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Sample records for open bps wall

  1. BPS domain walls in {N}=4 supergravity and dual flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassani, Davide; Dall'Agata, Gianguido; Faedo, Anton F.

    2013-03-01

    We establish the conditions for supersymmetric domain wall solutions to {N}=4 gauged supergravity in five dimensions. These read as BPS first-order equations for the warp factor and the scalar fields, driven by a superpotential and supplemented by a set of constraints that we specify in detail. Then we apply our results to certain consistent truncations of IIB supergravity, thus exploring their dual field theory renormalization group flows. We find a universal flow deforming superconformal theories on D3-branes at Calabi-Yau cones. Moreover, we obtain a superpotential for the solution corresponding to the baryonic branch of the Klebanov-Strassler theory, as well as the superpotential for the flow describing D3 and wrapped D5-branes on the resolved conifold.

  2. Domain Walls, near-BPS Bubbles and Probabilities in the Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Ceresole, Anna; Dall'Agata, Gianguido; Giryavets, Alexander; Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2006-06-27

    We develop a theory of static BPS domain walls in stringy landscape and present a large family of BPS walls interpolating between different supersymmetric vacua. Examples include KKLT models, STU models, type IIB multiple flux vacua, and models with several Minkowski and AdS vacua. After the uplifting, some of the vacua become dS, whereas some others remain AdS. The near-BPS walls separating these vacua may be seen as bubble walls in the theory of vacuum decay. As an outcome of our investigation of the BPS walls, we found that the decay rate of dS vacua to a collapsing space with a negative vacuum energy can be quite large. The parts of space that experience a decay to a collapsing space, or to a Minkowski vacuum, never return back to dS space. The channels of irreversible vacuum decay serve as sinks for the probability flow. The existence of such sinks is a distinguishing feature of the landscape. We show that it strongly affects the probability distributions in string cosmology.

  3. Exact BPS domain walls at finite gauge coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, Filip

    2017-01-01

    Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield solitons in models with spontaneously broken gauge symmetry have been intensively studied at the infinite gauge coupling limit, where the governing equation-the so-called master equation-is exactly solvable. Except for a handful of special solutions, the standing impression is that analytic results at finite coupling are generally unavailable. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate, using domain walls in Abelian-Higgs models as the simplest example, that exact solitons at finite gauge coupling can be readily obtained if the number of Higgs fields (N) is large enough. In particular, we present a family of exact solutions, describing N domain walls at arbitrary positions in models with at least N≥2N+1. We have also found that adding together any pair of solutions can produce a new exact solution if the combined tension is below a certain limit.

  4. BPS States, Crystals, and Matrices

    DOE PAGES

    Sułkowski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We review free fermion, melting crystal, and matrix model representations of wall-crossing phenomena on local, toric Calabi-Yau manifolds. We consider both unrefined and refined BPS counting of closed BPS states involving D2- and D0-branes bound to a D6-brane, as well as open BPS states involving open D2-branes ending on an additional D4-brane. Appropriate limit of these constructions provides, among the others, matrix model representation of refined and unrefined topological string amplitudes.

  5. The structure of BPS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, Pietro

    In this thesis we develop and apply novel techniques for analyzing BPS spectra of supersymmetric quantum field theories of class S. By a combination of wall-crossing, spectral networks and quiver methods we explore the BPS spectra of higher rank four-dimensional N = 2 super Yang-Mills, uncovering surprising new phenomena. Focusing on the SU(3) case, we prove the existence of wild BPS spectra in field theory, featuring BPS states of higher spin whose degeneracies grow exponentially with the energy. The occurrence of wild BPS states is surprising because it appears to be in tension with physical expectations on the behavior of the entropy as a function of the energy scale. The solution to this puzzle comes from realizing that the size of wild BPS states grows rapidly with their mass, and carefully analyzing the volume-dependence of the entropy of BPS states. We also find some interesting structures underlying wild BPS spectra, such as a Regge-like relation between the maximal spin of a BPS multiplet and the square of its mass, and the existence of a universal asymptotic distribution of spin-j irreps within a multiplet of given charge. We also extend the spectral networks construction by introducing a refinement in the topological classification of 2d-4d BPS states, and identifying their spin with a topological invariant known as the "writhe of soliton paths". A careful analysis of the 2d-4d wall-crossing behavior of this refined data reveals that it is described by motivic Kontsevich-Soibelman transformations, controlled by the Protected Spin Character, a protected deformation of the BPS index encoding the spin of BPS states. Our construction opens the way for the systematic study of refined BPS spectra in class S theories. We apply it to several examples, including ones featuring wild BPS spectra, where we find an interesting relation between spectral networks and certain functional equations. For class S theories of A 1 type, we derive an alternative technique for

  6. Liposomal Bladder Instillations for IC/BPS: an Open-Label Clinical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Kenneth M; Hasenau, Deborah; Killinger, Kim A; Chancellor, Michael B; Anthony, Michele; Kaufman, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intravesical instillation of liposomes is a potentially new therapeutic option for subjects with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). The aim of this study was to explore the safety and clinical outcomes of 4 weekly instillations of sphingomyelin liposomes in an open-label cohort of subjects with IC/BPS. Methods A total of fourteen symptomatic IC/BPS subjects were treated with intravesical liposomes once a week for 4 weeks. Safety measurements included lab specimen collection, vital signs, post void residual (PVR), and assessment of adverse events (AEs). Efficacy measurements included pain visual analog scales (VAS), voiding diaries, global response assessments (GRAs), and O'Leary-Sant Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem Indices (ICSI and ICPI). Results No treatment-related adverse events (AE) were reported at any time over the course of the study. Urgency VAS scores significantly decreased at 4 weeks (p=0.0029) and 8 weeks (p=0.0112) post-treatment. Pain VAS scores significantly decreased at 4 weeks post-treatment (p=0.0073). Combined ICSI and ICPI scores improved significantly at 4 weeks and 8 weeks (p=0.002 for both time points) post-treatment. Responses to GRA showed improvement at 4 weeks post- instillation. No significant decrease in urinary frequency was found. Conclusion Sphingomyelin liposome instillations were well tolerated in subjects with IC/BPS with no AEs attributed to the test article. Treatment was associated with improvements in pain, urinary urgency, and overall symptom scores. Placebo controlled clinical trials are needed to assess this potential therapy for IC/BPS. PMID:25209396

  7. BPS states in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriyash, Evgeny

    In this thesis we discuss a number of interesting and important properties of BPS states in string theory. We study wall-crossing behavior of BPS states at large volume limit and implications of it for the OSV conjecture. We find that the weak topological coupling OSV conjecture can be true at most in a special chamber of the Kahler cone. We also clarify an interesting puzzle arising in the description of BPS states on the Higgs branch of supersymmetic quantum mechanics. Using methods of toric geometry we compute Hilbert spaces of BPS states on the compactified Higgs branch and arrive at completely consistent picture of spatial Spin(3) structure of those spaces. We introduce new kinds of walls, called Bound State Transformation(BST) walls, in the moduli space across which the nature of BPS bound states changes but the index remains continuous. These walls are necessary to explain the continuity of BPS index. BPS states can undergo recombination, conjugation or hybrids of the two when crossing a BST wall. Conjugation phenomenon happens near singularities in the moduli space and we relate massless spectra of BPS states at such singularities to monodromies around them. In cases when massless vector BPS particles are present we find new constraints on the spectrum and in particular predict the existence of magnetic monopoles becoming massless at such singularities. We give a simple physical derivation of the Kontsevich-Soibelman wall-crossing formula. Considering galaxy-like configurations of BPS particles with a central supermassive black hole with a number of stellar BPS systems around it we derive a consistency requirement on the partition function of such BPS galaxies. This requirement turns out to be nothing but Kontsevich-Soibelman wall-crossing formula. Our approach gives a generalization of the formula for the case when massless BPS particles are present.

  8. Multi-scalar tachyon potential on non-BPS domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, F. A.; Jesuíno, H. S.

    2010-07-01

    We have considered the multi-scalar and multi-tachyon fields living on a 3d domain wall embedded in a 5d dimensional Minkowski spacetime. The effective action for such a domain wall can be found by integrating out the normal m odes as vibrating modes around the domain wall solution of a truncated 5d supergravity action. The multi-scalar tachyon potential is good enough to modeling assisted inflation scenario with multi-tachyon fields. The tachyon condensation is also briefly addressed.

  9. BpsR Modulates Bordetella Biofilm Formation by Negatively Regulating the Expression of the Bps Polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Conover, Matt S.; Redfern, Crystal J.; Ganguly, Tridib; Sukumar, Neelima; Sloan, Gina; Mishra, Meenu

    2012-01-01

    Bordetella bacteria are Gram-negative respiratory pathogens of animals, birds, and humans. A hallmark feature of some Bordetella species is their ability to efficiently survive in the respiratory tract even after vaccination. Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella pertussis form biofilms on abiotic surfaces and in the mouse respiratory tract. The Bps exopolysaccharide is one of the critical determinants for biofilm formation and the survival of Bordetella in the murine respiratory tract. In order to gain a better understanding of regulation of biofilm formation, we sought to study the mechanism by which Bps expression is controlled in Bordetella. Expression of bpsABCD (bpsA-D) is elevated in biofilms compared with levels in planktonically grown cells. We found that bpsA-D is expressed independently of BvgAS. Subsequently, we identified an open reading frame (ORF), BB1771 (designated here bpsR), that is located upstream of and in the opposite orientation to the bpsA-D locus. BpsR is homologous to the MarR family of transcriptional regulators. Measurement of bpsA and bpsD transcripts and the Bps polysaccharide levels from the wild-type and the ΔbpsR strains suggested that BpsR functions as a repressor. Consistent with enhanced production of Bps, the bpsR mutant displayed considerably more structured biofilms. We mapped the bpsA-D promoter region and showed that purified BpsR protein specifically bound to the bpsA-D promoter. Our results provide mechanistic insights into the regulatory strategy employed by Bordetella for control of the production of the Bps polysaccharide and biofilm formation. PMID:22056934

  10. BpsR modulates Bordetella biofilm formation by negatively regulating the expression of the Bps polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Conover, Matt S; Redfern, Crystal J; Ganguly, Tridib; Sukumar, Neelima; Sloan, Gina; Mishra, Meenu; Deora, Rajendar

    2012-01-01

    Bordetella bacteria are Gram-negative respiratory pathogens of animals, birds, and humans. A hallmark feature of some Bordetella species is their ability to efficiently survive in the respiratory tract even after vaccination. Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella pertussis form biofilms on abiotic surfaces and in the mouse respiratory tract. The Bps exopolysaccharide is one of the critical determinants for biofilm formation and the survival of Bordetella in the murine respiratory tract. In order to gain a better understanding of regulation of biofilm formation, we sought to study the mechanism by which Bps expression is controlled in Bordetella. Expression of bpsABCD (bpsA-D) is elevated in biofilms compared with levels in planktonically grown cells. We found that bpsA-D is expressed independently of BvgAS. Subsequently, we identified an open reading frame (ORF), BB1771 (designated here bpsR), that is located upstream of and in the opposite orientation to the bpsA-D locus. BpsR is homologous to the MarR family of transcriptional regulators. Measurement of bpsA and bpsD transcripts and the Bps polysaccharide levels from the wild-type and the ΔbpsR strains suggested that BpsR functions as a repressor. Consistent with enhanced production of Bps, the bpsR mutant displayed considerably more structured biofilms. We mapped the bpsA-D promoter region and showed that purified BpsR protein specifically bound to the bpsA-D promoter. Our results provide mechanistic insights into the regulatory strategy employed by Bordetella for control of the production of the Bps polysaccharide and biofilm formation.

  11. Semiclassical framed BPS states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory W.; Royston, Andrew B.; Van den Bleeken, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    We provide a semiclassical description of framed BPS states in four-dimensional {N}=2 super Yang-Mills theories probed by 't Hooft defects, in terms of a supersymmetric quantum mechanics on the moduli space of singular monopoles. Framed BPS states, like their ordinary counterparts in the theory without defects, are associated with the L 2 kernel of certain Dirac operators on moduli space, or equivalently with the L 2 cohomology of related Dolbeault operators. The Dirac/Dolbeault operators depend on two Cartan-valued Higgs vevs. We conjecture a map between these vevs and the Seiberg-Witten special coordinates, consistent with a one-loop analysis and checked in examples. The map incorporates all perturbative and nonperturbative corrections that are relevant for the semiclassical construction of BPS states, over a suitably defined weak coupling regime of the Coulomb branch. We use this map to translate wall crossing formulae and the no-exotics theorem to statements about the Dirac/Dolbeault operators. The no-exotics theorem, concerning the absence of nontrivial SU(2) R representations in the BPS spectrum, implies that the kernel of the Dirac operator is chiral, and further translates into a statement that all L 2 cohomology of the Dolbeault operator is concentrated in the middle degree. Wall crossing formulae lead to detailed predictions for where the Dirac operators fail to be Fredholm and how their kernels jump. We explore these predictions in nontrivial examples. This paper explains the background and arguments behind the results announced in the short note [1].

  12. Line defects and (framed) BPS quivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirafici, Michele

    2013-11-01

    The BPS spectrum of certain = 2 supersymmetric field theories can be determined algebraically by studying the representation theory of BPS quivers. We introduce methods based on BPS quivers to study line defects. The presence of a line defect opens up a new BPS sector: framed BPS states can be bound to the defect. The defect can be geometrically described in terms of laminations on a curve. To a lamination we associate certain elements of the Leavitt path algebra of the BPS quiver and use them to compute the framed BPS spectrum. We also provide an alternative characterization of line defects by introducing framed BPS quivers. Using the theory of (quantum) cluster algebras, we derive an algorithm to compute the framed BPS spectra of new defects from known ones. Line defects are generated from a framed BPS quiver by applying certain sequences of mutation operations. Framed BPS quivers also behave nicely under a set of "cut and join" rules, which can be used to study how = 2 systems with defects couple to produce more complicated ones. We illustrate our formalism with several examples.

  13. 10. Detail view, greenhouse, south wall. These groundlevel openings were ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail view, greenhouse, south wall. These ground-level openings were part of the original heating system used to warm the greenhouse. The openings were likely related to the flues, while a larger opening to the west (not in photograph) contained an exterior-fed iron stove. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 13. Greenhouse, east elevation. The boardandbatten wall covers an opening ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Greenhouse, east elevation. The board-and-batten wall covers an opening that was originally fitted with windows which allowed sunlight into the greenhouse. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 19. View looking N at mill wall ruins with open ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View looking N at mill wall ruins with open end of purging house in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Mill (Ruins), 2.65 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  16. Sequencing BPS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gukov, Sergei; Nawata, Satoshi; Saberi, Ingmar; Stošić, Marko; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincaré polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel "sliding" property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identification of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d {N}=2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. Lastly, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.

  17. Sequencing BPS spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Gukov, Sergei; Nawata, Satoshi; Saberi, Ingmar; Stošić, Marko; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-03-02

    In this article, we provide both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincar e polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel "sliding" property, which can be explained by using (re fined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identi fication of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N = 2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. In conclusion, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.

  18. Sequencing BPS spectra

    DOE PAGES

    Gukov, Sergei; Nawata, Satoshi; Saberi, Ingmar; ...

    2016-03-02

    In this article, we provide both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explainmore » from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincar e polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel "sliding" property, which can be explained by using (re fined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identi fication of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N = 2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. In conclusion, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.« less

  19. Crystal Melting and Wall Crossing Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Masahito

    2010-02-01

    This paper summarizes recent developments in the theory of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) state counting and the wall crossing phenomena, emphasizing in particular the role of the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting. This paper is divided into two parts, which are closely related to each other. In the first part, we discuss the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting counting BPS states. Each of the BPS state contributing to the BPS index is in one-to-one correspondence with a configuration of a molten crystal, and the statistical partition function of the melting crystal gives the BPS partition function. We also show that smooth geometry of the Calabi-Yau manifold emerges in the thermodynamic limit of the crystal. This suggests a remarkable interpretation that an atom in the crystal is a discretization of the classical geometry, giving an important clue as to the geometry at the Planck scale.In the second part we discuss the wall crossing phenomena. Wall crossing phenomena states that the BPS index depends on the value of the moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold, and jumps along real codimension one subspaces in the moduli space. We show that by using type IIA/M-theory duality, we can provide a simple and an intuitive derivation of the wall crossing phenomena, furthermore clarifying the connection with the topological string theory. This derivation is consistent with another derivation from the wall crossing formula, motivated by multi-centered BPS extremal black holes. We also explain the representation of the wall crossing phenomena in terms of crystal melting, and the generalization of the counting problem and the wall crossing to the open BPS invariants.

  20. Crystal Melting and Wall Crossing Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Masahito

    This paper summarizes recent developments in the theory of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) state counting and the wall crossing phenomena, emphasizing in particular the role of the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting. This paper is divided into two parts, which are closely related to each other. In the first part, we discuss the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting counting BPS states. Each of the BPS states contributing to the BPS index is in one-to-one correspondence with a configuration of a molten crystal, and the statistical partition function of the melting crystal gives the BPS partition function. We also show that smooth geometry of the Calabi-Yau manifold emerges in the thermodynamic limit of the crystal. This suggests a remarkable interpretation that an atom in the crystal is a discretization of the classical geometry, giving an important clue as such to the geometry at the Planck scale. In the second part, we discuss the wall crossing phenomena. Wall crossing phenomena states that the BPS index depends on the value of the moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold, and jumps along real codimension one subspaces in the moduli space. We show that by using type IIA/M-theory duality, we can provide a simple and an intuitive derivation of the wall crossing phenomena, furthermore clarifying the connection with the topological string theory. This derivation is consistent with another derivation from the wall crossing formula, motivated by multicentered BPS extremal black holes. We also explain the representation of the wall crossing phenomena in terms of crystal melting, and the generalization of the counting problem and the wall crossing to the open BPS invariants.

  1. BEDROOM 1 SHOWING THE OPENING IN THE EXTERIOR WALL FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEDROOM 1 SHOWING THE OPENING IN THE EXTERIOR WALL FOR AN AIR CONDITIONER. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Double Mine Building (N) wall showing clerestory slot windows opening ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Double Mine Building (N) wall showing clerestory slot windows opening above level of main roof. Note structure is built on poured concrete foundation partly buried in hillside; view in southeast - Fort McKinley, Double Mine Building, East side of East Side Drive, approximately 125 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  3. BPS dyons and Hesse flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Bleeken, Dieter

    2012-02-01

    We revisit BPS solutions to classical N = 2 low energy effective gauge theories. It is shown that the BPS equations can be solved in full generality by the introduction of a Hesse potential, a symplectic analog of the holomorphic prepotential. We explain how for non-spherically symmetric, non-mutually local solutions, the notion of attractor flow generalizes to gradient flow with respect to the Hesse potential. Furthermore we show that in general there is a non-trivial magnetic complement to this flow equation that is sourced by the momentum current in the solution.

  4. 29 CFR 1910.23 - Guarding floor and wall openings and holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... chute floor opening shall be guarded by one of the following: (i) Hinged floor opening cover of standard... use. Where operating conditions necessitate the feeding of material into any hatchway or chute opening... specifications. (2) Every chute wall opening from which there is a drop of more than 4 feet shall be guarded...

  5. The Open Classroom: Were Schools Without Walls Just Another Fad?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Larry

    2004-01-01

    The open-classroom movement originated in British public elementary schools after World War II. American educators who adopted the trend viewed informal education--or, as they came to call it, open classrooms or open education--as an answer to both the American education system's critics and the problems of U.S. society. Open classrooms' focus on…

  6. 29 CFR 1910.23 - Guarding floor and wall openings and holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... someone or shall be protected by removable standard railings. (7) Every temporary floor opening shall have..., a standard toe board shall be provided. (4) Every temporary wall opening shall have adequate guards... exclusively for special purposes (such as oiling, shafting, or filling tank cars) may have the railing on...

  7. Primary closure of the abdominal wall after "open abdomen" situation.

    PubMed

    Kääriäinen, M; Kuokkanen, H

    2013-01-01

    "Open abdomen" is a strategy used to avoid or treat abdominal compartment syndrome. It has reduced mortality both in trauma and non-trauma abdominal catastrophes but also has created a challenging clinical problem. Traditionally, open abdomen is closed in two phases; primarily with a free skin graft and later with a flap reconstruction. A modern trend is to close the abdomen within the initial hospitalization. This requires multi-professional co-operation. Temporary abdominal closure methods, e.g. negative pressure wound therapy alone or combined with mesh-mediated traction, have been developed to facilitate direct fascial closure. Components separation technique, mesh reinforcement or bridging of the fascial defect with mesh and perforator saving skin undermining can be utilized in the final closure if needed. These techniques can be combined. Choice of the treatment depends on the condition of the patient and size of the fascia and skin defect, and the state of the abdominal contents. In this paper we review the literature on the closure of an open abdomen and present the policy used in our institution in the open abdomen situations.

  8. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632, INTERIOR. OPEN CORRIDOR ALONG SOUTH WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632, INTERIOR. OPEN CORRIDOR ALONG SOUTH WALL OF BUILDING. CAMERA IS NEAR HOT CELL NO. 1, FACES WEST TOWARDS WALL OF TEST-TRAIN ASSEMBLY (TRA-632A). NOTE MOTORIZED RAIL CRANE ABOVE STAIRWAY. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-29-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Instantaneous response of elastic thin-walled structures with arbitrary open cross section to rapid heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Xiaoqin; Mohan, Ram V.; Tamma, Kumar K.

    1992-01-01

    A generalized modeling and analysis approach of thermally-induced coupled vibrations of elastic thin-walled configurations with arbitrary open cross sections are presented in conjunction with a unified implicit transient methodology. Limited research appears in literature which takes into account the influence of rapid thermal heating effects on structures involving various forms of coupling. As a consequence, the dynamic response of such thin-walled structures of arbitrary open cross section due to rapid heating are described here. Effects involving triple, double, and no coupling between bending and torsional vibrations caused by sudden heating on these structures are examined. Numerical test cases are presented which describe the influence of sudden heating on elastic thin-walled structures of arbitrary open cross sections.

  10. Microbubbles and Blood Brain Barrier Opening: A Numerical Study on Acoustic Emissions and Wall Stress Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Goertz, David E.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2015-01-01

    Focused ultrasound with microbubbles is an emerging technique for blood brain barrier (BBB) opening. Here, a comprehensive theoretical model of a bubble-fluid-vessel system has been developed which accounts for the bubble’s non-spherical oscillations inside a microvessel, and its resulting acoustic emissions. Numerical simulations of unbound and confined encapsulated bubbles were performed to evaluate the effect of the vessel wall on acoustic emissions and vessel wall stresses. Using a Marmottant shell model, the normalized second harmonic to fundamental emissions first decreased as a function of pressure (>50 kPa) until reaching a minima ("transition point") at which point they increased. The transition point of unbound compared to confined bubble populations occurred at different pressures and was associated with an accompanying increase in shear and circumferential wall stresses. As the wall stresses depend on the bubble to vessel wall distance, the stresses were evaluated for bubbles with their wall at a constant distance to a flat wall. As a result, the wall stresses were bubble size and frequency dependent and the peak stress values induced by bubbles larger than resonance remained constant versus frequency at a constant mechanical index. PMID:25546853

  11. 4d Spectra from BPS Quiver Dualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espahbodi, Sam

    We attack the question of BPS occupancy in a wide class of 4d N = 2 quantum field theories. We first review the Seiberg-Witten approach to finding the low energy Wilsonian effective action actions of such theories. In particular, we analyze the case of Gaiotto theories, which provide a large number of non-trivial examples in a unified framework. We then turn to understanding the massive BPS spectrum of such theories, and in particular their relation to BPS quivers. We present a purely 4d characterization of BPS quivers, and explain how a quiver's representation theory encodes the solution to the BPS occupancy problem. Next, we derive a so called mutation method, based on exploiting quiver dualities, to solve the quiver's representation theory. This method makes previously intractable calculations nearly trivial in many examples. As a particular highlight, we apply our methods to understand strongly coupled chambers in ADE SYM gauge theories with matter. Following this, we turn to the general story of quivers for theories of the Gaiotto class. We present a geometric approach to attaining quivers for the rank 2 theories, leading to a very elegant solution which includes a specification of quiver superpotentials. Finally, we solve these theories by an unrelated method based on gauging flavor symmetries in their various dual weakly coupled Lagrangian descriptions. After seeing that this method agrees in the rank 2 case, we will apply our new approach to the case of rank n.

  12. Near BPS skyrmions and restricted harmonic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speight, J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Motivated by a class of near BPS Skyrme models introduced by Adam, Sánchez-Guillén and Wereszczyński, the following variant of the harmonic map problem is introduced: a map φ :(M, g) →(N, h) between Riemannian manifolds is restricted harmonic if it locally extremizes E2 on its SDiff(M) orbit, where SDiff(M) denotes the group of volume preserving diffeomorphisms of (M, g), and E2 denotes the Dirichlet energy. It is conjectured that near BPS skyrmions tend to restricted harmonic maps in the BPS limit. It is shown that φ is restricted harmonic if and only if φ∗ h has exact divergence, and a linear stability theory of restricted harmonic maps is developed, from which it follows that all weakly conformal maps are stable restricted harmonic. Examples of restricted harmonic maps in every degree class R3 → SU(2) and R2 →S2 are constructed. It is shown that the axially symmetric BPS skyrmions on which all previous analytic studies of near BPS Skyrme models have been based, are not restricted harmonic, casting doubt on the phenomenological predictions of such studies. The problem of minimizing E2 for φ :Rk → N over all linear volume preserving diffeomorphisms is solved explicitly, and a deformed axially symmetric family of Skyrme fields constructed which are candidates for approximate near BPS skyrmions at low baryon number. The notion of restricted harmonicity is generalized to restricted F-criticality where F is any functional on maps (M, g) →(N, h) which is, in a precise sense, geometrically natural. The case where F is a linear combination of E2 and E4, the usual Skyrme term, is studied in detail, and it is shown that inverse stereographic projection R3 →S3 ≡ SU(2) is stable restricted F-critical for every such F.

  13. Open-ended Coaxial Cavities with Corrugated Inner and Outer Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidis, Zisis C.; Avramidis, Konstantinos A.; Tigelis, Ioannis G.

    2015-05-01

    In this work an open-ended coaxial cavity with a corrugated insert and a relatively small number of corrugations on the outer wall is studied. In particular, the Spatial Harmonics Method (SHM) is employed in order to derive the TE modes characteristic equation, which is then solved by truncation for the calculation of the corresponding eigenvalues. Special care is given in the expansion functions used in order to avoid numerical instabilities in the calculation of high-order spatial terms. Various cases of outer wall corrugations are studied numerically in order to identify the effect of the outer corrugations and understand the mode coupling mechanism.

  14. The Skyrme Model in the BPS Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, C.; Naya, C.; Sánchez-Guillén, J.; Vazquez, R.; Wereszczyński, A.

    In this review, we summarize the main features of the BPS Skyrme model which provides a physically well-motivated idealization of atomic nuclei and nuclear matter: (1) it leads to zero binding energies for classical solitons (while realistic binding energies emerge owing to the semiclassical corrections, the Coulomb interaction and isospin breaking); (2) it describes a perfect non-barotropic fluid already at the microscopic (field theoretical) level which allows to study thermodynamics beyond the mean-field limit. These properties allow for an approximate but analytical calculation of binding energies of the most abundant nuclei, for a determination of the equation of state of skyrmionic matter (both in the full field theory and in a mean-field approximation) as well as the description of neutron stars as Skyrme solitons with a very good agreement with available observational data. All these results suggest that the proper low energy effective model of QCD should be close to the BPS Skyrme model in a certain sense (a "near-BPS Skyrme model"), with a prominent role played by the BPS part.

  15. High Q BPS Monopole Bags are Urchins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evslin, Jarah; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for 30 years that 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles of charge Q greater than one cannot be spherically symmetric. Five years ago, Bolognesi conjectured that, at some point in their moduli space, BPS monopoles can become approximately spherically symmetric in the high Q limit. In this paper, we determine the sense in which this conjecture is correct. We consider an SU(2) gauge theory with an adjoint scalar field, and numerically find configurations with Q units of magnetic charge and a mass which is roughly linear in Q, for example, in the case Q = 81 we present a configuration whose energy exceeds the BPS bound by about 54%. These approximate solutions are constructed by gluing together Q cones, each of which contains a single unit of magnetic charge. In each cone, the energy is largest in the core, and so a constant energy density surface contains Q peaks and thus resembles a sea urchin.

  16. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  17. Biomass Production System (BPS) plant growth unit.

    PubMed

    Morrow, R C; Crabb, T M

    2000-01-01

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses its own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive.

  18. Argon adsorption in open-ended single-wall carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Rols, S.; Johnson, M.R.; Zeppenfeld, P.; Bienfait, M.; Vilches, O.E.; Schneble, J.

    2005-04-15

    Thermodynamic and neutron-diffraction measurements combined with molecular dynamics simulation are used to determine the adsorption energies and the structure of argon condensed in the various adsorption sites of purified open-ended single-wall nanotube bundles. On the basis of these experiments and the simulation results, a consistent adsorption scenario has been derived. The adsorption proceeds first by the population of the walls inside the open nanotubes and the formation of one-dimensional Ar chains in the grooves at the outer surface of the bundles, followed by the filling of the remaining axial sites inside the nanotubes and the completion of a quasihexagonal monolayer on the outer surface of the bundle. The measurements also provide an estimate of the relative abundance of the various adsorption sites revealing that a major part of the adsorbed Ar is stored inside the open-ended nanotubes. Nanotube bundles generally show a certain degree of heterogeneity and some interstitial sites should be populated over a range of Ar chemical potential. However, for the sample used here, diffraction data and simulations suggest that heterogeneity is not a key feature of the bundles and there is little direct evidence of interstitial sites being populated.

  19. Colloid retention at the meniscus-wall contact line in an open microchannel.

    PubMed

    Zevi, Yuniati; Gao, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Morales, Verónica L; Cakmak, M Ekrem; Medrano, Evelyn A; Sang, Wenjing; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2012-02-01

    Colloid retention mechanisms in partially saturated porous media are currently being researched with an array of visualization techniques. These visualization techniques have refined our understanding of colloid movement and retention at the pore scale beyond what can be obtained from breakthrough experiments. One of the remaining questions is what mechanisms are responsible for colloid immobilization at the triple point where air, water, and soil grain meet. The objective of this study was to investigate how colloids are transported to the air-water-solid (AWS) contact line in an open triangular microchannel, and then retained as a function of meniscus contact angle with the wall and solution ionic strength. Colloid flow path, meniscus shape and meniscus-wall contact angle, and colloid retention at the AWS contact line were visualized and quantified with a confocal microscope. Experimental results demonstrated that colloid retention at the AWS contact line was significant when the meniscus-wall contact angle was less than 16°, but was minimal for the meniscus-wall contact angles exceeding 20°. Tracking of individual colloids and computational hydrodynamic simulation both revealed that for small contact angles (e.g., 12.5°), counter flow and flow vortices formed near the AWS contact line, but not for large contact angles (e.g., 28°). This counter flow helped deliver the colloids to the wall surface just below the contact line. In accordance with DLVO and hydrodynamic torque calculations, colloid movement may be stopped when the colloid reached the secondary minimum at the wall near the contact line. However, contradictory to the prediction of the torque analysis, colloid retention at the AWS contact line decreased with increasing ionic strength for contact angles of 10-20°, indicating that the air-water interface was involved through both counter flow and capillary force. We hypothesized that capillary force pushed the colloid through the primary energy

  20. Universal BPS structure of stationary supergravity solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossard, Guillaume; Nicolai, Hermann; Stelle, K. S.

    2009-07-01

    We study asymptotically flat stationary solutions of four-dimensional supergravity theories via the associated fraktur G/fraktur H* pseudo-Riemannian non-linear sigma models in three spatial dimensions. The Noether charge Script C associated to fraktur G is shown to satisfy a characteristic equation that determines it as a function of the four-dimensional conserved charges. The matrix Script C is nilpotent for non-rotating extremal solutions. The nilpotency degree of Script C is directly related to the BPS degree of the corresponding solution when they are BPS. Equivalently, the charges can be described in terms of a Weyl spinor |Script Crangle of Spin*(2Script N), and then the characteristic equation becomes equivalent to a generalisation of the Cartan pure spinor constraint on |Script Crangle. The invariance of a given solution with respect to supersymmetry is determined by an algebraic `Dirac equation' on the Weyl spinor |Script Crangle. We explicitly solve this equation for all pure supergravity theories and we characterise the stratified structure of the moduli space of asymptotically Taub-NUT black holes with respect to their BPS degree. The analysis is valid for any asymptotically flat stationary solutions for which the singularities are protected by horizons. The fraktur H*-orbits of extremal solutions are identified as Lagrangian submanifolds of nilpotent orbits of fraktur G, and so the moduli space of extremal spherically symmetric black holes is identified as a Lagrangian subvariety of the variety of nilpotent elements of fraktur g. We also generalise the notion of active duality transformations to an `almost action' of the three-dimensional duality group fraktur G on asymptotically flat stationary solutions.

  1. Black holes in supergravity: the non-BPS branch

    SciTech Connect

    Gimon, Eric; Gimon, Eric G.; Larsen, Finn; Simon, Joan

    2007-10-25

    We construct extremal, spherically symmetric black hole solutions to 4D supergravity with charge assignments that preclude BPS-saturation. In particular, we determine the ground state energy as a function of charges and moduli. We find that the mass of the non-BPS black hole remains that of a marginal bound state of four basic constituents throughout the entire moduli space and that there is always a non-zero gap above the BPS bound.

  2. Lie n-algebras of BPS charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sati, Hisham; Schreiber, Urs

    2017-03-01

    We uncover higher algebraic structures on Noether currents and BPS charges. It is known that equivalence classes of conserved currents form a Lie algebra. We show that at least for target space symmetries of higher parameterized WZW-type sigma-models this naturally lifts to a Lie ( p + 1)-algebra structure on the Noether currents themselves. Applied to the Green-Schwarz-type action functionals for super p-brane sigma-models this yields super Lie ( p+1)-algebra refinements of the traditional BPS brane charge extensions of supersymmetry algebras. We discuss this in the generality of higher differential geometry, where it applies also to branes with (higher) gauge fields on their worldvolume. Applied to the M5-brane sigma-model we recover and properly globalize the M-theory super Lie algebra extension of 11-dimensional superisometries by 2-brane and 5-brane charges. Passing beyond the infinitesimal Lie theory we find cohomological corrections to these charges in higher analogy to the familiar corrections for D-brane charges as they are lifted from ordinary cohomology to twisted K-theory. This supports the proposal that M-brane charges live in a twisted cohomology theory.

  3. Crack opening area estimates in pressurized through-wall cracked elbows under bending

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, C.; Gilles, P.; Pignol, M.

    1997-04-01

    One of the most important aspects in the leak-before-break approach is the estimation of the crack opening area corresponding to potential through-wall cracks at critical locations during plant operation. In order to provide a reasonable lower bound to the leak area under such loading conditions, numerous experimental and numerical programs have been developed in USA, U.K. and FRG and widely discussed in literature. This paper aims to extend these investigations on a class of pipe elbows characteristic of PWR main coolant piping. The paper is divided in three main parts. First, a new simplified estimation scheme for leakage area is described, based on the reference stress method. This approach mainly developed in U.K. and more recently in France provides a convenient way to account for the non-linear behavior of the material. Second, the method is carried out for circumferential through-wall cracks located in PWR elbows subjected to internal pressure. Finite element crack area results are presented and comparisons are made with our predictions. Finally, in the third part, the discussion is extended to elbows under combined pressure and in plane bending moment.

  4. Numerical study of the effects of lamp configuration and reactor wall roughness in an open channel water disinfection UV reactor.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Tipu

    2016-07-01

    This article describes the assessment of a numerical procedure used to determine the UV lamp configuration and surface roughness effects on an open channel water disinfection UV reactor. The performance of the open channel water disinfection UV reactor was numerically analyzed on the basis of the performance indictor reduction equivalent dose (RED). The RED values were calculated as a function of the Reynolds number to monitor the performance. The flow through the open channel UV reactor was modelled using a k-ε model with scalable wall function, a discrete ordinate (DO) model for fluence rate calculation, a volume of fluid (VOF) model to locate the unknown free surface, a discrete phase model (DPM) to track the pathogen transport, and a modified law of the wall to incorporate the reactor wall roughness effects. The performance analysis was carried out using commercial CFD software (ANSYS Fluent 15.0). Four case studies were analyzed based on open channel UV reactor type (horizontal and vertical) and lamp configuration (parallel and staggered). The results show that lamp configuration can play an important role in the performance of an open channel water disinfection UV reactor. The effects of the reactor wall roughness were Reynolds number dependent. The proposed methodology is useful for performance optimization of an open channel water disinfection UV reactor.

  5. Weak coupling chambers in N=2 BPS quiver theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, El Hassan

    2012-11-01

    Using recent results on BPS quiver theory, we develop a group theoretical method to describe the quiver mutations encoding the quantum mechanical duality relating the spectra of distinct quivers. We illustrate the method by computing the BPS spectrum of the infinite weak chamber of some examples of N=2 supersymmetric gauge models without and with quark hypermultiplets.

  6. A note on multiply wound BPS Wilson loops in ABJM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Marco S.

    2016-09-01

    We consider BPS Wilson loops in planar ABJM theory, wound multiple times around the great circle. We compute the expectation value of the 1/6-BPS and 1/2-BPS Wilson loops to three- and two-loop order in perturbation theory, respectively, dealing with the combinatorics of multiple winding via recursive relations. For the 1/6-BPS Wilson loop we perform the computation at generic framing and at framing 1 we find agreement with the localization result. For the 1/2-BPS Wilson loop we compute the expectation value at trivial framing and by comparison with the matrix model expression we extract the framing dependence of the fermion diagrams.

  7. Spectral characteristics of airway opening and chest wall tidal flows in spontaneously breathing preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Habib, Robert H; Pyon, Kee H; Courtney, Sherry E; Aghai, Zubair H

    2003-05-01

    We compared the harmonic content of tidal flows measured simultaneously at the mouth and chest wall in spontaneously breathing very low birth weight infants (n = 16, 1,114 +/- 230 g, gestation age: 28 +/- 2 wk). Airway opening flows were measured via face mask-pneumotachograph (P-tach), whereas chest wall flows were derived from respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) excursions. Next, for each, we computed two spectral shape indexes: 1) harmonic distortion (k(d); k(d,P-tach) and k(d,RIP), respectively) defines the extent to which flows deviated from a single sine wave, and 2) the exponent of the power law (s; s(P-tach) and s(RIP), respectively), describing the spectral energy vs. frequency. P-tach and RIP flow spectra exhibited similar power law functional forms consistently in all infants. Also, mouth [s(P-tach) = 3.73 +/- 0.23% (95% confidence interval), k(d,P-tach) = 38.8 +/- 4.6%] and chest wall (s(RIP) = 3.51 +/- 0.30%, k(d,RIP) = 42.8 +/- 4.8%) indexes were similar and highly correlated (s(RIP) = 1.17 x s(P-tach) + 0.85; r(2) = 0.81; k(d,RIP) = 0.90 x k(d,P-tach) + 8.0; r(2) = 0.76). The corresponding time to peak tidal expiratory flow-to-expiratory time ratio (0.62 +/- 0.08) was higher than reported in older infants. The obtained s and k(d) values are similar to those reported in older and/or larger chronic lung disease infants, yet appreciably lower than for 1-mo-old healthy infants of closer age and/or size; this indicated increased complexity of tidal flows in very low birth weight babies. Importantly, we found equivalent flow spectral data from mouth and chest wall tidal flows. The latter are desirable because they avoid face mask artificial effects, including leaks around it, they do not interfere with ventilatory support delivery, and they may facilitate longer measurements that are useful in control of breathing assessment.

  8. Microbubbles and blood-brain barrier opening: a numerical study on acoustic emissions and wall stress predictions.

    PubMed

    Hosseinkhah, Nazanin; Goertz, David E; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2015-05-01

    Focused ultrasound with microbubbles is an emerging technique for blood-brain barrier opening. Here, a comprehensive theoretical model of a bubble-fluid-vessel system has been developed which accounts for the bubble's nonspherical oscillations inside a microvessel, and its resulting acoustic emissions. Numerical simulations of unbound and confined encapsulated bubbles were performed to evaluate the effect of the vessel wall on acoustic emissions and vessel wall stresses. Using a Marmottant shell model, the normalized second harmonic to fundamental emissions first decreased as a function of pressure (>50 kPa) until reaching a minima ("transition point") at which point they increased. The transition point of unbound compared to confined bubble populations occurred at different pressures and was associated with an accompanying increase in shear and circumferential wall stresses. As the wall stresses depend on the bubble to vessel wall distance, the stresses were evaluated for bubbles with their wall at a constant distance to a flat wall. As a result, the wall stresses were bubble size and frequency dependent and the peak stress values induced by bubbles larger than resonance remained constant versus frequency at a constant mechanical index.

  9. Investigation on Twisting and Side Wall Opening Occurring in Curved Hat Channel Products Made of High Strength Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamura, Masato; Fukui, Ayako; Yano, Hiroshi; Hama, Takayuki; Sunaga, Hideyuki; Makinouchi, Akitake; Asakawa, Motoo

    2011-08-01

    High strength steel sheets are becoming increasingly important for the weight reduction of automotive bodies to meet the requirements for reduced environmental impact. However, dimensional defects resulting from springback are serious issues, and effective methods of predicting and reducing such defects are necessary. In this study, we numerically and experimentally analyzed the mechanisms of dimensional inaccuracies caused by springback occurring in curved hat channel deep drawing products. The analysis was based on the static explicit FEM software "TP-STRUCT" (the solver part is known as "STAMP3D"). The results of the experiments and simulations similarly show that the twist angle is positive (right-hand system) when the drawing height is relatively large. We calculated the twist torque around the longitudinal axis using the stress distributions obtained by FE analysis. Through the investigation of twist torque and its transition during the drawing and die removal processes, we found that the negative torque generated by side wall opening occurring in the die removal process is the dominant factor of the positive twist. Knowing such mechanisms of twist in cases with a relatively large drawing height, we attempted to explore methods of reducing side wall opening by giving the side wall a stepped shape with the eventual aim of reducing twist. Consequently, we concluded that the stepped shape on the side wall has marked effects of reducing side wall opening, mainly through the elimination of bending-unbending effects on die shoulders, which was verified by observing the stress distribution obtained by FE analysis.

  10. Cosmic microwave anisotropies from BPS semilocal strings

    SciTech Connect

    Urrestilla, Jon; Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R E-mail: n.bevis@imperial.ac.uk E-mail: martin.kunz@physics.unige.ch

    2008-07-15

    We present the first ever calculation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectra from semilocal cosmic strings, obtained via simulations of a classical field theory. Semilocal strings are a type of non-topological defect arising in some models of inflation motivated by fundamental physics, and are thought to relax the constraints on the symmetry breaking scale as compared to models with (topological) cosmic strings. We derive constraints on the model parameters, including the string tension parameter {mu}, from fits to cosmological data, and find that in this regard Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) semilocal strings resemble global textures more than topological strings. The observed microwave anisotropy at l=10 is reproduced if G{mu} = 5.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} (G is Newton's constant). However as with other defects the spectral shape does not match observations, and in models with inflationary perturbations plus semilocal strings the 95% confidence level upper bound is G{mu}<2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} when CMB, Hubble key project and big bang nucleosynthesis data are used (cf G{mu}<0.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} for cosmic strings). We additionally carry out a Bayesian model comparison of several models with and without defects, showing that models with defects are neither conclusively favoured nor disfavoured at present.

  11. Laccases Direct Lignification in the Discrete Secondary Cell Wall Domains of Protoxylem1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schuetz, Mathias; Benske, Anika; Smith, Rebecca A.; Watanabe, Yoichiro; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ralph, John; Demura, Taku; Ellis, Brian; Samuels, A. Lacey

    2014-01-01

    Plants precisely control lignin deposition in spiral or annular secondary cell wall domains during protoxylem tracheary element (TE) development. Because protoxylem TEs function to transport water within rapidly elongating tissues, it is important that lignin deposition is restricted to the secondary cell walls in order to preserve the plasticity of adjacent primary wall domains. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inducible VASCULAR NAC DOMAIN7 (VND7) protoxylem TE differentiation system permits the use of mutant backgrounds, fluorescent protein tagging, and high-resolution live-cell imaging of xylem cells during secondary cell wall development. Enzymes synthesizing monolignols, as well as putative monolignol transporters, showed a uniform distribution during protoxylem TE differentiation. By contrast, the oxidative enzymes LACCASE4 (LAC4) and LAC17 were spatially localized to secondary cell walls throughout protoxylem TE differentiation. These data support the hypothesis that precise delivery of oxidative enzymes determines the pattern of cell wall lignification. This view was supported by lac4lac17 mutant analysis demonstrating that laccases are necessary for protoxylem TE lignification. Overexpression studies showed that laccases are sufficient to catalyze ectopic lignin polymerization in primary cell walls when exogenous monolignols are supplied. Our data support a model of protoxylem TE lignification in which monolignols are highly mobile once exported to the cell wall, and in which precise targeting of laccases to secondary cell wall domains directs lignin deposition. PMID:25157028

  12. Modelling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behaviour of RC buildings using OpenSees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furtado, André; Rodrigues, Hugo; Arêde, António

    2015-06-01

    Recent earthquakes show that masonry infill walls should be taken into account during the design and assessment process of structures, since this type of non-structural elements increase the in-plane stiffness of the structure and consequently the natural period. An overview of the past researches conducted on the modelling of masonry infilled frame issues has been done, with discussion of past analytical investigations and different modelling approaches that many authors have proposed, including micro- and macro-modelling strategies. After this, the present work presents an improved numerical model, based on the Rodrigues et al. (J Earthq Eng 14:390-416, 2010) approach, for simulating the masonry infill walls behaviour in the computer program OpenSees. The main results of the in-plane calibration analyses obtained with one experimental test are presented and discussed. For last, two reinforced concrete regular buildings were studied and subjected to several ground motions, with and without infills' walls.

  13. Intravesical liposome drug delivery and IC/BPS.

    PubMed

    Janicki, Joseph J; Gruber, Michele A; Chancellor, Michael B

    2015-10-01

    Intravesical therapy has previously shown to be effective in delaying or preventing recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. This local route of drug administration is now demonstrating promise in the treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) with the benefit of minimal systemic side effects. Liposomes (LPs) are lipid vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surrounding an aqueous core. They can incorporate drug molecules, both hydrophobic and hydrophilic, and vastly improve cellular uptake of these drug molecules via endocytosis. Intravesical LPs have therapeutic effects on IC/BPS patients, mainly due to their ability to form a protective lipid film on the urothelial surface and repair the damaged urothelium. This review considers the current status of intravesical LPs and LP mediated drug delivery for the treatment of IC/BPS.

  14. BPS Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime and Euclidean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Hao; Wu, Jun-Bao; Zhang, Jia-ju

    2015-12-01

    We give evidence that spacelike BPS Wilson loops do not exist in Minkowski spacetime. We show that spacelike Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime cannot preserve any supersymmetries, in d = 4 N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory, d = 3 N = 2 super Chern-Simons-matter theory, and d = 3 N = 6 Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory. We not only show this using infinite straight lines and circles as examples, but also we give proofs for general curves. We attribute this to the conflicts of the reality conditions of the spinors. However, spacelike Wilson loops do exist in Euclidean space. There are both BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines and circular BPS Wilson loops. This is because the reality conditions of the spinors are lost after Wick rotation. The result is reasonable in view of the AdS/CFT correspondence.

  15. Exact Attractive Non-BPS STU Black Holes

    SciTech Connect

    Kallosh, Renata; Sivanandam, Navin; Soroush, Masoud; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2006-07-18

    We develop some properties of the non-BPS attractive STU black hole. Our principle result is the construction of exact solutions for the moduli, the metric and the vectors in terms of appropriate harmonic functions. In addition, we find a spherically-symmetric attractor carrying p{sup 0} (D6 brane) and q{sub a} (D2 brane) charges by solving the non-BPS attractor equation (which we present in a particularly compact form) and by minimizing an effective black hole potential. Finally, we make an argument for the existence of multicenter attractors and conjecture that if such solutions exist they may provide a resolution to the existence of apparently unstable non-BPS ''attractors''.

  16. BPS amplitudes, helicity supertraces and membranes in M-theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wit, B. d.; Lüst, D.

    2000-03-01

    We study BPS dominated loop amplitudes in M-theory on T2. For this purpose we generalize the concept of helicity supertraces to nine spacetime dimensions. These traces distinguish between various massive supermultiplets and appear as coefficients in their one-loop contributions to n-graviton scattering amplitudes. This can be used to show that only ultrashort BPS multiplets contribute to the R4 term in the effective action, which was first computed by Green, Gutperle and Vanhove. There are two inequivalent ultrashort BPS multiplets which describe the Kaluza-Klein states and the wrapped membranes that cover the torus a number of times. From the perspective of the type-II strings they correspond to momentum and winding states and D0 or D1 branes.

  17. Secretory COPII Protein SEC31B Is Required for Pollen Wall Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bingchun; Shi, Haidan; Wang, Wanlei; Liu, Xiaoyu; Gao, Hui; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yinghui; Yang, Meidi; Li, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The pollen wall protects pollen grains from abiotic and biotic stresses. During pollen wall development, tapetal cells play a vital role by secreting proteins, signals, and pollen wall material to ensure microspore development. But the regulatory mechanism underlying the secretory pathway of the tapetum is largely unknown. Here, we characterize the essential role of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) COPII protein SECRETORY31B (SEC31B) in pollen wall development and the secretory activity of tapetal cells. The sporophyte-controlled atsec31b mutant exhibits severe pollen and seed abortion. Transmission electron microscopy observation indicates that pollen exine formation in the atsec31b mutant is disrupted significantly. AtSEC31B is a functional COPII protein revealed by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit site localization, interaction with AtSEC13A, and retarded ER-Golgi protein trafficking in the atsec31b mutant. A genetic tapetum-specific rescue assay indicates that AtSEC31B functions primarily in the tapetum. Moreover, deletion of AtSEC31B interrupted the formation of the ER-derived tapetosome and altered the location of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTER9 protein in the tapetum. Therefore, this work demonstrates that AtSEC31B plays a vital role in pollen wall development by regulating the secretory pathway of the tapetal cells. PMID:27634427

  18. Asymptotic dynamics of monopole walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, R.

    2015-08-01

    We determine the asymptotic dynamics of the U(N) doubly periodic BPS monopole in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, called a monopole wall, by exploring its Higgs curve using the Newton polytope and amoeba. In particular, we show that the monopole wall splits into subwalls when any of its moduli become large. The long-distance gauge and Higgs field interactions of these subwalls are Abelian, allowing us to derive an asymptotic metric for the monopole wall moduli space.

  19. Refinement and evaluation of crack-opening-area analyses for circumferential through-wall cracks in pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, S.; Brust, F.; Ghadiali, N.; Krishnaswamy, P.; Wilkowski, G.; Choi, Y.H. |; Moberg, F.; Brickstad, B. |

    1995-04-01

    Leak-before-break (LBB) analyses for circumferentially cracked pipes are currently being conducted in the nuclear industry to justify elimination of pipe whip restraints and jet impingement shields which are present because of the expected dynamic effects from pipe rupture. The application of the LBB methodology frequently requires calculation of leak rates. These leak rates depend on the crack-opening area of a through-wall crack in the pipe. In addition to LBB analyses, which assume a hypothetical flaw size, there is also interest in the integrity of actual leaking cracks corresponding to current leakage detection requirements in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.45, or for assessing temporary repair of Class 2 and 3 pipes that have leaks as are being evaluated in ASME Section 11. This study was requested by the NRC to review, evaluate, and refine current analytical models for crack-opening-area analyses of pipes with circumferential through-wall cracks. Twenty-five pipe experiments were analyzed to determine the accuracy of the predictive models. Several practical aspects of crack-opening such as; crack-face pressure, off-center cracks, restraint of pressure-induced bending, cracks in thickness transition regions, weld residual stresses, crack-morphology models, and thermal-hydraulic analysis, were also investigated. 140 refs., 105 figs., 41 tabs.

  20. Role of Glycosyltransferases in Pollen Wall Primexine Formation and Exine Patterning1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenhua L.; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2017-01-01

    The pollen cell wall is important for protection of male sperm from physical stresses and consists of an inner gametophyte-derived intine layer and a sporophyte-derived exine layer. The polymeric constituents of the robust exine are termed sporopollenin. The mechanisms by which sporopollenin is anchored onto microspores and polymerized in specific patterns are unknown, but the primexine, a transient cell wall matrix formed on the surface of microspores at the late tetrad stage, is hypothesized to play a key role. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) spongy (spg) and uneven pattern of exine (upex) mutants exhibit defective and irregular exine patterns. SPG2 (synonymous with IRREGULAR XYLEM9-LIKE [IRX9L]) encodes a family GT43 glycosyltransferase involved in xylan backbone biosynthesis, while UPEX1 encodes a family GT31 glycosyltransferase likely involved in galactosylation of arabinogalactan proteins. Imaging of developing irx9l microspores showed that the earliest detectable defect was in primexine formation. Furthermore, wild-type microspores contained primexine-localized epitopes indicative of the presence of xylan, but these were absent in irx9l. These data, together with the spg phenotype of a mutant in IRX14L, which also plays a role in xylan backbone elongation, indicate the presence of xylan in pollen wall primexine, which plays a role in exine patterning on the microspore surface. We observed an aberrant primexine and irregular patterns of incipient sporopollenin deposition in upex1, suggesting that primexine-localized arabinogalactan proteins could play roles in sporopollenin adhesion and patterning early in microspore wall development. Our data provide new insights into the biochemical and functional properties of the primexine component of the microspore cell wall. PMID:27495941

  1. Moss Chloroplasts Are Surrounded by a Peptidoglycan Wall Containing D-Amino Acids[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Takayuki; Tanidokoro, Koji; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Sato, Momo; Tadano, Shinji; Ishikawa, Hayato; Takio, Susumu; Takechi, Katsuaki; Takano, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    It is believed that the plastids in green plants lost peptidoglycan (i.e., a bacterial cell wall-containing d-amino acids) during their evolution from an endosymbiotic cyanobacterium. Although wall-like structures could not be detected in the plastids of green plants, the moss Physcomitrella patens has the genes required to generate peptidoglycan (Mur genes), and knocking out these genes causes defects in chloroplast division. Here, we generated P. patens knockout lines (∆Pp-ddl) for a homolog of the bacterial peptidoglycan-synthetic gene encoding d-Ala:d-Ala ligase. ∆Pp-ddl had a macrochloroplast phenotype, similar to other Mur knockout lines. The addition of d-Ala-d-Ala (DA-DA) to the medium suppressed the appearance of giant chloroplasts in ∆Pp-ddl, but the addition of l-Ala-l-Ala (LA-LA), DA-LA, LA-DA, or d-Ala did not. Recently, a metabolic method for labeling bacterial peptidoglycan was established using ethynyl-DA-DA (EDA-DA) and click chemistry to attach an azide-modified fluorophore to the ethynyl group. The ∆Pp-ddl line complemented with EDA-DA showed that moss chloroplasts are completely surrounded by peptidoglycan. Our findings strongly suggest that the moss plastids have a peptidoglycan wall containing d-amino acids. By contrast, no plastid phenotypes were observed in the T-DNA tagged ddl mutant lines of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:27325639

  2. Static and free-vibrational response of semi-circular graphite-epoxy frames with thin-walled open sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, J. Scott; Johnson, Eric R.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure the three-dimensional static and free vibrational response of two graphite-epoxy, thin-walled, open section frames. The frames are semi-circular with a radius of three feet, and one specimen has an I cross section and the other has a channel cross section. The flexibility influence coefficients were measured in static tests for loads applied at midspan with the ends of the specimens clamped. Natural frequencies and modes were determined from vibrational tests for free and clamped end conditions. The experimental data is used to evaluate a new finite element which was developed specifically for the analysis of curved, thin-walled structures. The formulation of the element is based on a Vlasov-type, thin-walled, curved beam theory. The predictions from the finite element program generally correlated well with the experimental data for the symmetric I-specimen. Discrepancies in some of the data were found to be due to flexibility in the clamped end conditions. With respect to the data for the channel specimen, the correlation was less satisfactory. The finite element analysis predicted the out-of-plane response of the channel specimen reasonably well, but large discrepancies occurred between the predicted in-plane response and the experimental data. The analysis predicted a much more compliant in-plane response than was observed in the experiments.

  3. Primary Metabolism during Biosynthesis of Secondary Wall Polymers of Protoxylem Vessel Elements1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Morisaki, Keiko; Sawada, Yuji; Sano, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kurata, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Shiro; Matsuda, Mami; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2016-01-01

    Xylem vessels, the water-conducting cells in vascular plants, undergo characteristic secondary wall deposition and programmed cell death. These processes are regulated by the VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN (VND) transcription factors. Here, to identify changes in metabolism that occur during protoxylem vessel element differentiation, we subjected tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 suspension culture cells carrying an inducible VND7 system to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based wide-target metabolome analysis and transcriptome analysis. Time-course data for 128 metabolites showed dynamic changes in metabolites related to amino acid biosynthesis. The concentration of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, an important intermediate of the glycolysis pathway, immediately decreased in the initial stages of cell differentiation. As cell differentiation progressed, specific amino acids accumulated, including the shikimate-related amino acids and the translocatable nitrogen-rich amino acid arginine. Transcriptome data indicated that cell differentiation involved the active up-regulation of genes encoding the enzymes catalyzing fructose 6-phosphate biosynthesis from glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate biosynthesis from oxaloacetate, and phenylalanine biosynthesis, which includes shikimate pathway enzymes. Concomitantly, active changes in the amount of fructose 6-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate were detected during cell differentiation. Taken together, our results show that protoxylem vessel element differentiation is associated with changes in primary metabolism, which could facilitate the production of polysaccharides and lignin monomers and, thus, promote the formation of the secondary cell wall. Also, these metabolic shifts correlate with the active transcriptional regulation of specific enzyme genes. Therefore, our observations indicate that primary metabolism is actively regulated during protoxylem vessel element differentiation to alter the cell’s metabolic

  4. A Distinct Pathway for Polar Exocytosis in Plant Cell Wall Formation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Zhuang, Xiaohong; Wang, Xiangfeng; Law, Angus Ho Yin; Zhao, Teng; Du, Shengwang; Loy, Michael M.T.; Jiang, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Post-Golgi protein sorting and trafficking to the plasma membrane (PM) is generally believed to occur via the trans-Golgi network (TGN). In this study using Nicotiana tabacum pectin methylesterase (NtPPME1) as a marker, we have identified a TGN-independent polar exocytosis pathway that mediates cell wall formation during cell expansion and cytokinesis. Confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy studies demonstrated that Golgi-derived secretory vesicles (GDSVs) labeled by NtPPME1-GFP are distinct from those organelles belonging to the conventional post-Golgi exocytosis pathway. In addition, pharmaceutical treatments, superresolution imaging, and dynamic studies suggest that NtPPME1 follows a polar exocytic process from Golgi-GDSV-PM/cell plate (CP), which is distinct from the conventional Golgi-TGN-PM/CP secretion pathway. Further studies show that ROP1 regulates this specific polar exocytic pathway. Taken together, we have demonstrated an alternative TGN-independent Golgi-to-PM polar exocytic route, which mediates secretion of NtPPME1 for cell wall formation during cell expansion and cytokinesis and is ROP1-dependent. PMID:27531442

  5. The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY: an expert-driven knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands

    PubMed Central

    Pawson, Adam J.; Sharman, Joanna L.; Benson, Helen E.; Faccenda, Elena; Alexander, Stephen P.H.; Buneman, O. Peter; Davenport, Anthony P.; McGrath, John C.; Peters, John A.; Southan, Christopher; Spedding, Michael; Yu, Wenyuan; Harmar, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    The International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology/British Pharmacological Society (IUPHAR/BPS) Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (http://www.guidetopharmacology.org) is a new open access resource providing pharmacological, chemical, genetic, functional and pathophysiological data on the targets of approved and experimental drugs. Created under the auspices of the IUPHAR and the BPS, the portal provides concise, peer-reviewed overviews of the key properties of a wide range of established and potential drug targets, with in-depth information for a subset of important targets. The resource is the result of curation and integration of data from the IUPHAR Database (IUPHAR-DB) and the published BPS ‘Guide to Receptors and Channels’ (GRAC) compendium. The data are derived from a global network of expert contributors, and the information is extensively linked to relevant databases, including ChEMBL, DrugBank, Ensembl, PubChem, UniProt and PubMed. Each of the ∼6000 small molecule and peptide ligands is annotated with manually curated 2D chemical structures or amino acid sequences, nomenclature and database links. Future expansion of the resource will complete the coverage of all the targets of currently approved drugs and future candidate targets, alongside educational resources to guide scientists and students in pharmacological principles and techniques. PMID:24234439

  6. National Outcomes for Open Ventral Hernia Repair Techniques in Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ross, Samuel W; Oommen, Bindhu; Huntington, Ciara; Walters, Amanda L; Lincourt, Amy E; Kercher, Kent W; Augenstein, Vedra A; Heniford, B Todd

    2015-08-01

    Modern adjuncts to complex, open ventral hernia repair often include component separation (CS) and/or panniculectomy (PAN). This study examines nationwide data to determine how these techniques impact postoperative complications. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried from 2005 to 2013 for inpatient, elective open ventral hernia repairs (OVHR). Cases were grouped by the need for and type of concomitant advancement flaps: OVHR alone (OVHRA), OVHR with CS, OVHR with panniculectomy (PAN), or both CS and PAN (BOTH). Multivariate regression to control for confounding factors was conducted. There were 58,845 OVHR: 51,494 OVHRA, 5,357 CS, 1,617 PAN, and 377 BOTH. Wound complications (OVHRA 8.2%, CS 12.8%, PAN 14.4%, BOTH 17.5%), general complications (15.2%, 24.9%, 25.2%, 31.6%), and major complications (6.9%, 11.4%, 7.2%, 13.5%) were different between groups (P < 0.0001). There was no difference in mortality. Multivariate regression showed CS had higher odds of wound [odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-2.0], general (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3-1.8), and major complications (OR 2.1, 95%, CI: 1.8-2.4), and longer length of stay by 2.3 days. PAN had higher odds of wound (OR 1.5, 95%, CI: 1.3-1.8) and general complications (OR 1.7, 95%CI: 1.5-2.0). Both CS and PAN had higher odds of wound (OR 2.2, 95%, CI: 1.5-3.2), general (OR 2.5, 95%, CI: 1.8-3.4), and major complications (OR 2.2, 95%CI: 1.4-3.4), and two days longer length of stay. In conclusion, patients undergoing OVHR that require CS or PAN have a higher independent risk of complications, which increases when the procedures are combined.

  7. Reduced Wall Acetylation Proteins Play Vital and Distinct Roles in Cell Wall O-Acetylation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Yuzuki; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Gille, Sascha; Harholt, Jesper; Chong, Sun-Li; Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.; Tenkanen, Maija; Cheng, Kun; Pauly, Markus; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2013-01-01

    The Reduced Wall Acetylation (RWA) proteins are involved in cell wall acetylation in plants. Previously, we described a single mutant, rwa2, which has about 20% lower level of O-acetylation in leaf cell walls and no obvious growth or developmental phenotype. In this study, we generated double, triple, and quadruple loss-of-function mutants of all four members of the RWA family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In contrast to rwa2, the triple and quadruple rwa mutants display severe growth phenotypes revealing the importance of wall acetylation for plant growth and development. The quadruple rwa mutant can be completely complemented with the RWA2 protein expressed under 35S promoter, indicating the functional redundancy of the RWA proteins. Nevertheless, the degree of acetylation of xylan, (gluco)mannan, and xyloglucan as well as overall cell wall acetylation is affected differently in different combinations of triple mutants, suggesting their diversity in substrate preference. The overall degree of wall acetylation in the rwa quadruple mutant was reduced by 63% compared with the wild type, and histochemical analysis of the rwa quadruple mutant stem indicates defects in cell differentiation of cell types with secondary cell walls. PMID:24019426

  8. Ultrastructure of the Epidermal Cell Wall and Cuticle of Tomato Fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) during Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Segado, Patricia; Domínguez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The epidermis plays a pivotal role in plant development and interaction with the environment. However, it is still poorly understood, especially its outer epidermal wall: a singular wall covered by a cuticle. Changes in the cuticle and cell wall structures are important to fully understand their functions. In this work, an ultrastructure and immunocytochemical approach was taken to identify changes in the cuticle and the main components of the epidermal cell wall during tomato fruit development. A thin and uniform procuticle was already present before fruit set. During cell division, the inner side of the procuticle showed a globular structure with vesicle-like particles in the cell wall close to the cuticle. Transition between cell division and elongation was accompanied by a dramatic increase in cuticle thickness, which represented more than half of the outer epidermal wall, and the lamellate arrangement of the non-cutinized cell wall. Changes in this non-cutinized outer wall during development showed specific features not shared with other cell walls. The coordinated nature of the changes observed in the cuticle and the epidermal cell wall indicate a deep interaction between these two supramolecular structures. Hence, the cuticle should be interpreted within the context of the outer epidermal wall. PMID:26668335

  9. Effect of bioactive peptides (BPs) on the development of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangjun; Yu, Ermeng; Li, Zhifei; Yu, Deguang; Wang, Haiying; Gong, Wangbao

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of replacing fish meal (FM) with bioactive peptides (BPs) in diet of white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). The changes in growth performance, body composition, non-specific immunity, and water quality were examined after the shrimp were fed four diets, in which 0% (control), 33.3%, 66.7% and 100% of FM was replaced by BPs, respectively. The groups were designated as Con, 1/3BPs, 2/3BPs, and 3/3BPs. A total of 720 shrimp with an initial body weight of 1.46 ± 0.78 g were fed the experimental diets for 56 days. The results revealed that: 1) the weight gain rate (WGR) in 1/3BPs, 2/3BPs, and 3/3BPs was significantly higher than that in Con ( P < 0.05), while no significant difference was found on survival rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR); 2) the whole-body crude protein (CP) and crude lipids (CL) were significantly different among groups, while there was no significant difference between crude ash and phosphorus contents; 3) the levels of acid phosphatase (ACP), lysozyme (LZM), superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenol oxidase (PO) and bactericidal activity increased significantly with the inclusion of BPs; 4) in terms of water quality, no significant difference was found in pH and dissolved oxygen among diets during the whole experimental period. Moreover, even though nitrite and ammonium levels tended to increase with time, there was no significant difference among groups. The results indicated that BPs is an applicable alternative of protein source, which can substitute FM in the diets of L. vannamei; it is able to effectively promote growth performance and improve immunity. Moreover, BPs in the diets had no negative impact on water quality.

  10. Effects of rat sex differences and lighting on locomotor exploration of a circular open field with free-standing central corners and without peripheral walls.

    PubMed

    Alstott, Jeff; Timberlake, William

    2009-01-23

    A typical open field consists of a square enclosure, bounded by four straight walls joined by identical corners. For decades behavioral researchers have used the open center and more sheltered perimeter of such fields to examine the effects of drugs, sex differences, and illumination on the behavioral expression of fear and anxiety. The present study "reversed" the relative security of the center and periphery of a circular field to re-examine the functional relation of open field behavior to experience, sex differences and lighting. Across six daily exposures, males in both the light and dark rapidly increased their preference for the center. Females in the light developed a similar pattern, though more slowly; females in the dark continued to spend the great majority of their time in the open periphery, including the edge of the field. The behavior of all groups, but especially the dark females, strongly supports the continued importance of environmental assessment in open field behavior.

  11. BPS spectra of N = 2 SO7 and SP4 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahl Laamara, R.; Mellal, O.; Saidi, E. H.

    2017-01-01

    Extending the folding method of ADE Dynkin diagrams of Lie algebras to BPS quivers of 4d N = 2 supersymmetric gauge theory with ADE type gauge invariance, we study the BPS spectra for gauge symmetries with non-simply laced Lie algebras. Focussing on the 4d N = 2 SO7 and SP4 models, we derive the BPS states of the strong chambers of these theories. We find that for both gauge groups Gnsl = SO7 and SP4 ≃ SO (5) , the number of BPS states of the strongly coupled chamber is 2 dim ⁡Gnsl versus 2 dim ⁡Gsl - 2 rankGsl for the cousin gauge symmetries Gsl = SO8 and SU4 ≃ SO (6) . The relationship between the Gsl and Gnsl types of BPS quiver mutations is derived. Other features are also studied.

  12. Do all BPS black hole microstates carry zero angular momentum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Abhishek; Garavuso, Richard S.; Mondal, Swapnamay; Sen, Ashoke

    2016-04-01

    From the analysis of the near horizon geometry and supersymmetry algebra it has been argued that all the microstates of single centered BPS black holes with four unbroken supersymmetries carry zero angular momentum in the region of the moduli space where the black hole description is valid. A stronger form of the conjecture would be that the result holds for any sufficiently generic point in the moduli space. In this paper we set out to test this conjecture for a class of black hole microstates in type II string theory on T 6, represented by four stacks of D-branes wrapped on various cycles of T 6. For this system the above conjecture translates to the statement that the moduli space of classical vacua must be a collection of points. Explicit analysis of systems carrying a low number of D-branes supports this conjecture.

  13. Non-BPS multi-bubble microstate geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Bossard, Guillaume; Katmadas, Stefanos; Turton, David

    2016-02-01

    We construct the first smooth horizonless supergravity solutions that have two topologically-nontrivial three-cycles supported by flux, and that have the same mass and charges as a non-extremal D1-D5-P black hole. Our configurations are solutions to six-dimensional ungauged supergravity coupled to a tensor multiplet, and uplift to solutions of Type IIB supergravity. The solutions represent multi-center generalizations of the non-BPS solutions of Jejjala, Madden, Ross, and Titchener, which have over-rotating angular momenta. By adding an additional Gibbons-Hawking center, we succeed in lowering one of the two angular momenta below the cosmic censorship bound, and bringing the other very close to this bound. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to construct multi-center horizonless solutions corresponding to non-extremal black holes, and offer the prospect of ultimately establishing that finite-temperature black holes have nontrivial structure at the horizon.

  14. A 4800 bps CELP vocoder with an improved excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassanein, Hisham; Brindamour, Andre; Bryden, Karen

    1990-01-01

    The Stochastic or Code Excited Linear Predictive Coder (CELP) is among the promising candidates for producing good quality speech at low bit rates. However, the speech quality produced suffers from perceived roughness. Many researchers have used pole-zero postfilters to mask the roughness at the output of the synthesis filter. Although the postfilters are effective in masking the noise at low bit rates, they produce spectral distortions. It is proposed that speech can be improved by introducing two modifications to the fixed stochastic codebook. In the first modification, the stochastic codebook is used only when the long term correlations are low. Otherwise, a pulse like codebook is selected. In the second modification, the selected codebook output is weighted using an adaptive spectral shaping procedure. These two modifications were incorporated in a 4800 bps CELP coder and have resulted in a perceptually improved vocoded speech.

  15. Topological BPS charges in 10- and 11-dimensional supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callister, Andrew K.; Smith, Douglas J.

    2008-09-01

    We consider the supersymmetry algebras of the maximal supergravities in 10 and 11 dimensions. We construct expressions from which the topological charge structure of the algebras can be determined in supersymmetric curved backgrounds. These are interpreted as the topological charges of the 1/2-BPS states that are found in the theories. We consider charges for all the M-, NS- and D-branes as well as the Kaluza-Klein monopoles. We also show that the dimensional reduction relations between the 11-dimensional and IIA charges, and T-duality relations of the IIA and IIB charges, match those found for the branes themselves. Finally we consider the massive versions of the IIA and 11-dimensional theories and find that the expressions for the charges, with a slight modification, are still valid in those instances.

  16. Quantum Holonomies from Spectral Networks and Framed BPS States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabella, Maxime

    2017-04-01

    We propose a method for determining the spins of BPS states supported on line defects in 4d N=2 theories of class S. Via the 2d-4d correspondence, this translates to the construction of quantum holonomies on a punctured Riemann surface C. Our approach combines the technology of spectral networks, which decomposes flat {GL(K,C)-connections on C in terms of flat abelian connections on a K-fold cover of C, and the skein algebra in the 3-manifold C × [0,1]}, which expresses the representation theory of the quantum group U q ( gl K ). With any path on C, the quantum holonomy associates a positive Laurent polynomial in the quantized Fock-Goncharov coordinates of higher Teichmüller space. This confirms various positivity conjectures in physics and mathematics.

  17. Depletion of cellular iron by bps and ascorbate: effect on toxicity of adriamycin.

    PubMed

    Nyayapati, S; Afshan, G; Lornitzo, F; Byrnes, R W; Petering, D H

    1996-01-01

    A new method was developed that reduces the intracellular iron content of cells grown in serum-containing culture without involving the significant uptake of iron-chelating agents into cells. Negatively charged bathophenanthrolinedisulfonate (BPS), together with ascorbate, caused cells to lose much of their cellular iron without causing much depression in HL-60 or H9c2 (2-1) cell proliferation over a 48-h period. When added to serum supplemented RPMI-1640 culture media, BPS and ascorbate efficiently reduced and competed for iron in Fe(III) transferrin to form Fe(II)(BPS)3. The reaction also occurred with purified human iron-transferrin. When cells were incubated with growth medium containing serum that had been treated with BPS and ascorbate for 24 h, little or no BPS2- or Fe(II)(BPS)(4-)3 entered the cells, according to direct measurements and in agreement with the highly unfavorable 1-octanol/water partition coefficients for these molecules. However, iron was mobilized out of both cell types. After 24 h incubation of cells in this medium, there was no change in the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase, or in the concentration of glutathione. Glutathione peroxidase was elevated 9%. Using HL-60 and H9c2 (2-1) cells made iron deficient with BPS and ascorbate, HL-60 cells grown in defined-growth media in the absence of iron-pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone, or Euglena gracilis cells maintained in a defined medium that was rigorously depleted of iron, it was shown that the cytotoxicity of adriamycin is markedly dependent on the presence of iron in each type of cell. Similar results were obtained when HL-60 cells were grown in RPMI-1640 culture medium and serum that had been incubated for 24 h in BPS and ascorbate and then chromatographed over a Bio-Rad desalting column to remove small molecules including BPS, ascorbate, and Fe(II)(BPS)3.

  18. Synthesis and Enhanced Field-Emission of Thin-Walled, Open-Ended, and Well-Aligned N-Doped Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Thin-walled, open-ended, and well-aligned N-doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the quartz slides were synthesized by using acetonitrile as carbon sources. As-obtained products possess large thin-walled index (TWI, defined as the ratio of inner diameter and wall thickness of a CNT). The effect of temperature on the growth of CNTs using acetonitrile as the carbon source was also investigated. It is found that the diameter, the TWI of CNTs increase and the Fe encapsulation in CNTs decreases as the growth temperature rises in the range of 780–860°C. When the growth temperature is kept at 860°C, CNTs with TWI = 6.2 can be obtained. It was found that the filed-emission properties became better as CNT growth temperatures increased from 780 to 860°C. The lowest turn-on and threshold field was 0.27 and 0.49 V/μm, respectively. And the best field-enhancement factors reached 1.09 × 105, which is significantly improved about an order of magnitude compared with previous reports. In this study, about 30 × 50 mm2 free-standing film of thin-walled open-ended well-aligned N-doped carbon nanotubes was also prepared. The free-standing film can be transferred easily to other substrates, which would promote their applications in different fields. PMID:20672122

  19. Novel BPS Wilson loops in three-dimensional quiver Chern-Simons-matter theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Hao; Wu, Jun-Bao; Zhang, Jia-ju

    2016-02-01

    We show that generic three-dimensional N = 2 quiver super Chern-Simons-matter theories admit Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) Drukker-Trancanelli (DT) type Wilson loops. We investigate both Wilson loops along timelike infinite straight lines in Minkowski spacetime and circular Wilson loops in Euclidean space. In Aharnoy-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory, we find that generic BPS DT type Wilson loops preserve the same number of supersymmetries as Gaiotto-Yin type Wilson loops. There are several free parameters for generic BPS DT type Wilson loops in the construction, and supersymmetry enhancement for Wilson loops happens for special values of the parameters.

  20. Pectin Metabolism and Assembly in the Cell Wall of the Charophyte Green Alga Penium margaritaceum1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Domozych, David S.; Sørensen, Iben; Popper, Zoë A.; Ochs, Julie; Andreas, Amanda; Fangel, Jonatan U.; Pielach, Anna; Sacks, Carly; Brechka, Hannah; Ruisi-Besares, Pia; Willats, William G.T.; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.

    2014-01-01

    The pectin polymer homogalacturonan (HG) is a major component of land plant cell walls and is especially abundant in the middle lamella. Current models suggest that HG is deposited into the wall as a highly methylesterified polymer, demethylesterified by pectin methylesterase enzymes and cross-linked by calcium ions to form a gel. However, this idea is based largely on indirect evidence and in vitro studies. We took advantage of the wall architecture of the unicellular alga Penium margaritaceum, which forms an elaborate calcium cross-linked HG-rich lattice on its cell surface, to test this model and other aspects of pectin dynamics. Studies of live cells and microscopic imaging of wall domains confirmed that the degree of methylesterification and sufficient levels of calcium are critical for lattice formation in vivo. Pectinase treatments of live cells and immunological studies suggested the presence of another class of pectin polymer, rhamnogalacturonan I, and indicated its colocalization and structural association with HG. Carbohydrate microarray analysis of the walls of P. margaritaceum, Physcomitrella patens, and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) further suggested the conservation of pectin organization and interpolymer associations in the walls of green plants. The individual constituent HG polymers also have a similar size and branched structure to those of embryophytes. The HG-rich lattice of P. margaritaceum, a member of the charophyte green algae, the immediate ancestors of land plants, was shown to be important for cell adhesion. Therefore, the calcium-HG gel at the cell surface may represent an early evolutionary innovation that paved the way for an adhesive middle lamella in multicellular land plants. PMID:24652345

  1. BPS black holes, the Hesse potential, and the topological string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, G. L.; de Wit, B.; Mahapatra, S.

    2010-06-01

    The Hesse potential is constructed for a class of four-dimensional N = 2 supersymmetric effective actions with S- and T-duality by performing the relevant Legendre transform by iteration. It is a function of fields that transform under duality according to an arithmetic subgroup of the classical dualities reflecting the monodromies of the underlying string compactification. These transformations are not subject to corrections, unlike the transformations of the fields that appear in the effective action which are affected by the presence of higher-derivative couplings. The class of actions that are considered includes those of the FHSV and the STU model. We also consider heterotic N = 4 supersymmetric compactifications. The Hesse potential, which is equal to the free energy function for BPS black holes, is manifestly duality invariant. Generically it can be expanded in terms of powers of the modulus that represents the inverse topological string coupling constant, g s , and its complex conjugate. The terms depending holomorphically on g s are expected to correspond to the topological string partition function and this expectation is explicitly verified in two cases. Terms proportional to mixed powers of g s and bar{g}s are in principle present.

  2. ABORTED MICROSPORES Acts as a Master Regulator of Pollen Wall Formation in Arabidopsis[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Ding, Zhiwen; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Shi, Jianxin; Liang, Wanqi; Yuan, Zheng; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Schreiber, Lukas; Wilson, Zoe A.; Zhang, Dabing

    2014-01-01

    Mature pollen is covered by durable cell walls, principally composed of sporopollenin, an evolutionary conserved, highly resilient, but not fully characterized, biopolymer of aliphatic and aromatic components. Here, we report that ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS) acts as a master regulator coordinating pollen wall development and sporopollenin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome-wide coexpression analysis revealed 98 candidate genes with specific expression in the anther and 70 that showed reduced expression in ams. Among these 70 members, we showed that AMS can directly regulate 23 genes implicated in callose dissociation, fatty acids elongation, formation of phenolic compounds, and lipidic transport putatively involved in sporopollenin precursor synthesis. Consistently, ams mutants showed defective microspore release, a lack of sporopollenin deposition, and a dramatic reduction in total phenolic compounds and cutin monomers. The functional importance of the AMS pathway was further demonstrated by the observation of impaired pollen wall architecture in plant lines with reduced expression of several AMS targets: the abundant pollen coat protein extracellular lipases (EXL5 and EXL6), and CYP98A8 and CYP98A9, which are enzymes required for the production of phenolic precursors. These findings demonstrate the central role of AMS in coordinating sporopollenin biosynthesis and the secretion of materials for pollen wall patterning. PMID:24781116

  3. Resume and Report of Visitations to Schools Employing the Open-Space Concept of School Construction ("Schools-Without-Walls").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Robert

    Four schools were visited in an attempt to assess the merits of combining several classrooms in a large space as a method of school construction. Interviews with students and teachers as well as personal impressions form the basis for evaluation. Satisfactory results were found for schools-without-walls, school carpeting, acoustic control, team…

  4. Defective Pollen Wall 2 (DPW2) Encodes an Acyl Transferase Required for Rice Pollen Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianxin; Rautengarten, Carsten; Yang, Li; Uzair, Muhammad; Zhu, Lu; Luo, Qian; An, Gynheung; Waßmann, Fritz

    2017-01-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic lipids are both essential structural components of the plant cuticle, an important interface between the plant and environment. Although cross links between aromatic and aliphatic or other moieties are known to be associated with the formation of leaf cutin and root and seed suberin, the contribution of aromatic lipids to the biosynthesis of anther cuticles and pollen walls remains elusive. In this study, we characterized the rice (Oryza sativa) male sterile mutant, defective pollen wall 2 (dpw2), which showed an abnormal anther cuticle, a defective pollen wall, and complete male sterility. Compared with the wild type, dpw2 anthers have increased amounts of cutin and waxes and decreased levels of lipidic and phenolic compounds. DPW2 encodes a cytoplasmically localized BAHD acyltransferase. In vitro assays demonstrated that recombinant DPW2 specifically transfers hydroxycinnamic acid moieties, using ω-hydroxy fatty acids as acyl acceptors and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs as acyl donors. Thus, The cytoplasmic hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:ω-hydroxy fatty acid transferase DPW2 plays a fundamental role in male reproduction via the biosynthesis of key components of the anther cuticle and pollen wall. PMID:27246096

  5. Various computational conditions of oscillatory natural convection of zero Prandtl number fluid in an open boat heated and cooled from opposing vertical walls

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Kazuto . Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science); Ozoe, Hiroyuki . Inst. of Advanced Material Study)

    1993-03-01

    The finite-difference computational scheme is developed for two-dimensional oscillatory natural convection of zero Prandtl number fluid in an open boat heated and cooled from opposing vertical walls. Various computational conditions are tested, such as the initial condition, time step length, finite-difference width, and finite-difference scheme. Instantaneous contour maps and velocity vectors in oscillatory states are presented in a series of maps to represent the fluctuating characteristics of two-dimensional roll cells. The physical conditions are for a boat with aspect ratio A = 3[minus]5 at Pr = 0 and Gr = 14,000-40,000.

  6. Effect of local estrogen therapy (LET) on urinary and sexual symptoms in premenopausal women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS).

    PubMed

    Gardella, Barbara; Iacobone, Anna Daniela; Porru, Daniele; Musacchi, Valentina; Dominoni, Mattia; Tinelli, Carmine; Spinillo, Arsenio; Nappi, Rossella E

    2015-10-01

    The association between vulvodynia and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), a chronic, debilitating disease of unknown etiology, may involve sex hormone-dependent mechanisms regulating vulvo-vaginal health. We aimed to prospectively investigate the effects of 12 weeks of local estrogen therapy (LET) on urinary/bladder and sexual symptoms in premenopausal women with IC/BPS. Thirty-four women (mean age: 36.1 ± 8.4) diagnosed with IC/BPS were treated vulvo-vaginally three-times/week with estriol 0.5 mg cream and tested by validated questionnaires (ICSI/ICPI, pain urgency frequency [PUF], female sexual function index [FSFI]) and by cotton swab testing, vaginal health index (VHI) and maturation index (MI) before and after treatment. Vulvodynia was present in 94.1% of IC/BPS women. A significant positive effect of LET was evident on urinary and sexual function (p < 0.001, for both) following 12 weeks, as well as an improvement of the VHI (p < 0.001) and the MI (p < 0.04). The results of this open study indicate that 12 weeks of local estriol cream at vaginal and vestibular level may ameliorate urinary/bladder pain symptoms, as well as may improve domains of sexual function. The association between vulvar pain and bladder pain could, therefore, be related to a vaginal environment carrying signs of hypoestrogenism, but further studies are needed to clarify this issue.

  7. N = 8 BPS black holes preserving 1/8 supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolini, M.; Frè, P.; Trigiante, M.

    1999-05-01

    In the context of N = 8 supergravity we consider BPS black holes that preserve 1/8 supersymmetry. It was shown in a previous paper that, modulo U-duality transformations of E7(7), the most general solution of this type can be reduced to a black hole of the STU model. In this paper we analyse this solution in detail, considering in particular its embedding in one of the possible special Kähler manifolds compatible with the consistent truncations to N = 2 supergravity, this manifold being the moduli space of the T6/icons/Journals/Common/BbbZ" ALT="BbbZ" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/>3 orbifold, that is SU(3,3)/SU(3) × U(3). This construction requires a crucial use of the solvable Lie algebra formalism. Once the group-theoretical analysis is done, starting from a static, spherically symmetric ansatz, we find an exact solution for all the scalars (both dilaton- and axion-like) and for gauge fields, together with their already known charge-dependent fixed values, which yield a U-duality-invariant entropy. We also give a complete translation dictionary between the solvable Lie algebra and the special Kähler formalisms in order to allow a more immediate comparison with other papers on similar issues. Although the explicit solution is given in a simplified case where the equations turn out to be more manageable, it encodes all the features of the more general one, namely it has non-vanishing entropy and the scalar fields have a non-trivial radial dependence.

  8. Putrescine Alleviates Iron Deficiency via NO-Dependent Reutilization of Root Cell-Wall Fe in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Wang, Bin; Song, Wen Feng; Zheng, Shao Jian; Shen, Ren Fang

    2016-01-01

    Plants challenged with abiotic stress show enhanced polyamines levels. Here, we show that the polyamine putrescine (Put) plays an important role to alleviate Fe deficiency. The adc2-1 mutant, which is defective in Put biosynthesis, was hypersensitive to Fe deficiency compared with wild type (Col-1 of Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana]). Exogenous Put decreased the Fe bound to root cell wall, especially to hemicellulose, and increased root and shoot soluble Fe content, thus alleviating the Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis. Intriguingly, exogenous Put induced the accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) under both Fe-sufficient (+Fe) and Fe-deficient (-Fe) conditions, although the ferric-chelate reductase (FCR) activity and the expression of genes related to Fe uptake were induced only under -Fe treatment. The alleviation of Fe deficiency by Put was diminished in the hemicellulose-level decreased mutant-xth31 and in the noa1 and nia1nia2 mutants, in which the endogenous NO levels are reduced, indicating that both NO and hemicellulose are involved in Put-mediated alleviation of Fe deficiency. However, the FCR activity and the expression of genes related to Fe uptake were still up-regulated under -Fe+Put treatment compared with -Fe treatment in xth31, and Put-induced cell wall Fe remobilization was abolished in noa1 and nia1nia2, indicating that Put-regulated cell wall Fe reutilization is dependent on NO. From our results, we conclude that Put is involved in the remobilization of Fe from root cell wall hemicellulose in a process dependent on NO accumulation under Fe-deficient condition in Arabidopsis. PMID:26578707

  9. Wall crossing, quivers and crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aganagic, Mina; Schaeffer, Kevin

    2012-10-01

    We study the spectrum of BPS D-branes on a Calabi-Yau manifold using the 0 + 1 dimensional quiver gauge theory that describes the dynamics of the branes at low energies. We argue that Seiberg dualities of the quiver correspond to crossing the "walls of the second kind" of Kontsevich and Soibelman. There is a large class of examples where the BPS degeneracies of quivers corresponding to one D6 brane bound to arbitrary numbers of D4, D2 and D0 branes are counted by melting crystal configurations. The shape of the crystal is determined by the Calabi-Yau geometry and the background B-field, and its microscopic structure by the quiver Q. We prove that the BPS degeneracies computed from Q and Q' are related by the Kontsevich-Soibelman formula. We also show that, in the limit of infinite B-field, the combinatorics of crystals becomes that of the topological vertex, thus re-deriving the Gromov-Witten/Donaldson-Thomas correspondence.

  10. Evolution and functional diversity of the Calcium Binding Proteins (CaBPs)

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Lee P.; McCue, Hannah V.; Burgoyne, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) exhibits a remarkable ability to process, store, and transfer information. Key to these activities is the use of highly regulated and unique patterns of calcium signals encoded by calcium channels and decoded by families of specific calcium-sensing proteins. The largest family of eukaryotic calcium sensors is those related to the small EF-hand containing protein calmodulin (CaM). In order to maximize the usefulness of calcium as a signaling species and to permit the evolution and fine tuning of the mammalian CNS, families of related proteins have arisen that exhibit characteristic calcium binding properties and tissue-, cellular-, and sub-cellular distribution profiles. The Calcium Binding Proteins (CaBPs) represent one such family of vertebrate specific CaM like proteins that have emerged in recent years as important regulators of essential neuronal target proteins. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that the CaBPs consist of two subfamilies and that the ancestral members of these are CaBP1 and CaBP8. The CaBPs have distinct intracellular localizations based on different targeting mechanisms including a novel type-II transmembrane domain in CaBPs 7 and 8 (otherwise known as calneuron II and calneuron I, respectively). Recent work has led to the identification of new target interactions and possible functions for the CaBPs suggesting that they have multiple physiological roles with relevance for the normal functioning of the CNS. PMID:22375103

  11. Higher dimensional curved domain walls on Kähler surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Fiki T.; Gunara, Bobby E.; Radjabaycolle, Flinn C.; Wijaya, Rio N.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we study some aspects of curved BPS-like domain walls in higher dimensional gravity theory coupled to scalars where the scalars span a complex Kähler surface with scalar potential turned on. Assuming that a fake superpotential has a special form which depends on Kähler potential and a holomorphic function, we prove that BPS-like equations have a local unique solution. Then, we analyze the vacuum structure of the theory including their stability using dynamical system and their existence in ultraviolet-infrared regions using renormalization group flow.

  12. Protected couplings and BPS dyons in half-maximal supersymmetric string vacua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossard, Guillaume; Cosnier-Horeau, Charles; Pioline, Boris

    2017-02-01

    We analyze four- and six-derivative couplings in the low energy effective action of D = 3 string vacua with half-maximal supersymmetry. In analogy with an earlier proposal for the (∇Φ) 4 coupling, we propose that the ∇2(∇Φ) 4 coupling is given exactly by a manifestly U-duality invariant genus-two modular integral. In the limit where a circle in the internal torus decompactifies, the ∇2(∇Φ) 4 coupling reduces to the ∇2F4 and R2F2 couplings in D = 4, along with an infinite series of corrections of order e-R, from four-dimensional 1/4-BPS dyons whose worldline winds around the circle. Each of these contributions is weighted by a Fourier coefficient of a meromorphic Siegel modular form, explaining and extending standard results for the BPS index of 1/4-BPS dyons.

  13. Exactly stable non-BPS spinors in heterotic string theory on tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jihye

    2013-01-01

    Considering SO(32) heterotic string theory compactified on T d with d ≤ 4, stability of non-supersymmetric states is studied. A non-supersymmetric state with robust stability is constructed, and its exact stability is proven in a large region of moduli space against all the possible decay mechanisms allowed by charge conservation. Using various T -duality transform matrices of [1], we translate various selection rules about conserved charges into simpler problems resembling partition and parity of integers. For heterotic string on T 4, we give a complete list of BPS atoms with elementary excitations, and we study BPS and non-BPS molecules with various binding energies. Using string-string duality, the results are interpreted in terms of Dirichlet-branes in type IIA string theory compactified on an orbifold limit of a K3 surface.

  14. Non-BPS D-brane solutions in six dimensional orbifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Y.

    2000-08-01

    Starting with the non-BPS D0-brane solution of IIB/(-1)FLI4 constructed recently by Eyras and Panda we construct via T-duality the non-BPS D2-brane and D1-brane solutions of IIB/(-1)FLI4 and IIA/(-1)FLI4 predicted by Sen. The D2-brane couples magnetically to the vector field of the NS5B-brane living in the twisted sector of the Type IIB orbifold, whereas the D1-brane couples (electrically and magnetically) to the self-dual 2-form potential of the NS5A-brane that is present in the twisted sector of the Type IIA orbifold construction. Finally we discuss the eleven dimensional interpretation of these branes as originating from a non-BPS M1-brane solution of M-theory orientifolded by ΩρI5.

  15. Transparent and Self-Supporting Graphene Films with Wrinkled- Graphene-Wall-Assembled Opening Polyhedron Building Blocks for High Performance Flexible/Transparent Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Huang, Xuankai; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Yunyong; Wang, Chengxin

    2017-03-22

    Improving mass loading while maintaining high transparency and large surface area in one self-supporting graphene film is still a challenge. Unfortunately, all of these factors are absolutely essential for enhancing the energy storage performance of transparent supercapacitors for practical applications. To solve the above bottleneck problem, we produce a novel self-supporting flexible and transparent graphene film (STF-GF) with wrinkled-wall-assembled opened-hollow polyhedron building units. Taking advantage of the microscopic morphology, the STF-GF exhibits improved mass loading with high transmittance (70.2% at 550 nm), a large surface area (1105.6 m(2)/g), and good electrochemical performance: high energy (552.3 μWh/cm(3)), power densities (561.9 mW/cm(3)), a superlong cycle life, and good cycling stability (the capacitance retention is ∼94.8% after 20,000 cycles).

  16. Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings

    SciTech Connect

    Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu

    2009-07-15

    Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillaries as porous layer open tubular columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kazarian, Artaches A; Sanz Rodriguez, Estrella; Deverell, Jeremy A; McCord, James; Muddiman, David C; Paull, Brett

    2016-01-28

    Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillary columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and liquid chromatographic separations is presented. Columns contained 126 internal parallel 4 μm channels, each containing a wall bonded porous monolithic type polystyrene-divinylbenzene layer in open tubular column format (PLOT). Modification longitudinal homogeneity was monitored using scanning contactless conductivity detection and scanning electron microscopy. The multichannel open tubular capillary column showed channel diameter and polymer layer consistency of 4.2 ± 0.1 μm and 0.26 ± 0.02 μm respectively, and modification of 100% of the parallel channels with the monolithic polymer. The modified multi-channel capillaries were applied to the in-capillary micro-extraction of water samples. 500 μL of water samples containing single μg L(-1) levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons were extracted at a flow rate of 10 μL min(-1), and eluted in 50 μL of acetonitrile for analysis using HPLC with fluorescence detection. HPLC LODs were 0.08, 0.02 and 0.05 μg L(-1) for acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, with extraction recoveries of between 77 and 103%. The modified capillaries were also investigated briefly for direct application to liquid chromatographic separations, with the retention and elution of a standard protein (cytochrome c) under isocratic conditions demonstrated, proving chromatographic potential of the new column format, with run-to-run retention time reproducibility of below 1%.

  18. Rotational-vibrational coupling in the BPS Skyrme model of baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, C.; Naya, C.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2013-11-01

    We calculate the rotational-vibrational spectrum in the BPS Skyrme model for the hedgehog skyrmion with baryon number one. The resulting excitation energies for the nucleon and delta Roper resonances are slightly above their experimental values. Together with the fact that in the standard Skyrme model these excitation energies are significantly lower than the experimental ones, this provides strong evidence for the conjecture that the inclusion of the BPS Skyrme model is required for a successful quantitative description of physical properties of baryons and nuclei.

  19. Radiation damping of a BPS monopole: An illustration of S duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Dongsu; Min, Hyunsoo

    1997-11-01

    The radiation reaction of a BPS monopole in the presence of incident electromagnetic waves as well as massless Higgs waves is analyzed classically. The reactive force and higher-order (finite size) effect are compared to those of the W boson that is interpreted as a dual partner of the BPS monopole. It is shown that the damping of acceleration is dual to each other, while in the case of the finite size effect the duality is broken explicitly. Their implications on the duality are discussed.

  20. Cell Wall Invertase Promotes Fruit Set under Heat Stress by Suppressing ROS-Independent Cell Death1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Reduced cell wall invertase (CWIN) activity has been shown to be associated with poor seed and fruit set under abiotic stress. Here, we examined whether genetically increasing native CWIN activity would sustain fruit set under long-term moderate heat stress (LMHS), an important factor limiting crop production, by using transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) with its CWIN inhibitor gene silenced and focusing on ovaries and fruits at 2 d before and after pollination, respectively. We found that the increase of CWIN activity suppressed LMHS-induced programmed cell death in fruits. Surprisingly, measurement of the contents of H2O2 and malondialdehyde and the activities of a cohort of antioxidant enzymes revealed that the CWIN-mediated inhibition on programmed cell death is exerted in a reactive oxygen species-independent manner. Elevation of CWIN activity sustained Suc import into fruits and increased activities of hexokinase and fructokinase in the ovaries in response to LMHS. Compared to the wild type, the CWIN-elevated transgenic plants exhibited higher transcript levels of heat shock protein genes Hsp90 and Hsp100 in ovaries and HspII17.6 in fruits under LMHS, which corresponded to a lower transcript level of a negative auxin responsive factor IAA9 but a higher expression of the auxin biosynthesis gene ToFZY6 in fruits at 2 d after pollination. Collectively, the data indicate that CWIN enhances fruit set under LMHS through suppression of programmed cell death in a reactive oxygen species-independent manner that could involve enhanced Suc import and catabolism, HSP expression, and auxin response and biosynthesis. PMID:27462084

  1. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study First Follow-up (BPS:96/98) Field Test Report. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Daniel J.; Wine, Jennifer S.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Kelly, Janice E.; Doherty, John M.; Simpson, Joe B.; Marti, Norma

    This report describes the methods and procedures used for the field test of the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study First Followup 1996-98 (BPS:96/98). Students in this survey were first interviewed during 1995 as part of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study 1996 field test. The BPS:96/98 full-scale student sample includes…

  2. Bilingual Pupil Services (B.P.S.) 1988-89. OREA Evaluation Section Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, Tomi D.; Barrera, Marbella

    The Bilingual Pupil Services (BPS) had two complementary objectives: (1) to provide supplementary services to students of limited English proficiency (LEP) by giving them instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL) and bilingual reading and mathematics; and (2) to provide in-service training to paraprofessionals who were enrolled in programs…

  3. Construction and classification of novel BPS Wilson loops in quiver Chern-Simons-matter theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Hao; Wu, Jun-Bao; Zhang, Jia-ju

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we construct and classify novel Drukker-Trancanelli (DT) type BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines and circles in N = 2 , 3 quiver superconformal Chern-Simons-matter theories, Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory, and N = 4 orbifold ABJM theory. Generally we have four classes of Wilson loops, and all of them preserve the same supersymmetries as the BPS Gaiotto-Yin (GY) type Wilson loops. There are several free complex parameters in the DT type BPS Wilson loops, and for two classes of Wilson loops in ABJM theory and N = 4 orbifold ABJM theory there are supersymmetry enhancements at special values of the parameters. We check that the differences of the DT type and GY type Wilson loops are Q-exact with Q being some supercharges preserved by both the DT type and GY type Wilson loops. The results would be useful to calculate vacuum expectation values of the DT type Wilson loops in matrix models if they are still BPS quantum mechanically.

  4. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up (BPS:90/94) Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Daniel J.; And Others

    This document provides a summary and evaluation of the methodological procedures and results of the full-scale implementation of the Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up, 1990-94 (BPS:90/94). The study was conducted for the National Center for Education Statistics by Research Triangle Institute with the assistance of…

  5. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: 1996-2001 (BPS: 1996/2001) Methodology Report. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer S.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Wheeless, Sara C.; Francis, Talbric L.; Franklin, Jeff W.; Dudley, Kristin M.

    This report describes the methods and procedures used for the full-scale data collection effort of the Beginning Postsecondary Students Second Follow-up Student 1996-2001 (BPS:1996/2001). These students, who started their postsecondary education in the 1995-1996 academic year, were first interviewed during 1996, and subsequently interviewed in…

  6. Air Force Armament Laboratory (AFATL) battery power supply (BPS) operations and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, J. R.; Lippert, J. R.; Herald, W. L.

    1991-01-01

    The successful operation of the AFATL BPS system is discussed in terms of its proven reliable performance record, flexibility to adapt to different test configurations, and relatively inexpensive operating maintenance costs per test. The BPS consists of 13,728 batteries, interconnecting buswork, and a power conditioning inductor. The system is subdivided into six modules, each divided into six gangs with its own gang switch, each gang containing 24 battery strings. Each module has its own main bus pair, with the negative bus common and the positive bus switched. The operational and performance history of the AFATL BPS has proven that this battery system is effective as a prime power supply for hypervelocity launcher research. Turn-around time between tests has generally been less than that required for the test article. The power capabilities of the BPS can easily be expanded to the design point of a 200 MJ energy store. This can be done by adding more modules of batteries and reconfiguring the inductor with its existing three auxiliary turns in series.

  7. 1/4-BPS M-theory bubbles with SO(3) × SO(4) symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kiu Kim, Kyung; Kim, Nakwoo

    2007-08-01

    In this paper we generalize the work of Lin, Lunin and Maldacena on the classification of 1/2-BPS M-theory solutions to a specific class of 1/4-BPS configurations. We are interested in the solutions of 11 dimensional supergravity with SO(3) × SO(4) symmetry, and it is shown that such solutions are constructed over a one-parameter familiy of 4 dimensional almost Calabi-Yau spaces. Through analytic continuations we can obtain M-theory solutions having AdS2 × S3 or AdS3 × S2 factors. It is shown that our result is equivalent to the AdS solutions which have been recently reported as the near-horizon geometry of M2 or M5-branes wrapped on 2 or 4-cycles in Calabi-Yau threefolds. We also discuss the hierarchy of M-theory bubbles with different number of supersymmetries.

  8. Non-BPS attractors in 5 d and 6 d extended supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrianopoli, L.; Ferrara, S.; Marrani, A.; Trigiante, M.

    2008-05-01

    We connect the attractor equations of a certain class of N=2, d=5 supergravities with their (1,0), d=6 counterparts, by relating the moduli space of non-BPS d=5 black hole/black string attractors to the moduli space of extremal dyonic black string d=6 non-BPS attractors. For d=5 real special symmetric spaces and for N=4,6,8 theories, we explicitly compute the flat directions of the black object potential corresponding to vanishing eigenvalues of its Hessian matrix. In the case N=4, we study the relation to the (2,0), d=6 theory. We finally describe the embedding of the N=2, d=5 magic models in N=8, d=5 supergravity as well as the interconnection among the corresponding charge orbits.

  9. Description of 1/4 BPS configurations in minimal type IIB supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Donos, Aristomenis

    2007-01-15

    In this paper we present an effort to extend the LLM construction of 1/2 BPS states in minimal IIB supergravity to configurations that preserve 1/4 of the total number of supersymmetries. Following the same techniques we reduce the problem to that of a single scalar which satisfies a nonlinear equation. In particular, the scalar is identified to be the Kahler potential with which a four dimensional base space is equipped.

  10. Description of 1/4 BPS configurations in minimal typeIIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donos, Aristomenis

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an effort to extend the LLM construction of 1/2 BPS states in minimal IIB supergravity to configurations that preserve 1/4 of the total number of supersymmetries. Following the same techniques we reduce the problem to that of a single scalar which satisfies a nonlinear equation. In particular, the scalar is identified to be the Kahler potential with which a four dimensional base space is equipped.

  11. The Protein BpsB Is a Poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine Deacetylase Required for Biofilm Formation in Bordetella bronchiseptica*

    PubMed Central

    Little, Dustin J.; Milek, Sonja; Bamford, Natalie C.; Ganguly, Tridib; DiFrancesco, Benjamin R.; Nitz, Mark; Deora, Rajendar; Howell, P. Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica are the causative agents of whooping cough in humans and a variety of respiratory diseases in animals, respectively. Bordetella species produce an exopolysaccharide, known as the Bordetella polysaccharide (Bps), which is encoded by the bpsABCD operon. Bps is required for Bordetella biofilm formation, colonization of the respiratory tract, and confers protection from complement-mediated killing. In this report, we have investigated the role of BpsB in the biosynthesis of Bps and biofilm formation by B. bronchiseptica. BpsB is a two-domain protein that localizes to the periplasm and outer membrane. BpsB displays metal- and length-dependent deacetylation on poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) oligomers, supporting previous immunogenic data that suggests Bps is a PNAG polymer. BpsB can use a variety of divalent metal cations for deacetylase activity and showed highest activity in the presence of Ni2+ and Co2+. The structure of the BpsB deacetylase domain is similar to the PNAG deacetylases PgaB and IcaB and contains the same circularly permuted family four carbohydrate esterase motifs. Unlike PgaB from Escherichia coli, BpsB is not required for polymer export and has unique structural differences that allow the N-terminal deacetylase domain to be active when purified in isolation from the C-terminal domain. Our enzymatic characterizations highlight the importance of conserved active site residues in PNAG deacetylation and demonstrate that the C-terminal domain is required for maximal deacetylation of longer PNAG oligomers. Furthermore, we show that BpsB is critical for the formation and complex architecture of B. bronchiseptica biofilms. PMID:26203190

  12. The protein BpsB is a poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine deacetylase required for biofilm formation in Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed

    Little, Dustin J; Milek, Sonja; Bamford, Natalie C; Ganguly, Tridib; DiFrancesco, Benjamin R; Nitz, Mark; Deora, Rajendar; Howell, P Lynne

    2015-09-11

    Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica are the causative agents of whooping cough in humans and a variety of respiratory diseases in animals, respectively. Bordetella species produce an exopolysaccharide, known as the Bordetella polysaccharide (Bps), which is encoded by the bpsABCD operon. Bps is required for Bordetella biofilm formation, colonization of the respiratory tract, and confers protection from complement-mediated killing. In this report, we have investigated the role of BpsB in the biosynthesis of Bps and biofilm formation by B. bronchiseptica. BpsB is a two-domain protein that localizes to the periplasm and outer membrane. BpsB displays metal- and length-dependent deacetylation on poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) oligomers, supporting previous immunogenic data that suggests Bps is a PNAG polymer. BpsB can use a variety of divalent metal cations for deacetylase activity and showed highest activity in the presence of Ni(2+) and Co(2+). The structure of the BpsB deacetylase domain is similar to the PNAG deacetylases PgaB and IcaB and contains the same circularly permuted family four carbohydrate esterase motifs. Unlike PgaB from Escherichia coli, BpsB is not required for polymer export and has unique structural differences that allow the N-terminal deacetylase domain to be active when purified in isolation from the C-terminal domain. Our enzymatic characterizations highlight the importance of conserved active site residues in PNAG deacetylation and demonstrate that the C-terminal domain is required for maximal deacetylation of longer PNAG oligomers. Furthermore, we show that BpsB is critical for the formation and complex architecture of B. bronchiseptica biofilms.

  13. Exploring the relation between 4D and 5D BPS solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrndt, Klaus; Lopes Cardoso, Gabriel; Mahapatra, Swapna

    2006-01-01

    Based on recent proposals linking four and five-dimensional BPS solutions, we discuss the explicit dictionary between general stationary 4D and 5D supersymmetric solutions in N=2 supergravity theories with cubic prepotentials. All these solutions are completely determined in terms of the same set of harmonic functions and the same set of attractor equations. As an example, we discuss black holes and black rings in Gödel-Taub-NUT spacetime. Then we consider corrections to the 4D solutions associated with more general prepotentials and comment on analogous corrections on the 5D side.

  14. Diagonal form factors and hexagon form factors II. Non-BPS light operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yunfeng

    2017-01-01

    We study the asymptotic volume dependence of the heavy-heavy-light three-point functions in the N=4 Super-Yang-Mills theory using the hexagon bootstrap approach, where the volume is the length of the heavy operator. We extend the analysis of our previous short letter [1] to the general case where the heavy operators can be in any rank one sector and the light operator being a generic non-BPS operator. We prove the conjecture of Bajnok, Janik and Wereszczynski [2] up to leading finite size corrections.

  15. Higher derivative corrections to BPS black hole attractors in 4d gauged supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Kiril; Katmadas, Stefanos; Lodato, Ivano

    2016-05-01

    We analyze BPS black hole attractors in 4d gauged supergravity in the presence of higher derivative supersymmetric terms, including a Weyl-squared-type action, and determine the resulting corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. The near-horizon geometry AdS2×S2 (or other Riemann surface) preserves half of the supercharges in N = 2 supergravity with Fayet-Iliopoulos gauging. We derive a relation between the entropy and the black hole charges that suggests via AdS/CFT how subleading corrections contribute to the supersymmetric index in the dual microscopic picture.

  16. Accumulation of N-Acetylglucosamine Oligomers in the Plant Cell Wall Affects Plant Architecture in a Dose-Dependent and Conditional Manner1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Vanholme, Bartel; Vanholme, Ruben; Turumtay, Halbay; Goeminne, Geert; Cesarino, Igor; Goubet, Florence; Morreel, Kris; Rencoret, Jorge; Bulone, Vincent; Hooijmaijers, Cortwa; De Rycke, Riet; Gheysen, Godelieve; Ralph, John; De Block, Marc; Meulewaeter, Frank; Boerjan, Wout

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of short N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) oligosaccharides on the physiology of plants, N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINYLTRANSFERASE (NodC) of Azorhizobium caulinodans was expressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The corresponding enzyme catalyzes the polymerization of GlcNAc and, accordingly, β-1,4-GlcNAc oligomers accumulated in the plant. A phenotype characterized by difficulties in developing an inflorescence stem was visible when plants were grown for several weeks under short-day conditions before transfer to long-day conditions. In addition, a positive correlation between the oligomer concentration and the penetrance of the phenotype was demonstrated. Although NodC overexpression lines produced less cell wall compared with wild-type plants under nonpermissive conditions, no indications were found for changes in the amount of the major cell wall polymers. The effect on the cell wall was reflected at the transcriptome level. In addition to genes encoding cell wall-modifying enzymes, a whole set of genes encoding membrane-coupled receptor-like kinases were differentially expressed upon GlcNAc accumulation, many of which encoded proteins with an extracellular Domain of Unknown Function26. Although stress-related genes were also differentially expressed, the observed response differed from that of a classical chitin response. This is in line with the fact that the produced chitin oligomers were too small to activate the chitin receptor-mediated signal cascade. Based on our observations, we propose a model in which the oligosaccharides modify the architecture of the cell wall by acting as competitors in carbohydrate-carbohydrate or carbohydrate-protein interactions, thereby affecting noncovalent interactions in the cell wall or at the interface between the cell wall and the plasma membrane. PMID:24664205

  17. Differential Effects of Nitrogen Forms on Cell Wall Phosphorus Remobilization Are Mediated by Nitric Oxide, Pectin Content, and Phosphate Transporter Expression1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chun Quan; Zhu, Xiao Fang; Hu, An Yong; Wang, Chao; Dong, Xiao Ying; Shen, Ren-Fang

    2016-01-01

    NH4+ is a major source of inorganic nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa), and NH4+ is known to stimulate the uptake of phosphorus (P). However, it is unclear whether NH4+ can also stimulate P remobilization when rice is grown under P-deficient conditions. In this study, we use the two rice cultivars ‘Nipponbare’ and ‘Kasalath’ that differ in their cell wall P reutilization, to demonstrate that NH4+ positively regulates the pectin content and activity of pectin methylesterase in root cell walls under −P conditions, thereby remobilizing more P from the cell wall and increasing soluble P in roots and shoots. Interestingly, our results show that more NO (nitric oxide) was produced in the rice root when NH4+ was applied as the sole nitrogen source compared with the NO3−. The effect of NO on the reutilization of P from the cell walls was further demonstrated through the application of the NO donor SNP (sodium nitroprusside) and c-PTIO (NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide). What’s more, the P-transporter gene OsPT2 is up-regulated under NH4+ supplementation and is therefore involved in the stimulated P remobilization. In conclusion, our data provide novel (to our knowledge) insight into the regulatory mechanism by which NH4+ stimulates Pi reutilization in cell walls of rice. PMID:27208223

  18. The Arabidopsis Class III Peroxidase AtPRX71 Negatively Regulates Growth under Physiological Conditions and in Response to Cell Wall Damage1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Raggi, Sara; Ranocha, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the cell wall has a major impact on plant growth and development, and alteration of cell wall structural components is often detrimental to biomass production. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these negative effects are largely unknown. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants with altered pectin composition because of either the expression of the Aspergillus niger polygalacturonase II (AnPGII; 35S:AnPGII plants) or a mutation in the QUASIMODO2 (QUA2) gene that encodes a putative pectin methyltransferase (qua2-1 plants), display severe growth defects. Here, we show that expression of Arabidopsis PEROXIDASE71 (AtPRX71), encoding a class III peroxidase, strongly increases in 35S:AnPGII and qua2-1 plants as well as in response to treatments with the cellulose synthase inhibitor isoxaben, which also impairs cell wall integrity. Analysis of atprx71 loss-of-function mutants and plants overexpressing AtPRX71 indicates that this gene negatively influences Arabidopsis growth at different stages of development, likely limiting cell expansion. The atprx71-1 mutation partially suppresses the dwarf phenotype of qua2-1, suggesting that AtPRX71 contributes to the growth defects observed in plants undergoing cell wall damage. Furthermore, AtPRX71 seems to promote the production of reactive oxygen species in qua2-1 plants as well as plants treated with isoxaben. We propose that AtPRX71 contributes to strengthen cell walls, therefore restricting cell expansion, during normal growth and in response to cell wall damage. PMID:26468518

  19. 2004/09 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09). Full-Scale Methodology Report. NCES 2012-246

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer; Janson, Natasha; Wheeless, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This report describes and evaluates the methods and procedures used in the 2004/09 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09). BPS:04/09 is the second and final follow-up interview for the cohort of first-time beginning postsecondary students identified in the 2004 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study. For the first time…

  20. The Role of the Plant-Specific ALTERED XYLOGLUCAN9 Protein in Arabidopsis Cell Wall Polysaccharide O-Acetylation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schultink, Alex; Naylor, Dan; Dama, Murali; Pauly, Markus

    2015-01-01

    A mutation in the ALTERED XYLOGLUCAN9 (AXY9) gene was found to be causative for the decreased xyloglucan acetylation phenotype of the axy9.1 mutant, which was identified in a forward genetic screen for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants. The axy9.1 mutant also exhibits decreased O-acetylation of xylan, implying that the AXY9 protein has a broad role in polysaccharide acetylation. An axy9 insertional mutant exhibits severe growth defects and collapsed xylem, demonstrating the importance of wall polysaccharide O-acetylation for normal plant growth and development. Localization and topological experiments indicate that the active site of the AXY9 protein resides within the Golgi lumen. The AXY9 protein appears to be a component of the plant cell wall polysaccharide acetylation pathway, which also includes the REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION and TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE proteins. The AXY9 protein is distinct from the TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE proteins, reported to be polysaccharide acetyltransferases, but does share homology with them and other acetyltransferases, suggesting that the AXY9 protein may act to produce an acetylated intermediate that is part of the O-acetylation pathway. PMID:25681330

  1. A Strategy against the Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Associated with Nitrogen-Containing Bisphosphonates (N-BPs): Attempts to Replace N-BPs with the Non-N-BP Etidronate.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Takefumi; Yamaguchi, Kouji; Sato, Koichiro; Takahashi, Masato; Yoshimura, Gen; Otsuru, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Itoi, Eiji; Sugawara, Shunji; Takahashi, Tetsu; Endo, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonate (BP)-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) can occur when enhanced bone-resorptive diseases are treated with nitrogen-containing BPs (N-BPs). Having previously found, in mice, that the non-N-BP etidronate can (i) reduce the inflammatory/necrotic effects of N-BPs by inhibiting their intracellular entry and (ii) antagonize the binding of N-BPs to bone hydroxyapatite, we hypothesized that etidronate-replacement therapy (Eti-RT) might be useful for patients with, or at risk of, BRONJ. In the present study we examined this hypothesis. In each of 25 patients receiving N-BP treatment, the N-BP was discontinued when BRONJ was suspected and/or diagnosed. After consultation with the physician-in-charge and with the patient's informed consent, Eti-RT was instituted in one group according to its standard oral prescription. We retrospectively compared this Eti-RT group (11 patients) with a non-Eti-RT group (14 patients). The Eti-RT group (6 oral N-BP patients and 5 intravenous N-BP patients) and the non-Eti-RT group (5 oral N-BP patients and 9 intravenous N-BP patients) were all stage 2-3 BRONJ. Both in oral and intravenous N-BP patients (particularly in the former patients), Eti-RT promoted or tended to promote the separation and removal of sequestra and thereby promoted the recovery of soft-tissues, allowing them to cover the exposed jawbone. These results suggest that Eti-RT may be an effective choice for BRONJ caused by either oral or intravenous N-BPs and for BRONJ prevention, while retaining a level of anti-bone-resorption. Eti-RT may also be effective at preventing BRONJ in N-BP-treated patients at risk of BRONJ. However, prospective trials are still required.

  2. DMSK: A practical 2400-bps receiver for the mobile satellite service: An MSAT-X Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, F.; Simon, M. K.; Sumida, J.

    1985-01-01

    The partical aspects of a 2400-bps differential detection minimum-shift-keying (DMSK) receiver are investigated. Fundamental issues relating to hardware precision, Doppler shift, fading, and frequency offset are examined, and it is concluded that the receiver's implementation at baseband is more advantageous both in cost and simplicity than its IF implementation. The DMSK receiver has been fabricated and tested under simulated mobile satellite environment conditions. The measured receiver performance in the presence of anomalies pertinent to the link is presented in this report. Furthermore, the receiver behavior in a band-limited channel (GMSK) is also investigated. The DMSK receiver performs substantially better than a coherent minimum-shift-keying (MSK) receiver in a heavily fading environment. The DMSK radio is simple and robust, and results in a lower error floor than its coherent counterpart. Moreover, this receiver is suitable for burst-type signals, and its recovery from deep fades is fast.

  3. Binding of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) to the Trypanosoma cruzi farnesyl diphosphate synthase homodimer

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chuan-Hsiang; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Oldfield, Eric; Amzel, L. Mario

    2010-11-15

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a class of compounds that have been used extensively in the treatment of osteoporosis and malignancy-related hypercalcemia. Some of these compounds act through inhibition of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS), a key enzyme in the synthesis of isoprenoids. Recently, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) used in bone resorption therapy have been shown to be active against Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), suggesting that they may be used as anti-trypanosomal agents. The crystal structures of TcFPPS in complex with substrate (isopentenyl diphosphate, IPP) and five N-BP inhibitors show that the C-1 hydroxyl and the nitrogen-containing groups of the inhibitors alter the binding of IPP and the conformation of two TcFPPS residues, Tyr94 and Gln167. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments suggest that binding of the first N-BPs to the homodimeric TcFPPS changes the binding properties of the second site. This mechanism of binding of N-BPs to TcFPPS is different to that reported for the binding of the same compounds to human FPPS.

  4. 2004/06 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/06). Methodology Report. NCES 2008-184

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cominole, Melissa; Wheeless, Sara; Dudley, Kristin; Franklin, Jeff; Wine, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The "2004/06 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/06)" is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education to respond to the need for a national, comprehensive database concerning issues students may face in enrollment, persistence, progress, and attainment in postsecondary education and in consequent early rates of…

  5. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: First Follow-Up 1996-98 (BPS:96/98) Methodology Report. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer S.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Biber, Melissa; Pratt, Daniel J.

    This report describes the methods and procedures used for the full-scale data collection effort of the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study First Follow-Up 1996-98 (BPS:96/98). These students, who started their postsecondary education during the 1995-96 academic year, were first interviewed during 1996 as part of the National…

  6. Clinical presentation and treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) in India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nagendra Nath

    2015-10-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a chronic disease characterized by pelvic pain urgency and frequency. Patients with severe symptoms lead a very miserable life. North American, European and Asian guidelines have been recently promulgated but they differ on many important issues. There is no consensus on its name, definition, investigations and management. Indian guidelines have also been developed and they give more importance to the symptoms in relation to micturition. Though initially believed to be rare or non-existent in India the situation has changed. In Indian patients the presentation is more or less same as the rest of the world but a large percentage have obstructive symptoms and unusual urinary symptoms. Anal discomfort is also common. In India the commonest investigation in all cases of lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction is ultrasonography of kidney ureter and bladder with measurement of the post void residual urine volume. Cystoscopy is also done in all the cases to rule out presence of tuberculosis or carcinoma in situ. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is not considered to be a clinical disease as it is difficult to rule out all differential diagnosis only from history. Hunner's lesion is very rare. Cystoscopy with hydro distension, oral therapy, intravesical therapy and surgical therapy form the back bone of management. It is difficult to know which treatment is best for a given patient. A staged protocol is followed and all the treatment modalities are applied to the patients in a sequential fashion-starting from the non-invasive to more invasive. Intravesical botox has not been found to be effective and there is no experience with interstim neuromodulation.

  7. Clinical presentation and treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) in India

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a chronic disease characterized by pelvic pain urgency and frequency. Patients with severe symptoms lead a very miserable life. North American, European and Asian guidelines have been recently promulgated but they differ on many important issues. There is no consensus on its name, definition, investigations and management. Indian guidelines have also been developed and they give more importance to the symptoms in relation to micturition. Though initially believed to be rare or non-existent in India the situation has changed. In Indian patients the presentation is more or less same as the rest of the world but a large percentage have obstructive symptoms and unusual urinary symptoms. Anal discomfort is also common. In India the commonest investigation in all cases of lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction is ultrasonography of kidney ureter and bladder with measurement of the post void residual urine volume. Cystoscopy is also done in all the cases to rule out presence of tuberculosis or carcinoma in situ. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is not considered to be a clinical disease as it is difficult to rule out all differential diagnosis only from history. Hunner’s lesion is very rare. Cystoscopy with hydro distension, oral therapy, intravesical therapy and surgical therapy form the back bone of management. It is difficult to know which treatment is best for a given patient. A staged protocol is followed and all the treatment modalities are applied to the patients in a sequential fashion—starting from the non-invasive to more invasive. Intravesical botox has not been found to be effective and there is no experience with interstim neuromodulation. PMID:26816851

  8. On domain decomposition preconditioner of BPS type for finite element discretizations of 3D elliptic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneev, V. G.

    2012-09-01

    BPS is a well known an efficient and rather general domain decomposition Dirichlet-Dirichlet type preconditioner, suggested in the famous series of papers Bramble, Pasciak and Schatz (1986-1989). Since then, it has been serving as the origin for the whole family of domain decomposition Dirichlet-Dirichlet type preconditioners-solvers as for h so hp discretizations of elliptic problems. For its original version, designed for h discretizations, the named authors proved the bound O(1 + log2 H/ h) for the relative condition number under some restricting conditions on the domain decomposition and finite element discretization. Here H/ h is the maximal relation of the characteristic size H of a decomposition subdomain to the mesh parameter h of its discretization. It was assumed that subdomains are images of the reference unite cube by trilinear mappings. Later similar bounds related to h discretizations were proved for more general domain decompositions, defined by means of coarse tetrahedral meshes. These results, accompanied by the development of some special tools of analysis aimed at such type of decompositions, were summarized in the book of Toselli and Widlund (2005). This paper is also confined to h discretizations. We further expand the range of admissible domain decompositions for constructing BPS preconditioners, in which decomposition subdomains can be convex polyhedrons, satisfying some conditions of shape regularity. We prove the bound for the relative condition number with the same dependence on H/ h as in the bound given above. Along the way to this result, we simplify the proof of the so called abstract bound for the relative condition number of the domain decomposition preconditioner. In the part, related to the analysis of the interface sub-problem preconditioning, our technical tools are generalization of those used by Bramble, Pasciak and Schatz.

  9. The Cell Wall Arabinose-Deficient Arabidopsis thaliana Mutant murus5 Encodes a Defective Allele of REVERSIBLY GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE21[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dugard, Christopher K.; Olek, Anna T.; Cooper, Bruce R.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional marker-based mapping and next-generation sequencing was used to determine that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) low cell wall arabinose mutant murus5 (mur5) encodes a defective allele of REVERSIBLY GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE2 (RGP2). Marker analysis of 13 F2 confirmed mutant progeny from a recombinant mapping population gave a rough map position on the upper arm of chromosome 5, and deep sequencing of DNA from these 13 lines gave five candidate genes with G→A (C→T) transitions predicted to result in amino acid changes. Of these five, only insertional mutant alleles of RGP2, a gene that encodes a UDP-arabinose mutase that interconverts UDP-arabinopyranose and UDP-arabinofuranose, exhibited the low cell wall arabinose phenotype. The identities of mur5 and two SALK insertional alleles were confirmed by allelism tests and overexpression of wild-type RGP2 complementary DNA placed under the control of the 35S promoter in the three alleles. The mur5 mutation results in the conversion of cysteine-257 to tyrosine-257 within a conserved hydrophobic cluster predicted to be distal to the active site and essential for protein stability and possible heterodimerization with other isoforms of RGP. PMID:27217494

  10. Determining the Subcellular Location of Synthesis and Assembly of the Cell Wall Polysaccharide (1,3; 1,4)-β-d-Glucan in Grasses[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sarah M.; Ho, Yin Ying; Lampugnani, Edwin R.; Van de Meene, Allison M.L.; Bain, Melissa P.; Bacic, Antony; Doblin, Monika S.

    2015-01-01

    The current dogma for cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis is that cellulose (and callose) is synthesized at the plasma membrane (PM), whereas matrix phase polysaccharides are assembled in the Golgi apparatus. We provide evidence that (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucan (mixed-linkage glucan [MLG]) does not conform to this paradigm. We show in various grass (Poaceae) species that MLG-specific antibody labeling is present in the wall but absent over Golgi, suggesting it is assembled at the PM. Antibodies to the MLG synthases, cellulose synthase-like F6 (CSLF6) and CSLH1, located CSLF6 to the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, secretory vesicles, and the PM and CSLH1 to the same locations apart from the PM. This pattern was recreated upon expression of VENUS-tagged barley (Hordeum vulgare) CSLF6 and CSLH1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and, consistent with our biochemical analyses of native grass tissues, shown to be catalytically active with CSLF6 and CSLH1 in PM-enriched and PM-depleted membrane fractions, respectively. These data support a PM location for the synthesis of MLG by CSLF6, the predominant enzymatically active isoform. A model is proposed to guide future experimental approaches to dissect the molecular mechanism(s) of MLG assembly. PMID:25770111

  11. The Target of β-Expansin EXPB1 in Maize Cell Walls from Binding and Solid-State NMR Studies1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tuo; Hong, Mei

    2016-01-01

    The wall-loosening actions of β-expansins are known primarily from studies of EXPB1 extracted from maize (Zea mays) pollen. EXPB1 selectively loosens cell walls (CWs) of grasses, but its specific binding target is unknown. We characterized EXPB1 binding to sequentially extracted maize CWs, finding that the protein primarily binds glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX), the major matrix polysaccharide in grass CWs. This binding is strongly reduced by salts, indicating that it is predominantly electrostatic in nature. For direct molecular evidence of EXPB1 binding, we conducted solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments using paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE), which is sensitive to distances between unpaired electrons and nuclei. By mixing 13C-enriched maize CWs with EXPB1 functionalized with a Mn2+ tag, we measured Mn2+-induced PRE. Strong 1H and 13C PREs were observed for the carboxyls of GAX, followed by more moderate PREs for carboxyl groups in homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan-I, indicating that EXPB1 preferentially binds GAX. In contrast, no PRE was observed for cellulose, indicating very weak interaction of EXPB1 with cellulose. Dynamics experiments show that EXPB1 changes GAX mobility in a complex manner: the rigid fraction of GAX became more rigid upon EXPB1 binding while the dynamic fraction became more mobile. Combining these data with previous results, we propose that EXPB1 loosens grass CWs by disrupting noncovalent junctions between highly substituted GAX and GAX of low substitution, which binds cellulose. This study provides molecular evidence of β-expansin’s target in grass CWs and demonstrates a new strategy for investigating ligand binding for proteins that are difficult to express heterologously. PMID:27729469

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Platelet-Rich Fibrin Biomaterial and Open Flap Debridement in the Treatment of Two and Three Wall Intrabony Defects

    PubMed Central

    Ajwani, Himanshu; Shetty, Sharath; Gopalakrishnan, Dharmarajan; Kathariya, Rahul; Kulloli, Anita; Dolas, R S; Pradeep, A R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Platelet-rich concentrates are the most widely used regenerative biomaterials. Stimulation and acceleration of soft and hard tissue healing are due to local and continuous delivery of growth factors and proteins, mimicking the needs of the physiological wound healing and reparative tissue processes. This article aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy of open flap debridement (OFD) with or without platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in the treatment of intrabony defects. Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects with forty intrabony defects were treated with either autologous PRF with open-flap debridement (test, n = 20) or open-flap debridement alone (control, n = 20). Soft tissue parameters included: Plaque index, sulcus bleeding index, probing depth, relative attachment level and gingival marginal level (GML). The hard tissue parameters included-distances from: Cement enamel junction to the base of the defect (CEJ-BOD): Alveolar crest to the base of the defect (AC-BOD): And CEJ to AC. The parameters were recorded at baseline and at 9 months postoperatively calculated using standardized radiographs by image-analysis software. Results: Statistically significant (0.005*) intragroup improvements were seen with all the hard and soft parameters in both test and control groups, except for GML. Statistically significant improvements were seen with the mean defect fill (CEJ-BOD and AC-BOD) (P = 0.003*) when intergroup comparisons were made. Conclusions: Adjunctive use of PRF with OFD significantly improves defect fill when compared to OFD alone. PRF has consistently been showing regenerative potential; it is simple, easy and inexpensive biomaterial compared with bone grafts. PMID:25954068

  13. RNA-Seq Links the Transcription Factors AINTEGUMENTA and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 to Cell Wall Remodeling and Plant Defense Pathways1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bequette, Carlton J.; Fu, Zheng Qing; Loraine, Ann E.

    2016-01-01

    AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 (AIL6) are two related transcription factors in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that have partially overlapping roles in several aspects of flower development, including floral organ initiation, identity specification, growth, and patterning. To better understand the biological processes regulated by these two transcription factors, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) on ant ail6 double mutants. We identified thousands of genes that are differentially expressed in the double mutant compared with the wild type. Analyses of these genes suggest that ANT and AIL6 regulate floral organ initiation and growth through modifications to the cell wall polysaccharide pectin. We found reduced levels of demethylesterified homogalacturonan and altered patterns of auxin accumulation in early stages of ant ail6 flower development. The RNA-Seq experiment also revealed cross-regulation of AIL gene expression at the transcriptional level. The presence of a number of overrepresented Gene Ontology terms related to plant defense in the set of genes differentially expressed in ant ail6 suggest that ANT and AIL6 also regulate plant defense pathways. Furthermore, we found that ant ail6 plants have elevated levels of two defense hormones: salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, and show increased resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. These results suggest that ANT and AIL6 regulate biological pathways that are critical for both development and defense. PMID:27208279

  14. Transcriptome Profiling of the Green Alga Spirogyra pratensis (Charophyta) Suggests an Ancestral Role for Ethylene in Cell Wall Metabolism, Photosynthesis, and Abiotic Stress Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that ethylene regulates a diverse set of developmental and stress-related processes in angiosperms, yet its roles in early-diverging embryophytes and algae are poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that ethylene functions as a hormone in the charophyte green alga Spirogyra pratensis. Since land plants evolved from charophytes, this implies conservation of ethylene as a hormone in green plants for at least 450 million years. However, the physiological role of ethylene in charophyte algae has remained unknown. To gain insight into ethylene responses in Spirogyra, we used mRNA sequencing to measure changes in gene expression over time in Spirogyra filaments in response to an ethylene treatment. Our analyses show that at the transcriptional level, ethylene predominantly regulates three processes in Spirogyra: (1) modification of the cell wall matrix by expansins and xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases, (2) down-regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthesis, and (3) activation of abiotic stress responses. We confirmed that the photosynthetic capacity and chlorophyll content were reduced by an ethylene treatment and that several abiotic stress conditions could stimulate cell elongation in an ethylene-dependent manner. We also found that the Spirogyra transcriptome harbors only 10 ethylene-responsive transcription factor (ERF) homologs, several of which are regulated by ethylene. These results provide an initial understanding of the hormonal responses induced by ethylene in Spirogyra and help to reconstruct the role of ethylene in ancestral charophytes prior to the origin of land plants. PMID:27489312

  15. BPS-like bound and thermodynamics of the charged BTZ black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Monni, Cristina

    2009-07-01

    The charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole is plagued by several pathologies: (a) Divergent boundary terms are present in the action; hence, we have a divergent black-hole mass. (b) Once a finite, renormalized, mass M is defined, black-hole states exist for arbitrarily negative values of M. (c) There is no upper bound on the charge Q. We show that these pathological features are an artifact of the renormalization procedure. They can be completely removed by using an alternative renormalization scheme leading to a different definition M0 of the black-hole mass, which is the total energy inside the horizon. The new mass satisfies a BPS-like bound M0≥(π)/(2)Q2, and the heat capacity of the hole is positive. We also discuss the black-hole thermodynamics that arises when M0 is interpreted as the internal energy of the system. We show, using three independent approaches (black-hole thermodynamics, Einstein equations, and Euclidean action formulation), that M0 satisfies the first law if a term describing the mechanical work done by the electrostatic pressure is introduced.

  16. Diet and its role in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and comorbid conditions.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Justin I; Shorter, Barbara; Moldwin, Robert M

    2012-06-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Nearly 90% of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) report sensitivities to a wide variety of dietary comestibles. Current questionnaire-based literature suggests that citrus fruits, tomatoes, vitamin C, artificial sweeteners, coffee, tea, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, and spicy foods tend to exacerbate symptoms, while calcium glycerophosphate and sodium bicarbonate tend to improve symptoms. At present we recommend employing a controlled method to determine dietary sensitivities, such as an elimination diet, in order to identify sensitivities while at the same time maintain optimal nutritional intake. We review current literature with regard to diet's effect upon IC/BPS and common comorbidities (irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, neuropathic pain, vulvodynia, and headache) with a focus upon questionnaire-based investigations. We discuss the pathologic mechanisms that may link diet and IC/BPS related-pain, concentrating upon specific comestibles such as acidic foods, foods high in potassium, caffeine, and alcohol. Up to 90% of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) report sensitivities to a wide variety of comestibles.   Pathological mechanisms suggested to be responsible for the relationship between dietary intake and symptom exacerbation include peripheral and/or central neural upregulation, bladder epithelial dysfunction, and organ 'cross-talk', amongst others.   Current questionnaire-based data suggests that citrus fruits, tomatoes, vitamin C, artificial sweeteners, coffee, tea, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, and spicy foods tend to exacerbate symptoms, while calcium glycerophosphate and sodium bicarbonate tend to improve symptoms. Specific comestible sensitivities varied between patients and may have been influenced by comorbid conditions. This suggests that a controlled method to determine dietary

  17. GmEXPB2, a Cell Wall β-Expansin, Affects Soybean Nodulation through Modifying Root Architecture and Promoting Nodule Formation and Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinxin; Zhao, Jing; Tan, Zhiyuan; Liao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Nodulation is an essential process for biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in legumes, but its regulation remains poorly understood. Here, a β-expansin gene, GmEXPB2, was found to be critical for soybean (Glycine max) nodulation. GmEXPB2 was preferentially expressed at the early stage of nodule development. β-Glucuronidase staining further showed that GmEXPB2 was mainly localized to the nodule vascular trace and nodule vascular bundles, as well as nodule cortical and parenchyma cells, suggesting that GmEXPB2 might be involved in cell wall modification and extension during nodule formation and development. Overexpression of GmEXPB2 dramatically modified soybean root architecture, increasing the size and number of cortical cells in the root meristematic and elongation zones and expanding root hair density and size of the root hair zone. Confocal microscopy with green fluorescent protein-labeled rhizobium USDA110 cells showed that the infection events were significantly enhanced in the GmEXPB2-overexpressing lines. Moreover, nodule primordium development was earlier in overexpressing lines compared with wild-type plants. Thereby, overexpression of GmEXPB2 in either transgenic soybean hairy roots or whole plants resulted in increased nodule number, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity and thus elevated plant N and phosphorus content as well as biomass. In contrast, suppression of GmEXPB2 in soybean transgenic composite plants led to smaller infected cells and thus reduced number of big nodules, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity, thereby inhibiting soybean growth. Taken together, we conclude that GmEXPB2 critically affects soybean nodulation through modifying root architecture and promoting nodule formation and development and subsequently impacts biological N2 fixation and growth of soybean. PMID:26432877

  18. Comparison of objectively measured motor behavior with ratings of the motor behavior domain of the Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bracht, Tobias; Heidemeyer, Kristine; Koschorke, Philipp; Horn, Helge; Razavi, Nadja; Wopfner, Alexander; Strik, Werner; Walther, Sebastian

    2012-07-30

    Motor symptoms in schizophrenia occur frequently and are relevant to diagnosis and antipsychotic therapy. To date motor symptoms are difficult to assess and their pathobiology is a widely unresolved issue. The Bern Psychopathology Scale for the assessment of system-specific psychotic symptoms (BPS) was designed to identify homogenous patient groups by focusing on three domains: language, affectivity and motor behavior. The present study aimed to validate the motor behavior domain of the BPS using wrist actigraphy. In total, 106 patients were rated with the BPS and underwent 24 h continuous actigraphy recording. The ratings of the global severity of the motor behavior domain (GSM) as well as the quantitative and the subjective items of the motor behavior domain of the BPS were significantly associated with actigraphic variables. In contrast, the qualitative items of the motor domain failed to show an association with actigraphy. Likewise, scores of the language and the affectivity domains were not related to actigraphic measures. In conclusion, we provided substantial external validity for global, quantitative and subjective ratings of the BPS motor behavior domain. Thus, the BPS is suitable to assess the dimension of quantitative motor behavior in the schizophrenia spectrum.

  19. Wall-Crossing, Free Fermions and Crystal Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sułkowski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We describe wall-crossing for local, toric Calabi-Yau manifolds without compact four-cycles, in terms of free fermions, vertex operators, and crystal melting. Firstly, to each such manifold we associate two states in the free fermion Hilbert space. The overlap of these states reproduces the BPS partition function corresponding to the non-commutative Donaldson-Thomas invariants, given by the modulus square of the topological string partition function. Secondly, we introduce the wall-crossing operators which represent crossing the walls of marginal stability associated to changes of the B-field through each two-cycle in the manifold. BPS partition functions in non-trivial chambers are given by the expectation values of these operators. Thirdly, we discuss crystal interpretation of such correlators for this whole class of manifolds. We describe evolution of these crystals upon a change of the moduli, and find crystal interpretation of the flop transition and the DT/PT transition. The crystals which we find generalize and unify various other Calabi-Yau crystal models which appeared in literature in recent years.

  20. Black hole information in string theory: Non-BPS microstates and superstrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehoff, Benjamin E.

    In this thesis we explore two novel directions in the quest for 3-charge "black hole microstate geometries", which are smooth, horizon-free supergravity solutions in 5 or more dimensions that correspond to the microstates of black holes. First we find two infinite families of smooth non-BPS microstates using the "floating brane ansatz" method in 5 dimensions, based on a class of Kahler metrics studied by LeBrun. The first set of solutions is based on the LeBrun-Burns subclass, which turn out to have a trivial flux, leading to trivial bubble equations. The second set of solutions is based on the more general LeBrun metrics, which have non-trivial flux, and we find non-trivial bubble equations. In both cases, solutions are asymptotic to warped, rotating AdS2 x S 3. Second, we realize two important steps toward the construction of superstrata, which are 3-charge, 2-dipole-charge smooth supergravity solutions that fluctuate as an arbitrary function of two variables. In one case, we find solutions that depend on functions of two variables; however they lack the necessary KKM charge to make them smooth. In the second case, we construct smooth solutions with KKM charge turned on, but in a restricted class that allows them only to depend on arbitrary functions of one variable. Nevertheless, we show that this one variable can be oriented in an arbitrary way inside a 2-torus, and many sources with different orientations inside the T2 can be combined via superposition.

  1. Escherichia coli Protein Expression System for Acetylcholine Binding Proteins (AChBPs)

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Nikita; Paul, Blessy; Ragnarsson, Lotten; Lewis, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are ligand gated ion channels, identified as therapeutic targets for a range of human diseases. Drug design for nAChR related disorders is increasingly using structure-based approaches. Many of these structural insights for therapeutic lead development have been obtained from co-crystal structures of nAChR agonists and antagonists with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP). AChBP is a water soluble, structural and functional homolog of the extracellular, ligand-binding domain of nAChRs. Currently, AChBPs are recombinantly expressed in eukaryotic expression systems for structural and biophysical studies. Here, we report the establishment of an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system that significantly reduces the cost and time of production compared to the existing expression systems. E. coli can efficiently express unglycosylated AChBP for crystallography and makes the expression of isotopically labelled forms feasible for NMR. We used a pHUE vector containing an N-terminal His-tagged ubiquitin fusion protein to facilitate AChBP expression in the soluble fractions, and thus avoid the need to recover protein from inclusion bodies. The purified protein yield obtained from the E. coli expression system is comparable to that obtained from existing AChBP expression systems. E. coli expressed AChBP bound nAChR agonists and antagonists with affinities matching those previously reported. Thus, the E. coli expression system significantly simplifies the expression and purification of functional AChBP for structural and biophysical studies. PMID:27304486

  2. Evaluation of the scale dependent dynamic SGS model in the open source code caffa3d.MBRi in wall-bounded flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Martin; Usera, Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    The Scale Dependent Dynamic Model (SDDM) has been widely validated in large-eddy simulations using pseudo-spectral codes [1][2][3]. The scale dependency, particularly the potential law, has been proved also in a priori studies [4][5]. To the authors' knowledge there have been only few attempts to use the SDDM in finite difference (FD) and finite volume (FV) codes [6][7], finding some improvements with the dynamic procedures (scale independent or scale dependent approach), but not showing the behavior of the scale-dependence parameter when using the SDDM. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the SDDM in the open source code caffa3d.MBRi, an updated version of the code presented in [8]. caffa3d.MBRi is a FV code, second-order accurate, parallelized with MPI, in which the domain is divided in unstructured blocks of structured grids. To accomplish this, 2 cases are considered: flow between flat plates and flow over a rough surface with the presence of a model wind turbine, taking for this case the experimental data presented in [9]. In both cases the standard Smagorinsky Model (SM), the Scale Independent Dynamic Model (SIDM) and the SDDM are tested. As presented in [6][7] slight improvements are obtained with the SDDM. Nevertheless, the behavior of the scale-dependence parameter supports the generalization of the dynamic procedure proposed in the SDDM, particularly taking into account that no explicit filter is used (the implicit filter is unknown). [1] F. Porté-Agel, C. Meneveau, M.B. Parlange. "A scale-dependent dynamic model for large-eddy simulation: application to a neutral atmospheric boundary layer". Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2000, 415, 261-284. [2] E. Bou-Zeid, C. Meneveau, M. Parlante. "A scale-dependent Lagrangian dynamic model for large eddy simulation of complex turbulent flows". Physics of Fluids, 2005, 17, 025105 (18p). [3] R. Stoll, F. Porté-Agel. "Dynamic subgrid-scale models for momentum and scalar fluxes in large-eddy simulations of

  3. Comparative study of the microvascular blood flow in the intestinal wall, wound contraction and fluid evacuation during negative pressure wound therapy in laparostomy using the V.A.C. abdominal dressing and the ABThera open abdomen negative pressure therapy system.

    PubMed

    Lindstedt, Sandra; Malmsjö, Malin; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Ingemansson, Richard

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the changes in microvascular blood flow in the small intestinal wall, wound contraction and fluid evacuation, using the established V.A.C. abdominal dressing (VAC dressing) and a new abdominal dressing, the ABThera open abdomen negative pressure therapy system (ABThera dressing), in negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Midline incisions were made in 12 pigs that were subjected to treatment with NPWT using the VAC or ABThera dressing. The microvascular blood flow in the intestinal wall was measured before and after the application of topical negative pressures of −50, −75 and −125mmHg using laser Doppler velocimetry. Wound contraction and fluid evacuation were also measured. Baseline blood flow was defined as 100% in all settings. The blood flow was significantly reduced to 64·6±6·7% (P <0·05) after the application of −50mmHg using the VAC dressing, and to 65·3±9·6% (P <0·05) after the application of −50mmHg using the ABThera dressing. The blood flow was significantly reduced to 39·6±6·7% (P <0·05) after the application of −125mmHg using VAC and to 40·5±6·2% (P <0·05) after the application of −125mmHg using ABThera. No significant difference in reduction in blood flow could be observed between the two groups. The ABThera system afforded significantly better fluid evacuation from the wound, better drainage of the abdomen and better wound contraction than the VAC dressing.

  4. Wall Turbulence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  5. All three-loop four-point correlators of half-BPS operators in planar N = 4 SYM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicherin, Dmitry; Drummond, James; Heslop, Paul; Sokatchev, Emery

    2016-08-01

    We obtain the planar correlation function of four half-BPS operators of arbitrary weights, up to three loops. Our method exploits only elementary properties of the integrand of the planar correlator, such as its symmetries and singularity structure. This allows us to write down a general ansatz for the integrand. The coefficients in the ansatz are fixed by means of a powerful light-cone OPE relation between correlators with different weights. Our result is formulated in terms of a limited number of functions built from known one-, two- and three-loop conformal integrals. These results are useful for checking recent integrability predictions for the OPE structure constants.

  6. The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY in 2016: towards curated quantitative interactions between 1300 protein targets and 6000 ligands

    PubMed Central

    Southan, Christopher; Sharman, Joanna L.; Benson, Helen E.; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J.; Alexander, Stephen P. H.; Buneman, O. Peter; Davenport, Anthony P.; McGrath, John C.; Peters, John A.; Spedding, Michael; Catterall, William A.; Fabbro, Doriano; Davies, Jamie A.

    2016-01-01

    The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (GtoPdb, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org) provides expert-curated molecular interactions between successful and potential drugs and their targets in the human genome. Developed by the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) and the British Pharmacological Society (BPS), this resource, and its earlier incarnation as IUPHAR-DB, is described in our 2014 publication. This update incorporates changes over the intervening seven database releases. The unique model of content capture is based on established and new target class subcommittees collaborating with in-house curators. Most information comes from journal articles, but we now also index kinase cross-screening panels. Targets are specified by UniProtKB IDs. Small molecules are defined by PubChem Compound Identifiers (CIDs); ligand capture also includes peptides and clinical antibodies. We have extended the capture of ligands and targets linked via published quantitative binding data (e.g. Ki, IC50 or Kd). The resulting pharmacological relationship network now defines a data-supported druggable genome encompassing 7% of human proteins. The database also provides an expanded substrate for the biennially published compendium, the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY. This article covers content increase, entity analysis, revised curation strategies, new website features and expanded download options. PMID:26464438

  7. The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY in 2016: towards curated quantitative interactions between 1300 protein targets and 6000 ligands.

    PubMed

    Southan, Christopher; Sharman, Joanna L; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Alexander, Stephen P H; Buneman, O Peter; Davenport, Anthony P; McGrath, John C; Peters, John A; Spedding, Michael; Catterall, William A; Fabbro, Doriano; Davies, Jamie A

    2016-01-04

    The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (GtoPdb, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org) provides expert-curated molecular interactions between successful and potential drugs and their targets in the human genome. Developed by the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) and the British Pharmacological Society (BPS), this resource, and its earlier incarnation as IUPHAR-DB, is described in our 2014 publication. This update incorporates changes over the intervening seven database releases. The unique model of content capture is based on established and new target class subcommittees collaborating with in-house curators. Most information comes from journal articles, but we now also index kinase cross-screening panels. Targets are specified by UniProtKB IDs. Small molecules are defined by PubChem Compound Identifiers (CIDs); ligand capture also includes peptides and clinical antibodies. We have extended the capture of ligands and targets linked via published quantitative binding data (e.g. Ki, IC50 or Kd). The resulting pharmacological relationship network now defines a data-supported druggable genome encompassing 7% of human proteins. The database also provides an expanded substrate for the biennially published compendium, the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY. This article covers content increase, entity analysis, revised curation strategies, new website features and expanded download options.

  8. 'Stucco' Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This projected mosaic image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial clotting or cement-like properties of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) wide and 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall.(This image also appears as an inset on a separate image from the rover's navigation camera, showing the location of this particular spot within the trench wall.)

  9. Wall Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  10. 48. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHWEST, FIRST FLOOR ROOM, EAST WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHWEST, FIRST FLOOR ROOM, EAST WALL, WITH SECRET DOOR TO BOXED STAIRWAY TO ROOM ABOVE OPEN IN PANELLED WALL - Montpelier, Montpelier Drive & State Route 197, Laurel, Prince George's County, MD

  11. Endocrine Activity of Bisphenol S (BPS) Using In Vitro Estrogenic/Anti-Androgenic Transcriptional Activation Assays and the In Vivo Uterotrophic Assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is gradually being phased out of many consumer products and processes leading to potential increases in human and environmental exposures to relatively understudied replacement compounds, including Bisphenol S (BPS). Research from our lab has shown that BPA and...

  12. The Most General BPS Black Hole from Type II String Theory on a Six-Torus the Macroscopic-Microscopic Correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolini, M.; Trigiante, M.

    2002-12-01

    BPS black hole solutions in supergravity have been playing an important role in probing non-perturbative superstring dualities. The largest of these dualities is the conjectured U-duality, implemented by a discrete group of transformations U(Z), which represents the ultimate connection between all known superstring theories realized on various backgrounds. This picture suggests the existence of a unique fundamental quantum theory underlying the superstring theories, of which U-duality is an exact symmetry. In [1] this U-duality was conjectured to be encoded in the largest global symmetry group of the the field equations and Bianchi identities in the low-energy effective supergravity theory, which is described at classical level by a continuous semisimple Lie group U. The degree of supersymmetry preserved by BPS black holes in supergravity protects their physical quantities to a certain extent from quantum corrections so that they can be thought to correspond to solutions of superstring theory. Since moreover the BPS condition is U-duality invariant, these solutions naturally span an orbit of the U-duality group, which is a continuous collection of solutions at classical supergravity level and a discrete set at the superstring level. Supergravity represents the framework in which these orbits can be studied in most detail . A fruitful strategy therefore in order to study the microscopic features of BPS black holes in relation to their U-duality invariant properties would be to keep track in a precise mathematical fashion of the microscopic description of BPS black holes at this low-energy level and moreover to focus on the most general BPS black hole in a certain orbit modulo U-duality transformations, namely the generating solution. This is the main philosophy motivating the research project carried out in [3,4,5] where a macroscopic (supergravity) starting point was adopted for a systematic microscopic analysis of

  13. The important role of physicians in addressing the psychological aspects of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS): A qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, Gregory; Volpe, Katherine A; Dunivan, Gena C; Cichowski, Sara B; Jeppson, Peter C; Rogers, Rebecca G; Komesu, Yuko M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a poorly understood source of chronic pain causing significant morbidity, with variable treatment success. Despite the need to understand patient perspectives in chronic pain, there is a paucity of qualitative data for IC/BPS. We aimed to acquire information regarding patient experience with IC/BPS symptoms and with their medical care to elicit suggestions to improve patient satisfaction with that care. Methods Fifteen women with IC/PBS participated in a total of four focus groups. Sessions were recorded, transcribed, and information was de-identified. Focus groups were conducted until thematic saturation was reached. All transcripts were coded and analyzed by a minimum of 3 independent physician reviewers. Investigators identified emergent themes and concepts using grounded theory methodology. Results Participant’s mean age was 52.6 years with an average IC/BPS duration of 6.3 years. Thematic saturation was reached after 4 focus groups. We identified three emergent patient experience concepts; IC/PBS is debilitating, the disease course is unpredictable and unrelenting, and patients experience significant isolation. Importantly, suicidal ideation was expressed in each group. Patients voiced strong preference for physicians who provided education regarding the condition, an array of treatment options, presented organized treatment plans and offered optimism and hope regarding treatment outcomes. Conclusions Our study presents novel findings of the importance of patient-physician interaction in IC/BPS and reinforces the tremendous disability and burden of this disease, which frequently manifests in suicidal ideation. Patients preferred organized treatment plans with diverse choices, and providers who offered hope in dealing with their condition. PMID:27581769

  14. Cooling wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.I.

    1995-07-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

  15. The Open University Opens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Jeremy, Ed.

    Conceived by the British Labor Government in the 1960's the Open University was viewed as a way to extend higher education to Britain's working class, but enrollment figures in classes that represent traditional academic disciplines show that the student population is predominantly middle class. Bringing education into the home presents numerous…

  16. Ultrasonic Digital Communication System for a Steel Wall Multipath Channel: Methods and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Timothy L.

    2005-12-01

    As of the development of this thesis, no commercially available products have been identified for the digital communication of instrumented data across a thick ({approx} 6 n.) steel wall using ultrasound. The specific goal of the current research is to investigate the application of methods for digital communication of instrumented data (i.e., temperature, voltage, etc.) across the wall of a steel pressure vessel. The acoustic transmission of data using ultrasonic transducers prevents the need to breach the wall of such a pressure vessel which could ultimately affect its safety or lifespan, or void the homogeneity of an experiment under test. Actual digital communication paradigms are introduced and implemented for the successful dissemination of data across such a wall utilizing solely an acoustic ultrasonic link. The first, dubbed the ''single-hop'' configuration, can communicate bursts of digital data one-way across the wall using the Differential Binary Phase-Shift Keying (DBPSK) modulation technique as fast as 500 bps. The second, dubbed the ''double-hop'' configuration, transmits a carrier into the vessel, modulates it, and retransmits it externally. Using a pulsed carrier with Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), this technique can communicate digital data as fast as 500 bps. Using a CW carrier, Least Mean-Squared (LMS) adaptive interference suppression, and DBPSK, this method can communicate data as fast as 5 kbps. A third technique, dubbed the ''reflected-power'' configuration, communicates digital data by modulating a pulsed carrier by varying the acoustic impedance at the internal transducer-wall interface. The paradigms of the latter two configurations are believed to be unique. All modulation methods are based on the premise that the wall cannot be breached in any way and can therefore be viably implemented with power delivered wirelessly through the acoustic channel using ultrasound. Methods, results, and considerations for future research are discussed

  17. Anterior vaginal wall repair (surgical treatment of urinary incontinence) - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100110.htm Anterior vaginal wall repair (surgical treatment of urinary incontinence) - series— ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The vaginal opening lies just below the urethral opening, and ...

  18. Wall to Wall Optimal Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chini, Gregory P.; Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Doering, Charles R.

    2013-11-01

    How much heat can be transported between impermeable fixed-temperature walls by incompressible flows with a given amount of kinetic energy or enstrophy? What do the optimal velocity fields look like? We employ variational calculus to address these questions in the context of steady 2D flows. The resulting nonlinear Euler-Lagrange equations are solved numerically, and in some cases analytically, to find the maximum possible Nusselt number Nu as a function of the Péclect number Pe , a measure of the flow's energy or enstrophy. We find that in the fixed-energy problem Nu ~ Pe , while in the fixed-enstrophy problem Nu ~ Pe 10 / 17 . In both cases, the optimal flow consists of an array of convection cells with aspect ratio Γ (Pe) . Interpreting our results in terms of the Rayleigh number Ra for relevant buoyancy-driven problems, we find Nu <= 1 + 0 . 035 Ra and Γ ~ Ra - 1 / 2 for porous medium convection (which occurs with fixed energy), and Nu <= 1 + 0 . 115 Ra 5 / 12 and Γ ~ Ra - 1 / 4 for Rayleigh-Bénard convection (which occurs with fixed enstrophy and for free-slip walls). This work was supported by NSF awards PHY-0855335, DMS-0927587, and PHY-1205219 (CRD) and DMS-0928098 (GPC). Much of this work was completed at the 2012 Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (GFD) Program at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

  19. Fundamental string solutions in open string field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Michishita, Yoji

    2006-02-15

    In Witten's open cubic bosonic string field theory and Berkovits' superstring field theory we investigate solutions of the equations of motion with appropriate source terms, which correspond to Callan-Maldacena solution in Born-Infeld theory representing fundamental strings ending on the D-branes. The solutions are given in order by order manner, and we show some full order properties in the sense of {alpha}{sup '} expansion. In superstring case we show that the solution is 1/2 BPS in full order.

  20. The Berlin Wall: A Simulation for the Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, William B., III

    2010-01-01

    November 9, 2009, marked the twentieth anniversary of the opening of the Berlin Wall. The Wall, a symbol of the Cold War, separated the German people for 28 years (1961-1989), keeping those on the East side isolated. Although the construction and dismantling of the Berlin Wall is a significant part of history, the topic is little covered in the…

  1. VIEW TO THE NORTH TOWARD THE WING WALL AND CONCRETESLAB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO THE NORTH TOWARD THE WING WALL AND CONCRETE-SLAB CHANNEL WALL ON THE WEST SIDE OF THE NORTH END OF THE BRIDGE. NOTE THE SMALL CULVERT OPENING BEHIND SAGEBRUSH NEAR THE END OF THE WING WALL. 37 - Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, Cajon Subdivision, Structure No. 61.5X, between Cajon Summit and Keenbrook, Devore, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. On WZ and RR couplings of BPS branes and their all order α‧ corrections in IIB, IIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatefi, Ehsan

    2017-03-01

    We compute all three and four point couplings of BPS Dp-branes for all different nonzero p-values on the entire world volume and transverse directions. We start finding out all four point function supersymmetric Wess-Zumino (WZ) actions of one closed string Ramond-Ramond (RR) field with two fermions, either with the same (IIB) or different chirality (IIA) as well as their all order α‧ corrections. The closed form of S-matrices of two closed string RR in both IIB, IIA, including their all order α‧ corrections have also been addressed. Our results confirm that, not only the structures of α‧ corrections but also their coefficients of IIB are quite different from their IIA ones. The S-matrix of an RR and two gauge (scalar) fields and their all order corrections in antisymmetric picture of RR have been carried out as well. Various remarks on the restricted Bianchi identities as well as all order α‧ corrections to all different supersymmetric WZ couplings in both type IIA and IIB superstring theory are also released. Lastly, different singularity structures as well as all order contact terms for all non-vanishing traces in type II have also been constructed.

  3. Remarks on non-BPS string amplitudes and their all order α' contact interactions in IIB, IIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatefi, Ehsan

    2017-03-01

    We explore the entire form of S-Matrix elements of a potential C n-1 Ramond-Ramond (RR) form field, a tachyon and two transverse scalar fields on both world volume and transverse directions of type IIB and IIA superstring theories. Apart from < {V}_{C^{-2}}{V}_{φ^0}{V}_{φ^0}{V}_{T^0}\\rangle the other scattering amplitude, namely < {V}_{C^{-1}}{V}_{φ^{-1}}{V}_{φ^0}{V}_{T^0}\\rangle is also revealed. We then start to compare all singularity structures of symmetric and asymmetric analysis, generating all infinite singularity structures as well as all order α' contact interactions on the whole directions. This leads to deriving various new contact terms and several new restricted Bianchi identities in both type IIB and IIA. It is also shown that just some of the new couplings of type IIB (IIA) string theory can be re-verified in an Effective Field Theory (EFT) by pull-back of branes. To construct the rest of S-matrix elements one needs to first derive restricted world volume (or bulk) Bianchi identities and then discover new EFT couplings in both type IIB and IIA. Finally the presence of commutator of scalar fields inside the exponential of Wess-Zumino action for non-BPS branes has been confirmed as well.

  4. 12. INTERIOR OF FRONT BEDROOM SHOWING ELECTRICAL WALL HEATER ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR OF FRONT BEDROOM SHOWING ELECTRICAL WALL HEATER ON BACK WALL, OPEN FIVE-PANELED DOOR TO LIVING ROOM AT PHOTO LEFT, AND OPEN SOLID DOOR TO BATHROOM AT PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  5. Correlation between biofilm production, antibiotic susceptibility and exopolysaccharide composition in Burkholderia pseudomallei bpsI, ppk, and rpoS mutant strains.

    PubMed

    Mongkolrob, Rungrawee; Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee

    2015-11-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the cause of melioidosis, a fatal tropical infectious disease, which has been reported to have a high rate of recurrence, even when an intensive dose of antibiotics is used. Biofilm formation is believed to be one of the possible causes of relapse because of its ability to increase drug resistance. EPS in biofilms have been reported to be related to the limitation of antibiotic penetration in B. pseudomallei. However, the mechanisms by which biofilms restrict the diffusion of antibiotics remain unclear. The present study presents a correlation between exopolysaccharide production in biofilm matrix and antibiotic resistance in B. pseudomallei using bpsI, ppk, and rpoS mutant strains. CLSM revealed a reduction in exopolysaccharide production and disabled micro-colony formation in B. pseudomallei mutants, which paralleled the antibiotic resistance. Different ratios of carbohydrate contents in the exopolysaccharides of the mutants were detected, although they have the same components, including glucose, galactose, mannose, and rhamnose, with the exception being that no detectable rhamnose peak was observed in the bpsI mutant. These results indicate that the correlation between these phenomena in the B. pseudomallei biofilm at least results from the exopolysaccharide, which may be under the regulation of bpsI, ppk, or rpoS genes.

  6. A sensitive single-enzyme assay system using the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase BpsA for measurement of L-glutamine in biological samples

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alistair S.; Robins, Katherine J.; Ackerley, David F.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to rapidly, economically and accurately measure L-glutamine concentrations in biological samples is important for many areas of research, medicine or industry, however there is room for improvement on existing methods. We describe here how the enzyme BpsA, a single-module non-ribosomal peptide synthetase able to convert L-glutamine into the blue pigment indigoidine, can be used to accurately measure L-glutamine in biological samples. Although indigoidine has low solubility in aqueous solutions, meaning direct measurements of indigoidine synthesis do not reliably yield linear standard curves, we demonstrate that resolubilisation of the reaction end-products in DMSO overcomes this issue and that spontaneous reduction to colourless leuco-indigoidine occurs too slowly to interfere with assay accuracy. Our protocol is amenable to a 96-well microtitre format and can be used to measure L-glutamine in common bacterial and mammalian culture media, urine, and deproteinated plasma. We show that active BpsA can be prepared in high yield by expressing it in the apo-form to avoid the toxicity of indigoidine to Escherichia coli host cells, then activating it to the holo-form in cell lysates prior to purification; and that BpsA has a lengthy shelf-life, retaining >95% activity when stored at either −20 °C or 4 °C for 24 weeks. PMID:28139746

  7. A sensitive single-enzyme assay system using the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase BpsA for measurement of L-glutamine in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alistair S; Robins, Katherine J; Ackerley, David F

    2017-01-31

    The ability to rapidly, economically and accurately measure L-glutamine concentrations in biological samples is important for many areas of research, medicine or industry, however there is room for improvement on existing methods. We describe here how the enzyme BpsA, a single-module non-ribosomal peptide synthetase able to convert L-glutamine into the blue pigment indigoidine, can be used to accurately measure L-glutamine in biological samples. Although indigoidine has low solubility in aqueous solutions, meaning direct measurements of indigoidine synthesis do not reliably yield linear standard curves, we demonstrate that resolubilisation of the reaction end-products in DMSO overcomes this issue and that spontaneous reduction to colourless leuco-indigoidine occurs too slowly to interfere with assay accuracy. Our protocol is amenable to a 96-well microtitre format and can be used to measure L-glutamine in common bacterial and mammalian culture media, urine, and deproteinated plasma. We show that active BpsA can be prepared in high yield by expressing it in the apo-form to avoid the toxicity of indigoidine to Escherichia coli host cells, then activating it to the holo-form in cell lysates prior to purification; and that BpsA has a lengthy shelf-life, retaining >95% activity when stored at either -20 °C or 4 °C for 24 weeks.

  8. Indirect localization of a magnetic domain wall mediated by quasi walls.

    PubMed

    Lacour, D; Montaigne, F; Rougemaille, N; Belkhou, R; Raabe, J; Hehn, M

    2015-05-26

    The manipulation of magnetic domain walls in thin films and nanostructures opens new opportunities for fundamental and applied research. But controlling reliably the position of a moving domain wall still remains challenging. So far, most of the studies aimed at understanding the physics of pinning and depinning processes in the magnetic layer in which the wall moves (active layer). In these studies, the role of other magnetic layers in the stack has been often ignored. Here, we report an indirect localization process of 180° domain walls that occurs in magnetic tunnel junctions, commonly used in spintronics. Combining Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy and micromagnetic simulations, magnetic configurations in both layers are resolved. When nucleating a 180° domain wall in the active layer, a quasi wall is created in the reference layer, atop the wall. The wall and its quasi wall must then be moved or positioned together, as a unique object. As a mutual effect, a localized change of the magnetic properties in the reference layer induces a localized quasi wall in the active layer. The two types of quasi walls are shown to be responsible for an indirect localization process of the 180° domain wall in the active layer.

  9. Periodicals Price Survey 2008: Embracing Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orsdel, Lee C.; Born, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Evidence for open access as an emergent, global state of mind is everywhere. The "New York Times" went "open" last September, and the "Wall Street Journal" is slated to follow. Increasingly, scholarly communities are breaking with tradition and calling for the open sharing of research, software, and data. Amongst these global initiatives is the…

  10. Domain walls riding the wave.

    SciTech Connect

    Karapetrov, G.; Novosad, V.; Materials Science Division

    2010-11-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid proliferation of electronic gadgets around the world. These devices are used for both communication and entertainment, and it is a fact that they account for a growing portion of household energy consumption and overall world consumption of electricity. Increasing the energy efficiency of these devices could have a far greater and immediate impact than a gradual switch to renewable energy sources. The advances in the area of spintronics are therefore very important, as gadgets are mostly comprised of memory and logic elements. Recent developments in controlled manipulation of magnetic domains in ferromagnet nanostructures have opened opportunities for novel device architectures. This new class of memories and logic gates could soon power millions of consumer electronic devices. The attractiveness of using domain-wall motion in electronics is due to its inherent reliability (no mechanical moving parts), scalability (3D scalable architectures such as in racetrack memory), and nonvolatility (retains information in the absence of power). The remaining obstacles in widespread use of 'racetrack-type' elements are the speed and the energy dissipation during the manipulation of domain walls. In their recent contribution to Physical Review Letters, Oleg Tretiakov, Yang Liu, and Artem Abanov from Texas A&M University in College Station, provide a theoretical description of domain-wall motion in nanoscale ferromagnets due to the spin-polarized currents. They find exact conditions for time-dependent resonant domain-wall movement, which could speed up the motion of domain walls while minimizing Ohmic losses. Movement of domain walls in ferromagnetic nanowires can be achieved by application of external magnetic fields or by passing a spin-polarized current through the nanowire itself. On the other hand, the readout of the domain state is done by measuring the resistance of the wire. Therefore, passing current through the ferromagnetic wire is

  11. Wall surveyor project report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullenhoff, D.J.; Johnston, B.C.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1996-02-22

    A report is made on the demonstration of a first-generation Wall Surveyor that is capable of surveying the interior and thickness of a stone, brick, or cement wall. LLNL`s Micropower Impulse Radar is used, based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short microwave impulses (MIR rangefinder). Six test walls were used. While the demonstrator MIR Wall Surveyor is not fieldable yet, it has successfully scanned the test walls and produced real-time images identifying the walls. It is planned to optimize and package the evaluation wall surveyor into a hand held unit.

  12. If walls could talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braam, J.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The plant cell wall is very complex, both in structure and function. The wall components and the mechanical properties of the wall have been implicated in conveying information that is important for morphogenesis. Proteoglycans, fragments of polysaccharides and the structural integrity of the wall may relay signals that influence cellular differentiation and growth control. Furthering our knowledge of cell wall structure and function is likely to have a profound impact on our understanding of how plant cells communicate with the extracellular environment.

  13. The Stability of Fake Flat Domain Walls on Kähler Manifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, F. T.; Wijaya, R. N.; Gunara, B. E.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we study the stability of flat fake domain walls solution of fake N = 1 supergravity in d + 1 dimensions with Kahler surface as the sigma model. We start with Lagrangian for N = 1 fake supergravity which is coupling between gravity and complex scalar in d + 1 dimensions with scalar potential turned on. Then, as in supergravity theory, we demand that the scalar fields span the Kahler manifold. The equations of motion for fields can be reduced into first order equations by defining the superpotential and the resulting equations are called the projection equation and the fake BPS equation. Finally, we discuss about the stability of flat fake domain walls by investigating the critical points of the superpotential and the scalar potential.

  14. Open Content in Open Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  15. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated.

  16. A prospective, controlled evaluation of the abdominal reapproximation anchor abdominal wall closure system in combination with VAC therapy compared with VAC alone in the management of an open abdomen.

    PubMed

    Long, Kristin L; Hamilton, David A; Davenport, Daniel L; Bernard, Andrew C; Kearney, Paul A; Chang, Phillip K

    2014-06-01

    Dramatic increases in damage control and decompressive laparotomies and a significant increase in patients with open abdominal cavities have resulted in numerous techniques to facilitate fascial closure. We hypothesized addition of the abdominal reapproximation anchor system (ABRA) to the KCI Abdominal Wound Vac™ (VAC) or KCI ABThera™ would increase successful primary closure rates and reduce operative costs. Fourteen patients with open abdomens were prospectively randomized into a control group using VAC alone (control) or a study group using VAC plus ABRA (VAC-ABRA). All patients underwent regular VAC changes; patients receiving VAC-ABRA also underwent concomitant daily elastomer adjustment of the ABRA system. Primary end points included abdominal closure, number of operating room (OR) visits, and OR time use. Eight patients were included in the VAC-ABRA group and six patients in the control group. Primary closure rates between groups were not statistically different; however, the number of trips to the OR and OR time use were different. Despite higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores, larger starting wound size, and higher rates of abdominal compartment syndrome, closure rates in the VAC-ABRA group were similar to VAC alone. Importantly, however, fewer OR trips and less OR time were required for the VAC-ABRA group.

  17. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  18. The Lamportian cell wall

    SciTech Connect

    Keiliszewski, M.; Lamport, D. )

    1991-05-01

    The Lamportian Warp-Weft hypothesis suggests a cellulose-extensin interpenetrating network where extensin mechanically couples the load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in a wall matrix that is best described as a microcomposite. This model is based on data gathered from the extensin-rich walls of tomato and sycamore cell suspension culture, wherein extensin precursors are insolubilized into the wall by undefined crosslinks. The authors recent work with cell walls isolated from intact tissue as well as walls from suspension cultured cells of the graminaceous monocots maize and rice, the non-graminaceous monocot asparagus, the primitive herbaceous dicot sugar beet, and the gymnosperm Douglas Fir indicate that although extensins are ubiquitous to all plant species examined, they are not the major structural protein component of most walls examined. Amino acid analyses of intact and HF-treated walls shows a major component neither an HRGP, nor directly comparable to the glycine-rich wall proteins such as those associated with seed coat walls or the 67 mole% glycine-rich proteins cloned from petunia and soybean. Clearly, structural wall protein alternatives to extensin exist and any cell wall model must take that into account. If we assume that extracellular matrices are a priori network structures, then new Hypless' structural proteins in the maize cell wall raise questions about the sort of network these proteins create: the kinds of crosslinks involved; how they are formed; and the roles played by the small amounts of HRGPs.

  19. Halogenation of microcapsule walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. R.; Schaab, C. K.; Scott, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Procedure for halogenation of confining walls of both gelatin and gelatin-phenolic resin capsules is similar to that used for microencapsulation. Ten percent halogen content renders capsule wall nonburning; any higher content enhances flame-retardant properties of selected internal phase material. Halogenation decreases permeability of wall material to encapsulated materials.

  20. Side wall cooling for nozzle segments for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    A nozzle vane segment includes outer and inner band portions with a vane extending therebetween and defining first and second cavities separated by an impingement plate for flowing cooling medium for impingement cooling of nozzle side walls. The side wall of each nozzle segment has an undercut region. The impingement plate has an inturned flange with a plurality of openings. Cooling inserts or receptacles having an open end are received in the openings and the base and side walls of the receptacles have apertures for receiving cooling medium from the first cavity and directing the cooling medium for impingement cooling of the side wall of the nozzle segment and a portion of the nozzle wall.

  1. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

    2006-06-19

    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.

  2. 13. FRIST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTHWEST WALL, HEARTH WITH KETTLES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. FRIST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTHWEST WALL, HEARTH WITH KETTLES USED FOR RENDERING LARD (LEFT) AND MAKING APPLE BUTTER (RIGHT) WITH SCALE - Open Gate Farm, House, Ridge Road, 1 mile East of Elephant Road, Perkasie, Bucks County, PA

  3. 12. FRIST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTHWEST WALL, HEARTH WITH KETTLES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FRIST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTHWEST WALL, HEARTH WITH KETTLES USED FOR RENDERING LARD (LEFT) AND MAKING APPLE BUTTER (RIGHT) - Open Gate Farm, House, Ridge Road, 1 mile East of Elephant Road, Perkasie, Bucks County, PA

  4. 3. Ice Plant interior, west section, looking north. Crib wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Ice Plant interior, west section, looking north. Crib wall of stacked 4' X 6' 's in foreground. Opening leads to refrigeration equipment area. Freezer room to the rear. - Curtis Wharf, Ice Plant, O & Second Streets, Anacortes, Skagit County, WA

  5. 16. INTERIOR OF ROOM 105 LOOKING TOWARD SOUTHEAST WALL. EXPOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF ROOM 105 LOOKING TOWARD SOUTHEAST WALL. EXPOSED POST EXISTS IN MIDDLE OF ROOM. A SMALL OPENING HAS BEEN CUT INTO THE UPPER PORTION OF THE SOUTHEAST WALL THROUGH TO THE ADJOINING ROOM (106). GYPSUM BOARD ON WALLS WITH WOOD TRIM, FLUORESCENT LIGHTING, AND VINYL COMPOSITION TILE ON FLOORS ARE ALL LATER ADDITIONS. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    DOEpatents

    Maniscalco, James A.; Meier, Wayne R.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  7. Wall contraction in Bloch wall films.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartran, D. S.; Bourne, H. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The phenomenon of wall contraction characterized by a peak in the velocity-field relationship and a region of negative differential mobility is observed in uniaxial magnetic thin films of various magnetic properties by careful interrupted-pulse experiments. The observed results agree quite well with the theory for bulk samples when the extensive flux closure of thin film walls is accounted for by a suitable empirical scaling factor.

  8. Wall of fundamental constants

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Peloso, Marco; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-02-15

    We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of the constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.

  9. Cleopatra's Bedroom oblique with picture tube wall along walkway. Structure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cleopatra's Bedroom oblique with picture tube wall along walkway. Structure is made solely of amber colored bottles. Roof supported by telephone poles. Areas of bottle wall above window opening collapsed in the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Camera facing northeast. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  10. INTERIOR VIEW, WEST WALL OF NORTHWEST ATTIC CHAMBER. THIS SPACIOUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, WEST WALL OF NORTHWEST ATTIC CHAMBER. THIS SPACIOUS ROOM INCLUDED A ROOF MONITOR FOR LIGHT AND VENTILATION AND A FIREPLACE FOR HEAT. THE WALL OPENING AND DOOR ON EITHER SIDE OF THE FIREPLACE GIVE ONTO A LARGE UNFINISHED SPACE LOCATED OVER THE HOUSE’S WEST WING - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 65. INTERIOR OF 1902 GENERATOR HOUSE. BASEMENT WALL OF 1901 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. INTERIOR OF 1902 GENERATOR HOUSE. BASEMENT WALL OF 1901 STEAM ENGINE HOUSE VISIBLE AT REAR. BASEMENT WALL OF 1873 WING AT RIGHT. OPENINGS MADE FOR MECHANICALLY TRANSMITTING POWER FROM STEAM ENGINES TO GENERATORS HAVE BEEN BRICKED UP. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

  12. 7. Detail view of mill wall ruins looking E showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view of mill wall ruins looking E showing arched openings for Jamaican Train and archeological excavations at base of wall. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Mill (Ruins), 2.65 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  13. Beyond Walls: A Strategic Plan for James White Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews Univ., Berrien Springs, MI. James White Library.

    The strategic plan for the James White Library of Andrews University uses the phrase "beyond walls," rather than the catchphrase "library without walls," to acknowledge that printed matter is here to stay but that the paradigm in which it operates is open to innovation and exploration. The fundamental changes taking place in…

  14. Liquid Wall Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  15. Metallic Wall Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan Michael (Inventor); Hofer, Richard Robert (Inventor); Mikellides, Ioannis G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A Hall thruster apparatus having walls constructed from a conductive material, such as graphite, and having magnetic shielding of the walls from the ionized plasma has been demonstrated to operate with nearly the same efficiency as a conventional non-magnetically shielded design using insulators as wall components. The new design is believed to provide the potential of higher power and uniform operation over the operating life of a thruster device.

  16. Individual and mixture endocrine activity of BPS and BPC using in vitro estrogenic/anti-androgenic transcriptional activation assays and the in vivo uterotrophic assay- RAP 2.2-SSWR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is gradually being phased out of many consumer products and processes leading to potential increases in human and environmental exposures to relatively understudied replacement compounds, including Bisphenol S (BPS) and Bisphenol C (BPC).Research from our lab ha...

  17. 2012/14 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: (BPS:12/14). Supporting Statement Part A. Request for OMB Review. OMB #1850-0631 v.8. Revised May 28, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), within the U.S. Department of Education (ED), Institute of Education Sciences, is requesting clearance for data collection materials and procedures for the full-scale collection of the 2012/14 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:12/14) first follow-up, including the student…

  18. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  19. Enhancement of wall jet transport properties

    DOEpatents

    Claunch, S.D.; Farrington, R.B.

    1997-02-04

    By enhancing the natural instabilities in the boundary layer and in the free shear layer of a wall jet, the boundary is minimized thereby increasing the transport of heat and mass. Enhancing the natural instabilities is accomplished by pulsing the flow of air that creates the wall jet. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct. 17 figs.

  20. Enhancement of wall jet transport properties

    DOEpatents

    Claunch, Scott D.; Farrington, Robert B.

    1997-01-01

    By enhancing the natural instabilities in the boundary layer and in the free shear layer of a wall jet, the boundary is minimized thereby increasing the transport of heat and mass. Enhancing the natural instabilities is accomplished by pulsing the flow of air that creates the wall jet. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct.

  1. Opening remarks

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1994-09-01

    Included in this paper are the opening remarks of S.G. Hildebrand, from Environmental Science Division, ORNL, to a conference on water resources and water resource issues. Wetlands are the focus of this talk, with an emphasis on conservation and land use to conserve wetland functions and values.

  2. Open Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Annette; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Adult adoptees are increasingly challenging the practice of sealing their birth records. The authors examine the historical roots of adoptive practices in this country and suggest that the time has come for open adoption to gain acceptance as an alternative. (Author)

  3. INTERIOR DETAIL, SOUTHEAST CABINET NORTH WALL. THE DOORS TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, SOUTHEAST CABINET NORTH WALL. THE DOORS TO THE LEFT OF THE CHIMNEY MASS OPEN ONTO CLOSETS. ON THE RIGHT, THERE ARE TWO CLOSETS WITH JIB DOORS WITHIN THE CHIMNEY MASS. THE OPEN DOOR CONNECTS WITH THE DRAWING ROOM - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 11. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING BACK WALL ELECTRICAL HEATER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING BACK WALL ELECTRICAL HEATER, OPEN FIVE-PANELED DOOR TO BACK BEDROOM AT PHOTO RIGHT, AND OPEN DOOR TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  5. Domain wall filters

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Oliver; Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert; Witzel, Oliver

    2007-03-15

    We propose using the extra dimension separating the domain walls carrying lattice quarks of opposite handedness to gradually filter out the ultraviolet fluctuations of the gauge fields that are felt by the fermionic excitations living in the bulk. This generalization of the homogeneous domain wall construction has some theoretical features that seem nontrivial.

  6. Wall Finishes; Carpentry: 901895.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is designed to provide instruction in selecting, preparing, and installing wall finishing materials. Prerequisites for the course include mastery of building construction plans, foundations and walls, and basic mathematics. Intended for use in grades 11 and 12, the course contains five blocks of study totaling 135 hours of…

  7. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  8. Interactive Word Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Narvaez, Rose

    2013-01-01

    It is common to see word walls displaying the vocabulary that students have learned in class. Word walls serve as visual scaffolds and are a classroom strategy used to reinforce reading and language arts instruction. Research shows a strong relationship between student word knowledge and academic achievement (Stahl and Fairbanks 1986). As a…

  9. 'Stucco' Walls-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial 'clodding' or cementation of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across and makes up half of the projected 'Stucco Walls' image.

  10. Ferric ions accumulate in the walls of metabolically inactivating Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and are reductively mobilized during reactivation.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Joshua D; Park, Jinkyu; McCormick, Sean P; Chakrabarti, Mrinmoy; Lindahl, Paul A

    2016-07-13

    Mössbauer and EPR spectra of fermenting yeast cells before and after cell wall (CW) digestion revealed that CWs accumulated iron as cells transitioned from exponential to post-exponential growth. Most CW iron was mononuclear nonheme high-spin (NHHS) Fe(III), some was diamagnetic and some was superparamagnetic. A significant portion of CW Fe was removable by EDTA. Simulations using an ordinary-differential-equations-based model suggested that cells accumulate Fe as they become metabolically inactive. When dormant Fe-loaded cells were metabolically reactivated in Fe-deficient bathophenanthroline disulfonate (BPS)-treated medium, they grew using Fe that had been mobilized from their CWs AND using trace amounts of Fe in the Fe-deficient medium. When grown in Fe-deficient medium, Fe-starved cells contained the lowest cellular Fe concentrations reported for a eukaryotic cell. During metabolic reactivation of Fe-loaded dormant cells, Fe(III) ions in the CWs of these cells were mobilized by reduction to Fe(II), followed by release from the CW and reimport into the cell. BPS short-circuited this process by chelating mobilized and released Fe(II) ions before reimport; the resulting Fe(II)(BPS)3 complex adsorbed on the cell surface. NHHS Fe(II) ions appeared transiently during mobilization, suggesting that these ions were intermediates in this process. In the presence of chelators and at high pH, metabolically inactive cells leached CW Fe; this phenomenon probably differs from metabolic mobilization. The iron regulon, as reported by Fet3p levels, was not expressed during post-exponential conditions; Fet3p was maximally expressed in exponentially growing cells. Decreased expression of the iron regulon and metabolic decline combine to promote CW Fe accumulation.

  11. 22. SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING WEST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING WEST FROM THE SAME POINT AS VIEW NO. 21. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. Opening education.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marshall S

    2009-01-02

    Spurred by the publication of Massachusetts Institute of Technology OpenCourseWare in 2002, the open educational resources (OER) movement, which has rapidly expanded and captured the imagination and energy of millions of creators and users throughout the world, now faces many opportunities and substantial challenges as it moves to become an integral part of the world's educational environment. The confluence of the Web and a spirit of sharing intellectual property have fueled a worldwide movement to make knowledge and education materials open to all for use. OER are content (courses, books, lesson plans, articles, etc.), tools (virtual laboratories, simulations, and games), and software that support learning and educational practice. OER are free on the Web, and most have licenses that allow copyright holders to retain ownership while providing specified rights for use in original and modified forms. At the least, OER have helped to level the distribution of knowledge across the world. A second promise of OER is to help transform educational practices. This article explores the history of and promises and challenges for OER.

  13. Hollow porous-wall glass microspheres for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Schumacher, Ray F.; Wicks, George G.

    2010-02-23

    A porous wall hollow glass microsphere is provided having a diameter range of between 1 to 200 microns, a density of between 1.0 to 2.0 gm/cc, a porous-wall structure having wall openings defining an average pore size of between 10 to 1000 angstroms, and which contains therein a hydrogen storage material. The porous-wall structure facilitates the introduction of a hydrogen storage material into the interior of the porous wall hollow glass microsphere. In this manner, the resulting hollow glass microsphere can provide a membrane for the selective transport of hydrogen through the porous walls of the microsphere, the small pore size preventing gaseous or liquid contaminants from entering the interior of the hollow glass microsphere.

  14. MIR wall surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K

    1998-08-01

    This report addresses the problem of determining the layer thickness of a wall probed with a monostatic, hand-held implementation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR). Our goal is to locate the layers of the wall, and measure its overall thickness. The physical constraints require the device to be held fixed or swept rapidly over the wall. Thus an insufficient amount of backscattered data are collected to use diffraction tomographic [3] techniques to form images. The problem is therefore one of determining the wall layers from a set of time series reflection data. We develop two channel signal processing algorithms to determine the location of the layers of a wall, using as inputs the time series returned from the wall and the incident pulse. We study the problem using a finite difference time domain (FDTD) computer code to simulate the electromagnetic propagation within and scattering from a wall probed with five pulses. We use the results to develop and test signal processing procedures for locating the individual layers. We study two classes of algorithms: a deconvolution approach to determine a layered impulse response, and a correlation approach. After testing the algorithms on the FDTD results, we down-select to a suitable method.

  15. Moving wall, continuous flow electronphoresis apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H. (Inventor); Snyder, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates generally to electrophoresis devices and more particularly to a moving wall, continuous flow device in which an electrophoresis chamber is angularly positionable with respect to the direction of moving belt walls. A frame with an electrophoresis chamber is rotatably supported between two synchronously driven belt walls. This allows the chamber to be angularly positionable with respect to the direction of belt travel, which compensates for electroosmotic flow within the electrophoresis chamber. Injection of a buffer solution via an opening and a homogenous sample stream via another opening is performed at the end of a chamber, and collection of buffer and the fractionated species particles is done by a conventional collection array at an opposite end of the chamber. Belts are driven at a rate which exactly matches the flow of buffer and sample through the chamber, which entrains the buffer to behave as a rigid electrophoretic medium, eliminating flow distortions (Poiseuille effect). Additionally, belt material for each belt is stored at one end of the device and is taken up by drive wheels at an opposite end. The novelty of this invention particularly lies in the electrophoresis chamber being angularly positionable between two moving belt walls in order to compensate for electroosmotic flow. Additionally, new belt material is continuously exposed within the chamber, minimizing flow distortion due to contamination of the belt material by the sample.

  16. Double wall vacuum tubing and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Stahl, Charles R.; Gibson, Michael A.; Knudsen, Christian W.

    1989-01-01

    An evacuated double wall tubing is shown together with a method for the manufacture of such tubing which includes providing a first pipe of predetermined larger diameter and a second pipe having an O.D. substantially smaller than the I.D. of the first pipe. An evacuation opening is then in the first pipe. The second pipe is inserted inside the first pipe with an annular space therebetween. The pipes are welded together at one end. A stretching tool is secured to the other end of the second pipe after welding. The second pipe is then prestressed mechanically with the stretching tool an amount sufficient to prevent substantial buckling of the second pipe under normal operating conditions of the double wall pipe. The other ends of the first pipe and the prestressed second pipe are welded together, preferably by explosion welding, without the introduction of mechanical spacers between the pipes. The annulus between the pipes is evacuated through the evacuation opening, and the evacuation opening is finally sealed. The first pipe is preferably of steel and the second pipe is preferably of titanium. The pipes may be of a size and wall thickness sufficient for the double wall pipe to be structurally load bearing or may be of a size and wall thickness insufficient for the double wall pipe to be structurally load bearing, and the double wall pipe positioned with a sliding fit inside a third pipe of a load-bearing size.

  17. Opening the Dutch Open Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.; de Wijn, A. G.; Sütterlin, P.; Bettonvil, F. C. M.; Hammerschlag, R. H.

    2002-10-01

    We hope to "open the DOT" to the international solar physics community as a facility for high-resolution tomography of the solar atmosphere. Our aim is to do so combining peer-review time allocation with service-mode operation in a "hands-on-telescope" education program bringing students to La Palma to assist in the observing and processing. The largest step needed is considerable speedup of the DOT speckle processing.

  18. Open University

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  19. [Nursing care wall planning].

    PubMed

    Moreau, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Nursing care wall planners are not a tool for assessing workload, but a means of providing coherence and individualised monitoring of care. Its application is focused not only on team organisation, but also on the patient's needs.

  20. Conducting Wall Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Polk, James E.; Dotson, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    A unique configuration of the magnetic field near the wall of Hall thrusters, called Magnetic Shielding, has recently demonstrated the ability to significantly reduce the erosion of the boron nitride (BN) walls and extend the life of Hall thrusters by orders of magnitude. The ability of magnetic shielding to minimize interactions between the plasma and the discharge chamber walls has for the first time enabled the replacement of insulating walls with conducting materials without loss in thruster performance. The boron nitride rings in the 6 kW H6 Hall thruster were replaced with graphite that self-biased to near the anode potential. The thruster efficiency remained over 60% (within two percent of the baseline BN configuration) with a small decrease in thrust and increase in Isp typical of magnetically shielded Hall thrusters. The graphite wall temperatures decreased significantly compared to both shielded and unshielded BN configurations, leading to the potential for higher power operation. Eliminating ceramic walls makes it simpler and less expensive to fabricate a thruster to survive launch loads, and the graphite discharge chamber radiates more efficiently which increases the power capability of the thruster compared to conventional Hall thruster designs.

  1. Closure of the open abdomen.

    PubMed

    Björck, Martin; D'Amours, Scott K; Hamilton, A E Ricardo

    2011-07-01

    The open abdomen is a valuable tool in the management of patients with intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. The longer an abdomen is left open, the greater the potential morbidity, however. From the very start, specific measures should be considered to increase the likelihood of definitive closure and prevent the development of visceral adhesions, lateralization, and/or loss of skin and fascia, ileus, fistulae, and malnutrition. Early definitive closure of all abdominal wall layers is the short-term goal of management once the need for the open abdomen has resolved. Several devices and strategies improve the chances for definitive closure. If a frozen abdomen develops, split-thickness skin grafting of a granulating open abdominal wound base is an alternative. Early coverage of the exposed viscera and acceptance of a large abdominal hernia permit earlier reversal of the catabolic state and lower the risk of fistula formation. When a stoma is required, sealing and separation can become problematic. If a fistula develops, a more complex situation prevails, requiring specific techniques to isolate its output and a longer-term strategy to restore intestinal continuity. Planning the closure of an open abdomen is a process that starts on the first day that the abdomen is opened. Multiple factors need to be addressed, optimized, and controlled to achieve the best outcome.

  2. 29. Detail view of small triangular openings from opposite side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Detail view of small triangular openings from opposite side of wall. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  3. View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open contact boards are in view at the far right wall - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Portal Gantry Crane No. 42, Pier 5, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  4. Ultimate Cost of Building Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Clayford T.; Gross, James G.

    The need for economic analysis of building walls is discussed, and the factors influencing the ultimate cost of exterior walls are studied. The present worth method is used to analyze three types of exterior non-loadbearing panel or curtain walls. Anticipated costs are expressed in terms of their present value per square foot of wall area. The…

  5. OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in…

  6. 9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO RIGHT. FIREPLACE ORIGINALLY OCCUPIED SPACE TO THE EXTREME PHOTO RIGHT OF SASH WINDOW ON THE REAR WALL. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  7. 8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN, 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS ON FRONT WALL AT PHOTO LEFT, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON BACK WALL AT EXTREME PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO EAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  8. Interior of southwest vault, opened southwest vault door, closed southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of southwest vault, opened southwest vault door, closed southeast vault door, and evidence of forced entry in north interior wall. View from west interior wall of southwest vault. Facing east. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  9. South interior wall, view to the East from near the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South interior wall, view to the East from near the center of the building. At present there is open storage above the fluorescent lights. Behind the interior half wall, modern office occupy the area formerly used as a machine shop (See drawing copy NV-35-B-5) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  10. Musculoskeletal chest wall pain

    PubMed Central

    Fam, Adel G.; Smythe, Hugh A.

    1985-01-01

    The musculoskeletal structures of the thoracic wall and the neck are a relatively common source of chest pain. Pain arising from these structures is often mistaken for angina pectoris, pleurisy or other serious disorders. In this article the clinical features, pathogenesis and management of the various musculoskeletal chest wall disorders are discussed. The more common causes are costochondritis, traumatic muscle pain, trauma to the chest wall, “fibrositis” syndrome, referred pain, psychogenic regional pain syndrome, and arthritis involving articulations of the sternum, ribs and thoracic spine. Careful analysis of the history, physical findings and results of investigation is essential for precise diagnosis and effective treatment. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4027804

  11. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  12. Thermal treatment wall

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  13. Axion domain wall baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Daido, Ryuji; Kitajima, Naoya; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new scenario of baryogenesis, in which annihilation of axion domain walls generates a sizable baryon asymmetry. Successful baryogenesis is possible for a wide range of the axion mass and decay constant, m≃10{sup 8}–10{sup 13} GeV and f≃10{sup 13}–10{sup 16} GeV. Baryonic isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed in our model, in contrast to various spontaneous baryogenesis scenarios in the slow-roll regime. In particular, the axion domain wall baryogenesis is consistent with high-scale inflation which generates a large tensor-to-scalar ratio within the reach of future CMB B-mode experiments. We also discuss the gravitational waves produced by the domain wall annihilation and its implications for the future gravitational wave experiments.

  14. Openness initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  15. Efficient Photovoltaic Current Generation at Ferroelectric Domain Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Jan; Fu, Deyi; Yang, Seung-Yeul; Alarcón-Lladó, Esther; Wu, Junqiao; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Ager, Joel W., III

    2011-09-01

    We elucidate the mechanism of a newly observed photovoltaic effect which occurs in ferroelectrics with periodic domain structures. Under sufficiently strong illumination, domain walls function as nanoscale generators of the photovoltaic current. The steps in the electrostatic potential function to accumulate electrons and holes on opposite sides of the walls while locally reducing the concentration of the oppositely charged carriers. As a result, the recombination rate adjacent to the walls is reduced, leading to a net diffusion current. In open circuit, photovoltages for periodically ordered domain walls are additive and voltages much larger than the band gap can be generated. The internal quantum efficiency for individual domain walls can be surprisingly high, approaching 10% for above band-gap photons. Although we have found the effect in BiFeO3 films, it should occur in any system with a similar periodic potential.

  16. Use of reinforced soil wall to support steam generator transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Davie, J.R.; Wang, J.T. ); Gladstone, R.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Consumers Power Company had the two steam generators at its Palisades Nuclear Plant in Michigan replaced in November 1990. This replacement was accomplished through a 26-foot wide by 28-foot high opening cut into the wall of the containment building, about 45 feet above the original ground surface. Because this ground surface was at an approximately 3-H:1-V slope, leveling was required before replacement in order to provide access for the steam generators and adequate support for the heavy-duty gantry crane system used to transfer the generators. A 25-foot high reinforced soil wall was constructed to achieve the level surface. This paper describes the design and construction of the heavily loaded reinforced soil wall, including ground improvement measures required to obtain adequate wall stability. The performance of the wall under test loading will also be presented and discussed.

  17. Magnetic Domain Wall Floating on a Spin Superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyaya, Pramey; Kim, Se Kwon; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2017-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the transfer of angular momentum between a spin superfluid and a domain wall in an exchange coupled easy-axis and easy-plane magnetic insulator system. A domain wall in the easy-axis magnet absorbs spin angular momentum via disrupting the flow of a superfluid spin current in the easy-plane magnet. Focusing on an open geometry, where the spin current is injected electrically via a nonequilibrium spin accumulation, we derive analytical expressions for the resultant superfluid-mediated motion of the domain wall. The analytical results are supported by micromagnetic simulations. The proposed phenomenon extends the regime of magnon-driven domain-wall motion to the case where the magnons are condensed and exhibit superfluidity. Furthermore, by controlling the pinning of the domain wall, we propose a realization of a reconfigurable spin transistor. The long-distance dissipationless character of spin superfluids can thus be exploited for manipulating soliton-based memory and logic devices.

  18. Gullies in Crater Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-388, 11 June 2003

    Many craters and troughs at polar and middle latitudes on Mars have gullies carved in their walls. These gullies may have formed by running water; others have suggested alternative, exotic fluids such as liquid or gaseous carbon dioxide. This view of martian gullies was acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC). The image shows gullies in the wall of an old meteor impact crater near 39.0oS, 200.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  19. Gullied Crater Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-371, 25 May 2003

    Gullies are common in some regions on middle- and polar-latitude slopes, such as crater walls. This March 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies on the north wall of a crater in the Atlantis Chaos region near 34.3oS, 178.0oW. The gullies might have formed by flow of a fluid--perhaps liquid water--sometime in the geologically recent martian past. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  20. Wall mounted combined radiactive-convective electric space heater

    SciTech Connect

    Meiser, R.; Burkert, J.; Bendel, R.

    1987-07-21

    A space heating apparatus is described for mounting on a wall surface of a room to be heated, the apparatus comprising: a housing including a substantially flat rear wall adapted for mounting to the wall surface. A front wall adjacent the rear wall, the front wall and the real wall conjointly defining a space between through which the air passes. The front wall has a lower portion extending upwardly from the bottom of the housing a solid uninterrupted mid portion devoid of any openings and a portion extending upwardly; an inlet means at the lower end of the housing admits and directs the air into the space; air outlet means at the upper end of the housing where heated air leaves the space and passes from the housing: a solid, uninterrupted metal plate having a first flat side and a second flat side; an electrically insulating plastic layer formed only on the first flat side of the metal plate; the metal plate being mounted in the space so as to partition the space into two convecting channels and having an upper portion extending above the mid portion of the front wall; the plastic layer and the rear wall conjointly defining one of the convecting channels for communicating with a portion of the air outlet means and for conducting a portion of the incoming air admitted to the space; the second flat side and the front wall with the solid uninterrupted mid portion conjointly defining the other one of the convecting channels; resistance heating means embedded in and throughout the plastic layer for heating the air rising in both of the convecting channels and for radiating heat from the second flat side of the plate; and the remainder of the outlet means being formed in the upper portion of the front wall so as to be disposed laterally of the upper portion of the metal plate.

  1. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  2. Fly on the Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Dave; Korpan, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a peer observation program at the University of Victoria called the Lecture Club. The observers are not interactive during the class--they are the proverbial flies on the wall. The paper identifies the program as self-developmental, discussing the attributes of this learning-to-teach and peer-sharing…

  3. A Wall of Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Visitors to the campus of Orland High School (OHS) will never question that they have stepped into a world of the masses: kids, activity, personalities, busyness, and playfulness--a veritable cloud of mild bedlam. The wall of ceramic faces that greets a visitor in the school office is another reminder of the organized chaos that the teachers…

  4. A School without Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venuti, Len Tai

    1994-01-01

    During the summer, selected students of Hawaiian ancestry who have completed seventh or eighth grade participate in a boarding program with outdoor activities such as pulling taro, star gazing, and camping. The activities eliminate walls of doubt and fear and nurture self-confidence, creativity, personal growth, leadership, and cultural awareness.…

  5. The Wall Coverings Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Students love nothing better than personalizing their space--desk, bedroom, or even their cars. This article describes a classroom challenge that gives students a chance to let their spirits soar with the invention of a new form of wall treatment. A trip to a big box store might prove to be most helpful for students to visualize their new product…

  6. Wall turbulence control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Lindemann, A. Margrethe; Beeler, George B.; Mcginley, Catherine B.; Goodman, Wesley L.; Balasubramanian, R.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of wall turbulence control devices which were experimentally investigated are discussed; these include devices for burst control, alteration of outer flow structures, large eddy substitution, increased heat transfer efficiency, and reduction of wall pressure fluctuations. Control of pre-burst flow was demonstrated with a single, traveling surface depression which is phase-locked to elements of the burst production process. Another approach to wall turbulence control is to interfere with the outer layer coherent structures. A device in the outer part of a boundary layer was shown to suppress turbulence and reduce drag by opposing both the mean and unsteady vorticity in the boundary layer. Large eddy substitution is a method in which streamline curvature is introduced into the boundary layer in the form of streamwise vortices. Riblets, which were already shown to reduce turbulent drag, were also shown to exhibit superior heat transfer characteristics. Heat transfer efficiency as measured by the Reynolds Analogy Factor was shown to be as much as 36 percent greater than a smooth flat plate in a turbulent boundary layer. Large Eddy Break-Up (LEBU) which are also known to reduce turbulent drag were shown to reduce turbulent wall pressure fluctuation.

  7. Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458

  8. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Lois; Mantha, Pallavi

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  9. 1. SOUTHEAST REAR WALL AND NORTHEAST SIDE WALL OF CABINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHEAST REAR WALL AND NORTHEAST SIDE WALL OF CABINS FORGEMAN'S HOUSE NO. 1 AT RIGHT - Mount Etna Iron Works, Forgeman's House No. 1, Legislative Route 07020 between junctions of T.R. 461 & 463, Williamsburg, Blair County, PA

  10. Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation Sections - Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp NP-5-C, Barracks No. 5, CCC Camp Historic District at Chapin Mesa, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  11. 4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL AND EROSION ON ROAD SURFACE. - Bridalveil Fall Bridge No. 3, Spanning Bridalveil Creek on carriage road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  12. DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall construction of the Crockett barn includes a layer of diagonal sheathing that is exposed on the interior. - Crockett Farm, Barn, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  13. Interior view of wall detail of southeast wall, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of wall detail of southeast wall, view towards the southeast, without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4408, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  14. EAST WALL OF CRYSTALLIZER WING TO THE LEFT, END WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST WALL OF CRYSTALLIZER WING TO THE LEFT, END WALL OF CRUSHING MILL IN CENTER. GABLE END OF BOILING HOUSE IN LEFT BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  15. 40. RETAINING WALL CONSTRUCTION SHOWING PORTION OF COMPLETED WALL. BACKFILLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. RETAINING WALL CONSTRUCTION SHOWING PORTION OF COMPLETED WALL. BACKFILLING BY POWER SHOVEL IN PROGRESS. ZION NP NEGATIVE NO. 1490. PHOTOGRAPHER: PARKER, NO DATE - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  16. Open Education Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bough, Max, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This journal provides 12 brief articles focused on open education. Topics explored include (1) open education and reading, (2) mainstreaming, (3) characteristics of an open teacher, (4) administration of an open concept school, (5) an existential methodology in the language arts, (6) social studies in open education, (7) open education in early…

  17. Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation: Harnessing the Benefits of Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Economic Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Digitization of information and the Internet have profoundly expanded the capacity for openness. This report details the benefits of openness in three areas--open standards, open-source software, and open innovation--and examines the major issues in the debate over whether openness should be encouraged or not. The report explains each of these…

  18. Wind tunnels with adapted walls for reducing wall interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganzer, U.

    1979-01-01

    The basic principle of adaptable wind tunnel walls is explained. First results of an investigation carried out at the Aero-Space Institute of Berlin Technical University are presented for two dimensional flexible walls and a NACA 0012 airfoil. With five examples exhibiting very different flow conditions it is demonstrated that it is possible to reduce wall interference and to avoid blockage at transonic speeds by wall adaptation.

  19. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  20. Dielectric relaxation and charged domain walls in (K,Na)NbO3-based ferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esin, A. A.; Alikin, D. O.; Turygin, A. P.; Abramov, A. S.; Hreščak, J.; Walker, J.; Rojac, T.; Bencan, A.; Malic, B.; Kholkin, A. L.; Shur, V. Ya.

    2017-02-01

    The influence of domain walls on the macroscopic properties of ferroelectric materials is a well known phenomenon. Commonly, such "extrinsic" contributions to dielectric permittivity are discussed in terms of domain wall displacements under external electric field. In this work, we report on a possible contribution of charged domain walls to low frequency (10-106 Hz) dielectric permittivity in K1-xNaxNbO3 ferroelectric ceramics. It is shown that the effective dielectric response increases with increasing domain wall density. The effect has been attributed to the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars relaxation. The obtained results may open up possibilities for domain wall engineering in various ferroelectric materials.

  1. 25. NORTH TRAINING WALL, EAST SECTION, SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. NORTH TRAINING WALL, EAST SECTION, SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST FROM A POINT ABOUT 500 FEET FROM THE MIDDLE HARBOR PARK FISHING PIER. (Panoramic view 1 of 2). - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  2. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  3. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  4. 16. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO WALK-IN CLOSET AT PHOTO CENTER, OPEN PANEL DOOR FROM BEDROOM NUMBER ONE AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON NORTH WALL AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  5. 8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO RIGHT, 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS ON FRONT (EAST) WALL AT PHOTO CENTER. ENTRY ROOM AND OPEN 1-LIGHT FRONT DOOR AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  6. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NORTH ROOM. DOOR OPENING LEADS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NORTH ROOM. DOOR OPENING LEADS TO STAIRWAY UP TO THE ABOVE-GROUND PORTION. NOTE THE SQUARE TUNNEL OPENING AT CENTER, AND THE CONDUIT SLEEVES AND PIPE PROTRUDING FROM THE NORTH WALL AT LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G; Chen, Y; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2007-10-18

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) is a compact pulsed power device where the pulse forming lines, switching, and vacuum wall are integrated into a single compact geometry. For this effort, we initiated a extensive compact pulsed power development program and have pursued the study of switching (gas, oil, laser induced surface flashover and photoconductive), dielectrics (ceramics and nanoparticle composites), pulse forming line topologies (asymmetric and symmetric Blumleins and zero integral pulse forming lines), and multilayered vacuum insulator (HGI) technology. Finally, we fabricated an accelerator cell for test on ETAII (a 5.5 MeV, 2 kA, 70 ns pulsewidth electron beam accelerator). We review our past results and report on the progress of accelerator cell testing.

  8. The Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Sampayan, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    The Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a class of induction accelerators, employs a novel insulating beam tube to impress a longitudinal electric field on a bunch of charged particles. The surface flashover characteristics of this tube may permit the attainment of accelerating gradients on the order of 100 MV/m for accelerating pulses on the order of a nanosecond in duration. A virtual traveling wave of excitation along the tube is produced at any desired speed by controlling the timing of pulse generating modules that supply a tangential electric field to the tube wall. Because of the ability to control the speed of this virtual wave, the accelerator is capable of handling any charge to mass ratio particle; hence it can be used for electrons, protons and any ion. The accelerator architectures, key technologies and development challenges will be described.

  9. Curtain Wall Creates Ventilation Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Curtain-wall structure proposed for removing methane and airborne coal dust from hydrojet-jaw mining machines. Channel between curtain wall and mine wall forms closed exhaust passage. Through it, gas and dust continuously removed so high concentrations of these explosive materials not build up.

  10. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  11. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  12. 8. VIEW OF STUDDING, EXTERIOR WALL FURRING AND LINTELS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF STUDDING, EXTERIOR WALL FURRING AND LINTELS FOR NEW WINDOW OPENINGS. NORTH WING, FIRST FLOOR DURING REHABILITATION OF HOSPITAL BUILDING, 1938. PLEASE CREDIT: BUREAU OF YARDS AND DOCKS, NATIONAL ARCHIVES - U. S. Naval Asylum, Laning Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 16. Interior view, greenhouse, south wall taken from the ground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior view, greenhouse, south wall taken from the ground. The original floor height is indicated by the joists on the left. The large opening on the right was formerly fitted with an exterior-fed iron stove used to heat the space on particularly cold days. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Detail, steps and walls, east corner, Burton Park Amphitheater, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, steps and walls, east corner, Burton Park Amphitheater, view to west (90mm lens). Open doorway to left of steps leads to stage wing area; steps lead to Club House grade level. - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  15. 8. FIRST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, NORTHEAST WALL SHOWING DOORWAYS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FIRST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, NORTHEAST WALL SHOWING DOORWAYS TO BOXED WINDER STAIRWAYS, UP ON FAR RIGHT AND DOWN TO RIGHT OF FIREPLACE, WITH SHUTTERS OPEN - High Farm, House, Creek Road, 1 mile West of Easton Road, Pipersville, Bucks County, PA

  16. 6. View of mill wall ruins looking E showing arched ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View of mill wall ruins looking E showing arched openings where fuel was fed to fire Jamaican Train. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Mill (Ruins), 2.65 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  17. Open Source, Openness, and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, David

    2006-01-01

    In this article David Wiley provides an overview of how the general expansion of open source software has affected the world of education in particular. In doing so, Wiley not only addresses the development of open source software applications for teachers and administrators, he also discusses how the fundamental philosophy of the open source…

  18. 17. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO BATHROOM NUMBER ONE AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT, OPEN PANEL DOOR TO THE WALK-IN CLOSET AT PHOTO CENTER LEFT, OPEN PANEL DOOR TO HALL AT PHOTO CENTER RIGHT, AND A 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON THE WEST WALL AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  19. Interwall Friction and Sliding Behavior of Centimeters Long Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rufan; Ning, Zhiyuan; Xu, Ziwei; Zhang, Yingying; Xie, Huanhuan; Ding, Feng; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Qiang; Qian, Weizhong; Cui, Yi; Wei, Fei

    2016-02-10

    Here, we studied the interwall friction and sliding behaviors of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs). The interwall friction shows a linear dependence on the pullout velocity of the inner wall. The axial curvature in DWCNTs causes the significant increase of the interwall friction. The axial curvature also affects the sliding behavior of the inner wall. Compared with the axial curvature, the opening ends of DWCNTs play tiny roles in their interwall friction.

  20. Radial vibrations of BPS skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, C.; Haberichter, M.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2016-11-01

    We study radial vibrations of spherically symmetric Skyrmions in the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield Skyrme model. Concretely, we numerically solve the linearized field equations for small fluctuations in a Skyrmion background, both for linearly stable oscillations and for (unstable) resonances. This is complemented by numerical solutions of the full nonlinear system, which confirm all the results of the linear analysis. In all cases, the resulting fundamental excitation provides a rather accurate value for the Roper resonance, supporting the hypothesis that the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield Skyrme model already gives a reasonable approximate description of this resonance. Furthermore, for many potentials additional higher resonances appear, again in agreement with known experimental results.

  1. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries (CUUL), The Right to Research Coalition, Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), Makerere University, International Health Sciences University (IHSU), Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) and the Centre for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD). All these organizations are based or have offices in Kampala. The event culminated in a meeting with the Science and Technology Committee of Parliament of Uganda in order to receive the support of the Ugandan Members of Parliament and to make a concrete change for Open Access in the country.

  2. Gullies in Crater Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    6 April 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies in the wall of a large impact crater in Newton Basin near 41.9oS, 158.1oW. Such gullies may have formed by downslope movement of wet debris--i.e., water. Unfortunately, because the responsible fluid (if there was one) is no longer present today, only the geomorphology of the channels and debris aprons can be used to deduce that water might have been involved. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  3. Tailoring the chirality of magnetic domain walls by interface engineering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gong; Ma, Tianping; N'Diaye, Alpha T; Kwon, Heeyoung; Won, Changyeon; Wu, Yizheng; Schmid, Andreas K

    2013-01-01

    Contacting ferromagnetic films with normal metals changes how magnetic textures respond to electric currents, enabling surprisingly fast domain wall motions and spin texture-dependent propagation direction. These effects are attributed to domain wall chirality induced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction at interfaces, which suggests rich possibilities to influence domain wall dynamics if the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction can be adjusted. Chiral magnetism was seen in several film structures on appropriately chosen substrates where interfacial spin-orbit-coupling effects are strong. Here we use real-space imaging to visualize chiral domain walls in cobalt/nickel multilayers in contact with platinum and iridium. We show that the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction can be adjusted to stabilize either left-handed or right-handed Néel walls, or non-chiral Bloch walls by adjusting an interfacial spacer layer between the multilayers and the substrate. Our findings introduce domain wall chirality as a new degree of freedom, which may open up new opportunities for spintronics device designs.

  4. Wall Street's growing influence on plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Krieger, L M; Shaw, W W

    2000-04-01

    The advent of managed care has unleashed market forces on the health care system. One result of these new pressures is a shift from nonprofit to Wall Street-based financing. This report quantifies these trends by comparing health organizations' financial structures in the 1980s and now. The reasons behind this shift and the function of the stock market are examined. A review of Wall Street's key financial measures confirms that health care has shifted to the stock market as its principal means of financing. The stock market works by assigning a current price to a company's stock based on estimates for future earnings. Thus, companies desire predictability in their costs, revenues, and profits. Plastic surgeons can master this system by meeting the challenges imposed by Wall Street financing. Important steps include continuously measuring costs and outcomes of procedures, demanding cost data from hospitals and payers, using these data to improve costs and outcomes, and taking advantage of the system's openness to innovation and easier access to capital. As they seek to protect their role as medical decision makers under the new free-market system, plastic surgeons can benefit from understanding the mechanisms of the stock market.

  5. Structure of axionic domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M. C.; Sikivie, P.

    1985-09-01

    The structure of axionic domain walls is investigated using the low-energy effective theory of axions and pions. We derive the spatial dependence of the phases of the Peccei-Quinn scalar field and the QCD quark-antiquark condensates inside an axionic domain wall. Thence an accurate estimate of the wall surface energy density is obtained. The equations of motion for axions, photons, leptons, and baryons in the neighborhood of axionic domain walls are written down and estimates are given for the wall reflection and transmission coefficients of these particles. Finally, we discuss the energy dissipation by axionic domain walls oscillating in the early universe due to the reflection of particles in the primordial soup.

  6. Oven wall panel construction

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1980-04-22

    An oven roof or wall is formed from modular panels, each of which comprises an inner fabric and an outer fabric. Each such fabric is formed with an angle iron framework and somewhat resilient tie-bars or welded at their ends to flanges of the angle irons to maintain the inner and outer frameworks in spaced disposition while minimizing heat transfer by conduction and permitting some degree of relative movement on expansion and contraction of the module components. Suitable thermal insulation is provided within the module. Panels or skins are secured to the fabric frameworks and each such skin is secured to a framework and projects laterally so as slidingly to overlie the adjacent frame member of an adjacent panel in turn to permit relative movement during expansion and contraction.

  7. Crater Wall With Gullies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    8 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows gullies formed in the terraced wall of an impact crater on the floor of a larger crater near 39.1oS, 200.7oW. Gullies such as these are fairly common in craters and depressions at southern middle latitudes. They also occur in some areas at northern middle latitudes and in both polar regions. They may have formed by liquid water, or not--the Mars science community is still debating and discussing the issue. This picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  8. Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyles, Bennett

    2007-01-01

    People know about the Sakai Project (open source course management system); they may even know about Kuali (open source financials). So, what is the next wave in open source software? This article discusses business intelligence (BI) systems. Though open source BI may still be only a rumor in most campus IT departments, some brave early adopters…

  9. 13. LONG WEST WALL (LEFT) AND SHORT SOUTH WALL (RIGHT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. LONG WEST WALL (LEFT) AND SHORT SOUTH WALL (RIGHT) OF AR-9, ALSO SHOWING MORE RECENT CONTROL ROOM BUILDING AT RIGHT. VIEW IS TO THE NORTHEAST. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. 10. VIEW OF LAMINARFLOW FILTER WALL NEAR SOUTH WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF LAMINAR-FLOW FILTER WALL NEAR SOUTH WALL OF CLEAN ROOM (102). NOTE GROUNDING CABLES NEAR BASEBOARD IN LOWER RIGHT BACKGROUND. WHITE SQUARE IN FOREGROUND IS A FLOOR DRAIN COVERED WITH TAPE. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  11. North wall, central part, showing partial partition wall at left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, central part, showing partial partition wall at left. This area is labeled “Pioneering Research” on drawing copy NV-35-B-5 (submitted with HABS No. NV-35-B) (series 2 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  12. 7. INTERIOR, MAIN GARAGE, SOUTHERN WALL, FROM CLOSE TO WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, MAIN GARAGE, SOUTHERN WALL, FROM CLOSE TO WALL, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM TAPE CONTROL SYSTEM (TECHNOLOGY CIRCA 1910) AT CENTER, AND ENTRY TO OFFICE AT FAR RIGHT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. The Mobile bypass Signal Arrests Shoot Growth by Disrupting Shoot Apical Meristem Maintenance, Cytokinin Signaling, and WUS Transcription Factor Expression1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, David L.; Adhikari, Emma; Fraser, Nisa

    2016-01-01

    The bypass1 (bps1) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) produces a root-sourced compound (the bps signal) that moves to the shoot and is sufficient to arrest growth of a wild-type shoot; however, the mechanism of growth arrest is not understood. Here, we show that the earliest shoot defect arises during germination and is a failure of bps1 mutants to maintain their shoot apical meristem (SAM). This finding suggested that the bps signal might affect expression or function of SAM regulatory genes, and we found WUSCHEL (WUS) expression to be repressed in bps1 mutants. Repression appears to arise from the mobile bps signal, as the bps1 root was sufficient to rapidly down-regulate WUS expression in wild-type shoots. Normally, WUS is regulated by a balance between positive regulation by cytokinin (CK) and negative regulation by CLAVATA (CLV). In bps1, repression of WUS was independent of CLV, and, instead, the bps signal down-regulates CK responses. Cytokinin treatment of bps1 mutants restored both WUS expression and activity, but only in the rib meristem. How the bps signal down-regulates CK remains unknown, though the bps signal was sufficient to repress expression of one CK receptor (AHK4) and one response regulator (AHP6). Together, these data suggest that the bps signal pathway has the potential for long-distance regulation through modification of CK signaling and altering gene expression. PMID:27208247

  14. VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP STORAGE OPENINGS, NORTH END OF BARN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP STORAGE OPENINGS, NORTH END OF BARN, LOOKING SOUTH (This northern-most facade of the barn was originally a board and batten wall with two sliding doors. In the early decades of the twentieth century Frederick Edward Arnold moved the wall and doors; they now make up the north end of bay 3. This was done to ease machine storage) - Arnold Farm, Barn, 1948 Arnold Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  15. Transonic interference reduction by limited ventilation wall panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, John D.

    1986-01-01

    In two wind tunnels used for the two-dimensional airfoil tests, each wall above and below the model was modified by replacing small segments of the solid boundaries with perforated plates vented into sealed chambers. Perforated segments having approximately 40 percent open area were found to reduce the transonic wall interference to a negligible level, for a model chord-to-tunnel height ratio of 0.5. This report describes the physical arrangement and presents typical model pressure distributions to illustrate the effectiveness of the technique.

  16. Association Mapping of Cell Wall Synthesis Regulatory Genes and Cell Wall Quality in Switchgrass

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, Laura; Wu, Y.; Zhu, L.; Brummer, E. C.; Saha, M.

    2016-05-31

    transcription factors from the rice gene network. Eight of fifteen (53%) of these have not previously been examined for this function. Some of these may represent novel grass-diverged cell wall regulators, while others are likely to have this function across angiosperms. A parallel effort of this project to expand knowledge of enzymes that have evolved to function in grass cell wall synthesis, revealed that a grass-diverged enzyme in rice, OsAT5, ferulates monolignols that are naturally incorporated into grass cell walls. This finding opens potential natural selection avenues for improving biomass composition for downstream processing by weak base pretreatment. Thus, this project has significantly expanded knowledge of cell wall synthesis and regulation in rice, information that can be used in reverse genetics and synthetic biology approaches to re-engineer cell walls for improved production of biofuel and high-value products. To lay the foundation for translating these results directly for switchgrass improvement, the project employed a comparative phylogenetic analysis of the major group of cell wall transcription factors that have been found to function in cell wall regulation, the R2R3 MYBs. This analysis concluded that known cell wall regulators are largely conserved across switchgrass, rice, maize, poplar, and Arabidopsis. This interpretation is also largely consistent with the gene network analysis described above, though both approaches provide evidence that some co-orthologs of Arabidopsis regulators have diminished or increased in importance based on gene expression patterns. Also, several clades containing dicot cell wall regulators have expanded, consistent with the evolution of new cell wall regulators. This latter result is supported by functional analysis of the R2R3 MYB protein SWAM1 in a collaboration between this project and the DOE-funded group of Dr. S. Hazen at the University of

  17. Segmentation, statistical analysis, and modelling of the wall system in ceramic foams

    SciTech Connect

    Kampf, Jürgen; Schlachter, Anna-Lena; Redenbach, Claudia; Liebscher, André

    2015-01-15

    Closed walls in otherwise open foam structures may have a great impact on macroscopic properties of the materials. In this paper, we present two algorithms for the segmentation of such closed walls from micro-computed tomography images of the foam structure. The techniques are compared on simulated data and applied to tomographic images of ceramic filters. This allows for a detailed statistical analysis of the normal directions and sizes of the walls. Finally, we explain how the information derived from the segmented wall system can be included in a stochastic microstructure model for the foam.

  18. Vesicles between plasma membrane and cell wall prior to visible senescence of Iris and Dendrobium flowers.

    PubMed

    Kamdee, Channatika; Kirasak, Kanjana; Ketsa, Saichol; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-09-01

    Cut Iris flowers (Iris x hollandica, cv. Blue Magic) show visible senescence about two days after full opening. Epidermal cells of the outer tepals collapse due to programmed cell death (PCD). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed irregular swelling of the cell walls, starting prior to cell collapse. Compared to cells in flowers that had just opened, wall thickness increased up to tenfold prior to cell death. Fibrils were visible in the swollen walls. After cell death very little of the cell wall remained. Prior to and during visible wall swelling, vesicles (paramural bodies) were observed between the plasma membrane and the cell walls. The vesicles were also found in groups and were accompanied by amorphous substance. They usually showed a single membrane, and had a variety of diameters and electron densities. Cut Dendrobium hybrid cv. Lucky Duan flowers exhibited visible senescence about 14 days after full flower opening. Paramural bodies were also found in Dendrobium tepal epidermis and mesophyll cells, related to wall swelling and degradation. Although alternative explanations are well possible, it is hypothesized that paramural bodies carry enzymes involved in cell wall breakdown. The literature has not yet reported such bodies in association with senescence/PCD.

  19. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  20. The Wonders of Word Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Amy; Krogness, Allison

    2001-01-01

    Describes using a word wall, a visible display categorizing words alphabetically, enabling children in early childhood classrooms to discover new words and to practice and expand their language skills. Suggests that a word wall helps to create a secure learning environment, builds student confidence, and contributes to independent reading and…

  1. The "Brick Wall" Graphic Organizer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Shirley M.

    2016-01-01

    A brick wall provides a fitting description of what happens when teachers try to teach a concept for which students are unprepared. When students are unsuccessful academically, their foundational knowledge may be missing, incomplete, or incorrect. As a result, students "hit a brick wall," and their academic progress stops because they do…

  2. Great Wall of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER sub-image covers a 12 x 12 km area in northern Shanxi Province, China, and was acquired January 9, 2001. The low sun angle, and light snow cover highlight a section of the Great Wall, visible as a black line running diagonally through the image from lower left to upper right. The Great Wall is over 2000 years old and was built over a period of 1000 years. Stretching 4500 miles from Korea to the Gobi Desert it was first built to protect China from marauders from the north.

    This image is located at 40.2 degrees north latitude and 112.8 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and

  3. Rough-Wall Channel Analysis Using Suboptimal Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, O.; Jimenez, J.; Tenpleton, J.

    2003-01-01

    The original aim of this work was to shed some light on the physics of turbulence over rough walls using large-eddy simulations and the suboptimal-control wall boundary conditions introduced by Nicoud et al. It was hoped that, if that algorithm was used to fit the mean velocity profile of the simulations to that of a rough-walled channel, instead of to a smooth one, the wall stresses introduced by the control algorithm would give some indication of what aspects of rough walls are most responsible for the modification of the flow in real turbulence. It was similarly expected that the structure of the resulting velocity fluctuations would share some of the characteristics of rough-walled flows, thus again suggesting what is intrinsic and what is accidental in the effect of geometric wall roughness. A secondary goal was to study the effect of 'unphysical' boundary conditions on the outside flow by observing how a relatively major change of the target velocity profile, and therefore presumably of the applied wall stresses, modifies properties such as the dominant length scales of the velocity fluctuations away from the wall. As will be seen below, this secondary goal grew more important during the course of the study, which was carried out during a short summer visit of the first two authors to the CTR. It became clear that there are open questions about the way in which the control algorithm models the boundary conditions, even for smooth walls, and that these questions make the physical interpretation of the results difficult. Considerable more work in that area seems to be needed before even relatively advanced large-eddy simulations, such as these, can be used to draw conclusions about the physics of wall-bounded turbulent flows. The numerical method is the same as in Nicoud et al. The modifications introduced in the original code are briefly described in section 2, but the original paper should be consulted for a full description of the algorithm. The results are

  4. Channel Wall Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The multiple landslides in this VIS image occur along a steep channel wall. Note the large impact crater in the context image. The formation of the crater may have initially weakened that area of the surface prior to channel formation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.7, Longitude 324.8 East (35.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Open Smart Energy Gateway (OpenSEG)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    The Open Smart Energy Gateway (OpenSEG) aims to provide near-real time smart meter data to consumers without the delays or latencies associated with it being transported to the utility data center and then back to the consumer's application. To do this, the gateway queries the local Smart Meter to which it is bound to get energy consumption information at pre-defined intervals (minimum interval is 4 seconds). OpenSEG then stores the resulting data internally for retrieval by an external application.

  6. Wall Shear Stress, Wall Pressure and Near Wall Velocity Field Relationships in a Whirling Annular Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Winslow, Robert B.; Thames, H. Davis, III

    1996-01-01

    The mean and phase averaged pressure and wall shear stress distributions were measured on the stator wall of a 50% eccentric annular seal which was whirling in a circular orbit at the same speed as the shaft rotation. The shear stresses were measured using flush mounted hot-film probes. Four different operating conditions were considered consisting of Reynolds numbers of 12,000 and 24,000 and Taylor numbers of 3,300 and 6,600. At each of the operating conditions the axial distribution (from Z/L = -0.2 to 1.2) of the mean pressure, shear stress magnitude, and shear stress direction on the stator wall were measured. Also measured were the phase averaged pressure and shear stress. These data were combined to calculate the force distributions along the seal length. Integration of the force distributions result in the net forces and moments generated by the pressure and shear stresses. The flow field inside the seal operating at a Reynolds number of 24,000 and a Taylor number of 6,600 has been measured using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. Phase averaged wall pressure and wall shear stress are presented along with phase averaged mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy distributions located 0.16c from the stator wall where c is the seal clearance. The relationships between the velocity, turbulence, wall pressure and wall shear stress are very complex and do not follow simple bulk flow predictions.

  7. [An example of multi-stage reconstruction of a full-thickness abdominal wall defect].

    PubMed

    Kaczmarzyk, Janusz; Elsaftawy, Ahmed; Jabłecki, Jerzy; Kaczmarzyk, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal wall reconstruction is a highly complex procedure that may requires a multiple stages surgical operations. The aim of a such reconstruction is to close the abdominal wall defect and to create a support for the internal organs. It's a challenge for both general and reconstructive surgery. An incomplete thickness defects of the abdominal wall are so much easier to challenge than complete ones. Also the size of the primary defect determines the way and stages of the operation. Such defects can occur in necrotizing fasciitis of the abdominal wall, after abdominal walls tumors removal, in traffic accidents or after "open abdomen" procedures (acute severe pancreatitis). In this paper the authors present a case of 62-yo patient which was operated because of large intestine perforation with various complications of which the most serious was the abdominal wall defect.

  8. Denitrification Walls: Successes and Limitations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipper, L. A.; Barkle, G. F.; Burgess, C. P.; Vojvodic-Vukovic, M.

    2001-05-01

    There is a need to develop practical and inexpensive approaches for removing nitrate from ground water because of its potential adverse effect on receiving aquatic environments. Denitrification walls may be one such approach for removing nitrate from shallow groundwater. In January 1996, we constructed a denitrification wall by digging a trench that intercepted groundwater and mixed the excavated soil with sawdust before the mix was returned to the trench. Sawdust provides a source of energy for denitrifying bacteria, which convert nitrate in groundwater entering the wall to nitrogen gas. For the past 5 years, nitrate concentrations in groundwater entering this wall have ranged from 5 to 16 mg N L-1 but have always been reduced to less than 2 mg N L-1 in the wall indicating nearly complete removal of nitrate from the groundwater. We showed that this nitrate removal could be accounted for by denitrification rates which ranged from 0.6 to 18.1 mg N m-3 h-1. More recently we have encountered problems with denitrification walls constructed into coarsely textured soils (such as sands) where the addition of sawdust decreased hydraulic conductivity. As a consequence groundwater flowed under rather than through the wall. We are attempting to circumvent this problem using coarser grades of carbon amendments. Particulate carbon (such as sawdust) is likely to support lower rates of nitrate removal, but for longer, than soluble carbon sources because solid carbon sources degrade more slowly.

  9. Gallbladder removal - open

    MedlinePlus

    ... the surgeon needs to switch to an open surgery if laparoscopic surgery cannot be successfully continued. Other reasons for removing the gallbladder by open surgery: Unexpected bleeding during the laparoscopic operation Obesity Pancreatitis (inflammation in the pancreas) Pregnancy ( ...

  10. On the mechanics of thin-walled laminated composite beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Ever J.; Lopez-Anido, Roberto; Davalos, Julio F.

    1993-01-01

    A formal engineering approach of the mechanics of thin-walled laminated beams based on kinematic assumptions consistent with Timoshenko beam theory is presented. Thin-walled composite beams with open or closed cross section subjected to bending and axial load are considered. A variational formulation is employed to obtain a comprehensive description of the structural response. Beam stiffness coefficients, which account for the cross section geometry and for the material anisotropy, are obtained. An explicit expression for the static shear correction factor of thin-walled composite beams is derived from energy equivalence. A numerical example involving a laminated I-beam is used to used to demonstrate the capability of the model for predicting displacements and ply stresses.

  11. Method for making generally cylindrical underground openings

    DOEpatents

    Routh, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    A rapid, economical and safe method for making a generally cylindrical underground opening such as a shaft or a tunnel is described. A borehole is formed along the approximate center line of where it is desired to make the underground opening. The borehole is loaded with an explodable material and the explodable material is detonated. An enlarged cavity is formed by the explosive action of the detonated explodable material forcing outward and compacting the original walls of the borehole. The enlarged cavity may be increased in size by loading it with a second explodable material, and detonating the second explodable material. The process may be repeated as required until the desired underground opening is made. The explodable material used in the method may be free-flowing, and it may be contained in a pipe.

  12. Development of a Chest Wall Protector Effective in Preventing Sudden Cardiac Death by Chest Wall Impact (Commotio Cordis)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kartik; Mandleywala, Swati N.; Gannon, Michael P.; Estes, Nathan Anthony Mark; Weinstock, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Commotio cordis, sudden death with chest impact, occurs clinically despite chest wall protectors worn in sports. In an experimental model of commotio cordis, commercially available chest wall protectors failed to prevent ventricular fibrillation (VF). The goal of the current investigation was to develop a chest wall protector effective in the prevention of commotio cordis. Design: In the Tufts experimental model of commotio cordis the ability of chest protectors to prevent VF was assessed. Impacts were delivered with a 40-mph lacrosse ball, timed to the vulnerable period for VF. Intervention: A chest wall protector or no chest wall protector (control) was randomly assigned to be placed over the chest. Four iterative series of 2 to 4 different chest wall material combinations were assessed. Materials included 3 different foams (Accelleron [Unequal Technologies, Glen Mills, PA], closed cell high density foam; Airilon [Unequal Technologies, Glen Mills, PA], closed cell low density soft foam; and an open cell memory foam) that were adhered to a layer of TriDur (Unequal Technologies, Glen Mills, PA), a flexible elastomeric coated aramid that was bonded to a semirigid polypropylene polymer (ImpacShield, Unequal Technologies, Glen Mills, PA). Main Outcome Measure: Induction of VF by chest wall impact was the primary outcome. Results: Of 80 impacts without chest protectors, 43 (54%) resulted in VF. Ventricular fibrillation with chest protectors ranged from a high of 60% to a low of 5%. Of 12 chest protectors assessed, only 3 significantly lowered the risk of VF compared with impacts without chest protectors. These 3 chest protectors were combinations of Accelleron, Airilon, TriDur, and ImpacShield of different thicknesses. Protection increased linearly with the thicker combinations. Conclusions: Effective protection against VF with chest wall protection can be achieved in an experimental model of commotio cordis. Clinical Relevance: Chest protector designs

  13. 27. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; SIDEWALL, NORTH WALL AND SOUTH WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; SIDEWALL, NORTH WALL AND SOUTH WALL FRAMING ELEVATIONS." Specifications No. ENG-04353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 27 of 148; file no. 1320/78. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, Rev. B; date: 15 April 1957. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias.

  15. OTVE combustor wall condition monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szemenyei, Brian; Nelson, Robert S.; Barkhoudarian, S.

    1989-01-01

    Conventional ultrasonics, eddy current, and electromagnetic acoustic transduction (EMAT) technologies were evaluated to determine their capability of measuring wall thickness/wear of individual cooling channels in test specimens simulating conditions in the throat region of an OTVE combustion chamber liner. Quantitative results are presented for the eddy current technology, which was shown to measure up to the optimum 20-mil wall thickness with near single channel resolution. Additional results demonstrate the capability of the conventional ultrasonics and EMAT technologies to detect a thinning or cracked wall. Recommendations for additional eddy current and EMAT development tests are presented.

  16. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  17. Openness as infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The advent of open access to peer reviewed scholarly literature in the biomedical sciences creates the opening to examine scholarship in general, and chemistry in particular, to see where and how novel forms of network technology can accelerate the scientific method. This paper examines broad trends in information access and openness with an eye towards their applications in chemistry. PMID:21999327

  18. In Brief: Open government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-03-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama's Memorandum on Transparency and Open Government requires federal agencies to take steps toward increased transparency, public participation, and collaboration. Agencies are accepting suggestions until 19 March 2010. For more information, visit http://www.whitehouse.gov/open and http://www.usa.gov/webcontent/open/tool_poc.shtml.

  19. Open Rotor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale E.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The ERA project executed a comprehensive test program for Open Rotor aerodynamic and acoustic performance. System studies used the data to estimate the fuel burn savings and acoustic margin for an aircraft system with open rotor propulsion. The acoustic measurements were used to produce an auralization that compares the legacy blades to the current generation of open rotor designs.

  20. Lumbar (Open) Microscopic Discectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... When the outer wall of a disc, the annulus fibrosus, becomes weakened, it may tear allowing the ... and alleviate the pain. The surgery involves a small incision in the skin over the spine, removal ...

  1. Penetration of the LCLS Injector Shield Wall at Sector 20

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, D

    2010-12-10

    Penetrations through the LCLS injector shield wall are needed for the alignment of the accelerator, a diagnostic laser beam and utilities, and are shown in figure 1. The 1-inch diameter LCLS injector beam tube is blocked by the PPS stopper when the injector side of the wall is occupied. The two 3-inch diameter penetrations above and to the left of the beam tube are used by Precision Alignment and will be open only during installation of the injector beamline. Additional 3-inch diameter penetrations are for laser beams which will be used for electron beam diagnostics. These will not be plugged when the injector occupied. Other penetrations for the RF waveguide and other utilities are approximately 13-inch from the floor and as such are far from the line-of-sight of any radiation sources. The waveguide and utility penetrations pass only through the thicker wall as shown in the figure. The principal issue is with the two laser penetrations, since these will be open when the linac is operating and people are in the LCLS injector area. A principal concern is radiation streaming through the penetrations due to direct line-of sight of the PEP-2 lines. To answer this, fans of rays were traced through the 3-inch diameter laser penetrations as shown in Figures 2 and 3. Figure 2 gives the top view of the shield walls, the main linac and PEP-2 lines, and the ray-fans. The fans appear to originate between the walls since their angular envelope is defined by the greatest angle possible when rays are just on the 3-inch diameter at the inner most and outermost wall surfaces. The crossovers of all possible rays lie half way between these two surfaces. As the end-on view of Figure 3 clearly shows, there is no direct line-of-sight through the laser penetrations of the PEP-2 or linac beamlines.

  2. Domain Wall Motion by the Magnonic Spin Seebeck Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinzke, D.; Nowak, U.

    2011-07-01

    The recently discovered spin Seebeck effect refers to a spin current induced by a temperature gradient in a ferromagnetic material. It combines spin degrees of freedom with caloric properties, opening the door for the invention of new, spin caloritronic devices. Using spin model simulations as well as an innovative, multiscale micromagnetic framework we show that magnonic spin currents caused by temperature gradients lead to spin transfer torque effects, which can drag a domain wall in a ferromagnetic nanostructure towards the hotter part of the wire. This effect opens new perspectives for the control and manipulation of domain structures.

  3. Domain wall motion by the magnonic spin Seebeck effect.

    PubMed

    Hinzke, D; Nowak, U

    2011-07-08

    The recently discovered spin Seebeck effect refers to a spin current induced by a temperature gradient in a ferromagnetic material. It combines spin degrees of freedom with caloric properties, opening the door for the invention of new, spin caloritronic devices. Using spin model simulations as well as an innovative, multiscale micromagnetic framework we show that magnonic spin currents caused by temperature gradients lead to spin transfer torque effects, which can drag a domain wall in a ferromagnetic nanostructure towards the hotter part of the wire. This effect opens new perspectives for the control and manipulation of domain structures.

  4. Theory of thin-walled rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldenveizer, A L

    1951-01-01

    Starting with the Love equations for bending of extensible shells, "principal stress states" are sought for a thin-walled rod of arbitrary but open cross section. Principal stress states exclude those local states arising from end conditions which damp out with distance from the ends. It is found that for rods of intermediate length, long enough to avoid local bending at a support, and short enough that elementary torsion and bending are not the most significant stress states, four principal states exist. Three of these states are associated with the planar distribution of axial stress and are equivalent to the engineering theory of extension and bending of solid sections. The fourth state resembles that which has been called in the literature "bending stress due to torsional", except that cross sections are permitted to bend and the shear along the center line of the cross section is permitted to differ from zero.

  5. An Exploration of Wall Retrofit Best Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Therese K; Petrie, Thomas; Kosny, Jan; Childs, Phillip W; Atchley, Jerald Allen; Hulvey, Kimberly D

    2007-01-01

    A series of experiments were performed to examine wall retrofit options including replacing the cladding, adding insulation under the cladding, and multiple sealing methods that can be used when installing replacement windows in well-built or loosely-built rough openings. These experiments included thermal measurements in a hot box and air-leakage measurements. The retrofit claddings considered included wood-lap siding, vinyl siding, and vinyl siding with an integrated and formed foam insulation. Retrofit insulations included expanded and extruded polystyrene and foil-faced polyisocyanurate in various thicknesses. Air sealing methods for replacement windows included traditional caulking, exterior trim variations, loose-fill fiberglass, low-expansion foam, self-expanding foam inserts, and specialty tape. Results were applied to a model to estimate whole-house energy impacts for multiple climates.

  6. Open inflation in the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Linde, Andrei; Naruko, Atsushi; Sasaki, Misao; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2011-08-01

    The open inflation scenario is attracting a renewed interest in the context of the string landscape. Since there are a large number of metastable de Sitter vacua in the string landscape, tunneling transitions to lower metastable vacua through the bubble nucleation occur quite naturally, which leads to a natural realization of open inflation. Although the deviation of Ω0 from unity is small by the observational bound, we argue that the effect of this small deviation on the large-angle CMB anisotropies can be significant for tensor-type perturbation in the open inflation scenario. We consider the situation in which there is a large hierarchy between the energy scale of the quantum tunneling and that of the slow-roll inflation in the nucleated bubble. If the potential just after tunneling is steep enough, a rapid-roll phase appears before the slow-roll inflation. In this case the power spectrum is basically determined by the Hubble rate during the slow-roll inflation. On the other hand, if such a rapid-roll phase is absent, the power spectrum keeps the memory of the high energy density there in the large angular components. Furthermore, the amplitude of large angular components can be enhanced due to the effects of the wall fluctuation mode if the bubble wall tension is small. Therefore, although even the dominant quadrupole component is suppressed by the factor (1-Ω0)2, one can construct some models in which the deviation of Ω0 from unity is large enough to produce measurable effects. We also consider a more general class of models, where the false vacuum decay may occur due to Hawking-Moss tunneling, as well as the models involving more than one scalar field. We discuss scalar perturbations in these models and point out that a large set of such models is already ruled out by observational data, unless there was a very long stage of slow-roll inflation after the tunneling. These results show that observational data allow us to test various assumptions concerning

  7. Radiative feedback in Helmholtz resonators with more than one opening.

    PubMed

    Dosch, Hans Günter

    2016-11-01

    The resonance frequency of a Helmholtz resonator with several openings is derived, taking into account the radiation feedback between the different holes. This is done under the assumption that the distance between the openings is large as compared to their linear dimensions. The effect of a finite wall thickness of the resonator is also discussed. The radiation feedback can lead to a shift of the resonance position by more than 10%.

  8. 18. BATHROOM INTERIOR SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO SOUTH BEDROOM AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. BATHROOM INTERIOR SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO SOUTH BEDROOM AT PHOTO CENTER, TOILET AT EXTREME PHOTO RIGHT BOTTOM, OPEN DOOR TO MEDICINE CABINET AT PHOTO RIGHT. A WALLPAPER WAINSCOT COVERS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE ORIGINAL FIBERBOARD WALL COVERING. THE FLOOR IS LINOLEUM. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  9. 6. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO CENTER, FLUSH FRONT DOOR WITH GLAZING AT PHOTO RIGHT, AND OPEN PANELED DOOR TO BEDROOM NO. 2 AT LEFT PHOTO CENTER. DECORATIVE WOOD STRIPPING ON WALLS AND CEILING IS CARRIED THROUGHOUT REST OF ORIGINAL PORTION OF HOUSE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  10. INTERIOR OF EAST DOOR, SOUTH WALL, AND AISLE LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF EAST DOOR, SOUTH WALL, AND AISLE LOOKING EAST (This bay of the barn was originally used for livestock. Horse pens and milking stanchions remain. Floor was built with 1/4 inch gaps between the planks to allow air circulation. Photograph also shows the knee-high hinged doors that open for easy removal of manure) - Arnold Farm, Barn, 1948 Arnold Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  11. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in semiadhesive wall proximity.

    PubMed

    Sanguigno, Luigi; De Santo, Ilaria; Causa, Filippo; Netti, Paolo A

    2011-11-01

    With examination of diffusion in heterogeneous media through fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, the temporal correlation of the intensity signal shows a long correlation tail and the characteristic diffusion time results are no longer easy to determine. Excluded volume and sticking effects have been proposed to justify such deviations from the standard behavior since all contribute and lead to anomalous diffusion mechanisms . Usually, the anomalous coefficient embodies all the effects of environmental heterogeneity providing too general explanations for the exotic diffusion recorded. Here, we investigated whether the reason of anomalies could be related to a lack of an adequate interpretative model for heterogeneous systems and how the presence of obstacles on the detection volume length scale could affect fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments. We report an original modeling of the autocorrelation function where fluorophores experience reflection or adsorption at a wall placed at distances comparable with the detection volume size. We successfully discriminate between steric and adhesion effects through the analysis of long time correlations and evaluate the adhesion strength through the evaluation of probability of being adsorbed and persistence time at the wall on reference data. The proposed model can be readily adopted to gain a better understanding of intracellular and nanoconfined diffusion opening the way for a more rational analysis of the diffusion mechanism in heterogeneous systems and further developing biological and biomedical applications.

  12. Interference on an airfoil of finite span in an open wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore

    1934-01-01

    The wall interference on an airfoil of finite span in an open-throat rectangular section has been treated theoretically and the result is presented in a convenient formula. Numerical results are given in tables and diagrams.

  13. Fly on the Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The email was addressed not only to me, but also to all the Project Knowledge Sharing Community at Ames Research Center. We were invited to sit in on a major project review as a new experiment in knowledge sharing. This first-of-its-kind opportunity had been conceived by Claire Smith, who leads the knowledge sharing program, as well as heading up the Center's Project Leadership Development Program and serving as coordinator of the APPL-West program at Ames. The objective was to offer Ames project practitioners the opportunity to observe project-review processes as they happen. Not that I haven't participated in my share of project reviews, but this seemed like a great way for me to get up-to-date about a new project, the Kepler mission, and to experience a review from a new perspective. Typically, when you're being reviewed, it's difficult to see what's happening objectively-the same way it is on a project. Presenters are always thinking, 'Okay, what's on my slides? How much time do I have left? What are they going to ask me?' So when Claire's email pinged on my computer, I quickly responded by asking her to save a place for me. It was to be an informational review about progress on the project: what the team had done, where they were going, and what they needed to do to get there. There were people on the project team from all over the United States, and it was the first time for them to get together from all aspects of the project. For our part, as observers, we were asked to abide by a couple of rules: Don't ask any questions. and don't talk about the specifics of what we saw or heard. The idea was that we weren't supposed to be noticed. We weren't to buzz around and bother people. Hence the name for this experinient: Fly on the Wall.

  14. My Big Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinosa, Paul S.

    2002-01-01

    It was June and I was in Yosemite National Park in California, 2,000-feet off the ground. I was climbing El Capitan, a majestic 3,000-foot high, mile-wide granite monolith--one of the most sought after and spectacular rock climbs in the world. After three days of climbing on its sheer face, and having completed the most difficult part of the route, my partner and I were heading down. A thunderstorm lasting all night and into the morning had soaked our tiny perch and all our worldly possessions. We began rappelling down the vertical wall by sliding to the ends of two 50meter ropes tied together and looped through a set of fixed rings bolted into the rock. At the end of the ropes was another rappel station consisting of a set of rings, placed by previous climbers for retreating parties, which we used to anchor ourselves to the rock face. We then pulled the ropes down from the rings above, threaded the ones in front of our noses and started down another rope length. Everything we brought up for our five-day climb to the summit we had to bring back down with us: ropes, climbing gear of every sort, sleeping bags, extra clothes, food, water, and other essentials. All this we either stuffed into a haul bag (an oversized reinforced duffel bag) or slung over our shoulders. The retreat was slow and methodical, akin to a train backing down a mountain, giving me ample time to think. My situation made me think about my work, mostly, about all the projects I have managed, or been involved in managing. As a NASA project manager, I have worked on a number of successful projects. I have also been involved in a number of projects I never saw the end of. I thought about all the projects I transferred off of for other opportunities, projects that were in full stride and ran out of funding, and ones put on the shelf because they would not meet a flight date. Oh yes, I have had many success, to be sure, or I would have burned out years ago. Lessons from both the successful and not

  15. Simulation of turbulent wall pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to simulate the transient wall pressure field produced by a low speed fully turbulent boundary layer. The theoretical basis for the simulation has been discussed and preliminary results from a pressure simulation are presented.

  16. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes generation 2 bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation, and separation. Ultimately, it is desired to combine as man...

  17. Wall effects in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevallier, J. P.; Vaucheret, X.

    1986-01-01

    A synthesis of current trends in the reduction and computation of wall effects is presented. Some of the points discussed include: (1) for the two-dimensional, transonic tests, various control techniques of boundary conditions are used with adaptive walls offering high precision in determining reference conditions and residual corrections. A reduction in the boundary layer effects of the lateral walls is obtained at T2; (2) for the three-dimensional tests, the methods for the reduction of wall effects are still seldom applied due to a lesser need and to their complexity; (3) the supports holding the model of the probes have to be taken into account in the estimation of perturbatory effects.

  18. Hall thruster with grooved walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong; Ning, Zhongxi; Yu, Daren

    2013-02-01

    Axial-oriented and azimuthal-distributed grooves are formed on channel walls of a Hall thruster after the engine undergoes a long-term operation. Existing studies have demonstrated the relation between the grooves and the near-wall physics, such as sheath and electron near-wall transport. The idea to optimize the thruster performance with such grooves was also proposed. Therefore, this paper is devoted to explore the effects of wall grooves on the discharge characteristics of a Hall thruster. With experimental measurements, the variations on electron conductivity, ionization distribution, and integrated performance are obtained. The involved physical mechanisms are then analyzed and discussed. The findings help to not only better understand the working principle of Hall thruster discharge but also establish a physical fundamental for the subsequent optimization with artificial grooves.

  19. Openness, Web 2.0 Technology, and Open Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Open science is a term that is being used in the literature to designate a form of science based on open source models or that utilizes principles of open access, open archiving and open publishing to promote scientific communication. Open science increasingly also refers to open governance and more democratized engagement and control of science…

  20. Will this open space work?

    PubMed

    Vischer, J

    1999-01-01

    Northern Oil is moving offices, and CEO Fritz Schumacher wants to make the most of the move in this fictional case study. He believes that adopting an open-plan work space will reinvent how the company works, not to mention cut costs. Facilities manager Sasha Pasternak also supports the open plan. Her job would be easier, and her budget would stretch further, if Northern had standardized workstations and used partitions, not walls. And she likes the way the new design flattens the organization: everyone has the same amount of space and the same ergonomically sound furniture. The new building would have more conference rooms and just-in-time work spaces for employees who worked mostly off-site. And although she knew that initial meetings between the architects and Northern employees hadn't yielded much support for open space--people were attached to their private offices--she expected that people would warm to the idea. But when the new design was unveiled, employees were less than enthusiastic. They hurled questions like, How will workers concentrate if they can't shut their office doors? How will people have confidential meetings with their boss? And why would people stay at Northern when the competition offers them private offices? There was even talk of circulating a petition refusing to move to the new space. A week later, the architect presented revised plans to the project group. The new options would add costs and reduce the amount of space savings, but offering a choice to employees might make them feel less threatened. What should the project team do? Five commentators offer advice.

  1. Transmembrane passage of hydrophobic compounds through a protein channel wall.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Elizabeth M; Patel, Dimki R; Lepore, Bryan W; Indic, Mridhu; van den Berg, Bert

    2009-03-19

    Membrane proteins that transport hydrophobic compounds have important roles in multi-drug resistance and can cause a number of diseases, underscoring the importance of protein-mediated transport of hydrophobic compounds. Hydrophobic compounds readily partition into regular membrane lipid bilayers, and their transport through an aqueous protein channel is energetically unfavourable. Alternative transport models involving acquisition from the lipid bilayer by lateral diffusion have been proposed for hydrophobic substrates. So far, all transport proteins for which a lateral diffusion mechanism has been proposed function as efflux pumps. Here we present the first example of a lateral diffusion mechanism for the uptake of hydrophobic substrates by the Escherichia coli outer membrane long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL. A FadL mutant in which a lateral opening in the barrel wall is constricted, but which is otherwise structurally identical to wild-type FadL, does not transport substrates. A crystal structure of FadL from Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows that the opening in the wall of the beta-barrel is conserved and delineates a long, hydrophobic tunnel that could mediate substrate passage from the extracellular environment, through the polar lipopolysaccharide layer and, by means of the lateral opening in the barrel wall, into the lipid bilayer from where the substrate can diffuse into the periplasm. Because FadL homologues are found in pathogenic and biodegrading bacteria, our results have implications for combating bacterial infections and bioremediating xenobiotics in the environment.

  2. Correction factors for wind tunnels of elliptic section with partly open and partly closed test section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riegels, Fritz W

    1951-01-01

    Jet boundary corrections for partly open and partly closed elliptical wind tunnels for the cases of one and two solid wall segments are presented. Also presented are the combinations of model span and extent of the solid portion of the tunnel wall for which the average correction factor is zero.

  3. Effect of cavity fore wall modifications in supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyakumar, S.; Yuvaraj, K. Arun; Jayaraman, K.; Cardona, F.; Sultan, M. T. H.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the complex behaviour of the cavity flow is essential for the design of supersonic combustor. The characteristics of the axisymmetric aft ramp cavity with fore wall modification have been experimentally studied in a blow-down type supersonic flow facility. The facility consists of a conventional CD nozzle that issues a flow Mach number of 1.88 to a supersonic combustor of circular cross section, which is placed immediately downstream of the nozzle. The axisymmetric cavities are incorporated within the combustor. The cavities are of open type and their length is kept constant while their depth varies. The aft wall of the cavities is inclined with three ramp angles and the fore wall is provided with a constant fillet radius of 3 mm. The performance of the cavity is analysed based on wall static pressures, momentum flux distribution at the exit of the combustor and stagnation pressure loss across the combustor. The study reveals that fore wall fillet cavities provide less cavity drag and stagnation pressure loss for various aft ramp angles under identical operating conditions.

  4. Open Babel: An open chemical toolbox

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A frequent problem in computational modeling is the interconversion of chemical structures between different formats. While standard interchange formats exist (for example, Chemical Markup Language) and de facto standards have arisen (for example, SMILES format), the need to interconvert formats is a continuing problem due to the multitude of different application areas for chemistry data, differences in the data stored by different formats (0D versus 3D, for example), and competition between software along with a lack of vendor-neutral formats. Results We discuss, for the first time, Open Babel, an open-source chemical toolbox that speaks the many languages of chemical data. Open Babel version 2.3 interconverts over 110 formats. The need to represent such a wide variety of chemical and molecular data requires a library that implements a wide range of cheminformatics algorithms, from partial charge assignment and aromaticity detection, to bond order perception and canonicalization. We detail the implementation of Open Babel, describe key advances in the 2.3 release, and outline a variety of uses both in terms of software products and scientific research, including applications far beyond simple format interconversion. Conclusions Open Babel presents a solution to the proliferation of multiple chemical file formats. In addition, it provides a variety of useful utilities from conformer searching and 2D depiction, to filtering, batch conversion, and substructure and similarity searching. For developers, it can be used as a programming library to handle chemical data in areas such as organic chemistry, drug design, materials science, and computational chemistry. It is freely available under an open-source license from http://openbabel.org. PMID:21982300

  5. Innovative Composite Wall System for Sheathing Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Robert L.; Cavallo, James

    1997-09-25

    Existing Housing - Much of the older multifamily housing stock in the United States includes units in structures with uninsulated masonry walls. Included in this stock are two- and three-story walk-up apartments, larger apartment complexes, and public housing (both high- rise and townhouse). This older multifamily housing has seen years of heavy use that may have left the plaster wall marred or damaged. Long- term building settlement or movement may have cracked the plaster, sometimes severely. Moisture from invented kitchens and baths may have caused condensation on uninsulated exterior walls. At best this condensation has left stains on the paint or wallpaper. At worst it has supported mold and mildew growth, fouling the air and creating unhealthy living conditions. Deteriorating plaster and flaking paint also result from wet walls. The presence of flaking, lead-based paint in older (pre-1978) housing is a major public health concern. Children can suffer permanent mental handicaps and psychological disorders if they are subjected to elevated levels of lead, while adults can suffer hypertension and other maladies. Studies have found that, in some urban communities with older housing stocks, over 35% of children tested have elevated blood lead levels (Hastings, et al.: 1997). Nationally, nearly 22% of black, non-hispanic children living in pre-1946 housing were found to have elevated levels of lead in their blood (MWWR Article: February 21,1997). The deterioration of many of these walls is to the point that lead can freely enter the living space.

  6. 28. Detail view of small triangular openings (perhaps for ventilation) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Detail view of small triangular openings (perhaps for ventilation) in top of S wall in center bay of N room of mill. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  7. 45. View of end bay of W elevation showing openings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. View of end bay of W elevation showing openings in wall associated with sugar making process. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  8. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS, SHOWING CA. 1960 OPEN STORAGE STRUCTURE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS, SHOWING CA. 1960 OPEN STORAGE STRUCTURE, BRICK-WALLED NORTH PART, AND CORRUGATED-STEEL SOUTH PART, CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST. - New Haven Rail Yard, Work Equipment Shop, Vicinity of Cedar & Lamberton Streets, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  9. 14. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOORS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOORS TO WALK-IN CLOSETS, AND 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON NORTH WALL. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  10. 15. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO VESTIBULE AT PHOTO RIGHT, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW THROUGH SOUTH WALL AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  11. 9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE AT PHOTO RIGHT, 6-LIGHT OVER 1 LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER. FIREPLACE ORIGINALLY OCCUPIED SPACE UNDER ROUND HEATER VENT HOLE AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  12. 10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE AT PHOTO CENTER, AND SECOND 6 LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  13. 22. INTERIOR OF BATHROOM NUMBER TWO LOOKING BACK THROUGH OPEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR OF BATHROOM NUMBER TWO LOOKING BACK THROUGH OPEN DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER THREE. MIRRORED MEDICINE CABINET FLANKED BY 1-LIGHT OVER 1 LIGHT SASH WINDOWS IN GROUPED ARRANGEMENT ON WEST WALL ABOVE SINK AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  14. One of the larger open spaces on the third floor. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    One of the larger open spaces on the third floor. This space was used most often for drafting work and for general experimentation. Physical evidence on the ceiling indicates existence of partition walls for smaller rooms, but no photographic or documentary evidence has surfaced to verify this. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  15. View looking south out the door opening from the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south out the door opening from the south side of the rotunda extension onto the "dog house" or vestibule positioned where the west Verandah of the south wing turns ninety degrees and continues along the south wall of the central pavilion. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 3. DETAIL OF NORTHEAST CORNER; OPENING AT TOP WAS INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF NORTHEAST CORNER; OPENING AT TOP WAS INTAKE FOR CATTLE; CANTILEVERED HOG RUN (BUILDING 147) OBSCURES A PORTION OF THE BEEF KILL'S ORIGINAL GLASS BLOCK WALLS - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  17. {open_quotes}Car Talk{close_quotes}: An autopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Eads, G.C.

    1996-11-01

    {open_quotes}Car Talk{close_quotes} - the Clinton administration`s vehicle for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from passenger cars and light-duty trucks-hit the wall amid charges and countercharges hurled by its frustrated participants. A careful post-mortem reveals lessons that can redeem the process for dealing with future public policy controversies.

  18. 17. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING ONE OF THE OPENINGS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING ONE OF THE OPENINGS IN THE SECOND FLOOR EAST WALL THROUGH WHICH A CONVEYOR ONCE PASSED FOR MOVING BODY PANELS TO AND FROM THE SECOND FLOOR. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  19. 5. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF HOUSE SHOWING OPEN DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF HOUSE SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO BASEMENT BELOW KITCHEN, ORIGINAL PAIRED WOODFRAMED SLIDING-GLASS WINDOWS ON KITCHEN WALL AND 1LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW ON STORM PORCH ADDITION. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  20. 18. VIEW TO EAST, DETAIL OF OPENING THROUGH THE SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW TO EAST, DETAIL OF OPENING THROUGH THE SECOND FLOOR EAST WALL SHOWING CONVEYOR FOR MOVING MATERIAL TO THE SECOND FLOOR. (NOTE: THIS IS NOT AN ORIGINAL CONVEYOR FOR MOVING BODY PARTS). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  1. Wall thickness effect on the resistive wall mode stability in toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.-J.; Kotschenreuther, M.T.

    2005-07-15

    The effect of finite wall thickness on the stability of n=1 resistive wall modes in toroidal plasmas is investigated. A fusion reactor-relevant configuration is examined. The investigation employs a novel ideal-magnetohydrodynamics adaptive shooting code for axisymmetric plasmas, extended to take into account the wall thickness. Although finite wall thickness generally reduces the growth rate of the resistive wall modes, no contribution to stabilization is found to be made by the portion of the wall that is located beyond the critical position for perfectly conducting wall stabilization. Thus, when the inner side of the wall lies near the critical wall position, the scaling of the growth rate versus wall thickness in the realistic thick-wall calculation is significantly different from that of the usual thin-wall theory. The thin-wall estimate is relevant only when the wall is brought very close to the plasma and is not too thick.

  2. Effects of the flexibility of the arterial wall on the wall shear stresses and wall tension in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Fernandez, Miguel; Chomaz, Jean-Marc

    2005-11-01

    As an abdominal aortic aneurysm develops, large changes occur in the composition and structure of the arterial wall, which result in its stiffening. So far, most studies, whether experimental or numerical, have been conducted assuming the walls to be rigid. A numerical simulation of the fluid structure interactions is performed in different models of aneurysms in order to analyze the effects that the wall compliance might have on the flow topology. Both symmetric and non-symmetric models of aneurysms are considered, all idealistic in shape. The wall mechanical properties are varied in order to simulate the progressive stiffening of the walls. The spatial and temporal distributions of wall tension are calculated for the different values of the wall elasticity and compared to the results for the rigid walls. In the case of rigid walls, the calculation of the wall shear stresses and pressure compare very well with experimental results.

  3. Opening and Closing in Open Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapp, Orrin E.

    In open information systems, such as in the case of human interchange with the self and the environment, input quantities have no upper limits. The human information utilization system, however, is psychologically and behaviorally unable to accept ever increasing loads of information. Because of this apparent fact, human information systems should…

  4. Opening Up Access to Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Ross

    2008-01-01

    As the corpus of gray literature grows and the price of serials rises, it becomes increasingly important to explore ways to integrate the free and open Web seamlessly into one's collections. Users, after all, are discovering these materials all the time via sites such as Google Scholar and Scirus or by searching arXiv.org or CiteSeer directly.…

  5. Investigating the Effect of Carbon Nanotube Diameter and Wall Number in Carbon Nanotube/Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Tom; Yu, LePing; Gibson, Christopher; Tune, Daniel; Alturaif, Huda; Al Othman, Zeid; Shapter, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Suspensions of single-walled, double-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were generated in the same solvent at similar concentrations. Films were fabricated from these suspensions and used in carbon nanotube/silicon heterojunction solar cells and their properties were compared with reference to the number of walls in the nanotube samples. It was found that single-walled nanotubes generally produced more favorable results; however, the double and multi-walled nanotube films used in this study yielded cells with higher open circuit voltages. It was also determined that post fabrication treatments applied to the nanotube films have a lesser effect on multi-walled nanotubes than on the other two types. PMID:28344309

  6. Isolation of the Cell Wall.

    PubMed

    Canut, Hervé; Albenne, Cécile; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes a method allowing the purification of the cell wall for studying both polysaccharides and proteins. The plant primary cell wall is mainly composed of polysaccharides (90-95 % in mass) and of proteins (5-10 %). At the end of growth, specialized cells may synthesize a lignified secondary wall composed of polysaccharides (about 65 %) and lignin (about 35 %). Due to its composition, the cell wall is the cellular compartment having the highest density and this property is used for its purification. It plays critical roles during plant development and in response to environmental constraints. It is largely used in the food and textile industries as well as for the production of bioenergy. All these characteristics and uses explain why its study as a true cell compartment is of high interest. The proposed method of purification can be used for large amount of material but can also be downscaled to 500 mg of fresh material. Tools for checking the quality of the cell wall preparation, such as protein analysis and microscopy observation, are also provided.

  7. MHD Electrode and wall constructions

    DOEpatents

    Way, Stewart; Lempert, Joseph

    1984-01-01

    Electrode and wall constructions for the walls of a channel transmitting the hot plasma in a magnetohydrodynamic generator. The electrodes and walls are made of a plurality of similar modules which are spaced from one another along the channel. The electrodes can be metallic or ceramic, and each module includes one or more electrodes which are exposed to the plasma and a metallic cooling bar which is spaced from the plasma and which has passages through which a cooling fluid flows to remove heat transmitted from the electrode to the cooling bar. Each electrode module is spaced from and electrically insulated from each adjacent module while interconnected by the cooling fluid which serially flows among selected modules. A wall module includes an electrically insulating ceramic body exposed to the plasma and affixed, preferably by mechanical clips or by brazing, to a metallic cooling bar spaced from the plasma and having cooling fluid passages. Each wall module is, similar to the electrode modules, electrically insulated from the adjacent modules and serially interconnected to other modules by the cooling fluid.

  8. Functional domain walls in multiferroics.

    PubMed

    Meier, Dennis

    2015-11-25

    During the last decade a wide variety of novel and fascinating correlation phenomena has been discovered at domain walls in multiferroic bulk systems, ranging from unusual electronic conductance to inseparably entangled spin and charge degrees of freedom. The domain walls represent quasi-2D functional objects that can be induced, positioned, and erased on demand, bearing considerable technological potential for future nanoelectronics. Most of the challenges that remain to be solved before turning related device paradigms into reality, however, still fall in the field of fundamental condensed matter physics and materials science. In this topical review seminal experimental findings gained on electric and magnetic domain walls in multiferroic bulk materials are addressed. A special focus is put on the physical properties that emerge at so-called charged domain walls and the added functionality that arises from coexisting magnetic order. The research presented in this review highlights that we are just entering a whole new world of intriguing nanoscale physics that is yet to be explored in all its details. The goal is to draw attention to the persistent challenges and identify future key directions for the research on functional domain walls in multiferroics.

  9. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  10. The DEMO wall load challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenninger, R.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Bachmann, C.; Barbato, L.; Barrett, T.; Beckers, M.; Biel, W.; Boccaccini, L.; Carralero, D.; Coster, D.; Eich, T.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Firdaouss, M.; Graves, J.; Horacek, J.; Kovari, M.; Lanthaler, S.; Loschiavo, V.; Lowry, C.; Lux, H.; Maddaluno, G.; Maviglia, F.; Mitteau, R.; Neu, R.; Pfefferle, D.; Schmid, K.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Snicker, A.; Subba, F.; Varje, J.; Zohm, H.

    2017-04-01

    For several reasons the challenge to keep the loads to the first wall within engineering limits is substantially higher in DEMO compared to ITER. Therefore the pre-conceptual design development for DEMO that is currently ongoing in Europe needs to be based on load estimates that are derived employing the most recent plasma edge physics knowledge. An initial assessment of the static wall heat load limit in DEMO infers that the steady state peak heat flux limit on the majority of the DEMO first wall should not be assumed to be higher than 1.0 MW m‑2. This compares to an average wall heat load of 0.29 MW m‑2 for the design {\\tt {EU}}{\\tt {~}}{\\tt {DEMO1}}{\\tt {~2015}} assuming a perfect homogeneous distribution. The main part of this publication concentrates on the development of first DEMO estimates for charged particle, radiation, fast particle (all static) and disruption heat loads. Employing an initial engineering wall design with clear optimization potential in combination with parameters for the flat-top phase (x-point configuration), loads up to 7 MW m‑2 (penalty factor for tolerances etc not applied) have been calculated. Assuming a fraction of power radiated from the x-point region between 1/5 and 1/3, peaks of the total power flux density due to radiation of 0.6–0.8 MW m‑2 are found in the outer baffle region. This first review of wall loads, and the associated limits in DEMO clearly underlines a significant challenge that necessitates substantial engineering efforts as well as a considerable consolidation of the associated physics basis.

  11. Debonding Stress Concentrations in a Pressurized Lobed Sandwich-Walled Generic Cryogenic Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    2004-01-01

    A finite-element stress analysis has been conducted on a lobed composite sandwich tank subjected to internal pressure and cryogenic cooling. The lobed geometry consists of two obtuse circular walls joined together with a common flat wall. Under internal pressure and cryogenic cooling, this type of lobed tank wall will experience open-mode (a process in which the honeycomb is stretched in the depth direction) and shear stress concentrations at the junctures where curved wall changes into flat wall (known as a curve-flat juncture). Open-mode and shear stress concentrations occur in the honeycomb core at the curve-flat junctures and could cause debonding failure. The levels of contributions from internal pressure and temperature loading to the open-mode and shear debonding failure are compared. The lobed fuel tank with honeycomb sandwich walls has been found to be a structurally unsound geometry because of very low debonding failure strengths. The debonding failure problem could be eliminated if the honeycomb core at the curve-flat juncture is replaced with a solid core.

  12. Numerical and experimental study of transient natural convection in an inclined wall cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, J.; Avila, F.

    1995-09-01

    Transient natural convection in an open cavity with one inclined wall is analyzed both numerically and experimentally. The fluid and the cavity are in thermal equilibrium at the onset of the experiment. The inclined wall is heated in such a way that the wall temperature increases uniformly according to an hyperbolic tangent function. The transport equations are solved using a 2-D transient model with a non-orthogonal body fitted coordinate system and an exponential grid distribution for better spatial resolution near the inclined wall. Measurements of velocity and temperature are performed at some key points of the boundary layer and intrusion layer. The fluid motion and heat transfer are analyzed from the time at which heat is applied though the inclined wall to the time at which its effect is detected at the opposite sidewall. The main patterns of the fluid flow and heat transfer are well predicted as comparisons against experimental results indicate.

  13. The forced sound transmission of finite single leaf walls using a variational technique.

    PubMed

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-09-01

    The single wall is the simplest element of concern in building acoustics, but there still remain some open questions regarding the sound insulation of this simple case. The two main reasons for this are the effects on the excitation and sound radiation of the wall when it has a finite size, and the fact that the wave field in the wall is consisting of two types of waves, namely forced waves due to the exciting acoustic field, and free bending waves due to reflections in the boundary. The aim of the present paper is to derive simple analytical formulas for the forced part of the airborne sound insulation of a single homogeneous wall of finite size, using a variational technique based on the integral-differential equation of the fluid loaded wall. The so derived formulas are valid in the entire audible frequency range. The results are compared with full numerical calculations, measurements and alternative theory, with reasonable agreement.

  14. Variability of cell wall polysaccharides composition and hemicellulose enzymatic profile in an apple progeny.

    PubMed

    Galvez-Lopez, D; Laurens, F; Quéméner, B; Lahaye, M

    2011-12-01

    The genetic variability of apple cell walls polysaccharides chemical composition and structure was assessed in a progeny of 141 individuals harvested over 2 years. The variability of the hemicelluloses oligosaccharides released by glucanase was analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The genetic contribution was distinguished from harvest year as well as from parental crossing patterns and scab resistance selection. Results showed that harvest year had a major impact on cell wall polysaccharide composition and structure. Within each harvest, genetic effect impact more significantly cell wall polysaccharide chemistry than does reciprocal crossing or early scab selection. Uronic acids, glucose, galactose and xylose contents as well as some glucomannan and xyloglucan structures have a high heritability. This first cell wall chemotyping of an apple progeny opens the way for future searches of genetic markers for the chemical variability of cell wall polysaccharides.

  15. Egress door opening assister

    DOEpatents

    Allison, Thomas L.

    2015-10-06

    A door opening spring assistance apparatus is set forth that will automatically apply a door opening assistance force using a combination of rods and coil springs. The release of the rods by the coil springs reduces the force required to set the door in motion.

  16. Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced as a result of the interaction of the airstream with the counter-rotating blades. As such, robust aeroacoustic prediction methods are an essential ingredient in any approach to designing low-noise open rotor systems. To that end, an effort has been underway at NASA to assess current open rotor noise prediction tools and develop new capabilities. Under this effort, high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations of a benchmark open rotor blade set were carried out and used to make noise predictions via existing NASA open rotor noise prediction codes. The results have been compared with the aerodynamic and acoustic data that were acquired for this benchmark open rotor blade set. The emphasis of this paper is on providing a summary of recent results from a NASA Glenn effort to validate an in-house open noise prediction code called LINPROP which is based on a high-blade-count asymptotic approximation to the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Equation. The results suggest that while predicting the absolute levels may be difficult, the noise trends are reasonably well predicted by this approach.

  17. Open Source Molecular Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Pirhadi, Somayeh; Sunseri, Jocelyn; Koes, David Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The success of molecular modeling and computational chemistry efforts are, by definition, dependent on quality software applications. Open source software development provides many advantages to users of modeling applications, not the least of which is that the software is free and completely extendable. In this review we categorize, enumerate, and describe available open source software packages for molecular modeling and computational chemistry. PMID:27631126

  18. Opening up Education: The Collective Advancement of Education through Open Technology, Open Content, and Open Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iiyoshi, Toru, Ed.; Kumar, M. S. Vijay, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Given the abundance of open education initiatives that aim to make educational assets freely available online, the time seems ripe to explore the potential of open education to transform the economics and ecology of education. Despite the diversity of tools and resources already available--from well-packaged course materials to simple games, for…

  19. Guidelines on Open Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia.

    These Guidelines on open expression at the University of Pennsylvania include: (1) a statement of principles, expressing support for freedom of thought, inquiry, speech and lawful assembly, and for the need to ensure continuing openness and effectiveness of channels of communication; (2) a description of the newly created Committee on Open…

  20. Open Source Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, colleges and universities are turning to open source as a way to meet their technology infrastructure and application needs. Open source has changed life for visionary CIOs and their campus communities nationwide. The author discusses what these technologists see as the benefits--and the considerations.

  1. Creating Open Source Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Darien Library, where the author serves as head of knowledge and learning services, launched a new website on September 1, 2008. The website is built with Drupal, an open source content management system (CMS). In this article, the author describes how she and her colleagues overhauled the library's website to provide an open source content…

  2. The Argument for Open

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Is open source business intelligence (OS BI) software ready for prime time? The author thoroughly investigated each of three OS BI toolsets--Pentaho BI Suite, Jaspersoft BI Suite, and Talend Open Studio--by installing the OS BI tools himself, by interviewing technologists at academic institutions who had implemented these OS BI solutions, and by…

  3. Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced as a result of the interaction of the airstream with the counter-rotating blades. As such, robust aeroacoustic prediction methods are an essential ingredient in any approach to designing low-noise open rotor systems. To that end, an effort has been underway at NASA to assess current open rotor noise prediction tools and develop new capabilities. Under this effort, high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations of a benchmark open rotor blade set were carried out and used to make noise predictions via existing NASA open rotor noise prediction codes. The results have been compared with the aerodynamic and acoustic data that were acquired for this benchmark open rotor blade set. The emphasis of this paper is on providing a summary of recent results from a NASA Glenn effort to validate an in-house open noise prediction code called LINPROP which is based on a high-blade-count asymptotic approximation to the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Equation. The results suggest that while predicting the absolute levels may be difficult, the noise trends are reasonably well predicted by this approach.

  4. Opening a New Door

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of K-12 districts are taking the open source plunge, both to cope with tight budgets and to escape proprietary vendor lock-in and expensive upgrade cycles. With the potential for cost savings and a growing number of educational applications, open source software is proving to be an effective alternative for schools willing to make…

  5. OpenSearch Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Doug; Silva, Sam; Mitchell, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We will present an overview of our OpenSearch efforts over the past 6 months. We will discuss our Best Practices and those of CEOS concentrating on the compatibility issues between the two. We will also discuss the state of earth data OpenSearch implementations and their adherence to the standards, extensions and best practices available.

  6. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  7. Sporothrix schenckii Cell Wall Peptidorhamnomannans

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M.

    2011-01-01

    This mini-review article is dedicated to clarifying certain important biochemical aspects of Sporothrix schenckii cell wall peptidorhamnomannans. Cell wall components involved in the host interaction such as antigens as well as a gp70 adhesin are important molecules present on the surface of the yeast parasitic phase. Other structural glycoconjugates present on the fungus cell surface are also described here. Knowledge of the fine structure of carbohydrate epitopes expressed on the surface in both morphological phases of S. schenckii permitted the development of non-invasive immunochemical methods to diagnose human and feline sporotrichosis. PMID:22203817

  8. Gullies in Terraced Crater Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-375, 29 May 2003

    Gullies--possibly formed by a liquid such as water in the recent martian past--formed at two different levels in the walls of a meteor impact crater near 36.2oS, 185.5oW. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies in the upper crater wall (top of the image) and emergent from the slope of a lower terrace (bottom of the image). Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  9. Wall Interference in Wind Tunnels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    d’un d £ faut d’ßtendue des signatures. Sp^cialeinent dans le cas de la correction d’incidence, la pondäration des ecarts de Kp entre les deux parois, de...für Stromungsmechanik der Tech. Univers. Bienroder Weg 3 D -3300 Braunschweig — Germany MrL.H.Ohman Head, High Speed Aerodynamics Lab. National...CORRECTIONS IM ’. • SOLID-WALL TUNNELS FROM MEASUREMENTS OF STATIC PRESSURE AT THE WALLS j t by t P. R. Ashill and D . J. Weeks Aerodynamics

  10. Open-closed switching of synthetic tubular pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongju; Kang, Jiheong; Shen, Bowen; Wang, Yanqiu; He, Ying; Lee, Myongsoo

    2015-10-01

    While encouraging progress has been made on switchable nanopores to mimic biological channels and pores, it remains a great challenge to realize long tubular pores with a dynamic open-closed motion. Here we report μm-long, dynamic tubular pores that undergo rapid switching between open and closed states in response to a thermal signal in water. The tubular walls consist of laterally associated primary fibrils stacked from disc-shaped molecules in which the discs readily tilt by means of thermally regulated dehydration of the oligoether chains placed on the wall surfaces. Notably, this pore switching mediates a controlled water-pumping catalytic action for the dehydrative cyclization of adenosine monophosphate to produce metabolically active cyclic adenosine monophosphate. We believe that our work may allow the creation of a variety of dynamic pore structures with complex functions arising from open-closed motion.

  11. Stability of open pathways

    PubMed Central

    Flach, Edward H.; Schnell, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    We consider the steady state of an open biochemical pathway, with controlled flow. Previously we have shown that the steady state of open enzyme catalysed reactions may be unstable, which discourages the application of the quasi-steady-state approximation (QSSA) (IEE Proc. Syst. Biol. 153 (2006) 187). Here we examine basic open biochemical pathway structures, to see the stability of their steady states. Following De Leenheer et al. (J. Math. Chem. 41 (2007) 295), we employ the Gershgorin circle theorem, which elegantly assesses stability. This is the key tool for our analysis. Once we have the linear stability matrix laid out in a suitable form, the application of the method is straightforward. We find that in open biochemical pathways, simple chains, branches and loops always have stable steady states. We conclude that simple open pathways are stable. PMID:20875827

  12. Acoustic modeling of a three-dimensional rectangular opened enclosure coupled with a semi-infinite exterior field at the baffled opening.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guoyong; Shi, Shuangxia; Liu, Zhigang

    2016-11-01

    A modeling method is proposed for the acoustic analysis of a three-dimensional (3D) rectangular opened enclosure coupled with a semi-infinite exterior field by a rectangular opening of arbitrary size, and with general wall impedance. In contrast to existing modeling methods that solve the differential equations, the energy principle in combination with a 3D modified Fourier cosine series is employed in the present method for the modeling of this system. Under this theoretical framework, the effect of an opening in the wall of a rectangular enclosure is taken into account via the work done by the sound pressure acting on the opening between the finite enclosure and exterior domain. The sound pressure inside the opened enclosure is expressed as the combination of a 3D trigonometric cosine series and one supplementary 2D expansion introduced to ensure uniform convergence of the solution over the entire solution domain including opening boundary. The acoustic responses of the opened enclosure are obtained based on the energy expressions for the enclosure system. The effectiveness and reliability of the current method are checked against the results obtained by the boundary element method and experimental results, and excellent agreement is achieved. The effects of sizes and positions of the opening and wall impedance on the acoustic behaviors of opened enclosure system are investigated.

  13. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-03-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study I was a systematic review of the existing standardized methods for assessing quality of life after incisional hernia repair. After a systematic search in the electronic databases Embase and PubMed, a total of 26 studies using standardized measures for assessment of quality of life after incisional hernia repair were found. The most commonly used questionnaire was the generic Short-Form 36, which assesses overall health-related quality of life, addressing both physical and mental health. The second-most common questionnaire was the Carolinas Comfort Scale, which is a disease specific questionnaire addressing pain, movement limitation and mesh sensation in relation to a current or previous hernia. In total, eight different questionnaires were used at varying time points in the 26 studies. In conclusion, standardization of timing and method of quality of life assessment after incisional hernia repair was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the

  14. Thermal breaking systems for metal stud walls -- Can metal stud walls perform as well as wood stud walls

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E.; Desjarlais, A.O.

    1997-12-31

    Metal stud wall systems for residential buildings are gaining in popularity. Strong thermal bridges caused by highly conductive metal studs degrade the thermal performance of such walls. Several wall configurations have been developed to improve their thermal performance. The authors tried to evaluate some of these wall systems. The thermal performance of metal stud walls is frequently compared with that of wood stud walls. A reduction of the in-cavity R-value caused by the wood studs is about 10% in wood stud walls. In metal stud walls, thermal bridges generated by the metal components reduce their thermal performance by up to 55%. Today, metal stud walls are believed to be considerably less thermally effective than similar systems made of wood because steel has much higher thermal conductivity than wood. Relatively high R-values may be achieved by installing insulating sheathing, which is now widely recommended as the remedy for weak thermal performance of metal stud walls. A series of promising metal stud wall configurations was analyzed. Some of these walls were designed and tested by the authors, some were tested in other laboratories, and some were developed and forgotten a long time ago. Several types of thermal breaking systems were used in these walls. Two- and three-dimensional finite-difference computer simulations were used to analyze 20 metal stud wall configurations. Also, a series of hot-box tests were conducted on several of these walls. Test results for 22 additional metal stud walls were analyzed. Most of these walls contained conventional metal studs. Commonly used fiberglass and EPS were used as insulation materials. The most promising metal stud wall configurations have reductions in the center-of-cavity R-values of less than 20%.

  15. Ascending aortic wall cohesion: comparison of bicuspid and tricuspid valves.

    PubMed

    Benedik, Jaroslav; Pilarczyk, Kevin; Wendt, Daniel; Indruch, Jiri; Flek, Radek; Tsagakis, Konstantinos; Alaeddine, Savvas; Jakob, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Bicuspid aortic valve (AV) represents the most common form of congenital AV malformation, which is frequently associated with pathologies of the ascending aorta. We compared the mechanical properties of the aortic wall between patients with bicuspid and tricuspid AV using a new custom-made device mimicking transversal aortic wall shear stress. Methods. Between 03/2010 and 07/2011, 190 consecutive patients undergoing open aortic valve replacement at our institution were prospectively enrolled, presenting either with a bicuspid (group 1, n = 44) or a tricuspid (group 2, n = 146) AV. Aortic wall specimen were examined with the "dissectometer" resulting in nine specific aortic-wall parameters derived from tensile strength curves (TSC). Results. Patients with a bicuspid AV showed significantly more calcified valves (43.2% versus 15.8%, P < 0.001), and a significantly thinner aortic wall (2.04 ± 0.42 mm versus 2.24 ± 0.41 mm, P = 0.008). Transesophageal echocardiography diameters (annulus, aortic sinuses, and sinotubular junction) were significantly larger in the bicuspid group (P = 0.003, P = 0.02, P = 0.01). We found no difference in the aortic wall cohesion between both groups as revealed by shear stress testing (P = 0.72, P = 0.40, P = 0.41). Conclusion. We observed no differences of TSC in patients presenting with tricuspid or bicuspid AVs. These results may allow us to assume that the morphology of the AV and the pathology of the ascending aorta are independent.

  16. Wall-layer model for LES with massive separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhari, Ahmad; Armenio, Vincenzo; Roman, Federico

    2016-11-01

    Currently, Wall Functions (WF) work well under specific conditions, mostly exhibit drawbacks specially in flows with separation beyond curvatures. In this work, we propose a more general WF which works well in attached and detached flows, in presence and absence of Immersed Boundaries (IB). First we modified an equilibrium stress WF for boundary-fitted geometry making dynamic the computation of the k (von Karman constant) of the log-law; the model was first applied to a periodic open channel flow, and then to the flow over a 2D single hill using uniform coarse grids; the model captured separation with reasonable accuracy. Thereafter IB Method by Roman et al. was improved to avoid momentum loss at the interface between the fluid-solid regions. This required calibration of interfacial eddy viscosity; also a random stochastic forcing was used in wall-normal direction to increase Reynolds stresses and improve mean velocity profile. Finally, to reproduce flow separation, a simplified boundary layer equation was applied to construct velocity at near wall computational nodes. The new scheme was tested on the 2D single hill and periodic hills applying Cartesian and curvilinear grids; good agreement with references was obtained with reduction in cost and complexity. Financial support from project COSMO "CFD open source per opera morta" PAR FSC 2007-2013, Friuli Venezia Giulia.

  17. Reconstruction of chest wall defects.

    PubMed

    Hasse, J

    1991-12-01

    A series of 61 consecutive procedures of chest wall resection and reconstruction in 58 patients during the period between August, 1986 and December, 1990 is reported. The ages ranged between 6-77 years. The chest wall resection was indicated for malignant affections in 54 cases. Among these, there were 24 patients with bronchial carcinoma invading the chest wall, 17 patients with primary or metastatic sarcoma, 11 patients with recurrent breast cancer and 3 with cancer metastases of varying origin. Pulmonary resection included pneumonectomy in 8 cases, lobectomy in 19, segmental and wedge resections in 26. In the majority of resections, the reconstruction was accomplished without implants. In cases with full thickness removal of the chest wall, the plane of the rib cage and/or the sternum was reconstructed using Vicryl mesh (n = 7), PTFE soft tissue patch (n = 11), marlex-mesh (n = 1), or methyl-methacrylate (n = 3). There was one case of hospital mortality, 6 weeks postoperatively, due to neurological failure from an independent preoperatively undiagnosed brain tumor. There were 4 reoperations: one early and one late (4 months) infection, one case of limited superficial necrosis of a flap and one with chronic lymphous drainage from a large myocutaneous flap. In no instance was primary postoperative ventilation therapy necessary. Mechanical ventilation was instituted only on day 8 in the patient who accounts for the mortality in this series. In the presence of primary infection, the greater omentum was used for the restoration of the integument.

  18. Tube-Wall Thickness Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleint, R. E.; Baily, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Eddy-current measurements detect wear of thin walls (0.01 in) (0.25 mm) in small diameter (0.19 in) (5 mm) heat exchanger tubing. Flexible durable thin rod inserts eddy-current coil into the heatexchanger tube.

  19. Statistical characteristics of simulated walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiański, M.; Doroshkevich, A. G.; Müller, V.; Turchaninov, V.

    2000-11-01

    The large-scale matter distribution in three different simulations of CDM models is investigated and compared with corresponding results of the Zel'dovich theory of non-linear gravitational instability. We show that the basic characteristics of wall-like structure elements are well described by this theory, and that they can be expressed by the cosmological parameters and a few spectral moments of the perturbation spectrum. Therefore the characteristics of such elements provide reasonable estimates of these parameters. We show that the compressed matter is relaxed and gravitationally confined and manifests itself in the existence of walls as (quasi-)stationary structure elements with a lifetime restricted by their disruption into high-density clouds. The matter distribution is investigated in both real and redshift spaces. In both cases almost the same particles form the walls, and we estimate differences in corresponding wall characteristics. The same methods are applied to several mock catalogues of `galaxies', which allows us to characterize a large-scale bias between the spatial distribution of dark matter and of simulated `galaxies'.

  20. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  1. Mirror, Mirror, on the Wall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Jim; Rose, M. Annette

    1998-01-01

    Students use tables of anthropometric data, their own measurements, underlying principles of physics, and math to solve a problem. The problem is to determine the height of a wall mirror, and where to mount it, so that 90% of the clientele can view their entire length without stretching or bending. (Author)

  2. Wary Eyes Monitoring Wall Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    School business officials kept a close watch on the financial markets this week--and on district investment portfolios and teacher-retirement funds--as stock prices gyrated and once-sound institutions got government bailouts or crumbled into bankruptcy. While financial observers said it was too soon to predict how Wall Street's upheaval might…

  3. 9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN 6LIGHT FRONT ENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN 6-LIGHT FRONT ENTRY DOOR, OPEN PANEL DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER. FIREPLACE ORIGINALLY OCCUPIED SPACE UNDER ROUND HEATER VENT HOLE AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  4. Cell wall construction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Klis, Frans M; Boorsma, Andre; De Groot, Piet W J

    2006-02-01

    In this review, we discuss new insights in cell wall architecture and cell wall construction in the ascomycetous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Transcriptional profiling studies combined with biochemical work have provided ample evidence that the cell wall is a highly adaptable organelle. In particular, the protein population that is anchored to the stress-bearing polysaccharides of the cell wall, and forms the interface with the outside world, is highly diverse. This diversity is believed to play an important role in adaptation of the cell to environmental conditions, in growth mode and in survival. Cell wall construction is tightly controlled and strictly coordinated with progression of the cell cycle. This is reflected in the usage of specific cell wall proteins during consecutive phases of the cell cycle and in the recent discovery of a cell wall integrity checkpoint. When the cell is challenged with stress conditions that affect the cell wall, a specific transcriptional response is observed that includes the general stress response, the cell wall integrity pathway and the calcineurin pathway. This salvage mechanism includes increased expression of putative cell wall assemblases and some potential cross-linking cell wall proteins, and crucial changes in cell wall architecture. We discuss some more enzymes involved in cell wall construction and also potential inhibitors of these enzymes. Finally, we use both biochemical and genomic data to infer that the architectural principles used by S. cerevisiae to build its cell wall are also used by many other ascomycetous yeasts and also by some mycelial ascomycetous fungi.

  5. In Praise of Openness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, S.

    2010-10-01

    Open access brings greater visibility and impact to the work of scientists as is evidenced in the examples discussed in this paper. Researchers are often reluctant and afraid to deposit their works in Institutional Repositories. However, as is shown here, once they do so, they do not regret it. Open access will shortly become the norm and will be accepted by the vast majority of scientists. Seen through the lens of the philosophy of Bertrand Russell, the moral, economic and philosophical imperatives for open access are indeed strong.

  6. Mitigation of wind tunnel wall interactions in subsonic cavity flows

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2015-03-06

    In this study, the flow over an open aircraft bay is often represented in a wind tunnel with a cavity. In flight, this flow is unconfined, though in experiments, the cavity is surrounded by wind tunnel walls. If untreated, wind tunnel wall effects can lead to significant distortions of cavity acoustics in subsonic flows. To understand and mitigate these cavity–tunnel interactions, a parametric approach was taken for flow over an L/D = 7 cavity at Mach numbers 0.6–0.8. With solid tunnel walls, a dominant cavity tone was observed, likely due to an interaction with a tunnel duct mode. Furthermore, an acoustic liner opposite the cavity decreased the amplitude of the dominant mode and its harmonics, a result observed by previous researchers. Acoustic dampeners were also placed in the tunnel sidewalls, which further decreased the dominant mode amplitudes and peak amplitudes associated with nonlinear interactions between cavity modes. This then indicates that cavity resonance can be altered by tunnel sidewalls and that spanwise coupling should be addressed when conducting subsonic cavity experiments. Though mechanisms for dominant modes and nonlinear interactions likely exist in unconfined cavity flows, these effects can be amplified by the wind tunnel walls.

  7. Mitigation of wind tunnel wall interactions in subsonic cavity flows

    DOE PAGES

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; ...

    2015-03-06

    In this study, the flow over an open aircraft bay is often represented in a wind tunnel with a cavity. In flight, this flow is unconfined, though in experiments, the cavity is surrounded by wind tunnel walls. If untreated, wind tunnel wall effects can lead to significant distortions of cavity acoustics in subsonic flows. To understand and mitigate these cavity–tunnel interactions, a parametric approach was taken for flow over an L/D = 7 cavity at Mach numbers 0.6–0.8. With solid tunnel walls, a dominant cavity tone was observed, likely due to an interaction with a tunnel duct mode. Furthermore, anmore » acoustic liner opposite the cavity decreased the amplitude of the dominant mode and its harmonics, a result observed by previous researchers. Acoustic dampeners were also placed in the tunnel sidewalls, which further decreased the dominant mode amplitudes and peak amplitudes associated with nonlinear interactions between cavity modes. This then indicates that cavity resonance can be altered by tunnel sidewalls and that spanwise coupling should be addressed when conducting subsonic cavity experiments. Though mechanisms for dominant modes and nonlinear interactions likely exist in unconfined cavity flows, these effects can be amplified by the wind tunnel walls.« less

  8. Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The growing cell wall in plants has conflicting requirements to be strong enough to withstand the high tensile forces generated by cell turgor pressure while selectively yielding to those forces to induce wall stress relaxation, leading to water uptake and polymer movements underlying cell wall expansion. In this article, I review emerging concepts of plant primary cell wall structure, the nature of wall extensibility and the action of expansins, family-9 and -12 endoglucanases, family-16 xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH), and pectin methylesterases, and offer a critical assessment of their wall-loosening activity PMID:26918182

  9. Commentary: open access, open business, closed fairness!

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    A strong trend to move from print to online publication is largely perceived in scientific and nonscientific fields. A growing number of publishers increasingly opt for online publication as an option or a compulsory alternative. From readers' perspective, this is a highly appreciated facility, but from the author's, things are different mainly because of excessive article processing charges (APC) that make the open access system sometimes as a hindrance for many authors but a lucrative enterprise for many shareholders, enticing the most traditional and conservative publishers.

  10. Defining Open Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.; Thomas, Susan Christie

    1974-01-01

    Authors believed that sharper definitions of open education can keep the current movement authentic to its early consensus ideals while avoiding dogma, orthodoxy, discipleships: charisma, and latter-day carpetbagging. (Author/RK)

  11. Open Rotor Spin Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    An open rotor, also known as a high-speed propeller, is tested in a wind tunnel. The propeller moves much more quickly than a standard propeller, and the blades of the propeller are shaped differen...

  12. Open cycle thermoacoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Robert Stowers

    2000-01-01

    A new type of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process is discussed and experimentally demonstrated. The gas flowing through this device can be heated or cooled in a series of semi-open cyclic steps. The combination of open and cyclic flows makes possible the elimination of some or all of the heat exchangers (with their associated irreversibility). Heat is directly exchanged with the process fluid as it flows through the device when operating as a refrigerator, producing a staging effect that tends to increase First Law thermodynamic efficiency. An open-flow thermoacoustic refrigerator was built to demonstrate this concept. Several approaches are presented that describe the physical characteristics of this device. Tests have been conducted on this refrigerator with good agreement with a proposed theory.

  13. Vacuum interrupters and thyratrons as opening switches

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    The clear advantages of inductive storage for large scale energy storage applications are creating an increasing interest in the research and development of the opening switches required. Opening switches for single-shot inductive transfers have received considerable attention and are fairly well advanced. The problem addressed by this workshop of high power opening switches for high repetition rate applications is much more severe, however, and may well require a major research and development effort. Two candidates for such an opening switch, the triggered vacuum interrupter and the magnetically quenched thyratron, are discussed. By electrically retriggering the discharge in the vacuum interrupter between pulses, the dependence on mechanical motion is eliminated. This should enable repetition rate operation at 10 to 15 kHz while still maintaining the vacuum interrupter's proven interrupting performance of tens of kiloamps at tens of kilovolts. The magnetically quenched thyratron, on the other hand, uses a cross magnetic field to raise the switch impedance by decreasing the electron mobility and driving the discharge into an arc chute wall where it is quenched. Successful interruptions of 1 kA at 15 kV and 100 A at 50 kV after conduction for 10 ..mu..s have been demonstrated by previous researchers. Work at Los Alamos is directed toward understanding the basic mechanisms involved and increasing the switch ratings, particularly the conduction time.

  14. PWC Opens up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2011-01-01

    Coming up with the latest and greatest learning curriculum for employees year after year can be overwhelming--especially if one works for a small or mid-size company with minimal resources. Fortunately, there is a burgeoning trend that three-time No. 1 Top 125er PwC is helping to "open" up. In creating PwC Open University, the professional…

  15. Open source molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Pirhadi, Somayeh; Sunseri, Jocelyn; Koes, David Ryan

    2016-09-01

    The success of molecular modeling and computational chemistry efforts are, by definition, dependent on quality software applications. Open source software development provides many advantages to users of modeling applications, not the least of which is that the software is free and completely extendable. In this review we categorize, enumerate, and describe available open source software packages for molecular modeling and computational chemistry. An updated online version of this catalog can be found at https://opensourcemolecularmodeling.github.io.

  16. OpenTopography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Crosby, C.; Nandigam, V.; Phan, M.; Cowart, C.

    2012-04-01

    OpenTopography is a cyberinfrastructure-based facility for online access to high-resolution topography and tools. The project is an outcome of the Geosciences Network (GEON) project, which was a research project funded several years ago in the US to investigate the use of cyberinfrastructure to support research and education in the geosciences. OpenTopography provides online access to large LiDAR point cloud datasets along with services for processing these data. Users are able to generate custom DEMs by invoking DEM services provided by OpenTopography with custom parameter values. Users can track the progress of their jobs, and a private myOpenTopo area retains job information and job outputs. Data available at OpenTopography are provided by a variety of data acquisition groups under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding (MoU). These include national facilities such as the National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping, as well as local, state, and federal agencies. OpenTopography is also being designed as a hub for high-resolution topography resources. Datasets and services available at other locations can also be registered here, providing a "one-stop shop" for such information. We will describe the OpenTopography system architecture and its current set of features, including the service-oriented architecture, a job-tracking database, and social networking features. We will also describe several design and development activities underway to archive and publish datasets using digital object identifiers (DOIs); create a more flexible and scalable high-performance environment for processing of large datasets; extend support for satellite-based and terrestrial lidar as well as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data; and create a "pluggable" infrastructure for third-party services. OpenTopography has successfully created a facility for sharing lidar data. In the next phase, we are developing a facility that will also enable equally easy and successful sharing of

  17. The Open AUC Project.

    PubMed

    Cölfen, Helmut; Laue, Thomas M; Wohlleben, Wendel; Schilling, Kristian; Karabudak, Engin; Langhorst, Bradley W; Brookes, Emre; Dubbs, Bruce; Zollars, Dan; Rocco, Mattia; Demeler, Borries

    2010-02-01

    Progress in analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) has been hindered by obstructions to hardware innovation and by software incompatibility. In this paper, we announce and outline the Open AUC Project. The goals of the Open AUC Project are to stimulate AUC innovation by improving instrumentation, detectors, acquisition and analysis software, and collaborative tools. These improvements are needed for the next generation of AUC-based research. The Open AUC Project combines on-going work from several different groups. A new base instrument is described, one that is designed from the ground up to be an analytical ultracentrifuge. This machine offers an open architecture, hardware standards, and application programming interfaces for detector developers. All software will use the GNU Public License to assure that intellectual property is available in open source format. The Open AUC strategy facilitates collaborations, encourages sharing, and eliminates the chronic impediments that have plagued AUC innovation for the last 20 years. This ultracentrifuge will be equipped with multiple and interchangeable optical tracks so that state-of-the-art electronics and improved detectors will be available for a variety of optical systems. The instrument will be complemented by a new rotor, enhanced data acquisition and analysis software, as well as collaboration software. Described here are the instrument, the modular software components, and a standardized database that will encourage and ease integration of data analysis and interpretation software.

  18. Open field lines instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzoli, R. |

    1995-09-01

    The results of some recent theoretical papers dealing with flute-like instabilities in the scrape-off layer of a tokamak with limiter configuration, where the magnetic field intersects conducting walls, are briefly recalled. Attention is then paid to the instability driven by the electron temperature gradient across the field in conjunction with the formation of the Debye sheath at the boundary, and to the effects due to the inclination of the end walls with respect to the magnetic field. When a divertor configuration is considered, important modifications are found owing to the strong deformations of the flux tubes passing near the {ital x}-point, which contrast the onset of flute-like perturbations, and to the stochasticity of field lines that can be excited by magnetic field perturbations. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Single-walled carbon nanotubes as near-infrared optical biosensors for life sciences and biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Jain, Astha; Homayoun, Aida; Bannister, Christopher W; Yum, Kyungsuk

    2015-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes that emit photostable near-infrared fluorescence have emerged as near-infrared optical biosensors for life sciences and biomedicine. Since the discovery of their near-infrared fluorescence, researchers have engineered single-walled carbon nanotubes to function as an optical biosensor that selectively modulates its fluorescence upon binding of target molecules. Here we review the recent advances in the single-walled carbon nanotube-based optical sensing technology for life sciences and biomedicine. We discuss the structure and optical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes, the mechanisms for molecular recognition and signal transduction in single-walled carbon nanotube complexes, and the recent development of various single-walled carbon nanotube-based optical biosensors. We also discuss the opportunities and challenges to translate this emerging technology into biomedical research and clinical use, including the biological safety of single-walled carbon nanotubes. The advances in single-walled carbon nanotube-based near-infrared optical sensing technology open up a new avenue for in vitro and in vivo biosensing with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution, beneficial for many areas of life sciences and biomedicine.

  20. Comparison of conventional and adaptive wall wind tunnel results with regard to Reynolds number effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanewsky, E.; Freimuth, P.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of results from conventional and adaptive wall wind tunnels with regard to Reynolds number effects was carried out. The special objective of this comparison was to confirm or reject earlier conclusions, soley based on conventional wind tunnel results, concerning the influence of viscous effects on the characteristics of partially open wind tunnel walls, hence wall interference. The following postulations could be confirmed: (1) certain classes of supercritical airfoils exhibit a non-linear increase in lift which is, at least in part, related to viscous-inviscid interactions on the airfoil. This non-linear lift characteristic can erroneously be suppressed by sidewall interference effects in addition to being affected by changes in Reynolds number. Adaptive walls seem to relieve the influence of sidewall interference; (2) the degree of (horizontal) wall interference effects can be significantly affected by changes in Reynolds number, thus appearing as true Reynolds number effects; (3) perforated wall characteristics seem much more susceptible to viscous changes than the characteristics of slotted walls; here, blockage interference may be most severely influenced by viscous changes; and (4) real Reynolds number effects are present on the CAST 10-2/DOA 2 airfoil; they were shown to be appreciable also by the adaptive wall wind tunnel tests.

  1. RESISTIVE WALL STABILIZATION OF HIGH BETA PLASMAS IN DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    STRAIT,EJ; BIALEK,J; BOGATU,N; CHANCE,M; CHU,MS; EDGELL,D; GAROFALO,AM; JACKSON,GL; JENSEN,TH; JOHNSON,LC; KIM,JS; LAHAYE,RJ; NAVRATIL,G; OKABAYASHI,M; REIMERDES,H; SCOVILLE,JT; TURNBULL,AD; WALKER,ML

    2002-09-01

    OAK A271 RESISTIVE WALL STABILIZATION OF HIGH BETA PLASMAS IN DIII-D. Recent DIII-D experiments show that ideal kink modes can be stabilized at high beta by a resistive wall, with sufficient plasma rotation. However, the resonant response by a marginally stable resistive wall mode to static magnetic field asymmetries can lead to strong damping of the rotation. Careful reduction of such asymmetries has allowed plasmas with beta well above the ideal MHD no-wall limit, and approaching the ideal-wall limit, to be sustained for durations exceeding one second. Feedback control can improve plasma stability by direct stabilization of the resistive wall mode or by reducing magnetic field asymmetry. Assisted by plasma rotation, direct feedback control of resistive wall modes with growth rates more than 5 times faster than the characteristic wall time has been observed. These results open a new regime of tokamak operation above the free-boundary stability limit, accessible by a combination of plasma rotation and feedback control.

  2. Active and passive kink mode studies in a tokamak with a movable ferromagnetic wall

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, J. P.; Hughes, P. E.; Bialek, J.; Byrne, P. J.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Peng, Q.; Rhodes, D. J.; Stoafer, C. C.

    2015-05-15

    High-resolution active and passive kink mode studies are conducted in a tokamak with an adjustable ferromagnetic wall near the plasma surface. Ferritic tiles made from 5.6 mm thick Hiperco{sup ®} 50 alloy have been mounted on the plasma-facing side of half of the in-vessel movable wall segments in the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse device [D. A. Maurer et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 074016 (2011)] in order to explore ferritic resistive wall mode stability. Low-activation ferritic steels are a candidate for structural components of a fusion reactor, and these experiments examine MHD stability of plasmas with nearby ferromagnetic material. Plasma-wall separation for alternating ferritic and non-ferritic wall segments is adjusted between discharges without opening the vacuum vessel. Amplification of applied resonant magnetic perturbations and plasma disruptivity are observed to increase when the ferromagnetic wall is close to plasma surface instead of the standard stainless steel wall. Rapidly rotating m/n=3/1 external kink modes have higher growth rates with the nearby ferritic wall. Feedback suppression of kinks is still as effective as before the installation of ferritic material in vessel, in spite of increased mode growth rates.

  3. Flame front propagation in a channel with porous walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovastov, S. V.; Bivol, G. Yu

    2016-11-01

    Propagation of the detonation front in hydrogen-air mixture was investigated in rectangular cross-section channels with sound-absorbing boundaries. The front of luminescence was detected in a channel with acoustically absorbing walls as opposed to a channel with solid walls. Flame dynamics was recorded using a high-speed camera. The flame was observed to have a V-shaped profile in the acoustically absorbing section. The possible reason for the formation of the V-shaped flame front is friction under the surface due to open pores. In these shear flows, the kinetic energy of the flow on the surface can be easily converted into heat. A relatively small disturbance may eventually lead to significant local stretching of the flame front surface. Trajectories of the flame front along the axis and the boundary are presented for solid and porous surfaces.

  4. Dynamic behavior of braced thin-walled beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokić, A.; Lukić, D.

    2007-11-01

    The present paper considers the dynamic behavior of beams with open thin-walled cross-sections along their length with bracings (connecting beams and truss). The effect of the constrained torsion warping, rotary inertia, and flexural-torsion coupling due to nonsymmetric cross-sections is included. In the case of simply supported beams, closed-form solutions for determining coupled natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes are newly derived. The frequency equation, given in a determinantal form, is expanded in an explicit analytical form and then solved using the Mathcad 2001 Professional symbolic computing package. Some illustrative examples on the application of the present theory are given for coupled bending-torsion vibrations of braced thin-walled beams. As compared with FEM, numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method

  5. Posterior left atrial wall hematoma mimicking cystic intracavitary atrial mass.

    PubMed

    Bahnacy, Yasser; Suresh, Cheriyil; Dawoud, Hamed; Zubaid, Mohammad

    2010-10-01

    Atrial myxoma is the most common benign primary tumor of the heart most commonly in the left atrium (LA). Cystic or cavitated intracardiac masses are rare. We report the case of a 43-year-old male patient admitted with chest infection, hemoptysis, and severe respiratory distress, who had to be ventilated. Chest computed tomography showed bilateral lung consolidation with large mass occupying the region of the LA. Transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography showed a large intracavitary left atrial cystic mobile mass. Open-heart surgical exploration did not show any mass inside the LA. A posterior left atrial wall hematoma was found and evacuated. Biopsies confirmed the presence of blood clots. Posterior left atrial wall hematoma may appear as left atrial intracavitary cystic mass and should be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic left atrial mass.

  6. rOpenSci - open tools for open science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, K.

    2013-12-01

    Solving many of the basic and applied challenges in ecology and evolution requires access to large amounts of data, often spanning long spatial and temporal scales. The long-established model where researchers collect and analyze their own data will soon be replaced by one where disparate datasets are brought to bear on both basic and applied problems. As science becomes more data-driven, it faces a whole new set of challenges. Researchers will not only have to maintain expertise in their domains but also learn new skills to curate, retrieve, and analyze these newly available data. In order to fully realize the potential of data-driven science and allow researchers to draw insights from these vast data stores, we need to address challenges associated with all aspects of the research life cycle. To foster and support a new generation of data-driven science, my colleagues and I founded a project called rOpenSci (http://ropensci.org). The project is an integrated effort to build tools and training using Ecology and Evolution as a model community. In this talk I will outline several of the barriers that need to be overcome including better incentive mechanisms for data, training gaps, and lowering technical barriers.

  7. Direct calculation of wall interferences and wall adaptation for two-dimensional flow in wind tunnels with closed walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amecke, Juergen

    1986-01-01

    A method for the direct calculation of the wall induced interference velocity in two dimensional flow based on Cauchy's integral formula was derived. This one-step method allows the calculation of the residual corrections and the required wall adaptation for interference-free flow starting from the wall pressure distribution without any model representation. Demonstrated applications are given.

  8. A Near-Wall Reynolds-Stress Closure Without Wall Normals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. P.; So, R. M. C.

    1997-01-01

    Turbulent wall-bounded complex flows are commonly encountered in engineering practice and are of considerable interest in a variety of industrial applications. The presence of a wall significantly affects turbulence characteristics. In addition to the wall effects, turbulent wall-bounded flows become more complicated by the presence of additional body forces (e.g. centrifugal force and Coriolis force) and complex geometry. Most near-wall Reynolds stress models are developed from a high-Reynolds-number model which assumes turbulence is homogenous (or quasi-homogenous). Near-wall modifications are proposed to include wall effects in near-wall regions. In this process, wall normals are introduced. Good predictions could be obtained by Reynolds stress models with wall normals. However, ambiguity arises when the models are applied in flows with multiple walls. Many models have been proposed to model turbulent flows. Among them, Reynolds stress models, in which turbulent stresses are obtained by solving the Reynolds stress transport equations, have been proved to be the most successful ones. To apply the Reynolds stress models to wall-bounded flows, near-wall corrections accounting for the wall effects are needed, and the resulting models are called near-wall Reynolds stress models. In most of the existing near-wall models, the near-wall corrections invoke wall normals. These wall-dependent near-wall models are difficult to implement for turbulent flows with complex geometry and may give inaccurate predictions due to the ambiguity of wall normals at corners connecting multiple walls. The objective of this study is to develop a more general and flexible near-wall Reynolds stress model without using any wall-dependent variable for wall-bounded turbulent flows. With the aid of near-wall asymptotic analysis and results of direct numerical simulation, a new near-wall Reynolds stress model (NNWRS) is formulated based on Speziale et al.'s high-Reynolds-stress model with wall

  9. Determination of velum opening for French nasal vowels by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Demolin, Didier; Delvaux, Véronique; Metens, Thierry; Soquet, Alain

    2003-12-01

    MRI techniques have been used to describe velum opening of French vowels. Data based on 18 joined axial slices of 4 mm thickness were recorded with four subjects. Differences in velum opening are calculated from areas measured in the tract between the lowered velum and the back pharynx wall. Results show that for all subjects, the back vowel [symbol: see text] has the smallest opening, while some variations are observed for the other vowels.

  10. Microwave background distortions from domain walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Guenter; Noetzold, Dirk

    1990-01-01

    Domain walls arising in a cosmic phase transition after decoupling were recently proposed as seeds for the formation of large scale structure. The distortion induced in the microwave background radiation is calculated in dependence of the wall thickness, surface density, scalar field potential, cosmic redshift and the velocity of the wall. It was found that the maximal redshift distortion for both spherical and planar walls is of the order pi G sigma H(sup -1)(sub 0), where sigma is the surface energy density and H(sup -1)(sub 0) the Hubble parameter. It was also found that, for a wall thickness smaller than the horizon, walls can be treated as infinitely thin, i.e., the redshift distortion is independent of the wall thickness and the specific form of the scalar potential. For planar walls moving with a Lorentz-factor gamma the redshift distortion is enhanced by gamma cubed.

  11. Microwave background distortions from domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, Guenter; Noetzold, Dirk

    1990-08-01

    Domain walls arising in a cosmic phase transition after decoupling were recently proposed as seeds for the formation of large scale structure. The distortion induced in the microwave background radiation is calculated in dependence of the wall thickness, surface density, scalar field potential, cosmic redshift and the velocity of the wall. It was found that the maximal redshift distortion for both spherical and planar walls is of the order pi G sigma H(sup -1)(sub 0), where sigma is the surface energy density and H(sup -1)(sub 0) the Hubble parameter. It was also found that, for a wall thickness smaller than the horizon, walls can be treated as infinitely thin, i.e., the redshift distortion is independent of the wall thickness and the specific form of the scalar potential. For planar walls moving with a Lorentz-factor gamma the redshift distortion is enhanced by gamma cubed.

  12. Microwave background distortions from domain walls.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, G.; Nötzold, D.

    1991-03-01

    Domain walls arising in a cosmic phase transition after decoupling were recently proposed as seeds for the formation of large-scale structure. The distortion induced in the microwave background radiation is calculated in dependence of the wall thickness, surface density, scalar field potential, cosmic redshift and the velocity of the wall. The authors find that the maximal redshift distortion for both spherical and planar walls is of the order πGσH0-1, where σ is the surface energy density and H0 the Hubble parameter. They also find that, for a wall thickness smaller than the horizon, walls can be treated as infinitely thin, i.e. the redshift distortion is independent of the wall thickness and the specific form of the scalar potential. For planar walls moving with a Lorentz-factor γ the redshift distortion is enhanced by γ3.

  13. openPMD-viewer

    SciTech Connect

    Lehe, Remi

    2015-10-01

    Many simulation software produce data in the form of a set of field values or of a set of particle positions. (one such example is that of particle-in-cell codes, which produce data on the electromagnetic fields that they simulate.) However, each particular software uses its own particular format and layout, for the output data. This makes it difficult to compare the results of different simulation software, or to have a common visualization tool for these results. However, a standardized layout for fields and particles has recently been developed: the openPMD format ( HYPERLINK "http://www.openpmd.org/"www.openpmd.org) This format is open- source, and specifies a standard way in which field data and particle data should be written. The openPMD format is already implemented in the particle-in-cell code Warp (developed at LBL) and in PIConGPU (developed at HZDR, Germany). In this context, the proposed software (openPMD-viewer) is a Python package, which allows to access and visualize any data which has been formatted according to the openPMD standard. This package contains two main components: - a Python API, which allows to read and extract the data from a openPMD file, so as to be able to work with it within the Python environment. (e.g. plot the data and reprocess it with particular Python functions) - a graphical interface, which works with the ipython notebook, and allows to quickly visualize the data and browse through a set of openPMD files. The proposed software will be typically used when analyzing the results of numerical simulations. It will be useful to quickly extract scientific meaning from a set of numerical data.

  14. Simulation of turbulent wall pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A Monte Carlo procedure was developed to simulate turbulent boundary layer wall pressure fluctuations. The approach utilizes much of the newly available conditional sampling information to construct the required distribution functions. Various disturbance wave forms were examined, as well as the effect of frequency-dependent decay. Good agreement between the simulation and experimental data was achieved for root mean square pressure level, power spectrum, and space time correlation.

  15. Effects of honeycomb shaped walls on the flow regime between a rotating disk and a stationary wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzkan, T.; Lipstein, N. J.

    1986-06-01

    In order to cool a gas turbine disk with a limited supply of coolant air, the radial inflow of hot gases between rotor disk and housing must be reduced. Attention is presently given to the use of different surface shapes on the stationary housing to inhibit disk pumping capacity and hence to reduce the radial influx of hot gases into the clearance. The basic geometry that was experimentally investigated was the flow field between a smooth cylindrical rotating disk parallel to a plain circular coaxial wall open to the free space at the disk periphery. The results obtained are presented in terms of the tangential and radial velocity profiles in the gap, the static pressure measurements, and the disk torque coefficients. A honeycombed stationary wall surface had a profound effect on the ingestion of external flow into the gap from the disk periphery.

  16. How do plant cell walls extend?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    This article briefly summarizes recent work that identifies the biophysical and biochemical processes that give rise to the extension of plant cell walls. I begin with the biophysical notion of stress relaxation of the wall and follow with recent studies of wall enzymes thought to catalyze wall extension and relaxation. Readers should refer to detailed reviews for more comprehensive discussion of earlier literature (Taiz, 1984; Carpita and Gibeaut, 1993; Cosgrove, 1993).

  17. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  18. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  19. Making Your Music Word Wall Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonhardt, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at what a word wall is and its use in the music classroom. The author outlines steps for creation of a word wall within the music classroom as well as the importance of such a resource. The author encourages the creation and consistent use of the word wall as leading to the development of stronger musicians and also independent,…

  20. Methods & Strategies: Put Your Walls to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Durham, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue discusses planning and using interactive word walls to support science and reading instruction. Many classrooms have word walls displaying vocabulary that students have learned in class. Word walls serve as visual scaffolds to support instruction. To…

  1. Global OpenSearch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, D. J.; Mitchell, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    At AGU 2014, NASA EOSDIS demonstrated a case-study of an OpenSearch framework for Earth science data discovery. That framework leverages the IDN and CWIC OpenSearch API implementations to provide seamless discovery of data through the 'two-step' discovery process as outlined by the Federation for Earth Sciences (ESIP) OpenSearch Best Practices. But how would an Earth Scientist leverage this framework and what are the benefits? Using a client that understands the OpenSearch specification and, for further clarity, the various best practices and extensions, a scientist can discovery a plethora of data not normally accessible either by traditional methods (NASA Earth Data Search, Reverb, etc) or direct methods (going to the source of the data) We will demonstrate, via the CWICSmart web client, how an earth scientist can access regional data on a regional phenomena in a uniform and aggregated manner. We will demonstrate how an earth scientist can 'globalize' their discovery. You want to find local data on 'sea surface temperature of the Indian Ocean'? We can help you with that. 'European meteorological data'? Yes. 'Brazilian rainforest satellite imagery'? That too. CWIC allows you to get earth science data in a uniform fashion from a large number of disparate, world-wide agencies. This is what we mean by Global OpenSearch.

  2. Using two soft computing methods to predict wall and bed shear stress in smooth rectangular channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khozani, Zohreh Sheikh; Bonakdari, Hossein; Zaji, Amir Hossein

    2017-03-01

    Two soft computing methods were extended in order to predict the mean wall and bed shear stress in open channels. The genetic programming (GP) and Genetic Algorithm Artificial Neural Network (GAA) were investigated to determine the accuracy of these models in estimating wall and bed shear stress. The GP and GAA model results were compared in terms of testing dataset in order to find the best model. In modeling both bed and wall shear stress, the GP model performed better with RMSE of 0.0264 and 0.0185, respectively. Then both proposed models were compared with equations for rectangular open channels, trapezoidal channels and ducts. According to the results, the proposed models performed the best in predicting wall and bed shear stress in smooth rectangular channels. The obtained equation for rectangular channels could estimate values closer to experimental data, but the equations for ducts had poor, inaccurate results in predicting wall and bed shear stress. The equation presented for trapezoidal channels did not have acceptable accuracy in predicting wall and bed shear stress either.

  3. 19. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING STUCCO WALL/DRYWALL WALL TRANSITION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING STUCCO WALL/DRYWALL WALL TRANSITION, ELECTRICAL JUNCTION BOXES, BUILT-IN WALL CABINETRY, AND ELECTRICAL WALL HEATER. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  4. The Writing on the Wall: Attending to Self-Motivated Student Literacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Explores the role that tagging (a simple form of graffiti) plays around the school and community. Argues that even the writing of a name on a wall opens out into a rich discourse community, in which taggers carry on complex conversations, negotiate and challenge shared discursive norms, and develop identities that are intimately connected to a…

  5. Greenery vs. Concrete and Walls and Doors: Images and Metaphors Affecting an Urban Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severino, Carl

    1995-01-01

    The traditional pastoralism of American higher education has interfered with efforts to develop an urban mission for the university. In addition, current open-door metaphors of access, political trends, and media coverage are promulgating closed-door, wall-building rhetoric and policies. Now is the time to counter antiurban attitudes by reviving…

  6. Open system environment procurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Gary

    1994-01-01

    Relationships between the request for procurement (RFP) process and open system environment (OSE) standards are described. A guide was prepared to help Federal agency personnel overcome problems in writing an adequate statement of work and developing realistic evaluation criteria when transitioning to an OSE. The guide contains appropriate decision points and transition strategies for developing applications that are affordable, scalable and interoperable across a broad range of computing environments. While useful, the guide does not eliminate the requirement that agencies posses in-depth expertise in software development, communications, and database technology in order to evaluate open systems.

  7. Bargaining for Open Skies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojahn, Oliver W.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the bargaining problem between countries when negotiating bilateral air service agreements. To do so, we use the methods of bargaining and game theory. We give special attention to the case where a liberal minded country is trying to convince a less liberal country to agree to bilateral open skies, and the liberal country might also unilaterally open up its market. The following analysis is positive in the sense that the results help explain and predict the outcome of negotiations under different payoffs and structures of the bargaining process. They are normative in the sense that adequate manipulation of the bargaining conditions can ensure a desired outcome.

  8. Asymmetric counter propagation of domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade-Silva, I.; Clerc, M. G.; Odent, V.

    2016-07-01

    Far from equilibrium systems show different states and domain walls between them. These walls, depending on the type of connected equilibria, exhibit a rich spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we investigate the asymmetrical counter propagation of domain walls in an in-plane-switching cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal. Experimentally, we characterize the shape and speed of the domain walls. Based on the molecular orientation, we infer that the counter propagative walls have different elastic deformations. These deformations are responsible of the asymmetric counter propagating fronts. Theoretically, based on symmetry arguments, we propose a simple bistable model under the influence of a nonlinear gradient, which qualitatively describes the observed dynamics.

  9. Experimental investigation of wall shock cancellation and reduction of wall interference in transonic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, A.; Roffe, G.

    1975-01-01

    A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional land and groove wall geometry and a variable permeability distribution to reduce the interference produced by the porous walls of a supercritical transonic test section. The three-dimensional wall geometry was found to diffuse the pressure perturbations caused by small local mismatches in wall porosity permitting the use of a relatively coarse wall porosity control to reduce or eliminate wall interference effects. The wall porosity distribution required was found to be a sensitive function of Mach number requiring that the Mach number repeatability characteristics of the test apparatus be quite good. The effectiveness of a variable porosity wall is greatest in the upstream region of the test section where the pressure differences across the wall are largest. An effective variable porosity wall in the down stream region of the test section requires the use of a slightly convergent test section geometry.

  10. A swirl generator case study for OpenFOAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, O.; Bosioc, A. I.; Nilsson, H.; Muntean, S.; Susan-Resiga, R. F.

    2010-08-01

    This work presents numerical results, using OpenFOAM, of the flow in the swirl flow generator test rig developed at Politehnica University of Timisoara, Romania. The work shows results computed by solving the unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations. The unsteady method couples the rotating and stationary parts using a sliding grid interface based on a GGI formulation. Turbulence is modeled using the standard k-epsilon model, and block structured wall function ICEM-Hexa meshes are used. The numerical results are validated against experimental LDV results, and against designed velocity profiles. The investigation shows that OpenFOAM gives results that are comparable to the experimental and designed profiles. This case study was presented at the 5th OpenFOAM Workshop, held in Gothenburg, Sweden, as a tutorial on how to treat turbomachinery applications in OpenFOAM.

  11. How Vein Sealing Boosts Fracture Opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nüchter, Jens-Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Veins from from cracks. As such, a stage of brittle failure and fracturing is to be set apart from a stage of opening and sealing. The process of fracture opening requires distortion of the host rocks to create space for the evolving vein. To keep a crack arrested and, at the same time, to widen or stabilize the cavity, the stress intensity factor K_I=(P-S3)(πa) must remain below the fracture toughness K_IC of the host rock, and P-S3 >0 (P and S3 denote pore fluid pressure and absolute minimum principal stress, respectively and 'a' refers to the half-length of the fracture). For purely elastic distortion of the host rocks, maximum aperture W0=K_IC (1-ν^2)/(E(π/8)^1/2))(2a)^1/2 depends on on K_IC, Poisson's ratio ν, and Young's modulus E of the host rocks. Owing to the low values for rock K_IC typically ranging between 0.1 and 1 MPa m^1/2, veins formed by purely elastic distortion of the host rocks are restricted to high aspect ratios 2a/W. In metamorphic rocks, veins with low aspect ratios are common; inelastic deformation and viscous creep in the host rocks must have contributed to final vein shapes. In the present study, I use finite element models to simulate fracture opening and cavity formation supported by viscous creep distributed in the host rock. Simulations are carried out on 2D plate models containing elliptical fractures. The walls of the fractures are coated by thin layers simulating incipient sealing; a residual cavity prevails in the centre of the model veins. Constant displacement is applied to the plate boundaries oriented normal to the cracks. I run a series of models with various viscosity contrasts between the rocks and the sealing. The results of these models indicate the following. (1) Fracture opening is most effective when the viscosity of the sealing ηs exceeds the viscosity of the host rocks ηr (2) The rate of fracture opening increases with increasing values for ηs/ηr . (3) An increase in the thickness of the sealing layer causes

  12. Chest wall reconstruction after extended resection

    PubMed Central

    Seder, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive chest wall resection and reconstruction is a challenging procedure that requires a multidisciplinary approach, including input from thoracic surgeons, plastic surgeons, neurosurgeons, and radiation oncologists. The primary goals of any chest wall reconstruction is to obliterate dead space, restore chest wall rigidity, preserve pulmonary mechanics, protect intrathoracic organs, provide soft tissue coverage, minimize deformity, and allow patients to receive adjuvant radiotherapy. Successful chest wall reconstruction requires the re-establishment of skeletal stability to prevent chest wall hernias, avoids thoracoplasty-like contraction of the operated side, protects underlying viscera, and maintain a cosmetically-acceptable appearance. After skeletal stability is established, full tissue coverage can be achieved using direct closure, skin grafts, local advancement flaps, pedicled myocutaneous flaps, or free flaps. This review examines the indications for chest wall reconstruction and describes techniques for establishment of chest wall rigidity and soft tissue coverage. PMID:27942408

  13. Generalized Wall Function for Complex Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Liu, Nan-Suey; Chen, Kuo-Huey

    2000-01-01

    A generalized wall function was proposed by Shih et al., (1999). It accounts the effect of pressure gradients on the flow near the wall. Theory shows that the effect of pressure gradients on the flow in the inertial sublayer is very significant and the standard wall function should be replaced by a generalized wall function. Since the theory is also valid for boundary layer flows toward separation, the generalized wall function may be applied to complex turbulent flows with acceleration, deceleration, separation and recirculation. This paper is to verify the generalized wall function with numerical simulations for boundary layer flows with various adverse and favorable pressure gradients, including flows about to separate. Furthermore, a general procedure of implementation of the generalized wall function for National Combustion Code (NCC) is described, it can be applied to both structured and unstructured CFD codes.

  14. Pulmonary complications of abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Panitch, Howard B

    2015-01-01

    The abdominal wall is an integral component of the chest wall. Defects in the ventral abdominal wall alter respiratory mechanics and can impair diaphragm function. Congenital abdominal wall defects also are associated with abnormalities in lung growth and development that lead to pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and alterations in thoracic cage formation. Although infants with ventral abdominal wall defects can experience life-threatening pulmonary complications, older children typically experience a more benign respiratory course. Studies of lung and chest wall function in older children and adolescents with congenital abdominal wall defects are few; such investigations could provide strategies for improved respiratory performance, avoidance of respiratory morbidity, and enhanced exercise ability for these children.

  15. Near-wall serpentine cooled turbine airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2013-09-17

    A serpentine coolant flow path (54A-54G) formed by inner walls (50, 52) in a cavity (49) between pressure and suction side walls (22, 24) of a turbine airfoil (20A). A coolant flow (58) enters (56) an end of the airfoil, flows into a span-wise channel (54A), then flows forward (54B) over the inner surface of the pressure side wall, then turns behind the leading edge (26), and flows back along a forward part of the suction side wall, then follows a loop (54E) forward and back around an inner wall (52), then flows along an intermediate part of the suction side wall, then flows into an aft channel (54G) between the pressure and suction side walls, then exits the trailing edge (28). This provides cooling matched to the heating topography of the airfoil, minimizes differential thermal expansion, revives the coolant, and minimizes the flow volume needed.

  16. [A case of huge abscess extended from anterior neck to left lung and lateral chest wall].

    PubMed

    Ikeya, T; Tsuda, M; Hara, H; Koyama, S; Sugiyama, S; Misaki, T

    1997-11-01

    62-year-old woman admitted our hospital with pain of left upper extremity from the left chest and dysphasia. Chest X-ray showed the huge mass shadow in the left lung field. Diabetes mellitus and inflammatory reaction such as high fervor, leukocytosis, CRP and ESR accentuation were recognized. Conservative therapy was done at first, but mass shadow on X-ray increased, and swelling appeared from the neck to the left lateral chest wall. And the same site appeared like subcutaneous emphysema. Computed Tomography showed mass shadow which was enlarged and spread in lung parenchyma and left chest wall with bubble image. Incision and open drainage was performed for the left chest wall but origin bacteria was detected in neither anaerobic nor aerobic culture of pus. Inflammation and mass shadow of left upper lung field have decreased gradually. The patient discharged without bronchoalveolar fistula. Abscess extending from the neck or chest wall with diabetes mellitus is very rare.

  17. Open Entry/Open Exit Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Marvin

    Open entry/open exit refers to formats and procedures which allow learners to enter a program whenever they are ready and available, and allows them to leave or complete programs when competencies for job entry are attained. This study sought to provide base data on the concept of open entry/open exit by surveying involved individuals and to…

  18. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of

  19. Open-Source Colorimeter

    PubMed Central

    Anzalone, Gerald C.; Glover, Alexandra G.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of what have historically been sophisticated research-related sensors and tools has limited their adoption to a relatively small group of well-funded researchers. This paper provides a methodology for applying an open-source approach to design and development of a colorimeter. A 3-D printable, open-source colorimeter utilizing only open-source hardware and software solutions and readily available discrete components is discussed and its performance compared to a commercial portable colorimeter. Performance is evaluated with commercial vials prepared for the closed reflux chemical oxygen demand (COD) method. This approach reduced the cost of reliable closed reflux COD by two orders of magnitude making it an economic alternative for the vast majority of potential users. The open-source colorimeter demonstrated good reproducibility and serves as a platform for further development and derivation of the design for other, similar purposes such as nephelometry. This approach promises unprecedented access to sophisticated instrumentation based on low-cost sensors by those most in need of it, under-developed and developing world laboratories. PMID:23604032

  20. Information of Open Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimontovich, Yuri L.

    In the theory of communication two definitions of the concept "information" are known. One of them coincides according to its form with the Boltzmann entropy. The second definition of information is the difference between unconditional and conditional entropies. In the present work this latter is used for the definition of the information about states of open systems with various meanings of the control parameter. Two kinds of open systems are considered. The first class of systems concerns those which with zero value of the control parameter are in an equilibrium state. The information on an equilibrium state is equal to zero. During self- organizing in the process of departing from an equilibrium state the information increases. For open systems of this class the conservation law for the sum of the information and entropy with all values of control parameter is proved. In open systems of the second class the equilibrium condition is impossible. For them the concept "norm of a chaoticity" is introduced. It allows to consider two kinds of processes of self-organization and to give the corresponding definitions of information. The statement is carried out on a number of (classical and quantum) examples of physical systems. The example of a medico-biological system also is considered.

  1. Open Source in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhan, Shaheen E.; Jhunjhunwala, Kavita

    2008-01-01

    Educational institutions have rushed to put their academic resources and services online, beginning the global community onto a common platform and awakening the interest of investors. Despite continuing technical challenges, online education shows great promise. Open source software offers one approach to addressing the technical problems in…

  2. Presto: Open Inquiry!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald S.; Miranda, Rommel J.

    2010-01-01

    Although inquiry-based science teaching has been around since the 1960s, many teachers are slow to incorporate inquiry principles into their science lessons. The authors address this issue by using an analogy between a magician's card trick and open inquiry. This analogy was chosen to portray a difference of perspective and demonstrate how the…

  3. The Open Storage Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcutt, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, open storage facilities have been established at four major museums in order to address the long-standing problem of lack of gallery space for putting collections on view. While making tens of thousands of objects available to visitors represents a great leap forward in accessibility, it raises inherent questions about…

  4. Massive and Open

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasimpaur, Karen

    2013-01-01

    MOOCs--massive open online courses--are all the rage these days, with hundreds of thousands of participants signing up and investors plunking down millions to get a piece of the pie. Why is there so much excitement about this new disruptive form of online learning, and how does this model apply to professional learning for teachers? Traditional…

  5. Openers for Biology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  6. Open Systems Interconnection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denenberg, Ray

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for standards allowing computer-to-computer communication and gives examples of technical issues. The seven-layer framework of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model is explained and illustrated. Sidebars feature public data networks and Recommendation X.25, OSI standards, OSI layer functions, and a glossary.…

  7. Evaluating Open Source Portals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Dion; Luyt, Brendan; Chua, Alton; Yee, See-Yong; Poh, Kia-Ngoh; Ng, How-Yeu

    2008-01-01

    Portals have become indispensable for organizations of all types trying to establish themselves on the Web. Unfortunately, there have only been a few evaluative studies of portal software and even fewer of open source portal software. This study aims to add to the available literature in this important area by proposing and testing a checklist for…

  8. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  9. Van: An Open Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieman, John Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This essay is an open letter from a classroom teacher to a concerned citizen. The letter lists a variety of problems caused largely by standardization and the more corrosive effects of positivism. Many of these problems are unknown to those outside the immediate school setting. While the letter focuses on a specific setting, an inner city school…

  10. Surgical wound care - open

    MedlinePlus

    Surgical incision care; Open wound care ... your wound again with sutures, you need to care for it at home, since it may take ... Your health care provider will tell you how often to change your dressing . To prepare for the dressing change: Clean your ...

  11. An Open Forum Article.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thieblot, Bernice A.

    1990-01-01

    Presents an open letter addressed to Morton B. Zuckerman of "U.S. News & World Report" concerning the magazine's survey/article "America's Best Colleges" which received a great deal of public attention. Criticizes the survey for failing to help families make better choices among institutions and failing to encourage colleges to do a better job for…

  12. Open G2 strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; de Medeiros, Paul; El-Showk, Sheer; Sinkovics, Annamaria

    2008-02-01

    We consider an open string version of the topological twist previously proposed for sigma-models with G2 target spaces. We determine the cohomology of open strings states and relate these to geometric deformations of calibrated submanifolds and to flat or anti-self-dual connections on such submanifolds. On associative three-cycles we show that the worldvolume theory is a gauge-fixed Chern-Simons theory coupled to normal deformations of the cycle. For coassociative four-cycles we find a functional that extremizes on anti-self-dual gauge fields. A brane wrapping the whole G2 induces a seven-dimensional associative Chern-Simons theory on the manifold. This theory has already been proposed by Donaldson and Thomas as the higher-dimensional generalization of real Chern-Simons theory. When the G2 manifold has the structure of a Calabi-Yau times a circle, these theories reduce to a combination of the open A-model on special Lagrangians and the open B + B-bar-model on holomorphic submanifolds. We also comment on possible applications of our results.

  13. Open Mind Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Alexander H.

    1995-01-01

    Open Mind, The Association for the achievement of diversity in higher education, met in conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico, between October 16 and 18, 1992. A number of workgroups met to discuss the goals, structure, and generally evaluate the Association and its achievements. A summary of the workgroup sessions and their minutes are included.

  14. Apraxia of lid opening.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, Marta; Teimory, Masoud

    2007-07-01

    We describe eyelid movement abnormalities in an 80-year-old man with apraxia of lid opening (ALO), resulting from involuntary levator palpebrae inhibition (ILPI) and pretarsal orbicularis oculi (OO) contraction. He was unable to open his lids at will following closure. Attempted eye opening resulted in forceful contraction of the frontalis muscle, backward thrusting of the head and lengthened lid closure. The inability to reopen the lids was not evident during spontaneous reflex blinking and he had no difficulty in keeping the lids open once they had been manually lifted up. There were no episodes of involuntary drooping of the eyelids or spasmodic contraction of the OO causing involuntary eyelid closure. Pursuit eye movements were not restricted, the vestibulo-ocular reflex was preserved and both horizontal and vertical saccades were normal. Despite the clinically visible persistence of pretarsal OO activity, treatment with botulinum toxin injections in the pretarsal and preseptal portions of the muscle did not reduce his difficulty in initiating lid elevation but he found some benefit using lid crutches. ALO is thought to be due to an abnormality in the supranuclear control of eyelid movement. ILPI can present either isolated or combined with blepharospasm. The excitatory levator palpebrae response necessary to lift the lids up is likely to be in very close connection with the OO antagonistic inhibitory response. Alterations in one or another pre-motor structure may result in inability to raise the lids due to inhibition of the levator palpebrae as well as persistence of the pretarsal OO.

  15. APS and Open Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    The movement toward Open Access continues to gain momentum. A brief review of APS efforts in this area will be presented by APS Editor in Chief, Gene Sprouse. Editors from Physical Review A, B, E, Focus, Letters, and X, Reviews of Modern Physics, and Physics will address your questions about publishing in this evolving environment.

  16. Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2017-01-01

    While digital products have made significant inroads into the educational resources market, textbooks and other print materials still command about 60 percent of sales. But whether print or digital, all of these commercial offerings now face threats from a burgeoning effort to promote "open" resources for education--that is, materials…

  17. Through-Wall Imaging Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    receiver dynamic range to be applied to the target scene behind the wall. A time-division multiplexed ( TDM ), multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO...by the data-acquisition computer. The TDM MIMO radar system sequences through each of the 44 bistatic combinations, acquiring one range profile at...96 5. 75 5. 75 2 FiGurE 5. In this cartoon of the time-division multiplexed ( TDM ), multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) array lay- out [compare to

  18. An improved resistive wall monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Fellenz, Brian; Crisp, Jim

    1998-12-10

    Resistive wall monitors were designed and built for the Fermilab Main Injector project. These devices measure longitudinal beam current from 3 KHz to 4 GHz with a 1 ohm gap impedance. The new design provides a larger aperture and a calibration port to improve the accuracy of single-bunch intensity measurements. Microwave absorber material is used to reduce interference from spurious electromagnetic waves traveling inside the beam pipe. Several types of ferrite materials were evaluated for the absorber. Inexpensive ferrite rods were selected and assembled in an array forming the desired geometry without machining.

  19. Wall interference assessment and corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P. A.; Kemp, W. B., Jr.; Garriz, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Wind tunnel wall interference assessment and correction (WIAC) concepts, applications, and typical results are discussed in terms of several nonlinear transonic codes and one panel method code developed for and being implemented at NASA-Langley. Contrasts between 2-D and 3-D transonic testing factors which affect WIAC procedures are illustrated using airfoil data from the 0.3 m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel and Pathfinder 1 data from the National Transonic Facility. Initial results from the 3-D WIAC codes are encouraging; research on and implementation of WIAC concepts continue.

  20. Workshop on First Wall Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, K.; Fukutomi, M.

    1982-03-01

    Impurity control and first wall design in the JT 60 long pulse Tokamak is discussed. The present state of coating technology in Japan is reviewed with emphasis on fabrication methods and the characterization of thin coated films available by plasma spraying and chemical and physical vapor deposition. Surface preparation, radiation damage, internal stress, crystal structure and bonding are considered as well as the application of silicon carbide, titanium nitride, titanium carbide, titanium boride, and chromium nitride coatings by magnetron sputtering, long plating, electron beam evaporation, and gas absorption and reactive r.f. sputtering.

  1. Moving walls and geometric phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchi, Paolo; Garnero, Giancarlo; Marmo, Giuseppe; Samuel, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    We unveil the existence of a non-trivial Berry phase associated to the dynamics of a quantum particle in a one dimensional box with moving walls. It is shown that a suitable choice of boundary conditions has to be made in order to preserve unitarity. For these boundary conditions we compute explicitly the geometric phase two-form on the parameter space. The unboundedness of the Hamiltonian describing the system leads to a natural prescription of renormalization for divergent contributions arising from the boundary.

  2. The OSG open facility: A sharing ecosystem

    DOE PAGES

    Jayatilaka, B.; Levshina, T.; Rynge, M.; ...

    2015-12-23

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) ties together individual experiments’ computing power, connecting their resources to create a large, robust computing grid, this computing infrastructure started primarily as a collection of sites associated with large HEP experiments such as ATLAS, CDF, CMS, and DZero. In the years since, the OSG has broadened its focus to also address the needs of other US researchers and increased delivery of Distributed High Through-put Computing (DHTC) to users from a wide variety of disciplines via the OSG Open Facility. Presently, the Open Facility delivers about 100 million computing wall hours per year to researchers whomore » are not already associated with the owners of the computing sites, this is primarily accomplished by harvesting and organizing the temporarily unused capacity (i.e. opportunistic cycles) from the sites in the OSG. Using these methods, OSG resource providers and scientists share computing hours with researchers in many other fields to enable their science, striving to make sure that these computing power used with maximal efficiency. Furthermore, we believe that expanded access to DHTC is an essential tool for scientific innovation and work continues in expanding this service.« less

  3. The OSG open facility: A sharing ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Jayatilaka, B.; Levshina, T.; Rynge, M.; Sehgal, C.; Slyz, M.

    2015-12-23

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) ties together individual experiments’ computing power, connecting their resources to create a large, robust computing grid, this computing infrastructure started primarily as a collection of sites associated with large HEP experiments such as ATLAS, CDF, CMS, and DZero. In the years since, the OSG has broadened its focus to also address the needs of other US researchers and increased delivery of Distributed High Through-put Computing (DHTC) to users from a wide variety of disciplines via the OSG Open Facility. Presently, the Open Facility delivers about 100 million computing wall hours per year to researchers who are not already associated with the owners of the computing sites, this is primarily accomplished by harvesting and organizing the temporarily unused capacity (i.e. opportunistic cycles) from the sites in the OSG. Using these methods, OSG resource providers and scientists share computing hours with researchers in many other fields to enable their science, striving to make sure that these computing power used with maximal efficiency. Furthermore, we believe that expanded access to DHTC is an essential tool for scientific innovation and work continues in expanding this service.

  4. The OSG open facility: A sharing ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayatilaka, B.; Levshina, T.; Rynge, M.; Sehgal, C.; Slyz, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) ties together individual experiments’ computing power, connecting their resources to create a large, robust computing grid; this computing infrastructure started primarily as a collection of sites associated with large HEP experiments such as ATLAS, CDF, CMS, and DZero. In the years since, the OSG has broadened its focus to also address the needs of other US researchers and increased delivery of Distributed High Through-put Computing (DHTC) to users from a wide variety of disciplines via the OSG Open Facility. Presently, the Open Facility delivers about 100 million computing wall hours per year to researchers who are not already associated with the owners of the computing sites; this is primarily accomplished by harvesting and organizing the temporarily unused capacity (i.e. opportunistic cycles) from the sites in the OSG. Using these methods, OSG resource providers and scientists share computing hours with researchers in many other fields to enable their science, striving to make sure that these computing power used with maximal efficiency. We believe that expanded access to DHTC is an essential tool for scientific innovation and work continues in expanding this service.

  5. Open-cell glass crystalline porous material

    DOEpatents

    Anshits, Alexander G.; Sharonova, Olga M.; Vereshchagina, Tatiana A.; Zykova, Irina D.; Revenko, Yurii A.; Tretyakov, Alexander A.; Aloy, Albert S.; Lubtsev, Rem I.; Knecht, Dieter A.; Tranter, Troy J.; Macheret, Yevgeny

    2002-01-01

    An open-cell glass crystalline porous material made from hollow microspheres which are cenospheres obtained from fly ash, having an open-cell porosity of up to 90 vol. % is produced. The cenospheres are separated into fractions based on one or more of grain size, density, magnetic or non-magnetic, and perforated or non-perforated. Selected fractions are molded and agglomerated by sintering with a binder at a temperature below the softening temperature, or without a binder at a temperature about, or above, the softening temperature but below the temperature of liquidity. The porous material produced has an apparent density of 0.3-0.6 g/cm.sup.3, a compressive strength in the range of 1.2-3.5 MPa, and two types of openings: through-flow wall pores in the cenospheres of 0.1-30 micrometers, and interglobular voids between the cenospheres of 20-100 micrometers. The porous material of the invention has properties useful as porous matrices for immobilization of liquid radioactive waste, heat-resistant traps and filters, supports for catalysts, adsorbents and ion-exchangers.

  6. Open-cell glass crystalline porous material

    DOEpatents

    Anshits, Alexander G.; Sharonova, Olga M.; Vereshchagina, Tatiana A.; Zykova, Irina D.; Revenko, Yurii A.; Tretyakov, Alexander A.; Aloy, Albert S.; Lubtsev, Rem I.; Knecht, Dieter A.; Tranter, Troy J.; Macheret, Yevgeny

    2003-12-23

    An open-cell glass crystalline porous material made from hollow microspheres which are cenospheres obtained from fly ash, having an open-cell porosity of up to 90 vol. % is produced. The cenospheres are separated into fractions based on one or more of grain size, density, magnetic or non-magnetic, and perforated or non-perforated. Selected fractions are molded and agglomerated by sintering with a binder at a temperature below the softening temperature, or without a binder at a temperature about, or above, the softening temperature but below the temperature of liquidity. The porous material produced has an apparent density of 0.3-0.6 g/cm.sup.3, a compressive strength in the range of 1.2-3.5 MPa, and two types of openings: through-flow wall pores in the cenospheres of 0.1-30 micrometers, and interglobular voids between the cenospheres of 20-100 micrometers. The porous material of the invention has properties useful as porous matrices for immobilization of liquid radioactive waste, heat-resistant traps and filters, supports for catalysts, adsorbents and ion-exchangers.

  7. INTERIOR VIEW OF LIVING ROOM. NOTE THE OPENING FOR AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF LIVING ROOM. NOTE THE OPENING FOR AN AIR CONDITIONER ON THE FAR WALL AND THE SLIDING DOORS TO THE DINING ROOM ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Single-Family Type 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House

    SciTech Connect

    Mallay, Dave; Wiehagen, Joseph; Kochkin, Vladimir

    2016-01-29

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders. The EP&B design combines optimized framing with integrated rigid foam sheathing to increase the wall system's R-value and reduce thermal bridging. The foam sheathing is installed between the wall studs and structural wood sheathing. The exterior wood sheathing is attached directly to a framing extension formed by extended top and bottom plates. The exterior wood sheathing can dry to the exterior and provides bracing, a clear drainage plane and flashing surface for window and door openings, and a nailing surface for siding attachment. With support of the DOE Building America program, Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with Lancaster County Career and Technology Center (LCCTC) to build a NCTH in Lancaster, PA to demonstrate the EP&B wall design in a cold climate (IECC climate zone 5A). The results of the study confirmed the benefits of the systems and the viability of its integration into the house construction process.

  9. Technology Solutions Case Study: Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast, Devens, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    Double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing. In this project, Building Science Corporation monitored moisture conditions in double-stud walls from 2011 through 2014 at a new production house located in Devens, Massachusetts. The builder, Transformations, Inc., has been using double-stud walls insulated with 12 in. of open cell polyurethane spray foam (ocSPF); however, the company has been considering a change to netted and blown cellulose insulation for cost reasons. Cellulose is a common choice for double-stud walls because of its lower cost (in most markets). However, cellulose is an air-permeable insulation, unlike spray foams, which increases interior moisture risks. The team compared three double-stud assemblies: 12 in. of ocSPF, 12 in. of cellulose, and 5-½ in. of ocSPF at the exterior of a double-stud wall (to approximate conventional 2 × 6 wall construction and insulation levels, acting as a control wall). These assemblies were repeated on the north and south orientations, for a total of six assemblies.

  10. Growth and Remodeling in a Thick-Walled Artery Model: Effects of Spatial Variations in Wall Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Alford, Patrick W.; Humphrey, Jay D.; Taber, Larry A.

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for growth and remodeling of arteries. The model is a thick-walled tube composed of a constrained mixture of smooth muscle cells, elastin and collagen. Material properties and radial and axial distributions of each constituent are prescribed according to previously published data. The analysis includes stress-dependent growth and contractility of the muscle and turnover of collagen fibers. Simulations were conducted for homeostatic conditions and for the temporal response following sudden hypertension. Numerical pressure-radius relations and opening angles (residual stress) show reasonable agreement with published experimental results. In particular, for realistic material and structural properties, the model predicts measured variations in opening angles along the length of the aorta with reasonable accuracy. These results provide a better understanding of the determinants of residual stress in arteries and could lend insight into the importance of constituent distributions in both natural and tissue-engineered blood vessels. PMID:17786493

  11. Spontaneous Behaviors and Wall-Curvature Lead to Apparent Wall Preference in Planarian.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yoshitaro; Agata, Kiyokazu; Inoue, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The planarian Dugesia japonica tends to stay near the walls of its breeding containers and experimental dishes in the laboratory, a phenomenon called "wall preference". This behavior is thought to be important for environmental adaptation, such as hiding by planarians in nature. However, the mechanisms regulating wall-preference behavior are not well understood, since this behavior occurs in the absence of any particular stimulation. Here we show the mechanisms of wall-preference behavior. Surprisingly, planarian wall-preference behavior was also shown even by the head alone and by headless planarians. These results indicate that planarian "wall-preference" behavior only appears to be a "preference" behavior, and is actually an outcome of spontaneous behaviors, rather than of brain function. We found that in the absence of environmental cues planarians moved basically straight ahead until they reached a wall, and that after reaching a wall, they changed their direction of movement to one tangential to the wall, suggesting that this spontaneous behavior may play a critical role in the wall preference. When we tested another spontaneous behavior, the wigwag movement of the planarian head, using computer simulation with various wigwag angles and wigwag intervals, large wigwag angle and short wigwag interval reduced wall-preference behavior. This indicated that wigwag movement may determine the probability of staying near the wall or leaving the wall. Furthermore, in accord with this simulation, when we tested planarian wall-preference behavior using several assay fields with different curvature of the wall, we found that concavity and sharp curvature of walls negatively impacted wall preference by affecting the permissible angle of the wigwag movement. Together, these results indicate that planarian wall preference may be involuntarily caused by the combination of two spontaneous planarian behaviors: moving straight ahead until reaching a wall and then moving along it

  12. Spontaneous Behaviors and Wall-Curvature Lead to Apparent Wall Preference in Planarian

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Yoshitaro; Agata, Kiyokazu; Inoue, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The planarian Dugesia japonica tends to stay near the walls of its breeding containers and experimental dishes in the laboratory, a phenomenon called “wall preference”. This behavior is thought to be important for environmental adaptation, such as hiding by planarians in nature. However, the mechanisms regulating wall-preference behavior are not well understood, since this behavior occurs in the absence of any particular stimulation. Here we show the mechanisms of wall-preference behavior. Surprisingly, planarian wall-preference behavior was also shown even by the head alone and by headless planarians. These results indicate that planarian “wall-preference” behavior only appears to be a “preference” behavior, and is actually an outcome of spontaneous behaviors, rather than of brain function. We found that in the absence of environmental cues planarians moved basically straight ahead until they reached a wall, and that after reaching a wall, they changed their direction of movement to one tangential to the wall, suggesting that this spontaneous behavior may play a critical role in the wall preference. When we tested another spontaneous behavior, the wigwag movement of the planarian head, using computer simulation with various wigwag angles and wigwag intervals, large wigwag angle and short wigwag interval reduced wall-preference behavior. This indicated that wigwag movement may determine the probability of staying near the wall or leaving the wall. Furthermore, in accord with this simulation, when we tested planarian wall-preference behavior using several assay fields with different curvature of the wall, we found that concavity and sharp curvature of walls negatively impacted wall preference by affecting the permissible angle of the wigwag movement. Together, these results indicate that planarian wall preference may be involuntarily caused by the combination of two spontaneous planarian behaviors: moving straight ahead until reaching a wall and then

  13. POWs: Physicists on Wall Street

    SciTech Connect

    Derman, Emanuel

    2006-10-30

    Quantitative financial modeling seems to employ both the language and techniques of physics, but how similar are the two disciplines in theory and practice? This talk discusses the move from physics to finance, the nature of financial modeling and its deceptive similarity with theoretical physics, what it's like to work in the financial arena, and some of the open problems of interest.

  14. Opening Reproducible Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nüst, Daniel; Konkol, Markus; Pebesma, Edzer; Kray, Christian; Klötgen, Stephanie; Schutzeichel, Marc; Lorenz, Jörg; Przibytzin, Holger; Kussmann, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    Open access is not only a form of publishing such that research papers become available to the large public free of charge, it also refers to a trend in science that the act of doing research becomes more open and transparent. When science transforms to open access we not only mean access to papers, research data being collected, or data being generated, but also access to the data used and the procedures carried out in the research paper. Increasingly, scientific results are generated by numerical manipulation of data that were already collected, and may involve simulation experiments that are completely carried out computationally. Reproducibility of research findings, the ability to repeat experimental procedures and confirm previously found results, is at the heart of the scientific method (Pebesma, Nüst and Bivand, 2012). As opposed to the collection of experimental data in labs or nature, computational experiments lend themselves very well for reproduction. Some of the reasons why scientists do not publish data and computational procedures that allow reproduction will be hard to change, e.g. privacy concerns in the data, fear for embarrassment or of losing a competitive advantage. Others reasons however involve technical aspects, and include the lack of standard procedures to publish such information and the lack of benefits after publishing them. We aim to resolve these two technical aspects. We propose a system that supports the evolution of scientific publications from static papers into dynamic, executable research documents. The DFG-funded experimental project Opening Reproducible Research (ORR) aims for the main aspects of open access, by improving the exchange of, by facilitating productive access to, and by simplifying reuse of research results that are published over the Internet. Central to the project is a new form for creating and providing research results, the executable research compendium (ERC), which not only enables third parties to

  15. Speech About the Great Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    Of all the sights that I saw during that trip, the one that provoked the most thought on my part was the Great Wall. The Great Wall defies imagination. It is simple and strong. It winds gracefully up and down. It scales slowly but steadily the distant hill, to disappear down into the valley beyond, only to climb again, inexorably, to surmount the next mountain in its path. As one examines the individual stones with which it was built, one realizes how much sweat and blood there must have been in its complex history. As one looks at the overall structure, at its strength and elegance, its real significance begins to emerge. It is long. It is tenacious. It is flexible in every turn, but is persistent and persisting in the long range development. Its overall unity of purpose is what gives it strength and character. And its overall unity of purpose is what makes it one of the man-made structures on the surface of the earth to become first visible to a visitor approaching our planet from outer space...

  16. [Ageing of the arterial wall].

    PubMed

    Hanon, O

    2006-11-01

    Several mechanisms are implicated in the arterial wall changes due to ageing: ageing, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although the changes related to ageing (arteriosclerosis) have many factors in common with those induced by hypertension, they differ from those caused by atherosclerosis although commonly associated. Arteriosclerosis causes a diffuse increase of the rigidity of the large arteries by disease of the media, the main clinical manifestation of which is the increase in pulsed pressure. This arterial "hyperpulsability" contributes to a defect in coupling between the heart and the blood vessels which results in an increase in the pulsatile load of the left ventricle and to left ventricular hypertrophy and decreased coronary perfusion. Atherosclerosis seems more of a localised scarring phenomenon of the arterial wall which is exposed to a series of chronic aggressions characterised by deposits of lipids in the intima and whose main complication is thrombosis. Although these two processes may be associated, or interact one with the other, they are clearly different in nature. Therefore, atherosclerosis is a localised disease resulting in a decrease in arterial lumen, quite different from arteriosclerosis which is a diffuse, physiological condition which leads to an increase in the arterial lumen.

  17. Moss cell walls: structure and biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Alison W.; Roberts, Eric M.; Haigler, Candace H.

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of the moss Physcomitrella patens has stimulated new research examining the cell wall polysaccharides of mosses and the glycosyl transferases that synthesize them as a means to understand fundamental processes of cell wall biosynthesis and plant cell wall evolution. The cell walls of mosses and vascular plants are composed of the same classes of polysaccharides, but with differences in side chain composition and structure. Similarly, the genomes of P. patens and angiosperms encode the same families of cell wall glycosyl transferases, yet, in many cases these families have diversified independently in each lineage. Our understanding of land plant evolution could be enhanced by more complete knowledge of the relationships among glycosyl transferase functional diversification, cell wall structural and biochemical specialization, and the roles of cell walls in plant adaptation. As a foundation for these studies, we review the features of P. patens as an experimental system, analyses of cell wall composition in various moss species, recent studies that elucidate the structure and biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides in P. patens, and phylogenetic analysis of P. patens genes potentially involved in cell wall biosynthesis. PMID:22833752

  18. Lignin variability in plant cell walls: contribution of new models.

    PubMed

    Neutelings, Godfrey

    2011-10-01

    Lignin is a major component of certain plant cell walls. The enzymes and corresponding genes associated with the metabolic pathway leading to the production of this complex phenolic polymer have been studied for many years now and are relatively well characterized. The use of genetically modified model plants (Arabidopsis, tobacco, poplar.) and mutants has contributed greatly to our current understanding of this process. The recent utilisation and/or development of a number of dedicated genomic and transcriptomic tools for other species opens new perspectives for advancing our knowledge of the biological role of this important polymer in less typical situations and/or species. In this context, studies on the formation of hypolignified G-type fibres in angiosperm tension wood, and the natural hypolignification of secondary cell walls in plant bast fibre species such as hemp (Cannabis sativa), flax (Linum usitatissimum) or ramie (Boehmeria nivea) are starting to provide novel information about how plants control secondary cell wall formation. Finally, other biologically interesting species for which few molecular resources currently exist could also represent interesting future models.

  19. The State of the GeoWall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, P. J.; Leigh, J.; van Keken, P.; Johnson, A.

    2003-12-01

    The GeoWall stereo projection technology has been widely adopted within Earth Science. Over 20,000 undergraduate students per year use a GeoWall in classroom and lab settings at over 80 institutions around the world using over 200 GeoWalls. We believe that critical mass for this technology has been reached in the Earth Science. Many collaborations have been initiated. With Iris, GeoWall is exploring new ways to monitor seismic networks in real-time and to visualize extremely large, whole Earth seismic simulations. We are also working with a number of drilling organizations including JOI, DOSECC and LacCore to bring modern visualization technology to core interpretation and drill site selection. Also, over 15 museums now have or are building GeoWalls for informal education. Much of the science that is being performed on the GeoWall is finding its way directly into the classroom and science museum. One of the success stories has been the GeoWall Consortium's interaction with industry. The basic hardware for the GeoWall has been spun off to companies that now sell variations of the hardware. In addition, many software companies including ESRI and Dynamic Graphics have added support for the GeoWall in their products. The future of GeoWall is four fold. Curriculum development will bring more material to all GeoWall users. Assessment of the curriculum and educational psychology will give us GeoWall best practices. In technology development, the GeoWall 2 is a 20+ million pixel, tiled display which brings more resolution to the Earth Sciences than ever. To support research the consortium is developing a volume rendering application to visualize extremely large datasets.

  20. Architecture of dermatophyte cell Walls: Electron microscopic and biochemical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozawa, Y.; Kitajima, Y.

    1984-01-01

    A review with 83 references on the cell wall structure of dermatophytes is presented. Topics discussed include separation and preparation of cell walls; microstructure of cell walls by electron microscopy; chemical composition of cell walls; structural model of cell walls; and morphological structure of cell walls.