1,793 versus 1,271), females tend to have on average higher P-indexes (P = 0.015). We also reported the P-indexes of participants based on demographics and states like Missouri and Massachusetts have better P-indexes than states like Utah and Minnesota. The P-index can therefore be used as an unbiased way to measure and rank participant’s phenotypic contribution towards the PGP. PMID:28387241

  7. Fully automated open access platform for rapid, combined serial evaporation and sample reformatting.

    PubMed

    Benali, Otman; Davies, Gary; Deal, Martyn; Farrant, Elizabeth; Guthrie, Duncan; Holden, John; Wheeler, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a novel evaporator and its integration with an automated sample handling system to create a high throughput evaporation platform. The Vaportec V-10 evaporator uses a high speed rotation motor ( approximately 6000 rpm) to spin the vial containing a sample, creating a thin film of solvent which can be readily evaporated by the application of heat to the vial, while the consequent centrifugal force prevents "bumping". An intelligent algorithm controls pressure and temperature for optimum solvent removal conditions and end of run detection, critical for automation. The system allows the option of evaporation directly from a sample source vial, or alternatively, integrated liquid handling facilities provide the capability of transferring samples portionwise from a (large) source vial or bottle to a (small) daughter container, enabling efficient sample reformatting, with minimum user intervention. The open access system makes significant advances over current vacuum centrifugal evaporators in terms of evaporation rate and ease of automation. The evaporator's main features, the integration of robotics to provide automation, and examples of evaporation rates of a wide range of solvents from a variety of containers are described.

  8. Matlab-Excel Interface for OpenDSS

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-27

    The software allows users of the OpenDSS grid modeling software to access their load flow models using a GUI interface developed in MATLAB. The circuit definitions are entered into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet which makes circuit creation and editing a much simpler process than the basic text-based editors used in the native OpenDSS interface. Plot tools have been developed which can be accessed through a MATLAB GUI once the desired parameters have been simulated.

  9. Spectral distribution of the open-circuit voltage in pCdTe-nCdTe-nCdS film structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirsagatov, Sh. A.; Sabirob, K.; Muzafarova, S. A.

    The spectral distribution of the open-circuit voltage of pCdTe-nCdTe-nCdS film structures is determined experimentally in order to assess the contributions of the various barriers of the structure to the generation of the photo-emf. An analysis of the spectral dependence of the open-circuit voltage indicates that the main sensitivity region of the structure corresponds to the photon energy range 1.46-2.3 eV; i.e., the energy of photoactive photons is equal to or greater than the width of the forbidden zone of CdTe (1.46 eV) and less than the width of the forbidden zone of CdS (2.4 eV). The greatest contribution to photo-emf generation is made by the homojunction in CdTe.

  10. Disentangling energetic and charge-carrier dynamic influences on the open-circuit voltage in bulk-heterojunction solar-cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelouche, A.; Magnifouet, G.; Al Ahmad, A.; Leclerc, N.; Heiser, T.; Lévêque, P.

    2016-12-01

    A combination of transient and static techniques has been applied to bulk-heterojunction solar-cells to gain insight into the influence of charge-carrier dynamics and of energy level shifts in the vicinity of the cathode on the open-circuit voltage. Devices with a different thermal-annealing history but with similar active layer-morphology were compared. P3HT:PC60BM bulk heterojunction solar-cells with a standard ITO/PEDOT:PSS/active-layer/Al were investigated. We show that the open-circuit voltage increase that occurs when a sample is annealed before or after cathode deposition is due roughly one third to a shift between the energetics of the photoactive blend adjacent to the cathode and that in the bulk of the photoactive layer and roughly two thirds to a significant increase in the charge-carrier lifetime for this type of solar-cell.

  11. Lattice-matched Cu2ZnSnS4/CeO2 solar cell with open circuit voltage boost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Yan, Chang; Iandolo, Beniamino; Zhou, Fangzhou; Stride, John; Schou, Jørgen; Hao, Xiaojing; Hansen, Ole

    2016-12-01

    We report a reproducible enhancement of the open circuit voltage in Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells by introduction of a very thin CeO2 interlayer between the Cu2ZnSnS4 absorber and the conventional CdS buffer. CeO2, a non-toxic earth-abundant compound, has a nearly optimal band alignment with Cu2ZnSnS4 and the two materials are lattice-matched within 0.4%. This makes it possible to achieve an epitaxial interface when growing CeO2 by chemical bath deposition at temperatures as low as 50 °C. The open circuit voltage improvement is then attributed to a decrease in the interface recombination rate through formation of a high-quality heterointerface.

  12. Study of the degradation of short-circuit current and the open-circuit tension of spatial solar cells as a function of the fluency of 1MeV electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veissid, N.

    1984-12-01

    Results of a study of the degradation of short circuit current and the tension of open circuitry of spatial solar cells as a function of the fluency of 1 MeV electrons are presented. The theory of the degradation of solar cells by ionizing radiation is discussed as it relates to the diminution of the length of diffusion and variations in short circuit current and open circuit tension by irradiation. Parameters were determined which could be adjusted as curves of ISC and VOC, as a function of the fluency of 1 MeV electrons, and spatial solar cells (type n/p) with and without a retrosuperficial electrical field and retroreflector contact. A double exponential model and iterative methods were used which permitted the determination of the values of series resistance, saturation current of the mechanism of diffusion, and saturation current of the recombination process. An empiric equation is proposed for the degradation of VOC by solar cell irradiation with retroreflector contact.

  13. Opening the Door to the American Dream: Increasing Higher Education Access and Success for Immigrants. New York Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erisman, Wendy; Looney, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of important facts that are specific to the state of New York from the "Opening the Door to the American Dream: Increasing Higher Education Access and Success for Immigrants" report, which exposes systemic barriers that prevent immigrants from entering college and/or completing bachelor's degrees…

  14. Publishers Hire PR Firm to Counter Open-Access Publishing Movement: Former Board of "Topology" Starts a Rival Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan; Monastersky, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The Association of American Publishers has hired a public-relations firm with a hard-hitting reputation to respond to the open-access-publishing movement, which campaigns for scientific results to be made freely available to the public. The firm, Dezenhall Resources, designs aggressive public-relations campaigns to counter activist groups. The…

  15. Scholarly Publishing's Evolving Landscape: Impact Metrics, Electronic-Only Journals, and Open Access in Journalism and Communication Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antell, Karen; Foote, Joe S.; Foote, Jody Bales

    2016-01-01

    This study surveys the landscape of scholarly publishing, with particular emphasis on scholarly journals in the communication discipline, measuring the shift to electronic publishing in six selected disciplines and exploring two other important emerging topics: open-access publishing and new journal citation metrics. The goals are to inform…

  16. High performance of PbSe/PbS core/shell quantum dot heterojunction solar cells: short circuit current enhancement without the loss of open circuit voltage by shell thickness control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyekyoung; Song, Jung Hoon; Jang, Jihoon; Mai, Xuan Dung; Kim, Sungwoo; Jeong, Sohee

    2015-10-01

    We fabricated heterojunction solar cells with PbSe/PbS core shell quantum dots and studied the precisely controlled PbS shell thickness dependency in terms of optical properties, electronic structure, and solar cell performances. When the PbS shell thickness increases, the short circuit current density (JSC) increases from 6.4 to 11.8 mA cm-2 and the fill factor (FF) enhances from 30 to 49% while the open circuit voltage (VOC) remains unchanged at 0.46 V even with the decreased effective band gap. We found that the Fermi level and the valence band maximum level remain unchanged in both the PbSe core and PbSe/PbS core/shell with a less than 1 nm thick PbS shell as probed via ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The PbS shell reduces their surface trap density as confirmed by relative quantum yield measurements. Consequently, PbS shell formation on the PbSe core mitigates the trade-off relationship between the open circuit voltage and the short circuit current density. Finally, under the optimized conditions, the PbSe core with a 0.9 nm thick shell yielded a power conversion efficiency of 6.5% under AM 1.5.We fabricated heterojunction solar cells with PbSe/PbS core shell quantum dots and studied the precisely controlled PbS shell thickness dependency in terms of optical properties, electronic structure, and solar cell performances. When the PbS shell thickness increases, the short circuit current density (JSC) increases from 6.4 to 11.8 mA cm-2 and the fill factor (FF) enhances from 30 to 49% while the open circuit voltage (VOC) remains unchanged at 0.46 V even with the decreased effective band gap. We found that the Fermi level and the valence band maximum level remain unchanged in both the PbSe core and PbSe/PbS core/shell with a less than 1 nm thick PbS shell as probed via ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The PbS shell reduces their surface trap density as confirmed by relative quantum yield measurements. Consequently, PbS shell formation on

  17. Welcome to Journal of Foot and Ankle Research: a new open access journal for foot health professionals.

    PubMed

    Menz, Hylton B; Potter, Mike J; Borthwick, Alan M; Landorf, Karl B

    2008-07-28

    Journal of Foot and Ankle Research (JFAR) is a new, open access, peer-reviewed online journal that encompasses all aspects of policy, organisation, delivery and clinical practice related to the assessment, diagnosis, prevention and management of foot and ankle disorders. JFAR will cover a wide range of clinical subject areas, including diabetology, paediatrics, sports medicine, gerontology and geriatrics, foot surgery, physical therapy, dermatology, wound management, radiology, biomechanics and bioengineering, orthotics and prosthetics, as well the broad areas of epidemiology, policy, organisation and delivery of services related to foot and ankle care. The journal encourages submission from all health professionals who manage lower limb conditions, including podiatrists, nurses, physical therapists and physiotherapists, orthopaedists, manual therapists, medical specialists and general medical practitioners, as well as health service researchers concerned with foot and ankle care. All manuscripts will undergo open peer review, and all accepted manuscripts will be freely available on-line using the open access platform of BioMed Central.

  18. Awareness of "Predatory" Open-Access Journals among Prospective Veterinary and Medical Authors Attending Scientific Writing Workshops.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Mary M; Young, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    Authors face many choices when selecting a journal for publication. Prospective authors, especially trainees, may be unaware of "predatory" online journals or how to differentiate them from legitimate journals. In this study, we assessed awareness of open-access and predatory journals among prospective authors attending scientific writing workshops; our long-term goal was to inform educational goals for the workshops. We surveyed participants of writing workshops at veterinary and medical schools and an international conference over a 1-year period. The survey included 14 statements for respondents to indicate agreement level on a Likert-like scale and four questions on awareness of resources about predatory journals; respondents also defined "predatory journal." A total of 145 participants completed the survey: 106 (73.1%) from veterinary schools and 86 (59.3%) graduate students or residents. Fewer faculty (vs trainees) agreed that open access was an important factor in deciding where to publish; faculty and postdoctoral researchers were more likely to expect to pay more to publish in an open-access journal. Most respondents (120/145, 82.7%) agreed/strongly agreed that the decision to accept a manuscript should not be influenced by publication charges, but 50% (56/112) indicated that they "didn't know" how publishing costs were supported. Of the 142 respondents who answered, 33 (23.0%) indicated awareness of the term "predatory journal"; 34 (23.9%) were aware of the Directory of Open Access Journals; 24 (16.9%) were aware of the Science "sting" article about predatory journals; and 7 (4.8%) were aware of Beall's list. Most (93/144, 64.5%) definitions of predatory journals described poor but not predatory journal practices, and some respondents misunderstood the term completely. Mentors should help novice authors to be aware of predatory journals and to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate open-access journals, thus selecting the best journal for their

  19. ORTI: An Open-Access Repository of Transcriptional Interactions for Interrogating Mammalian Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiuquan; Burykin, Timur; James, David E.; Kuncic, Zdenka

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) play a fundamental role in coordinating biological processes in response to stimuli. Consequently, we often seek to determine the key TFs and their regulated target genes (TGs) amidst gene expression data. This requires a knowledge-base of TF-TG interactions, which would enable us to determine the topology of the transcriptional network and predict novel regulatory interactions. To address this, we generated an Open-access Repository of Transcriptional Interactions, ORTI, by integrating available TF-TG interaction databases. These databases rely on different types of experimental evidence, including low-throughput assays, high-throughput screens, and bioinformatics predictions. We have subsequently categorised TF-TG interactions in ORTI according to the quality of this evidence. To demonstrate its capabilities, we applied ORTI to gene expression data and identified modulated TFs using an enrichment analysis. Combining this with pairwise TF-TG interactions enabled us to visualise temporal regulation of a transcriptional network. Additionally, ORTI enables the prediction of novel TF-TG interactions, based on how well candidate genes co-express with known TGs of the target TF. By filtering out known TF-TG interactions that are unlikely to occur within the experimental context, this analysis predicts context-specific TF-TG interactions. We show that this can be applied to experimental designs of varying complexities. In conclusion, ORTI is a rich and publicly available database of experimentally validated mammalian transcriptional interactions which is accompanied with tools that can identify and predict transcriptional interactions, serving as a useful resource for unravelling the topology of transcriptional networks. PMID:27723773

  20. An open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for the global air network in 2010.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhuojie; Wu, Xiao; Garcia, Andres J; Fik, Timothy J; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    The expanding global air network provides rapid and wide-reaching connections accelerating both domestic and international travel. To understand human movement patterns on the network and their socioeconomic, environmental and epidemiological implications, information on passenger flow is required. However, comprehensive data on global passenger flow remain difficult and expensive to obtain, prompting researchers to rely on scheduled flight seat capacity data or simple models of flow. This study describes the construction of an open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for all airports with a host city-population of more than 100,000 and within two transfers of air travel from various publicly available air travel datasets. Data on network characteristics, city population, and local area GDP amongst others are utilized as covariates in a spatial interaction framework to predict the air transportation flows between airports. Training datasets based on information from various transportation organizations in the United States, Canada and the European Union were assembled. A log-linear model controlling the random effects on origin, destination and the airport hierarchy was then built to predict passenger flows on the network, and compared to the results produced using previously published models. Validation analyses showed that the model presented here produced improved predictive power and accuracy compared to previously published models, yielding the highest successful prediction rate at the global scale. Based on this model, passenger flows between 1,491 airports on 644,406 unique routes were estimated in the prediction dataset. The airport node characteristics and estimated passenger flows are freely available as part of the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) project at: www.vbd-air.com/data.