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Sample records for open bps wall

  1. BPS pion domain walls in the supersymmetric chiral Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Nitta, Muneto; Sasaki, Shin

    2016-07-01

    We construct exact solutions of BPS pion domain walls in the four-dimensional N =1 supersymmetric S U (N ) chiral Lagrangian with pion masses introduced via linear and quadratic superpotentials. The model admits N discrete vacua in the center of S U (N ) for the linear superpotential. In addition to the latter, new vacua appear for the quadratic superpotential. We find that the domain wall solutions of pions (Nambu-Goldstone bosons) that interpolate between a pair of (pion) vacua preserve half of supersymmetry. Contrary to our expectations, we have not been able to find domain walls involving the quasi-Nambu-Goldstone bosons present in the theory, which in turn has the consequence that not all vacua of the theory are connected by a BPS domain wall solution.

  2. Framed BPS states, moduli dynamics, and wall-crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjay; Yi, Piljin

    2011-04-01

    We formulate supersymmetric low energy dynamics for BPS dyons in strongly-coupled N = 2 Seiberg-Witten theories, and derive wall-crossing formulae thereof. For BPS states made up of a heavy core state and n probe (halo) dyons around it, we derive a reliable supersymmetric moduli dynamics with 3 n bosonic coordinates and 4 n fermionic superpartners. Attractive interactions are captured via a set of supersymmetric potential terms, whose detail depends only on the charges and the special Kähler data of the underlying N = 2 theories. The small parameters that control the approximation are not electric couplings but the mass ratio between the core and the probe, as well as the distance to the marginal stability wall where the central charges of the probe and of the core align. Quantizing the dynamics, we construct BPS bound states and derive the primitive and the semi-primitive wall-crossing formulae from the first principle. We speculate on applications to line operators and Darboux coordinates, and also about extension to supergravity setting.

  3. Domain Walls, near-BPS Bubbles and Probabilities in the Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Ceresole, Anna; Dall'Agata, Gianguido; Giryavets, Alexander; Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2006-06-27

    We develop a theory of static BPS domain walls in stringy landscape and present a large family of BPS walls interpolating between different supersymmetric vacua. Examples include KKLT models, STU models, type IIB multiple flux vacua, and models with several Minkowski and AdS vacua. After the uplifting, some of the vacua become dS, whereas some others remain AdS. The near-BPS walls separating these vacua may be seen as bubble walls in the theory of vacuum decay. As an outcome of our investigation of the BPS walls, we found that the decay rate of dS vacua to a collapsing space with a negative vacuum energy can be quite large. The parts of space that experience a decay to a collapsing space, or to a Minkowski vacuum, never return back to dS space. The channels of irreversible vacuum decay serve as sinks for the probability flow. The existence of such sinks is a distinguishing feature of the landscape. We show that it strongly affects the probability distributions in string cosmology.

  4. The structure of BPS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, Pietro

    In this thesis we develop and apply novel techniques for analyzing BPS spectra of supersymmetric quantum field theories of class S. By a combination of wall-crossing, spectral networks and quiver methods we explore the BPS spectra of higher rank four-dimensional N = 2 super Yang-Mills, uncovering surprising new phenomena. Focusing on the SU(3) case, we prove the existence of wild BPS spectra in field theory, featuring BPS states of higher spin whose degeneracies grow exponentially with the energy. The occurrence of wild BPS states is surprising because it appears to be in tension with physical expectations on the behavior of the entropy as a function of the energy scale. The solution to this puzzle comes from realizing that the size of wild BPS states grows rapidly with their mass, and carefully analyzing the volume-dependence of the entropy of BPS states. We also find some interesting structures underlying wild BPS spectra, such as a Regge-like relation between the maximal spin of a BPS multiplet and the square of its mass, and the existence of a universal asymptotic distribution of spin-j irreps within a multiplet of given charge. We also extend the spectral networks construction by introducing a refinement in the topological classification of 2d-4d BPS states, and identifying their spin with a topological invariant known as the "writhe of soliton paths". A careful analysis of the 2d-4d wall-crossing behavior of this refined data reveals that it is described by motivic Kontsevich-Soibelman transformations, controlled by the Protected Spin Character, a protected deformation of the BPS index encoding the spin of BPS states. Our construction opens the way for the systematic study of refined BPS spectra in class S theories. We apply it to several examples, including ones featuring wild BPS spectra, where we find an interesting relation between spectral networks and certain functional equations. For class S theories of A 1 type, we derive an alternative technique for

  5. BPS States, Crystals, and Matrices

    DOE PAGES

    Sułkowski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We review free fermion, melting crystal, and matrix model representations of wall-crossing phenomena on local, toric Calabi-Yau manifolds. We consider both unrefined and refined BPS counting of closed BPS states involving D2- and D0-branes bound to a D6-brane, as well as open BPS states involving open D2-branes ending on an additional D4-brane. Appropriate limit of these constructions provides, among the others, matrix model representation of refined and unrefined topological string amplitudes.

  6. Multi-scalar tachyon potential on non-BPS domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, F. A.; Jesuíno, H. S.

    2010-07-01

    We have considered the multi-scalar and multi-tachyon fields living on a 3d domain wall embedded in a 5d dimensional Minkowski spacetime. The effective action for such a domain wall can be found by integrating out the normal m odes as vibrating modes around the domain wall solution of a truncated 5d supergravity action. The multi-scalar tachyon potential is good enough to modeling assisted inflation scenario with multi-tachyon fields. The tachyon condensation is also briefly addressed.

  7. Semiclassical framed BPS states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory W.; Royston, Andrew B.; Van den Bleeken, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    We provide a semiclassical description of framed BPS states in four-dimensional {N}=2 super Yang-Mills theories probed by 't Hooft defects, in terms of a supersymmetric quantum mechanics on the moduli space of singular monopoles. Framed BPS states, like their ordinary counterparts in the theory without defects, are associated with the L 2 kernel of certain Dirac operators on moduli space, or equivalently with the L 2 cohomology of related Dolbeault operators. The Dirac/Dolbeault operators depend on two Cartan-valued Higgs vevs. We conjecture a map between these vevs and the Seiberg-Witten special coordinates, consistent with a one-loop analysis and checked in examples. The map incorporates all perturbative and nonperturbative corrections that are relevant for the semiclassical construction of BPS states, over a suitably defined weak coupling regime of the Coulomb branch. We use this map to translate wall crossing formulae and the no-exotics theorem to statements about the Dirac/Dolbeault operators. The no-exotics theorem, concerning the absence of nontrivial SU(2) R representations in the BPS spectrum, implies that the kernel of the Dirac operator is chiral, and further translates into a statement that all L 2 cohomology of the Dolbeault operator is concentrated in the middle degree. Wall crossing formulae lead to detailed predictions for where the Dirac operators fail to be Fredholm and how their kernels jump. We explore these predictions in nontrivial examples. This paper explains the background and arguments behind the results announced in the short note [1].

  8. Sequencing BPS spectra

    DOE PAGES

    Gukov, Sergei; Nawata, Satoshi; Saberi, Ingmar; Stošić, Marko; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-03-02

    In this article, we provide both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explainmore » from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincar e polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel "sliding" property, which can be explained by using (re fined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identi fication of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N = 2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. In conclusion, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.« less

  9. Sequencing BPS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gukov, Sergei; Nawata, Satoshi; Saberi, Ingmar; Stošić, Marko; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincaré polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel "sliding" property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identification of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d {N}=2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. Lastly, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.

  10. Magnetothermodynamics of BPS baby skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2014-11-01

    The magnetothermodynamics of skyrmion type matter described by the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model at zero temperature is investigated. We prove that the BPS property of the model is preserved also for boundary conditions corresponding to an asymptotically constant magnetic field. The BPS bound and the corresponding BPS equations saturating the bound are found. Further, we show that one may introduce pressure in the gauged model by a redefinition of the superpotential. Interestingly, this is related to non-extremal type solutions in the so-called fake supersymmetry method. Finally, we compute the equation of state of magnetized BSP baby skyrmions inserted into an external constant magnetic field H and under external pressure P , i.e., V = V ( P, H), where V is the "volume" (area) occupied by the skyrmions. We show that the BPS baby skyrmions form a ferromagnetic medium.

  11. 10. Detail view, greenhouse, south wall. These groundlevel openings were ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail view, greenhouse, south wall. These ground-level openings were part of the original heating system used to warm the greenhouse. The openings were likely related to the flues, while a larger opening to the west (not in photograph) contained an exterior-fed iron stove. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 13. Greenhouse, east elevation. The boardandbatten wall covers an opening ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Greenhouse, east elevation. The board-and-batten wall covers an opening that was originally fitted with windows which allowed sunlight into the greenhouse. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. BPS states in supersymmetric chiral models with higher derivative terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Muneto; Sasaki, Shin

    2014-11-01

    We study the higher derivative chiral models with four supercharges and Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) states in these models. The off-shell Lagrangian generically includes higher powers of the auxiliary fields F , which causes distinct on-shell branches associated with the solutions to the auxiliary fields equation. We point out that the model admits a supersymmetric completion of arbitrary higher derivative bosonic models of a single complex scalar field, and an arbitrary scalar potential can be introduced even without superpotentials. As an example, we present a supersymmetric extension of the Faddeev-Skyrme model without four time derivatives, in contrast to the previously proposed supersymmetric Faddeev-Skyrme-like model containing four time derivatives. In general, higher derivative terms together with a superpotential result in deformed scalar potentials. We find that higher derivative corrections to 1 /2 BPS domain walls and 1 /2 BPS lumps are exactly canceled out, while the 1 /4 BPS lumps (as compact baby Skyrmions) depend on a characteristic feature of the higher derivative models. We also find a new 1 /4 BPS condition for domain wall junctions, which generically receives higher derivative corrections.

  14. Comparison of Online Costs Using 1200-BPS and 2400-BPS Modems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Donald

    1992-01-01

    Compares search time and costs of four online searches, identically replicated except for the speed of the modem used to retrieve and download data. Results are presented for 1200-BPS (bits per second) and 2400-BPS modems which demonstrate that searching at 2400-BPS is more efficient and economical. Issues to be resolved before 9600-BPS modems…

  15. BEDROOM 1 SHOWING THE OPENING IN THE EXTERIOR WALL FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEDROOM 1 SHOWING THE OPENING IN THE EXTERIOR WALL FOR AN AIR CONDITIONER. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Double Mine Building (N) wall showing clerestory slot windows opening ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Double Mine Building (N) wall showing clerestory slot windows opening above level of main roof. Note structure is built on poured concrete foundation partly buried in hillside; view in southeast - Fort McKinley, Double Mine Building, East side of East Side Drive, approximately 125 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  17. 4. Detail view north of stone wall opening between Five ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Detail view north of stone wall opening between Five Acre Lot (foreground) and Ten Acre Lot (background) with Joseph Fry Farm complex beyond - Joseph Fry Farm Landscape, 2153 South County Trail Road (U.S. Route 2), East Greenwich, Kent County, RI

  18. Brane Constructions and BPS Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Ashwin

    The object of this work is to exploit various constructions of string theory and M-theory to yield new insights into supersymmetric theories in both four and three dimensions. In 4d, we extend work on Seiberg-Witten theory to study and compute BPS spectra of the class of complete N = 2 theories. The approach we take is based on the program of geometric engineering, in which 4d theories are constructed from compactifications of type IIB strings on Calabi-Yau manifolds. In this setup, the natural candidates for BPS states are D3 branes wrapped on supersymmetric 3-cycles in the Calabi-Yau. Our study makes use of the mathematical structure of quivers, whose representation theory encodes the notion of stability of BPS particles. Except for 11 exceptional cases, all complete theories can be constructed by wrapping stacks of two M5 branes on Riemann surfaces. By exploring the connection between quivers and M5 brane theories, we develop a powerful algorithm for computing BPS spectra, and give an in-depth study of its applications. In particular, we compute BPS spectra for all asymptotically free complete theories, as well as an infinite set of conformal SU(2)k theories with certain matter content. From here, we go on to apply the insight gained from our 4d study to 3d gauge theories. We consider the analog of the M5 brane construction in the case of 3d N = 2 theories: pairs of M5 branes wrapped on a 3-manifold. Using the ansantz of R-flow, we study 3-manifolds consisting of Riemann surfaces fibered over R. When the construction is non-singular, the resulting IR physics is described by a free abelian Chern-Simons theory. The mathematical data of a tangle captures the data of the gauge theory, and the Reidemeister equivalances on tangles correspond to dualities of physical descriptions. To obtain interacting matter, we allow singularities in the construction. By extending the tangle description to these singular cases, we find a set of generalized Reidemeister moves that

  19. Knots, BPS States, and Algebraic Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garoufalidis, Stavros; Kucharski, Piotr; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-08-01

    We analyze relations between BPS degeneracies related to Labastida-Mariño-Ooguri-Vafa (LMOV) invariants and algebraic curves associated to knots. We introduce a new class of such curves, which we call extremal A-polynomials, discuss their special properties, and determine exact and asymptotic formulas for the corresponding (extremal) BPS degeneracies. These formulas lead to nontrivial integrality statements in number theory, as well as to an improved integrality conjecture, which is stronger than the known M-theory integrality predictions. Furthermore, we determine the BPS degeneracies encoded in augmentation polynomials and show their consistency with known colored HOMFLY polynomials. Finally, we consider refined BPS degeneracies for knots, determine them from the knowledge of super-A-polynomials, and verify their integrality. We illustrate our results with twist knots, torus knots, and various other knots with up to 10 crossings.

  20. A note on BPS vortex bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A.; Garcia Fuertes, W.; Mateos Guilarte, J.

    2016-02-01

    In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.

  1. MAGAZINE E3. ENTRY WITH DOORS OPEN SHOWING FIRST BLAST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAGAZINE E-3-. ENTRY WITH DOORS OPEN SHOWING FIRST BLAST WALL WITH RANGE POLE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Clad vent set cup open end (closure weld zone) wall-thickness study

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, G.B.; Sherrill, M.W.

    1994-09-01

    The wall thickness at the open end of Clad Vent Set (CVS) cups is a very important parameter for maintaining control of the fueled CVS closure weld process. Ideally, the wall thickness in the closure weld zone should be constant. The DOP-26 iridium alloy is very difficult to machine; therefore, key dimensional features are established during the two-draw warm-forming operation. Unfortunately, anisotropy in the forming blanks produces four ears at the open end of each cup. Formation of these ears produces axial and circumferential variations in wall thickness. The cup certification requirement is that the wall thickness in the closure weld zone, defined as the 2.5-mm band at the open end of a cup, measure from 0.63 to 0.73 mm. The wall thickness certification data for the open end of the CVS cups have been statistically evaluated. These data show that the cups recently produced for the Cassini mission have well-controlled open-end wall thicknesses.

  3. A BPS study on GW sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinzhong

    2015-08-01

    Gravitational Wave (GW) Astronomy is an emerging branch of observational astronomy which aims to collect observational data through observing the GW sources such as * double compact objects (DCOs: NS+WD, NS+NS, BH+NS, BH+BH binaries) * double white dwarf binaries (DWDs: CO+CO, He+He, and CO+He binaries) * super-massive black hole binaries (SMBHs) * and extreme mass ratio sources (EMRSs). These sources not only can be observed by eLISA during the in-spiral phase, but also, at some level, can be detected by ground based detectors during the merged phase. Note that they are also potential electromagnetic (EM) emitters. To study GW sources, a binary population synthesis (BPS) approach is investigated. Some results in the context of GW radiation using BPS method are shown in this talk.

  4. High Q BPS Monopole Bags are Urchins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evslin, Jarah; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for 30 years that 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles of charge Q greater than one cannot be spherically symmetric. Five years ago, Bolognesi conjectured that, at some point in their moduli space, BPS monopoles can become approximately spherically symmetric in the high Q limit. In this paper, we determine the sense in which this conjecture is correct. We consider an SU(2) gauge theory with an adjoint scalar field, and numerically find configurations with Q units of magnetic charge and a mass which is roughly linear in Q, for example, in the case Q = 81 we present a configuration whose energy exceeds the BPS bound by about 54%. These approximate solutions are constructed by gluing together Q cones, each of which contains a single unit of magnetic charge. In each cone, the energy is largest in the core, and so a constant energy density surface contains Q peaks and thus resembles a sea urchin.

  5. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  6. Biomass Production System (BPS) plant growth unit.

    PubMed

    Morrow, R C; Crabb, T M

    2000-01-01

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses its own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive. PMID:11543164

  7. Exact BPS bound for noncommutative baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domrin, Andrei; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Linares, Román; Maceda, Marco

    2013-11-01

    The noncommutative baby Skyrme model is a Moyal deformation of the two-dimensional sigma model plus a Skyrme term, with a group-valued or Grassmannian target. Exact abelian solitonic solutions have been identified analytically in this model, with a singular commutative limit. Inside any given Grassmannian, we establish a BPS bound for the energy functional, which is saturated by these baby Skyrmions. This asserts their stability for unit charge, as we also test in second-order perturbation theory.

  8. Primary closure of the abdominal wall after "open abdomen" situation.

    PubMed

    Kääriäinen, M; Kuokkanen, H

    2013-01-01

    "Open abdomen" is a strategy used to avoid or treat abdominal compartment syndrome. It has reduced mortality both in trauma and non-trauma abdominal catastrophes but also has created a challenging clinical problem. Traditionally, open abdomen is closed in two phases; primarily with a free skin graft and later with a flap reconstruction. A modern trend is to close the abdomen within the initial hospitalization. This requires multi-professional co-operation. Temporary abdominal closure methods, e.g. negative pressure wound therapy alone or combined with mesh-mediated traction, have been developed to facilitate direct fascial closure. Components separation technique, mesh reinforcement or bridging of the fascial defect with mesh and perforator saving skin undermining can be utilized in the final closure if needed. These techniques can be combined. Choice of the treatment depends on the condition of the patient and size of the fascia and skin defect, and the state of the abdominal contents. In this paper we review the literature on the closure of an open abdomen and present the policy used in our institution in the open abdomen situations.

  9. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632, INTERIOR. OPEN CORRIDOR ALONG SOUTH WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632, INTERIOR. OPEN CORRIDOR ALONG SOUTH WALL OF BUILDING. CAMERA IS NEAR HOT CELL NO. 1, FACES WEST TOWARDS WALL OF TEST-TRAIN ASSEMBLY (TRA-632A). NOTE MOTORIZED RAIL CRANE ABOVE STAIRWAY. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-29-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Black holes in supergravity: the non-BPS branch

    SciTech Connect

    Gimon, Eric; Gimon, Eric G.; Larsen, Finn; Simon, Joan

    2007-10-25

    We construct extremal, spherically symmetric black hole solutions to 4D supergravity with charge assignments that preclude BPS-saturation. In particular, we determine the ground state energy as a function of charges and moduli. We find that the mass of the non-BPS black hole remains that of a marginal bound state of four basic constituents throughout the entire moduli space and that there is always a non-zero gap above the BPS bound.

  11. Modeling Drosophila Positional Preferences in Open Field Arenas with Directional Persistence and Wall Attraction

    PubMed Central

    Soibam, Benjamin; Goldfeder, Rachel L.; Manson-Bishop, Claire; Gamblin, Rachel; Pletcher, Scott D.; Shah, Shishir; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.; Roman, Gregg W.

    2012-01-01

    In open field arenas, Drosophila adults exhibit a preference for arena boundaries over internal walls and open regions. Herein, we investigate the nature of this preference using phenomenological modeling of locomotion to determine whether local arena features and constraints on movement alone are sufficient to drive positional preferences within open field arenas of different shapes and with different internal features. Our model has two components: directional persistence and local wall force. In regions far away from walls, the trajectory is entirely characterized by a directional persistence probability, , for each movement defined by the step size, , and the turn angle, . In close proximity to walls, motion is computed from and a local attractive force which depends on the distance between the fly and points on the walls. The directional persistence probability was obtained experimentally from trajectories of wild type Drosophila in a circular open field arena and the wall force was computed to minimize the difference between the radial distributions from the model and Drosophila in the same circular arena. The two-component model for fly movement was challenged by comparing the positional preferences from the two-component model to wild type Drosophila in a variety of open field arenas. In most arenas there was a strong concordance between the two-component model and Drosophila. In more complex arenas, the model exhibits similar trends, but some significant differences were found. These differences suggest that there are emergent features within these complex arenas that have significance for the fly, such as potential shelter. Hence, the two-component model is an important step in defining how Drosophila interact with their environment. PMID:23071591

  12. Baby Skyrme model, near-BPS approximations, and supersymmetric extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognesi, S.; Zakrzewski, W.

    2015-02-01

    We study the baby Skyrme model as a theory that interpolates between two distinct BPS systems. For this, a near-BPS approximation can be used when there is a small deviation from each of the two BPS limits. We provide analytical explanation and numerical support for the validity of this approximation. We then study the set of all possible supersymmetric extensions of the baby Skyrme model with N =1 and the particular ones with extended N =2 supersymmetries and relate this to the above mentioned almost-BPS approximation.

  13. A note on multiply wound BPS Wilson loops in ABJM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Marco S.

    2016-09-01

    We consider BPS Wilson loops in planar ABJM theory, wound multiple times around the great circle. We compute the expectation value of the 1/6-BPS and 1/2-BPS Wilson loops to three- and two-loop order in perturbation theory, respectively, dealing with the combinatorics of multiple winding via recursive relations. For the 1/6-BPS Wilson loop we perform the computation at generic framing and at framing 1 we find agreement with the localization result. For the 1/2-BPS Wilson loop we compute the expectation value at trivial framing and by comparison with the matrix model expression we extract the framing dependence of the fermion diagrams.

  14. An open-walled ionization chamber appropriate to tritium monitoring for glovebox.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhilin; Chang, Ruiming; Mu, Long; Song, Guoyang; Wang, Heyi; Wu, Guanyin; Wei, Xiye

    2010-07-01

    An open-walled ionization chamber is developed to monitor the tritium concentration in gloveboxes in tritium processing systems. Two open walls are used to replace the sealed wall in common ionization chambers, through which the tritium gas can diffuse into the chamber without the aid of pumps and pipelines. Some basic properties of the chamber are examined to evaluate its performance. Results turn out that an open-walled chamber of 1 l in volume shows a considerably flat plateau over 700 V for a range of tritium concentration. The chamber also gives a good linear response to gamma fields over 4 decades under a pressure condition of 1 atm. The pressure dependence characteristics show that the ionization current is only sensitive at low pressures. The pressure influence becomes weaker as the pressure increases mainly due to the decrease in the mean free path of beta particles produced by tritium decay. The minimum detection limit of the chamber is 3.7x10(5) Bq/m(3).

  15. An open-walled ionization chamber appropriate to tritium monitoring for glovebox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhilin; Chang, Ruiming; Mu, Long; Song, Guoyang; Wang, Heyi; Wu, Guanyin; Wei, Xiye

    2010-07-01

    An open-walled ionization chamber is developed to monitor the tritium concentration in gloveboxes in tritium processing systems. Two open walls are used to replace the sealed wall in common ionization chambers, through which the tritium gas can diffuse into the chamber without the aid of pumps and pipelines. Some basic properties of the chamber are examined to evaluate its performance. Results turn out that an open-walled chamber of 1 l in volume shows a considerably flat plateau over 700 V for a range of tritium concentration. The chamber also gives a good linear response to gamma fields over 4 decades under a pressure condition of 1 atm. The pressure dependence characteristics show that the ionization current is only sensitive at low pressures. The pressure influence becomes weaker as the pressure increases mainly due to the decrease in the mean free path of β particles produced by tritium decay. The minimum detection limit of the chamber is 3.7×105 Bq/m3.

  16. An open-walled ionization chamber appropriate to tritium monitoring for glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zhilin; Chang Ruiming; Mu Long; Song Guoyang; Wang Heyi; Wu Guanyin; Wei Xiye

    2010-07-15

    An open-walled ionization chamber is developed to monitor the tritium concentration in gloveboxes in tritium processing systems. Two open walls are used to replace the sealed wall in common ionization chambers, through which the tritium gas can diffuse into the chamber without the aid of pumps and pipelines. Some basic properties of the chamber are examined to evaluate its performance. Results turn out that an open-walled chamber of 1 l in volume shows a considerably flat plateau over 700 V for a range of tritium concentration. The chamber also gives a good linear response to gamma fields over 4 decades under a pressure condition of 1 atm. The pressure dependence characteristics show that the ionization current is only sensitive at low pressures. The pressure influence becomes weaker as the pressure increases mainly due to the decrease in the mean free path of {beta} particles produced by tritium decay. The minimum detection limit of the chamber is 3.7x10{sup 5} Bq/m{sup 3}.

  17. Characterization and genome analysis of the Bacillus cereus-infecting bacteriophages BPS10C and BPS13.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hakdong; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Park, Jaeeun; Heu, Sunggi; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2014-08-01

    Due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, bacteriophages are considered to be an alternative approach for the control of pathogens. In this study, the bacteriophages BPS10C and BPS13 were isolated and characterized to investigate their ability to control food-borne pathogenic Bacillus cereus. Phage BPS13 exhibited slightly higher host lysis activity compared with phage BPS10C. In addition, phage BPS13 exhibited greater stability under various pH and temperature conditions. To extend our knowledge of the lysis of B. cereus by these phages, their genomes were completely sequenced and analyzed, revealing that these phage genomes encode endolysin and two tail lysins, which are likely involved in host lysis and invasion mechanisms, respectively. These lysis-related proteins may increase the bactericidal activities of these phages, suggesting that they may be good candidates for the potential control of B. cereus.

  18. Refined BPS invariants, Chern-Simons theory, and the quantum dilogarithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimofte, Tudor Dan

    In this thesis, we consider two main subjects: the refined BPS invariants of Calabi-Yau threefolds, and three-dimensional Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group. We study the wall-crossing behavior of refined BPS invariants using a variety of techniques, including a four-dimensional supergravity analysis, statistical-mechanical melting crystal models, and relations to new mathematical invariants. We conjecture an equivalence between refined invariants and the motivic Donaldson-Thomas invariants of Kontsevich and Soibelman. We then consider perturbative Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, combining traditional and novel approaches to the theory (including a new state integral model) to obtain exact results for perturbative partition functions. We thus obtain a new class of topological invariants, which are not of finite type, defined in the background of genuinely nonabelian flat connections. The two main topics, BPS invariants and Chern-Simons theory, are connected at both a formal and (we believe) deeper conceptual level by the striking central role that the quantum dilogarithm function plays in each.

  19. On the Opening of Thick Walled Elastic Tubes: A Fluid-Structure Model for Acid Reflux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sudip; Kahrilas, Peter

    2005-11-01

    A coupled fluid-structure mathematical model was developed to quantify rapid opening of thick-walled elastic tubes, a phenomenon underlying biological flows such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The wall was modeled using non-linear finite deformation theory to predict space-time radial distention of an axisymmetric tube with luminal fluid flow. Anisotropic azimuthal and longitudinal muscle-induced stresses were incorporated, and interstitial material properties were assumed isotropic and linearly elastic. Fluid flow was modeled using lubrication theory with inertial correction. Opening and flow were driven by a specified inflow pressure and zero pressure gradient was specified at outflow. No-slip and surface force balance were applied at the fluid-wall interface. Viscoelasticity was modeled with ad hoc damping and the evolution of the tube geometry was predicted at mid-layer. A potentially important discovery was made when applied to studies of initiation of opening with GERD: while material stiffness is of minor consequence, small changes in resting lumen distension (˜2 mm diameter) may be a sensitive distinguishing feature of the disease.

  20. Method in calculating own vibration frequencies of open sections bars with thin walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihuț, N.

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic stability of thin-walled bars of open sections, as well as the stability of elastic systems dynamics in general, is studying closely with their vibrations. This, because, areas of dynamics instability is around twice the frequency of free vibration of the bar or elastic system in all cases excitation parametric, on the one hand, and on the other hand matrices involved in the matrix equation of free vibration are matrices of matrix equation of dynamic stability. In this paper we settled differential equations of parametric vibrations of thin-walled straight bars open sections constant as a system with a triple infinity of second order differential equations, linear coefficients homogeneous and periodicals. In the end of work, by customizing differential equations of forced vibration parameters have been obtained differential equations of own vibration of bars with thin wall and open sections as a system with a triple infinity of differential equations of second order, linear, homogeneous with constant coefficients and, using it, the algebraic equation of own vibrations pulsations.

  1. Cosmic microwave anisotropies from BPS semilocal strings

    SciTech Connect

    Urrestilla, Jon; Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R E-mail: n.bevis@imperial.ac.uk E-mail: martin.kunz@physics.unige.ch

    2008-07-15

    We present the first ever calculation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectra from semilocal cosmic strings, obtained via simulations of a classical field theory. Semilocal strings are a type of non-topological defect arising in some models of inflation motivated by fundamental physics, and are thought to relax the constraints on the symmetry breaking scale as compared to models with (topological) cosmic strings. We derive constraints on the model parameters, including the string tension parameter {mu}, from fits to cosmological data, and find that in this regard Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) semilocal strings resemble global textures more than topological strings. The observed microwave anisotropy at l=10 is reproduced if G{mu} = 5.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} (G is Newton's constant). However as with other defects the spectral shape does not match observations, and in models with inflationary perturbations plus semilocal strings the 95% confidence level upper bound is G{mu}<2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} when CMB, Hubble key project and big bang nucleosynthesis data are used (cf G{mu}<0.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} for cosmic strings). We additionally carry out a Bayesian model comparison of several models with and without defects, showing that models with defects are neither conclusively favoured nor disfavoured at present.

  2. Singular PP waves, Junction Conditions and BPS States

    SciTech Connect

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Vilasi, Gaetano

    2005-03-16

    A simple model to study the collision of PP waves via the Israel junction conditions is proposed. The junction conditions are interpreted as topological conservation laws, and the relation with BPS states is shortly described.

  3. Argon adsorption in open-ended single-wall carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Rols, S.; Johnson, M.R.; Zeppenfeld, P.; Bienfait, M.; Vilches, O.E.; Schneble, J.

    2005-04-15

    Thermodynamic and neutron-diffraction measurements combined with molecular dynamics simulation are used to determine the adsorption energies and the structure of argon condensed in the various adsorption sites of purified open-ended single-wall nanotube bundles. On the basis of these experiments and the simulation results, a consistent adsorption scenario has been derived. The adsorption proceeds first by the population of the walls inside the open nanotubes and the formation of one-dimensional Ar chains in the grooves at the outer surface of the bundles, followed by the filling of the remaining axial sites inside the nanotubes and the completion of a quasihexagonal monolayer on the outer surface of the bundle. The measurements also provide an estimate of the relative abundance of the various adsorption sites revealing that a major part of the adsorbed Ar is stored inside the open-ended nanotubes. Nanotube bundles generally show a certain degree of heterogeneity and some interstitial sites should be populated over a range of Ar chemical potential. However, for the sample used here, diffraction data and simulations suggest that heterogeneity is not a key feature of the bundles and there is little direct evidence of interstitial sites being populated.

  4. Colloid retention at the meniscus-wall contact line in an open microchannel.

    PubMed

    Zevi, Yuniati; Gao, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Morales, Verónica L; Cakmak, M Ekrem; Medrano, Evelyn A; Sang, Wenjing; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2012-02-01

    Colloid retention mechanisms in partially saturated porous media are currently being researched with an array of visualization techniques. These visualization techniques have refined our understanding of colloid movement and retention at the pore scale beyond what can be obtained from breakthrough experiments. One of the remaining questions is what mechanisms are responsible for colloid immobilization at the triple point where air, water, and soil grain meet. The objective of this study was to investigate how colloids are transported to the air-water-solid (AWS) contact line in an open triangular microchannel, and then retained as a function of meniscus contact angle with the wall and solution ionic strength. Colloid flow path, meniscus shape and meniscus-wall contact angle, and colloid retention at the AWS contact line were visualized and quantified with a confocal microscope. Experimental results demonstrated that colloid retention at the AWS contact line was significant when the meniscus-wall contact angle was less than 16°, but was minimal for the meniscus-wall contact angles exceeding 20°. Tracking of individual colloids and computational hydrodynamic simulation both revealed that for small contact angles (e.g., 12.5°), counter flow and flow vortices formed near the AWS contact line, but not for large contact angles (e.g., 28°). This counter flow helped deliver the colloids to the wall surface just below the contact line. In accordance with DLVO and hydrodynamic torque calculations, colloid movement may be stopped when the colloid reached the secondary minimum at the wall near the contact line. However, contradictory to the prediction of the torque analysis, colloid retention at the AWS contact line decreased with increasing ionic strength for contact angles of 10-20°, indicating that the air-water interface was involved through both counter flow and capillary force. We hypothesized that capillary force pushed the colloid through the primary energy

  5. Assumption tests regarding the ‘narrow’ rectangles dimensions of the open thin wall sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oanta, E.; Panait, C.; Sabau, A.; Barhalescu, M.; Dascalescu, A. E.

    2016-08-01

    Computer based analytic models that use the strength of materials theory are inheriting the accuracy given by the basic simplifying hypotheses. The according assumptions were rationally conceived hundreds of years ago in an age when there was no computing instrument, therefore the minimization of the necessary volume of calculi was an important requirement. An initial study was an attempt to evaluate how ‘thin’ may be the walls of an open section in order to have accurate results using the analytic calculus method. In this initial study there was compared the calculus of the rectangular sections loaded by twisting moments vs. a narrow section under the same load. Being compared analytic methods applied for a simple shape section, a more thorough study was required. In this way, we consider a thin wall open section loaded by a twisting moment, section which is discretized in ‘narrow’ rectangles. The ratio of the sides of the ‘narrow’ rectangles is the variable of the study. We compare the results of the finite element analysis to the results of the analytic method. The conclusions are important for the development of computer based analytic models which use parametrized sections for which different sets of calculus relations may be used.

  6. Asymptotic dynamics of monopole walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, R.

    2015-08-01

    We determine the asymptotic dynamics of the U(N) doubly periodic BPS monopole in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, called a monopole wall, by exploring its Higgs curve using the Newton polytope and amoeba. In particular, we show that the monopole wall splits into subwalls when any of its moduli become large. The long-distance gauge and Higgs field interactions of these subwalls are Abelian, allowing us to derive an asymptotic metric for the monopole wall moduli space.

  7. A reduced BPS index of E-strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Kazuhiro

    2014-12-01

    We study the BPS spectrum of E-strings in a situation where the global E 8 symmetry is broken down to D 4 ⊕ D 4 by a certain twist. We find that the refined BPS index in this setup serves as a reduced BPS index of E-strings, which gives a novel trigonometric generalization of the Nekrasov partition function for four-dimensional = 2 supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theory with N f = 4 massless flavors. We determine the perturbative part of this index and also first few unrefined instanton corrections. By using these results together with the modular anomaly equation, the genus expansion of the free energy can be computed efficiently up to very high order. We also determine the unrefined elliptic genus of four E-strings under the twist.

  8. Intravesical liposome drug delivery and IC/BPS.

    PubMed

    Janicki, Joseph J; Gruber, Michele A; Chancellor, Michael B

    2015-10-01

    Intravesical therapy has previously shown to be effective in delaying or preventing recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. This local route of drug administration is now demonstrating promise in the treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) with the benefit of minimal systemic side effects. Liposomes (LPs) are lipid vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surrounding an aqueous core. They can incorporate drug molecules, both hydrophobic and hydrophilic, and vastly improve cellular uptake of these drug molecules via endocytosis. Intravesical LPs have therapeutic effects on IC/BPS patients, mainly due to their ability to form a protective lipid film on the urothelial surface and repair the damaged urothelium. This review considers the current status of intravesical LPs and LP mediated drug delivery for the treatment of IC/BPS.

  9. Intravesical liposome drug delivery and IC/BPS

    PubMed Central

    Janicki, Joseph J.; Gruber, Michele A.

    2015-01-01

    Intravesical therapy has previously shown to be effective in delaying or preventing recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. This local route of drug administration is now demonstrating promise in the treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) with the benefit of minimal systemic side effects. Liposomes (LPs) are lipid vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surrounding an aqueous core. They can incorporate drug molecules, both hydrophobic and hydrophilic, and vastly improve cellular uptake of these drug molecules via endocytosis. Intravesical LPs have therapeutic effects on IC/BPS patients, mainly due to their ability to form a protective lipid film on the urothelial surface and repair the damaged urothelium. This review considers the current status of intravesical LPs and LP mediated drug delivery for the treatment of IC/BPS. PMID:26816855

  10. BPS amplitudes, helicity supertraces and membranes in M-theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wit, B. d.; Lüst, D.

    2000-03-01

    We study BPS dominated loop amplitudes in M-theory on T2. For this purpose we generalize the concept of helicity supertraces to nine spacetime dimensions. These traces distinguish between various massive supermultiplets and appear as coefficients in their one-loop contributions to n-graviton scattering amplitudes. This can be used to show that only ultrashort BPS multiplets contribute to the R4 term in the effective action, which was first computed by Green, Gutperle and Vanhove. There are two inequivalent ultrashort BPS multiplets which describe the Kaluza-Klein states and the wrapped membranes that cover the torus a number of times. From the perspective of the type-II strings they correspond to momentum and winding states and D0 or D1 branes.

  11. Intravesical liposome drug delivery and IC/BPS.

    PubMed

    Janicki, Joseph J; Gruber, Michele A; Chancellor, Michael B

    2015-10-01

    Intravesical therapy has previously shown to be effective in delaying or preventing recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. This local route of drug administration is now demonstrating promise in the treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) with the benefit of minimal systemic side effects. Liposomes (LPs) are lipid vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surrounding an aqueous core. They can incorporate drug molecules, both hydrophobic and hydrophilic, and vastly improve cellular uptake of these drug molecules via endocytosis. Intravesical LPs have therapeutic effects on IC/BPS patients, mainly due to their ability to form a protective lipid film on the urothelial surface and repair the damaged urothelium. This review considers the current status of intravesical LPs and LP mediated drug delivery for the treatment of IC/BPS. PMID:26816855

  12. An Unusual Phage Repressor Encoded by Mycobacteriophage BPs.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Valerie M; Oldfield, Lauren M; Hatfull, Graham F

    2015-01-01

    Temperate bacteriophages express transcription repressors that maintain lysogeny by down-regulating lytic promoters and confer superinfection immunity. Repressor regulation is critical to the outcome of infection-lysogenic or lytic growth-as well as prophage induction into lytic replication. Mycobacteriophage BPs and its relatives use an unusual integration-dependent immunity system in which the phage attachment site (attP) is located within the repressor gene (33) such that site-specific integration leads to synthesis of a prophage-encoded product (gp33103) that is 33 residues shorter at its C-terminus than the virally-encoded protein (gp33136). However, the shorter form of the repressor (gp33103) is stable and active in repression of the early lytic promoter PR, whereas the longer virally-encoded form (gp33136) is inactive due to targeted degradation via a C-terminal ssrA-like tag. We show here that both forms of the repressor bind similarly to the 33-34 intergenic regulatory region, and that BPs gp33103 is a tetramer in solution. The BPs gp33103 repressor binds to five regulatory regions spanning the BPs genome, and regulates four promoters including the early lytic promoter, PR. BPs gp33103 has a complex pattern of DNA recognition in which a full operator binding site contains two half sites separated by a variable spacer, and BPs gp33103 induces a DNA bend at the full operator site but not a half site. The operator site structure is unusual in that one half site corresponds to a 12 bp palindrome identified previously, but the other half site is a highly variable variant of the palindrome. PMID:26332854

  13. Numerical study of the effects of lamp configuration and reactor wall roughness in an open channel water disinfection UV reactor.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Tipu

    2016-07-01

    This article describes the assessment of a numerical procedure used to determine the UV lamp configuration and surface roughness effects on an open channel water disinfection UV reactor. The performance of the open channel water disinfection UV reactor was numerically analyzed on the basis of the performance indictor reduction equivalent dose (RED). The RED values were calculated as a function of the Reynolds number to monitor the performance. The flow through the open channel UV reactor was modelled using a k-ε model with scalable wall function, a discrete ordinate (DO) model for fluence rate calculation, a volume of fluid (VOF) model to locate the unknown free surface, a discrete phase model (DPM) to track the pathogen transport, and a modified law of the wall to incorporate the reactor wall roughness effects. The performance analysis was carried out using commercial CFD software (ANSYS Fluent 15.0). Four case studies were analyzed based on open channel UV reactor type (horizontal and vertical) and lamp configuration (parallel and staggered). The results show that lamp configuration can play an important role in the performance of an open channel water disinfection UV reactor. The effects of the reactor wall roughness were Reynolds number dependent. The proposed methodology is useful for performance optimization of an open channel water disinfection UV reactor.

  14. Numerical study of the effects of lamp configuration and reactor wall roughness in an open channel water disinfection UV reactor.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Tipu

    2016-07-01

    This article describes the assessment of a numerical procedure used to determine the UV lamp configuration and surface roughness effects on an open channel water disinfection UV reactor. The performance of the open channel water disinfection UV reactor was numerically analyzed on the basis of the performance indictor reduction equivalent dose (RED). The RED values were calculated as a function of the Reynolds number to monitor the performance. The flow through the open channel UV reactor was modelled using a k-ε model with scalable wall function, a discrete ordinate (DO) model for fluence rate calculation, a volume of fluid (VOF) model to locate the unknown free surface, a discrete phase model (DPM) to track the pathogen transport, and a modified law of the wall to incorporate the reactor wall roughness effects. The performance analysis was carried out using commercial CFD software (ANSYS Fluent 15.0). Four case studies were analyzed based on open channel UV reactor type (horizontal and vertical) and lamp configuration (parallel and staggered). The results show that lamp configuration can play an important role in the performance of an open channel water disinfection UV reactor. The effects of the reactor wall roughness were Reynolds number dependent. The proposed methodology is useful for performance optimization of an open channel water disinfection UV reactor. PMID:27108375

  15. BPS index and 4d N = 2 superconformal field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Kazuhiro

    2016-07-01

    We study the BPS index for the four-dimensional rank-one N = 2 superconformal field theories H 0 , H 1 , H 2 , E 6 , E 7 , E 8. We consider compactifications of the E-string theory on T 2 in which these theories arise as low energy limits. Using this realization we clarify the general structure of the BPS index. The index is characterized by two exponents and a sequence of invariants. We determine the exponents and the first few invariants.

  16. Open and closed shear-walls in high-rise structural systems: Static and dynamic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpinteri, Alberto; Lacidogna, Giuseppe; Nitti, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, a General Algorithm is applied to the analysis of high-rise structures. This algorithm is to be used as a calculation tool in preliminary design; it allows to define the interaction between closed and open, straight or curved shear-walls, and the forces exchanged in structures subject to mainly horizontal loads. The analysis can be performed in both static and dynamic regimes, the mode shapes and the natural frequencies being assessed. This general formulation allows analyses of high-rise structures by taking into account the torsional rigidity and the warping deformations of the elements composing the building without gross simplifications. In thisway it is possible to model the structure as a single equivalent cantilever, thus minimising the degrees of freedom of the system, and consequently the calculation time. Finally, potentials of the method proposed are demonstrated by a numerical example which emphasizes the link between global displacements and stresses in the elements composing the structure.

  17. Crack opening area estimates in pressurized through-wall cracked elbows under bending

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, C.; Gilles, P.; Pignol, M.

    1997-04-01

    One of the most important aspects in the leak-before-break approach is the estimation of the crack opening area corresponding to potential through-wall cracks at critical locations during plant operation. In order to provide a reasonable lower bound to the leak area under such loading conditions, numerous experimental and numerical programs have been developed in USA, U.K. and FRG and widely discussed in literature. This paper aims to extend these investigations on a class of pipe elbows characteristic of PWR main coolant piping. The paper is divided in three main parts. First, a new simplified estimation scheme for leakage area is described, based on the reference stress method. This approach mainly developed in U.K. and more recently in France provides a convenient way to account for the non-linear behavior of the material. Second, the method is carried out for circumferential through-wall cracks located in PWR elbows subjected to internal pressure. Finite element crack area results are presented and comparisons are made with our predictions. Finally, in the third part, the discussion is extended to elbows under combined pressure and in plane bending moment.

  18. BPS preons, generalized holonomies, and D=11 supergravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandos, Igor A.; de Azcárraga, José A.; Izquierdo, José M.; Picón, Moisés; Varela, Oscar

    2004-05-01

    We develop the BPS (Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield) preon conjecture to analyze the supersymmetric solutions of D=11 supergravity. By relating the notions of Killing spinors and BPS preons, we develop a moving G-frame method [G=GL(32,R), SL(32,R) or Sp(32,R)] to analyze their associated generalized holonomies. As a first application we derive here the equations determining the generalized holonomies of ν=k/32 supersymmetric solutions and, in particular, those solving the necessary conditions for the existence of BPS preonic (ν=31/32) solutions of the standard D=11 supergravity. We also show that there exist elementary preonic solutions, i.e., solutions preserving 31 out of 32 supersymmetries in a Chern-Simons type supergravity. We present as well a family of worldvolume actions describing the motion of pointlike and extended BPS preons in the background of a D’Auria-Fré type OSp(1|32)-related supergravity model. We discuss the possible implications for M theory.

  19. Spectral characteristics of airway opening and chest wall tidal flows in spontaneously breathing preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Habib, Robert H; Pyon, Kee H; Courtney, Sherry E; Aghai, Zubair H

    2003-05-01

    We compared the harmonic content of tidal flows measured simultaneously at the mouth and chest wall in spontaneously breathing very low birth weight infants (n = 16, 1,114 +/- 230 g, gestation age: 28 +/- 2 wk). Airway opening flows were measured via face mask-pneumotachograph (P-tach), whereas chest wall flows were derived from respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) excursions. Next, for each, we computed two spectral shape indexes: 1) harmonic distortion (k(d); k(d,P-tach) and k(d,RIP), respectively) defines the extent to which flows deviated from a single sine wave, and 2) the exponent of the power law (s; s(P-tach) and s(RIP), respectively), describing the spectral energy vs. frequency. P-tach and RIP flow spectra exhibited similar power law functional forms consistently in all infants. Also, mouth [s(P-tach) = 3.73 +/- 0.23% (95% confidence interval), k(d,P-tach) = 38.8 +/- 4.6%] and chest wall (s(RIP) = 3.51 +/- 0.30%, k(d,RIP) = 42.8 +/- 4.8%) indexes were similar and highly correlated (s(RIP) = 1.17 x s(P-tach) + 0.85; r(2) = 0.81; k(d,RIP) = 0.90 x k(d,P-tach) + 8.0; r(2) = 0.76). The corresponding time to peak tidal expiratory flow-to-expiratory time ratio (0.62 +/- 0.08) was higher than reported in older infants. The obtained s and k(d) values are similar to those reported in older and/or larger chronic lung disease infants, yet appreciably lower than for 1-mo-old healthy infants of closer age and/or size; this indicated increased complexity of tidal flows in very low birth weight babies. Importantly, we found equivalent flow spectral data from mouth and chest wall tidal flows. The latter are desirable because they avoid face mask artificial effects, including leaks around it, they do not interfere with ventilatory support delivery, and they may facilitate longer measurements that are useful in control of breathing assessment.

  20. Investigation on Twisting and Side Wall Opening Occurring in Curved Hat Channel Products Made of High Strength Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamura, Masato; Fukui, Ayako; Yano, Hiroshi; Hama, Takayuki; Sunaga, Hideyuki; Makinouchi, Akitake; Asakawa, Motoo

    2011-08-01

    High strength steel sheets are becoming increasingly important for the weight reduction of automotive bodies to meet the requirements for reduced environmental impact. However, dimensional defects resulting from springback are serious issues, and effective methods of predicting and reducing such defects are necessary. In this study, we numerically and experimentally analyzed the mechanisms of dimensional inaccuracies caused by springback occurring in curved hat channel deep drawing products. The analysis was based on the static explicit FEM software "TP-STRUCT" (the solver part is known as "STAMP3D"). The results of the experiments and simulations similarly show that the twist angle is positive (right-hand system) when the drawing height is relatively large. We calculated the twist torque around the longitudinal axis using the stress distributions obtained by FE analysis. Through the investigation of twist torque and its transition during the drawing and die removal processes, we found that the negative torque generated by side wall opening occurring in the die removal process is the dominant factor of the positive twist. Knowing such mechanisms of twist in cases with a relatively large drawing height, we attempted to explore methods of reducing side wall opening by giving the side wall a stepped shape with the eventual aim of reducing twist. Consequently, we concluded that the stepped shape on the side wall has marked effects of reducing side wall opening, mainly through the elimination of bending-unbending effects on die shoulders, which was verified by observing the stress distribution obtained by FE analysis.

  1. Spin(7) compactifications and 1/4-BPS vacua in heterotic supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, Stephen; Matti, Cyril; Svanes, Eirik E.

    2016-03-01

    We continue the investigation into non-maximally symmetric compactifications of the heterotic string. In particular, we consider compactifications where the internal space is allowed to depend on two or more external directions. For preservation of supersymmetry, this implies that the internal space must in general be that of a Spin(7) manifold, which leads to a 1/4-BPS four-dimensional supersymmetric perturbative vacuum breaking all but one supercharge. We find that these solutions allow for internal geometries previously excluded by the domain-wall-type solutions, and hence the resulting four-dimensional superpotential is more generic. In particular, we find an interesting resemblance to the superpotentials that appear in non-geometric flux compactifications of type II string theory. If the vacua are to be used for phenomenological applications, they must be lifted to maximal symmetry by some non-perturbative or higher-order effect.

  2. Functional Analysis of Cellulose and Xyloglucan in the Walls of Stomatal Guard Cells of Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Yue; Anderson, Charles T.

    2016-01-01

    Stomatal guard cells are pairs of specialized epidermal cells that control water and CO2 exchange between the plant and the environment. To fulfill the functions of stomatal opening and closure that are driven by changes in turgor pressure, guard cell walls must be both strong and flexible, but how the structure and dynamics of guard cell walls enable stomatal function remains poorly understood. To address this question, we applied cell biological and genetic analyses to investigate guard cell walls and their relationship to stomatal function in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using live-cell spinning disk confocal microscopy, we measured the motility of cellulose synthase (CESA)-containing complexes labeled by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-CESA3 and observed a reduced proportion of GFP-CESA3 particles colocalizing with microtubules upon stomatal closure. Imaging cellulose organization in guard cells revealed a relatively uniform distribution of cellulose in the open state and a more fibrillar pattern in the closed state, indicating that cellulose microfibrils undergo dynamic reorganization during stomatal movements. In cesa3je5 mutants defective in cellulose synthesis and xxt1 xxt2 mutants lacking the hemicellulose xyloglucan, stomatal apertures, changes in guard cell length, and cellulose reorganization were aberrant during fusicoccin-induced stomatal opening or abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure, indicating that sufficient cellulose and xyloglucan are required for normal guard cell dynamics. Together, these results provide new insights into how guard cell walls allow stomata to function as responsive mediators of gas exchange at the plant surface. PMID:26729799

  3. Topological phase transitions in the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, C.; Naya, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate that the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model with a double vacuum potential allows for phase transitions from a non-solitonic to a solitonic phase, where the latter corresponds to a ferromagnetic liquid. Such a transition can be generated by increasing the external pressure P or by turning on an external magnetic field H. As a consequence, the topological phase where gauged BPS baby skyrmions exist, is a higher density phase. For smaller densities, obtained for smaller values of P and H, a phase without solitons is reached. We find the critical line in the P, H parameter space. Furthermore, in the soliton phase, we find the equation of state for the baby skyrmion matter V = V( P,H) at zero temperature, where V is the "volume", i.e., area of the solitons.

  4. Some exact BPS solutions for exotic vortices and monopoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadhan, Handhika S.

    2016-07-01

    We present several analytical solutions of BPS vortices and monopoles in the generalized Abelian Maxwell-Higgs and Yang-Mills-Higgs theories, respectively. These models have recently been extensively studied and several exact solutions have already been obtained in [1,2]. In each theory, the dynamics is controlled by the additional two positive scalar-field-dependent functions, f (| ϕ |) and w (| ϕ |). For the case of vortices, we work in the ordinary symmetry-breaking Higgs potential, while for the case of monopoles we have the ordinary condition of the Prasad-Sommerfield limit. Our results generalize the exact solutions found previously. We also present solutions for BPS vortices with higher winding number. These solutions suffer from the condition that w (| ϕ |) has negative value at some finite range of r, but we argue that since it satisfies the weaker positive-value conditions then the corresponding energy density is still positive-definite and, thus, they are acceptable BPS solutions.

  5. The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY: an expert-driven knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands.

    PubMed

    Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Alexander, Stephen P H; Buneman, O Peter; Davenport, Anthony P; McGrath, John C; Peters, John A; Southan, Christopher; Spedding, Michael; Yu, Wenyuan; Harmar, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    The International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology/British Pharmacological Society (IUPHAR/BPS) Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (http://www.guidetopharmacology.org) is a new open access resource providing pharmacological, chemical, genetic, functional and pathophysiological data on the targets of approved and experimental drugs. Created under the auspices of the IUPHAR and the BPS, the portal provides concise, peer-reviewed overviews of the key properties of a wide range of established and potential drug targets, with in-depth information for a subset of important targets. The resource is the result of curation and integration of data from the IUPHAR Database (IUPHAR-DB) and the published BPS 'Guide to Receptors and Channels' (GRAC) compendium. The data are derived from a global network of expert contributors, and the information is extensively linked to relevant databases, including ChEMBL, DrugBank, Ensembl, PubChem, UniProt and PubMed. Each of the ∼6000 small molecule and peptide ligands is annotated with manually curated 2D chemical structures or amino acid sequences, nomenclature and database links. Future expansion of the resource will complete the coverage of all the targets of currently approved drugs and future candidate targets, alongside educational resources to guide scientists and students in pharmacological principles and techniques.

  6. The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY: an expert-driven knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands.

    PubMed

    Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Alexander, Stephen P H; Buneman, O Peter; Davenport, Anthony P; McGrath, John C; Peters, John A; Southan, Christopher; Spedding, Michael; Yu, Wenyuan; Harmar, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    The International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology/British Pharmacological Society (IUPHAR/BPS) Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (http://www.guidetopharmacology.org) is a new open access resource providing pharmacological, chemical, genetic, functional and pathophysiological data on the targets of approved and experimental drugs. Created under the auspices of the IUPHAR and the BPS, the portal provides concise, peer-reviewed overviews of the key properties of a wide range of established and potential drug targets, with in-depth information for a subset of important targets. The resource is the result of curation and integration of data from the IUPHAR Database (IUPHAR-DB) and the published BPS 'Guide to Receptors and Channels' (GRAC) compendium. The data are derived from a global network of expert contributors, and the information is extensively linked to relevant databases, including ChEMBL, DrugBank, Ensembl, PubChem, UniProt and PubMed. Each of the ∼6000 small molecule and peptide ligands is annotated with manually curated 2D chemical structures or amino acid sequences, nomenclature and database links. Future expansion of the resource will complete the coverage of all the targets of currently approved drugs and future candidate targets, alongside educational resources to guide scientists and students in pharmacological principles and techniques. PMID:24234439

  7. Laccases Direct Lignification in the Discrete Secondary Cell Wall Domains of Protoxylem1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schuetz, Mathias; Benske, Anika; Smith, Rebecca A.; Watanabe, Yoichiro; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ralph, John; Demura, Taku; Ellis, Brian; Samuels, A. Lacey

    2014-01-01

    Plants precisely control lignin deposition in spiral or annular secondary cell wall domains during protoxylem tracheary element (TE) development. Because protoxylem TEs function to transport water within rapidly elongating tissues, it is important that lignin deposition is restricted to the secondary cell walls in order to preserve the plasticity of adjacent primary wall domains. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inducible VASCULAR NAC DOMAIN7 (VND7) protoxylem TE differentiation system permits the use of mutant backgrounds, fluorescent protein tagging, and high-resolution live-cell imaging of xylem cells during secondary cell wall development. Enzymes synthesizing monolignols, as well as putative monolignol transporters, showed a uniform distribution during protoxylem TE differentiation. By contrast, the oxidative enzymes LACCASE4 (LAC4) and LAC17 were spatially localized to secondary cell walls throughout protoxylem TE differentiation. These data support the hypothesis that precise delivery of oxidative enzymes determines the pattern of cell wall lignification. This view was supported by lac4lac17 mutant analysis demonstrating that laccases are necessary for protoxylem TE lignification. Overexpression studies showed that laccases are sufficient to catalyze ectopic lignin polymerization in primary cell walls when exogenous monolignols are supplied. Our data support a model of protoxylem TE lignification in which monolignols are highly mobile once exported to the cell wall, and in which precise targeting of laccases to secondary cell wall domains directs lignin deposition. PMID:25157028

  8. BPS preons and the AdS-M-algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandos, Igor A.; de Azcárraga, José A.

    2008-04-01

    We present here the AdS generalization of BPS preons, which were introduced as the hypothetical constituents of M-theory preserving all but one supersymmetries. Our construction, suggested by the relation of `lower dimensional preons' with higher spin theories, can be considered as a deformation of the M-algebraic description of the single supersymmetry broken by a preon, and provides another reason to identify the AdS generalization of the M-algebra, which we call the AdS-M-algebra, with osp(1|32).

  9. Topological duality between vortices and planar Skyrmions in BPS theories with area-preserving diffeomorphism symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, C.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    2013-01-01

    The Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) baby Skyrme models are submodels of baby Skyrme models, where the nonlinear sigma model term is suppressed. They have Skyrmion solutions saturating a BPS bound, and the corresponding static energy functional is invariant under area-preserving diffeomorphisms (APDs). Here we show that the solitons in the BPS baby Skyrme model, which carry a nontrivial topological charge Qb∈π2(S2) (a winding number), are dual to vortices in a BPS vortex model with a topological charge Qv∈π1(S1) (a vortex number), in the sense that there is a map between the BPS solutions of the two models. The corresponding energy densities of the BPS solutions of the two models are identical. A further consequence of the duality is that the dual BPS vortex models inherit the BPS property and the infinitely many symmetries (APDs) of the BPS baby Skyrme models. Finally, we demonstrate that the same topological duality continues to hold for the U(1) gauged versions of the models.

  10. Improvement of open and semi-open core wall system in tall buildings by closing of the core section in the last story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheyroddin, A.; Abdollahzadeh, D.; Mastali, M.

    2014-09-01

    Increasing number of tall buildings in urban population caused development of tall building structures. One of the main lateral load resistant systems is core wall system in high-rise buildings. Core wall system has two important behavioral aspects where the first aspect is related to reduce the lateral displacement by the core bending resistance and the second is governed by increasing of the torsional resistance and core warping of buildings. In this study, the effects of closed section core in the last story have been considered on the behavior of models. Regarding this, all analyses were performed by ETABS 9.2.v software (Wilson and Habibullah). Considering (a) drift and rotation of the core over height of buildings, (b) total and warping stress in the core body, (c) shear in beams due to warping stress, (d) effect of closing last story on period of models in various modes, (e) relative displacement between walls in the core system and (f) site effects in far and near field of fault by UBC97 spectra on base shear coefficient showed that the bimoment in open core is negative in the last quarter of building and it is similar to wall-frame structures. Furthermore, analytical results revealed that closed section core in the last story improves behavior of the last quarter of structure height, since closing of core section in the last story does not have significant effect on reducing base shear value in near and far field of active faults.

  11. [Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS)].

    PubMed

    Scheiner, David A; Perucchini, Daniele; Fink, Daniel; Betschart, Cornelia

    2015-08-19

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is still an etiologically poorly understood chronic pain syndrome. BPS is a clinical diagnosis. The current treatment modalities are aimed at symptom relief because no cure is possible. Analgesics may be used at any point in treatment but preferably for short-term relief for flares or bladder pain. AUA has issued clinical practice guidelines with a stepwise approach. The first-line therapy begins with self-care and behavior modification. Physical therapy and oral medications such as amitriptyline, PPS, or antihistamines belong to the second-line therapy. Third-line therapy requires cystoscopy and hydrodistension, treatment of Hunner lesions, or intravesical use of e.g. DMSO. Neuromodulation is considered a fourth-line therapy in patients who have failed third-line treatments. Fifth-line therapies consist of intravesical injection of BoNT or oral cyclosporin A. Cystectomy is the sixth-line therapy and the treatment of last resort. PMID:26286495

  12. Effect of bioactive peptides (BPs) on the development of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangjun; Yu, Ermeng; Li, Zhifei; Yu, Deguang; Wang, Haiying; Gong, Wangbao

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of replacing fish meal (FM) with bioactive peptides (BPs) in diet of white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). The changes in growth performance, body composition, non-specific immunity, and water quality were examined after the shrimp were fed four diets, in which 0% (control), 33.3%, 66.7% and 100% of FM was replaced by BPs, respectively. The groups were designated as Con, 1/3BPs, 2/3BPs, and 3/3BPs. A total of 720 shrimp with an initial body weight of 1.46 ± 0.78 g were fed the experimental diets for 56 days. The results revealed that: 1) the weight gain rate (WGR) in 1/3BPs, 2/3BPs, and 3/3BPs was significantly higher than that in Con ( P < 0.05), while no significant difference was found on survival rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR); 2) the whole-body crude protein (CP) and crude lipids (CL) were significantly different among groups, while there was no significant difference between crude ash and phosphorus contents; 3) the levels of acid phosphatase (ACP), lysozyme (LZM), superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenol oxidase (PO) and bactericidal activity increased significantly with the inclusion of BPs; 4) in terms of water quality, no significant difference was found in pH and dissolved oxygen among diets during the whole experimental period. Moreover, even though nitrite and ammonium levels tended to increase with time, there was no significant difference among groups. The results indicated that BPs is an applicable alternative of protein source, which can substitute FM in the diets of L. vannamei; it is able to effectively promote growth performance and improve immunity. Moreover, BPs in the diets had no negative impact on water quality.

  13. Refinement and evaluation of crack-opening-area analyses for circumferential through-wall cracks in pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, S.; Brust, F.; Ghadiali, N.; Krishnaswamy, P.; Wilkowski, G.; Choi, Y.H. |; Moberg, F.; Brickstad, B. |

    1995-04-01

    Leak-before-break (LBB) analyses for circumferentially cracked pipes are currently being conducted in the nuclear industry to justify elimination of pipe whip restraints and jet impingement shields which are present because of the expected dynamic effects from pipe rupture. The application of the LBB methodology frequently requires calculation of leak rates. These leak rates depend on the crack-opening area of a through-wall crack in the pipe. In addition to LBB analyses, which assume a hypothetical flaw size, there is also interest in the integrity of actual leaking cracks corresponding to current leakage detection requirements in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.45, or for assessing temporary repair of Class 2 and 3 pipes that have leaks as are being evaluated in ASME Section 11. This study was requested by the NRC to review, evaluate, and refine current analytical models for crack-opening-area analyses of pipes with circumferential through-wall cracks. Twenty-five pipe experiments were analyzed to determine the accuracy of the predictive models. Several practical aspects of crack-opening such as; crack-face pressure, off-center cracks, restraint of pressure-induced bending, cracks in thickness transition regions, weld residual stresses, crack-morphology models, and thermal-hydraulic analysis, were also investigated. 140 refs., 105 figs., 41 tabs.

  14. Near-infrared optical monitoring of cardiac oxygen sufficiency through thoracic wall without open-chest surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakihana, Yasuyuki; Tamura, Mamoru

    1991-05-01

    The cardiac function is exquisitely sensitive to oxygen, because its energy production mainly depends on the oxidative phosphorylation at mitochondria. Thus, oxygenation state of the tissue is critical. Cytochrome a,a3, hemoglobin and myoglobin, which play indispensable role in the oxygen metabolism, have the broad absorption band in near infrared (NIR) region and the light in this region easily penetrates biological tissues. Using NIR spectrophotometry, we attempted to measure the redox state of the copper in cytochrome a,a3 in rat heart through thoracic wall without open chest. The result is given in this paper.

  15. Open-ended modified single-wall carbon nanotubes: A theoretical study of the effects of purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Tapas; Akdim, Brahim; Duan, Xiaofeng; Pachter, Ruth

    2006-05-01

    A density functional theory (DFT) study of purified single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) molecular models has shown that open-ended carboxylated C(10, 0) and C(5, 5) are more acidic than benzoic acid, but moreover, that C(10, 0)-COOH is slightly more acidic than C(5, 5)-COOH, possibly enabling separation by chirality. In addition, an increase in the ionization potential may indicate a suppression of field emission for purified SWCNTs. Finally, we address the complexity of the large-scale DFT calculations by the application of the same level of theory but with a different basis set (SLDB) method, shown to be advantageous as compared to ONIOM.

  16. Classifying BPS states in supersymmetric gauge theories coupled to higher derivative chiral models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Muneto; Sasaki, Shin

    2015-06-01

    We study N =1 supersymmetric gauge theories coupled with higher derivative chiral models in four dimensions in the off-shell superfield formalism. We solve the equation of motion for the auxiliary fields and find two distinct on-shell structures of the Lagrangian that we call the canonical and noncanonical branches characterized by zero and nonzero auxiliary fields, respectively. We classify Bogomol'nyi-Prasado-Sommerfield (BPS) states of the models in Minkowski and Euclidean spaces. In Minkowski space, we find Abelian and non-Abelian vortices, vortex lumps (or gauged lumps with fractional lump charges) as 1 /2 BPS states in the canonical branch, and higher derivative generalization of vortices and vortex-(BPS)baby Skyrmions (or gauged BPS baby Skyrmions with fractional baby Skyrme charges) as 1 /4 BPS states in the noncanonical branch. In four-dimensional Euclidean space, we find Yang-Mills instantons trapped inside a non-Abelian vortex, intersecting vortices, and intersecting vortex-(BPS)baby Skyrmions as 1 /4 BPS states in the canonical branch but no BPS states in the noncanonical branch other than those in the Minkowski space.

  17. 29 CFR 1910.23 - Guarding floor and wall openings and holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., protection shall be provided to prevent a person from falling through the opening. (4) Every skylight floor... shall be securely held in place to prevent tools or materials from falling through. (10) Where doors or... falling materials, a removable toe board or the equivalent shall also be provided. When the opening is...

  18. Depletion of cellular iron by bps and ascorbate: effect on toxicity of adriamycin.

    PubMed

    Nyayapati, S; Afshan, G; Lornitzo, F; Byrnes, R W; Petering, D H

    1996-01-01

    A new method was developed that reduces the intracellular iron content of cells grown in serum-containing culture without involving the significant uptake of iron-chelating agents into cells. Negatively charged bathophenanthrolinedisulfonate (BPS), together with ascorbate, caused cells to lose much of their cellular iron without causing much depression in HL-60 or H9c2 (2-1) cell proliferation over a 48-h period. When added to serum supplemented RPMI-1640 culture media, BPS and ascorbate efficiently reduced and competed for iron in Fe(III) transferrin to form Fe(II)(BPS)3. The reaction also occurred with purified human iron-transferrin. When cells were incubated with growth medium containing serum that had been treated with BPS and ascorbate for 24 h, little or no BPS2- or Fe(II)(BPS)(4-)3 entered the cells, according to direct measurements and in agreement with the highly unfavorable 1-octanol/water partition coefficients for these molecules. However, iron was mobilized out of both cell types. After 24 h incubation of cells in this medium, there was no change in the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase, or in the concentration of glutathione. Glutathione peroxidase was elevated 9%. Using HL-60 and H9c2 (2-1) cells made iron deficient with BPS and ascorbate, HL-60 cells grown in defined-growth media in the absence of iron-pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone, or Euglena gracilis cells maintained in a defined medium that was rigorously depleted of iron, it was shown that the cytotoxicity of adriamycin is markedly dependent on the presence of iron in each type of cell. Similar results were obtained when HL-60 cells were grown in RPMI-1640 culture medium and serum that had been incubated for 24 h in BPS and ascorbate and then chromatographed over a Bio-Rad desalting column to remove small molecules including BPS, ascorbate, and Fe(II)(BPS)3. PMID:8720902

  19. Non-BPS multi-bubble microstate geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Bossard, Guillaume; Katmadas, Stefanos; Turton, David

    2016-02-01

    We construct the first smooth horizonless supergravity solutions that have two topologically-nontrivial three-cycles supported by flux, and that have the same mass and charges as a non-extremal D1-D5-P black hole. Our configurations are solutions to six-dimensional ungauged supergravity coupled to a tensor multiplet, and uplift to solutions of Type IIB supergravity. The solutions represent multi-center generalizations of the non-BPS solutions of Jejjala, Madden, Ross, and Titchener, which have over-rotating angular momenta. By adding an additional Gibbons-Hawking center, we succeed in lowering one of the two angular momenta below the cosmic censorship bound, and bringing the other very close to this bound. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to construct multi-center horizonless solutions corresponding to non-extremal black holes, and offer the prospect of ultimately establishing that finite-temperature black holes have nontrivial structure at the horizon.

  20. Quantum Holonomies from Spectral Networks and Framed BPS States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabella, Maxime

    2016-08-01

    We propose a method for determining the spins of BPS states supported on line defects in 4d {{N}=2} theories of class S. Via the 2d-4d correspondence, this translates to the construction of quantum holonomies on a punctured Riemann surface {{C}} . Our approach combines the technology of spectral networks, which decomposes flat {GL(K,{C})} -connections on {{C}} in terms of flat abelian connections on a K-fold cover of {{C}} , and the skein algebra in the 3-manifold {{C} × [0,1]} , which expresses the representation theory of the quantum group U q (gl K ). With any path on {{C}} , the quantum holonomy associates a positive Laurent polynomial in the quantized Fock-Goncharov coordinates of higher Teichmüller space. This confirms various positivity conjectures in physics and mathematics.

  1. Schur indices, BPS particles, and Argyres-Douglas theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdova, Clay; Shao, Shu-Heng

    2016-01-01

    We conjecture a precise relationship between the Schur limit of the superconformal index of four-dimensional N=2 field theories, which counts local operators, and the spectrum of BPS particles on the Coulomb branch. We verify this conjecture for the special case of free field theories, N=2 QED, and SU(2) gauge theory coupled to fundamental matter. Assuming the validity of our proposal, we compute the Schur index of all Argyres-Douglas theories. Our answers match expectations from the connection of Schur operators with two-dimensional chiral algebras. Based on our results we propose that the chiral algebra of the generalized Argyres-Douglas theory ( A k-1, A N-1) with k and N coprime, is the vacuum sector of the ( k, k + N) W k minimal model, and that the Schur index is the associated vacuum character.

  2. Static and free-vibrational response of semi-circular graphite-epoxy frames with thin-walled open sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, J. Scott; Johnson, Eric R.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure the three-dimensional static and free vibrational response of two graphite-epoxy, thin-walled, open section frames. The frames are semi-circular with a radius of three feet, and one specimen has an I cross section and the other has a channel cross section. The flexibility influence coefficients were measured in static tests for loads applied at midspan with the ends of the specimens clamped. Natural frequencies and modes were determined from vibrational tests for free and clamped end conditions. The experimental data is used to evaluate a new finite element which was developed specifically for the analysis of curved, thin-walled structures. The formulation of the element is based on a Vlasov-type, thin-walled, curved beam theory. The predictions from the finite element program generally correlated well with the experimental data for the symmetric I-specimen. Discrepancies in some of the data were found to be due to flexibility in the clamped end conditions. With respect to the data for the channel specimen, the correlation was less satisfactory. The finite element analysis predicted the out-of-plane response of the channel specimen reasonably well, but large discrepancies occurred between the predicted in-plane response and the experimental data. The analysis predicted a much more compliant in-plane response than was observed in the experiments.

  3. Moss Chloroplasts Are Surrounded by a Peptidoglycan Wall Containing D-Amino Acids[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Takayuki; Tanidokoro, Koji; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Sato, Momo; Tadano, Shinji; Ishikawa, Hayato; Takio, Susumu; Takechi, Katsuaki; Takano, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    It is believed that the plastids in green plants lost peptidoglycan (i.e., a bacterial cell wall-containing d-amino acids) during their evolution from an endosymbiotic cyanobacterium. Although wall-like structures could not be detected in the plastids of green plants, the moss Physcomitrella patens has the genes required to generate peptidoglycan (Mur genes), and knocking out these genes causes defects in chloroplast division. Here, we generated P. patens knockout lines (∆Pp-ddl) for a homolog of the bacterial peptidoglycan-synthetic gene encoding d-Ala:d-Ala ligase. ∆Pp-ddl had a macrochloroplast phenotype, similar to other Mur knockout lines. The addition of d-Ala-d-Ala (DA-DA) to the medium suppressed the appearance of giant chloroplasts in ∆Pp-ddl, but the addition of l-Ala-l-Ala (LA-LA), DA-LA, LA-DA, or d-Ala did not. Recently, a metabolic method for labeling bacterial peptidoglycan was established using ethynyl-DA-DA (EDA-DA) and click chemistry to attach an azide-modified fluorophore to the ethynyl group. The ∆Pp-ddl line complemented with EDA-DA showed that moss chloroplasts are completely surrounded by peptidoglycan. Our findings strongly suggest that the moss plastids have a peptidoglycan wall containing d-amino acids. By contrast, no plastid phenotypes were observed in the T-DNA tagged ddl mutant lines of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:27325639

  4. On Correlation Functions of BPS Operators in 3d N = 6 Superconformal Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liendo, Pedro; Meneghelli, Carlo; Mitev, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a novel harmonic superspace for 3d N=6 superconformal field theories that is tailor made for the study of correlation functions of BPS operators. We calculate a host of two- and three-point functions in full generality and put strong constraints on the form of four-point functions of some selected BPS multiplets. For the four-point function of {1/2} -BPS operators we obtain the associated Ward identities by imposing the absence of harmonic singularities. The latter imply the existence of a solvable subsector in which the correlator becomes topological. This mechanism can be explained by cohomological reduction with respect to a special nilpotent supercharge.

  5. A Distinct Pathway for Polar Exocytosis in Plant Cell Wall Formation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Zhuang, Xiaohong; Wang, Xiangfeng; Law, Angus Ho Yin; Zhao, Teng; Du, Shengwang; Loy, Michael M.T.; Jiang, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Post-Golgi protein sorting and trafficking to the plasma membrane (PM) is generally believed to occur via the trans-Golgi network (TGN). In this study using Nicotiana tabacum pectin methylesterase (NtPPME1) as a marker, we have identified a TGN-independent polar exocytosis pathway that mediates cell wall formation during cell expansion and cytokinesis. Confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy studies demonstrated that Golgi-derived secretory vesicles (GDSVs) labeled by NtPPME1-GFP are distinct from those organelles belonging to the conventional post-Golgi exocytosis pathway. In addition, pharmaceutical treatments, superresolution imaging, and dynamic studies suggest that NtPPME1 follows a polar exocytic process from Golgi-GDSV-PM/cell plate (CP), which is distinct from the conventional Golgi-TGN-PM/CP secretion pathway. Further studies show that ROP1 regulates this specific polar exocytic pathway. Taken together, we have demonstrated an alternative TGN-independent Golgi-to-PM polar exocytic route, which mediates secretion of NtPPME1 for cell wall formation during cell expansion and cytokinesis and is ROP1-dependent. PMID:27531442

  6. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes increase anxiety levels in rats and reduce exploratory activity in the open field test.

    PubMed

    Sayapina, N V; Batalova, T A; Chaika, V V; Kuznetsov, V L; Sergievich, A A; Kolosov, V P; Perel'man, Yu M; Golokhvast, K S

    2015-01-01

    The results of the first study on the effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the exploratory activity and the emotional state in laboratory rats assessed by the open field test are reported. During three or ten days, rats received 8-10 nm MWNTs added to their food at a dose of 500 mg/kg. It was demonstrated that, in the group of rats which were fed with MWNTs, the integrated anxiety level index began to increase as early as the third day of the experiment; on the tenth day, it appeared to be twice increased. It was also demonstrated that MWNTs decreased the integrated exploratory activity index nearly twofold on the third day and nearly fourfold on the tenth day.

  7. Reduced Wall Acetylation Proteins Play Vital and Distinct Roles in Cell Wall O-Acetylation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Yuzuki; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Gille, Sascha; Harholt, Jesper; Chong, Sun-Li; Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.; Tenkanen, Maija; Cheng, Kun; Pauly, Markus; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2013-01-01

    The Reduced Wall Acetylation (RWA) proteins are involved in cell wall acetylation in plants. Previously, we described a single mutant, rwa2, which has about 20% lower level of O-acetylation in leaf cell walls and no obvious growth or developmental phenotype. In this study, we generated double, triple, and quadruple loss-of-function mutants of all four members of the RWA family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In contrast to rwa2, the triple and quadruple rwa mutants display severe growth phenotypes revealing the importance of wall acetylation for plant growth and development. The quadruple rwa mutant can be completely complemented with the RWA2 protein expressed under 35S promoter, indicating the functional redundancy of the RWA proteins. Nevertheless, the degree of acetylation of xylan, (gluco)mannan, and xyloglucan as well as overall cell wall acetylation is affected differently in different combinations of triple mutants, suggesting their diversity in substrate preference. The overall degree of wall acetylation in the rwa quadruple mutant was reduced by 63% compared with the wild type, and histochemical analysis of the rwa quadruple mutant stem indicates defects in cell differentiation of cell types with secondary cell walls. PMID:24019426

  8. Two confined phases of argon adsorbed inside open single walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Jakubek, Zygmunt J; Simard, Benoit

    2004-07-01

    Isothermal adsorption of Ar on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has been studied at 77 and 87 K. The SWNTs have been grown by laser vaporization of a graphite pellet containing 0.6% (atomic) Ni/Co catalyst. The nanotubes have been prepared for argon adsorption measurements by prolonged outgassing of as-grown material in a vacuum at room temperature (295 K), at elevated temperatures of up to 475 K, and by oxidization for 2 h in dry air at 470 K. Formation of two condensed phases of Ar in the interior of SWNTs has been observed at 77 K. The low-density phase is formed at 155(5) microTorr, while the high-density phase, at 120(5) microTorr. At 87 K, only a single phase has been observed at 185(5) microTorr. Condensation at both 77 and 87 K appears to be the first-order phase transition. Onset of the quasi-one-dimensional linear (one-channel) phase and the quasi-two-dimensional monolayer (six-channel) phase formation on the external surface of bundles has been observed at 77 K near 0.0017 and 0.8 Torr, respectively, and at 87 K near 0.018 and 5 Torr, respectively. Isosteric heats of adsorption for the one-channel phase, the first external layer, and the second external layer have been determined to be equal to 137, 107, and 70 meV, respectively. PMID:16459613

  9. BPS Preons in Supergravity and Higher Spin Theories. An Overview From the Hill of Twistor Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandos, I. A.

    2005-04-01

    We review briefly the notion of BPS preons, first introduced in 11-dimensional context as hypothetical constituents of M-theory, in its generalization to arbitrary dimensions and emphasizing the relation with twistor approach. In particular, the use of a "twistor-like" definition of BPS preon (almost) allows us to remove supersymmetry arguments from the discussion of the relation of the preons with higher spin theories and also of the treatment of BPS preons as constituents. We turn to the supersymmetry in the second part of this contribution, where we complete the algebraic discussion with supersymmetric arguments based on the M-algebra (generalized Poincaré superalgebra), discuss the possible generalization of BPS preons related to the osp(1|n) (generalized AdS) superalgebra, review a twistor-like κ-symmetric superparticle in tensorial superspace, which provides a point-like dynamical model for BPS preon, and the rôle of BPS preons in the analysis of supergravity solutions. Finally we describe resent results on the concise superfield description of the higher spin field equations and on superfield supergravity in tensorial superspaces.

  10. Higher detection sensitivity of anxiolytic effects of diazepam by ledge-free open arm with opaque walled closed arm elevated plus maze in male rats.

    PubMed

    Horii, Yasuyuki; Kawaguchi, Maiko

    2015-11-01

    The elevated plus maze (EPM) is an established method for testing animal anxiety. However, EPM apparatuses and their features can differ among laboratories, most notably in the presence/absence of ledges on the open arm and/or the transparency/opaqueness of walls on the closed arm. The combined effects of these variable arm features on EPM behavior are not yet fully understood. In the present study, we prepared four types of EPM apparatus - open arms with (0.5 cm) or without (0 cm) ledges×closed arms with transparent or opaque walls - and compared the maze-exploration behavior of male Sprague-Dawley rats. We found that the presence of open arm ledges significantly increased the incidence of open arm exploration. Furthermore, time spent in the distal segment of the open arm was shortest in the apparatus that had open arms with no ledges and opaque closed arms (No-Ledges/Opaque), and was longest in the apparatus that had open arms with ledges and transparent closed arms (Ledges/Transparent). Additionally, the No-Ledges/Opaque apparatus could detect the effect of 0.5mg/kg diazepam, an anxiolytic drug, whereas the Ledges/Transparent apparatus could not. These results indicate that arm structure (features of both open and closed arms) significantly influences maze-exploratory behavior in rats, and that No-Ledges/Opaque apparatuses have higher detection sensitivity for anxiolytic effects of diazepam than that of Ledges/Transparent apparatuses.

  11. Studies on instantons, twistor strings, and half-BPS geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Riccardo

    2006-12-01

    In this Dissertation we discuss three different topics. We begin by studying supersymmetric instantons for Yang-Mills theories on non-anticommutative superspace. Performing an iterative expansion in the non-commutativity parameter C, we solve the equation of motions for U(2) Super Yang-Mills with and without matter. For pure Yang-Mills, we solve the equations exactly. In addition to the usual 't Hooft SU(2) instanton, the deformation turns on a non-trivial U(1) conncetion which depends on the fermionic collective coordinates and the deformation parameter C. In the Higgs phase on the other hand, we solve the equations of motion to leading order in the coupling constant. Even though the instanton effective action receives a contribution of order C 2, the gluino condensate and the non-perturbative Affleck-Dine-Seiberg superpotential remain as in N = 1 super Yang-Mills. The second topic is related to twister strings. Perturbative super Yang-Mills can be reinterpreted as a D-instanton expansion of the topological B-model on the supermanifold CP3|4 . We extend this contruction to N = 1 and N = 2 quiver gauge theories by contructing fermionic orbifolds of CP3|4 . Topological string suggest some efficient rules for computing Yang-Mills perturbative amplitudes. We consider possible extensions of these rules to gravity amplitudes. We conclude by analyzing some mathematical aspects of super Calabi-Yau manifolds. The final topic is devoted to the study of half-BPS type IIB supergravity solutions. The moduli space of these solutions can be associated to a one-dimensional, zero temperature fermion gas in a harmonic potential. We studied a natural generalization of the fermion-supergravity map, considering the fermions at non-zero temperature. We found that the ADM energy of the supergravity solution reproduces the thermal fermion energy. One important effect of the temperature is that the background develops a null singularity. This singularity is naked, that is not "covered" by

  12. Grafting Poly(ethylene glycol) Onto Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Living Anionic Ring-Opening Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Guoxiang; Sheng, Wenbo; Liu, Zhiyong; Jia, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Recent years, many methods have been developed to widen the practical application of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Among them, PEGylation is a general strategy to endow functionality, biocompatibility as well as its good solubility. In this paper, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is successfully grafted onto SWCNTs through living anionic ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide (EO). By controlling the amount of monomer and initiator, a series of PEGylated SWCNTs with different PEG molecular weight and density are prepared. Then, the as-prepared SWCNTs have been verified by thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Finally, the protein resistance property of the PEGylated SWCNTs is investigated. It is found that these PEGylated SWCNTs have a good protein resistance property and the higher the content of PEG grafted on the SWCNTs, the less adsorption amount of BSA and the larger capacity to resist protein absorption. This work provides a novel method to prepare PEGylated SWCNTs. PMID:27398490

  13. Expression of group B protective surface protein (BPS) by invasive and colonizing isolates of group B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Flores, Aurea E; Chhatwal, G S; Hillier, Sharon L; Baker, Carol J; Ferrieri, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    Group B protective surface protein (BPS) is expressed on the cell surface of some group B streptococcal (GBS) (Streptococcus agalactiae) strains and adds to the identification by capsular polysaccharide (CPS), and c or R proteins. We investigated the prevalence of BPS among GBS clinical isolates (303 invasive, 4122 colonizing) collected over 11 years in four American cities. Hot HCl cell extracts were tested by immunoprecipitation in agarose with rabbit antisera to BPS; the alpha (α) and beta (β) components of c protein; R1, R3, and R4 species of R protein; and CPS serotypes Ia-VIII. BPS was found in 155 isolates (seven invasive, 148 colonizing). Of these, 87 were Ia, 37 II, 20 V; none were III. BPS was expressed usually with another protein: a species of R by 87 or a component of c by 39. The predominant CPS/protein profiles with BPS were Ia/R1,BPS and II/c(α + β),BPS. Thus, along with CPS serotype and other surface proteins, BPS can be a valuable marker for precise strain characterization of unique GBS clinical isolates with complex surface protein profiles.

  14. Ultrastructure of the Epidermal Cell Wall and Cuticle of Tomato Fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) during Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Segado, Patricia; Domínguez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The epidermis plays a pivotal role in plant development and interaction with the environment. However, it is still poorly understood, especially its outer epidermal wall: a singular wall covered by a cuticle. Changes in the cuticle and cell wall structures are important to fully understand their functions. In this work, an ultrastructure and immunocytochemical approach was taken to identify changes in the cuticle and the main components of the epidermal cell wall during tomato fruit development. A thin and uniform procuticle was already present before fruit set. During cell division, the inner side of the procuticle showed a globular structure with vesicle-like particles in the cell wall close to the cuticle. Transition between cell division and elongation was accompanied by a dramatic increase in cuticle thickness, which represented more than half of the outer epidermal wall, and the lamellate arrangement of the non-cutinized cell wall. Changes in this non-cutinized outer wall during development showed specific features not shared with other cell walls. The coordinated nature of the changes observed in the cuticle and the epidermal cell wall indicate a deep interaction between these two supramolecular structures. Hence, the cuticle should be interpreted within the context of the outer epidermal wall. PMID:26668335

  15. Non-BPS D-brane solutions in six dimensional orbifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Y.

    2000-08-01

    Starting with the non-BPS D0-brane solution of IIB/(-1)FLI4 constructed recently by Eyras and Panda we construct via T-duality the non-BPS D2-brane and D1-brane solutions of IIB/(-1)FLI4 and IIA/(-1)FLI4 predicted by Sen. The D2-brane couples magnetically to the vector field of the NS5B-brane living in the twisted sector of the Type IIB orbifold, whereas the D1-brane couples (electrically and magnetically) to the self-dual 2-form potential of the NS5A-brane that is present in the twisted sector of the Type IIA orbifold construction. Finally we discuss the eleven dimensional interpretation of these branes as originating from a non-BPS M1-brane solution of M-theory orientifolded by ΩρI5.

  16. Domain walls in supersymmetric QCD: The taming of the zoo

    SciTech Connect

    Binosi, Daniele; ter Veldhuis, Tonnis

    2001-04-15

    We provide a unified picture of the domain wall spectrum in supersymmetric QCD with N{sub c} colors and N{sub f} flavors of quarks in the (anti) fundamental representation. Within the framework of the Veneziano-Yankielowicz-Taylor effective Lagrangian, we consider domain walls connecting chiral symmetry breaking vacua, and we take the quark masses to be degenerate. For N{sub f}/N{sub c}<1/2, there is one BPS saturated domain wall for any value of the quark mass m. For 1/2{<=}N{sub f}/N{sub c}<1 there are two critical masses m{sub *} and m{sub **} which depend on the number of colors and flavors only through the ratio N{sub f}/N{sub c}. If mBPS walls; if m{sub *}BPS wall; and if m>m{sub **}, there is no domain wall. We numerically determine m{sub *} and m{sub **} as a function of N{sub f}/N{sub c}, and we find that m{sub **} approaches a constant value in the limit that this ratio goes to 1.

  17. Construction and classification of novel BPS Wilson loops in quiver Chern-Simons-matter theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Hao; Wu, Jun-Bao; Zhang, Jia-ju

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we construct and classify novel Drukker-Trancanelli (DT) type BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines and circles in N = 2 , 3 quiver superconformal Chern-Simons-matter theories, Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory, and N = 4 orbifold ABJM theory. Generally we have four classes of Wilson loops, and all of them preserve the same supersymmetries as the BPS Gaiotto-Yin (GY) type Wilson loops. There are several free complex parameters in the DT type BPS Wilson loops, and for two classes of Wilson loops in ABJM theory and N = 4 orbifold ABJM theory there are supersymmetry enhancements at special values of the parameters. We check that the differences of the DT type and GY type Wilson loops are Q-exact with Q being some supercharges preserved by both the DT type and GY type Wilson loops. The results would be useful to calculate vacuum expectation values of the DT type Wilson loops in matrix models if they are still BPS quantum mechanically.

  18. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up (BPS:90/94) Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Daniel J.; And Others

    This document provides a summary and evaluation of the methodological procedures and results of the full-scale implementation of the Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up, 1990-94 (BPS:90/94). The study was conducted for the National Center for Education Statistics by Research Triangle Institute with the assistance of…

  19. Cosmic D- and DF-strings from D3D3: Black strings and BPS limit

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taekyung; Kim, Yoonbai; Kyae, Bumseok; Lee, Jungjai

    2008-03-15

    We study D- and DF-strings in a D3D3 system by using Dirac-Born-Infeld type action. In the presence of an electric flux from the transverse direction, we discuss gravitating thick D-string solutions of a spatial manifold, S{sup 2}xR{sup 1}, in which straight D-strings stretched along the R{sup 1} direction are attached to the south and north poles of the two-sphere. There is a horizon along its equator, which means the structure of black strings is formed. We also discuss the BPS limit for thin parallel D- and DF-strings in both flat and curved spacetime. We obtain the BPS sum rule for an arbitrarily-separated multistring configuration with a Gaussian type tachyon potential. At the site of each thin BPS D(F)-string, the pressure takes a finite value. We find that there exists a maximum deficit angle {pi} in the conical geometry induced by thin BPS D- and DF-strings.

  20. The Bordetella pertussis Bps polysaccharide enhances lung colonization by conferring protection from complement-mediated killing.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Tridib; Johnson, John B; Kock, Nancy D; Parks, Griffith D; Deora, Rajendar

    2014-07-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a human-restricted Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes whooping cough or pertussis. Pertussis is the leading vaccine preventable disease that is resurging in the USA and other parts of the developed world. There is an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms by which B. pertussis evades killing and clearance by the complement system, a first line of host innate immune defence. The present study examined the role of the Bps polysaccharide to resist complement activity in vitro and in the mouse respiratory tract. The isogenic bps mutant strain containing a large non-polar in-frame deletion of the bpsA-D locus was more sensitive to serum and complement mediated killing than the WT strain. As determined by Western blotting, flow cytometry and electron microscopic studies, the heightened sensitivity of the mutant strain was due to enhanced deposition of complement proteins and the formation of membrane attack complex, the end-product of complement activation. Bps was sufficient to confer complement resistance as evidenced by a Bps-expressing Escherichia coli being protected by serum killing. Additionally, Western blotting and flow cytometry assays revealed that Bps inhibited the deposition of complement proteins independent of other B. pertussis factors. The bps mutant strain colonized the lungs of complement-deficient mice at higher levels than that observed in C57Bl/6 mice. These results reveal a previously unknown interaction between Bps and the complement system in controlling B. pertussis colonization of the respiratory tract. These findings also make Bps a potential target for the prevention and therapy of whooping cough.

  1. The Fragile Fiber1 Kinesin Contributes to Cortical Microtubule-Mediated Trafficking of Cell Wall Components1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chuanmei; Ganguly, Anindya; Baskin, Tobias I.; McClosky, Daniel D.; Anderson, Charles T.; Foster, Cliff; Meunier, Kristoffer A.; Okamoto, Ruth; Berg, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The cell wall consists of cellulose microfibrils embedded within a matrix of hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane, whereas matrix polysaccharides are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus and secreted. The trafficking of vesicles containing cell wall components is thought to depend on actin-myosin. Here, we implicate microtubules in this process through studies of the kinesin-4 family member, Fragile Fiber1 (FRA1). In an fra1-5 knockout mutant, the expansion rate of the inflorescence stem is halved compared with the wild type along with the thickness of both primary and secondary cell walls. Nevertheless, cell walls in fra1-5 have an essentially unaltered composition and ultrastructure. A functional triple green fluorescent protein-tagged FRA1 fusion protein moves processively along cortical microtubules, and its abundance and motile density correlate with growth rate. Motility of FRA1 and cellulose synthase complexes is independent, indicating that FRA1 is not directly involved in cellulose biosynthesis; however, the secretion rate of fucose-alkyne-labeled pectin is greatly decreased in fra1-5, and the mutant has Golgi bodies with fewer cisternae and enlarged vesicles. Based on our results, we propose that FRA1 contributes to cell wall production by transporting Golgi-derived vesicles along cortical microtubules for secretion. PMID:25646318

  2. Pectin Metabolism and Assembly in the Cell Wall of the Charophyte Green Alga Penium margaritaceum1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Domozych, David S.; Sørensen, Iben; Popper, Zoë A.; Ochs, Julie; Andreas, Amanda; Fangel, Jonatan U.; Pielach, Anna; Sacks, Carly; Brechka, Hannah; Ruisi-Besares, Pia; Willats, William G.T.; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.

    2014-01-01

    The pectin polymer homogalacturonan (HG) is a major component of land plant cell walls and is especially abundant in the middle lamella. Current models suggest that HG is deposited into the wall as a highly methylesterified polymer, demethylesterified by pectin methylesterase enzymes and cross-linked by calcium ions to form a gel. However, this idea is based largely on indirect evidence and in vitro studies. We took advantage of the wall architecture of the unicellular alga Penium margaritaceum, which forms an elaborate calcium cross-linked HG-rich lattice on its cell surface, to test this model and other aspects of pectin dynamics. Studies of live cells and microscopic imaging of wall domains confirmed that the degree of methylesterification and sufficient levels of calcium are critical for lattice formation in vivo. Pectinase treatments of live cells and immunological studies suggested the presence of another class of pectin polymer, rhamnogalacturonan I, and indicated its colocalization and structural association with HG. Carbohydrate microarray analysis of the walls of P. margaritaceum, Physcomitrella patens, and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) further suggested the conservation of pectin organization and interpolymer associations in the walls of green plants. The individual constituent HG polymers also have a similar size and branched structure to those of embryophytes. The HG-rich lattice of P. margaritaceum, a member of the charophyte green algae, the immediate ancestors of land plants, was shown to be important for cell adhesion. Therefore, the calcium-HG gel at the cell surface may represent an early evolutionary innovation that paved the way for an adhesive middle lamella in multicellular land plants. PMID:24652345

  3. Various computational conditions of oscillatory natural convection of zero Prandtl number fluid in an open boat heated and cooled from opposing vertical walls

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Kazuto . Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science); Ozoe, Hiroyuki . Inst. of Advanced Material Study)

    1993-03-01

    The finite-difference computational scheme is developed for two-dimensional oscillatory natural convection of zero Prandtl number fluid in an open boat heated and cooled from opposing vertical walls. Various computational conditions are tested, such as the initial condition, time step length, finite-difference width, and finite-difference scheme. Instantaneous contour maps and velocity vectors in oscillatory states are presented in a series of maps to represent the fluctuating characteristics of two-dimensional roll cells. The physical conditions are for a boat with aspect ratio A = 3[minus]5 at Pr = 0 and Gr = 14,000-40,000.

  4. Resume and Report of Visitations to Schools Employing the Open-Space Concept of School Construction ("Schools-Without-Walls").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Robert

    Four schools were visited in an attempt to assess the merits of combining several classrooms in a large space as a method of school construction. Interviews with students and teachers as well as personal impressions form the basis for evaluation. Satisfactory results were found for schools-without-walls, school carpeting, acoustic control, team…

  5. The quantum 1/2 BPS Wilson loop in {N}=4 Chern-Simons-matter theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Marco S.; Griguolo, Luca; Leoni, Matias; Mauri, Andrea; Penati, Silvia; Seminara, Domenico

    2016-09-01

    In three dimensional {N}=4 Chern-Simons-matter theories two independent fermionic Wilson loop operators can be defined, which preserve half of the supersymmetry charges and are cohomologically equivalent at classical level. We compute their three-loop expectation value in a convenient color sector and prove that the degeneracy is uplifted by quantum corrections. We expand the matrix model prediction in the same regime and by comparison we conclude that the quantum 1/2 BPS Wilson loop is the average of the two operators. We provide an all-loop argument to support this claim at any order. As a by-product, we identify the localization result at three loops as a correction to the framing factor induced by matter interactions. Finally, we comment on the quantum properties of the non-1/2 BPS Wilson loop operator defined as the difference of the two fermionic ones.

  6. The quantum 1/2 BPS Wilson loop in N=4 Chern-Simons-matter theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Marco S.; Griguolo, Luca; Leoni, Matias; Mauri, Andrea; Penati, Silvia; Seminara, Domenico

    2016-09-01

    In three dimensional N=4 Chern-Simons-matter theories two independent fermionic Wilson loop operators can be defined, which preserve half of the supersymmetry charges and are cohomologically equivalent at classical level. We compute their three-loop expectation value in a convenient color sector and prove that the degeneracy is uplifted by quantum corrections. We expand the matrix model prediction in the same regime and by comparison we conclude that the quantum 1/2 BPS Wilson loop is the average of the two operators. We provide an all-loop argument to support this claim at any order. As a by-product, we identify the localization result at three loops as a correction to the framing factor induced by matter interactions. Finally, we comment on the quantum properties of the non-1/2 BPS Wilson loop operator defined as the difference of the two fermionic ones.

  7. BPS spectrum of supersymmetric CP(N-1) theory with Z{sub N} twisted masses

    SciTech Connect

    Bolokhov, Pavel A.; Shifman, Mikhail; Yung, Alexei

    2011-10-15

    We revisit the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfeld (BPS) monopoles spectrum of the supersymmetric CP(N-1) two-dimensional model with Z{sub N}-symmetric twisted masses m{sub l} (l=0,1,...,N-1). A related issue we address is that of the curves of marginal stability (CMS) in this theory. Previous analyses were incomplete. We close the gap by exploiting a number of consistency conditions. In particular, we amend the Dorey formula for the BPS spectrum. Our analysis is based on the exact Veneziano--Yankielowicz-type superpotential and on the strong-coupling spectrum of the theory found from the mirror representation at small masses, |m{sub l}|<<{Lambda}. We show that at weak coupling the spectrum, with necessity, must include N-1 BPS towers of states, instead of just one, as was thought before. Only one of the towers is seen in the quasiclassical limit. We find the corresponding CMS for these towers, and argue that in the large-N limit they become circles, filling out a band on the plane of a single mass parameter of the model at hand. Inside the CMS, N-1 towers collapse into N stable states.

  8. Putrescine Alleviates Iron Deficiency via NO-Dependent Reutilization of Root Cell-Wall Fe in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Wang, Bin; Song, Wen Feng; Zheng, Shao Jian; Shen, Ren Fang

    2016-01-01

    Plants challenged with abiotic stress show enhanced polyamines levels. Here, we show that the polyamine putrescine (Put) plays an important role to alleviate Fe deficiency. The adc2-1 mutant, which is defective in Put biosynthesis, was hypersensitive to Fe deficiency compared with wild type (Col-1 of Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana]). Exogenous Put decreased the Fe bound to root cell wall, especially to hemicellulose, and increased root and shoot soluble Fe content, thus alleviating the Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis. Intriguingly, exogenous Put induced the accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) under both Fe-sufficient (+Fe) and Fe-deficient (-Fe) conditions, although the ferric-chelate reductase (FCR) activity and the expression of genes related to Fe uptake were induced only under -Fe treatment. The alleviation of Fe deficiency by Put was diminished in the hemicellulose-level decreased mutant-xth31 and in the noa1 and nia1nia2 mutants, in which the endogenous NO levels are reduced, indicating that both NO and hemicellulose are involved in Put-mediated alleviation of Fe deficiency. However, the FCR activity and the expression of genes related to Fe uptake were still up-regulated under -Fe+Put treatment compared with -Fe treatment in xth31, and Put-induced cell wall Fe remobilization was abolished in noa1 and nia1nia2, indicating that Put-regulated cell wall Fe reutilization is dependent on NO. From our results, we conclude that Put is involved in the remobilization of Fe from root cell wall hemicellulose in a process dependent on NO accumulation under Fe-deficient condition in Arabidopsis. PMID:26578707

  9. The protein BpsB is a poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine deacetylase required for biofilm formation in Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed

    Little, Dustin J; Milek, Sonja; Bamford, Natalie C; Ganguly, Tridib; DiFrancesco, Benjamin R; Nitz, Mark; Deora, Rajendar; Howell, P Lynne

    2015-09-11

    Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica are the causative agents of whooping cough in humans and a variety of respiratory diseases in animals, respectively. Bordetella species produce an exopolysaccharide, known as the Bordetella polysaccharide (Bps), which is encoded by the bpsABCD operon. Bps is required for Bordetella biofilm formation, colonization of the respiratory tract, and confers protection from complement-mediated killing. In this report, we have investigated the role of BpsB in the biosynthesis of Bps and biofilm formation by B. bronchiseptica. BpsB is a two-domain protein that localizes to the periplasm and outer membrane. BpsB displays metal- and length-dependent deacetylation on poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) oligomers, supporting previous immunogenic data that suggests Bps is a PNAG polymer. BpsB can use a variety of divalent metal cations for deacetylase activity and showed highest activity in the presence of Ni(2+) and Co(2+). The structure of the BpsB deacetylase domain is similar to the PNAG deacetylases PgaB and IcaB and contains the same circularly permuted family four carbohydrate esterase motifs. Unlike PgaB from Escherichia coli, BpsB is not required for polymer export and has unique structural differences that allow the N-terminal deacetylase domain to be active when purified in isolation from the C-terminal domain. Our enzymatic characterizations highlight the importance of conserved active site residues in PNAG deacetylation and demonstrate that the C-terminal domain is required for maximal deacetylation of longer PNAG oligomers. Furthermore, we show that BpsB is critical for the formation and complex architecture of B. bronchiseptica biofilms. PMID:26203190

  10. The Protein BpsB Is a Poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine Deacetylase Required for Biofilm Formation in Bordetella bronchiseptica*

    PubMed Central

    Little, Dustin J.; Milek, Sonja; Bamford, Natalie C.; Ganguly, Tridib; DiFrancesco, Benjamin R.; Nitz, Mark; Deora, Rajendar; Howell, P. Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica are the causative agents of whooping cough in humans and a variety of respiratory diseases in animals, respectively. Bordetella species produce an exopolysaccharide, known as the Bordetella polysaccharide (Bps), which is encoded by the bpsABCD operon. Bps is required for Bordetella biofilm formation, colonization of the respiratory tract, and confers protection from complement-mediated killing. In this report, we have investigated the role of BpsB in the biosynthesis of Bps and biofilm formation by B. bronchiseptica. BpsB is a two-domain protein that localizes to the periplasm and outer membrane. BpsB displays metal- and length-dependent deacetylation on poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) oligomers, supporting previous immunogenic data that suggests Bps is a PNAG polymer. BpsB can use a variety of divalent metal cations for deacetylase activity and showed highest activity in the presence of Ni2+ and Co2+. The structure of the BpsB deacetylase domain is similar to the PNAG deacetylases PgaB and IcaB and contains the same circularly permuted family four carbohydrate esterase motifs. Unlike PgaB from Escherichia coli, BpsB is not required for polymer export and has unique structural differences that allow the N-terminal deacetylase domain to be active when purified in isolation from the C-terminal domain. Our enzymatic characterizations highlight the importance of conserved active site residues in PNAG deacetylation and demonstrate that the C-terminal domain is required for maximal deacetylation of longer PNAG oligomers. Furthermore, we show that BpsB is critical for the formation and complex architecture of B. bronchiseptica biofilms. PMID:26203190

  11. The protein BpsB is a poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine deacetylase required for biofilm formation in Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed

    Little, Dustin J; Milek, Sonja; Bamford, Natalie C; Ganguly, Tridib; DiFrancesco, Benjamin R; Nitz, Mark; Deora, Rajendar; Howell, P Lynne

    2015-09-11

    Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica are the causative agents of whooping cough in humans and a variety of respiratory diseases in animals, respectively. Bordetella species produce an exopolysaccharide, known as the Bordetella polysaccharide (Bps), which is encoded by the bpsABCD operon. Bps is required for Bordetella biofilm formation, colonization of the respiratory tract, and confers protection from complement-mediated killing. In this report, we have investigated the role of BpsB in the biosynthesis of Bps and biofilm formation by B. bronchiseptica. BpsB is a two-domain protein that localizes to the periplasm and outer membrane. BpsB displays metal- and length-dependent deacetylation on poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) oligomers, supporting previous immunogenic data that suggests Bps is a PNAG polymer. BpsB can use a variety of divalent metal cations for deacetylase activity and showed highest activity in the presence of Ni(2+) and Co(2+). The structure of the BpsB deacetylase domain is similar to the PNAG deacetylases PgaB and IcaB and contains the same circularly permuted family four carbohydrate esterase motifs. Unlike PgaB from Escherichia coli, BpsB is not required for polymer export and has unique structural differences that allow the N-terminal deacetylase domain to be active when purified in isolation from the C-terminal domain. Our enzymatic characterizations highlight the importance of conserved active site residues in PNAG deacetylation and demonstrate that the C-terminal domain is required for maximal deacetylation of longer PNAG oligomers. Furthermore, we show that BpsB is critical for the formation and complex architecture of B. bronchiseptica biofilms.

  12. Gold-Based Cubic Nanoboxes with Well-Defined Openings at the Corners and Ultrathin Walls Less Than Two Nanometers Thick.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaojun; Kim, Junki; Gilroy, Kyle D; Liu, Jingyue; König, Tobias A F; Qin, Dong

    2016-08-23

    We report a facile synthesis of Au-based cubic nanoboxes as small as 20 nm for the outer edge length, together with well-defined openings at the corners and walls fewer than 10 atomic layers (or <2 nm) in thickness. The success relies on the selective formation of Ag2O at the corners of Ag nanocubes, followed by the conformal deposition of Au on the side faces in a layer-by-layer fashion. When six atomic layers of Au are formed on the side faces to generate Ag@Au6L core-shell nanocubes, we can selectively remove the Ag2O patches at the corner sites using a weak acid, making it possible to further remove the Ag core by H2O2 etching without breaking the ultrathin Au shell. This synthetic approach works well for Ag nanocubes of 38 and 18 nm in edge length, and the wall thickness of the nanoboxes can be controlled down to 2 nm. The resultant Au nanoboxes exhibit strong plasmonic absorption in the near-infrared region, consistent with computational simulations. PMID:27458731

  13. Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings

    SciTech Connect

    Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu

    2009-07-15

    Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillaries as porous layer open tubular columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kazarian, Artaches A; Sanz Rodriguez, Estrella; Deverell, Jeremy A; McCord, James; Muddiman, David C; Paull, Brett

    2016-01-28

    Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillary columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and liquid chromatographic separations is presented. Columns contained 126 internal parallel 4 μm channels, each containing a wall bonded porous monolithic type polystyrene-divinylbenzene layer in open tubular column format (PLOT). Modification longitudinal homogeneity was monitored using scanning contactless conductivity detection and scanning electron microscopy. The multichannel open tubular capillary column showed channel diameter and polymer layer consistency of 4.2 ± 0.1 μm and 0.26 ± 0.02 μm respectively, and modification of 100% of the parallel channels with the monolithic polymer. The modified multi-channel capillaries were applied to the in-capillary micro-extraction of water samples. 500 μL of water samples containing single μg L(-1) levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons were extracted at a flow rate of 10 μL min(-1), and eluted in 50 μL of acetonitrile for analysis using HPLC with fluorescence detection. HPLC LODs were 0.08, 0.02 and 0.05 μg L(-1) for acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, with extraction recoveries of between 77 and 103%. The modified capillaries were also investigated briefly for direct application to liquid chromatographic separations, with the retention and elution of a standard protein (cytochrome c) under isocratic conditions demonstrated, proving chromatographic potential of the new column format, with run-to-run retention time reproducibility of below 1%. PMID:26755132

  15. Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillaries as porous layer open tubular columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kazarian, Artaches A; Sanz Rodriguez, Estrella; Deverell, Jeremy A; McCord, James; Muddiman, David C; Paull, Brett

    2016-01-28

    Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillary columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and liquid chromatographic separations is presented. Columns contained 126 internal parallel 4 μm channels, each containing a wall bonded porous monolithic type polystyrene-divinylbenzene layer in open tubular column format (PLOT). Modification longitudinal homogeneity was monitored using scanning contactless conductivity detection and scanning electron microscopy. The multichannel open tubular capillary column showed channel diameter and polymer layer consistency of 4.2 ± 0.1 μm and 0.26 ± 0.02 μm respectively, and modification of 100% of the parallel channels with the monolithic polymer. The modified multi-channel capillaries were applied to the in-capillary micro-extraction of water samples. 500 μL of water samples containing single μg L(-1) levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons were extracted at a flow rate of 10 μL min(-1), and eluted in 50 μL of acetonitrile for analysis using HPLC with fluorescence detection. HPLC LODs were 0.08, 0.02 and 0.05 μg L(-1) for acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, with extraction recoveries of between 77 and 103%. The modified capillaries were also investigated briefly for direct application to liquid chromatographic separations, with the retention and elution of a standard protein (cytochrome c) under isocratic conditions demonstrated, proving chromatographic potential of the new column format, with run-to-run retention time reproducibility of below 1%.

  16. BPS/CFT correspondence: non-perturbative Dyson-Schwinger equations and qq-characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrasov, Nikita

    2016-03-01

    We study symmetries of quantum field theories involving topologically distinct sectors of the field space. To exhibit these symmetries we define special gauge invariant observables, which we call the qq-characters. In the context of the BPS/CFT correspondence, using these observables, we derive an infinite set of Dyson-Schwinger-type relations. These relations imply that the supersymmetric partition functions in the presence of Ω-deformation and defects obey the Ward identities of two dimensional conformal field theory and its q-deformations. The details will be discussed in the companion papers.

  17. Higher derivative corrections to BPS black hole attractors in 4d gauged supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Kiril; Katmadas, Stefanos; Lodato, Ivano

    2016-05-01

    We analyze BPS black hole attractors in 4d gauged supergravity in the presence of higher derivative supersymmetric terms, including a Weyl-squared-type action, and determine the resulting corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. The near-horizon geometry AdS2×S2 (or other Riemann surface) preserves half of the supercharges in N = 2 supergravity with Fayet-Iliopoulos gauging. We derive a relation between the entropy and the black hole charges that suggests via AdS/CFT how subleading corrections contribute to the supersymmetric index in the dual microscopic picture.

  18. Instanton corrections of 1/6 BPS Wilson loops in ABJM theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Kazumi

    2016-09-01

    We study instanton corrections to the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of 1/6 BPS Wilson loops in ABJM theory from the Fermi gas approach. We mainly consider Wilson loops in the fundamental representation and winding Wilson loops, but we also initiate the study of Wilson loops with two boundaries. We find that the membrane instanton corrections to the Wilson loop VEV are determined by the refined topological string in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit, and the pole cancellation mechanism between membrane instantons and worldsheet instantons works also in the Wilson loop VEVs as in the case of the partition functions.

  19. Open repair of large abdominal wall hernias with and without components separation; an analysis from the ACS-NSQIP database

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Nirav K.; Leitman, I. Michael; Mills, Christopher; Lavarias, Valentina; Lucido, David L.; Karpeh, Martin S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Components separation technique emerged several years ago as a novel procedure to improve durability of repair for ventral abdominal hernias. Almost twenty-five years since its initial description, little comprehensive risk adjusted data exists on the morbidity of this procedure. This study is the largest analysis to date of short-term outcomes for these cases. Methods The ACS-NSQIP database identified open ventral or incisional hernia repairs with components separation from 2005 to 2012. A data set of cohorts without this technique, matched for preoperative risk factors and operative characteristics, was developed for comparison. A comprehensive risk-adjusted analysis of outcomes and morbidity was performed. Results A total of 68,439 patients underwent open ventral hernia repair during the study period (2245 with components separation performed (3.3%) and 66,194 without). In comparison with risk-adjusted controls, use of components separation increased operative duration (additional 83 min), length of stay (6.4 days vs. 3.8 days, p < 0.001), return to the OR rate (5.9% vs. 3.6%, p < 0.001), and 30-day morbidity (10.1% vs. 7.6%, p < 0.001) with no increase in mortality (0.0% in each group). Conclusions Components separation technique for large incisional hernias significantly increases length of stay and postoperative morbidity. Novel strategies to improve short-term outcomes are needed with continued use of this technique. PMID:27158489

  20. Cell Wall Invertase Promotes Fruit Set under Heat Stress by Suppressing ROS-Independent Cell Death1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Reduced cell wall invertase (CWIN) activity has been shown to be associated with poor seed and fruit set under abiotic stress. Here, we examined whether genetically increasing native CWIN activity would sustain fruit set under long-term moderate heat stress (LMHS), an important factor limiting crop production, by using transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) with its CWIN inhibitor gene silenced and focusing on ovaries and fruits at 2 d before and after pollination, respectively. We found that the increase of CWIN activity suppressed LMHS-induced programmed cell death in fruits. Surprisingly, measurement of the contents of H2O2 and malondialdehyde and the activities of a cohort of antioxidant enzymes revealed that the CWIN-mediated inhibition on programmed cell death is exerted in a reactive oxygen species-independent manner. Elevation of CWIN activity sustained Suc import into fruits and increased activities of hexokinase and fructokinase in the ovaries in response to LMHS. Compared to the wild type, the CWIN-elevated transgenic plants exhibited higher transcript levels of heat shock protein genes Hsp90 and Hsp100 in ovaries and HspII17.6 in fruits under LMHS, which corresponded to a lower transcript level of a negative auxin responsive factor IAA9 but a higher expression of the auxin biosynthesis gene ToFZY6 in fruits at 2 d after pollination. Collectively, the data indicate that CWIN enhances fruit set under LMHS through suppression of programmed cell death in a reactive oxygen species-independent manner that could involve enhanced Suc import and catabolism, HSP expression, and auxin response and biosynthesis. PMID:27462084

  1. Etiology of cardiogenic shock early after open-heart surgery: Assessment by Tc-99m RBC wall motion scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, T.; Gray, R.; Chaux, A.; Lee, M.; Matloff, J.; Raymond, M.; Berman, D.

    1984-01-01

    When life-threatening cardiogenic shock (CI 1.8 1/min/m/sup 2/, elevated right and left-side filling pressures) occurs early (0-48 hrs) after open-heart surgery, routine approaches frequently cannot distinguish between expected etiologies: (1) transient systolic failure of the LV, RV, or both, common early postoperatively (postop); (2) perioperative infarct of the LV or RV; (3) myocardial restriction due to active pericardial bleeding or to accumulated clots and fluid; (4) diminished LV reserve from aneurysmectomy; and (5) residual valvular regurgitation. Distinction is critical, because (1), (2), and (4) will be treated by optimizing preload and afterload; (3) with urgent (if active bleeding) or semi-urgent surgery; and (5) with repeat valvular surgery. In 22 pts with unexpected early postop cardiogenic shock, Tc-99m-RBC equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography revealed: global LV (3 pts) or RV (3 pts) dysfunction, new segmental LV dysfunction (2 pts), active bleeding (5 pts) and/or accumulated pericardial fluid ( 8 pts) with hyperdynamic LV and RV, and a small hyperdynamic LV without effusion (1 pt), providing a specific etiologic diagnosis in all cases. In the Cardiac Surgical ICU, therapeutic decisions frequently await and depend on the results of equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography, now routinely performed in postop pts with unexpected cardiogenic shock.

  2. 2004/09 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09). Full-Scale Methodology Report. NCES 2012-246

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer; Janson, Natasha; Wheeless, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This report describes and evaluates the methods and procedures used in the 2004/09 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09). BPS:04/09 is the second and final follow-up interview for the cohort of first-time beginning postsecondary students identified in the 2004 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study. For the first time…

  3. A Strategy against the Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Associated with Nitrogen-Containing Bisphosphonates (N-BPs): Attempts to Replace N-BPs with the Non-N-BP Etidronate.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Takefumi; Yamaguchi, Kouji; Sato, Koichiro; Takahashi, Masato; Yoshimura, Gen; Otsuru, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Itoi, Eiji; Sugawara, Shunji; Takahashi, Tetsu; Endo, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonate (BP)-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) can occur when enhanced bone-resorptive diseases are treated with nitrogen-containing BPs (N-BPs). Having previously found, in mice, that the non-N-BP etidronate can (i) reduce the inflammatory/necrotic effects of N-BPs by inhibiting their intracellular entry and (ii) antagonize the binding of N-BPs to bone hydroxyapatite, we hypothesized that etidronate-replacement therapy (Eti-RT) might be useful for patients with, or at risk of, BRONJ. In the present study we examined this hypothesis. In each of 25 patients receiving N-BP treatment, the N-BP was discontinued when BRONJ was suspected and/or diagnosed. After consultation with the physician-in-charge and with the patient's informed consent, Eti-RT was instituted in one group according to its standard oral prescription. We retrospectively compared this Eti-RT group (11 patients) with a non-Eti-RT group (14 patients). The Eti-RT group (6 oral N-BP patients and 5 intravenous N-BP patients) and the non-Eti-RT group (5 oral N-BP patients and 9 intravenous N-BP patients) were all stage 2-3 BRONJ. Both in oral and intravenous N-BP patients (particularly in the former patients), Eti-RT promoted or tended to promote the separation and removal of sequestra and thereby promoted the recovery of soft-tissues, allowing them to cover the exposed jawbone. These results suggest that Eti-RT may be an effective choice for BRONJ caused by either oral or intravenous N-BPs and for BRONJ prevention, while retaining a level of anti-bone-resorption. Eti-RT may also be effective at preventing BRONJ in N-BP-treated patients at risk of BRONJ. However, prospective trials are still required. PMID:27582334

  4. A remark on the asymptotic form of BPS multi-dyon solutions and their conserved charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinidis, C. P.; Ferreira, L. A.; Luchini, G.

    2015-12-01

    We evaluate the gauge invariant, dynamically conserved charges, recently obtained from the integral form of the Yang-Mills equations, for the BPS multi-dyon solutions of a Yang-Mills-Higgs theory associated to any compact semi-simple gauge group G. Those charges are shown to correspond to the eigenvalues of the next-to-leading term of the asymptotic form of the Higgs field at spatial infinity, and so coinciding with the usual topological charges of those solutions. Such results show that many of the topological charges considered in the literature are in fact dynamical charges, which conservation follows from the global properties of classical Yang-Mills theories encoded into their integral dynamical equations. The conservation of those charges can not be obtained from the differential form of Yang-Mills equations.

  5. DMSK: A practical 2400-bps receiver for the mobile satellite service: An MSAT-X Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, F.; Simon, M. K.; Sumida, J.

    1985-01-01

    The partical aspects of a 2400-bps differential detection minimum-shift-keying (DMSK) receiver are investigated. Fundamental issues relating to hardware precision, Doppler shift, fading, and frequency offset are examined, and it is concluded that the receiver's implementation at baseband is more advantageous both in cost and simplicity than its IF implementation. The DMSK receiver has been fabricated and tested under simulated mobile satellite environment conditions. The measured receiver performance in the presence of anomalies pertinent to the link is presented in this report. Furthermore, the receiver behavior in a band-limited channel (GMSK) is also investigated. The DMSK receiver performs substantially better than a coherent minimum-shift-keying (MSK) receiver in a heavily fading environment. The DMSK radio is simple and robust, and results in a lower error floor than its coherent counterpart. Moreover, this receiver is suitable for burst-type signals, and its recovery from deep fades is fast.

  6. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: First Follow-Up 1996-98 (BPS:96/98) Methodology Report. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer S.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Biber, Melissa; Pratt, Daniel J.

    This report describes the methods and procedures used for the full-scale data collection effort of the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study First Follow-Up 1996-98 (BPS:96/98). These students, who started their postsecondary education during the 1995-96 academic year, were first interviewed during 1996 as part of the National…

  7. 2004/06 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/06). Methodology Report. NCES 2008-184

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cominole, Melissa; Wheeless, Sara; Dudley, Kristin; Franklin, Jeff; Wine, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The "2004/06 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/06)" is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education to respond to the need for a national, comprehensive database concerning issues students may face in enrollment, persistence, progress, and attainment in postsecondary education and in consequent early rates of return to…

  8. Binding of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) to the Trypanosoma cruzi farnesyl diphosphate synthase homodimer

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chuan-Hsiang; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Oldfield, Eric; Amzel, L. Mario

    2010-11-15

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a class of compounds that have been used extensively in the treatment of osteoporosis and malignancy-related hypercalcemia. Some of these compounds act through inhibition of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS), a key enzyme in the synthesis of isoprenoids. Recently, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) used in bone resorption therapy have been shown to be active against Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), suggesting that they may be used as anti-trypanosomal agents. The crystal structures of TcFPPS in complex with substrate (isopentenyl diphosphate, IPP) and five N-BP inhibitors show that the C-1 hydroxyl and the nitrogen-containing groups of the inhibitors alter the binding of IPP and the conformation of two TcFPPS residues, Tyr94 and Gln167. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments suggest that binding of the first N-BPs to the homodimeric TcFPPS changes the binding properties of the second site. This mechanism of binding of N-BPs to TcFPPS is different to that reported for the binding of the same compounds to human FPPS.

  9. Exact half-BPS flux solutions in M-theory I local solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hoker, Eric; Estes, John; Gutperle, Michael; Krym, Darya

    2008-08-01

    The complete eleven-dimensional supergravity solutions with 16 supersymmetries on manifolds of the form AdS3 × S3 × S3 × Σ, with isometry SO(2, 2) × SO(4) × SO(4), and with either AdS4 × S7 or AdS7 × S4 boundary behavior, are obtained in exact form. The two-dimensional parameter space Σ is a Riemann surface with boundary, over which the product space AdS3 × S3 × S3 is warped. By mapping the reduced BPS equations to an integrable system of the sine-Gordon/Liouville type, and then mapping this integrable system onto a linear equation, the general local solutions are constructed explicitly in terms of one harmonic function on Σ, and an integral transform of two further harmonic functions on Σ. The solutions to the BPS equations are shown to automatically solve the Bianchi identities and field equations for the 4-form field, as well as Einstein's equations. The solutions we obtain have non-vanishing 4-form field strength on each of the three factors of AdS3 × S3 × S3, and include fully back-reacted M2-branes in AdS7 × S4 and M5-branes in AdS4 × S7. No interpolating solutions exist with mixed AdS4 × S7 and AdS7 × S4 boundary behavior. Global regularity of these local solutions, as well as the existence of further solutions with neither AdS4 × S7 nor AdS7 × S4 boundary behavior will be studied elsewhere.

  10. On domain decomposition preconditioner of BPS type for finite element discretizations of 3D elliptic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneev, V. G.

    2012-09-01

    BPS is a well known an efficient and rather general domain decomposition Dirichlet-Dirichlet type preconditioner, suggested in the famous series of papers Bramble, Pasciak and Schatz (1986-1989). Since then, it has been serving as the origin for the whole family of domain decomposition Dirichlet-Dirichlet type preconditioners-solvers as for h so hp discretizations of elliptic problems. For its original version, designed for h discretizations, the named authors proved the bound O(1 + log2 H/ h) for the relative condition number under some restricting conditions on the domain decomposition and finite element discretization. Here H/ h is the maximal relation of the characteristic size H of a decomposition subdomain to the mesh parameter h of its discretization. It was assumed that subdomains are images of the reference unite cube by trilinear mappings. Later similar bounds related to h discretizations were proved for more general domain decompositions, defined by means of coarse tetrahedral meshes. These results, accompanied by the development of some special tools of analysis aimed at such type of decompositions, were summarized in the book of Toselli and Widlund (2005). This paper is also confined to h discretizations. We further expand the range of admissible domain decompositions for constructing BPS preconditioners, in which decomposition subdomains can be convex polyhedrons, satisfying some conditions of shape regularity. We prove the bound for the relative condition number with the same dependence on H/ h as in the bound given above. Along the way to this result, we simplify the proof of the so called abstract bound for the relative condition number of the domain decomposition preconditioner. In the part, related to the analysis of the interface sub-problem preconditioning, our technical tools are generalization of those used by Bramble, Pasciak and Schatz.

  11. Clinical presentation and treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) in India

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a chronic disease characterized by pelvic pain urgency and frequency. Patients with severe symptoms lead a very miserable life. North American, European and Asian guidelines have been recently promulgated but they differ on many important issues. There is no consensus on its name, definition, investigations and management. Indian guidelines have also been developed and they give more importance to the symptoms in relation to micturition. Though initially believed to be rare or non-existent in India the situation has changed. In Indian patients the presentation is more or less same as the rest of the world but a large percentage have obstructive symptoms and unusual urinary symptoms. Anal discomfort is also common. In India the commonest investigation in all cases of lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction is ultrasonography of kidney ureter and bladder with measurement of the post void residual urine volume. Cystoscopy is also done in all the cases to rule out presence of tuberculosis or carcinoma in situ. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is not considered to be a clinical disease as it is difficult to rule out all differential diagnosis only from history. Hunner’s lesion is very rare. Cystoscopy with hydro distension, oral therapy, intravesical therapy and surgical therapy form the back bone of management. It is difficult to know which treatment is best for a given patient. A staged protocol is followed and all the treatment modalities are applied to the patients in a sequential fashion—starting from the non-invasive to more invasive. Intravesical botox has not been found to be effective and there is no experience with interstim neuromodulation. PMID:26816851

  12. Clinical presentation and treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) in India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nagendra Nath

    2015-10-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a chronic disease characterized by pelvic pain urgency and frequency. Patients with severe symptoms lead a very miserable life. North American, European and Asian guidelines have been recently promulgated but they differ on many important issues. There is no consensus on its name, definition, investigations and management. Indian guidelines have also been developed and they give more importance to the symptoms in relation to micturition. Though initially believed to be rare or non-existent in India the situation has changed. In Indian patients the presentation is more or less same as the rest of the world but a large percentage have obstructive symptoms and unusual urinary symptoms. Anal discomfort is also common. In India the commonest investigation in all cases of lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction is ultrasonography of kidney ureter and bladder with measurement of the post void residual urine volume. Cystoscopy is also done in all the cases to rule out presence of tuberculosis or carcinoma in situ. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is not considered to be a clinical disease as it is difficult to rule out all differential diagnosis only from history. Hunner's lesion is very rare. Cystoscopy with hydro distension, oral therapy, intravesical therapy and surgical therapy form the back bone of management. It is difficult to know which treatment is best for a given patient. A staged protocol is followed and all the treatment modalities are applied to the patients in a sequential fashion-starting from the non-invasive to more invasive. Intravesical botox has not been found to be effective and there is no experience with interstim neuromodulation. PMID:26816851

  13. Openings

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  14. Great Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Steve; Moore, Tim

    1996-01-01

    Explains why installing a well-designed indoor climbing wall can draw new users to an athletic facility. Climbing-wall design elements and gear are discussed and a checklist for working with contractors is provided.(GR)

  15. Methane storage in homogeneous armchair open-ended single-walled boron nitride nanotube triangular arrays: a grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation study.

    PubMed

    Mahdizadeh, Sayyed Jalil; Tayyari, Sayyed Faramarz

    2012-06-01

    The physisorption of methane in homogeneous armchair open-ended SWBNNT triangular arrays was evaluated using grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulation for tubes 11.08, 13.85, 16.62, and 19.41 Å [(8,8), (10,10), (12,12), and (14,14), respectively] in diameter, at temperatures of 273, 298, 323, and 373 K, and at fugacities of 0.5-9.0 Mpa. The intermolecular forces were modeled using the Lennard-Jones potential model. The absolute, excess, and delivery adsorption isotherms of methane were calculated for the various boron nitride nanotube arrays. The specific surface areas and the isosteric heats of adsorption, Q(st), were also studied, different isotherm models were fitted to the simulated adsorption data, and the model parameters were correlated. According to the results, it is possible to reach 108% and 140% of the US Department of Energy's target for CH(4) storage (180 v/v at 298 K and 35 bar) using the SWBNNT array with nanotubes 16.62 and 19.41 Å in diameter, respectively, as adsorbent. The results show that for a van der Waals gap of 3.4 Å, there is no interstitial adsorption except for arrays containing nanotubes with diameters of >15.8 Å. Multilayer adsorption starts to occur in arrays containing nanotubes with diameters of >16.62 Å, and the minimum pressure required for multilayer adsorption is 1.0 MPa. A brief comparison of the methane adsorption capacities of single-walled carbon and boron nitride nanotube arrays was also performed. PMID:22102208

  16. Cellulose-Pectin Spatial Contacts Are Inherent to Never-Dried Arabidopsis Primary Cell Walls: Evidence from Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum; Hong, Mei

    2015-01-01

    The structural role of pectins in plant primary cell walls is not yet well understood because of the complex and disordered nature of the cell wall polymers. We recently introduced multidimensional solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to characterize the spatial proximities of wall polysaccharides. The data showed extensive cross peaks between pectins and cellulose in the primary wall of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), indicating subnanometer contacts between the two polysaccharides. This result was unexpected because stable pectin-cellulose interactions are not predicted by in vitro binding assays and prevailing cell wall models. To investigate whether the spatial contacts that give rise to the cross peaks are artifacts of sample preparation, we now compare never-dried Arabidopsis primary walls with dehydrated and rehydrated samples. One-dimensional 13C spectra, two-dimensional 13C-13C correlation spectra, water-polysaccharide correlation spectra, and dynamics data all indicate that the structure, mobility, and intermolecular contacts of the polysaccharides are indistinguishable between never-dried and rehydrated walls. Moreover, a partially depectinated cell wall in which 40% of homogalacturonan is extracted retains cellulose-pectin cross peaks, indicating that the cellulose-pectin contacts are not due to molecular crowding. The cross peaks are observed both at −20°C and at ambient temperature, thus ruling out freezing as a cause of spatial contacts. These results indicate that rhamnogalacturonan I and a portion of homogalacturonan have significant interactions with cellulose microfibrils in the native primary wall. This pectin-cellulose association may be formed during wall biosynthesis and may involve pectin entrapment in or between cellulose microfibrils, which cannot be mimicked by in vitro binding assays. PMID:26036615

  17. Bisphenol A and other bisphenol analogues including BPS and BPF in surface water samples from Japan, China, Korea and India.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Eriko; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, James; Lam, Paul K S; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Jeong, Yunsun; Kannan, Pranav; Achyuthan, Hema; Munuswamy, Natesan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-12-01

    Concentrations of eight bisphenol analogues (BPs) including BPA, BPS, and BPF were determined in surface waters collected from select rivers in Japan, Korea, China, and India. BPA was found at a concentration in the range of several tens to several hundreds of nanograms per liter in most of the rivers surveyed and some of the highest concentrations (54-1950 ng/L) were found in rivers in Chennai, India. Concentrations of BPF were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those of BPA in river and sea waters collected from Japan, Korea and China, which suggested that BPF is a major contaminant in surface waters in several Southeast Asian countries. BPF concentrations as high as 2850 ng/L were found in the Tamagawa River in Japan. The flux of BPs through riverine discharges into Tokyo Bay was calculated to be approximately 5.5 t per year. Based on the flux estimates and the mass of BPF found in water column and sediment in Tokyo Bay, it was found that BPF degrades faster than BPA in the environment. Elevated concentrations of BPF found in surface waters suggest the need for further studies to determine the fate and toxicity of this compound. PMID:26436777

  18. Wonderful Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

  19. Escherichia coli Protein Expression System for Acetylcholine Binding Proteins (AChBPs)

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Nikita; Paul, Blessy; Ragnarsson, Lotten; Lewis, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are ligand gated ion channels, identified as therapeutic targets for a range of human diseases. Drug design for nAChR related disorders is increasingly using structure-based approaches. Many of these structural insights for therapeutic lead development have been obtained from co-crystal structures of nAChR agonists and antagonists with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP). AChBP is a water soluble, structural and functional homolog of the extracellular, ligand-binding domain of nAChRs. Currently, AChBPs are recombinantly expressed in eukaryotic expression systems for structural and biophysical studies. Here, we report the establishment of an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system that significantly reduces the cost and time of production compared to the existing expression systems. E. coli can efficiently express unglycosylated AChBP for crystallography and makes the expression of isotopically labelled forms feasible for NMR. We used a pHUE vector containing an N-terminal His-tagged ubiquitin fusion protein to facilitate AChBP expression in the soluble fractions, and thus avoid the need to recover protein from inclusion bodies. The purified protein yield obtained from the E. coli expression system is comparable to that obtained from existing AChBP expression systems. E. coli expressed AChBP bound nAChR agonists and antagonists with affinities matching those previously reported. Thus, the E. coli expression system significantly simplifies the expression and purification of functional AChBP for structural and biophysical studies. PMID:27304486

  20. Accumulation of N-Acetylglucosamine Oligomers in the Plant Cell Wall Affects Plant Architecture in a Dose-Dependent and Conditional Manner1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Vanholme, Bartel; Vanholme, Ruben; Turumtay, Halbay; Goeminne, Geert; Cesarino, Igor; Goubet, Florence; Morreel, Kris; Rencoret, Jorge; Bulone, Vincent; Hooijmaijers, Cortwa; De Rycke, Riet; Gheysen, Godelieve; Ralph, John; De Block, Marc; Meulewaeter, Frank; Boerjan, Wout

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of short N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) oligosaccharides on the physiology of plants, N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINYLTRANSFERASE (NodC) of Azorhizobium caulinodans was expressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The corresponding enzyme catalyzes the polymerization of GlcNAc and, accordingly, β-1,4-GlcNAc oligomers accumulated in the plant. A phenotype characterized by difficulties in developing an inflorescence stem was visible when plants were grown for several weeks under short-day conditions before transfer to long-day conditions. In addition, a positive correlation between the oligomer concentration and the penetrance of the phenotype was demonstrated. Although NodC overexpression lines produced less cell wall compared with wild-type plants under nonpermissive conditions, no indications were found for changes in the amount of the major cell wall polymers. The effect on the cell wall was reflected at the transcriptome level. In addition to genes encoding cell wall-modifying enzymes, a whole set of genes encoding membrane-coupled receptor-like kinases were differentially expressed upon GlcNAc accumulation, many of which encoded proteins with an extracellular Domain of Unknown Function26. Although stress-related genes were also differentially expressed, the observed response differed from that of a classical chitin response. This is in line with the fact that the produced chitin oligomers were too small to activate the chitin receptor-mediated signal cascade. Based on our observations, we propose a model in which the oligosaccharides modify the architecture of the cell wall by acting as competitors in carbohydrate-carbohydrate or carbohydrate-protein interactions, thereby affecting noncovalent interactions in the cell wall or at the interface between the cell wall and the plasma membrane. PMID:24664205

  1. Differential Effects of Nitrogen Forms on Cell Wall Phosphorus Remobilization Are Mediated by Nitric Oxide, Pectin Content, and Phosphate Transporter Expression1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chun Quan; Zhu, Xiao Fang; Hu, An Yong; Wang, Chao; Dong, Xiao Ying; Shen, Ren-Fang

    2016-01-01

    NH4+ is a major source of inorganic nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa), and NH4+ is known to stimulate the uptake of phosphorus (P). However, it is unclear whether NH4+ can also stimulate P remobilization when rice is grown under P-deficient conditions. In this study, we use the two rice cultivars ‘Nipponbare’ and ‘Kasalath’ that differ in their cell wall P reutilization, to demonstrate that NH4+ positively regulates the pectin content and activity of pectin methylesterase in root cell walls under −P conditions, thereby remobilizing more P from the cell wall and increasing soluble P in roots and shoots. Interestingly, our results show that more NO (nitric oxide) was produced in the rice root when NH4+ was applied as the sole nitrogen source compared with the NO3−. The effect of NO on the reutilization of P from the cell walls was further demonstrated through the application of the NO donor SNP (sodium nitroprusside) and c-PTIO (NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide). What’s more, the P-transporter gene OsPT2 is up-regulated under NH4+ supplementation and is therefore involved in the stimulated P remobilization. In conclusion, our data provide novel (to our knowledge) insight into the regulatory mechanism by which NH4+ stimulates Pi reutilization in cell walls of rice. PMID:27208223

  2. Aspen Tension Wood Fibers Contain β-(1→4)-Galactans and Acidic Arabinogalactans Retained by Cellulose Microfibrils in Gelatinous Walls1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gorshkova, Tatyana; Mokshina, Natalia; Chernova, Tatyana; Ibragimova, Nadezhda; Salnikov, Vadim; Mikshina, Polina; Tryfona, Theodora; Banasiak, Alicja; Immerzeel, Peter; Dupree, Paul; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.

    2015-01-01

    Contractile cell walls are found in various plant organs and tissues such as tendrils, contractile roots, and tension wood. The tension-generating mechanism is not known but is thought to involve special cell wall architecture. We previously postulated that tension could result from the entrapment of certain matrix polymers within cellulose microfibrils. As reported here, this hypothesis was corroborated by sequential extraction and analysis of cell wall polymers that are retained by cellulose microfibrils in tension wood and normal wood of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides). β-(1→4)-Galactan and type II arabinogalactan were the main large matrix polymers retained by cellulose microfibrils that were specifically found in tension wood. Xyloglucan was detected mostly in oligomeric form in the alkali-labile fraction and was enriched in tension wood. β-(1→4)-Galactan and rhamnogalacturonan I backbone epitopes were localized in the gelatinous cell wall layer. Type II arabinogalactans retained by cellulose microfibrils had a higher content of (methyl)glucuronic acid and galactose in tension wood than in normal wood. Thus, β-(1→4)-galactan and a specialized form of type II arabinogalactan are trapped by cellulose microfibrils specifically in tension wood and, thus, are the main candidate polymers for the generation of tensional stresses by the entrapment mechanism. We also found high β-galactosidase activity accompanying tension wood differentiation and propose a testable hypothesis that such activity might regulate galactan entrapment and, thus, mechanical properties of cell walls in tension wood. PMID:26378099

  3. The Arabidopsis Class III Peroxidase AtPRX71 Negatively Regulates Growth under Physiological Conditions and in Response to Cell Wall Damage1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Raggi, Sara; Ranocha, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the cell wall has a major impact on plant growth and development, and alteration of cell wall structural components is often detrimental to biomass production. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these negative effects are largely unknown. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants with altered pectin composition because of either the expression of the Aspergillus niger polygalacturonase II (AnPGII; 35S:AnPGII plants) or a mutation in the QUASIMODO2 (QUA2) gene that encodes a putative pectin methyltransferase (qua2-1 plants), display severe growth defects. Here, we show that expression of Arabidopsis PEROXIDASE71 (AtPRX71), encoding a class III peroxidase, strongly increases in 35S:AnPGII and qua2-1 plants as well as in response to treatments with the cellulose synthase inhibitor isoxaben, which also impairs cell wall integrity. Analysis of atprx71 loss-of-function mutants and plants overexpressing AtPRX71 indicates that this gene negatively influences Arabidopsis growth at different stages of development, likely limiting cell expansion. The atprx71-1 mutation partially suppresses the dwarf phenotype of qua2-1, suggesting that AtPRX71 contributes to the growth defects observed in plants undergoing cell wall damage. Furthermore, AtPRX71 seems to promote the production of reactive oxygen species in qua2-1 plants as well as plants treated with isoxaben. We propose that AtPRX71 contributes to strengthen cell walls, therefore restricting cell expansion, during normal growth and in response to cell wall damage. PMID:26468518

  4. Wall Turbulence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  5. The Role of the Plant-Specific ALTERED XYLOGLUCAN9 Protein in Arabidopsis Cell Wall Polysaccharide O-Acetylation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schultink, Alex; Naylor, Dan; Dama, Murali; Pauly, Markus

    2015-01-01

    A mutation in the ALTERED XYLOGLUCAN9 (AXY9) gene was found to be causative for the decreased xyloglucan acetylation phenotype of the axy9.1 mutant, which was identified in a forward genetic screen for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants. The axy9.1 mutant also exhibits decreased O-acetylation of xylan, implying that the AXY9 protein has a broad role in polysaccharide acetylation. An axy9 insertional mutant exhibits severe growth defects and collapsed xylem, demonstrating the importance of wall polysaccharide O-acetylation for normal plant growth and development. Localization and topological experiments indicate that the active site of the AXY9 protein resides within the Golgi lumen. The AXY9 protein appears to be a component of the plant cell wall polysaccharide acetylation pathway, which also includes the REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION and TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE proteins. The AXY9 protein is distinct from the TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE proteins, reported to be polysaccharide acetyltransferases, but does share homology with them and other acetyltransferases, suggesting that the AXY9 protein may act to produce an acetylated intermediate that is part of the O-acetylation pathway. PMID:25681330

  6. Apyrase Suppression Raises Extracellular ATP Levels and Induces Gene Expression and Cell Wall Changes Characteristic of Stress Responses1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Min Hui; Wu, Jian; Yao, Jianchao; Gallardo, Ignacio F.; Dugger, Jason W.; Webb, Lauren J.; Huang, James; Salmi, Mari L.; Song, Jawon; Clark, Greg; Roux, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Plant cells release ATP into their extracellular matrix as they grow, and extracellular ATP (eATP) can modulate the rate of cell growth in diverse tissues. Two closely related apyrases (APYs) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), APY1 and APY2, function, in part, to control the concentration of eATP. The expression of APY1/APY2 can be inhibited by RNA interference, and this suppression leads to an increase in the concentration of eATP in the extracellular medium and severely reduces growth. To clarify how the suppression of APY1 and APY2 is linked to growth inhibition, the gene expression changes that occur in seedlings when apyrase expression is suppressed were assayed by microarray and quantitative real-time-PCR analyses. The most significant gene expression changes induced by APY suppression were in genes involved in biotic stress responses, which include those genes regulating wall composition and extensibility. These expression changes predicted specific chemical changes in the walls of mutant seedlings, and two of these changes, wall lignification and decreased methyl ester bonds, were verified by direct analyses. Taken together, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that APY1, APY2, and eATP play important roles in the signaling steps that link biotic stresses to plant defense responses and growth changes. PMID:24550243

  7. The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY in 2016: towards curated quantitative interactions between 1300 protein targets and 6000 ligands.

    PubMed

    Southan, Christopher; Sharman, Joanna L; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Alexander, Stephen P H; Buneman, O Peter; Davenport, Anthony P; McGrath, John C; Peters, John A; Spedding, Michael; Catterall, William A; Fabbro, Doriano; Davies, Jamie A

    2016-01-01

    The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (GtoPdb, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org) provides expert-curated molecular interactions between successful and potential drugs and their targets in the human genome. Developed by the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) and the British Pharmacological Society (BPS), this resource, and its earlier incarnation as IUPHAR-DB, is described in our 2014 publication. This update incorporates changes over the intervening seven database releases. The unique model of content capture is based on established and new target class subcommittees collaborating with in-house curators. Most information comes from journal articles, but we now also index kinase cross-screening panels. Targets are specified by UniProtKB IDs. Small molecules are defined by PubChem Compound Identifiers (CIDs); ligand capture also includes peptides and clinical antibodies. We have extended the capture of ligands and targets linked via published quantitative binding data (e.g. Ki, IC50 or Kd). The resulting pharmacological relationship network now defines a data-supported druggable genome encompassing 7% of human proteins. The database also provides an expanded substrate for the biennially published compendium, the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY. This article covers content increase, entity analysis, revised curation strategies, new website features and expanded download options. PMID:26464438

  8. The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY in 2016: towards curated quantitative interactions between 1300 protein targets and 6000 ligands

    PubMed Central

    Southan, Christopher; Sharman, Joanna L.; Benson, Helen E.; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J.; Alexander, Stephen P. H.; Buneman, O. Peter; Davenport, Anthony P.; McGrath, John C.; Peters, John A.; Spedding, Michael; Catterall, William A.; Fabbro, Doriano; Davies, Jamie A.

    2016-01-01

    The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (GtoPdb, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org) provides expert-curated molecular interactions between successful and potential drugs and their targets in the human genome. Developed by the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) and the British Pharmacological Society (BPS), this resource, and its earlier incarnation as IUPHAR-DB, is described in our 2014 publication. This update incorporates changes over the intervening seven database releases. The unique model of content capture is based on established and new target class subcommittees collaborating with in-house curators. Most information comes from journal articles, but we now also index kinase cross-screening panels. Targets are specified by UniProtKB IDs. Small molecules are defined by PubChem Compound Identifiers (CIDs); ligand capture also includes peptides and clinical antibodies. We have extended the capture of ligands and targets linked via published quantitative binding data (e.g. Ki, IC50 or Kd). The resulting pharmacological relationship network now defines a data-supported druggable genome encompassing 7% of human proteins. The database also provides an expanded substrate for the biennially published compendium, the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY. This article covers content increase, entity analysis, revised curation strategies, new website features and expanded download options. PMID:26464438

  9. The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY in 2016: towards curated quantitative interactions between 1300 protein targets and 6000 ligands.

    PubMed

    Southan, Christopher; Sharman, Joanna L; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Alexander, Stephen P H; Buneman, O Peter; Davenport, Anthony P; McGrath, John C; Peters, John A; Spedding, Michael; Catterall, William A; Fabbro, Doriano; Davies, Jamie A

    2016-01-01

    The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (GtoPdb, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org) provides expert-curated molecular interactions between successful and potential drugs and their targets in the human genome. Developed by the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) and the British Pharmacological Society (BPS), this resource, and its earlier incarnation as IUPHAR-DB, is described in our 2014 publication. This update incorporates changes over the intervening seven database releases. The unique model of content capture is based on established and new target class subcommittees collaborating with in-house curators. Most information comes from journal articles, but we now also index kinase cross-screening panels. Targets are specified by UniProtKB IDs. Small molecules are defined by PubChem Compound Identifiers (CIDs); ligand capture also includes peptides and clinical antibodies. We have extended the capture of ligands and targets linked via published quantitative binding data (e.g. Ki, IC50 or Kd). The resulting pharmacological relationship network now defines a data-supported druggable genome encompassing 7% of human proteins. The database also provides an expanded substrate for the biennially published compendium, the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY. This article covers content increase, entity analysis, revised curation strategies, new website features and expanded download options.

  10. Precision calculation of 1/4-BPS Wilson loops in AdS5×S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forini, V.; Puletti, V. Giangreco M.; Griguolo, L.; Seminara, D.; Vescovi, E.

    2016-02-01

    We study the strong coupling behaviour of 1/4-BPS circular Wilson loops (a family of "latitudes") in {N}=4 Super Yang-Mills theory, computing the one-loop corrections to the relevant classical string solutions in AdS5 ×S5. Supersymmetric localization provides an exact result that, in the large 't Hooft coupling limit, should be reproduced by the sigma-model approach. To avoid ambiguities due to the absolute normalization of the string partition function, we compare the ratio between the generic latitude and the maximal 1/2-BPS circle: any measure-related ambiguity should simply cancel in this way. We use the Gel'fand-Yaglom method with Dirichlet boundary conditions to calculate the relevant functional determinants, that present some complications with respect to the standard circular case. After a careful numerical evaluation of our final expression we still find disagreement with the localization answer: the difference is encoded into a precise "remainder function". We comment on the possible origin and resolution of this discordance.

  11. 'Stucco' Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This projected mosaic image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial clotting or cement-like properties of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) wide and 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall.(This image also appears as an inset on a separate image from the rover's navigation camera, showing the location of this particular spot within the trench wall.)

  12. Wall Covering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The attractive wall covering shown below is one of 132 styles in the Mirror Magic II line offered by The General Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. The material is metallized plastic fabric, a spinoff from space programs. Wall coverings are one of many consumer applications of aluminized plastic film technology developed for NASA by a firm later bought by King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Massachusetts, which now produces the material. The original NASA use was in the Echo 1 passive communications satellite, a "space baloon" made of aluminized mylar; the high reflectivity of the metallized coating enabled relay of communications signals from one Earth station to another by "bouncing" them off the satellite. The reflectivity feature also made the material an extremely efficient insulator and it was subsequently widely used in the Apollo program for such purposes as temperature control of spacecraft components and insulation of tanks for fuels that must be maintained at very low temperatures. I Used as a wall covering, the aluminized material offers extra insulation, reflects light and I resists cracking. In addition to General Tire, King-Seeley also supplies wall covering material to Columbus Coated Fabrics Division of Borden, Incorporated, Columbus, Ohio, among others.

  13. Wall Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  14. Applications of a sulfonated-polymer wall-modified open-tubular fused-silica capillary in capillary zone electrophoretic separations.

    PubMed

    Minnoor, E; Liu, Y; Pietrzyk, D J

    2000-07-01

    A fused-silica capillary that is wall-modified via chemically bonding a sulfonated polymer to the capillary wall has a uniform negative charge density on its surface and produces an electroosmotic flow (EOF) greater than 4 x 10(-4) cm2 V(-1) s(-1) The EOF is nearly independent of buffer pH over the pH range of 2 to 10 and is lower than the EOF obtained for the bare fused-silica capillary at the more basic pH but is higher at the more acidic buffer pH. Optimization of buffer pH can be based on analyte pKa values to improve the overall quality of the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) separation of complex mixtures of weak acid and base analytes. Because of the high EOF in an acidic buffer, the capillary is useful for the separation of weak organic bases which are in their cation forms in the acidic buffer. EOF for the sulfonic acid bonded phase capillary can be adjusted via buffer additives such as organic solvent, tetraalkylammonium salts, multivalent cations and alkylsulfonic acids. The advantages of utilizing buffer pH and the EOF buffer modifiers to enhance migration time, selectivity, and resolution in CZE separations with this capillary are illustrated using a series of test analyte mixtures of inorganic anions, carboxylic acids, alkylsulfonic acids, benzenesulfonic acids, sulfas, pyridines, anilines or small-chain peptides. PMID:10917448

  15. Determining the Subcellular Location of Synthesis and Assembly of the Cell Wall Polysaccharide (1,3; 1,4)-β-d-Glucan in Grasses[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sarah M.; Ho, Yin Ying; Lampugnani, Edwin R.; Van de Meene, Allison M.L.; Bain, Melissa P.; Bacic, Antony; Doblin, Monika S.

    2015-01-01

    The current dogma for cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis is that cellulose (and callose) is synthesized at the plasma membrane (PM), whereas matrix phase polysaccharides are assembled in the Golgi apparatus. We provide evidence that (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucan (mixed-linkage glucan [MLG]) does not conform to this paradigm. We show in various grass (Poaceae) species that MLG-specific antibody labeling is present in the wall but absent over Golgi, suggesting it is assembled at the PM. Antibodies to the MLG synthases, cellulose synthase-like F6 (CSLF6) and CSLH1, located CSLF6 to the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, secretory vesicles, and the PM and CSLH1 to the same locations apart from the PM. This pattern was recreated upon expression of VENUS-tagged barley (Hordeum vulgare) CSLF6 and CSLH1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and, consistent with our biochemical analyses of native grass tissues, shown to be catalytically active with CSLF6 and CSLH1 in PM-enriched and PM-depleted membrane fractions, respectively. These data support a PM location for the synthesis of MLG by CSLF6, the predominant enzymatically active isoform. A model is proposed to guide future experimental approaches to dissect the molecular mechanism(s) of MLG assembly. PMID:25770111

  16. The Apical Actin Fringe Contributes to Localized Cell Wall Deposition and Polarized Growth in the Lily Pollen Tube1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Rounds, Caleb M.; Hepler, Peter K.; Winship, Lawrence J.

    2014-01-01

    In lily (Lilium formosanum) pollen tubes, pectin, a major component of the cell wall, is delivered through regulated exocytosis. The targeted transport and secretion of the pectin-containing vesicles may be controlled by the cortical actin fringe at the pollen tube apex. Here, we address the role of the actin fringe using three different inhibitors of growth: brefeldin A, latrunculin B, and potassium cyanide. Brefeldin A blocks membrane trafficking and inhibits exocytosis in pollen tubes; it also leads to the degradation of the actin fringe and the formation of an aggregate of filamentous actin at the base of the clear zone. Latrunculin B, which depolymerizes filamentous actin, markedly slows growth but allows focused pectin deposition to continue. Of note, the locus of deposition shifts frequently and correlates with changes in the direction of growth. Finally, potassium cyanide, an electron transport chain inhibitor, briefly stops growth while causing the actin fringe to completely disappear. Pectin deposition continues but lacks focus, instead being delivered in a wide arc across the pollen tube tip. These data support a model in which the actin fringe contributes to the focused secretion of pectin to the apical cell wall and, thus, to the polarized growth of the pollen tube. PMID:25037212

  17. The Cell Wall Arabinose-Deficient Arabidopsis thaliana Mutant murus5 Encodes a Defective Allele of REVERSIBLY GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE21[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dugard, Christopher K.; Olek, Anna T.; Cooper, Bruce R.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional marker-based mapping and next-generation sequencing was used to determine that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) low cell wall arabinose mutant murus5 (mur5) encodes a defective allele of REVERSIBLY GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE2 (RGP2). Marker analysis of 13 F2 confirmed mutant progeny from a recombinant mapping population gave a rough map position on the upper arm of chromosome 5, and deep sequencing of DNA from these 13 lines gave five candidate genes with G→A (C→T) transitions predicted to result in amino acid changes. Of these five, only insertional mutant alleles of RGP2, a gene that encodes a UDP-arabinose mutase that interconverts UDP-arabinopyranose and UDP-arabinofuranose, exhibited the low cell wall arabinose phenotype. The identities of mur5 and two SALK insertional alleles were confirmed by allelism tests and overexpression of wild-type RGP2 complementary DNA placed under the control of the 35S promoter in the three alleles. The mur5 mutation results in the conversion of cysteine-257 to tyrosine-257 within a conserved hydrophobic cluster predicted to be distal to the active site and essential for protein stability and possible heterodimerization with other isoforms of RGP. PMID:27217494

  18. Black holes, parallelizable horizons, and half-BPS states for the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory in five dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Alex; Troncoso, Ricardo

    2008-01-15

    Exact vacuum solutions with a nontrivial torsion for the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory in five dimensions are constructed. We consider a class of static metrics whose spacelike section is a warped product of the real line with a nontrivial base manifold endowed with a fully antisymmetric torsion. It is shown that requiring solutions of this sort to exist, fixes the Gauss-Bonnet coupling such that the Lagrangian can be written as a Chern-Simons form. The metric describes black holes with an arbitrary, but fixed, base manifold. It is shown that requiring its ground state to possess unbroken supersymmetries fixes the base manifold to be locally a parallelized three-sphere. The ground state turns out to be half-BPS, which could not be achieved in the absence of torsion in vacuum. The Killing spinors are explicitly found.

  19. Endocrine Activity of Bisphenol S (BPS) Using In Vitro Estrogenic/Anti-Androgenic Transcriptional Activation Assays and the In Vivo Uterotrophic Assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is gradually being phased out of many consumer products and processes leading to potential increases in human and environmental exposures to relatively understudied replacement compounds, including Bisphenol S (BPS). Research from our lab has shown that BPA and...

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Platelet-Rich Fibrin Biomaterial and Open Flap Debridement in the Treatment of Two and Three Wall Intrabony Defects

    PubMed Central

    Ajwani, Himanshu; Shetty, Sharath; Gopalakrishnan, Dharmarajan; Kathariya, Rahul; Kulloli, Anita; Dolas, R S; Pradeep, A R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Platelet-rich concentrates are the most widely used regenerative biomaterials. Stimulation and acceleration of soft and hard tissue healing are due to local and continuous delivery of growth factors and proteins, mimicking the needs of the physiological wound healing and reparative tissue processes. This article aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy of open flap debridement (OFD) with or without platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in the treatment of intrabony defects. Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects with forty intrabony defects were treated with either autologous PRF with open-flap debridement (test, n = 20) or open-flap debridement alone (control, n = 20). Soft tissue parameters included: Plaque index, sulcus bleeding index, probing depth, relative attachment level and gingival marginal level (GML). The hard tissue parameters included-distances from: Cement enamel junction to the base of the defect (CEJ-BOD): Alveolar crest to the base of the defect (AC-BOD): And CEJ to AC. The parameters were recorded at baseline and at 9 months postoperatively calculated using standardized radiographs by image-analysis software. Results: Statistically significant (0.005*) intragroup improvements were seen with all the hard and soft parameters in both test and control groups, except for GML. Statistically significant improvements were seen with the mean defect fill (CEJ-BOD and AC-BOD) (P = 0.003*) when intergroup comparisons were made. Conclusions: Adjunctive use of PRF with OFD significantly improves defect fill when compared to OFD alone. PRF has consistently been showing regenerative potential; it is simple, easy and inexpensive biomaterial compared with bone grafts. PMID:25954068

  1. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... size and can usually be diagnosed early in fetal development, typically between the tenth and fourteenth weeks of ... organs at the abdominal wall opening late in fetal development may also contribute to organ injury. Intestinal damage ...

  2. Transcriptome Profiling of the Green Alga Spirogyra pratensis (Charophyta) Suggests an Ancestral Role for Ethylene in Cell Wall Metabolism, Photosynthesis, and Abiotic Stress Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that ethylene regulates a diverse set of developmental and stress-related processes in angiosperms, yet its roles in early-diverging embryophytes and algae are poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that ethylene functions as a hormone in the charophyte green alga Spirogyra pratensis. Since land plants evolved from charophytes, this implies conservation of ethylene as a hormone in green plants for at least 450 million years. However, the physiological role of ethylene in charophyte algae has remained unknown. To gain insight into ethylene responses in Spirogyra, we used mRNA sequencing to measure changes in gene expression over time in Spirogyra filaments in response to an ethylene treatment. Our analyses show that at the transcriptional level, ethylene predominantly regulates three processes in Spirogyra: (1) modification of the cell wall matrix by expansins and xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases, (2) down-regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthesis, and (3) activation of abiotic stress responses. We confirmed that the photosynthetic capacity and chlorophyll content were reduced by an ethylene treatment and that several abiotic stress conditions could stimulate cell elongation in an ethylene-dependent manner. We also found that the Spirogyra transcriptome harbors only 10 ethylene-responsive transcription factor (ERF) homologs, several of which are regulated by ethylene. These results provide an initial understanding of the hormonal responses induced by ethylene in Spirogyra and help to reconstruct the role of ethylene in ancestral charophytes prior to the origin of land plants. PMID:27489312

  3. N-Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Primes Plants for Cell Wall Reinforcement and Induces Resistance to Bacterial Pathogens via the Salicylic Acid/Oxylipin Pathway[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Sebastian T.; Hernández-Reyes, Casandra; Samans, Birgit; Stein, Elke; Neumann, Christina; Schikora, Marek; Reichelt, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel; Becker, Annette; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schikora, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The ability of plants to monitor their surroundings, for instance the perception of bacteria, is of crucial importance. The perception of microorganism-derived molecules and their effector proteins is the best understood of these monitoring processes. In addition, plants perceive bacterial quorum sensing (QS) molecules used for cell-to-cell communication between bacteria. Here, we propose a mechanism for how N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), a group of QS molecules, influence host defense and fortify resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana against bacterial pathogens. N-3-oxo-tetradecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (oxo-C14-HSL) primed plants for enhanced callose deposition, accumulation of phenolic compounds, and lignification of cell walls. Moreover, increased levels of oxylipins and salicylic acid favored closure of stomata in response to Pseudomonas syringae infection. The AHL-induced resistance seems to differ from the systemic acquired and the induced systemic resistances, providing new insight into inter-kingdom communication. Consistent with the observation that short-chain AHLs, unlike oxo-C14-HSL, promote plant growth, treatments with C6-HSL, oxo-C10-HSL, or oxo-C14-HSL resulted in different transcriptional profiles in Arabidopsis. Understanding the priming induced by bacterial QS molecules augments our knowledge of plant reactions to bacteria and suggests strategies for using beneficial bacteria in plant protection. PMID:24963057

  4. RNA-Seq Links the Transcription Factors AINTEGUMENTA and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 to Cell Wall Remodeling and Plant Defense Pathways1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bequette, Carlton J.; Fu, Zheng Qing; Loraine, Ann E.

    2016-01-01

    AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 (AIL6) are two related transcription factors in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that have partially overlapping roles in several aspects of flower development, including floral organ initiation, identity specification, growth, and patterning. To better understand the biological processes regulated by these two transcription factors, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) on ant ail6 double mutants. We identified thousands of genes that are differentially expressed in the double mutant compared with the wild type. Analyses of these genes suggest that ANT and AIL6 regulate floral organ initiation and growth through modifications to the cell wall polysaccharide pectin. We found reduced levels of demethylesterified homogalacturonan and altered patterns of auxin accumulation in early stages of ant ail6 flower development. The RNA-Seq experiment also revealed cross-regulation of AIL gene expression at the transcriptional level. The presence of a number of overrepresented Gene Ontology terms related to plant defense in the set of genes differentially expressed in ant ail6 suggest that ANT and AIL6 also regulate plant defense pathways. Furthermore, we found that ant ail6 plants have elevated levels of two defense hormones: salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, and show increased resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. These results suggest that ANT and AIL6 regulate biological pathways that are critical for both development and defense. PMID:27208279

  5. Cooling wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.I.

    1995-07-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

  6. Ultrasonic Digital Communication System for a Steel Wall Multipath Channel: Methods and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Timothy L.

    2005-12-01

    As of the development of this thesis, no commercially available products have been identified for the digital communication of instrumented data across a thick ({approx} 6 n.) steel wall using ultrasound. The specific goal of the current research is to investigate the application of methods for digital communication of instrumented data (i.e., temperature, voltage, etc.) across the wall of a steel pressure vessel. The acoustic transmission of data using ultrasonic transducers prevents the need to breach the wall of such a pressure vessel which could ultimately affect its safety or lifespan, or void the homogeneity of an experiment under test. Actual digital communication paradigms are introduced and implemented for the successful dissemination of data across such a wall utilizing solely an acoustic ultrasonic link. The first, dubbed the ''single-hop'' configuration, can communicate bursts of digital data one-way across the wall using the Differential Binary Phase-Shift Keying (DBPSK) modulation technique as fast as 500 bps. The second, dubbed the ''double-hop'' configuration, transmits a carrier into the vessel, modulates it, and retransmits it externally. Using a pulsed carrier with Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), this technique can communicate digital data as fast as 500 bps. Using a CW carrier, Least Mean-Squared (LMS) adaptive interference suppression, and DBPSK, this method can communicate data as fast as 5 kbps. A third technique, dubbed the ''reflected-power'' configuration, communicates digital data by modulating a pulsed carrier by varying the acoustic impedance at the internal transducer-wall interface. The paradigms of the latter two configurations are believed to be unique. All modulation methods are based on the premise that the wall cannot be breached in any way and can therefore be viably implemented with power delivered wirelessly through the acoustic channel using ultrasound. Methods, results, and considerations for future research are discussed

  7. GmEXPB2, a Cell Wall β-Expansin, Affects Soybean Nodulation through Modifying Root Architecture and Promoting Nodule Formation and Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinxin; Zhao, Jing; Tan, Zhiyuan; Liao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Nodulation is an essential process for biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in legumes, but its regulation remains poorly understood. Here, a β-expansin gene, GmEXPB2, was found to be critical for soybean (Glycine max) nodulation. GmEXPB2 was preferentially expressed at the early stage of nodule development. β-Glucuronidase staining further showed that GmEXPB2 was mainly localized to the nodule vascular trace and nodule vascular bundles, as well as nodule cortical and parenchyma cells, suggesting that GmEXPB2 might be involved in cell wall modification and extension during nodule formation and development. Overexpression of GmEXPB2 dramatically modified soybean root architecture, increasing the size and number of cortical cells in the root meristematic and elongation zones and expanding root hair density and size of the root hair zone. Confocal microscopy with green fluorescent protein-labeled rhizobium USDA110 cells showed that the infection events were significantly enhanced in the GmEXPB2-overexpressing lines. Moreover, nodule primordium development was earlier in overexpressing lines compared with wild-type plants. Thereby, overexpression of GmEXPB2 in either transgenic soybean hairy roots or whole plants resulted in increased nodule number, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity and thus elevated plant N and phosphorus content as well as biomass. In contrast, suppression of GmEXPB2 in soybean transgenic composite plants led to smaller infected cells and thus reduced number of big nodules, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity, thereby inhibiting soybean growth. Taken together, we conclude that GmEXPB2 critically affects soybean nodulation through modifying root architecture and promoting nodule formation and development and subsequently impacts biological N2 fixation and growth of soybean. PMID:26432877

  8. Nonlinear Behavior of RC Dual Ductility Mode Shear Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labafzadeh, M. S. R.; Ziyaeifar, M.

    2008-07-01

    Shear walls are among the most common lateral load resisting systems in medium height buildings. This is due, mostly, to their ability in providing the required level of lateral stiffness and strength for the structure (with simplicity and ease). However, shear walls are not considered as efficient structural component if ductility is the major concern. The fact is, in a tall shear wall, formation of plastic hinge happen only in a fraction of the height of the wall and ductility resources of the rest of the wall remains, mostly, untapped. The experiences with coupled shear walls have shown the potential of dispersion of inelastic behavior over the height of the wall, causing more desirable ductile behavior and a better crack pattern for the whole system. Intuitively, the same concept can be extended to the shear walls with openings. In such cases, both flexural and shear ductility capacity of the system over the height of the wall can be efficiently used to provide us with a dual ductility mode shear wall. This study focuses on the role of openings in ductile behavior of shear walls. The objective of this paper is comparing the nonlinear behavior of ordinary reinforced concrete shear wall with the ones with openings. To this end, the TNO DIANA finite element software is used to show the potential of dual ductility mode of behavior in shear walls with openings. In this regards a series of inelastic static analysis on a variety of shear walls have been carried out. The results of study in a wide variety of shear walls indicate that the potential of openings in the enhancement of ductility modes of such walls in comparison with those without openings.

  9. The Berlin Wall: A Simulation for the Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, William B., III

    2010-01-01

    November 9, 2009, marked the twentieth anniversary of the opening of the Berlin Wall. The Wall, a symbol of the Cold War, separated the German people for 28 years (1961-1989), keeping those on the East side isolated. Although the construction and dismantling of the Berlin Wall is a significant part of history, the topic is little covered in the…

  10. Evaluation of the scale dependent dynamic SGS model in the open source code caffa3d.MBRi in wall-bounded flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Martin; Usera, Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    The Scale Dependent Dynamic Model (SDDM) has been widely validated in large-eddy simulations using pseudo-spectral codes [1][2][3]. The scale dependency, particularly the potential law, has been proved also in a priori studies [4][5]. To the authors' knowledge there have been only few attempts to use the SDDM in finite difference (FD) and finite volume (FV) codes [6][7], finding some improvements with the dynamic procedures (scale independent or scale dependent approach), but not showing the behavior of the scale-dependence parameter when using the SDDM. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the SDDM in the open source code caffa3d.MBRi, an updated version of the code presented in [8]. caffa3d.MBRi is a FV code, second-order accurate, parallelized with MPI, in which the domain is divided in unstructured blocks of structured grids. To accomplish this, 2 cases are considered: flow between flat plates and flow over a rough surface with the presence of a model wind turbine, taking for this case the experimental data presented in [9]. In both cases the standard Smagorinsky Model (SM), the Scale Independent Dynamic Model (SIDM) and the SDDM are tested. As presented in [6][7] slight improvements are obtained with the SDDM. Nevertheless, the behavior of the scale-dependence parameter supports the generalization of the dynamic procedure proposed in the SDDM, particularly taking into account that no explicit filter is used (the implicit filter is unknown). [1] F. Porté-Agel, C. Meneveau, M.B. Parlange. "A scale-dependent dynamic model for large-eddy simulation: application to a neutral atmospheric boundary layer". Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2000, 415, 261-284. [2] E. Bou-Zeid, C. Meneveau, M. Parlante. "A scale-dependent Lagrangian dynamic model for large eddy simulation of complex turbulent flows". Physics of Fluids, 2005, 17, 025105 (18p). [3] R. Stoll, F. Porté-Agel. "Dynamic subgrid-scale models for momentum and scalar fluxes in large-eddy simulations of

  11. Indirect localization of a magnetic domain wall mediated by quasi walls

    PubMed Central

    Lacour, D.; Montaigne, F.; Rougemaille, N.; Belkhou, R.; Raabe, J.; Hehn, M.

    2015-01-01

    The manipulation of magnetic domain walls in thin films and nanostructures opens new opportunities for fundamental and applied research. But controlling reliably the position of a moving domain wall still remains challenging. So far, most of the studies aimed at understanding the physics of pinning and depinning processes in the magnetic layer in which the wall moves (active layer). In these studies, the role of other magnetic layers in the stack has been often ignored. Here, we report an indirect localization process of 180° domain walls that occurs in magnetic tunnel junctions, commonly used in spintronics. Combining Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy and micromagnetic simulations, magnetic configurations in both layers are resolved. When nucleating a 180° domain wall in the active layer, a quasi wall is created in the reference layer, atop the wall. The wall and its quasi wall must then be moved or positioned together, as a unique object. As a mutual effect, a localized change of the magnetic properties in the reference layer induces a localized quasi wall in the active layer. The two types of quasi walls are shown to be responsible for an indirect localization process of the 180° domain wall in the active layer. PMID:26011004

  12. Wall crossing from Boltzmann black hole halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manschot, Jan; Pioline, Boris; Sen, Ashoke

    2011-07-01

    A key question in the study of mathcal{N} = 2 supersymmetric string or field theories is to understand the decay of BPS bound states across walls of marginal stability in the space of parameters or vacua. By representing the potentially unstable bound states as multi-centered black hole solutions in mathcal{N} = 2 supergravity, we provide two fully general and explicit formulæ for the change in the (refined) index across the wall. The first, "Higgs branch" formula relies on Reineke's results for invariants of quivers without oriented loops, specialized to the Abelian case. The second, "Coulomb branch" formula results from evaluating the symplectic volume of the classical phase space of multi-centered solutions by localization. We provide extensive evidence that these new formulæ agree with each other and with the mathematical results of Kontsevich and Soibelman (KS) and Joyce and Song (JS). The main physical insight behind our results is that the Bose-Fermi statistics of individual black holes participating in the bound state can be traded for Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, provided the (integer) index Ω( γ) of the internal degrees of freedom carried by each black hole is replaced by an effective (rational) index bar{Ω }left( γ right) = sumnolimits_{left. m right|γ } {{{{Ω left( {{{γ } left/ {m} right.}} right)}} left/ {{{m^2}}} right.}} similar map also exists for the refined index. This observation provides a physical rationale for the appearance of the rational Donaldson-Thomas invariant bar{Ω }left( γ right) in the works of KS and JS.

  13. Wall surveyor project report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullenhoff, D.J.; Johnston, B.C.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1996-02-22

    A report is made on the demonstration of a first-generation Wall Surveyor that is capable of surveying the interior and thickness of a stone, brick, or cement wall. LLNL`s Micropower Impulse Radar is used, based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short microwave impulses (MIR rangefinder). Six test walls were used. While the demonstrator MIR Wall Surveyor is not fieldable yet, it has successfully scanned the test walls and produced real-time images identifying the walls. It is planned to optimize and package the evaluation wall surveyor into a hand held unit.

  14. If walls could talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braam, J.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The plant cell wall is very complex, both in structure and function. The wall components and the mechanical properties of the wall have been implicated in conveying information that is important for morphogenesis. Proteoglycans, fragments of polysaccharides and the structural integrity of the wall may relay signals that influence cellular differentiation and growth control. Furthering our knowledge of cell wall structure and function is likely to have a profound impact on our understanding of how plant cells communicate with the extracellular environment.

  15. The Stability of Fake Flat Domain Walls on Kähler Manifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, F. T.; Wijaya, R. N.; Gunara, B. E.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we study the stability of flat fake domain walls solution of fake N = 1 supergravity in d + 1 dimensions with Kahler surface as the sigma model. We start with Lagrangian for N = 1 fake supergravity which is coupling between gravity and complex scalar in d + 1 dimensions with scalar potential turned on. Then, as in supergravity theory, we demand that the scalar fields span the Kahler manifold. The equations of motion for fields can be reduced into first order equations by defining the superpotential and the resulting equations are called the projection equation and the fake BPS equation. Finally, we discuss about the stability of flat fake domain walls by investigating the critical points of the superpotential and the scalar potential.

  16. A Wall of Funnels Concentrates Swimming Bacteria▿

    PubMed Central

    Galajda, Peter; Keymer, Juan; Chaikin, Paul; Austin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Randomly moving but self-propelled agents, such as Escherichia coli bacteria, are expected to fill a volume homogeneously. However, we show that when a population of bacteria is exposed to a microfabricated wall of funnel-shaped openings, the random motion of bacteria through the openings is rectified by tracking (trapping) of the swimming bacteria along the funnel wall. This leads to a buildup of the concentration of swimming cells on the narrow opening side of the funnel wall but no concentration of nonswimming cells. Similarly, we show that a series of such funnel walls functions as a multistage pump and can increase the concentration of motile bacteria exponentially with the number of walls. The funnel wall can be arranged along arbitrary shapes and cause the bacteria to form well-defined patterns. The funnel effect may also have implications on the transport and distribution of motile microorganisms in irregular confined environments, such as porous media, wet soil, or biological tissue, or act as a selection pressure in evolution experiments. PMID:17890308

  17. Wall induced turbulence distortions of optical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Ove K. S.; Henriksson, Markus; Sjöqvist, Lars

    2009-09-01

    Optical measurements and tests of optical instruments are often performed through an opened window or from the roof of an elevated building. This can also be a common situation for free-space optical (FSO) communication systems. Wind friction in combination with solar heating of the wall and the ground will create increased turbulence in a boundary layer close to the wall. For an outgoing laser beam this thin region of strong turbulence causes beam wander, beam broadening and beam break-up. For imaging and detection systems angle of arrival fluctuations and image blurring may result. In an attempt to estimate the strength of the atmospheric turbulence in the layer at the wall the refractive index structure constant (Cn2) was measured with an ultra sonic anemometer as a function of distance from the wall. The measurements were performed at the lower part of a window that was open just enough to give space for the anemometer. The window was placed 10 m above ground in a 12 m high building, with brick wall below the window and wooden panel above the window. Measurements of the turbulence as a function of distance from the wall were performed during different times of the day to study the influence of sun heating of the wall. The measured average Cn2 shows an exponentially decreasing function of distance from the wall. The exponential decay of Cn2 depends on the time of the day. The highest measured value of Cn2 was approximately 3x10-11 m-2/3 near the wall. The influence of wall turbulence is discussed with respect to its influence on laser beam propagation.

  18. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    SciTech Connect

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Meier, W.R.

    1982-08-17

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. Produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithiumceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  19. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated.

  20. The Lamportian cell wall

    SciTech Connect

    Keiliszewski, M.; Lamport, D. )

    1991-05-01

    The Lamportian Warp-Weft hypothesis suggests a cellulose-extensin interpenetrating network where extensin mechanically couples the load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in a wall matrix that is best described as a microcomposite. This model is based on data gathered from the extensin-rich walls of tomato and sycamore cell suspension culture, wherein extensin precursors are insolubilized into the wall by undefined crosslinks. The authors recent work with cell walls isolated from intact tissue as well as walls from suspension cultured cells of the graminaceous monocots maize and rice, the non-graminaceous monocot asparagus, the primitive herbaceous dicot sugar beet, and the gymnosperm Douglas Fir indicate that although extensins are ubiquitous to all plant species examined, they are not the major structural protein component of most walls examined. Amino acid analyses of intact and HF-treated walls shows a major component neither an HRGP, nor directly comparable to the glycine-rich wall proteins such as those associated with seed coat walls or the 67 mole% glycine-rich proteins cloned from petunia and soybean. Clearly, structural wall protein alternatives to extensin exist and any cell wall model must take that into account. If we assume that extracellular matrices are a priori network structures, then new Hypless' structural proteins in the maize cell wall raise questions about the sort of network these proteins create: the kinds of crosslinks involved; how they are formed; and the roles played by the small amounts of HRGPs.

  1. Halogenation of microcapsule walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. R.; Schaab, C. K.; Scott, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Procedure for halogenation of confining walls of both gelatin and gelatin-phenolic resin capsules is similar to that used for microencapsulation. Ten percent halogen content renders capsule wall nonburning; any higher content enhances flame-retardant properties of selected internal phase material. Halogenation decreases permeability of wall material to encapsulated materials.

  2. Side wall cooling for nozzle segments for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    A nozzle vane segment includes outer and inner band portions with a vane extending therebetween and defining first and second cavities separated by an impingement plate for flowing cooling medium for impingement cooling of nozzle side walls. The side wall of each nozzle segment has an undercut region. The impingement plate has an inturned flange with a plurality of openings. Cooling inserts or receptacles having an open end are received in the openings and the base and side walls of the receptacles have apertures for receiving cooling medium from the first cavity and directing the cooling medium for impingement cooling of the side wall of the nozzle segment and a portion of the nozzle wall.

  3. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

    2006-06-19

    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.

  4. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    DOEpatents

    Maniscalco, James A.; Meier, Wayne R.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  5. Wall of fundamental constants

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Peloso, Marco; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-02-15

    We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of the constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.

  6. 3. Ice Plant interior, west section, looking north. Crib wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Ice Plant interior, west section, looking north. Crib wall of stacked 4' X 6' 's in foreground. Opening leads to refrigeration equipment area. Freezer room to the rear. - Curtis Wharf, Ice Plant, O & Second Streets, Anacortes, Skagit County, WA

  7. 13. FRIST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTHWEST WALL, HEARTH WITH KETTLES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. FRIST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTHWEST WALL, HEARTH WITH KETTLES USED FOR RENDERING LARD (LEFT) AND MAKING APPLE BUTTER (RIGHT) WITH SCALE - Open Gate Farm, House, Ridge Road, 1 mile East of Elephant Road, Perkasie, Bucks County, PA

  8. 12. FRIST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTHWEST WALL, HEARTH WITH KETTLES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FRIST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTHWEST WALL, HEARTH WITH KETTLES USED FOR RENDERING LARD (LEFT) AND MAKING APPLE BUTTER (RIGHT) - Open Gate Farm, House, Ridge Road, 1 mile East of Elephant Road, Perkasie, Bucks County, PA

  9. 95. TOWER STAIRHALL, SOUTH WALL, DIRECTLY WEST OF WINDOW, DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. TOWER STAIRHALL, SOUTH WALL, DIRECTLY WEST OF WINDOW, DETAIL OF COMPOSITION MOLDED DRAPES OF BELLFLOWERS ON OPEN PILASTER (DONE DURING 1897-98 RESTORATION) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 16. INTERIOR OF ROOM 105 LOOKING TOWARD SOUTHEAST WALL. EXPOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF ROOM 105 LOOKING TOWARD SOUTHEAST WALL. EXPOSED POST EXISTS IN MIDDLE OF ROOM. A SMALL OPENING HAS BEEN CUT INTO THE UPPER PORTION OF THE SOUTHEAST WALL THROUGH TO THE ADJOINING ROOM (106). GYPSUM BOARD ON WALLS WITH WOOD TRIM, FLUORESCENT LIGHTING, AND VINYL COMPOSITION TILE ON FLOORS ARE ALL LATER ADDITIONS. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. INTERIOR VIEW, WEST WALL OF NORTHWEST ATTIC CHAMBER. THIS SPACIOUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, WEST WALL OF NORTHWEST ATTIC CHAMBER. THIS SPACIOUS ROOM INCLUDED A ROOF MONITOR FOR LIGHT AND VENTILATION AND A FIREPLACE FOR HEAT. THE WALL OPENING AND DOOR ON EITHER SIDE OF THE FIREPLACE GIVE ONTO A LARGE UNFINISHED SPACE LOCATED OVER THE HOUSE’S WEST WING - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 65. INTERIOR OF 1902 GENERATOR HOUSE. BASEMENT WALL OF 1901 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. INTERIOR OF 1902 GENERATOR HOUSE. BASEMENT WALL OF 1901 STEAM ENGINE HOUSE VISIBLE AT REAR. BASEMENT WALL OF 1873 WING AT RIGHT. OPENINGS MADE FOR MECHANICALLY TRANSMITTING POWER FROM STEAM ENGINES TO GENERATORS HAVE BEEN BRICKED UP. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

  13. Cleopatra's Bedroom oblique with picture tube wall along walkway. Structure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cleopatra's Bedroom oblique with picture tube wall along walkway. Structure is made solely of amber colored bottles. Roof supported by telephone poles. Areas of bottle wall above window opening collapsed in the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Camera facing northeast. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  14. Domain wall geometry controls conduction in ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, R K; Morozovska, A N; Eliseev, E A; Britson, J; Yang, J-C; Chu, Y-H; Maksymovych, P; Chen, L Q; Nagarajan, V; Kalinin, S V

    2012-11-14

    A new paradigm of domain wall nanoelectronics has emerged recently, in which the domain wall in a ferroic is itself an active device element. The ability to spatially modulate the ferroic order parameter within a single domain wall allows the physical properties to be tailored at will and hence opens vastly unexplored device possibilities. Here, we demonstrate via ambient and ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) scanning probe microscopy (SPM) measurements in bismuth ferrite that the conductivity of the domain walls can be modulated by up to 500% in the spatial dimension as a function of domain wall curvature. Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire calculations reveal the conduction is a result of carriers or vacancies migrating to neutralize the charge at the formed interface. Phase-field modeling indicates that anisotropic potential distributions can occur even for initially uncharged walls, from polarization dynamics mediated by elastic effects. These results are the first proof of concept for modulation of charge as a function of domain wall geometry by a proximal probe, thereby expanding potential applications for oxide ferroics in future nanoscale electronics. PMID:22994244

  15. A Generalized Wall Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Liu, Nan-Suey; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Lumley, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    The asymptotic solutions, described by Tennekes and Lumley (1972), for surface flows in a channel, pipe or boundary layer at large Reynolds numbers are revisited. These solutions can be extended to more complex flows such as the flows with various pressure gradients, zero wall stress and rough surfaces, etc. In computational fluid dynamics (CFD), these solutions can be used as the boundary conditions to bridge the near-wall region of turbulent flows so that there is no need to have the fine grids near the wall unless the near-wall flow structures are required to resolve. These solutions are referred to as the wall functions. Furthermore, a generalized and unified law of the wall which is valid for whole surface layer (including viscous sublayer, buffer layer and inertial sublayer) is analytically constructed. The generalized law of the wall shows that the effect of both adverse and favorable pressure gradients on the surface flow is very significant. Such as unified wall function will be useful not only in deriving analytic expressions for surface flow properties but also bringing a great convenience for CFD methods to place accurate boundary conditions at any location away from the wall. The extended wall functions introduced in this paper can be used for complex flows with acceleration, deceleration, separation, recirculation and rough surfaces.

  16. Liquid Wall Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  17. Cell wall integrity

    PubMed Central

    Pogorelko, Gennady; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Bellincampi, Daniela; Zabotina, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The plant cell wall, a dynamic network of polysaccharides and glycoproteins of significant compositional and structural complexity, functions in plant growth, development and stress responses. In recent years, the existence of plant cell wall integrity (CWI) maintenance mechanisms has been demonstrated, but little is known about the signaling pathways involved, or their components. Examination of key mutants has shed light on the relationships between cell wall remodeling and plant cell responses, indicating a central role for the regulatory network that monitors and controls cell wall performance and integrity. In this review, we present a short overview of cell wall composition and discuss post-synthetic cell wall modification as a valuable approach for studying CWI perception and signaling pathways. PMID:23857352

  18. Linear Stability Analysis of a Channel Flow with Porous Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilton, Nils

    2005-11-01

    This study is motivated by the extensive use of wall-transpiration in numerical studies related to inhibition and control of wall-turbulence. In general, wall-transpiration has been implemented by providing the wall-normal velocity and imposing a no-slip condition on the wall-tangential velocity. Physically, however, the pores cannot be infinitesimally small and, consequently, it is important to address how the presence of the pores affects the slip velocity at the wall and the stability of the boundary layer. Moreover, our work is motivated by the existence of only few studies on the linear stability of channels with porous walls. Our study considers a parallel-plate channel with porous walls such that a longitudinal pressure gradient induces a laminar flow in both the open channel region and the porous walls. Simplified counterparts to the Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire equations are derived for the porous regions that are valid for small permeablities. The linear stability analysis takes account of the coupling between the three disturbance fields through boundary conditions recently derived by Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 38, 1995, pp 2635-2646). The resulting Orr-Sommerfeld spectrum and eigenfunctions reduce to those for Poiseuille flow as the permeability of the walls tends to zero, but are altered for greater values. We discuss symmetrical flows where parameters at both porous walls are identical as well as skewed flows where parameters at the two walls differ.

  19. Metallic Wall Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan Michael (Inventor); Hofer, Richard Robert (Inventor); Mikellides, Ioannis G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A Hall thruster apparatus having walls constructed from a conductive material, such as graphite, and having magnetic shielding of the walls from the ionized plasma has been demonstrated to operate with nearly the same efficiency as a conventional non-magnetically shielded design using insulators as wall components. The new design is believed to provide the potential of higher power and uniform operation over the operating life of a thruster device.

  20. 2012/14 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: (BPS:12/14). Supporting Statement Part A. Request for OMB Review. OMB #1850-0631 v.8. Revised May 28, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), within the U.S. Department of Education (ED), Institute of Education Sciences, is requesting clearance for data collection materials and procedures for the full-scale collection of the 2012/14 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:12/14) first follow-up, including the student…

  1. Individual and mixture endocrine activity of BPS and BPC using in vitro estrogenic/anti-androgenic transcriptional activation assays and the in vivo uterotrophic assay- RAP 2.2-SSWR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is gradually being phased out of many consumer products and processes leading to potential increases in human and environmental exposures to relatively understudied replacement compounds, including Bisphenol S (BPS) and Bisphenol C (BPC).Research from our lab ha...

  2. Enhancement of wall jet transport properties

    DOEpatents

    Claunch, Scott D.; Farrington, Robert B.

    1997-01-01

    By enhancing the natural instabilities in the boundary layer and in the free shear layer of a wall jet, the boundary is minimized thereby increasing the transport of heat and mass. Enhancing the natural instabilities is accomplished by pulsing the flow of air that creates the wall jet. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct.

  3. Enhancement of wall jet transport properties

    DOEpatents

    Claunch, S.D.; Farrington, R.B.

    1997-02-04

    By enhancing the natural instabilities in the boundary layer and in the free shear layer of a wall jet, the boundary is minimized thereby increasing the transport of heat and mass. Enhancing the natural instabilities is accomplished by pulsing the flow of air that creates the wall jet. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct. 17 figs.

  4. 'Stucco' Walls-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial 'clodding' or cementation of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across and makes up half of the projected 'Stucco Walls' image.

  5. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  6. Domain wall filters

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Oliver; Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert; Witzel, Oliver

    2007-03-15

    We propose using the extra dimension separating the domain walls carrying lattice quarks of opposite handedness to gradually filter out the ultraviolet fluctuations of the gauge fields that are felt by the fermionic excitations living in the bulk. This generalization of the homogeneous domain wall construction has some theoretical features that seem nontrivial.

  7. Interactive Word Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Narvaez, Rose

    2013-01-01

    It is common to see word walls displaying the vocabulary that students have learned in class. Word walls serve as visual scaffolds and are a classroom strategy used to reinforce reading and language arts instruction. Research shows a strong relationship between student word knowledge and academic achievement (Stahl and Fairbanks 1986). As a…

  8. Open office landscape system

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, R.O.

    1987-07-28

    This patent describes an open office partition system comprising: a panel receiving base having means for leveling a panel receiving channel of the receiving base and having projecting pins formed in the panel receiving channel; a partition wall received upon the projecting pins formed in the panel receiving channel attaching the partition wall to the receiving base. The partition wall consists of modular panels, each of which comprises: a lower panel retention channel having a first and a second end; a first vertical panel wall support channel attached to and extending from the first end of the lower panel retention channel; a second vertical panel wall support channel attached to and extending from the second end of the lower panel retention channel, the first and the second vertical support channel each having a laterally open vertical chase formed; a top raceway channel attached to and connecting the first and the second vertical support channels at the extending end; the raceway channel having an open top electrical raceway; at least one intermediate brace attached to and extending from the vertical support channel to the second vertical support channel, and an outer panel covering attached to the channel members forming an outer skin for the modular panel; connection clips for connecting vertical support channels of adjacent modular panels at preselected angles an electrical network received within at least a portion of the top electrical raceway and the vertical chase.

  9. INTERIOR DETAIL, SOUTHEAST CABINET NORTH WALL. THE DOORS TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, SOUTHEAST CABINET NORTH WALL. THE DOORS TO THE LEFT OF THE CHIMNEY MASS OPEN ONTO CLOSETS. ON THE RIGHT, THERE ARE TWO CLOSETS WITH JIB DOORS WITHIN THE CHIMNEY MASS. THE OPEN DOOR CONNECTS WITH THE DRAWING ROOM - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 5. Detail of bin wall, showing the thinner exterior wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Detail of bin wall, showing the thinner exterior wall next to the inner wall with its alternating courses of channel tile and hollow tile. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  11. 22. SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING WEST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING WEST FROM THE SAME POINT AS VIEW NO. 21. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. Hollow porous-wall glass microspheres for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Schumacher, Ray F.; Wicks, George G.

    2010-02-23

    A porous wall hollow glass microsphere is provided having a diameter range of between 1 to 200 microns, a density of between 1.0 to 2.0 gm/cc, a porous-wall structure having wall openings defining an average pore size of between 10 to 1000 angstroms, and which contains therein a hydrogen storage material. The porous-wall structure facilitates the introduction of a hydrogen storage material into the interior of the porous wall hollow glass microsphere. In this manner, the resulting hollow glass microsphere can provide a membrane for the selective transport of hydrogen through the porous walls of the microsphere, the small pore size preventing gaseous or liquid contaminants from entering the interior of the hollow glass microsphere.

  13. Pore structure of single-wall carbon nanohorn aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, K.; Kaneko, K.; Kokai, F.; Takahashi, K.; Yudasaka, M.; Iijima, S.

    2000-11-01

    Single-wall carbon nanohorn aggregates were characterized by N 2 adsorption at 77 K and `particle density' measurement using the high pressure He buoyancy method. The single-wall carbon nanohorn aggregate had micropores and its pore volume was 0.11 ml g -1. The particle density was 1.25 g ml -1. The particle density was not equal to the solid density of graphite (2.27 g ml -1) , but it agreed within 15% with the density of the single-wall carbon nanohorn estimated using previous TEM data. Hence single-wall carbon nanohorns have closed micropores covered with single graphene walls. According to N 2 adsorption, single-wall carbon nanohorns have a considerably large surface area (308 m2 g-1) and open microporosity which has been ascribed to the inter-particle aggregate structure, the so-called ` dahlia flower type structure'.

  14. Swimming Near the Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Daniel; Moored, Keith; Dewey, Peter; Lauder, George; Smits, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    The aerodynamic loads on rectangular panels undergoing heave and pitch oscillations near a solid wall were measured using a 6-axis ATI sensor. Over a range of Strouhal numbers, reduced frequencies and flexibilities, swimming near the wall was found to increase thrust and therefore the self-propelled swimming speed. Experimental particle image velocimetry revealed an asymmetric wake structure with a momentum jet angled away from the wall. Both the thrust amplification and the asymmetric wake structure were verified and investigated further using an in-house inviscid panel method code. Supported by ONR MURI Grant N00014-08-1-0642.

  15. Flagellar propulsion near walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Arthur; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Confinement and wall effects are known to affect the kinematics and propulsive characteristics of swimming microorganisms. When a solid body is dragged through a viscous fluid at constant velocity, the presence of a wall increases fluid drag, and thus the net force required to maintain speed has to increase. In contrast, recent optical trapping experiments have revealed that the propulsive force generated by human spermatozoa is decreased by the presence of boundaries. Here we use simple models to analytically elucidate the propulsive effects of a solid boundary on passively actuated filaments and model eukaryotic flagella. We show that in some cases, the increase in fluid friction induced by the wall can lead to a change in the waveform expressed by the flagella which results in a decrease of their propulsive force near a no-slip wall.

  16. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... your health care provider may have you learn pelvic floor muscle exercises ( Kegel exercises ), use estrogen cream in ... GM. Anatomic defects of the abdominal wall and pelvic floor: abdominal and inguinal hernias, cystocele, urethrocele, enterocele, rectocele, ...

  17. Moving wall, continuous flow electronphoresis apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H. (Inventor); Snyder, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates generally to electrophoresis devices and more particularly to a moving wall, continuous flow device in which an electrophoresis chamber is angularly positionable with respect to the direction of moving belt walls. A frame with an electrophoresis chamber is rotatably supported between two synchronously driven belt walls. This allows the chamber to be angularly positionable with respect to the direction of belt travel, which compensates for electroosmotic flow within the electrophoresis chamber. Injection of a buffer solution via an opening and a homogenous sample stream via another opening is performed at the end of a chamber, and collection of buffer and the fractionated species particles is done by a conventional collection array at an opposite end of the chamber. Belts are driven at a rate which exactly matches the flow of buffer and sample through the chamber, which entrains the buffer to behave as a rigid electrophoretic medium, eliminating flow distortions (Poiseuille effect). Additionally, belt material for each belt is stored at one end of the device and is taken up by drive wheels at an opposite end. The novelty of this invention particularly lies in the electrophoresis chamber being angularly positionable between two moving belt walls in order to compensate for electroosmotic flow. Additionally, new belt material is continuously exposed within the chamber, minimizing flow distortion due to contamination of the belt material by the sample.

  18. Double wall vacuum tubing and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Stahl, Charles R.; Gibson, Michael A.; Knudsen, Christian W.

    1989-01-01

    An evacuated double wall tubing is shown together with a method for the manufacture of such tubing which includes providing a first pipe of predetermined larger diameter and a second pipe having an O.D. substantially smaller than the I.D. of the first pipe. An evacuation opening is then in the first pipe. The second pipe is inserted inside the first pipe with an annular space therebetween. The pipes are welded together at one end. A stretching tool is secured to the other end of the second pipe after welding. The second pipe is then prestressed mechanically with the stretching tool an amount sufficient to prevent substantial buckling of the second pipe under normal operating conditions of the double wall pipe. The other ends of the first pipe and the prestressed second pipe are welded together, preferably by explosion welding, without the introduction of mechanical spacers between the pipes. The annulus between the pipes is evacuated through the evacuation opening, and the evacuation opening is finally sealed. The first pipe is preferably of steel and the second pipe is preferably of titanium. The pipes may be of a size and wall thickness sufficient for the double wall pipe to be structurally load bearing or may be of a size and wall thickness insufficient for the double wall pipe to be structurally load bearing, and the double wall pipe positioned with a sliding fit inside a third pipe of a load-bearing size.

  19. Periodicals Price Survey 2008: Embracing Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orsdel, Lee C.; Born, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Evidence for open access as an emergent, global state of mind is everywhere. The "New York Times" went "open" last September, and the "Wall Street Journal" is slated to follow. Increasingly, scholarly communities are breaking with tradition and calling for the open sharing of research, software, and data. Amongst these global initiatives is the…

  20. Ultimate Cost of Building Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Clayford T.; Gross, James G.

    The need for economic analysis of building walls is discussed, and the factors influencing the ultimate cost of exterior walls are studied. The present worth method is used to analyze three types of exterior non-loadbearing panel or curtain walls. Anticipated costs are expressed in terms of their present value per square foot of wall area. The…

  1. Musculoskeletal chest wall pain

    PubMed Central

    Fam, Adel G.; Smythe, Hugh A.

    1985-01-01

    The musculoskeletal structures of the thoracic wall and the neck are a relatively common source of chest pain. Pain arising from these structures is often mistaken for angina pectoris, pleurisy or other serious disorders. In this article the clinical features, pathogenesis and management of the various musculoskeletal chest wall disorders are discussed. The more common causes are costochondritis, traumatic muscle pain, trauma to the chest wall, “fibrositis” syndrome, referred pain, psychogenic regional pain syndrome, and arthritis involving articulations of the sternum, ribs and thoracic spine. Careful analysis of the history, physical findings and results of investigation is essential for precise diagnosis and effective treatment. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4027804

  2. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  3. Axion domain wall baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Daido, Ryuji; Kitajima, Naoya; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new scenario of baryogenesis, in which annihilation of axion domain walls generates a sizable baryon asymmetry. Successful baryogenesis is possible for a wide range of the axion mass and decay constant, m≃10{sup 8}–10{sup 13} GeV and f≃10{sup 13}–10{sup 16} GeV. Baryonic isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed in our model, in contrast to various spontaneous baryogenesis scenarios in the slow-roll regime. In particular, the axion domain wall baryogenesis is consistent with high-scale inflation which generates a large tensor-to-scalar ratio within the reach of future CMB B-mode experiments. We also discuss the gravitational waves produced by the domain wall annihilation and its implications for the future gravitational wave experiments.

  4. Thermal treatment wall

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  5. South interior wall, view to the East from near the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South interior wall, view to the East from near the center of the building. At present there is open storage above the fluorescent lights. Behind the interior half wall, modern office occupy the area formerly used as a machine shop (See drawing copy NV-35-B-5) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  6. A School without Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venuti, Len Tai

    1994-01-01

    During the summer, selected students of Hawaiian ancestry who have completed seventh or eighth grade participate in a boarding program with outdoor activities such as pulling taro, star gazing, and camping. The activities eliminate walls of doubt and fear and nurture self-confidence, creativity, personal growth, leadership, and cultural awareness.…

  7. Wall turbulence control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Lindemann, A. Margrethe; Beeler, George B.; Mcginley, Catherine B.; Goodman, Wesley L.; Balasubramanian, R.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of wall turbulence control devices which were experimentally investigated are discussed; these include devices for burst control, alteration of outer flow structures, large eddy substitution, increased heat transfer efficiency, and reduction of wall pressure fluctuations. Control of pre-burst flow was demonstrated with a single, traveling surface depression which is phase-locked to elements of the burst production process. Another approach to wall turbulence control is to interfere with the outer layer coherent structures. A device in the outer part of a boundary layer was shown to suppress turbulence and reduce drag by opposing both the mean and unsteady vorticity in the boundary layer. Large eddy substitution is a method in which streamline curvature is introduced into the boundary layer in the form of streamwise vortices. Riblets, which were already shown to reduce turbulent drag, were also shown to exhibit superior heat transfer characteristics. Heat transfer efficiency as measured by the Reynolds Analogy Factor was shown to be as much as 36 percent greater than a smooth flat plate in a turbulent boundary layer. Large Eddy Break-Up (LEBU) which are also known to reduce turbulent drag were shown to reduce turbulent wall pressure fluctuation.

  8. The Wall Coverings Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Students love nothing better than personalizing their space--desk, bedroom, or even their cars. This article describes a classroom challenge that gives students a chance to let their spirits soar with the invention of a new form of wall treatment. A trip to a big box store might prove to be most helpful for students to visualize their new product…

  9. Fly on the Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Dave; Korpan, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a peer observation program at the University of Victoria called the Lecture Club. The observers are not interactive during the class--they are the proverbial flies on the wall. The paper identifies the program as self-developmental, discussing the attributes of this learning-to-teach and peer-sharing…

  10. A Wall of Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Visitors to the campus of Orland High School (OHS) will never question that they have stepped into a world of the masses: kids, activity, personalities, busyness, and playfulness--a veritable cloud of mild bedlam. The wall of ceramic faces that greets a visitor in the school office is another reminder of the organized chaos that the teachers…

  11. Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458

  12. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Lois; Mantha, Pallavi

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  13. EAST WALL OF CRYSTALLIZER WING TO THE LEFT, END WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST WALL OF CRYSTALLIZER WING TO THE LEFT, END WALL OF CRUSHING MILL IN CENTER. GABLE END OF BOILING HOUSE IN LEFT BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  14. 4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL AND EROSION ON ROAD SURFACE. - Bridalveil Fall Bridge No. 3, Spanning Bridalveil Creek on carriage road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  15. DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall construction of the Crockett barn includes a layer of diagonal sheathing that is exposed on the interior. - Crockett Farm, Barn, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  16. Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation Sections - Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp NP-5-C, Barracks No. 5, CCC Camp Historic District at Chapin Mesa, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  17. 1. SOUTHEAST REAR WALL AND NORTHEAST SIDE WALL OF CABINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHEAST REAR WALL AND NORTHEAST SIDE WALL OF CABINS FORGEMAN'S HOUSE NO. 1 AT RIGHT - Mount Etna Iron Works, Forgeman's House No. 1, Legislative Route 07020 between junctions of T.R. 461 & 463, Williamsburg, Blair County, PA

  18. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  19. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  20. 38. NORTHEAST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH WALL. ROOM COMPLETELY WALLED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. NORTHEAST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH WALL. ROOM COMPLETELY WALLED WITH RANDOM WIDTH BOARDS WHICH WERE PAPERED OR PLASTERED OVER. THIS WAS TYPICAL THROUGHOUT HOUSE EXCEPT FOR WOOD PANELED WALLS - John Mark Verdier House, 801 Bay & Scott Streets, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  1. 25. NORTH TRAINING WALL, EAST SECTION, SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. NORTH TRAINING WALL, EAST SECTION, SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST FROM A POINT ABOUT 500 FEET FROM THE MIDDLE HARBOR PARK FISHING PIER. (Panoramic view 1 of 2). - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  2. 6. OPEN HEARTH NO. 4 TRESTLE. THE ARCH WITH THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OPEN HEARTH NO. 4 TRESTLE. THE ARCH WITH THE GATE IS KNOWN AS THE HOLE IN THE WALL BY FORMER STEELWORKERS. FOR YEARS THE HOLE IN THE WALL PROVIDED ACCESS TO THE INTERIOR OF THE MILL AND TO THE PAYMASTER'S OFFICE. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  3. Suppression of Walker breakdown in magnetic domain wall propagation through structural control of spin wave emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, David M.; Atkinson, Del

    2013-06-01

    The control of individual magnetic domain walls has potential for future spintronic memory and data processing applications. The speed and reliability of such devices are determined by the dynamic properties of the domain walls. Typically, spin precession limitations lead to Walker breakdown, limiting wall velocity resulting in low mobility. Here, we show the suppression of Walker breakdown by the careful design of small amplitude periodic nanowire structuring to match the periodicity of domain wall spin structure transformations. This opens up a channel for energy dissipation via spin wave emission, allowing a domain wall to maintain its spin structure during propagation.

  4. The Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Sampayan, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    The Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a class of induction accelerators, employs a novel insulating beam tube to impress a longitudinal electric field on a bunch of charged particles. The surface flashover characteristics of this tube may permit the attainment of accelerating gradients on the order of 100 MV/m for accelerating pulses on the order of a nanosecond in duration. A virtual traveling wave of excitation along the tube is produced at any desired speed by controlling the timing of pulse generating modules that supply a tangential electric field to the tube wall. Because of the ability to control the speed of this virtual wave, the accelerator is capable of handling any charge to mass ratio particle; hence it can be used for electrons, protons and any ion. The accelerator architectures, key technologies and development challenges will be described.

  5. Bumper wall for plasma device

    DOEpatents

    Coultas, Thomas A.

    1977-01-01

    Operation of a plasma device such as a reactor for controlled thermonuclear fusion is facilitated by an improved bumper wall enclosing the plasma to smooth the flow of energy from the plasma as the energy impinges upon the bumper wall. The bumper wall is flexible to withstand unequal and severe thermal shocks and it is readily replaced at less expense than the cost of replacing structural material in the first wall and blanket that surround it.

  6. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  7. 16. Interior view, greenhouse, south wall taken from the ground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior view, greenhouse, south wall taken from the ground. The original floor height is indicated by the joists on the left. The large opening on the right was formerly fitted with an exterior-fed iron stove used to heat the space on particularly cold days. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 8. VIEW OF STUDDING, EXTERIOR WALL FURRING AND LINTELS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF STUDDING, EXTERIOR WALL FURRING AND LINTELS FOR NEW WINDOW OPENINGS. NORTH WING, FIRST FLOOR DURING REHABILITATION OF HOSPITAL BUILDING, 1938. PLEASE CREDIT: BUREAU OF YARDS AND DOCKS, NATIONAL ARCHIVES - U. S. Naval Asylum, Laning Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Geometric optics radome analysis wall incorporating effects of wall curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozakoff, Dennis J.

    1993-07-01

    In this research, a principal unmodeled error contributor in radome analysis is identified as the local plane approximation at the ray intercept point. An improved approach to modeling and computing the effects of the radome wall was developed which improves the radome wall transmission wall analysis in three respects: use of surface integration, utilization of a divergence factor (DF) to account for wall curvature, and incorporation of the effects of multiple refraction (MR). Modeling an incident plane wave on an external reference plane as an ensemble of Huygen's sources, geometric optics is used to trace the fields from the reference plane through the radome wall to a receiving monopulse antenna, where the wall transmissions on each ray are collected. The fact that the integration of a bundle of rays through the radome wall, as opposed to a single ray, more densely samples the curvature variation results in a more robust model. A DF derived from Snell's law for spherical shells accounts for the local wall curvature at the ray intercept point. To validate the approach, a microwave measurement setup was assembled around a network analyzer. Swept frequency data were obtained for similar monolithic wall dielectric panels but with different wall curvatures. Comparisons were then with measured data and the predictions of the model herein.

  10. Axions from wall decay

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S; Hagmann, C; Sikivie, P

    2001-01-08

    The authors discuss the decay of axion walls bounded by strings and present numerical simulations of the decay process. In these simulations, the decay happens immediately, in a time scale of order the light travel time, and the average energy of the radiated axions is {approx_equal} 7m{sub a} for v{sub a}/m{sub a} {approx_equal} 500. is found to increase approximately linearly with ln(v{sub a}/m{sub a}). Extrapolation of this behavior yields {approx_equal} 60 m{sub a} in axion models of interest.

  11. Eye-wall resection.

    PubMed Central

    Char, D H; Miller, T; Crawford, J B

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the ocular retention rates, visual results, and metastases in uveal tumors managed with eye-wall resection techniques. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of uveal tumors selected for eye-wall resection with the surgical procedures performed by a single surgeon. All enucleation specimens were reviewed by one author. Both parametric and non-parametric analysis of data was performed. RESULTS: A total of 132 eyes were scheduled for eye-wall resection surgery. Mean patient age was 52 years (range, 11 to 86 years). Tumors involved the iris alone in 17 cases, the iris-ciliary body in 53, the ciliary body alone in 16, and the choroid (ciliochoroidal, iris-ciliary body-choroid, or choroid) in 46 cases. A total of 114 eyes harbored melanomas; tumors located more posteriorly were more likely to have epithelioid cells (P < .05). Mean follow-up was 6 years. Mean number of clock hours in iris and iris-ciliary body tumors was 3.5. In tumors that involved the choroid, the mean largest diameter was 12.6 mm and the mean thickness was 8.2 mm. Ninety-three (70%) of 132 eyes were retained. Histologic assessment of surgical margins did not correlate with either evidence of tumor in enucleated eyes or metastatic disease. Surgical margins of tumors located more anteriorly were more likely to be clear on histologic evaluation (P < .05). Approximately 56% of retained eyes had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better; visual results were significantly better in tumors located more anteriorly (P < .05). All retained eyes with iris tumors had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better. In tumors that involved the choroid, 8 of 25 retained eyes kept visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Metastases developed in 8 patients; all metastatic events developed in patients with tumors that involved the choroid, and 7 of 8 were mixed cell melanomas. CONCLUSIONS: Seventy percent of eyes were retained, and 56% of these had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Only 7% of patients

  12. Gullies in Crater Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    6 April 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies in the wall of a large impact crater in Newton Basin near 41.9oS, 158.1oW. Such gullies may have formed by downslope movement of wet debris--i.e., water. Unfortunately, because the responsible fluid (if there was one) is no longer present today, only the geomorphology of the channels and debris aprons can be used to deduce that water might have been involved. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  13. Free surface rise and fall due to wall turbulent structures

    SciTech Connect

    Rashidi, M.

    1996-12-20

    Turbulent structures near the wall and the the surface have been studied in open channel flows using oxygen bubble visualization techniques. Experiments indicate that the flow is dominated by the generation of wall ejections and interactions of such structures with the free surface. The ejections are seen to evolve near the wall, reach the free surface, form surface patches, roll back and mix into the bulk flow. Furthermore, there are evidence of ``horseshoe`` and ``hockeystick`` type vortices in relation to the bursting events. Measurements of surface characteristics show that the ejection-inflow events are associated with deformation of the free surface. It is seen that as ejections reach the free surface, the surface goes through a rise, whereas the surface falls when the inflowing fluid returns toward the wall. These effects are enhanced as the flow Reynolds number is increased.

  14. Esophagectomy - open

    MedlinePlus

    Trans-hiatal esophagectomy; Trans-thoracic esophagectomy; En bloc esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - open; Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy, Blunt esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - open; Cancer of the esophagus - esophagectomy - open

  15. Gapped domain walls, gapped boundaries, and topological degeneracy.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tian; Wang, Juven C; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2015-02-20

    Gapped domain walls, as topological line defects between (2+1)D topologically ordered states, are examined. We provide simple criteria to determine the existence of gapped domain walls, which apply to both Abelian and non-Abelian topological orders. Our criteria also determine which (2+1)D topological orders must have gapless edge modes, namely, which (1+1)D global gravitational anomalies ensure gaplessness. Furthermore, we introduce a new mathematical object, the tunneling matrix W, whose entries are the fusion-space dimensions W(ia), to label different types of gapped domain walls. By studying many examples, we find evidence that the tunneling matrices are powerful quantities to classify different types of gapped domain walls. Since a gapped boundary is a gapped domain wall between a bulk topological order and the vacuum, regarded as the trivial topological order, our theory of gapped domain walls inclusively contains the theory of gapped boundaries. In addition, we derive a topological ground state degeneracy formula, applied to arbitrary orientable spatial 2-manifolds with gapped domain walls, including closed 2-manifolds and open 2-manifolds with gapped boundaries.

  16. Foucault pendulum ``wall clock''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, H. Richard

    1995-01-01

    Details are given for the construction of a 70-cm-long Foucault pendulum to be mounted on the wall, and for a simple modification that will make it display local clock time. The possibility of having a Foucault pendulum of such short length is the result of finding new or improved ways of reducing four perturbing effects that become more severe as the length is decreased. They relate to: precession due to ellipticity in the motion, the drive system for maintaining the amplitude, the means of limiting the growth of ellipticity, and the method of gripping the suspending wire at the top. With those improvements, successful Foucault operation was attained in pendulums as short as 15 cm, support to center of bob. Following that severe test, the length for the ``wall clock'' was set at a conservative 70 cm. At that length it is highly reliable, and accurate to within 2% when timed for the full revolution. Uniformity in rate when comparing different intervals of azimuth is of course less. A simple method of making the pendulum read local time is described. Two clocks, one in the author's office and one at home, have been in continuous operation for more than ten years.

  17. Profiling the Hydrolysis of Isolated Grape Berry Skin Cell Walls by Purified Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zietsman, Anscha J J; Moore, John P; Fangel, Jonatan U; Willats, William G T; Vivier, Melané A

    2015-09-23

    The unraveling of crushed grapes by maceration enzymes during winemaking is difficult to study because of the complex and rather undefined nature of both the substrate and the enzyme preparations. In this study we simplified both the substrate, by using isolated grape skin cell walls, and the enzyme preparations, by using purified enzymes in buffered conditions, to carefully follow the impact of the individual and combined enzymes on the grape skin cell walls. By using cell wall profiling techniques we could monitor the compositional changes in the grape cell wall polymers due to enzyme activity. Extensive enzymatic hydrolysis, achieved with a preparation of pectinases or pectinases combined with cellulase or hemicellulase enzymes, completely removed or drastically reduced levels of pectin polymers, whereas less extensive hydrolysis only opened up the cell wall structure and allowed extraction of polymers from within the cell wall layers. Synergistic enzyme activity was detectable as well as indications of specific cell wall polymer associations.

  18. Congenital lateral abdominal wall hernia.

    PubMed

    Montes-Tapia, Fernando; Cura-Esquivel, Idalia; Gutiérrez, Susana; Rodríguez-Balderrama, Isaías; de la O-Cavazos, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Congenital abdominal wall defects that are located outside of the anterior wall are extremely rare and difficult to classify because there are no well accepted guidelines. There are two regions outside of the anterior wall: the flank or lateral wall; and the lumbar region. We report the case of a patient with an oval 3 cm-diameter hernia defect located above the anterior axillary line, which affects all layers of the muscular wall. An anorectal malformation consisting of a recto-vestibular fistula was also identified, and chest X-ray showed dextrocardia. The suggested treatment is repair of the defect before 1 year of age. Given that the anomalies described may accompany lateral abdominal wall hernia, it is important to diagnose and treat the associated defects.

  19. Dynamical domain wall and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyozato, Yuta; Higuchi, Masafumi; Nojiri, Shin'ichi

    2016-03-01

    Based on the previous works (Toyozato et al., 2013 [24]; Higuchi and Nojiri, 2014 [25]), we investigate the localization of the fields on the dynamical domain wall, where the four-dimensional FRW universe is realized on the domain wall in the five-dimensional space-time. Especially we show that the chiral spinor can localize on the domain wall, which has not been succeeded in the past works as the seminal work in George et al. (2009) [23].

  20. Bacterial Cell Wall Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsberg, Cynthia; Brown, Stephanie; Walker, Suzanne

    Bacterial cell-surface polysaccharides cells are surrounded by a variety of cell-surface structures that allow them to thrive in extreme environments. Components of the cell envelope and extracellular matrix are responsible for providing the cells with structural support, mediating intercellular communication, allowing the cells to move or to adhere to surfaces, protecting the cells from attack by antibiotics or the immune system, and facilitating the uptake of nutrients. Some of the most important cell wall components are polysaccharide structures. This review discusses the occurrence, structure, function, and biosynthesis of the most prevalent bacterial cell surface polysaccharides: peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, arabinogalactan, and lipoarabinomannan, and capsular and extracellular polysaccharides. The roles of these polysaccharides in medicine, both as drug targets and as therapeutic agents, are also described.

  1. Oven wall panel construction

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1980-04-22

    An oven roof or wall is formed from modular panels, each of which comprises an inner fabric and an outer fabric. Each such fabric is formed with an angle iron framework and somewhat resilient tie-bars or welded at their ends to flanges of the angle irons to maintain the inner and outer frameworks in spaced disposition while minimizing heat transfer by conduction and permitting some degree of relative movement on expansion and contraction of the module components. Suitable thermal insulation is provided within the module. Panels or skins are secured to the fabric frameworks and each such skin is secured to a framework and projects laterally so as slidingly to overlie the adjacent frame member of an adjacent panel in turn to permit relative movement during expansion and contraction.

  2. 7. INTERIOR, MAIN GARAGE, SOUTHERN WALL, FROM CLOSE TO WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, MAIN GARAGE, SOUTHERN WALL, FROM CLOSE TO WALL, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM TAPE CONTROL SYSTEM (TECHNOLOGY CIRCA 1910) AT CENTER, AND ENTRY TO OFFICE AT FAR RIGHT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  3. North wall, central part, showing partial partition wall at left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, central part, showing partial partition wall at left. This area is labeled “Pioneering Research” on drawing copy NV-35-B-5 (submitted with HABS No. NV-35-B) (series 2 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  4. 13. LONG WEST WALL (LEFT) AND SHORT SOUTH WALL (RIGHT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. LONG WEST WALL (LEFT) AND SHORT SOUTH WALL (RIGHT) OF AR-9, ALSO SHOWING MORE RECENT CONTROL ROOM BUILDING AT RIGHT. VIEW IS TO THE NORTHEAST. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. 10. VIEW OF LAMINARFLOW FILTER WALL NEAR SOUTH WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF LAMINAR-FLOW FILTER WALL NEAR SOUTH WALL OF CLEAN ROOM (102). NOTE GROUNDING CABLES NEAR BASEBOARD IN LOWER RIGHT BACKGROUND. WHITE SQUARE IN FOREGROUND IS A FLOOR DRAIN COVERED WITH TAPE. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. Segmentation, statistical analysis, and modelling of the wall system in ceramic foams

    SciTech Connect

    Kampf, Jürgen; Schlachter, Anna-Lena; Redenbach, Claudia; Liebscher, André

    2015-01-15

    Closed walls in otherwise open foam structures may have a great impact on macroscopic properties of the materials. In this paper, we present two algorithms for the segmentation of such closed walls from micro-computed tomography images of the foam structure. The techniques are compared on simulated data and applied to tomographic images of ceramic filters. This allows for a detailed statistical analysis of the normal directions and sizes of the walls. Finally, we explain how the information derived from the segmented wall system can be included in a stochastic microstructure model for the foam.

  7. Vesicles between plasma membrane and cell wall prior to visible senescence of Iris and Dendrobium flowers.

    PubMed

    Kamdee, Channatika; Kirasak, Kanjana; Ketsa, Saichol; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-09-01

    Cut Iris flowers (Iris x hollandica, cv. Blue Magic) show visible senescence about two days after full opening. Epidermal cells of the outer tepals collapse due to programmed cell death (PCD). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed irregular swelling of the cell walls, starting prior to cell collapse. Compared to cells in flowers that had just opened, wall thickness increased up to tenfold prior to cell death. Fibrils were visible in the swollen walls. After cell death very little of the cell wall remained. Prior to and during visible wall swelling, vesicles (paramural bodies) were observed between the plasma membrane and the cell walls. The vesicles were also found in groups and were accompanied by amorphous substance. They usually showed a single membrane, and had a variety of diameters and electron densities. Cut Dendrobium hybrid cv. Lucky Duan flowers exhibited visible senescence about 14 days after full flower opening. Paramural bodies were also found in Dendrobium tepal epidermis and mesophyll cells, related to wall swelling and degradation. Although alternative explanations are well possible, it is hypothesized that paramural bodies carry enzymes involved in cell wall breakdown. The literature has not yet reported such bodies in association with senescence/PCD.

  8. Great Wall of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER sub-image covers a 12 x 12 km area in northern Shanxi Province, China, and was acquired January 9, 2001. The low sun angle, and light snow cover highlight a section of the Great Wall, visible as a black line running diagonally through the image from lower left to upper right. The Great Wall is over 2000 years old and was built over a period of 1000 years. Stretching 4500 miles from Korea to the Gobi Desert it was first built to protect China from marauders from the north.

    This image is located at 40.2 degrees north latitude and 112.8 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and

  9. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  10. Significance of preoperative ultrasound measurement of gallbladder wall thickness.

    PubMed

    Majeski, James

    2007-09-01

    Evaluation of patients with signs and symptoms of biliary tract disease usually includes ultrasound assessment of the gallbladder. Does measurement of the thickness of the gallbladder wall yield any significant information to the clinical surgeon? The records of all my patients undergoing cholecystectomy since 1990 were reviewed. The entire series consists of 401 consecutive patients, in whom 388 procedures were completed laparoscopically, with 14 patients requiring conversion to an open cholecystectomy. Each patient's preoperative evaluation included a gallbladder ultrasound, which included measurement of the diameter of the gallbladder wall. The entire series of cholecystectomies was evaluated according to the ultrasound measured diameter of the gallbladder wall. A thin gallbladder wall was less than 3 mm in diameter. A thick gallbladder wall was 3 mm or greater in diameter. Of the 401 consecutive patients who underwent cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallbladder disease, 86 (21.5%) were removed laparoscopically for acalculous disease. Eleven per cent of patients with acalculous cholecystitis had acute cholecystitis and 89 per cent had chronic cholecystitis. Every patient with either a thin or thick gallbladder wall with acalculous cholecystitis had a successful laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Three-hundred fifteen patients had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy for calculous cholecystitis. In patients with calculous cholecystitis, 28.3 per cent had acute cholecystitis and 71.7 per cent had chronic cholecystitis. The gallbladder wall was found to be greater than 3 mm in 38 per cent of patients with acute calculous cholecystitis and greater than 3 mm in 41 per cent of patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis. One-hundred, forty-two patients, out of a series total of 401, had a gallbladder wall thickness greater than 3 mm by preoperative sonography and 14 of these patients (10%) required conversion to an open cholecystectomy. A preoperative gallbladder ultrasound

  11. Topological valley transport at bilayer graphene domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Long; Shi, Zhiwen; Nair, Nityan; Lv, Yinchuan; Jin, Chenhao; Velasco, Jairo; Ojeda-Aristizabal, Claudia; Bechtel, Hans A.; Martin, Michael C.; Zettl, Alex; Analytis, James; Wang, Feng

    2015-04-01

    Electron valley, a degree of freedom that is analogous to spin, can lead to novel topological phases in bilayer graphene. A tunable bandgap can be induced in bilayer graphene by an external electric field, and such gapped bilayer graphene is predicted to be a topological insulating phase protected by no-valley mixing symmetry, featuring quantum valley Hall effects and chiral edge states. Observation of such chiral edge states, however, is challenging because inter-valley scattering is induced by atomic-scale defects at real bilayer graphene edges. Recent theoretical work has shown that domain walls between AB- and BA-stacked bilayer graphene can support protected chiral edge states of quantum valley Hall insulators. Here we report an experimental observation of ballistic (that is, with no scattering of electrons) conducting channels at bilayer graphene domain walls. We employ near-field infrared nanometre-scale microscopy (nanoscopy) to image in situ bilayer graphene layer-stacking domain walls on device substrates, and we fabricate dual-gated field effect transistors based on the domain walls. Unlike single-domain bilayer graphene, which shows gapped insulating behaviour under a vertical electrical field, bilayer graphene domain walls feature one-dimensional valley-polarized conducting channels with a ballistic length of about 400 nanometres at 4 kelvin. Such topologically protected one-dimensional chiral states at bilayer graphene domain walls open up opportunities for exploring unique topological phases and valley physics in graphene.

  12. Channel Wall Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The multiple landslides in this VIS image occur along a steep channel wall. Note the large impact crater in the context image. The formation of the crater may have initially weakened that area of the surface prior to channel formation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.7, Longitude 324.8 East (35.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Beyond the college walls.

    PubMed

    Healy, B P

    1992-03-01

    The author outlines historical and current reasons that the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and academic medicine are inherently political and are now facing expanding political exposure. She emphasizes especially the power of modern discoveries in biology; this power stems from the many practical benefits that these discoveries can bring and their economic implications, and the growing public awareness of these benefits and implications. She then discusses the political realities of the biomedical enterprise, illustrating them by describing the nature of issues surrounding (1) the NIH budget and (2) technology transfer. Discussion of the latter topic includes a detailed description of controversies about patents (which revolve around the issue of who owns and controls the distribution and use of scientific information) and several important policy issues that are raised by these controversies (e.g., should there be uniform international policies regarding intellectual property rights associated with discoveries of novel biologically expressed genes of uncertain in-vivo function, and if so, how is that achieved?). The author concludes by stating that these examples of the politics of knowledge and of the NIH are among many vital biomedical issues of American life (which she lists) that require the academic medicine community to look beyond its own walls and participate in the complex world of politics and public policy.

  14. Rough-Wall Channel Analysis Using Suboptimal Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, O.; Jimenez, J.; Tenpleton, J.

    2003-01-01

    The original aim of this work was to shed some light on the physics of turbulence over rough walls using large-eddy simulations and the suboptimal-control wall boundary conditions introduced by Nicoud et al. It was hoped that, if that algorithm was used to fit the mean velocity profile of the simulations to that of a rough-walled channel, instead of to a smooth one, the wall stresses introduced by the control algorithm would give some indication of what aspects of rough walls are most responsible for the modification of the flow in real turbulence. It was similarly expected that the structure of the resulting velocity fluctuations would share some of the characteristics of rough-walled flows, thus again suggesting what is intrinsic and what is accidental in the effect of geometric wall roughness. A secondary goal was to study the effect of 'unphysical' boundary conditions on the outside flow by observing how a relatively major change of the target velocity profile, and therefore presumably of the applied wall stresses, modifies properties such as the dominant length scales of the velocity fluctuations away from the wall. As will be seen below, this secondary goal grew more important during the course of the study, which was carried out during a short summer visit of the first two authors to the CTR. It became clear that there are open questions about the way in which the control algorithm models the boundary conditions, even for smooth walls, and that these questions make the physical interpretation of the results difficult. Considerable more work in that area seems to be needed before even relatively advanced large-eddy simulations, such as these, can be used to draw conclusions about the physics of wall-bounded turbulent flows. The numerical method is the same as in Nicoud et al. The modifications introduced in the original code are briefly described in section 2, but the original paper should be consulted for a full description of the algorithm. The results are

  15. Reduction of wind tunnel wall interference by controlled wall flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, S. (Editor); Joppa, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    An alternate method of testing was developed in which flow through the porous walls of the tunnel was actively controlled so as to approximate free air conditions in the neighborhood of the model during the test. The amount and distribution of the controlled flow through the walls is computed using a potential flow representation of the model based on the measured lift. Theoretical analysis is presented to prove the convergence of the method to free air conditions and to substantiate the general three-dimensional theory of operation when the normal flow distribution is continuous. A two-dimensional tunnel was constructed to evaluate the concept. Results show that substantial reduction of wall interference may be achieved with relatively low values of porosity of actively controlled walls.

  16. Open forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Some experiments on turbulent free shear layers in pressure gradients are discussed. Topics covered in the discussion include: (1) two dimensional vortex structures, (2) the effect of channel walls, and (3) the case of a mixing layer in pressure gradient.

  17. 27. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; SIDEWALL, NORTH WALL AND SOUTH WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; SIDEWALL, NORTH WALL AND SOUTH WALL FRAMING ELEVATIONS." Specifications No. ENG-04353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 27 of 148; file no. 1320/78. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, Rev. B; date: 15 April 1957. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. Effect of wall alignment in a very short rotating annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noui-Mehidi, Mohamed N.; Ohmura, Naoto; Nishiyama, Kazuki; Takigawa, Teiji

    2009-02-01

    This paper reports numerical results of the study of effects of cylinders wall alignment in a small aspect ratio Taylor-Couette system. The investigation concerns bifurcations of steady vortical structures when the cylindrical walls defining the gap are not perfectly parallel. The imperfection is introduced by opening the outer fixed cylinder with a certain angle with regard to the vertical to form a tapered very short liquid column and keeping the inner rotating cylinder wall vertical. The numerical results obtained for the velocity components have revealed that bifurcation from a particular mode to another one occurs at a range of specific values of the inclination angle of the outer cylinder. The band width of the angle at which bifurcation occurred depended on the Reynolds number Re and was found to become narrower as Re increased. It is shown that geometrically broken symmetry can yield flow symmetry for specific combinations of geometrical and dynamical parameters.

  19. Wall Insulation; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.

    2000-11-07

    Properly sealed, moisture-protected, and insulated walls help increase comfort, reduce noise, and save on energy costs. This fact sheet addresses these topics plus advanced framing techniques, insulation types, wall sheathings, and steps for effective wall construction and insulation.

  20. Penetration of the LCLS Injector Shield Wall at Sector 20

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, D

    2010-12-10

    Penetrations through the LCLS injector shield wall are needed for the alignment of the accelerator, a diagnostic laser beam and utilities, and are shown in figure 1. The 1-inch diameter LCLS injector beam tube is blocked by the PPS stopper when the injector side of the wall is occupied. The two 3-inch diameter penetrations above and to the left of the beam tube are used by Precision Alignment and will be open only during installation of the injector beamline. Additional 3-inch diameter penetrations are for laser beams which will be used for electron beam diagnostics. These will not be plugged when the injector occupied. Other penetrations for the RF waveguide and other utilities are approximately 13-inch from the floor and as such are far from the line-of-sight of any radiation sources. The waveguide and utility penetrations pass only through the thicker wall as shown in the figure. The principal issue is with the two laser penetrations, since these will be open when the linac is operating and people are in the LCLS injector area. A principal concern is radiation streaming through the penetrations due to direct line-of sight of the PEP-2 lines. To answer this, fans of rays were traced through the 3-inch diameter laser penetrations as shown in Figures 2 and 3. Figure 2 gives the top view of the shield walls, the main linac and PEP-2 lines, and the ray-fans. The fans appear to originate between the walls since their angular envelope is defined by the greatest angle possible when rays are just on the 3-inch diameter at the inner most and outermost wall surfaces. The crossovers of all possible rays lie half way between these two surfaces. As the end-on view of Figure 3 clearly shows, there is no direct line-of-sight through the laser penetrations of the PEP-2 or linac beamlines.

  1. Fly on the Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The email was addressed not only to me, but also to all the Project Knowledge Sharing Community at Ames Research Center. We were invited to sit in on a major project review as a new experiment in knowledge sharing. This first-of-its-kind opportunity had been conceived by Claire Smith, who leads the knowledge sharing program, as well as heading up the Center's Project Leadership Development Program and serving as coordinator of the APPL-West program at Ames. The objective was to offer Ames project practitioners the opportunity to observe project-review processes as they happen. Not that I haven't participated in my share of project reviews, but this seemed like a great way for me to get up-to-date about a new project, the Kepler mission, and to experience a review from a new perspective. Typically, when you're being reviewed, it's difficult to see what's happening objectively-the same way it is on a project. Presenters are always thinking, 'Okay, what's on my slides? How much time do I have left? What are they going to ask me?' So when Claire's email pinged on my computer, I quickly responded by asking her to save a place for me. It was to be an informational review about progress on the project: what the team had done, where they were going, and what they needed to do to get there. There were people on the project team from all over the United States, and it was the first time for them to get together from all aspects of the project. For our part, as observers, we were asked to abide by a couple of rules: Don't ask any questions. and don't talk about the specifics of what we saw or heard. The idea was that we weren't supposed to be noticed. We weren't to buzz around and bother people. Hence the name for this experinient: Fly on the Wall.

  2. My Big Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinosa, Paul S.

    2002-01-01

    It was June and I was in Yosemite National Park in California, 2,000-feet off the ground. I was climbing El Capitan, a majestic 3,000-foot high, mile-wide granite monolith--one of the most sought after and spectacular rock climbs in the world. After three days of climbing on its sheer face, and having completed the most difficult part of the route, my partner and I were heading down. A thunderstorm lasting all night and into the morning had soaked our tiny perch and all our worldly possessions. We began rappelling down the vertical wall by sliding to the ends of two 50meter ropes tied together and looped through a set of fixed rings bolted into the rock. At the end of the ropes was another rappel station consisting of a set of rings, placed by previous climbers for retreating parties, which we used to anchor ourselves to the rock face. We then pulled the ropes down from the rings above, threaded the ones in front of our noses and started down another rope length. Everything we brought up for our five-day climb to the summit we had to bring back down with us: ropes, climbing gear of every sort, sleeping bags, extra clothes, food, water, and other essentials. All this we either stuffed into a haul bag (an oversized reinforced duffel bag) or slung over our shoulders. The retreat was slow and methodical, akin to a train backing down a mountain, giving me ample time to think. My situation made me think about my work, mostly, about all the projects I have managed, or been involved in managing. As a NASA project manager, I have worked on a number of successful projects. I have also been involved in a number of projects I never saw the end of. I thought about all the projects I transferred off of for other opportunities, projects that were in full stride and ran out of funding, and ones put on the shelf because they would not meet a flight date. Oh yes, I have had many success, to be sure, or I would have burned out years ago. Lessons from both the successful and not

  3. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes generation 2 bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation, and separation. Ultimately, it is desired to combine as man...

  4. Wall effects in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevallier, J. P.; Vaucheret, X.

    1986-01-01

    A synthesis of current trends in the reduction and computation of wall effects is presented. Some of the points discussed include: (1) for the two-dimensional, transonic tests, various control techniques of boundary conditions are used with adaptive walls offering high precision in determining reference conditions and residual corrections. A reduction in the boundary layer effects of the lateral walls is obtained at T2; (2) for the three-dimensional tests, the methods for the reduction of wall effects are still seldom applied due to a lesser need and to their complexity; (3) the supports holding the model of the probes have to be taken into account in the estimation of perturbatory effects.

  5. Adaptive wall testing sections (AWTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The lecture starts with conventional techniques of minimizing wall interference and explains the principle of wall streamlining. The history of AWTS development is highlighted, along with the benefits of wall streamlining, including minimized boundary interference, increased model size, reduced tunnel drive power, noise, and volume, as well as multiple flow field simulations to be performed using one test section. AWTS-associated problems coming from the need to adjust the test-section boundaries for each test condition are assessed, along with the requirements of a boundary-adjustment strategy. Examples of two- and three-dimensional test sections are presented, and attention is focused on residual interference and the effects of compressibility and model lift on flexible-wall contours.

  6. Turgor Pressure Moves Polysaccharides into Growing Cell Walls of Chara corallina

    PubMed Central

    PROSEUS, TIMOTHY E.; BOYER, JOHN S.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plant growth involves pressure-driven cell enlargement generally accompanied by deposition of new cell wall. New polysaccharides are secreted by the plasma membrane but their subsequent entry into the wall is obscure. Therefore, polysaccharides and gold colloids of various sizes were presented to the inner wall face as though they were secreted by the plasma membrane. • Methods Primary cell walls were isolated from growing internodes of Chara corallina and one end was attached to a glass capillary. Solutions of dextran or suspensions of gold colloids were pushed into the lumen by oil in the capillary. The oil did not enter the wall, and the solution or suspension was pressed against the inner wall face, pressurized at various ‘artificial’ P (turgor pressure), and polymer or colloid movement through the wall was monitored. • Key Results Interstices in the wall matrix had a diameter of about 4·6 nm measured at high P with gold colloids. Small solute (0·8 nm) readily moved through these interstices unaffected by P. Dextrans of 3·5 nm diameter moved faster at higher P while dextran of 9 nm scarcely entered unless high P was present. Dextran of 11 nm did not enter unless P was above a threshold, and dextran of 27 nm did not enter at P as high as 0·5 MPa. The walls filtered the dextrans, which became concentrated against the inner wall face, and most polymer movement occurred after P stabilized and bulk flow ended. • Conclusions P created a steep gradient in concentration and mechanical force at the inner wall face that moved large polymers into small wall openings apparently by starting a polymer end or deforming the polymer mechanically at the inner wall face. This movement occurred at P generally accepted to extend the walls for growth. PMID:15760911

  7. Open Content in Open Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  8. INTERIOR OF EAST DOOR, SOUTH WALL, AND AISLE LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF EAST DOOR, SOUTH WALL, AND AISLE LOOKING EAST (This bay of the barn was originally used for livestock. Horse pens and milking stanchions remain. Floor was built with 1/4 inch gaps between the planks to allow air circulation. Photograph also shows the knee-high hinged doors that open for easy removal of manure) - Arnold Farm, Barn, 1948 Arnold Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  9. Micro focusing of fast electrons with opened cone targets

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Feng; Liu Xiaoxuan; Ding Wenjun; Du Fei; Li Yutong; Ma Jinglong; Liu Xiaolong; Chen Liming; Lu Xin; Dong Quanli; Wang Weimin; Wang Zhaohua; Wei Zhiyi; Liu Bicheng; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie

    2012-01-15

    Using opened reentrant cone silicon targets, we have demonstrated the effect of micro focusing of fast electrons generated in intense laser-plasma interactions. When an intense femtosecond laser pulse is focused tightly onto one of the side walls of the cone, fast electron beam emitted along the side wall is observed. When a line focus spot, which is long enough to irradiate both of the side walls of the cone simultaneously, is used, two electron beams emitted along each side wall, respectively, are observed. The two beams should cross each other near the open tip of the cone, resulting in micro focusing. We use a two-dimensional Particle-In-Cell code to simulate the electron emission both in opened and closed cone targets. The simulation results of the opened cone targets are in agreement with the experimental observation while the results of the closed cone targets do not show the micro focusing effect.

  10. 178. PAINT SHOP, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD CENTER OF ROOM. OPENING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    178. PAINT SHOP, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD CENTER OF ROOM. OPENING IN BACKGROUND IS SLIDING WALL. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  11. View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open contact boards are in view at the far right wall - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Portal Gantry Crane No. 42, Pier 5, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  12. Transmembrane passage of hydrophobic compounds through a protein channel wall.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Elizabeth M; Patel, Dimki R; Lepore, Bryan W; Indic, Mridhu; van den Berg, Bert

    2009-03-19

    Membrane proteins that transport hydrophobic compounds have important roles in multi-drug resistance and can cause a number of diseases, underscoring the importance of protein-mediated transport of hydrophobic compounds. Hydrophobic compounds readily partition into regular membrane lipid bilayers, and their transport through an aqueous protein channel is energetically unfavourable. Alternative transport models involving acquisition from the lipid bilayer by lateral diffusion have been proposed for hydrophobic substrates. So far, all transport proteins for which a lateral diffusion mechanism has been proposed function as efflux pumps. Here we present the first example of a lateral diffusion mechanism for the uptake of hydrophobic substrates by the Escherichia coli outer membrane long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL. A FadL mutant in which a lateral opening in the barrel wall is constricted, but which is otherwise structurally identical to wild-type FadL, does not transport substrates. A crystal structure of FadL from Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows that the opening in the wall of the beta-barrel is conserved and delineates a long, hydrophobic tunnel that could mediate substrate passage from the extracellular environment, through the polar lipopolysaccharide layer and, by means of the lateral opening in the barrel wall, into the lipid bilayer from where the substrate can diffuse into the periplasm. Because FadL homologues are found in pathogenic and biodegrading bacteria, our results have implications for combating bacterial infections and bioremediating xenobiotics in the environment.

  13. Interior of southwest vault, opened southwest vault door, closed southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of southwest vault, opened southwest vault door, closed southeast vault door, and evidence of forced entry in north interior wall. View from west interior wall of southwest vault. Facing east. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  14. 8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN, 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS ON FRONT WALL AT PHOTO LEFT, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON BACK WALL AT EXTREME PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO EAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  15. 9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO RIGHT. FIREPLACE ORIGINALLY OCCUPIED SPACE TO THE EXTREME PHOTO RIGHT OF SASH WINDOW ON THE REAR WALL. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  16. POROSITY OF ISOLATED CELL WALLS OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE AND BACILLUS MEGATERIUM

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardt, Philipp; Judge, Jean A.

    1964-01-01

    Gerhardt, Philipp (The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor), and Jean A. Judge. Porosity of isolated cell walls of a yeast and a bacillus. J. Bacteriol. 87:945–951. 1964.—Decagram masses of cell walls were isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus megaterium; their porosity was examined by measuring the extent of uptake with polyethylene glycols and dextrans varying in molecular weight from 62 to 2,000,000. The results indicated that both walls are heteroporous. The near equality of extrapolated water-uptake values and determined moisture contents suggested that water in the cell walls is mainly free for distribution of solutes. Polymers with molecular weights of 4,500 and above were excluded by the yeast walls, and those with molecular weights of 57,000 were excluded by the bacillus walls; from these results, maximal openings of 36 and 107 A, respectively, were calculated. Electron micrographs of shadowed, stained, and sectioned walls revealed fine structure not inconsistent with heteroporosity, but the predicted openings were not seen. Altogether, in structure and permeability behavior, the cell walls were like a random meshwork of cross-linked macromolecular strands. Images PMID:14137635

  17. Innovative Composite Wall System for Sheathing Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Robert L.; Cavallo, James

    1997-09-25

    Existing Housing - Much of the older multifamily housing stock in the United States includes units in structures with uninsulated masonry walls. Included in this stock are two- and three-story walk-up apartments, larger apartment complexes, and public housing (both high- rise and townhouse). This older multifamily housing has seen years of heavy use that may have left the plaster wall marred or damaged. Long- term building settlement or movement may have cracked the plaster, sometimes severely. Moisture from invented kitchens and baths may have caused condensation on uninsulated exterior walls. At best this condensation has left stains on the paint or wallpaper. At worst it has supported mold and mildew growth, fouling the air and creating unhealthy living conditions. Deteriorating plaster and flaking paint also result from wet walls. The presence of flaking, lead-based paint in older (pre-1978) housing is a major public health concern. Children can suffer permanent mental handicaps and psychological disorders if they are subjected to elevated levels of lead, while adults can suffer hypertension and other maladies. Studies have found that, in some urban communities with older housing stocks, over 35% of children tested have elevated blood lead levels (Hastings, et al.: 1997). Nationally, nearly 22% of black, non-hispanic children living in pre-1946 housing were found to have elevated levels of lead in their blood (MWWR Article: February 21,1997). The deterioration of many of these walls is to the point that lead can freely enter the living space.

  18. Wall thickness effect on the resistive wall mode stability in toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.-J.; Kotschenreuther, M.T.

    2005-07-15

    The effect of finite wall thickness on the stability of n=1 resistive wall modes in toroidal plasmas is investigated. A fusion reactor-relevant configuration is examined. The investigation employs a novel ideal-magnetohydrodynamics adaptive shooting code for axisymmetric plasmas, extended to take into account the wall thickness. Although finite wall thickness generally reduces the growth rate of the resistive wall modes, no contribution to stabilization is found to be made by the portion of the wall that is located beyond the critical position for perfectly conducting wall stabilization. Thus, when the inner side of the wall lies near the critical wall position, the scaling of the growth rate versus wall thickness in the realistic thick-wall calculation is significantly different from that of the usual thin-wall theory. The thin-wall estimate is relevant only when the wall is brought very close to the plasma and is not too thick.

  19. Effects of the flexibility of the arterial wall on the wall shear stresses and wall tension in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Fernandez, Miguel; Chomaz, Jean-Marc

    2005-11-01

    As an abdominal aortic aneurysm develops, large changes occur in the composition and structure of the arterial wall, which result in its stiffening. So far, most studies, whether experimental or numerical, have been conducted assuming the walls to be rigid. A numerical simulation of the fluid structure interactions is performed in different models of aneurysms in order to analyze the effects that the wall compliance might have on the flow topology. Both symmetric and non-symmetric models of aneurysms are considered, all idealistic in shape. The wall mechanical properties are varied in order to simulate the progressive stiffening of the walls. The spatial and temporal distributions of wall tension are calculated for the different values of the wall elasticity and compared to the results for the rigid walls. In the case of rigid walls, the calculation of the wall shear stresses and pressure compare very well with experimental results.

  20. Liquid first walls for magnetic fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1996-03-28

    Liquids ({approximately}7 neutron mean free paths thick) with certain restrictions can probably be used in magnetic fusion designs between the burning plasma and the structural materials of the plant. If this works there are a number of profound advantages: lower the cost of electricity by more than 35%; remove the need to develop first wall materials saving over 4B$ in development costs; reduce the amount and kind of wastes generated in the plant; and permit a wider choice of materials. Evaporated liquid must be efficiently ionized in an edge plasma to prevent penetrating into the burning plasma and diminishing the burn rate. The fraction of evaporated material ionized is estimated to be 0.993 for Li, 0.98 for Flibe and 0.9999 for Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}. This ionized vapor would be swept along open field lines into a remote burial chamber. The most practical systems would be those with topological open field lines on the outer surface as is the case of a field reversed configuration (FRC), a Spheromak, a Z-pinch, or a mirror machine. In a Tokamak, including the Spherical Tokamak, the field lines outside the separatrix are restricted to a small volume inside the toroidal coil making for difficulties in introducing the liquid and removing the ionized vapor.

  1. MHD Electrode and wall constructions

    DOEpatents

    Way, Stewart; Lempert, Joseph

    1984-01-01

    Electrode and wall constructions for the walls of a channel transmitting the hot plasma in a magnetohydrodynamic generator. The electrodes and walls are made of a plurality of similar modules which are spaced from one another along the channel. The electrodes can be metallic or ceramic, and each module includes one or more electrodes which are exposed to the plasma and a metallic cooling bar which is spaced from the plasma and which has passages through which a cooling fluid flows to remove heat transmitted from the electrode to the cooling bar. Each electrode module is spaced from and electrically insulated from each adjacent module while interconnected by the cooling fluid which serially flows among selected modules. A wall module includes an electrically insulating ceramic body exposed to the plasma and affixed, preferably by mechanical clips or by brazing, to a metallic cooling bar spaced from the plasma and having cooling fluid passages. Each wall module is, similar to the electrode modules, electrically insulated from the adjacent modules and serially interconnected to other modules by the cooling fluid.

  2. Functional domain walls in multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Dennis

    2015-11-01

    During the last decade a wide variety of novel and fascinating correlation phenomena has been discovered at domain walls in multiferroic bulk systems, ranging from unusual electronic conductance to inseparably entangled spin and charge degrees of freedom. The domain walls represent quasi-2D functional objects that can be induced, positioned, and erased on demand, bearing considerable technological potential for future nanoelectronics. Most of the challenges that remain to be solved before turning related device paradigms into reality, however, still fall in the field of fundamental condensed matter physics and materials science. In this topical review seminal experimental findings gained on electric and magnetic domain walls in multiferroic bulk materials are addressed. A special focus is put on the physical properties that emerge at so-called charged domain walls and the added functionality that arises from coexisting magnetic order. The research presented in this review highlights that we are just entering a whole new world of intriguing nanoscale physics that is yet to be explored in all its details. The goal is to draw attention to the persistent challenges and identify future key directions for the research on functional domain walls in multiferroics.

  3. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  4. Random vibration of compliant wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J.-N.; Heller, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the realistic case of two-dimensional random motion of a membrane with bending stiffness supported on a viscoelastic spring substrate and on an elastic base plate under both subsonic and supersonic boundary layer turbulence. The cross-power spectral density of surface displacements is solved in terms of design variables of the compliant wall - such as the dimensions and material properties of the membrane (Mylar), substrate (PVC foam), and panel (aluminum) - so that a sensitivity analysis can be made to examine the influence of each design variable on the surface response statistics. Three numerical examples typical of compliant wall design are worked out and their response statistics in relation to wave drag and roughness drag are assessed. The results can serve as a guideline for experimental investigation of the drag reduction concept through the use of a compliant wall.

  5. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  6. Discovery of Recurrent Sequence Motifs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Juan E.; Epstein, Susan L.; Qiu, Wei-Gang; Lipke, Peter N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure for the discovery of recurrent substrings in amino acid sequences of proteins, and its application to fungal cell walls. The evolutionary origins of fungal cell walls are an open biological question. This question can be approached by studies of similarity among the sequences and sub-sequences of fungal wall proteins and by comparison to proteins in animals. We describe here how we have discovered building blocks, represented as recurrent sequence motifs (sub-sequences), within fungal cell wall proteins. These motifs have not been systematically identified before, because the low Shannon entropy of the cell wall sequences has hindered searches for local sequence similarities by sequence alignments. Nonetheless, our new, composition-based scoring matrices for local alignment searches now support statistically valid alignments for such low entropy sequences (Coronado et al. 2006. Euk. Cell 5: 628–637). We have now searched for similarities in a set of 171 known and putative cell wall proteins from baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The aligned segments were repeatedly subdivided and catalogued to identify 217 recurrent sequence motifs of length 8 amino acids or greater. 95% of these motifs occur in more than one cell wall protein. The median length of the motifs is 22 amino acid residues, considerably shorter than protein domains. For many cell wall proteins, these motifs collectively account for more than half of their amino acids. The prevalence of these motifs supports the idea of fungal cell wall proteins as assemblies of recurrent building blocks. PMID:19430580

  7. Debonding Stress Concentrations in a Pressurized Lobed Sandwich-Walled Generic Cryogenic Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    2004-01-01

    A finite-element stress analysis has been conducted on a lobed composite sandwich tank subjected to internal pressure and cryogenic cooling. The lobed geometry consists of two obtuse circular walls joined together with a common flat wall. Under internal pressure and cryogenic cooling, this type of lobed tank wall will experience open-mode (a process in which the honeycomb is stretched in the depth direction) and shear stress concentrations at the junctures where curved wall changes into flat wall (known as a curve-flat juncture). Open-mode and shear stress concentrations occur in the honeycomb core at the curve-flat junctures and could cause debonding failure. The levels of contributions from internal pressure and temperature loading to the open-mode and shear debonding failure are compared. The lobed fuel tank with honeycomb sandwich walls has been found to be a structurally unsound geometry because of very low debonding failure strengths. The debonding failure problem could be eliminated if the honeycomb core at the curve-flat juncture is replaced with a solid core.

  8. The forced sound transmission of finite single leaf walls using a variational technique.

    PubMed

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-09-01

    The single wall is the simplest element of concern in building acoustics, but there still remain some open questions regarding the sound insulation of this simple case. The two main reasons for this are the effects on the excitation and sound radiation of the wall when it has a finite size, and the fact that the wave field in the wall is consisting of two types of waves, namely forced waves due to the exciting acoustic field, and free bending waves due to reflections in the boundary. The aim of the present paper is to derive simple analytical formulas for the forced part of the airborne sound insulation of a single homogeneous wall of finite size, using a variational technique based on the integral-differential equation of the fluid loaded wall. The so derived formulas are valid in the entire audible frequency range. The results are compared with full numerical calculations, measurements and alternative theory, with reasonable agreement. PMID:22978877

  9. Accuracy and grid convergence of wall shear stress measured by lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xiuying; Dun, Zhiya

    2014-04-01

    Based on a two-dimensional Poiseuille and Wormersley flow, accuracy and grid convergence of velocity, shear stress and wall shear stress (WSS) measurements were investigated using the single-relaxation-time (SRT) and multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann models under various open and wall boundary conditions. The results showed that grid convergence of shear stress and WSS are not consistent with that of velocity when flow channels are not aligned to the grids, and strongly rely on the used wall boundary conditions. And the MRT model is slightly superior to the SRT when simulating the complicated border flow. Moreover the WSS should be approximately calculated on the fluid nodes closest to walls under the curved boundary (CB) condition but not for the bounce-back (BB) boundary scheme. As applications, distributions of WSS in a wavy-walled channel and distensible carotid artery were simulated which would much more depend on local roughness of vessel intima than channel diameters.

  10. The forced sound transmission of finite single leaf walls using a variational technique.

    PubMed

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-09-01

    The single wall is the simplest element of concern in building acoustics, but there still remain some open questions regarding the sound insulation of this simple case. The two main reasons for this are the effects on the excitation and sound radiation of the wall when it has a finite size, and the fact that the wave field in the wall is consisting of two types of waves, namely forced waves due to the exciting acoustic field, and free bending waves due to reflections in the boundary. The aim of the present paper is to derive simple analytical formulas for the forced part of the airborne sound insulation of a single homogeneous wall of finite size, using a variational technique based on the integral-differential equation of the fluid loaded wall. The so derived formulas are valid in the entire audible frequency range. The results are compared with full numerical calculations, measurements and alternative theory, with reasonable agreement.

  11. Thermal breaking systems for metal stud walls -- Can metal stud walls perform as well as wood stud walls

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E.; Desjarlais, A.O.

    1997-12-31

    Metal stud wall systems for residential buildings are gaining in popularity. Strong thermal bridges caused by highly conductive metal studs degrade the thermal performance of such walls. Several wall configurations have been developed to improve their thermal performance. The authors tried to evaluate some of these wall systems. The thermal performance of metal stud walls is frequently compared with that of wood stud walls. A reduction of the in-cavity R-value caused by the wood studs is about 10% in wood stud walls. In metal stud walls, thermal bridges generated by the metal components reduce their thermal performance by up to 55%. Today, metal stud walls are believed to be considerably less thermally effective than similar systems made of wood because steel has much higher thermal conductivity than wood. Relatively high R-values may be achieved by installing insulating sheathing, which is now widely recommended as the remedy for weak thermal performance of metal stud walls. A series of promising metal stud wall configurations was analyzed. Some of these walls were designed and tested by the authors, some were tested in other laboratories, and some were developed and forgotten a long time ago. Several types of thermal breaking systems were used in these walls. Two- and three-dimensional finite-difference computer simulations were used to analyze 20 metal stud wall configurations. Also, a series of hot-box tests were conducted on several of these walls. Test results for 22 additional metal stud walls were analyzed. Most of these walls contained conventional metal studs. Commonly used fiberglass and EPS were used as insulation materials. The most promising metal stud wall configurations have reductions in the center-of-cavity R-values of less than 20%.

  12. The Mobile bypass Signal Arrests Shoot Growth by Disrupting Shoot Apical Meristem Maintenance, Cytokinin Signaling, and WUS Transcription Factor Expression1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, David L.; Adhikari, Emma; Fraser, Nisa

    2016-01-01

    The bypass1 (bps1) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) produces a root-sourced compound (the bps signal) that moves to the shoot and is sufficient to arrest growth of a wild-type shoot; however, the mechanism of growth arrest is not understood. Here, we show that the earliest shoot defect arises during germination and is a failure of bps1 mutants to maintain their shoot apical meristem (SAM). This finding suggested that the bps signal might affect expression or function of SAM regulatory genes, and we found WUSCHEL (WUS) expression to be repressed in bps1 mutants. Repression appears to arise from the mobile bps signal, as the bps1 root was sufficient to rapidly down-regulate WUS expression in wild-type shoots. Normally, WUS is regulated by a balance between positive regulation by cytokinin (CK) and negative regulation by CLAVATA (CLV). In bps1, repression of WUS was independent of CLV, and, instead, the bps signal down-regulates CK responses. Cytokinin treatment of bps1 mutants restored both WUS expression and activity, but only in the rib meristem. How the bps signal down-regulates CK remains unknown, though the bps signal was sufficient to repress expression of one CK receptor (AHK4) and one response regulator (AHP6). Together, these data suggest that the bps signal pathway has the potential for long-distance regulation through modification of CK signaling and altering gene expression. PMID:27208247

  13. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  14. Dynamics of domain wall networks

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Minoru; Fujimori, Toshiaki; Nagashima, Takayuki; Sakai, Norisuke; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke

    2007-12-15

    Networks or webs of domain walls are admitted in Abelian or non-Abelian gauge theory coupled to fundamental Higgs fields with complex masses. We examine the dynamics of the domain wall loops by using the moduli approximation and find a phase rotation induces a repulsive force which can be understood as a Noether charge of Q-solitons. Non-Abelian gauge theory allows different types of loops which can be deformed to each other by changing a modulus. This admits the moduli geometry like a sandglass made by gluing the tips of the two cigar-(cone-)like metrics of a single triangle loop. We conclude that the sizes of all loops tend to grow for a late time in general models with complex Higgs masses, while the sizes are stabilized at some values once triplet masses are introduced for the Higgs fields. We also show that the stationary motion on the moduli space of the domain wall webs represents 1/4 Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield Q-webs of walls.

  15. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  16. Chuck Close: "Off the Wall."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Describes the planning and design process of "Off the Wall," a student-developed CD-ROM multimedia project about the life and work of artist Chuck Close-the product of a studio-based course in Learning Experiments Design at the University of Georgia. The design includes an element of gaming; text is kept sparse; navigational elements are rendered…

  17. The Writing on the Wall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the artwork of William Christenberry, specifically on his work "Alabama Wall (Variant)," which was constructed with remnants of material culture found along Alabama rural roads. Includes a reproduction of this artwork and activities for natural science, language arts, visual arts, social studies, and history/economics. (CMK)

  18. Mirror, Mirror, on the Wall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Jim; Rose, M. Annette

    1998-01-01

    Students use tables of anthropometric data, their own measurements, underlying principles of physics, and math to solve a problem. The problem is to determine the height of a wall mirror, and where to mount it, so that 90% of the clientele can view their entire length without stretching or bending. (Author)

  19. Wary Eyes Monitoring Wall Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    School business officials kept a close watch on the financial markets this week--and on district investment portfolios and teacher-retirement funds--as stock prices gyrated and once-sound institutions got government bailouts or crumbled into bankruptcy. While financial observers said it was too soon to predict how Wall Street's upheaval might…

  20. 8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO RIGHT, 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS ON FRONT (EAST) WALL AT PHOTO CENTER. ENTRY ROOM AND OPEN 1-LIGHT FRONT DOOR AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  1. 16. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO WALK-IN CLOSET AT PHOTO CENTER, OPEN PANEL DOOR FROM BEDROOM NUMBER ONE AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON NORTH WALL AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  2. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NORTH ROOM. DOOR OPENING LEADS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NORTH ROOM. DOOR OPENING LEADS TO STAIRWAY UP TO THE ABOVE-GROUND PORTION. NOTE THE SQUARE TUNNEL OPENING AT CENTER, AND THE CONDUIT SLEEVES AND PIPE PROTRUDING FROM THE NORTH WALL AT LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The growing cell wall in plants has conflicting requirements to be strong enough to withstand the high tensile forces generated by cell turgor pressure while selectively yielding to those forces to induce wall stress relaxation, leading to water uptake and polymer movements underlying cell wall expansion. In this article, I review emerging concepts of plant primary cell wall structure, the nature of wall extensibility and the action of expansins, family-9 and -12 endoglucanases, family-16 xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH), and pectin methylesterases, and offer a critical assessment of their wall-loosening activity PMID:26918182

  4. Mitigation of wind tunnel wall interactions in subsonic cavity flows

    DOE PAGES

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2015-03-06

    In this study, the flow over an open aircraft bay is often represented in a wind tunnel with a cavity. In flight, this flow is unconfined, though in experiments, the cavity is surrounded by wind tunnel walls. If untreated, wind tunnel wall effects can lead to significant distortions of cavity acoustics in subsonic flows. To understand and mitigate these cavity–tunnel interactions, a parametric approach was taken for flow over an L/D = 7 cavity at Mach numbers 0.6–0.8. With solid tunnel walls, a dominant cavity tone was observed, likely due to an interaction with a tunnel duct mode. Furthermore, anmore » acoustic liner opposite the cavity decreased the amplitude of the dominant mode and its harmonics, a result observed by previous researchers. Acoustic dampeners were also placed in the tunnel sidewalls, which further decreased the dominant mode amplitudes and peak amplitudes associated with nonlinear interactions between cavity modes. This then indicates that cavity resonance can be altered by tunnel sidewalls and that spanwise coupling should be addressed when conducting subsonic cavity experiments. Though mechanisms for dominant modes and nonlinear interactions likely exist in unconfined cavity flows, these effects can be amplified by the wind tunnel walls.« less

  5. Mitigation of wind tunnel wall interactions in subsonic cavity flows

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2015-03-06

    In this study, the flow over an open aircraft bay is often represented in a wind tunnel with a cavity. In flight, this flow is unconfined, though in experiments, the cavity is surrounded by wind tunnel walls. If untreated, wind tunnel wall effects can lead to significant distortions of cavity acoustics in subsonic flows. To understand and mitigate these cavity–tunnel interactions, a parametric approach was taken for flow over an L/D = 7 cavity at Mach numbers 0.6–0.8. With solid tunnel walls, a dominant cavity tone was observed, likely due to an interaction with a tunnel duct mode. Furthermore, an acoustic liner opposite the cavity decreased the amplitude of the dominant mode and its harmonics, a result observed by previous researchers. Acoustic dampeners were also placed in the tunnel sidewalls, which further decreased the dominant mode amplitudes and peak amplitudes associated with nonlinear interactions between cavity modes. This then indicates that cavity resonance can be altered by tunnel sidewalls and that spanwise coupling should be addressed when conducting subsonic cavity experiments. Though mechanisms for dominant modes and nonlinear interactions likely exist in unconfined cavity flows, these effects can be amplified by the wind tunnel walls.

  6. Wall conditioning of JET with the ITER-Like Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douai, D.; Brezinsek, S.; Esser, H. G.; Joffrin, E.; Keenan, T.; Knipe, S.; Kogut, D.; Lomas, P. J.; Marsen, S.; Nunes, I.; Philipps, V.; Pitts, R. A.; Shimada, M.; de Vries, P.; JET EFDA Contributors

    2013-07-01

    The initial conditioning cycle of JET ILW is analysed and compared with restart and operation in 2008 with a carbon dominated wall. Comparable water and oxygen decay times are observed during bake-out in both cases. Despite a 2 × 10-3 mbar l/s leak rate during plasma operation, no further wall conditioning has been necessary after plasma restart in ILW, which dramatically contrasts with 2008. Plasma O content is lower with the ILW. Higher O levels are measured after nights or week-ends, BeO layers being formed and re-eroded, but do not impact plasma operation and performance. First results on isotopic wall changeover by GDC on the ILW six months of the first D2 campaign evidence a reservoir of about 3 × 1022 atoms, i.e. ten time lower than in carbon PFCs. A study in JET of the glow discharge current distribution for different ratios of the ionization mean free paths to the vessel dimensions seems to indicate sufficient toroidal and poloidal homogeneity in ITER.

  7. A Near-Wall Reynolds-Stress Closure Without Wall Normals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. P.; So, R. M. C.

    1997-01-01

    Turbulent wall-bounded complex flows are commonly encountered in engineering practice and are of considerable interest in a variety of industrial applications. The presence of a wall significantly affects turbulence characteristics. In addition to the wall effects, turbulent wall-bounded flows become more complicated by the presence of additional body forces (e.g. centrifugal force and Coriolis force) and complex geometry. Most near-wall Reynolds stress models are developed from a high-Reynolds-number model which assumes turbulence is homogenous (or quasi-homogenous). Near-wall modifications are proposed to include wall effects in near-wall regions. In this process, wall normals are introduced. Good predictions could be obtained by Reynolds stress models with wall normals. However, ambiguity arises when the models are applied in flows with multiple walls. Many models have been proposed to model turbulent flows. Among them, Reynolds stress models, in which turbulent stresses are obtained by solving the Reynolds stress transport equations, have been proved to be the most successful ones. To apply the Reynolds stress models to wall-bounded flows, near-wall corrections accounting for the wall effects are needed, and the resulting models are called near-wall Reynolds stress models. In most of the existing near-wall models, the near-wall corrections invoke wall normals. These wall-dependent near-wall models are difficult to implement for turbulent flows with complex geometry and may give inaccurate predictions due to the ambiguity of wall normals at corners connecting multiple walls. The objective of this study is to develop a more general and flexible near-wall Reynolds stress model without using any wall-dependent variable for wall-bounded turbulent flows. With the aid of near-wall asymptotic analysis and results of direct numerical simulation, a new near-wall Reynolds stress model (NNWRS) is formulated based on Speziale et al.'s high-Reynolds-stress model with wall

  8. Comparison of conventional and adaptive wall wind tunnel results with regard to Reynolds number effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanewsky, E.; Freimuth, P.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of results from conventional and adaptive wall wind tunnels with regard to Reynolds number effects was carried out. The special objective of this comparison was to confirm or reject earlier conclusions, soley based on conventional wind tunnel results, concerning the influence of viscous effects on the characteristics of partially open wind tunnel walls, hence wall interference. The following postulations could be confirmed: (1) certain classes of supercritical airfoils exhibit a non-linear increase in lift which is, at least in part, related to viscous-inviscid interactions on the airfoil. This non-linear lift characteristic can erroneously be suppressed by sidewall interference effects in addition to being affected by changes in Reynolds number. Adaptive walls seem to relieve the influence of sidewall interference; (2) the degree of (horizontal) wall interference effects can be significantly affected by changes in Reynolds number, thus appearing as true Reynolds number effects; (3) perforated wall characteristics seem much more susceptible to viscous changes than the characteristics of slotted walls; here, blockage interference may be most severely influenced by viscous changes; and (4) real Reynolds number effects are present on the CAST 10-2/DOA 2 airfoil; they were shown to be appreciable also by the adaptive wall wind tunnel tests.

  9. Active and passive kink mode studies in a tokamak with a movable ferromagnetic wall

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, J. P.; Hughes, P. E.; Bialek, J.; Byrne, P. J.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Peng, Q.; Rhodes, D. J.; Stoafer, C. C.

    2015-05-15

    High-resolution active and passive kink mode studies are conducted in a tokamak with an adjustable ferromagnetic wall near the plasma surface. Ferritic tiles made from 5.6 mm thick Hiperco{sup ®} 50 alloy have been mounted on the plasma-facing side of half of the in-vessel movable wall segments in the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse device [D. A. Maurer et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 074016 (2011)] in order to explore ferritic resistive wall mode stability. Low-activation ferritic steels are a candidate for structural components of a fusion reactor, and these experiments examine MHD stability of plasmas with nearby ferromagnetic material. Plasma-wall separation for alternating ferritic and non-ferritic wall segments is adjusted between discharges without opening the vacuum vessel. Amplification of applied resonant magnetic perturbations and plasma disruptivity are observed to increase when the ferromagnetic wall is close to plasma surface instead of the standard stainless steel wall. Rapidly rotating m/n=3/1 external kink modes have higher growth rates with the nearby ferritic wall. Feedback suppression of kinks is still as effective as before the installation of ferritic material in vessel, in spite of increased mode growth rates.

  10. Single-walled carbon nanotubes as near-infrared optical biosensors for life sciences and biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Jain, Astha; Homayoun, Aida; Bannister, Christopher W; Yum, Kyungsuk

    2015-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes that emit photostable near-infrared fluorescence have emerged as near-infrared optical biosensors for life sciences and biomedicine. Since the discovery of their near-infrared fluorescence, researchers have engineered single-walled carbon nanotubes to function as an optical biosensor that selectively modulates its fluorescence upon binding of target molecules. Here we review the recent advances in the single-walled carbon nanotube-based optical sensing technology for life sciences and biomedicine. We discuss the structure and optical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes, the mechanisms for molecular recognition and signal transduction in single-walled carbon nanotube complexes, and the recent development of various single-walled carbon nanotube-based optical biosensors. We also discuss the opportunities and challenges to translate this emerging technology into biomedical research and clinical use, including the biological safety of single-walled carbon nanotubes. The advances in single-walled carbon nanotube-based near-infrared optical sensing technology open up a new avenue for in vitro and in vivo biosensing with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution, beneficial for many areas of life sciences and biomedicine.

  11. Actinomycosis involving the chest wall: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, W.R.; Sagel, S.S.

    1982-11-01

    Two cases of pulmonary actinomycosis with extension to involve the chest wall that were evaluated using computerized tomography are reported. In both cases, the relation of pulmonary and chest wall disease was best shown using CT. (KRM)

  12. Microwave background distortions from domain walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Guenter; Noetzold, Dirk

    1990-01-01

    Domain walls arising in a cosmic phase transition after decoupling were recently proposed as seeds for the formation of large scale structure. The distortion induced in the microwave background radiation is calculated in dependence of the wall thickness, surface density, scalar field potential, cosmic redshift and the velocity of the wall. It was found that the maximal redshift distortion for both spherical and planar walls is of the order pi G sigma H(sup -1)(sub 0), where sigma is the surface energy density and H(sup -1)(sub 0) the Hubble parameter. It was also found that, for a wall thickness smaller than the horizon, walls can be treated as infinitely thin, i.e., the redshift distortion is independent of the wall thickness and the specific form of the scalar potential. For planar walls moving with a Lorentz-factor gamma the redshift distortion is enhanced by gamma cubed.

  13. Walled-off pancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Ramia, J M; de la Plaza, R; Quiñones-Sampedro, J E; Ramiro, C; Veguillas, P; García-Parreño, J

    2012-05-01

    Acute severe pancreatitits may be complicated by the development of 'walled-off pancreatic necrosis' (WOPN), which is characterised by a mixture of solid components and fluids on imaging studies as a consequence of organised pancreatic tissue necrosis. We present here an overview of the definition, clinical features, and diagnostic and therapeutic management of this clinical condition, which is mostly based on consensus as adequate clinical trials are lacking. PMID:22641624

  14. Wall slip in polymer melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léger, L.; Hervet, H.; Massey, G.; Durliat, E.

    1997-09-01

    We present a review of the recent characterizations of the flow behaviour of high-molecular-weight polymer melts, with special emphasis on situations in which slip at the wall appears. These characterizations are based on direct measurements of the local velocity of the fluid, in the immediate vicinity of the solid wall, through near-field velocimetry techniques. The results demonstrate the importance of polymer molecules anchored on the solid surface, either by strong adsorption or by chemical grafting, and entangled with the bulk polymer, to produce a strong friction at low shear rates and to lead to a shear rate threshold above which strong slip at the wall and low friction develop. The evolution of the shear rate threshold and of the flow characteristics (the length of the extrapolation of the velocity profile to zero, the critical slip velocity for the onset of strong slip, ...) with the molecular parameters of the system (the molecular weights of the bulk and surface chains, and the surface density of anchored chains) is analysed and compared with the predictions of recent theoretical models.

  15. Through the wall solar cooker

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, B.P.

    1987-04-07

    This patent describes a solar appliance for extending from the interior of a kitchen through an exterior wall of the building and beyond a predetermined distance in a cantilever manner to receive and concentrate in the appliance outside of the building, solar radiation rays for cooking purposes comprising: a housing, the housing being mounted to extend from a kitchen through an external wall of a building and beyond in a cantilever manner and forming a closed oven, the oven comprising a bottom, glass top, a pair of sides and a first end positioned with access from within the kitchen and comprising an oven door, a first reflective panel member mounted above, juxtapositioned to one edge of the glass top for positioning against the outer surface of the external wall and extending laterally therefrom for receiving and directing solar rays impinging thereon through the glass top and into the oven, and a second double-sided reflective panel mounted above and juxtapositioned to the glass top and extending substantially perpendicular to the first reflective panel for receiving solar rays impinging on either side thereof, and directing the solar rays into the oven.

  16. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  17. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  18. How do plant cell walls extend?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    This article briefly summarizes recent work that identifies the biophysical and biochemical processes that give rise to the extension of plant cell walls. I begin with the biophysical notion of stress relaxation of the wall and follow with recent studies of wall enzymes thought to catalyze wall extension and relaxation. Readers should refer to detailed reviews for more comprehensive discussion of earlier literature (Taiz, 1984; Carpita and Gibeaut, 1993; Cosgrove, 1993).

  19. 17. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO BATHROOM NUMBER ONE AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT, OPEN PANEL DOOR TO THE WALK-IN CLOSET AT PHOTO CENTER LEFT, OPEN PANEL DOOR TO HALL AT PHOTO CENTER RIGHT, AND A 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON THE WEST WALL AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  20. Effects of honeycomb shaped walls on the flow regime between a rotating disk and a stationary wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzkan, T.; Lipstein, N. J.

    1986-06-01

    In order to cool a gas turbine disk with a limited supply of coolant air, the radial inflow of hot gases between rotor disk and housing must be reduced. Attention is presently given to the use of different surface shapes on the stationary housing to inhibit disk pumping capacity and hence to reduce the radial influx of hot gases into the clearance. The basic geometry that was experimentally investigated was the flow field between a smooth cylindrical rotating disk parallel to a plain circular coaxial wall open to the free space at the disk periphery. The results obtained are presented in terms of the tangential and radial velocity profiles in the gap, the static pressure measurements, and the disk torque coefficients. A honeycombed stationary wall surface had a profound effect on the ingestion of external flow into the gap from the disk periphery.

  1. Assembling of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cell Wall Core.

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewicz, Anna E; de Sousa-d'Auria, Célia; McNeil, Michael R; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Jones, Victoria; Petit, Cécile; Angala, Shiva Kumar; Zemanová, Júlia; Wang, Qinglan; Belardinelli, Juan Manuel; Gao, Qian; Ishizaki, Yoshimasa; Mikušová, Katarína; Brennan, Patrick J; Ronning, Donald R; Chami, Mohamed; Houssin, Christine; Jackson, Mary

    2016-09-01

    The unique cell wall of mycobacteria is essential to their viability and the target of many clinically used anti-tuberculosis drugs and inhibitors under development. Despite intensive efforts to identify the ligase(s) responsible for the covalent attachment of the two major heteropolysaccharides of the mycobacterial cell wall, arabinogalactan (AG) and peptidoglycan (PG), the enzyme or enzymes responsible have remained elusive. We here report on the identification of the two enzymes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, CpsA1 (Rv3267) and CpsA2 (Rv3484), responsible for this function. CpsA1 and CpsA2 belong to the widespread LytR-Cps2A-Psr (LCP) family of enzymes that has been shown to catalyze a variety of glycopolymer transfer reactions in Gram-positive bacteria, including the attachment of wall teichoic acids to PG. Although individual cpsA1 and cpsA2 knock-outs of M. tuberculosis were readily obtained, the combined inactivation of both genes appears to be lethal. In the closely related microorganism Corynebacterium glutamicum, the ortholog of cpsA1 is the only gene involved in this function, and its conditional knockdown leads to dramatic changes in the cell wall composition and morphology of the bacteria due to extensive shedding of cell wall material in the culture medium as a result of defective attachment of AG to PG. This work marks an important step in our understanding of the biogenesis of the unique cell envelope of mycobacteria and opens new opportunities for drug development.

  2. Skyrmions from Instantons inside Domain Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eto, Minoru; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Tong, David

    2005-12-01

    Some years ago, Atiyah and Manton described a method to construct approximate Skyrmion solutions from Yang-Mills instantons. Here we present a dynamical realization of this construction using domain walls in a five-dimensional gauge theory. The non-Abelian gauge symmetry is broken in each vacuum but restored in the core of the domain wall, allowing instantons to nestle inside the wall. We show that the world volume dynamics of the wall is given by the Skyrme model, including the four-derivative term, and the instantons appear as domain wall Skyrmions.

  3. Asymmetric counter propagation of domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade-Silva, I.; Clerc, M. G.; Odent, V.

    2016-07-01

    Far from equilibrium systems show different states and domain walls between them. These walls, depending on the type of connected equilibria, exhibit a rich spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we investigate the asymmetrical counter propagation of domain walls in an in-plane-switching cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal. Experimentally, we characterize the shape and speed of the domain walls. Based on the molecular orientation, we infer that the counter propagative walls have different elastic deformations. These deformations are responsible of the asymmetric counter propagating fronts. Theoretically, based on symmetry arguments, we propose a simple bistable model under the influence of a nonlinear gradient, which qualitatively describes the observed dynamics.

  4. Gas enrichment at liquid-wall interfaces.

    PubMed

    Dammer, Stephan M; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-05-26

    Molecular dynamics simulations of Lennard-Jones systems are performed to study the effects of dissolved gas on liquid-wall and liquid-gas interfaces. Gas enrichment at walls, which for hydrophobic walls can exceed more than 2 orders of magnitude when compared to the gas density in the bulk liquid, is observed. As a consequence, the liquid structure close to the wall is considerably modified, leading to an enhanced wall slip. At liquid-gas interfaces gas enrichment which reduces the surface tension is found.

  5. The Writing on the Wall: Attending to Self-Motivated Student Literacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Explores the role that tagging (a simple form of graffiti) plays around the school and community. Argues that even the writing of a name on a wall opens out into a rich discourse community, in which taggers carry on complex conversations, negotiate and challenge shared discursive norms, and develop identities that are intimately connected to a…

  6. Opening remarks

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1994-09-01

    Included in this paper are the opening remarks of S.G. Hildebrand, from Environmental Science Division, ORNL, to a conference on water resources and water resource issues. Wetlands are the focus of this talk, with an emphasis on conservation and land use to conserve wetland functions and values.

  7. Opening Remarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldin, Daniel S.

    2005-01-01

    In these opening remarks to a symposium reflecting on forty years of U.S. Human Spaceflight, NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, reviews the impact that Alan Shepard had on him personally, to NASA, and to the whole idea of manned spaceflight. Mr Goldin cites Shepard as an example of the past and future of manned spaceflight.

  8. Major chest wall reconstruction after chest wall irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.L.; McMurtrey, M.J.; Howe, H.J.; Irish, C.E.

    1982-03-15

    In the last year, 12 patients have undergone extensive chest wall resection. Eight patients had recurrent cancer after prior resection and irradiation with an average defect of 160 square centimeters, usually including ribs and a portion of the sternum; four had radionecrosis of soft tissue and/or bone. Methods of reconstruction included latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous (MC) flap (five patients), pectoralis major MC flap (seven patients), and omental flap and skin graft (one patient). The donor site was usually closed primarily. All flaps survived providing good wound coverage. The only complication was partial loss of a latissimus dorsi MC flap related to an infected wound; this reconstruction was salvaged with a pectoralis major MC flap. The hospital stay ranged from 10-25 days with a median stay of 11 days. Use of the MC flap is a valuable tool which can be used to significantly decrease morbidity, hospital stay, and patient discomfort related to the difficult problem of chest wall reconstruction after radiation therapy.

  9. Generalized Wall Function for Complex Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Liu, Nan-Suey; Chen, Kuo-Huey

    2000-01-01

    A generalized wall function was proposed by Shih et al., (1999). It accounts the effect of pressure gradients on the flow near the wall. Theory shows that the effect of pressure gradients on the flow in the inertial sublayer is very significant and the standard wall function should be replaced by a generalized wall function. Since the theory is also valid for boundary layer flows toward separation, the generalized wall function may be applied to complex turbulent flows with acceleration, deceleration, separation and recirculation. This paper is to verify the generalized wall function with numerical simulations for boundary layer flows with various adverse and favorable pressure gradients, including flows about to separate. Furthermore, a general procedure of implementation of the generalized wall function for National Combustion Code (NCC) is described, it can be applied to both structured and unstructured CFD codes.

  10. Mechanism of bubble detachment from vibrating walls

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dongjun; Park, Jun Kwon Kang, Kwan Hyoung; Kang, In Seok

    2013-11-15

    We discovered a previously unobserved mechanism by which air bubbles detach from vibrating walls in glasses containing water. Chaotic oscillation and subsequent water jets appeared when a wall vibrated at greater than a critical level. Wave forms were developed at water-air interface of the bubble by the wall vibration, and water jets were formed when sufficiently grown wave-curvatures were collapsing. Droplets were pinched off from the tip of jets and fell to the surface of the glass. When the solid-air interface at the bubble-wall attachment point was completely covered with water, the bubble detached from the wall. The water jets were mainly generated by subharmonic waves and were generated most vigorously when the wall vibrated at the volume resonant frequency of the bubble. Bubbles of specific size can be removed by adjusting the frequency of the wall's vibration.

  11. Near-wall serpentine cooled turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2013-09-17

    A serpentine coolant flow path (54A-54G) formed by inner walls (50, 52) in a cavity (49) between pressure and suction side walls (22, 24) of a turbine airfoil (20A). A coolant flow (58) enters (56) an end of the airfoil, flows into a span-wise channel (54A), then flows forward (54B) over the inner surface of the pressure side wall, then turns behind the leading edge (26), and flows back along a forward part of the suction side wall, then follows a loop (54E) forward and back around an inner wall (52), then flows along an intermediate part of the suction side wall, then flows into an aft channel (54G) between the pressure and suction side walls, then exits the trailing edge (28). This provides cooling matched to the heating topography of the airfoil, minimizes differential thermal expansion, revives the coolant, and minimizes the flow volume needed.

  12. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of

  13. Tevatron Resistive Wall Current Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    Resistive Wall Current Monitors (RWCM) were designed and built for the Fermilab Tevatron (Tev) project. These devices measure longitudinal beam current from 3 KHz to 6 GHz with 1.34 ohm gap impedance. There are two RWCM's installed a few feet apart in the Tevatron, upstream RWCM is used for general purpose use, downstream RWCM is dedicated for longitudinal parameters of coalesced beam bunches and bunch intensities. The design provides a calibration or test port for injecting test signals. Microwave absorber material is used to reduce interference from spurious electromagnetic waves traveling inside the beam pipe. This paper will do an overview how the RWCM was designed and its test results.

  14. Moving walls and geometric phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchi, Paolo; Garnero, Giancarlo; Marmo, Giuseppe; Samuel, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    We unveil the existence of a non-trivial Berry phase associated to the dynamics of a quantum particle in a one dimensional box with moving walls. It is shown that a suitable choice of boundary conditions has to be made in order to preserve unitarity. For these boundary conditions we compute explicitly the geometric phase two-form on the parameter space. The unboundedness of the Hamiltonian describing the system leads to a natural prescription of renormalization for divergent contributions arising from the boundary.

  15. Domain-wall theory and nonstationarity in driven flow with exclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinchcombe, R. B.; de Queiroz, S. L. A.

    2016-07-01

    We study the dynamical evolution toward steady state of the stochastic nonequilibrium model known as the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process, in both uniform and nonuniform (staggered) one-dimensional systems with open boundaries. Domain-wall theory and numerical simulations are used and, where pertinent, their results are compared to existing mean-field predictions and exact solutions where available. For uniform chains we find that the inclusion of fluctuations inherent to the domain-wall formulation plays a crucial role in providing good agreement with simulations, which is severely lacking in the corresponding mean-field predictions. For alternating-bond chains the domain-wall predictions for the features of the phase diagram in the parameter space of injection and ejection rates turn out to be realized only in an incipient and quantitatively approximate way. Nevertheless, significant quantitative agreement can be found between several additional domain-wall theory predictions and numerics.

  16. Some ideas and opportunities concerning three-dimensional wind-tunnel wall corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubbert, P. E.

    1982-01-01

    Opportunities for improving the accuracy and reliability of wall corrections in conventional ventilated test sections are presented. The approach encompasses state-of-the-art technology in transonic computational methods combined with the measurement of tunnel-wall pressures. The objective is to arrive at correction procedures of known, verifiable accuracy that are practical within a production testing environment. It is concluded that: accurate and reliable correction procedures can be developed for cruise-type aerodynamic testing for any wall configuration; passive walls can be optimized for minimal interference for cruise-type aerodynamic testing (tailored slots, variable open area ratio, etc.); monitoring and assessment of noncorrectable interference (buoyancy and curvature in a transonic stream) can be an integral part of a correction procedure; and reasonably good correction procedures can probably be developd for complex flows involving extensive separation and other unpredictable phenomena.

  17. Domain-wall theory and nonstationarity in driven flow with exclusion.

    PubMed

    Stinchcombe, R B; de Queiroz, S L A

    2016-07-01

    We study the dynamical evolution toward steady state of the stochastic nonequilibrium model known as the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process, in both uniform and nonuniform (staggered) one-dimensional systems with open boundaries. Domain-wall theory and numerical simulations are used and, where pertinent, their results are compared to existing mean-field predictions and exact solutions where available. For uniform chains we find that the inclusion of fluctuations inherent to the domain-wall formulation plays a crucial role in providing good agreement with simulations, which is severely lacking in the corresponding mean-field predictions. For alternating-bond chains the domain-wall predictions for the features of the phase diagram in the parameter space of injection and ejection rates turn out to be realized only in an incipient and quantitatively approximate way. Nevertheless, significant quantitative agreement can be found between several additional domain-wall theory predictions and numerics. PMID:27575075

  18. Spontaneous Behaviors and Wall-Curvature Lead to Apparent Wall Preference in Planarian

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Yoshitaro; Agata, Kiyokazu; Inoue, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The planarian Dugesia japonica tends to stay near the walls of its breeding containers and experimental dishes in the laboratory, a phenomenon called “wall preference”. This behavior is thought to be important for environmental adaptation, such as hiding by planarians in nature. However, the mechanisms regulating wall-preference behavior are not well understood, since this behavior occurs in the absence of any particular stimulation. Here we show the mechanisms of wall-preference behavior. Surprisingly, planarian wall-preference behavior was also shown even by the head alone and by headless planarians. These results indicate that planarian “wall-preference” behavior only appears to be a “preference” behavior, and is actually an outcome of spontaneous behaviors, rather than of brain function. We found that in the absence of environmental cues planarians moved basically straight ahead until they reached a wall, and that after reaching a wall, they changed their direction of movement to one tangential to the wall, suggesting that this spontaneous behavior may play a critical role in the wall preference. When we tested another spontaneous behavior, the wigwag movement of the planarian head, using computer simulation with various wigwag angles and wigwag intervals, large wigwag angle and short wigwag interval reduced wall-preference behavior. This indicated that wigwag movement may determine the probability of staying near the wall or leaving the wall. Furthermore, in accord with this simulation, when we tested planarian wall-preference behavior using several assay fields with different curvature of the wall, we found that concavity and sharp curvature of walls negatively impacted wall preference by affecting the permissible angle of the wigwag movement. Together, these results indicate that planarian wall preference may be involuntarily caused by the combination of two spontaneous planarian behaviors: moving straight ahead until reaching a wall and then

  19. Spontaneous Behaviors and Wall-Curvature Lead to Apparent Wall Preference in Planarian.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yoshitaro; Agata, Kiyokazu; Inoue, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The planarian Dugesia japonica tends to stay near the walls of its breeding containers and experimental dishes in the laboratory, a phenomenon called "wall preference". This behavior is thought to be important for environmental adaptation, such as hiding by planarians in nature. However, the mechanisms regulating wall-preference behavior are not well understood, since this behavior occurs in the absence of any particular stimulation. Here we show the mechanisms of wall-preference behavior. Surprisingly, planarian wall-preference behavior was also shown even by the head alone and by headless planarians. These results indicate that planarian "wall-preference" behavior only appears to be a "preference" behavior, and is actually an outcome of spontaneous behaviors, rather than of brain function. We found that in the absence of environmental cues planarians moved basically straight ahead until they reached a wall, and that after reaching a wall, they changed their direction of movement to one tangential to the wall, suggesting that this spontaneous behavior may play a critical role in the wall preference. When we tested another spontaneous behavior, the wigwag movement of the planarian head, using computer simulation with various wigwag angles and wigwag intervals, large wigwag angle and short wigwag interval reduced wall-preference behavior. This indicated that wigwag movement may determine the probability of staying near the wall or leaving the wall. Furthermore, in accord with this simulation, when we tested planarian wall-preference behavior using several assay fields with different curvature of the wall, we found that concavity and sharp curvature of walls negatively impacted wall preference by affecting the permissible angle of the wigwag movement. Together, these results indicate that planarian wall preference may be involuntarily caused by the combination of two spontaneous planarian behaviors: moving straight ahead until reaching a wall and then moving along it

  20. Thermal control system and method for a passive solar storage wall

    DOEpatents

    Ortega, Joseph K. E.

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a system and method for controlling the storing and elease of thermal energy from a thermal storage wall wherein said wall is capable of storing thermal energy from insolation of solar radiation. The system and method includes a device such as a plurality of louvers spaced a predetermined distance from the thermal wall for regulating the release of thermal energy from the thermal wall. This regulating device is made from a material which is substantially transparent to the incoming solar radiation so that when it is in any operative position, the thermal storage wall substantially receives all of the impacting solar radiation. The material in the regulating device is further capable of being substantially opaque to thermal energy so that when the device is substantially closed, thermal release of energy from the storage wall is substantially minimized. An adjustment device is interconnected with the regulating mechanism for selectively opening and closing it in order to regulate the release of thermal energy from the wall.

  1. Technology Solutions Case Study: Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast, Devens, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    Double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing. In this project, Building Science Corporation monitored moisture conditions in double-stud walls from 2011 through 2014 at a new production house located in Devens, Massachusetts. The builder, Transformations, Inc., has been using double-stud walls insulated with 12 in. of open cell polyurethane spray foam (ocSPF); however, the company has been considering a change to netted and blown cellulose insulation for cost reasons. Cellulose is a common choice for double-stud walls because of its lower cost (in most markets). However, cellulose is an air-permeable insulation, unlike spray foams, which increases interior moisture risks. The team compared three double-stud assemblies: 12 in. of ocSPF, 12 in. of cellulose, and 5-½ in. of ocSPF at the exterior of a double-stud wall (to approximate conventional 2 × 6 wall construction and insulation levels, acting as a control wall). These assemblies were repeated on the north and south orientations, for a total of six assemblies.

  2. SRNL POROUS WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G; Leung Heung, L; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-15

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a new medium for storage of hydrogen and other gases. This involves fabrication of thin, Porous Walled, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), with diameters generally in the range of 1 to several hundred microns. What is unique about the glass microballons is that porosity has been induced and controlled within the thin, one micron thick walls, on the scale of 10 to several thousand Angstroms. This porosity results in interesting properties including the ability to use these channels to fill the microballons with special absorbents and other materials, thus providing a contained environment even for reactive species. Gases can now enter the microspheres and be retained on the absorbents, resulting in solid-state and contained storage of even reactive species. Also, the porosity can be altered and controlled in various ways, and even used to filter mixed gas streams within a system. SRNL is involved in about a half dozen different programs involving these PW-HGMs and an overview of some of these activities and results emerging are presented.

  3. Tube wall temperature monitoring technique

    SciTech Connect

    Granton, R.L.

    1985-07-01

    In 1977, Monsanto and Conoco undertook the construction of a new, modern technology ethylene plant at Chocolate Bayou, near Alvin, Texas. This plant included high severity cracking furnaces with potential tube wall temperatures considerably higher than any we had previously experienced. Furnace on-stream time between decokes, a factor in the economics of plant operation, was limited by tube wall temperature, thus requiring its accurate knowledge. Earlier work with other ethylene furnaces had also demonstrated our lack of knowledge concerning high temperature measurements in a furnace firebox environment. This had to change. An outside consultant was called upon to provide a threeday workshop on radiant tube temperature sensing. The workshop consisted of two days of formal training in the theory and practice of temperature measurement and one day of field training. This workshop was conducted at a site away from the plant. Approximately 20 engineers (manufacturing and technical groups) attended. The major topics covered by this workshop are as follows: radiant tube temperature sensing, radiation situation of radiant tubes, g.a. method: sample calculations, noncontact sensors: methods of specifying and purchasing, thermal imager strategies, calibration of noncontact sensors, avoiding problems with noncontact sensors, optical aids to radiant tube viewing, tube temperature management and its environmental implications, and contact temperature sensors.

  4. Speech About the Great Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    Of all the sights that I saw during that trip, the one that provoked the most thought on my part was the Great Wall. The Great Wall defies imagination. It is simple and strong. It winds gracefully up and down. It scales slowly but steadily the distant hill, to disappear down into the valley beyond, only to climb again, inexorably, to surmount the next mountain in its path. As one examines the individual stones with which it was built, one realizes how much sweat and blood there must have been in its complex history. As one looks at the overall structure, at its strength and elegance, its real significance begins to emerge. It is long. It is tenacious. It is flexible in every turn, but is persistent and persisting in the long range development. Its overall unity of purpose is what gives it strength and character. And its overall unity of purpose is what makes it one of the man-made structures on the surface of the earth to become first visible to a visitor approaching our planet from outer space...

  5. Moss cell walls: structure and biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Alison W.; Roberts, Eric M.; Haigler, Candace H.

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of the moss Physcomitrella patens has stimulated new research examining the cell wall polysaccharides of mosses and the glycosyl transferases that synthesize them as a means to understand fundamental processes of cell wall biosynthesis and plant cell wall evolution. The cell walls of mosses and vascular plants are composed of the same classes of polysaccharides, but with differences in side chain composition and structure. Similarly, the genomes of P. patens and angiosperms encode the same families of cell wall glycosyl transferases, yet, in many cases these families have diversified independently in each lineage. Our understanding of land plant evolution could be enhanced by more complete knowledge of the relationships among glycosyl transferase functional diversification, cell wall structural and biochemical specialization, and the roles of cell walls in plant adaptation. As a foundation for these studies, we review the features of P. patens as an experimental system, analyses of cell wall composition in various moss species, recent studies that elucidate the structure and biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides in P. patens, and phylogenetic analysis of P. patens genes potentially involved in cell wall biosynthesis. PMID:22833752

  6. The State of the GeoWall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, P. J.; Leigh, J.; van Keken, P.; Johnson, A.

    2003-12-01

    The GeoWall stereo projection technology has been widely adopted within Earth Science. Over 20,000 undergraduate students per year use a GeoWall in classroom and lab settings at over 80 institutions around the world using over 200 GeoWalls. We believe that critical mass for this technology has been reached in the Earth Science. Many collaborations have been initiated. With Iris, GeoWall is exploring new ways to monitor seismic networks in real-time and to visualize extremely large, whole Earth seismic simulations. We are also working with a number of drilling organizations including JOI, DOSECC and LacCore to bring modern visualization technology to core interpretation and drill site selection. Also, over 15 museums now have or are building GeoWalls for informal education. Much of the science that is being performed on the GeoWall is finding its way directly into the classroom and science museum. One of the success stories has been the GeoWall Consortium's interaction with industry. The basic hardware for the GeoWall has been spun off to companies that now sell variations of the hardware. In addition, many software companies including ESRI and Dynamic Graphics have added support for the GeoWall in their products. The future of GeoWall is four fold. Curriculum development will bring more material to all GeoWall users. Assessment of the curriculum and educational psychology will give us GeoWall best practices. In technology development, the GeoWall 2 is a 20+ million pixel, tiled display which brings more resolution to the Earth Sciences than ever. To support research the consortium is developing a volume rendering application to visualize extremely large datasets.

  7. Opening education.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marshall S

    2009-01-01

    Spurred by the publication of Massachusetts Institute of Technology OpenCourseWare in 2002, the open educational resources (OER) movement, which has rapidly expanded and captured the imagination and energy of millions of creators and users throughout the world, now faces many opportunities and substantial challenges as it moves to become an integral part of the world's educational environment. The confluence of the Web and a spirit of sharing intellectual property have fueled a worldwide movement to make knowledge and education materials open to all for use. OER are content (courses, books, lesson plans, articles, etc.), tools (virtual laboratories, simulations, and games), and software that support learning and educational practice. OER are free on the Web, and most have licenses that allow copyright holders to retain ownership while providing specified rights for use in original and modified forms. At the least, OER have helped to level the distribution of knowledge across the world. A second promise of OER is to help transform educational practices. This article explores the history of and promises and challenges for OER.

  8. Opening education.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marshall S

    2009-01-01

    Spurred by the publication of Massachusetts Institute of Technology OpenCourseWare in 2002, the open educational resources (OER) movement, which has rapidly expanded and captured the imagination and energy of millions of creators and users throughout the world, now faces many opportunities and substantial challenges as it moves to become an integral part of the world's educational environment. The confluence of the Web and a spirit of sharing intellectual property have fueled a worldwide movement to make knowledge and education materials open to all for use. OER are content (courses, books, lesson plans, articles, etc.), tools (virtual laboratories, simulations, and games), and software that support learning and educational practice. OER are free on the Web, and most have licenses that allow copyright holders to retain ownership while providing specified rights for use in original and modified forms. At the least, OER have helped to level the distribution of knowledge across the world. A second promise of OER is to help transform educational practices. This article explores the history of and promises and challenges for OER. PMID:19119226

  9. Lignin variability in plant cell walls: contribution of new models.

    PubMed

    Neutelings, Godfrey

    2011-10-01

    Lignin is a major component of certain plant cell walls. The enzymes and corresponding genes associated with the metabolic pathway leading to the production of this complex phenolic polymer have been studied for many years now and are relatively well characterized. The use of genetically modified model plants (Arabidopsis, tobacco, poplar.) and mutants has contributed greatly to our current understanding of this process. The recent utilisation and/or development of a number of dedicated genomic and transcriptomic tools for other species opens new perspectives for advancing our knowledge of the biological role of this important polymer in less typical situations and/or species. In this context, studies on the formation of hypolignified G-type fibres in angiosperm tension wood, and the natural hypolignification of secondary cell walls in plant bast fibre species such as hemp (Cannabis sativa), flax (Linum usitatissimum) or ramie (Boehmeria nivea) are starting to provide novel information about how plants control secondary cell wall formation. Finally, other biologically interesting species for which few molecular resources currently exist could also represent interesting future models.

  10. Negative News: Cl- and HCO3- in the Vascular Wall.

    PubMed

    Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Matchkov, Vladimir V; Boedtkjer, Donna M B; Aalkjaer, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) are the most prevalent membrane-permeable anions in the intra- and extracellular spaces of the vascular wall. Outwardly directed electrochemical gradients for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) permit anion channel opening to depolarize vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Transporters and channels for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) also modify vascular contractility and structure independently of membrane potential. Transport of HCO3 (-) regulates intracellular pH and thereby modifies the activity of enzymes, ion channels, and receptors. There is also evidence that Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) transport proteins affect gene expression and protein trafficking. Considering the extensive implications of Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) in the vascular wall, it is critical to understand how these ions are transported under physiological conditions and how disturbances in their transport can contribute to disease development. Recently, sensing mechanisms for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) have been identified in the vascular wall where they modify ion transport and vasomotor function, for instance, during metabolic disturbances. This review discusses current evidence that transport (e.g., via NKCC1, NBCn1, Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels, volume-regulated anion channels, and CFTR) and sensing (e.g., via WNK and RPTPγ) of Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) influence cardiovascular health and disease. PMID:27511463

  11. Negative News: Cl- and HCO3- in the Vascular Wall.

    PubMed

    Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Matchkov, Vladimir V; Boedtkjer, Donna M B; Aalkjaer, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) are the most prevalent membrane-permeable anions in the intra- and extracellular spaces of the vascular wall. Outwardly directed electrochemical gradients for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) permit anion channel opening to depolarize vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Transporters and channels for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) also modify vascular contractility and structure independently of membrane potential. Transport of HCO3 (-) regulates intracellular pH and thereby modifies the activity of enzymes, ion channels, and receptors. There is also evidence that Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) transport proteins affect gene expression and protein trafficking. Considering the extensive implications of Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) in the vascular wall, it is critical to understand how these ions are transported under physiological conditions and how disturbances in their transport can contribute to disease development. Recently, sensing mechanisms for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) have been identified in the vascular wall where they modify ion transport and vasomotor function, for instance, during metabolic disturbances. This review discusses current evidence that transport (e.g., via NKCC1, NBCn1, Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels, volume-regulated anion channels, and CFTR) and sensing (e.g., via WNK and RPTPγ) of Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) influence cardiovascular health and disease.

  12. Architecture of dermatophyte cell Walls: Electron microscopic and biochemical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozawa, Y.; Kitajima, Y.

    1984-01-01

    A review with 83 references on the cell wall structure of dermatophytes is presented. Topics discussed include separation and preparation of cell walls; microstructure of cell walls by electron microscopy; chemical composition of cell walls; structural model of cell walls; and morphological structure of cell walls.

  13. Gallbladder removal - open

    MedlinePlus

    Cholecystectomy - open; Surgery - gallbladder - open ... a medical instrument called a laparoscope ( laparoscopic cholecystectomy ). Open gallbladder surgery is used when laparoscopic surgery cannot ...

  14. 42. Open house at the site, Saturday, October 3, 1992. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Open house at the site, Saturday, October 3, 1992. View north/northwest. Photograph shows the lock support floor joists on sleepers and the mortised crib walls. The 1 inch board at the base of the crib wall is the pre-super construction 'footprint' for alignment. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  15. OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in…

  16. Wall Interference Study of the NTF Slotted Tunnel Using Bodies of Revolution Wall Signature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, Venkit; Kuhl, David D.; Walker, Eric L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a description of the analysis of blockage corrections for bodies of revolution for the slotted-wall configuration of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). A wall correction method based on the measured wall signature is used. Test data from three different-sized blockage bodies and four wall ventilation settings were analyzed at various Mach numbers and unit Reynolds numbers. The results indicate that with the proper selection of the boundary condition parameters, the wall correction method can predict blockage corrections consistent with the wall measurements for Mach numbers as high as 0.95.

  17. Secondary cell walls: biosynthesis and manipulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Campbell, Liam; Turner, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Secondary cell walls (SCWs) are produced by specialized plant cell types, and are particularly important in those cells providing mechanical support or involved in water transport. As the main constituent of plant biomass, secondary cell walls are central to attempts to generate second-generation biofuels. Partly as a consequence of this renewed economic importance, excellent progress has been made in understanding how cell wall components are synthesized. SCWs are largely composed of three main polymers: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. In this review, we will attempt to highlight the most recent progress in understanding the biosynthetic pathways for secondary cell wall components, how these pathways are regulated, and how this knowledge may be exploited to improve cell wall properties that facilitate breakdown without compromising plant growth and productivity. While knowledge of individual components in the pathway has improved dramatically, how they function together to make the final polymers and how these individual polymers are incorporated into the wall remain less well understood.

  18. Hydrodynamics of ultra-relativistic bubble walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitao, Leonardo; Mégevand, Ariel

    2016-04-01

    In cosmological first-order phase transitions, gravitational waves are generated by the collisions of bubble walls and by the bulk motions caused in the fluid. A sizeable signal may result from fast-moving walls. In this work we study the hydrodynamics associated to the fastest propagation modes, namely, ultra-relativistic detonations and runaway solutions. We compute the energy injected by the phase transition into the fluid and the energy which accumulates in the bubble walls. We provide analytic approximations and fits as functions of the net force acting on the wall, which can be readily evaluated for specific models. We also study the back-reaction of hydrodynamics on the wall motion, and we discuss the extrapolation of the friction force away from the ultra-relativistic limit. We use these results to estimate the gravitational wave signal from detonations and runaway walls.

  19. Polyamines in cell walls of chlorococcalean microalgae.

    PubMed

    Burczyk, Jan; Zych, Maria; Ioannidis, Nikolaos E; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology of microalgae represents a very attractive alternative as a source of energy and substances of high value when compared with plant cultivation. Cell walls of green microalgae have an extraordinary chemical and mechanical resistance and may impede some steps in the biotechnological/industrial exploitation of algae. The aim of the present contribution was to check the presence of polyamines in the cell walls of chlorococcalean green microalgae. Polyamines are nitrogenous compounds synthesized normally in cells and may affect the properties of the cell wall. Our work included strains either forming or not forming the polymer algaenan, allowing us to conclude that algaenan is not a prerequisite for the presence of polyamines in the cell walls. Polyamines were detected in isolated cell walls of Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella fusca, Chlorella saccharophila, and Chlorella vulgaris. Their concentration in isolated cell walls ranged between 0.4 and 8.4 nmol/mg dry weight. PMID:24772826

  20. Seismic behavior of geogrid reinforced slag wall

    SciTech Connect

    Edincliler, Ayse; Baykal, Gokhan; Saygili, Altug

    2008-07-08

    Flexible retaining structures are known with their high performance under earthquake loads. In geogrid reinforced walls the performance of the fill material and the interface of the fill and geogrid controls the performance. Geosynthetic reinforced walls in seismic regions must be safe against not only static forces but also seismic forces. The objective of this study is to determine the behavior of a geogrid reinforced slag wall during earthquake by using shaking table experiments. This study is composed of three stages. In the first stage the physical properties of the material to be used were determined. In the second part, a case history involving the use of slag from steel industry in the construction of geogrid reinforced wall is presented. In the third stage, the results of shaking table tests conducted using model geogrid wall with slag are given. From the results, it is seen that slag can be used as fill material for geogrid reinforced walls subjected to earthquake loads.

  1. Vapor wall deposition in Teflon chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Schwantes, R. H.; McVay, R. C.; Lignell, H.; Coggon, M. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2015-04-01

    Teflon chambers are ubiquitous in studies of atmospheric chemistry. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation can be underestimated, owing to deposition of SOA-forming vapors to the chamber wall. We present here an experimental protocol and a model framework to constrain the vapor-wall interactions in Teflon chambers. We measured the wall deposition rates of 25 oxidized organic compounds generated from the photooxidation of isoprene, toluene, α-pinene, and dodecane in two chambers that had been extensively used and in two new unused chambers. We found that the extent of prior use of the chamber did not significantly affect the sorption behavior of the Teflon films. Among the 25 compounds studied, the maximum wall deposition rate is exhibited by the most highly oxygenated and least volatile compounds. By optimizing the model output to the observed vapor decay profiles, we identified that the dominant parameter governing the extent of wall deposition of a compound is its wall accommodation coefficient (αwi), which can be correlated through its volatility with the number of carbons and oxygens in the molecule. By doing so, the wall-induced deposition rate of intermediate/semi-volatile organic vapors can be reasonably predicted based on their molecular constituency. The extent to which vapor wall deposition impacts measured SOA yields depends on the competition between uptake of organic vapors by suspended particles and the chamber wall. The timescale associated with vapor wall deposition can vary from minutes to hours depending on the value of αw,i. For volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (small αw,i), gas-particle partitioning will dominate wall deposition for typical particle number concentrations in chamber experiments. For compounds characterized by relatively large αw,i, vapor transport to particles is suppressed by competition with the chamber wall even with perfect particle accommodation.

  2. Textural break foundation wall construction modules

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Steven J.

    1990-01-01

    Below-grade, textural-break foundation wall structures are provided for inhibiting diffusion and advection of liquids and gases into and out from a surrounding hydrogeologic environment. The foundation wall structure includes a foundation wall having an interior and exterior surface and a porous medium disposed around a portion of the exterior surface. The structure further includes a modular barrier disposed around a portion of the porous medium. The modular barrier is substantially removable from the hydrogeologic environment.

  3. First wall for polarized fusion reactors

    DOEpatents

    Greenside, Henry S.; Budny, Robert V.; Post, Jr., Douglass E.

    1988-01-01

    Depolarization mechanisms arising from the recycling of the polarized fuel at the limiter and the first-wall of a fusion reactor are greater than those mechanisms in the plasma. Rapid depolarization of the plasma is prevented by providing a first-wall or first-wall coating formed of a low-Z, non-metallic material having a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec.sup.-1.

  4. [FUNCTIONAL PLASTIC OF ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIAS].

    PubMed

    Grubnik, V V; Parfentyeva, N D; Parfentyev, R S

    2015-07-01

    In order to improve the treatment efficacy of postoperative anterior abdominal wall hernias the method of plastic with restoration of anatomical and physiological properties of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall was used. After the intervention by the improved method, regardless of the location of the hernia defect yielded promising results for the conservation of anterior abdominal wall muscle function in 75% of cases completely restored functional ability of muscles recti abdomini. PMID:26591212

  5. Panelized wall system with foam core insulation

    DOEpatents

    Kosny, Jan; Gaskin, Sally

    2009-10-20

    A wall system includes a plurality of wall members, the wall members having a first metal panel, a second metal panel, and an insulating core between the first panel and the second panel. At least one of the first panel and the second panel include ridge portions. The insulating core can be a foam, such as a polyurethane foam. The foam can include at least one opacifier to improve the k-factor of the foam.

  6. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Douglas B; Bowman, Michael J; Braker, Jay D; Dien, Bruce S; Hector, Ronald E; Lee, Charles C; Mertens, Jeffrey A; Wagschal, Kurt

    2012-03-01

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes second generation bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation and separation. Ultimately, it is desirable to combine as many of the biochemical steps as possible in a single organism to achieve CBP (consolidated bioprocessing). A commercially ready CBP organism is currently unreported. Production of second generation bioethanol is hindered by economics, particularly in the cost of pretreatment (including waste management and solvent recovery), the cost of saccharification enzymes (particularly exocellulases and endocellulases displaying kcat ~1 s-1 on crystalline cellulose), and the inefficiency of co-fermentation of 5- and 6-carbon monosaccharides (owing in part to redox cofactor imbalances in Saccharomyces cerevisiae). PMID:22329798

  7. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  8. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  9. Creating universes with thick walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvestad, Andrew; Albrecht, Andreas

    2012-05-01

    We study the dynamics of a spherically symmetric false vacuum bubble embedded in a true vacuum region separated by a “thick wall”, which is generated by a scalar field in a quartic potential. We study the “Farhi-Guth-Guven” (FGG) quantum tunneling process by constructing numerical solutions relevant to this process. The Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass of the spacetime is calculated, and we show that there is a lower bound that is a significant fraction of the scalar field mass. We argue that the zero mass solutions used to by some to argue against the physicality of the FGG process are artifacts of the thin wall approximation used in earlier work. We argue that the zero mass solutions should not be used to question the viability of the FGG process.

  10. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  11. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Douglas B; Bowman, Michael J; Braker, Jay D; Dien, Bruce S; Hector, Ronald E; Lee, Charles C; Mertens, Jeffrey A; Wagschal, Kurt

    2012-03-01

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes second generation bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation and separation. Ultimately, it is desirable to combine as many of the biochemical steps as possible in a single organism to achieve CBP (consolidated bioprocessing). A commercially ready CBP organism is currently unreported. Production of second generation bioethanol is hindered by economics, particularly in the cost of pretreatment (including waste management and solvent recovery), the cost of saccharification enzymes (particularly exocellulases and endocellulases displaying kcat ~1 s-1 on crystalline cellulose), and the inefficiency of co-fermentation of 5- and 6-carbon monosaccharides (owing in part to redox cofactor imbalances in Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

  12. Structure of Plant Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Larry; Albersheim, Peter

    1979-01-01

    Wild type Bacillus subtilis, when grown on beet araban, secretes into its culture medium an endo-arabanase and two arabinosidases. An alternate procedure to one previously described (Kaji A, T Saheki 1975 Biochim Biophys Acta 410: 354-360) has been developed for the purification of the endo-arabanase. The purified endo-arabanase is shown to be homogeneous by sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea disc gel electrophoresis (molecular weight ≃ 32,000) and by isoelectric focusing (pI = 9.3). The endo-arabanase, acting on a branched araban substrate, has maximal activity at pH 6.0 and preferentially cleaves 5-linked arabinosyl residues. One of the arabinosidases (molecular weight ≃ 65,000, pI = 5.3) has been purified to the point that it contains only one quantitatively minor contaminant, as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea disc gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The purified arabinosidase, acting on p-nitrophenyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside, has maximal activity at pH 6.5, and, when acting on a branched araban substrate, preferentially attacks nonreducing terminal arabinosyl residues linked to the 2 or 3 position of other arabinosyl residues. Neither of the two purified enzymes is capable of hydrolyzing a variety of carbohydrate substrates which lack arabinosidic linkages. The purified endo-arabinase is shown to be capable of releasing arabinosyl oligomers from the walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells, thereby suggesting its usefulness as a probe in studying the structure of the araban component of primary cell walls. PMID:16660741

  13. Molecular regulation of plant cell wall extensibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Gravity responses in plants often involve spatial and temporal changes in cell growth, which is regulated primarily by controlling the ability of the cell wall to extend. The wall is thought to be a cellulose-hemicellulose network embedded in a hydrated matrix of complex polysaccharides and a small amount of structural protein. The wall extends by a form of polymer creep, which is mediated by expansins, a novel group of wall-loosening proteins. Expansins were discovered during a molecular dissection of the "acid growth" behavior of cell walls. Expansin alters the rheology of plant walls in profound ways, yet its molecular mechanism of action is still uncertain. It lacks detectable hydrolytic activity against the major components of the wall, but it is able to disrupt noncovalent adhesion between wall polysaccharides. The discovery of a second family of expansins (beta-expansins) sheds light on the biological role of a major group of pollen allergens and implies that expansins have evolved for diverse developmental functions. Finally, the contribution of other processes to wall extensibility is briefly summarized.

  14. Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

    2002-07-30

    The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

  15. Pollen wall development in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Stephen; Wortley, Alexandra H; Skvarla, John J; Rowley, John R

    2007-01-01

    The outer pollen wall, or exine, is more structurally complex than any other plant cell wall, comprising several distinct layers, each with its own organizational pattern. Since elucidation of the basic events of pollen wall ontogeny using electron microscopy in the 1970s, knowledge of their developmental genetics has increased enormously. However, self-assembly processes that are not under direct genetic control also play an important role in pollen wall patterning. This review integrates ultrastructural and developmental findings with recent models for self-assembly in an attempt to understand the origins of the morphological complexity and diversity that underpin the science of palynology.

  16. Molecular regulation of plant cell wall extensibility.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, D J

    1998-05-01

    Gravity responses in plants often involve spatial and temporal changes in cell growth, which is regulated primarily by controlling the ability of the cell wall to extend. The wall is thought to be a cellulose-hemicellulose network embedded in a hydrated matrix of complex polysaccharides and a small amount of structural protein. The wall extends by a form of polymer creep, which is mediated by expansins, a novel group of wall-loosening proteins. Expansins were discovered during a molecular dissection of the "acid growth" behavior of cell walls. Expansin alters the rheology of plant walls in profound ways, yet its molecular mechanism of action is still uncertain. It lacks detectable hydrolytic activity against the major components of the wall, but it is able to disrupt noncovalent adhesion between wall polysaccharides. The discovery of a second family of expansins (beta-expansins) sheds light on the biological role of a major group of pollen allergens and implies that expansins have evolved for diverse developmental functions. Finally, the contribution of other processes to wall extensibility is briefly summarized. PMID:11540640

  17. Chest wall angiolipoma complicating von Recklinghausen disease.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Teruya; Takahashi, Koji; Fujinaga, Takuji

    2013-09-01

    We present the case of an 18-year-old man with chest wall angiolipoma and a medical history of von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis. The chest wall tumor was originally detected during an evaluation for chest pain. For diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, video-assisted thoracoscopic resection was performed, and the tumor was histopathologically confirmed to be an angiolipoma. Chest wall angiolipoma is exceptionally rare. Only two cases have been reported in the English literature, with no reports regarding chest wall angiolipoma in a patient with von Recklinghausen disease.

  18. First wall for polarized fusion reactors

    DOEpatents

    Greenside, H.S.; Budny, R.V.; Post, D.E. Jr.

    1985-01-29

    A first-wall or first-wall coating for use in a fusion reactor having polarized fuel may be formed of a low-Z non-metallic material having slow spin relaxation, i.e., a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec/sup -1/. Materials having these properties include hydrogenated and deuterated amorphous semiconductors. A method for preventing the rapid depolarization of a polarized plasma in a fusion device may comprise the step of providing a first-wall or first-wall coating formed of a low-Z, non-metallic material having a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec/sup -1/.

  19. Large-eddy simulations with wall models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabot, W.

    1995-01-01

    The near-wall viscous and buffer regions of wall-bounded flows generally require a large expenditure of computational resources to be resolved adequately, even in large-eddy simulation (LES). Often as much as 50% of the grid points in a computational domain are devoted to these regions. The dense grids that this implies also generally require small time steps for numerical stability and/or accuracy. It is commonly assumed that the inner wall layers are near equilibrium, so that the standard logarithmic law can be applied as the boundary condition for the wall stress well away from the wall, for example, in the logarithmic region, obviating the need to expend large amounts of grid points and computational time in this region. This approach is commonly employed in LES of planetary boundary layers, and it has also been used for some simple engineering flows. In order to calculate accurately a wall-bounded flow with coarse wall resolution, one requires the wall stress as a boundary condition. The goal of this work is to determine the extent to which equilibrium and boundary layer assumptions are valid in the near-wall regions, to develop models for the inner layer based on such assumptions, and to test these modeling ideas in some relatively simple flows with different pressure gradients, such as channel flow and flow over a backward-facing step. Ultimately, models that perform adequately in these situations will be applied to more complex flow configurations, such as an airfoil.

  20. Low-rise shear wall failure modes

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R. ); Hashimoto, P.S. ); Reed, J.W. and Associates, Inc., Mountain View, CA )

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the data that are available concerning the structural response of low-rise shear walls is presented. This data will be used to address two failure modes associated with the shear wall structures. First, data concerning the seismic capacity of the shear walls with emphasis on excessive deformations that can cause equipment failure are examined. Second, data concerning the dynamic properties of shear walls (stiffness and damping) that are necessary to compute the seismic inputs to attached equipment are summarized. This case addresses the failure of equipment when the structure remains functional. 23 refs.

  1. A Near-Wall Reynolds-Stress Closure without Wall Normals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. P.; So, R. M. C.

    1997-01-01

    With the aid of near-wall asymptotic analysis and results of direct numerical simulation, a new near-wall Reynolds stress model (NNWRS) is formulated based on the SSG high-Reynolds-stress model with wall-independent near-wall corrections. Only one damping function is used for flows with a wide range of Reynolds numbers to ensure that the near-wall modifications diminish away from the walls. The model is able to reproduce complicated flow phenomena induced by complex geometry, such as flow recirculation, reattachment and boundary-layer redevelopment in backward-facing step flow and secondary flow in three-dimensional square duct flow. In simple flows, including fully developed channel/pipe flow, Couette flow and boundary-layer flow, the wall effects are dominant, and the NNWRS model predicts less degree of turbulent anisotropy in the near-wall region compared with a wall-dependent near-wall Reynolds Stress model (NWRS) developed by So and colleagues. The comparison of the predictions given by the two models rectifies the misconception that the overshooting of skin friction coefficient in backward-facing step flow prevalent in those near-wall, models with wall normal is caused by he use of wall normal.

  2. Modeled and metered energy savings from exterior wall insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.; Parker, D.; McLain, H.; Barkaszi, S. Jr.

    1996-09-01

    Millions of single-family masonry (block) houses with slab foundations exist in the southern United States. In fact, approximately 50% of Florida`s six million residences are of concrete block construction. The block walls in these homes are usually uninsulated, and the technology for retrofitting wall insulation is not well developed. Two field tests were performed--one near Phoenix, Arizona and one in Cocoa, Florida--to measure the air-conditioning energy savings and demand reduction impact of applying an exterior insulation and finish system (EEFS) to the exterior of the block wall, and gain practical experience with retrofit application techniques and costs. One field test used a {open_quotes}site-fabricated{close_quotes} insulation system, while the other field test used a commercially available system. The field tests measured a savings of 9% in Arizona and less savings in Florida, and emphasized the impact indoor temperature settings have on cooling energy savings: exterior wall insulation on block homes will produce energy savings in Florida houses only if a low cooling thermostat setting is desirable. The field tests also highlighted an improved comfort benefit from the retrofit - namely, elimination of overheating in rooms with south and west exposures. The DOE-2. ID program was used to analyze the energy savings (air-conditioning and heating) and electric demand impact of applying an EIFS. Air-conditioning energy savings were estimated to be in the range of 8% to 10% in many southern U.S. regions. A 12% savings was predicted for Phoenix, Arizona and a savings of 1% to 4% was predicted for seacoast regions, particularly in Florida. These predictions were in good agreement with the measured values. Peak hour cooling energy savings were predicted to be more uniform throughout the country, generally in the range of %8 to %12.

  3. Wall thinning criteria for low temperature-low pressure piping

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    This acceptance criteria is intended to prevent gross rupture or rapidly propagating failure during normal and abnormal operating conditions. Pitting may be present in the carbon steel piping. While the acceptance criteria have provisions to preclude gross rupture through a pitted region, they do not protect against throughwall pit growth and subsequent leakage. Potential leakage through a pit in low pressure piping is less than the post-DBE design basis leakage. Both the uniform thinning and LTA criteria protect against leakage, since their potential for leakage is larger. The acceptance criteria protects against gross rupture due to general wall thinning, local wall thinning (LTA's), pitting, and fracture through weld defects. General wall thinning calculations are based on the restart criteria, SEP-24. LTA criteria for hoop stresses are based on ASME Code Case N-480 [open quotes]Examination Requirements for Pipe Wall Thinning Due to Single Phase Erosion and Corrosion[close quotes]. The LTA criteria for axial stress is based on an effective average thickness concept, which prevents plastic collapse of a locally thinned pipe. Limits on pit density, based on an effective cross section concept, are used to prevent gross rupture through a group of pits. The CEGB R-6 failure assessment diagram is used in the fracture evaluation, along with postulated weld defects. This criteria is intended for low temperature, low pressure piping systems. Corrosion and/or weld defects increase the peak stresses during normal operation and may lead to a reduction in fatigue life. Piping systems subject to significant thermal or mechanical fatigue will require additional analysis which is beyond the scope of this document.

  4. Corrections to the thin wall approximation in general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garfinkle, David; Gregory, Ruth

    1989-01-01

    The question is considered whether the thin wall formalism of Israel applies to the gravitating domain walls of a lambda phi(exp 4) theory. The coupled Einstein-scalar equations that describe the thick gravitating wall are expanded in powers of the thickness of the wall. The solutions of the zeroth order equations reproduce the results of the usual Israel thin wall approximation for domain walls. The solutions of the first order equations provide corrections to the expressions for the stress-energy of the wall and to the Israel thin wall equations. The modified thin wall equations are then used to treat the motion of spherical and planar domain walls.

  5. Open University

    SciTech Connect

    2006-01-18

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  6. Open University

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  7. Study on the effect of naturally ventilated cavity wall for passive cooling of warehouse envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadoya, Terunori; Utsumi, Yasuo

    A wall cavity with two open slits at top and bottom is expected to regulate overheating of the exterior walls by solar irradiation. This study focuses on estimating the effect with the simulation in steady-state. For a cavity wall which has 3000 mm height, 50 mm thickness and 40% aperture ratio of openings, scores of calculations were excuted. With the condition of 200 W/ m 2 solar irradiation, 15°C temperature difference between interior and exterior and 5 m 2 K/W heat resistance value of the solid part wall, the excution results indicated that the increasing rate of heat resistance by cavity was 21%, more temperature difference provided less efficiency, and more solar irradiation generated more effeciency. To define the ability of the cavity, apparant thermal conductivity of the cavity was estimated. The thermal conductivity of cavity (0.022 W /mK) can be smaller than good insulation materials under the condition of large solar irradiation value (600W/m2). Results proved that the cavity wall had enough performance for reduction of cooling load.

  8. Cell wall polysaccharide distribution in Sandersonia aurantiaca flowers using immuno-detection.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Erin M; Sutherland, Paul W

    2012-07-01

    The localization of cell wall polysaccharides of the fused petals of monocotyledonous Sandersonia aurantiaca flowers has been identified using antibodies directed to pectin and xyloglucan epitopes and detection by fluorescence microscopy. Cross sections of the petal tissue were taken from cut flowers in bud and at various stages of maturity and senescence. Patterns of esterification in pectin backbones were identified by JIM5 and 2F4 labelling. Pectic galactan and arabinan side branches were detected by LM5 and LM6, respectively, while fucosylated xyloglucan was identified by CCRC-M1. The labelling patterns highlighted compositional differences between walls of the outer/inner epidermis compared to the spongy parenchyma cells of the interior mesophyll for fucosylated xyloglucan and arabinan. Partially esterified homogalacturonan was present in the junction zones of the outer epidermis and points of contact between cells of the mesophyll, and persisted throughout senescence. Pectic galactans were ubiquitous in the outer and inner epidermal cell walls and walls of the interior mesophyll at flower opening, whereas pectic arabinan was found predominantly in the epidermal cells. Galactan was lost from walls of all cells as flowers began to senesce, while fucosylated xyloglucan appeared to increase over this time. Such differences in the location of polysaccharides and the timing of changes suggest distinct combinations of certain polysaccharides offer mechanical and rheological advantages that may assist with flower opening and senescence.

  9. Slotted-wall research with disk and parachute models in the DSMA low-speed wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Van Every, D.; Harris, J.L. )

    1990-06-01

    A test program investigated the effects of wall open area ratio (OAR) and model axial position on the measured drag of disk and parachute models in a low-speed wind tunnel. The data and discussion presented in this report provide new insight into the nature of slotted-wall interference for bluff bodies in steady flow and give the first quantitative information on nonsteady wall interference and airflow response during the inflation of a parachute. The report concludes that a fixed OAR of between 5% and 15% should eliminate wall interference during inflation and greatly reduce steady-flow interference for geometric blockages up to 15%. Preliminary arguments suggest that an optimum OAR may be found that alleviates wall interference for large models at low speeds while providing for acceptable testing of smaller models in the transonic speed range. 10 refs., 36 figs., 14 tabs.

  10. Functional Analysis of Cellulose and Xyloglucan in the Walls of Stomatal Guard Cells of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rui, Yue; Anderson, Charles T

    2016-03-01

    Stomatal guard cells are pairs of specialized epidermal cells that control water and CO2 exchange between the plant and the environment. To fulfill the functions of stomatal opening and closure that are driven by changes in turgor pressure, guard cell walls must be both strong and flexible, but how the structure and dynamics of guard cell walls enable stomatal function remains poorly understood. To address this question, we applied cell biological and genetic analyses to investigate guard cell walls and their relationship to stomatal function in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using live-cell spinning disk confocal microscopy, we measured the motility of cellulose synthase (CESA)-containing complexes labeled by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-CESA3 and observed a reduced proportion of GFP-CESA3 particles colocalizing with microtubules upon stomatal closure. Imaging cellulose organization in guard cells revealed a relatively uniform distribution of cellulose in the open state and a more fibrillar pattern in the closed state, indicating that cellulose microfibrils undergo dynamic reorganization during stomatal movements. In cesa3(je5) mutants defective in cellulose synthesis and xxt1 xxt2 mutants lacking the hemicellulose xyloglucan, stomatal apertures, changes in guard cell length, and cellulose reorganization were aberrant during fusicoccin-induced stomatal opening or abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure, indicating that sufficient cellulose and xyloglucan are required for normal guard cell dynamics. Together, these results provide new insights into how guard cell walls allow stomata to function as responsive mediators of gas exchange at the plant surface. PMID:26729799

  11. Functional Analysis of Cellulose and Xyloglucan in the Walls of Stomatal Guard Cells of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rui, Yue; Anderson, Charles T

    2016-03-01

    Stomatal guard cells are pairs of specialized epidermal cells that control water and CO2 exchange between the plant and the environment. To fulfill the functions of stomatal opening and closure that are driven by changes in turgor pressure, guard cell walls must be both strong and flexible, but how the structure and dynamics of guard cell walls enable stomatal function remains poorly understood. To address this question, we applied cell biological and genetic analyses to investigate guard cell walls and their relationship to stomatal function in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using live-cell spinning disk confocal microscopy, we measured the motility of cellulose synthase (CESA)-containing complexes labeled by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-CESA3 and observed a reduced proportion of GFP-CESA3 particles colocalizing with microtubules upon stomatal closure. Imaging cellulose organization in guard cells revealed a relatively uniform distribution of cellulose in the open state and a more fibrillar pattern in the closed state, indicating that cellulose microfibrils undergo dynamic reorganization during stomatal movements. In cesa3(je5) mutants defective in cellulose synthesis and xxt1 xxt2 mutants lacking the hemicellulose xyloglucan, stomatal apertures, changes in guard cell length, and cellulose reorganization were aberrant during fusicoccin-induced stomatal opening or abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure, indicating that sufficient cellulose and xyloglucan are required for normal guard cell dynamics. Together, these results provide new insights into how guard cell walls allow stomata to function as responsive mediators of gas exchange at the plant surface.

  12. 5. 'Stones for Wing Walls, Tunnel Walls, BeltCourse and Coping,' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. 'Stones for Wing Walls, Tunnel Walls, Belt-Course and Coping,' Southern Pacific Standard Plan Tunnels, ca. 1909. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. 8. NORTHWEST WALL OF AR8, ALSO SHOWING THE SOUTHWEST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. NORTHWEST WALL OF AR-8, ALSO SHOWING THE SOUTHWEST WALL AND THE CREW SHELTER AT FAR RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. Calculation of wall effects of flow on a perforated wall with a code of surface singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piat, J. F.

    1994-07-01

    Simplifying assumptions are inherent in the analytic method previously used for the determination of wall interferences on a model in a wind tunnel. To eliminate these assumptions, a new code based on the vortex lattice method was developed. It is suitable for processing any shape of test sections with limited areas of porous wall, the characteristic of which can be nonlinear. Calculation of wall effects in S3MA wind tunnel, whose test section is rectangular 0.78 m x 0.56 m, and fitted with two or four perforated walls, have been performed. Wall porosity factors have been adjusted to obtain the best fit between measured and computed pressure distributions on the test section walls. The code was checked by measuring nearly equal drag coefficients for a model tested in S3MA wind tunnel (after wall corrections) and in S2MA wind tunnel whose test section is seven times larger (negligible wall corrections).

  15. Interconnections between cell wall polymers, wall mechanics, and cortical microtubules: Teasing out causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chaowen; Anderson, Charles T

    2016-09-01

    In plants, cell wall components including cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins interact with each other to form complex extracellular network structures that control cell growth and maintain cell shape. However, it is still not clear exactly how different wall polymers interact, how the conformations and interactions of cell wall polymers relate to wall mechanics, and how these factors impinge on intracellular structures such as the cortical microtubule cytoskeleton. Here, based on studies of Arabidopsis thaliana xxt1 xxt2 mutants, which lack detectable xyloglucan in their walls and display aberrant wall mechanics, altered cellulose patterning and biosynthesis, and reduced cortical microtubule stability, we discuss the potential relationships between cell wall biosynthesis, wall mechanics, and cytoskeletal dynamics in an effort to better understand their roles in controlling plant growth and morphogenesis. PMID:27611066

  16. Interconnections between cell wall polymers, wall mechanics, and cortical microtubules: Teasing out causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chaowen; Anderson, Charles T

    2016-09-01

    In plants, cell wall components including cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins interact with each other to form complex extracellular network structures that control cell growth and maintain cell shape. However, it is still not clear exactly how different wall polymers interact, how the conformations and interactions of cell wall polymers relate to wall mechanics, and how these factors impinge on intracellular structures such as the cortical microtubule cytoskeleton. Here, based on studies of Arabidopsis thaliana xxt1 xxt2 mutants, which lack detectable xyloglucan in their walls and display aberrant wall mechanics, altered cellulose patterning and biosynthesis, and reduced cortical microtubule stability, we discuss the potential relationships between cell wall biosynthesis, wall mechanics, and cytoskeletal dynamics in an effort to better understand their roles in controlling plant growth and morphogenesis.

  17. Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation: Harnessing the Benefits of Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Economic Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Digitization of information and the Internet have profoundly expanded the capacity for openness. This report details the benefits of openness in three areas--open standards, open-source software, and open innovation--and examines the major issues in the debate over whether openness should be encouraged or not. The report explains each of these…

  18. A wall interference assessment/correction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1993-01-01

    A Wall Signature method originally developed by Hackett was selected to be adapted for the Ames 12-ft Wind Tunnel Wall Interference Assessment/Correction (WIAC) System in the project. This method uses limited measurements of the static pressure at the wall, in conjunction with the solid wall boundary condition, to determine the strength and distribution of singularities representing the test article. The singularities are used in turn for estimating wall interference at the model location. The lifting interference will be treated separately by representing in a horseshoe vortex system for the model's lifting effects. The development and implementation of a working prototype will be completed, delivered, and documented with a software manual. The WIAC code will be validated by conducting numerically simulated experiments rather than actual wind tunnel experiments. The simulations will be used to generate both free-air and confined wind-tunnel flow fields for each of the test articles over a range of test configurations. Specifically, the pressure signature at the test section wall will be computed for the tunnel case to provide the simulated 'measured' data. These data will serve as the input for the WIAC method - Wall Signature method. The performance of the WIAC method then may be evaluated by comparing the corrected parameters with those for the free-air simulation. The following two additional tasks are included in the supplement No. 1 to the basic Grant. On-line wall interference calculation: The developed wall signature method (modified Hackett's method) for Ames 12-ft Tunnel will be the pre-computed coefficients which facilitate the on-line calculation of wall interference; and support system effects estimation: The effects on the wall pressure measurements due to the presence of the model support systems will be evaluated.

  19. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1" to 1 1/2"), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  20. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1” to 1 ½”), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  1. Ultrasonicated double wall carbon nanotubes for enhanced electric double layer capacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Srikrishna; Maiti, Uday N.; Palanisamy, Kowsalya; Nikolaev, Pavel; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2014-06-01

    An intense ultrasonication of the double wall carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) causes fractures and splitting of the individual tubes. This not only generates open tips and edges in DWCNTs but also incorporates defects in the tube walls. The electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) electrodes of intensively ultrasonicated DWCNTs (U-DWCNTs) form organized layered-porous structures. The EDLC behavior of U-DWCNTs electrodes shows dramatic improvements (specific capacitance 10 times and 222 times larger than the pristine DWCNTs at scan rates 5 mV s-1 and 500 mV s-1, respectively) due to the increased wettability of electrodes and accessibility of the electrolyte ions.

  2. Single-walled carbon nanotube growth from ion implanted Fe catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yongho; Sippel-Oakley, Jennifer; Ural, Ant

    2006-10-09

    The authors present experimental evidence that single-walled carbon nanotubes can be grown by chemical vapor deposition from ion implanted iron catalyst. They systematically characterize the effect of ion implantation dose and energy on the catalyst nanoparticles and nanotubes formed at 900 deg. C. They also fabricate a micromachined silicon grid for direct transmission electron microscopy characterization of the as-grown nanotubes. This work opens up the possibility of controlling the origin of single-walled nanotubes at the nanometer scale and of integrating them into nonplanar three-dimensional device structures with precise dose control.

  3. 7. NORTH WALL AND NORTHWEST WALL OF AR8, ALSO SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NORTH WALL AND NORTHWEST WALL OF AR-8, ALSO SHOWING THE EAST END OF THE SOUTH WALL IN THE DISTANCE. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. Ballistic Limit Equation for Single Wall Titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratliff, J. M.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Bryant, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact tests and hydrocode simulations were used to determine the ballistic limit equation (BLE) for perforation of a titanium wall, as a function of wall thickness. Two titanium alloys were considered, and separate BLEs were derived for each. Tested wall thicknesses ranged from 0.5mm to 2.0mm. The single-wall damage equation of Cour-Palais [ref. 1] was used to analyze the Ti wall's shielding effectiveness. It was concluded that the Cour-Palais single-wall equation produced a non-conservative prediction of the ballistic limit for the Ti shield. The inaccurate prediction was not a particularly surprising result; the Cour-Palais single-wall BLE contains shield material properties as parameters, but it was formulated only from tests of different aluminum alloys. Single-wall Ti shield tests were run (thicknesses of 2.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 0.5 mm) on Ti 15-3-3-3 material custom cut from rod stock. Hypervelocity impact (HVI) tests were used to establish the failure threshold empirically, using the additional constraint that the damage scales with impact energy, as was indicated by hydrocode simulations. The criterion for shield failure was defined as no detached spall from the shield back surface during HVI. Based on the test results, which confirmed an approximately energy-dependent shield effectiveness, the Cour-Palais equation was modified.

  5. Moduli of monopole walls and amoebas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkis, Sergey A.; Ward, Richard S.

    2012-05-01

    We study doubly-periodic monopoles, also called monopole walls, determining their spectral data and computing the dimensions of their moduli spaces. Using spectral data we identify the moduli, and compare our results with a perturbative analysis. We also identify an SL(2, {Z}) action on monopole walls, in which the S transformation corresponds to the Nahm transform.

  6. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Domain Walls in Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretiakov, Oleg; Goussev, Arseni; Robbins, J. M.; Slastikov, Valeriy

    2015-03-01

    We study domain walls in thin ferromagnetic nanotubes with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). Dramatic effects arise from the interplay of space curvature and spin-orbit induced DMI on the domain wall structure in these systems. The domain walls become narrower in systems with DMI and curvature. Moreover, the domain walls created in such nanotubes can propagate without Walker breakdown for arbitrary applied currents, thus allowing for a robust and controlled domain-wall motion. The domain-wall velocity is directly proportional to the non-adiabatic spin transfer torque current term and is insensitive to the adiabatic current term. Application of an external magnetic field along the nanotube axis triggers rich dynamical response of the curved domain wall. In particular, we show that the propagation velocity is a non-linear function of both the applied field and DMI, and strongly depends on the orientation and chirality of the wall. We acknowledge support by the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 25800184 and No. 25247056) from the MEXT, Japan and SpinNet.

  7. Near-wall serpentine cooled turbine airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2014-10-28

    A serpentine coolant flow path is formed by inner walls in a cavity between pressure and suction side walls of a turbine airfoil, the cavity partitioned by one or more transverse partitions into a plurality of continuous serpentine cooling flow streams each having a respective coolant inlet.

  8. Artificial Climbing Wall Design and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinnamon, Jerry

    Climbing walls can be designed to satisfy the needs of both untrained and experienced climbers offering these people a place to learn their craft as well as a place for them to keep their skills honed during off seasons. Users of the artificial wall can be classified into special groups, such as "Youth at Risk," who are engaged in challenge/growth…

  9. Risk Assessment of Energy-Efficient Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Pallin, Simon B.; Hun, Diana E.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Kehrer, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    This multi-year project aims to provide the residential construction industry with energy-efficient wall designs that are moisture durable. The present work focused on the initial step of this project, which is to develop a moisture durability protocol that identifies energy efficient wall designs that have a low probability of experiencing moisture problems.

  10. Do plant cell walls have a code?

    PubMed

    Tavares, Eveline Q P; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-12-01

    A code is a set of rules that establish correspondence between two worlds, signs (consisting of encrypted information) and meaning (of the decrypted message). A third element, the adaptor, connects both worlds, assigning meaning to a code. We propose that a Glycomic Code exists in plant cell walls where signs are represented by monosaccharides and phenylpropanoids and meaning is cell wall architecture with its highly complex association of polymers. Cell wall biosynthetic mechanisms, structure, architecture and properties are addressed according to Code Biology perspective, focusing on how they oppose to cell wall deconstruction. Cell wall hydrolysis is mainly focused as a mechanism of decryption of the Glycomic Code. Evidence for encoded information in cell wall polymers fine structure is highlighted and the implications of the existence of the Glycomic Code are discussed. Aspects related to fine structure are responsible for polysaccharide packing and polymer-polymer interactions, affecting the final cell wall architecture. The question whether polymers assembly within a wall display similar properties as other biological macromolecules (i.e. proteins, DNA, histones) is addressed, i.e. do they display a code?

  11. 14 CFR 121.245 - Fire walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire walls. 121.245 Section 121.245 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.245 Fire walls. Each...

  12. 14 CFR 121.245 - Fire walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire walls. 121.245 Section 121.245 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.245 Fire walls. Each...

  13. 14 CFR 121.245 - Fire walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire walls. 121.245 Section 121.245 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.245 Fire walls. Each...

  14. 14 CFR 121.245 - Fire walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire walls. 121.245 Section 121.245 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.245 Fire walls. Each...

  15. 14 CFR 121.245 - Fire walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire walls. 121.245 Section 121.245 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.245 Fire walls. Each...

  16. Mechanics of the Toxoplasma gondii oocyst wall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of microorganisms to survive under extreme conditions is closely related to the physicochemical properties of their wall. In the ubiquitous protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, the oocyst stage possesses a bilayered wall that protects the dormant but potentially infective parasites from...

  17. Revisiting the Ladder on a Wall Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salu, Yehuda

    2011-01-01

    The problem of a ladder leaning on a wall has been a staple of introductory physics for years. It is discussed in numerous physics textbooks and in journals. Now, it even has an Internet presence. Postings from students seek help for "ladder on a wall" problems. A quick review of those postings would show that they all deal with frictionless…

  18. Differential scanning calorimetry of plant cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Liangshiou; Varner, J.E. ); Yuen, H.K. )

    1991-03-15

    High-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry has been used to study the phase transition of cell wall preparations of the elongating and mature regions of soybean hypocotyls and of celery epidermis and collenchyma strands. A step-like transition believed to be glass transition was observed in walls isolated from the elongating region of soybean hypocotyls at 52.9C. Addition of 1 mM CaCl{sub 2} to the cell wall preparation increased the transition temperature to 60.8C and greatly reduced the transition magnitude. In walls from the mature region, the transition was small and occurred at a higher temperature (60.1C). Addition of calcium to the mature region cell wall had little effect on the transition. Based on the known interactions between calcium and pectin, the authors propose that calcium affects the glass transition by binding to the polygalacturonate backbone of wall pectin, resulting in a more rigid wall with a smaller transition at a higher temperature. The mature region either has more calcium in the wall or has more methyl-esterified pectin, making it less responsive to added calcium.

  19. Interactive Word Walls: Transforming Content Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Tripp, Sherry; Cox, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Word walls are designed to serve as visual scaffolds and are a common classroom tool used to support reading and language arts instruction. To support vocabulary development in science and support students who are ELLs, Husty and Jackson (2008) created interactive word walls that resemble semantic maps (Masters, Mori, and Mori 1993). Semantic maps…

  20. Drag reduction at a plane wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective is to determine by analytical means how drag on a plane wall may be modified favorably using a minimal amount of flow information - preferably only information at the wall. What quantities should be measured? How should that information be assimilated in order to arrive at effective control? As a prototypical problem, incompressible, viscous flow, governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, past a plane wall at which the no-slip condition was modified was considered. The streamwise and spanwise velocity components are required to be zero, but the normal component is to be specified according to some control law. The challenge is to choose the wall-normal velocity component based on flow conditions at the wall so that the mean drag is as small as possible. There can be no net mass flux through the wall, and the total available control energy is constrained. A turbulent flow is highly unsteady and has detailed spatial structure. The mean drag on the wall is the integral over the wall of the local shear forces exerted by the fluid, which is then averaged in time; it is a 'macroscopic' property of the flow. It is not obvious how unsteady boundary control is to be applied in order to modify the mean flow most effectively, especially in view of the non- self-adjoint nature of the governing equations. An approximate analytical solution to the suboptimal scheme is pursued.

  1. Reduced order modeling of wall turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moin, Parviz

    2015-11-01

    Modeling turbulent flow near a wall is a pacing item in computational fluid dynamics for aerospace applications and geophysical flows. Gradual progress has been made in statistical modeling of near wall turbulence using the Reynolds averaged equations of motion, an area of research where John Lumley has made numerous seminal contributions. More recently, Lumley and co-workers pioneered dynamical systems modeling of near wall turbulence, and demonstrated that the experimentally observed turbulence dynamics can be predicted using low dimensional dynamical systems. The discovery of minimal flow unit provides further evidence that the near wall turbulence is amenable to reduced order modeling. The underlying rationale for potential success in using low dimensional dynamical systems theory is based on the fact that the Reynolds number is low in close proximity to the wall. Presumably for the same reason, low dimensional models are expected to be successful in modeling of the laminar/turbulence transition region. This has been shown recently using dynamic mode decomposition. Furthermore, it is shown that the near wall flow structure and statistics in the late and non-linear transition region is strikingly similar to that in higher Reynolds number fully developed turbulence. In this presentation, I will argue that the accumulated evidence suggests that wall modeling for LES using low dimensional dynamical systems is a profitable avenue to pursue. The main challenge would be the numerical integration of such wall models in LES methodology.

  2. Revisiting the Ladder on a Wall Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salu, Yehuda

    2011-05-01

    The problem of a ladder leaning on a wall has been a staple of introductory physics for years. It is discussed in numerous physics textbooks and in journals.1-4 Now, it even has an Internet presence. Postings from students seek help for "ladder on a wall" problems. A quick review of those postings would show that they all deal with frictionless walls. This is also how the situation is presented in most textbooks. One may get the impression that the friction between a ladder and a wall is always negligible, or that dealing with it is so difficult that it should be left out of the realm of introductory physics. The truth of the matter is that the magnitude of the friction coefficient between a ladder and a wall is not much different from that with the floor, and that friction with the wall is an important part of the conditions for having a static ladder. This paper derives a simple relationship between the friction coefficients of the ladder with the floor (μ1) and with the wall (μ2), when the ladder is in static equilibrium. Figure 1 shows the forces that act on a ladder that leans on a wall.

  3. Cell wall chitosaccharides are essential components and exposed patterns of the phytopathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches.

    PubMed

    Badreddine, Ilham; Lafitte, Claude; Heux, Laurent; Skandalis, Nicholas; Spanou, Zacharoula; Martinez, Yves; Esquerré-Tugayé, Marie-Thérèse; Bulone, Vincent; Dumas, Bernard; Bottin, Arnaud

    2008-11-01

    Chitin is an essential component of fungal cell walls, where it forms a crystalline scaffold, and chitooligosaccharides derived from it are signaling molecules recognized by the hosts of pathogenic fungi. Oomycetes are cellulosic fungus-like microorganisms which most often lack chitin in their cell walls. Here we present the first study of the cell wall of the oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches, a major parasite of legume plants. Biochemical analyses demonstrated the presence of ca. 10% N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) in the cell wall. Further characterization of the GlcNAc-containing material revealed that it corresponds to noncrystalline chitosaccharides associated with glucans, rather than to chitin per se. Two putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes were identified by data mining of an A. euteiches expressed sequence tag collection and Southern blot analysis, and full-length cDNA sequences of both genes were obtained. Phylogeny analysis indicated that oomycete CHS diversification occurred before the divergence of the major oomycete lineages. Remarkably, lectin labeling showed that the Aphanomyces euteiches chitosaccharides are exposed at the cell wall surface, and study of the effect of the CHS inhibitor nikkomycin Z demonstrated that they are involved in cell wall function. These data open new perspectives for the development of antioomycete drugs and further studies of the molecular mechanisms involved in the recognition of pathogenic oomycetes by the host plants. PMID:18806214

  4. Transient wall pressures in an overexpanded and large area ratio nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, W. J.; Tinney, C. E.

    2013-02-01

    Surveys of the fluctuating wall pressure were conducted on a sub-scale parabolic-contour rocket nozzle to infer an understanding of the flow and shock structure pattern during fixed and transient operations of the nozzle. During start-up, the nozzle is highly overexpanded, which results in unsteady wall pressure signatures driven by shock foot unsteadiness. Wall pressure data are first analyzed using spatial Fourier transformations to extract the azimuthal modes during various operating states. A time-frequency analysis of the temporal azimuthal mode coefficients is then used to characterize the time-dependent spectral behavior of the wall pressure signatures during start-up. For both fixed and transient operations of the nozzle, the axisymmetric breathing mode ( m = 0) comprises most of the resolved energy. As for the transient operations alone, slight deviations in ramp rate are shown to considerably influence the amount of unsteadiness that the nozzle wall is exposed to, even though the general spectral and temporal features remain similar. In particular, increased ramp rates result in increased wall pressure intensity. Secondly, three major low-frequency events ( f ≲ 400 Hz) were observed during start-up and are attributed to: (1) {FSS} → {RSS} transition, (2) the passing of the reattachment line from the first separation bubble, and (3) the `end-effects regime'. The last of these refers to a condition where a trapped separation bubble opens intermittently to ambient at the nozzle lip.

  5. Tunable short-wavelength spin wave excitation from pinned magnetic domain walls.

    PubMed

    Van de Wiele, Ben; Hämäläinen, Sampo J; Baláž, Pavel; Montoncello, Federico; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2016-02-17

    Miniaturization of magnonic devices for wave-like computing requires emission of short-wavelength spin waves, a key feature that cannot be achieved with microwave antennas. In this paper, we propose a tunable source of short-wavelength spin waves based on highly localized and strongly pinned magnetic domain walls in ferroelectric-ferromagnetic bilayers. When driven into oscillation by a microwave spin-polarized current, the magnetic domain walls emit spin waves with the same frequency as the excitation current. The amplitude of the emitted spin waves and the range of attainable excitation frequencies depend on the availability of domain wall resonance modes. In this respect, pinned domain walls in magnetic nanowires are particularly attractive. In this geometry, spin wave confinement perpendicular to the nanowire axis produces a multitude of domain wall resonances enabling efficient spin wave emission at frequencies up to 100 GHz and wavelengths down to 20 nm. At high frequency, the emission of spin waves in magnetic nanowires becomes monochromatic. Moreover, pinning of magnetic domain wall oscillators onto the same ferroelectric domain boundary in parallel nanowires guarantees good coherency between spin wave sources, which opens perspectives towards the realization of Mach-Zehnder type logic devices and sensors.

  6. Tunable short-wavelength spin wave excitation from pinned magnetic domain walls

    PubMed Central

    Van de Wiele, Ben; Hämäläinen, Sampo J.; Baláž, Pavel; Montoncello, Federico; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2016-01-01

    Miniaturization of magnonic devices for wave-like computing requires emission of short-wavelength spin waves, a key feature that cannot be achieved with microwave antennas. In this paper, we propose a tunable source of short-wavelength spin waves based on highly localized and strongly pinned magnetic domain walls in ferroelectric-ferromagnetic bilayers. When driven into oscillation by a microwave spin-polarized current, the magnetic domain walls emit spin waves with the same frequency as the excitation current. The amplitude of the emitted spin waves and the range of attainable excitation frequencies depend on the availability of domain wall resonance modes. In this respect, pinned domain walls in magnetic nanowires are particularly attractive. In this geometry, spin wave confinement perpendicular to the nanowire axis produces a multitude of domain wall resonances enabling efficient spin wave emission at frequencies up to 100 GHz and wavelengths down to 20 nm. At high frequency, the emission of spin waves in magnetic nanowires becomes monochromatic. Moreover, pinning of magnetic domain wall oscillators onto the same ferroelectric domain boundary in parallel nanowires guarantees good coherency between spin wave sources, which opens perspectives towards the realization of Mach-Zehnder type logic devices and sensors. PMID:26883893

  7. Imaging Ferroelectric Domains and Domain Walls Using Charge Gradient Microscopy: Role of Screening Charges.

    PubMed

    Tong, Sheng; Jung, Il Woong; Choi, Yoon-Young; Hong, Seungbum; Roelofs, Andreas

    2016-02-23

    Advanced scanning probe microscopies (SPMs) open up the possibilities of the next-generation ferroic devices that utilize both domains and domain walls as active elements. However, current SPMs lack the capability of dynamically monitoring the motion of domains and domain walls in conjunction with the transport of the screening charges that lower the total electrostatic energy of both domains and domain walls. Charge gradient microscopy (CGM) is a strong candidate to overcome these shortcomings because it can map domains and domain walls at high speed and mechanically remove the screening charges. Yet the underlying mechanism of the CGM signals is not fully understood due to the complexity of the electrostatic interactions. Here, we designed a semiconductor-metal CGM tip, which can separate and quantify the ferroelectric domain and domain wall signals by simply changing its scanning direction. Our investigation reveals that the domain wall signals are due to the spatial change of polarization charges, while the domain signals are due to continuous removal and supply of screening charges at the CGM tip. In addition, we observed asymmetric CGM domain currents from the up and down domains, which are originated from the different debonding energies and the amount of the screening charges on positive and negative bound charges. We believe that our findings can help design CGM with high spatial resolution and lead to breakthroughs in information storage and energy-harvesting devices. PMID:26751281

  8. Through-the-wall polarimetric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Fauzia; Amin, Moeness G.

    2008-04-01

    Through-the-Wall Imaging is emerging as an affordable sensor technology supporting a variety of applications, such as surveillance and reconnaissance, emergency rescue, and firefighting. Motivated by the desire to understand the underlying phenomenology and performance bounds associated with imaging targets behind walls, several through-the-wall imaging experiments were conducted at the Center for Advanced Communications (CAC), Villanova University. These experiments aimed at supporting resolution, polarization, and localization of indoor targets and objects behind walls, and provided valuable dual-polarized synthetic aperture data measurements of indoor scenes of different complexity and population. In this paper, we present full-polarization imaging results, for a setting of calibrated reflectors behind a typical exterior grade wall. These imaging results provide polarimetric scene characterization and are shown to be in good agreement with the ground truth.

  9. Natural Paradigms of Plant Cell Wall Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, H.; Xu, Q.; Taylor, L. E.; Baker, J. O.; Tucker, M. P.; Ding, S. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Natural processes of recycling carbon from plant cell walls are slow but very efficient, generally involving microbial communities and their secreted enzymes. Efficient combinations of microbial communities and enzymes act in a sequential and synergistic manner to degrade plant cell walls. Recent understanding of plant cell wall ultra-structure, as well as the carbon metabolism, ATP production, and ecology of participating microbial communities, and the biochemical properties of their cellulolytic enzymes have led to new perspectives on saccharification of biomass. Microbial communities are dynamic functions of the chemical and structural compositions of plant cell wall components. The primitive 'multicellularity' exhibited by certain cellulolytic microorganisms may play a role in facilitating cell-cell communication and cell-plant cell wall-substrate interaction.

  10. 2003 Plant Cell Walls Gordon Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel J. Cosgrove

    2004-09-21

    This conference will address recent progress in many aspects of cell wall biology. Molecular, genetic, and genomic approaches are yielding major advances in our understanding of the composition, synthesis, and architecture of plant cell walls and their dynamics during growth, and are identifying the genes that encode the machinery needed to make their biogenesis possible. This meeting will bring together international scientists from academia, industry and government labs to share the latest breakthroughs and perspectives on polysaccharide biosynthesis, wood formation, wall modification, expansion and interaction with other organisms, and genomic & evolutionary analyses of wall-related genes, as well as to discuss recent ''nanotechnological'' advances that take wall analysis to the level of a single cell.

  11. An NPARC Turbulence Module with Wall Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, J.; Shih, T.-H.

    1997-01-01

    The turbulence module recently developed for the NPARC code has been extended to include wall functions. The Van Driest transformation is used so that the wall functions can be applied to both incompressible and compressible flows. The module is equipped with three two-equation K-epsilon turbulence models: Chien, Shih-Lumley and CMOTR models. Details of the wall functions as well as their numerical implementation are reported. It is shown that the inappropriate artificial viscosity in the near-wall region has a big influence on the solution of the wall function approach. A simple way to eliminate this influence is proposed, which gives satisfactory results during the code validation. The module can be easily linked to the NPARC code for practical applications.

  12. Metal stud wall systems -- Thermal disaster, or modern wall systems with highly efficient thermal insulation?

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E.; Desjarlais, A.O.

    1997-11-01

    Because steel has higher thermal conductivity than wood and intense heat transfer occurs through the metal wall components, thermal performances of a metal stud wall are significantly lower than for similar wood stud walls. A reduction of the in-cavity R-value caused by the wood studs is about 10% in wood stud walls. That is why metal stud walls are believed to be considerably less thermally effective than similar made of wood. However, properly designed metal stud walls can be as thermally effective as wood stud walls. Relatively high R-values may be achieved by installing insulating sheathing, which is widely used as a remedy for a weak thermal performance of metal stud walls. A series of the promising metal stud wall configurations is analyzed using results of finite difference computer modeling and guarded hotbox tests. Some of these walls were designed and tested in the ORNL Building Technology Center, some were tested in other laboratories, and some walls were developed and forgotten long time ago. Also, a novel concept of combined foam-metal studs is considered. The main aim of the present paper is to prove that it is possible to build metal stud walls which perform as well as wood stud walls. The key lies in designing; metal stud wall systems have to be treated in a special way with particular consideration to the high thermal conduction of metal components. In the discussed collection of the efficient metal stud wall configurations, reductions of the in-cavity R-value caused by metal studs are between 10 and 20%.

  13. Vapor wall deposition in Teflon chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Schwantes, R. H.; McVay, R. C.; Lignell, H.; Coggon, M. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2014-10-01

    Teflon chambers are ubiquitous in studies of atmospheric chemistry. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation can be substantially underestimated owing to deposition of SOA-forming compounds to chamber walls. We present here an experimental protocol to constrain the nature of wall deposition of organic vapors in Teflon chambers. We measured the wall deposition rates of 25 oxidized organic compounds generated from the photooxidation of isoprene, toluene, α-pinene, and dodecane in two chambers that had been extensively used and in two new unused chambers. We found that the extent of prior use of the chamber did not significantly affect the sorption behavior of the Teflon films. The dominant parameter governing the extent of wall deposition of a compound is its wall accommodation coefficient (αw,i), which can be correlated through its volatility (Ci*) with the number of carbons (nC) and oxygens (nO) in the molecule. Among the 25 compounds studied, the maximum wall deposition rate is approached by the most highly oxygenated and least volatile compounds. The extent to which vapor wall deposition impacts measured SOA yields depends on the competition between uptake of organic vapors by suspended particles and chamber walls. Gas-particle equilibrium partitioning is established relatively rapidly in the presence of perfect accommodation of organic vapors onto particles or when a sufficiently large concentration of suspended particles is present. The timescale associated with vapor wall deposition can vary from minutes to hours depending on the value of αw,i. For volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (small αw,i), gas-particle partitioning will be dominant for typical particle number concentrations in chamber experiments. For large αw,i, vapor transport to particles is suppressed by competition with the chamber walls even with perfect particle accommodation.

  14. Final Report for "Stabilization of resistive wall modes using moving metal walls"

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, Cary B.

    2014-02-05

    The UW experiment used a linear pinch experiment to study the stabilization of MHD by moving metal walls. The methodology of the experiment had three steps. (1) Identify and understand the no-wall MHD instability limits and character, (2) identify and understand the thin-wall MHD instabilities (re- sistive wall mode), and then (3) add the spinning wall and understand its impact on stability properties. During the duration of the grant we accomplished all 3 of these goals, discovered new physics, and completed the experiment as proposed.

  15. Imaging of Wall Motion Coupled with Blood Flow Velocity in the Hearts and Vessels in vivo: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jianwen; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical property and geometry changes as a result of disease affect both the wall motion and blood flow, while the latter two are also coupled and therefore continuously influence one another. Simultaneous and registered imaging of both cardiovascular wall motion and blood velocity may thus contribute to more complete computational models of cardiovascular mechanical and fluid dynamics as well as provide additional diagnostic information. The objective of this paper is to determine the feasibility of imaging cardiovascular wall motion coupled with blood flow in vivo. Normal (n=6) and infarcted (n=5) murine left ventricles, and normal (n=5) and aneurysmal (n=4) murine abdominal aortas, were imaged in longitudinal views with a 30-MHz ultrasound probe. Using electrocardiogram (ECG) gating, two-dimensional (2-D) radio-frequency (RF) data were acquired at a frame rate of 8 kHz. The axial wall velocity and blood velocity were estimated using a speckle tracking technique. Spatially and temporally registered imaging of both cardiovascular wall motion and blood flow was shown feasible. Reduced wall motion was detected in the infarcted region, while vortex flow patterns were imaged in diastolic phases of both normal and infarcted left ventricles. The myocardial wall motion and blood flow were found be to more synchronized in the normal heart, where the blood moves towards the anteroseptal wall after the mitral valve opens (i.e., rapid filling phase), and the anteroseptal wall simultaneously undergoes outward motion. In the infarcted heart, however, in the rapid filling phase the basal anteroseptal wall starts moving, about 20 ms before the mitral valve opens and the blood enters the left ventricle. In the normal aorta, the wall motion and blood velocity were uniform and synchronized. In the aneurysmal aorta, reduced and spatially varied wall motion and vortex flow patterns in the aneurysmal sac were found. The wall motion and blood velocity were thus less synchronized

  16. Flow Characteristics of Plane Wall Jet with Side Walls on Both Sides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imao, Shigeki; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Kozato, Yasuaki; Hayashi, Takayasu

    Flow characteristics of a two-dimensional jet with side walls have been studied experimentally. Three kinds of cylindrical walls and a flat wall were provided as the side walls, and they were combined and attached to a nozzle. Nine types of side wall conditions were investigated. Velocity was measured by a hot-wire probe and the separation point was measured by a Pitot tube. Mean velocity profiles, the growth of the jet half-width, the decay of jet maximum velocity, and the attachment distance were clarified. When cylindrical walls with different radii are installed, the flow pattern changes markedly depending on the velocity of the jet. A striking increase in the jet half-width is related to the separation of flow from the smaller cylindrical wall just behind the nozzle.

  17. Cell wall of Fusarium sulphureum; I. Chemical composition of the hyphal wall.

    PubMed

    Barran, L R; Schneider, E F; Wood, P J; Madhosingh, C; Miller, R W

    1975-05-01

    The hyphae wall of Fusarium sulphureum Schlect. (Isolate 1) was isolated and purified. Electron microscopy studies showed that the isolated cell wall consisted of two distinct layers, an outer electron dense layer and a broader electron transparent inner layer. Chemical analysis revealed that the cell wall contained 66% carbohydrate, 7.3% protein, 5.5% lipid and 1.8% ash. The major cell wall component N-acetylglucosamine (39%) was shown by X-ray diffraction analysis to be present as chitin. Glucose constituted 14% of the cell wall, while mannose, galactose, and glucuronic acid, accounted for 15% of the cell wall. Glucuronic acid appears to be predominantly linked to galactose in the intact wall.

  18. 18. BATHROOM INTERIOR SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO SOUTH BEDROOM AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. BATHROOM INTERIOR SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO SOUTH BEDROOM AT PHOTO CENTER, TOILET AT EXTREME PHOTO RIGHT BOTTOM, OPEN DOOR TO MEDICINE CABINET AT PHOTO RIGHT. A WALLPAPER WAINSCOT COVERS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE ORIGINAL FIBERBOARD WALL COVERING. THE FLOOR IS LINOLEUM. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  19. Consistently inconsistent, the posterior vaginal wall.

    PubMed

    Hale, Douglass S; Fenner, Dee

    2016-03-01

    Posterior vaginal wall prolapse is one of the most common prolapses encountered by gynecological surgeons. What appears to be a straightforward condition to diagnose and treat surgically for physicians has proven to be frustratingly unpredictable with regard to symptom relief for patients. Functional disorders such as dyssynergic defecation and constipation are often attributed to posterior vaginal wall prolapse. Little scientific evidence supports this assumption, emphasizing that structure and function are not synonymous when treating posterior vaginal wall prolapse. Rectoceles, enteroceles, sigmoidoceles, peritoneoceles, rectal and intraanal intussusception, rectal prolapse, and descending perineal syndrome are all conditions that have an impact on the posterior vaginal wall. All too often these different anatomic conditions are treated with the same surgical approach, addressing a posterior vaginal wall bulge with a traditional posterior colporrhaphy. Studies that examine the correlation between stage of posterior wall prolapse and patient symptoms have failed to reliably do so. Surgical outcomes measured by prolapse staging appear successful, yet patient expectations are often not met. As increasing attention is being placed on patient satisfaction outcomes concerning surgical treatments, this fact will need to be addressed. Surgeons will have to clearly communicate what can and what cannot be expected with surgical repair of posterior vaginal wall prolapse.

  20. Dynamic response of cantilever retaining walls

    SciTech Connect

    Veletsos, A.S.; Younan, A.H.; Bandyopadhyay, K.

    1996-10-01

    A critical evaluation is made of the response to horizontal ground shaking of flexible cantilever retaining walls that are elastically constrained against rotation at their base. The retained medium is idealized as a uniform, linear, viscoelastic stratum of constant thickness and semi-infinite extent in the horizontal direction. The parameters varied include the flexibilities of the wall and its base, the properties of the retained medium, and the characteristics of the ground motion. In addition to long-period, effectively static excitations, both harmonic base motions and an actual earthquake record are considered. The response quantities examined include the displacements of the wall relative to the moving base, the wall pressures, and the associated shears and bending moments. The method of analysis employed is described only briefly, emphasis being placed on the presentation and interpretation of the comprehensive numerical solutions. It is shown that, for realistic wall flexibilities, the maximum wall forces are significantly lower than those obtained for fixed-based rigid walls and potentially of the same order of magnitude as those computed by the Mononobe-Okabe method.

  1. Domain Wall structures in wide permalloy strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estevez, Virginia; Laurson, Lasse

    2015-03-01

    We analyze numerically the equilibrium micromagnetic domain wall structures encountered in Permalloy strips of a wide range of thicknesses and widths, with strip widths up to several micrometers. By performing an extensive set of micromagnetic simulations, we show that the equilibrium phase diagram of the domain wall structures exhibits in addition to the previously found structures (symmetric and asymmetric transverse wall and vortex wall) also a double-vortex domain wall for large enough strip widths and thicknesses. In general, shape anisotropy is less important for wider strips, and thus energy minima with more complex spin structures closing the flux more efficiently than those found before for narrow strips may appear. Also several metastable domain wall structures are found, such as structures with three or four vortices or two vortices and an antivortex. We discuss the details of the relaxation process, including the effect of varying the magnitude of the Gilbert damping constant, and the role of using different initial conditions. Finally, we also consider the field-driven dynamics of the double-vortex domain wall.

  2. Rotary press utilizing a flexible die wall.

    PubMed

    Amidon, G E; Smith, D P; Hiestand, E N

    1981-06-01

    A die with a flexible wall was constructed and evaluated on a specially modified instrumented rotary tablet press. The design permits an inward deflection of the die wall by a side punch, which rolls past a side compression roll during compression-decompression. The side compression roll is instrumented to monitor the applied side compression roll forces. On decompression, return of the die wall to its original position permits release of residual die wall pressure. The decreased residual die wall pressure can decrease fracture and capping of tablets for problem formulations. The performance was tested on three experimental formulations. For these formulations, tablets made in a conventional die exhibited severe capping problems. However, most tablets compressed in the special die were superior. With proper adjustment of punch and die wall compression forces, excellent tablets could be manufactured. The merits of the special die and modified tablet machine are substantiated, although this initial design did not provide adequate die wall pressure for all formulations. Further engineering efforts could result in practical production equipment.

  3. Polyphosphorylated fungal cell wall glycopeptides

    SciTech Connect

    Bonetti, S.J.; Black, B.; Gander, J.E.

    1987-05-01

    Penicillium charlesii secretes a 65 kDa peptidophosphogalactomannan (pPGM) containing 10 phosphodiester residues and 10 galactofuranosyl-containing galactin chains attached to a linear mannan; the polysaccharides is attached to a 3 kDa seryl- and threonyl-rich peptide. The authors have now isolated and partially characterized a form of pPGM released from mycelia of P. charlesii treated at 50/sup 0/C for 15, 30, 60 or 120 min. Two- to 3-fold more pPGM was released by heat treatment than is secreted. Crude pPGM, released by heat, was fractionated on DE-52 and was fractionated into two major fractions on the basis of its difference in negative charge. /sup 1/H-decoupled /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy of these two fractions provided spectra very similar to that of secreted pPGM previously reported from this laboratory. /sup 1/H-decoupled /sup 31/P NMR showed major signals at 1.47, and 0.22 ppm and minor signals at 1.32, 1.15, 1.00, 0.91 and 0.76 ppm. These signals are upfield from phosphomonoesters and are in the region observed for (6-O-phosphorylcholine)- and (6-O-phosphorylethanolamine)-..cap alpha..-D-mannopyranosyl residues which are 0.22 and 0.90 ppm, respectively. These polymers contain 30 phosphodiester residues per molecule of 70 kDa mass compared with 10 phosphodiesters in secreted pPGM. Acid phosphatase and alkaline protease were the only lytic enzymes released by heat treatment. The evidence suggests that much of the pPGM is derived from cell walls; and that the polysaccharide is highly phosphorylated.

  4. Low-cost sustainable wall construction system

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1998-07-01

    Houses with no wall cavities, such as those made of adobe, stone, brick, or block, have poor thermal properties but are rarely insulated because of the cost and difficulty of providing wall insulation. A simple, low-cost technique using loose-fill indigenous materials has been demonstrated for the construction of highly insulated walls or the retrofit of existing walls in such buildings. Locally available pumice, in sandbags stacked along the exterior wall of an adobe house in New Mexico, added a thermal resistance (R) of 16 F{sm{underscore}bullet}ft{sup 2}{sm{underscore}bullet}h/Btu (2.8 m{sup 2}{sm{underscore}bullet}K/W). The total cost of the sandbag insulation wall retrofit was $3.76 per square foot ($40.50/m{sup 2}). Computer simulations of the adobe house using DOE 2.1E show savings of $275 per year, corresponding to 50% reduction in heating energy consumption. The savings-to-investment ratio ranges from 1.1 to 3.2, so the cost of conserved energy is lower than the price of propane, natural gas and electric heat, making the system cost-effective. Prototype stand-alone walls were also constructed using fly ash and sawdust blown into continuous polypropylene tubing, which was folded between corner posts as it was filled to form the shape of the wall. Other materials could also be used. The inexpensive technique solves the problem of insulating solid-wall hours and constructing new houses without specialized equipment and skills, thereby saving energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving comfort for people in many countries. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has filed patent applications on this technology, which is part of a DOE initiative on sustainable building envelope materials and systems.

  5. Openness initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  6. Refractive index of plant cell walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Allen, W. A.; Escobar, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Air was replaced with media of higher refractive indices by vacuum infiltration in leaves of cucumber, blackeye pea, tomato, and string bean plants, and reflectance of noninfiltrated and infiltrated leaves was spectrophotometrically measured. Infiltrated leaves reflected less light than noninfiltrated leaves over the 500-2500-nm wavelength interval because cell wall-air interfaces were partly eliminated. Minimal reflectance should occur when the average refractive index of plant cell walls was matched by the infiltrating fluid. Although refractive indices that resulted in minimal reflectance differed among the four plant genera, an average value of 1.425 approximates the refractive index of plant cell walls for the four plant genera.

  7. Heterogeneity of Left Ventricular Wall Thickening Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Allen; Nguyen, Tom C.; Malinowski, Marcin; Daughters, George T.; Miller, D. Craig; Ingels, Neil B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Myocardial fibers are grouped into lamina (or sheets) 3-4 cells thick. Fiber shortening produces systolic LV wall thickening primarily by laminar extension, thickening and shear, but the regional variability and transmural distribution of these three mechanisms are incompletely understood. Methods and Results: Nine sheep had transmural radiopaque markers inserted into the anterior basal and lateral equatorial LV. 4D marker dynamics were studied with biplane videofluoroscopy to measure circumferential, longitudinal, and radial systolic strains in the epicardium, midwall, and endocardium. Fiber and sheet angles from quantitative histology allowed transformation of these strains into transmural contributions of sheet extension, thickening, and shear to systolic wall thickening. At all depths, systolic wall thickening in the anterior basal region was 1.6-1.9 times that in the lateral equatorial region. Interestingly, however, systolic fiber shortening was identical at each transmural depth in these regions. Endocardial anterior basal sheet thickening were >2x greater than in the lateral equatorial region (epicardium: 0.16±0.15 vs. 0.03±0.06; endocardium: 0.45±0.40 vs. 0.17±0.09). Midwall sheet extension was >2x that in the lateral wall (0.22±0.12 vs. 0.09±0.06). Epicardial and midwall sheet shears in the anterior wall were ∼2x higher than in the lateral wall (epicardium: 0.14±0.07 vs. 0.05±0.03; midwall: 0.21±0.12 vs. 0.12±0.06). Conclusions: These data demonstrate fundamentally different regional contributions of laminar mechanisms for amplifying fiber shortening to systolic wall thickening. Systolic fiber shortening was identical at each transmural depth in both the anterior and lateral LV sites. However, systolic wall thickening of the anterior site was much greater than that of the lateral site. Fiber shortening drives systolic wall thickening, but sheet dynamics and orientations are of great importance to systolic wall thickening. LV wall

  8. Cellular schwannoma arising from the gastric wall misdiagnosed as a gastric stromal tumor: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, GUANGYAO; CHEN, PING; ZONG, LIANG; SHI, LEI; ZHAO, WEI

    2014-01-01

    Cellular schwannomas have been previously described at almost every anatomic location of the human body, but reports in the gastric wall are rare. The current study presents a rare case of cellular schwannoma originating from the gastric wall. Computed tomography revealed a 5.6×5.3×4.0-cm3 solid mass located in the posterior wall of the stomach. Open laparotomy confirmed its mesenchymal origin. Microscopically, the tissue was composed of spindle-shaped and fascicularly-arranged cells, but mitotic figures were rare. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the tumor was negative for cluster of differentiation (CD)117, CD34, smooth muscle actin and desmin, but positive for S-100 and Ki67. The patient presented no evidence of recurrence and metastasis during follow-up. Gastric cellular schwannomas may be diagnosed by clinical characteristics, histological observations and immunohistochemical markers. PMID:24396458

  9. Room temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanotubes with high precision wall thickness by electroless deposition.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Mario; Ionescu, Emanuel; Fu, Ganhua; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Conductive nanotubes consisting of indium tin oxide (ITO) were fabricated by electroless deposition using ion track etched polycarbonate templates. To produce nanotubes (NTs) with thin walls and small surface roughness, the tubes were generated by a multi-step procedure under aqueous conditions. The approach reported below yields open end nanotubes with well defined outer diameter and wall thickness. In the past, zinc oxide films were mostly preferred and were synthesized using electroless deposition based on aqueous solutions. All these methods previously developed, are not adaptable in the case of ITO nanotubes, even with modifications. In the present work, therefore, we investigated the necessary conditions for the growth of ITO-NTs to achieve a wall thickness of around 10 nm. In addition, the effects of pH and reductive concentrations for the formation of ITO-NTs are also discussed.

  10. Wall Boundary Layer Measurements for the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieseman, Carol D.; Bennett, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of the boundary layer parameters in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics tunnel were conducted during extensive calibration activities following the facility conversion from a Freon-12 heavy-gas test medium to R-134a. Boundary-layer rakes were mounted on the wind-tunnel walls, ceiling, and floor. Measurements were made over the range of tunnel operation envelope in both heavy gas and air and without a model in the test section at three tunnel stations. Configuration variables included open and closed east sidewall wall slots, for air and R134a test media, reentry flap settings, and stagnation pressures over the full range of tunnel operation. The boundary layer thickness varied considerably for the six rakes. The thickness for the east wall was considerably larger that the other rakes and was also larger than previously reported. There generally was some reduction in thickness at supersonic Mach numbers, but the effect of stagnation pressure, and test medium were not extensive.

  11. Domain wall pinning in FeCoCu bamboo-like nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berganza, Eider; Bran, Cristina; Jaafar, Miriam; Vázquez, Manuel; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-07-01

    The three dimensional nature of cylindrical magnetic nanowires has opened a new way to control the domain configuration as well as the magnetization reversal process. The pinning effect of the periodic diameter modulations on the domain wall propagation in FeCoCu individual nanowires is determined by Magnetic Force Microscopy, MFM. A main bistable magnetic configuration is firstly concluded from MFM images characterized by the spin reversal between two nearly single domain states with opposite axial magnetization. Complementary micromagnetic simulations confirm a vortex mediated magnetization reversal process. A non-standard variable field MFM imaging procedure allows us to observe metastable magnetic states where the propagating domain wall is pinned at certain positions with enlarged diameter. Moreover, it is demonstrated that it is possible to control the position of the pinned domain walls by an external magnetic field.

  12. Domain wall pinning in FeCoCu bamboo-like nanowires.

    PubMed

    Berganza, Eider; Bran, Cristina; Jaafar, Miriam; Vázquez, Manuel; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-01-01

    The three dimensional nature of cylindrical magnetic nanowires has opened a new way to control the domain configuration as well as the magnetization reversal process. The pinning effect of the periodic diameter modulations on the domain wall propagation in FeCoCu individual nanowires is determined by Magnetic Force Microscopy, MFM. A main bistable magnetic configuration is firstly concluded from MFM images characterized by the spin reversal between two nearly single domain states with opposite axial magnetization. Complementary micromagnetic simulations confirm a vortex mediated magnetization reversal process. A non-standard variable field MFM imaging procedure allows us to observe metastable magnetic states where the propagating domain wall is pinned at certain positions with enlarged diameter. Moreover, it is demonstrated that it is possible to control the position of the pinned domain walls by an external magnetic field. PMID:27406891

  13. Imaging and characterization of conducting ferroelectric domain walls by photoemission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Schaab, J.; Meier, D.; Krug, I. P.; Nickel, F.; Gottlob, D. M.; Doğanay, H.; Schneider, C. M.; Cano, A.; Hentschel, M.; Yan, Z.; Bourret, E.; Ramesh, R.

    2014-06-09

    High-resolution X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM) is a well-established method for imaging ferroelectric domain structures. Here, we expand the scope of application of X-PEEM and demonstrate its capability for imaging and investigating domain walls in ferroelectrics with high spatial resolution. Using ErMnO{sub 3} as test system, we show that ferroelectric domain walls can be visualized based on photo-induced charging effects and local variations in their electronic conductance can be mapped by analyzing the energy distribution of photoelectrons. Our results open the door for non-destructive, contact-free, and element-specific studies of the electronic and chemical structure at domain walls in ferroelectrics.

  14. Domain wall pinning in FeCoCu bamboo-like nanowires.

    PubMed

    Berganza, Eider; Bran, Cristina; Jaafar, Miriam; Vázquez, Manuel; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-07-11

    The three dimensional nature of cylindrical magnetic nanowires has opened a new way to control the domain configuration as well as the magnetization reversal process. The pinning effect of the periodic diameter modulations on the domain wall propagation in FeCoCu individual nanowires is determined by Magnetic Force Microscopy, MFM. A main bistable magnetic configuration is firstly concluded from MFM images characterized by the spin reversal between two nearly single domain states with opposite axial magnetization. Complementary micromagnetic simulations confirm a vortex mediated magnetization reversal process. A non-standard variable field MFM imaging procedure allows us to observe metastable magnetic states where the propagating domain wall is pinned at certain positions with enlarged diameter. Moreover, it is demonstrated that it is possible to control the position of the pinned domain walls by an external magnetic field.

  15. Domain wall pinning in FeCoCu bamboo-like nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Berganza, Eider; Bran, Cristina; Jaafar, Miriam; Vázquez, Manuel; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-01-01

    The three dimensional nature of cylindrical magnetic nanowires has opened a new way to control the domain configuration as well as the magnetization reversal process. The pinning effect of the periodic diameter modulations on the domain wall propagation in FeCoCu individual nanowires is determined by Magnetic Force Microscopy, MFM. A main bistable magnetic configuration is firstly concluded from MFM images characterized by the spin reversal between two nearly single domain states with opposite axial magnetization. Complementary micromagnetic simulations confirm a vortex mediated magnetization reversal process. A non-standard variable field MFM imaging procedure allows us to observe metastable magnetic states where the propagating domain wall is pinned at certain positions with enlarged diameter. Moreover, it is demonstrated that it is possible to control the position of the pinned domain walls by an external magnetic field. PMID:27406891

  16. Two-Dimensional Covalent Organic Frameworks for Carbon Dioxide Capture through Channel-Wall Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ning; Chen, Xiong; Krishna, Rajamani; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-01-01

    Ordered open channels found in two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (2D COFs) could enable them to adsorb carbon dioxide. However, the frameworks’ dense layer architecture results in low porosity that has thus far restricted their potential for carbon dioxide adsorption. Here we report a strategy for converting a conventional 2D COF into an outstanding platform for carbon dioxide capture through channel-wall functionalization. The dense layer structure enables the dense integration of functional groups on the channel walls, creating a new version of COFs with high capacity, reusability, selectivity, and separation productivity for flue gas. These results suggest that channel-wall functional engineering could be a facile and powerful strategy to develop 2D COFs for high-performance gas storage and separation. PMID:25613010

  17. 8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT THAT SHOWS THE TRENCHING AND 1960 PIPELINE CORRIDOR BETWEEN THE WALL SEGMENTS, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  18. 15. MASONRY DETAIL NO. 1, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MASONRY DETAIL NO. 1, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING DOWN UPON THE WALL SURFACE FROM THE ADJACENT RIPRAP. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. 26. NORTH TRAINING WALL, CLOSE UP VIEW OF EAST SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. NORTH TRAINING WALL, CLOSE UP VIEW OF EAST SECTION SIDE WALL, LOW TIDE. (Panoramic view 2 of 2). - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. 14. INTERIOR VIEW OF FIREPLACE AND SURROUNDING WALL IN FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR VIEW OF FIREPLACE AND SURROUNDING WALL IN FIRST FLOOR, NORTHWEST PARLOR, NORTH WALL, WITH SCALE (NOTE WALL STENCILING) - George W. Eckhart House, 810 Main Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  1. Wall shear stress manifolds and near wall flow topology in aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Gambaruto, Alberto M.; Chen, Guoning; Shadden, Shawn C.

    2015-11-01

    Transport of atherogenic and thrombogenic chemicals near the vessel wall highly influences atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The high Schmidt number of these species leads to a thin concentration boundary layer near the wall. The wall shear stress (WSS) vector field can be scaled to obtain the near wall velocity in this region, thus providing first order approximation to near wall transport. In this study, the complex blood flow in patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms was considered. Lagrangian tracking of surface-bound tracers representing near wall species was employed to identify Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) for the WSS surface vector field. The WSS LCS matched the stable and unstable manifolds of saddle type fixed points of the time-average WSS vector field, due to the quasi-steady nature of these near wall transport processes. A WSS exposure time measure is introduced to quantify the concentration of near wall species. The effect of diffusion and normal flow on these structures is investigated. The WSS LCS highly influence the concentration of near wall species, and provide a template for near-wall transport.

  2. Combined Visualization of Wall Thickness and Wall Shear Stress for the Evaluation of Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Glaßer, Sylvia; Lawonn, Kai; Hoffmann, Thomas; Skalej, Martin; Preim, Bernhard

    2014-12-01

    For an individual rupture risk assessment of aneurysms, the aneurysm's wall morphology and hemodynamics provide valuable information. Hemodynamic information is usually extracted via computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation on a previously extracted 3D aneurysm surface mesh or directly measured with 4D phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. In contrast, a noninvasive imaging technique that depicts the aneurysm wall in vivo is still not available. Our approach comprises an experiment, where intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is employed to probe a dissected saccular aneurysm phantom, which we modeled from a porcine kidney artery. Then, we extracted a 3D surface mesh to gain the vessel wall thickness and hemodynamic information from a CFD simulation. Building on this, we developed a framework that depicts the inner and outer aneurysm wall with dedicated information about local thickness via distance ribbons. For both walls, a shading is adapted such that the inner wall as well as its distance to the outer wall is always perceivable. The exploration of the wall is further improved by combining it with hemodynamic information from the CFD simulation. Hence, the visual analysis comprises a brushing and linking concept for individual highlighting of pathologic areas. Also, a surface clustering is integrated to provide an automatic division of different aneurysm parts combined with a risk score depending on wall thickness and hemodynamic information. In general, our approach can be employed for vessel visualization purposes where an inner and outer wall has to be adequately represented. PMID:26356964

  3. Evaluation of wall boundary condition parameters for gas-solids fluidized bed simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen; Benyahia, Sofiane

    2013-10-01

    Wall boundary conditions for the solids phase have significant effects on numerical predictions of various gas-solids fluidized beds. Several models for the granular flow wall boundary condition are available in the open literature for numerical modeling of gas-solids flow. In this study, a model for specularity coefficient used in Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions by Li and Benyahia (AIChE Journal, 2012, 58, 2058-2068) is implemented in the open-source CFD code-MFIX. The variable specularity coefficient model provides a physical way to calculate the specularity coefficient needed by the partial-slip boundary conditions for the solids phase. Through a series of 2-D numerical simulations of bubbling fluidized bed and circulating fluidized bed riser, the model predicts qualitatively consistent trends to the previous studies. Furthermore, a quantitative comparison is conducted between numerical results of variable and constant specularity coefficients to investigate the effect of spatial and temporal variations in specularity coefficient.

  4. Parametric amplification in single-walled carbon nanotube nanoelectromechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chung-Chiang; Zhong, Zhaohui

    2011-08-01

    The low quality factor (Q) of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) resonators has limited their sensitivity in sensing application. To this end, we employ the technique of parametric amplification by modulating the spring constant of SWNT resonators at twice the resonant frequency and achieve 10 times Q enhancement. The highest Q obtained at room temperature is around ˜700, which is 3-4 times better than previous Q record reported for doubly clamped SWNT resonators. Furthermore, efficient parametric amplification is found to only occur in the catenary vibration regime. Our results open up the possibility to employ light-weight and high-Q carbon nanotube resonators in single molecule and atomic mass sensing.

  5. Modeling of thin, back-wall silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    The performance of silicon solar cells with p-n junctions on the nonilluminated surface (i.e., upside-down or back-wall cells) was calculated. These structures consisted of a uniformly shaped p-type substrate layer, a p(+)-type field layer on the front (illuminated) surface, and a shallow, n-type junction on the back (nonilluminated) surface. A four-layer solar cell model was used to calculate efficiency, open-circuit voltage, and short-circuit current. The effect on performance of p-layer thickness and resistivity was determined. The diffusion length was varied to simulate the effect of radiation damage. The results show that peak initial efficiencies greater than 15 percent are possible for cell thicknesses or 100 micrometers or less. After 10 years of radiation damage in geosynchronous orbit, thin (25 to 50 micrometers thick) cells made from 10 to 100 ohm cm material show the smallest decrease (approximately 10 percent) in performance.

  6. Single Wall Carbon Nanotube-polymer Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Landi, Brian J.; Gennett, Thomas; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer solar cells has been conducted towards developing alternative lightweight, flexible devices for space power applications. Photovoltaic devices were constructed with regioregular poly(3-octylthiophene)-(P3OT) and purified, >95% w/w, laser-generated SWNTs. The P3OT composites were deposited on ITO-coated polyethylene terapthalate (PET) and I-V characterization was performed under simulated AM0 illumination. Fabricated devices for the 1.0% w/w SWNT-P3OT composites showed a photoresponse with an open-circuit voltage (V(sub oc)) of 0.98 V and a short-circuit current density (I(sub sc)) of 0.12 mA/sq cm. Optimization of carrier transport within these novel photovoltaic systems is proposed, specifically development of nanostructure-SWNT complexes to enhance exciton dissociation.

  7. Shaping single walled nanotubes with an electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Zobelli, A.; Gloter, A.; Colliex, C.; Ewels, C. P.

    2008-01-15

    We show that electron irradiation in a dedicated scanning transmission microscope can be used as a nano-electron-lithography technique allowing the controlled reshaping of single walled carbon and boron nitride nanotubes. The required irradiation conditions have been optimized on the basis of total knock-on cross sections calculated within density functional based methods. It is then possible to induce morphological modifications, such as a local change of the tube chirality, by sequentially removing several tens of atoms with a nanometrical spatial resolution. We show that electron beam heating effects are limited. Thus, electron beam induced vacancy migration and nucleation might be excluded. These irradiation techniques could open new opportunities for nanoengineering a large variety of nanostructured materials.

  8. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  9. One of the larger open spaces on the third floor. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    One of the larger open spaces on the third floor. This space was used most often for drafting work and for general experimentation. Physical evidence on the ceiling indicates existence of partition walls for smaller rooms, but no photographic or documentary evidence has surfaced to verify this. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  10. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS, SHOWING CA. 1960 OPEN STORAGE STRUCTURE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS, SHOWING CA. 1960 OPEN STORAGE STRUCTURE, BRICK-WALLED NORTH PART, AND CORRUGATED-STEEL SOUTH PART, CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST. - New Haven Rail Yard, Work Equipment Shop, Vicinity of Cedar & Lamberton Streets, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  11. 3. DETAIL OF NORTHEAST CORNER; OPENING AT TOP WAS INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF NORTHEAST CORNER; OPENING AT TOP WAS INTAKE FOR CATTLE; CANTILEVERED HOG RUN (BUILDING 147) OBSCURES A PORTION OF THE BEEF KILL'S ORIGINAL GLASS BLOCK WALLS - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  12. 16. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 3 (1965 ADDITION). OPEN DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 3 (1965 ADDITION). OPEN DOOR LEADS TO BEDROOM NO. 2. WALLS AND CEILING IN THIS ROOM DO NOT HAVE THE DECORATIVE WOOD STRIPPING FOUND IN THE ORIGINAL PORTIONS OF THE HOUSE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  13. Transesophageal echocardiography in the postoperative child with an open sternum.

    PubMed

    Marcus, B; Wong, P C; Wells, W J; Lindesmith, G G; Starnes, V A

    1994-07-01

    We report the use of transesophageal echocardiography in 3 children whose sternums remained open for several days postoperatively. In these patients transesophageal echocardiography provided critical information when transthoracic echocardiography was ineffective due to limited acoustic windows. This report points out the application of transesophageal echocardiography in children with chest wall distortion. PMID:8037535

  14. 17. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING ONE OF THE OPENINGS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING ONE OF THE OPENINGS IN THE SECOND FLOOR EAST WALL THROUGH WHICH A CONVEYOR ONCE PASSED FOR MOVING BODY PANELS TO AND FROM THE SECOND FLOOR. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  15. 18. VIEW TO EAST, DETAIL OF OPENING THROUGH THE SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW TO EAST, DETAIL OF OPENING THROUGH THE SECOND FLOOR EAST WALL SHOWING CONVEYOR FOR MOVING MATERIAL TO THE SECOND FLOOR. (NOTE: THIS IS NOT AN ORIGINAL CONVEYOR FOR MOVING BODY PARTS). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  16. 10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE AT PHOTO CENTER, AND SECOND 6 LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  17. 15. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO VESTIBULE AT PHOTO RIGHT, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW THROUGH SOUTH WALL AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  18. 9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE AT PHOTO RIGHT, 6-LIGHT OVER 1 LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER. FIREPLACE ORIGINALLY OCCUPIED SPACE UNDER ROUND HEATER VENT HOLE AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  19. 14. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOORS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOORS TO WALK-IN CLOSETS, AND 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON NORTH WALL. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  20. View looking south out the door opening from the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south out the door opening from the south side of the rotunda extension onto the "dog house" or vestibule positioned where the west Verandah of the south wing turns ninety degrees and continues along the south wall of the central pavilion. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA