Science.gov

Sample records for open cluster m67

  1. The chemical compositions of solar twins in the open cluster M67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Asplund, M.; Yong, D.; Meléndez, J.; Ramírez, I.; Karakas, A. I.; Carlos, M.; Marino, A. F.

    2016-11-01

    Stars in open clusters are expected to share an identical abundance pattern. Establishing the level of chemical homogeneity in a given open cluster deserves further study as it is the basis of the concept of chemical tagging to unravel the history of the Milky Way. M67 is particularly interesting given its solar metallicity and age as well as being a dense cluster environment. We conducted a strictly line-by-line differential chemical abundance analysis of two solar twins in M67: M67-1194 and M67-1315. Stellar atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances were obtained with high precision using Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer spectra. M67-1194 is essentially identical to the Sun in terms of its stellar parameters. M67-1315 is warmer than M67-1194 by ≈150 K as well as slightly more metal-poor than M67-1194 by ≈0.05 dex. M67-1194 is also found to have identical chemical composition to the Sun, confirming its solar-twin nature. The abundance ratios [X/Fe] of M67-1315 are similar to the solar abundances for elements with atomic number Z ≤ 30, while most neutron-capture elements are enriched by ≈0.05 dex, which might be attributed to enrichment from a mixture of asymptotic giant branch ejecta and r-process material. The distinct chemical abundances for the neutron-capture elements in M67-1315 and the lower metallicity of this star compared to M67-1194, indicate that the stars in M67 are likely not chemically homogeneous. This poses a challenge for the concept of chemical tagging since it is based on the assumption of stars forming in the same star-forming aggregate.

  2. Photometric variability of Sun-like stars in the old open cluster M67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Ryan Wesley

    Few physical processes can affect the earth's climate on a global scale. The variability of the Sun is one such process. The Sun is known to vary by about 0.1% due to Sunspots and other surface activity. We do not yet know whether the Sun's variability is normal. Using the well-known properties of the old open cluster M67, we look for variations in Sun-like stars. In this thesis, we present the results of observation, calibration, correction and analysis of stars in M67. We focus on Sun-like stars and binary systems. We also determine the limits of observation using a small research-grade telescope. We find several known variable stars with comparable amplitudes of variability. Our precision is as high as 10 millimagnitudes, ranging 10-20 for Sun-like stars. Variability is detected as low as 20 millimagnitudes in amplitude. Our current precision, however, fails to detect solar-like variations.

  3. Observing the products of stellar evolution in the old open cluster M67 with APOGEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelli Motta, Clio; Salaris, Maurizio; Pasquali, Anna; Grebel, Eva K.

    2017-04-01

    Recent works have shown how the [C/N] ratio in stars after the first dredge-up (FDU) can be used as an age estimator in virtue of its dependence on stellar mass. For this purpose, precise predictions of the surface chemical composition before and after the mixing takes place in the convective envelope of subgiant stars are necessary. Stellar evolution models can provide us with such predictions, although a comparison with objects of known age is needed for calibration. Open clusters are excellent test cases, as they represent a single stellar population for which the age can be derived through, e.g. isochrone fitting. In this study, we present a detailed analysis of stars belonging to the well-known open cluster M67 observed by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey in the twelfth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and whose chemical properties were derived with the APOGEE Stellar Parameters and Chemical Abundances Pipeline. We find that the [C/N] abundance of subgiant branch stars is overestimated by ∼0.2 dex due to an offset in the determination of the [N/Fe] abundance. Stars on the red giant branch and red clump are shown not to be affected by this offset. We derive [C/N]FDU = -0.46 ± 0.03 dex, which poses a strong constraint on calibrations of [C/N]FDU as age indicator. We also do not find any clear signature of additional chemical mixing processes that set in after the red giant branch bump. The results obtained for M67 indicate the importance of conducting high-resolution spectroscopic studies of open clusters of different ages in order to establish an accurate age-dating method for field stars.

  4. Search for giant planets in M67. III. Excess of hot Jupiters in dense open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucalassi, A.; Pasquini, L.; Saglia, R.; Ruiz, M. T.; Bonifacio, P.; Leão, I.; Canto Martins, B. L.; de Medeiros, J. R.; Bedin, L. R.; Biazzo, K.; Melo, C.; Lovis, C.; Randich, S.

    2016-07-01

    Since 2008 we used high-precision radial velocity (RV) measurements obtained with different telescopes to detect signatures of massive planets around main-sequence and evolved stars of the open cluster (OC) M67. We aimed to perform a long-term study on giant planet formation in open clusters and determine how this formation depends on stellar mass and chemical composition. A new hot Jupiter (HJ) around the main-sequence star YBP401 is reported in this work. An update of the RV measurements for the two HJ host-stars YBP1194 and YBP1514 is also discussed. Our sample of 66 main-sequence and turnoff stars includes 3 HJs, which indicates a high rate of HJs in this cluster (5.6% for single stars and 4.5%% for the full sample). This rate is much higher than what has been discovered in the field, either with RV surveys or by transits. High metallicity is not a cause for the excess of HJs in M67, nor can the excess be attributed to high stellar masses. When combining this rate with the non-zero eccentricity of the orbits, our results are qualitatively consistent with a HJ formation scenario dominated by strong encounters with other stars or binary companions and subsequent planet-planet scattering, as predicted by N-body simulations. Based on observations collected at the ESO 3.6 m telescope (La Silla), at the 1.93 m telescope of the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP), at the Hobby Eberly Telescope (HET), at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG, La Palma) and at the Euler Swiss Telescope.

  5. The K2 M67 Study: Revisiting Old Friends with K2 Reveals Oscillating Red Giants in the Open Cluster M67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stello, Dennis; Vanderburg, Andrew; Casagrande, Luca; Gilliland, Ron; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Sandquist, Eric; Leiner, Emily; Mathieu, Robert; Soderblom, David R.

    2016-12-01

    Observations of stellar clusters have had a tremendous impact in forming our understanding of stellar evolution. The open cluster M67 has a particularly important role as a calibration benchmark for stellar evolution theory due to its near-solar composition and age. As a result, it has been observed extensively, including attempts to detect solar-like oscillations in its main sequence and red giant stars. However, any asteroseismic inference has so far remained elusive due to the difficulty in measuring these extremely low-amplitude oscillations. Here we report the first unambiguous detection of solar-like oscillations in the red giants of M67. We use data from the Kepler ecliptic mission, K2, to measure the global asteroseismic properties. We find a model-independent seismic-informed distance of 816 ± 11 pc, or {(m-M)}0 = 9.57+/- 0.03 mag, an average red giant mass of 1.36+/- 0.01 {M}⊙ , in agreement with the dynamical mass from an eclipsing binary near the cluster turn-off, and ages of individual stars compatible with isochrone fitting. We see no evidence of strong mass loss on the red giant branch. We also determine seismic {log}g of all the cluster giants with a typical precision of ˜ 0.01 dex. Our results generally show good agreement with independent methods and support the use of seismic scaling relations to determine global properties of red giant stars with near-solar metallicity. We further illustrate that the data are of such high quality that future work on individual mode frequencies should be possible, which would extend the scope of seismic analysis of this cluster.

  6. A Near-Infrared Surface Compositional Analysis of Blue Straggler Stars in Open Cluster M67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Richard; Gosnell, Natalie M.; Sneden, Chris

    2017-06-01

    Blue straggler stars (BSSs) are stars whose evolutions have been directly impacted by binary system interactions. By obtaining additional mass from a companion, BSSs are able to live prolonged lives on the main sequence. BSSs bring confusions to studies that rely on a standard stellar evolutionary track when modeling stellar populations, since the presence of BSSs can make a population appear younger than it actually is. It is important to have a better understanding of the mechanisms that drive BSS formation so that BSSs may be correctly accounted for in future studies.Blue stagglers in clusters primarily form in one of two ways; either from a close binary system in which one star accretes mass from its companion star or from a hierarchical trinary system in which a close inner binary merges as a result of perturbations from a farther-orbiting third star. In order to investigate the nature of this mass transfer, We obtained IGRINS H-band high resolution spectra of 6 BSSs and 12 red giant stars in open cluster M67. Using a grid of synthetic spectra obtained from the line analysis code MOOG, we identified and fit abundances for absorption lines of iron, silicon, and carbon. Depending on the evolutionary stage of the donor star, the abundance of carbon in the resulting BSS can be affected by mixing during the mass transfer. By analyzing the abundance of carbon in our targets, we find that [Fe/H] ~= 0 and [C/H] ~= 0. We see no evidence of depletion of carbon from RGB-phase mass transfer or enhancement of carbon from AGB-phase mass transfer, implying that the mass transfer occured earlier in the donar star's evolution.Funding for this research comes from the John W. Cox endowment for the Advanced Studies in Astronomy. For support of this work we acknowledge NSF grants AST-1211585 and AST-1616040 to CS. The successful development of the IGRINS spectrograph has resulted from the combined efforts of teams at the University of Texas at Austin and the Korea Astronomy and

  7. A near-infrared surface compositional analysis of blue straggler stars in open cluster M67.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Richard; Gosnell, Natalie M.; Sneden, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Blue straggler stars (BSSs) are stars whose evolutions have been directly impacted by binary system interactions. By obtaining additional mass from a companion, BSSs are able to live prolonged lives on the main sequence. BSSs bring confusions to studies that rely on a standard stellar evolutionary track when modeling stellar populations, since the presence of BSSs can make a population appear younger than it actually is. It is important to have a better understanding of the mechanisms that drive BSS formation so that BSSs may be correctly accounted for in future studies.What we know about BSS formation is that they form in one of two ways. Either from a close binary system in which one star accretes mass from its companion star or from a hierarchical trinary system in which a close inner binary merges as a result of perturbations from a farther-orbiting third star. What we don’t know are the relative frequencies of these two formation mechanisms. To investigate this problem, We obtained IGRINS near-IR (H- & K-band) high resolution spectra of 6 BSSs and 12 red giant stars in open cluster M67. Using a grid of synthetic spectra obtained from the line analysis code MOOG, we identified and fit abundances for absorption lines of iron, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. The latter three elements can be affected by internal hydrogen fusion, mixing, and binary mass transfer. In the BSS mass accretion mechanism, there should be enhanced abundances of these elements on the surfaces of BSSs. By analyzing the abundances of these elements in our BSS spectra, we determine the formation mechanism for each member of our BSS sample.Funding for this research comes from the John W. Cox endowment for the Advanced Studies in Astronomy. For support of this work we acknowledge NSF grants AST-1211585 and AST-1616040 to CS. The successful development of the IGRINS spectrograph has resulted from the combined efforts of teams at the University of Texas at Austin and the Korea Astronomy and Space

  8. A Comprehensive Stellar Astrophysical Study of the Old Open Cluster M67 with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Robert D.; Vanderburg, Andrew; K2 M67 Team

    2016-06-01

    M67 is among the best studied of all star clusters. Being at an age and metallicity very near solar, at an accessible distance of 850 pc with low reddening, and rich in content (over 1000 members including main-sequence dwarfs, a well populated subgiant branch and red giant branch, white dwarfs, blue stragglers, sub-subgiants, X-ray sources and CVs), M67 is a cornerstone of stellar astrophysics.The K2 mission (Campaign 5) has obtained long-cadence observations for 2373 stars, both within an optimized central superaperture and as specified targets outside the superaperture. 1,432 of these stars are likely cluster members based on kinematic and photometric criteria.We have extracted light curves and corrected for K2 roll systematics, producing light curves with noise characteristics qualitatively similar to Kepler light curves of stars of similar magnitudes. The data quality is slightly poorer than for field stars observed by K2 due to crowding near the cluster core, but the data are of sufficient quality to detect seismic oscillations, binary star eclipses, flares, and candidate transit events. We are in the process of uploading light curves and various diagnostic files to MAST; light curves and supporting data will also be made available on ExoFOP.Importantly, several investigators within the M67 K2 team are independently doing light curve extractions and analyses for confirmation of science results. We also are adding extensive ground-based supporting data, including APOGEE near-infrared spectra, TRES and WIYN optical spectra, LCOGT photometry, and more.Our science goals encompass asteroseismology and stellar evolution, alternative stellar evolution pathways in binary stars, stellar rotation and angular momentum evolution, stellar activity, eclipsing binaries and beaming, and exoplanets. We will present early science results as available by the time of the meeting, and certainly including asteroseismology, blue stragglers and sub-subgiants, and newly discovered

  9. Color-magnitude Diagrams for the Stellar Open Cluster M 67 in theVilnius Photometric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Richard P.; Janusz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Stellar photometry in the Vilnius Photometric System requires one percent quality for deriving luminosity class and spectral type subclass. We use such existing photometry of the open cluster M 67 to calibrate new CCD observations at the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) for correcting the flat-fielding zero-point and deriving the color-transformation in this intermediate-band, seven filter system (Boyle et al., BAAS 37 #4, 2005).Recently we have developed a "tie-in" observational practice to apply the zero-point and color transformation of the M 67 observations to neighboring starfields of interest that have no existing photometry. Sky transparency must remain constant to better than one percent during a round of short exposures in a filter between the field having calibrated photometry and the new field having no photometry as if the new field was exposed simultaneously with the master field.Proof of success for this "tie-in" method is shown with the master field being M 67 and the "tie-in" field being the nearby extended "corona" area. The distinctive color-magnitude diagrams of the old open clusterM 67 reveal the sensitivity to having constant sky transparency during the round of short exposures on M 67 and its extended area. For the extended area has the same form in its color-magnitude diagram as M 67. So variation in sky transparency shows displacement on the color-magnitude diagrams at the one percent quality.We will attempt new analysis concerning evolution of this very old open cluster (2.56 Gyr, WEBDA, http://www.univie.ac.at/webda/) and the surrounding "coronal" extent with reference to previous work by Chupina and Vereshchagin (Astron. Astrophys, 334, 552, 1998).

  10. A new solar fluorine abundance and a fluorine determination in the two open clusters M67 and NGC 6404

    SciTech Connect

    Maiorca, E.; Randich, S.; Magrini, L.; Uitenbroek, H.; Uttenthaler, S.; Busso, M.

    2014-06-20

    We present a new determination of the solar fluorine abundance together with abundance measurements of fluorine in two Galactic open clusters. We analyzed a sunspot spectrum, observed by L. Wallace and W. Livingston with the Fourier Transform Spectrometer at the McMath/Pierce Solar Telescope situated on Kitt Peak, and spectra of four giants in the old cluster M67 (∼4.5 Gyr) and three giants in the young cluster NGC 6404 (∼0.5 Gyr), obtained with the CRIRES spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. Fluorine was measured through the synthesis of the available HF lines. We adopted the recent set of experimental molecular parameters of HF delivered by the HITRAN database, and found a new solar fluorine abundance of A(F) = 4.40 ± 0.25, in good agreement with the M67 average fluorine abundance of A(F) = 4.49 ± 0.20. The new solar abundance is in a very good agreement with the meteoritic value. The modern spectrosynthesis tools used and the agreement with the meteoritic value and with the results in open cluster M67, known to be a solar analogue, make our solar determination very robust. At the same time, the fluorine measurement in the above-mentioned open clusters is the first step toward understanding its evolution during the last ∼10 Gyr in the Galactic disk. In order to develop this project, a larger sample of open clusters is required, in order to allow us to trace the evolution of fluorine as a function of time and, in turn, to better understand its origin.

  11. Spectroscopy of a stream of G-stars in the area of the open cluster M67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguer-Nuñez L.; Galadi-Enriquez, D.; Jordi, C.; Sanchez, S. F.; Muiños, J. L.

    2011-11-01

    The systematic study of selected open clusters by our team lead to the production of the best set of Strömgren photometry ever obtained of the old open cluster M67. Its analysis showed a previously unknown clump of more than 60 stars in the HR diagram, located below the cluster main sequence. The spatial distribution of these stars suggested that most of them could be cluster members and two alternative hypothesis were proposed: (1) if members, they would be binary systems composed by a white dwarf and a red dwarf, i.e. pre-cataclysmic variable systems; and (2) if non-members, they would constitute a stream of G-type stars placed behind the cluster. Medium dispersion spectra taken using the PMAS/PPAK spectrograph at 3.5 m telescope in Calar Alto lead to the conclusion that all stars are F--G main sequence stars, and therefore the first hypothesis can be discarded. We are acquiring new uvby-H_eta photometric data with the Wide Field Camera of INT and, in addition, we are carrying out an astrometric study with the Meridian Circle of San Fernando CMASF at El Leoncito (Argentina) to derive properties of stars fainter than our previous survey and covering a wider area in the cluster region. The new data will yield proper motions of the stars in the clump as well as allow to study the properties of the corona of M67.

  12. Stellar Radial Velocities in the Old Open Cluster M67 (NGC 2682). I. Memberships, Binaries, and Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Aaron M.; Latham, David W.; Mathieu, Robert D.

    2015-09-01

    We present results from 13776 radial-velocity (RV) measurements of 1278 candidate members of the old (4 Gyr) open cluster M67 (NGC 2682). The measurements are the results of a long-term survey that includes data from seven telescopes with observations for some stars spanning over 40 years. For narrow-lined stars, RVs are measured with precisions ranging from about 0.1 to 0.8 km s-1. The combined stellar sample reaches from the brightest giants in the cluster down to about 4 mag below the main-sequence turnoff (V=16.5), covering a mass range of about 1.34 {M}⊙ to 0.76 {M}⊙ . Spatially, the sample extends to a radus of 30 arcmin (7.4 pc in projection at a distance of 850 pc or 6-7 core radii). We find M67 to have a mean RV of +33.64 km s-1 (with an internal precision of ±0.03 km s-1) well separated from the mean velocity of the field. For stars with ≥slant 3 measurements, we derive RV membership probabilities and identify RV variables, finding 562 cluster members, 142 of which show significant RV variability. We use these cluster members to construct a color-magnitude diagram and identify a rich sample of stars that lie far from the standard single star isochrone, including the well-known blue stragglers, sub-subgiants and yellow giants. These exotic stars have a binary frequency of (at least) 80%, more than three times that detected for stars in the remainder of the sample. We confirm that the cluster is mass segregated, finding the binaries to be more centrally concentrated than the single stars in our sample at the 99.8% confidence level (and at the 98.7% confidence level when only considering main-sequence stars). The blue stragglers are centrally concentrated as compared to the solar-type main-sequence single stars in the cluster at the 99.7% confidence level. Accounting for measurement precision, we derive an RV dispersion in M67 of 0.80 ± 0.04 km s-1 for our sample of single main-sequence stars, subgiants and giants with V≤slant 15.5. When corrected

  13. Evolution of stellar collision products in open clusters. I. Blue stragglers in N-body models of M 67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebbeek, E.; Pols, O. R.; Hurley, J. R.

    2008-09-01

    Stellar collisions are an important formation channel for blue straggler stars in globular and old open clusters. Hydrodynamical simulations have shown that the remnants of such collisions are out of thermal equilibrium, are not strongly mixed and can rotate very rapidly. Detailed evolution models of collision products are needed to interpret observed blue straggler populations and to use them to probe the dynamical history of a star cluster. We expand on previous studies by presenting an efficient procedure to import the results of detailed collision simulations into a fully implicit stellar evolution code. Our code is able to evolve stellar collision products in a fairly robust manner and allows for a systematic study of their evolution. Using our code we have constructed detailed models of the collisional blue stragglers produced in the N-body simulation of M 67 performed by Hurley et al. in 2005. We assume the collisions are head-on and thus ignore the effects of rotation in this paper. Our detailed models are more luminous than normal stars of the same mass and in the same stage of evolution, but cooler than homogeneously mixed versions of the collision products. The increased luminosity and inefficient mixing decrease the remaining main-sequence lifetimes of the collision products, which are much shorter than predicted by the simple prescription commonly used in N-body simulations.

  14. Rotation Periods for Cool Stars in the 4 Gyr old Open Cluster M67, The Solar-Stellar Connection, and the Applicability of Gyrochronology to at least Solar Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Sydney A.; Weingrill, Joerg; Fritzewski, Dario; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Platais, Imants

    2016-05-01

    We report rotation periods for 20 cool (FGK) main sequence member stars of the 4 Gyr-old open cluster M67 (=NGC 2682), obtained by analyzing data from Campaign 5 of the K2 mission with the Kepler Space Telescope. The rotation periods delineate a sequence in the color-period diagram (CPD) of increasing period with redder color. This sequence represents a cross-section at the cluster age of the surface P = P(t, M), suggested in prior work to extend to at least solar age. The current Sun is located marginally (approximately 1σ) above M67 in the CPD, as its relative age leads us to expect, and lies on the P = P(t, M) surface to within measurement precision. We therefore conclude that the solar rotation rate is normal as compared with cluster stars, a fact that strengthens the solar-stellar connection. The agreement between the M67 rotation period measurements and prior predictions further implies that rotation periods, especially when coupled with appropriate supporting work such as spectroscopy, can provide reliable ages via gyrochronology for other similar FGK dwarfs from the early main sequence to solar age and likely until the main sequence turnoff. The M67 rotators have a rotational age of 4.2 Gyr with a standard deviation of 0.7 Gyr, implying that similar field stars can be age-dated to precisions of ˜17%. The rotational age of the M67 cluster as a whole is therefore 4.2 Gyr, but with a lower (averaged) uncertainty of 0.2 Gyr.

  15. DEATH OF A CLUSTER: THE DESTRUCTION OF M67 AS SEEN BY THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, James R. A.; Sandquist, Eric L.

    2010-03-10

    We probe the spatial and dynamical structure of the old open cluster M67 using photometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's sixth data release. Making use of an optimal contrast, or matched filter, algorithm, we map the distribution of high probability members of M67. We find an extended and elongated halo of likely members to a radius of nearly 60'. Our measured core radius of R{sub core} = 8.'24 +- 0.'60 is somewhat larger than that of previous estimates. We attribute the larger core radius measurement to the SDSS probing lower mass main sequence stars than has been done before for similar studies of M67, and the exclusion of post-main-sequence M67 members in the SDSS sample. We estimate the number of M67 members in our SDSS sample to be 1385 +- 67 stars. A lower limit on the binary fraction in M67 is measured to be 45%. A higher fraction of binary stars is measured in the core as compared to the halo, and the luminosity function of the core is found to be more depleted of low-mass stars. Thus, the halo is consistent with mass segregation within the cluster. The galactic orbit of M67 is calculated from recent proper motion and radial velocity determinations. The elongated halo is roughly aligned to the proper motion of the cluster. This appears to be a result of mass segregation due to the galactic tidal field. Our algorithm is run on Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry to directly compare to previous studies of M67. Decreasing core radii is found for stars with greater masses. We test the accuracy of our algorithm using 1000 artificial cluster Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that the matched filter technique is suitable for recovering low-density spatial structures, as well as measuring the binary fraction of the cluster.

  16. The Lithium Dip in M67: Comparison with the Hyades, Praesepe, and NGC 752 Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, Suchitra

    1995-06-01

    Lithium abundances were measured in 17 subgiants and giants which have evolved from the main-sequence Li dip in the old open cluster M67. The absence of detectable Li in all but one subgiant argues strongly that Li is severely destroyed, not merely diffused from observable view, in the main-sequence stars. A comparison with the Hyades, Praesepe NGC 752, and M67 clusters is performed, requiring the adoption of a uniform temperature calibration, the use of newly standardized photometry for NGC 752, and the rederivation of Li abundances from published equivalent widths. Limitations of the commonly used temperature calibrations, and our adopted choice of the Saxner & Hammarbäck (1985) calibration, are discussed. Adoption of this calibration results in a significant change in the shape of the Hyades dip. A comparison of the Li dips in the various clusters reveals intriguing details. The mass at the Li dip depends upon the metallicity of the stars, but the zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) temperatures of the dip stars are found to be independent of their metallicity. The morphology of the Li dip is characterized by a sharp drop at the blue edge and a more gradual rise at the red edge. There is no change in the ZAMS temperature or shape of the blue edge with age. The red edge becomes less steep with age; this may either be due to the evolution of the Li dip, or be caused by a decrease in Li in stars cooler than the red edge and thus unrelated to the Li dip phenomenon. The Li versus effective temperature distributions in the Hyades and Praesepe clusters, which are of the same age but different metallicity, are found to be identical in both the F and G dwarfs. None of the models so far proposed adequately explains the data. Microscopic diffusion and mass loss are contradicted by the observations of the Li dip. Models which incorporate rotation produce the Li dip through meridional circulation, turbulence, or rotational braking. Meridional circulation is in conflict with

  17. The Benchmark Cluster Reddening Project. II. A Reddening Value for M67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, B. J.

    2007-02-01

    Since 1954, 70 reddening determinations have been published for M67. Those results are of very diverse quality, and they imply only that the value of E(B-V) for the cluster lies between -0.02 and +0.14 mag. In addition, this uncertainty is habitually concealed by long-standing citation practices. In response, a reformed reddening protocol called ``alternative scholarship'' is applied, with tenets including (1) rigorous published foundations for reddening values, (2) accountability for all extant reddening results for M67, (3) explicit quality control of reddening techniques, (4) use of techniques with limited metallicity sensitivity, (5) explicit zero-point control of input data (when possible), (6) a reddening zero point based ultimately on the dust-free solar neighborhood, and (7) adherence to statistical norms. Results from reddening maps are then set aside pending further examination of their zero points and accidental errors. In addition, reddening values derived from color-magnitude analysis and from averages of published reddening results are likewise set aside. Five techniques that satisfy the adopted protocol are then selected and applied. By averaging results from cluster A and F stars and K giants, one finds that the mean value of E(B-V) for M67 is 41+/-4 mmag. It is also found that extant results from additional techniques are consistent with this result or else can be set aside for plausible reasons. The analysis yields a collateral value of [Fe/H], and this is consistent with the derived reddening value. Using published high-dispersion data, it is found that the mean cluster value of [Fe/H] is -0.009+/-0.009 dex. For M67 and the Hyades combined, no mean metallicity difference between giants and stars near the main sequence is found that is >=0.036 dex at 95% confidence.

  18. THE SUN WAS NOT BORN IN M67

    SciTech Connect

    Pichardo, Barbara; Moreno, Edmundo; Allen, Christine; Bedin, Luigi R.; Bellini, Andrea; Pasquini, Luca

    2012-03-15

    Using the most recent proper-motion determination of the old, solar-metallicity, Galactic open cluster M67 in orbital computations in a non-axisymmetric model of the Milky Way, including a bar and three-dimensional spiral arms, we explore the possibility that the Sun once belonged to this cluster. We have performed Monte Carlo numerical simulations to generate the present-day orbital conditions of the Sun and M67, and all the parameters in the Galactic model. We compute 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} pairs of orbits Sun-M67 looking for close encounters in the past with a minimum distance approach within the tidal radius of M67. In these encounters we find that the relative velocity between the Sun and M67 is larger than 20 km s{sup -1}. If the Sun had been ejected from M67 with this high velocity by means of a three-body encounter, this interaction would have either destroyed an initial circumstellar disk around the Sun or dispersed its already formed planets. We also find a very low probability, much lower than 10{sup -7}, that the Sun was ejected from M67 by an encounter of this cluster with a giant molecular cloud. This study also excludes the possibility that the Sun and M67 were born in the same molecular cloud. Our dynamical results convincingly demonstrate that M67 could not have been the birth cluster of our solar system.

  19. Ghostly Open Clusters (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente Marcos, R.

    We review theory and observations of the final stages of the evolution of open clusters. The distinguishing features of these ghostly objects depend upon the original membership of the cluster, the fraction of primordial binaries, and the initial mass function. Remnants of rich open clusters are difficult to detect and might exist in large numbers. We then examine the limited observational data available in this field, and discuss how to use the results of numerical integrations to plan future surveys and evaluate the quality of the available observational information. Current observational results render it very hard to distinguish between a poor open cluster, an open cluster remnant, or part of an association.

  20. Blue straggler stars: lessons from open clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Aaron M.

    Open clusters enable a deep dive into blue straggler characteristics. Recent work shows that the binary properties (frequency, orbital elements and companion masses and evolutionary states) of the blue stragglers are the most important diagnostic for determining their origins. To date the multi-epoch radial-velocity observations necessary for characterizing these blue straggler binaries have only been carried out in open clusters. In this paper, I highlight recent results in the open clusters NGC 188, NGC 2682 (M67) and NGC 6819. The characteristics of many of the blue stragglers in these open clusters point directly to origins through mass transfer from an evolved donor star. Additionally, a handful of blue stragglers show clear signatures of past dynamical encounters. These comprehensive, diverse and detailed observations also reveal important challenges for blue straggler formation models (and particularly the mass-transfer channel), which we must overcome to fully understand the origins of blue straggler stars and other mass-transfer products.

  1. A spectroscopic study of the blue stragglers in M67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G. Q.; Deng, L.; Chávez, M.; Bertone, E.; Davo, A. Herrero; Mata-Chávez, M. D.

    2008-10-01

    Based on spectrophotometric observations from the Guillermo Haro Observatory (Cananea, Mexico), a study of the spectral properties of the complete sample of 24 blue straggler stars (BSs) in the old Galactic open cluster M67 (NGC 2682) is presented. All spectra, calibrated using spectral standards, were recalibrated by means of photometric magnitudes in the Beijing-Arizona-Taipei-Connecticut system, which includes fluxes in 11 bands covering ~3500-10000 Å. The set of parameters was obtained using two complementary approaches that rely on a comparison of the spectra with (i) an empirical sample of stars with well-established spectral types and (ii) a theoretical grid of optical spectra computed at both low and high resolution. The overall results indicate that the BSs in M67 span a wide range in Teff(~ 5600 -12600 K) and surface gravities that are fully compatible with those expected for main-sequence objects (log g = 3.5 -5.0 dex).

  2. A Spectroscopic Study of Blue Stragglers in M67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G. Q.; Deng, L.; Chávez, M.; Bertone, E.

    2008-10-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of the complete sample of twenty four blue stragglers (BSs) in the old galactic open cluster M67 (NGC2682) have been collected, using the Guillermo Haro Observatory in Cananea, Mexico. All the calibrated spectra were re-calibrated by the Beijing Arizona Taipei Connecticut (BATC) photometric system which includes fluxes in 11 photometric bands covering ~3600 10000 Å. The goal of the current work is to provide observational constraints on spectral properties of BSs by determining the effective temperature (Teff) and surface gravity (log g). The overall results, obtained by applying the flux fitting method, indicate that Teff and surface gravities of BSs in M67 are fully compatible with those expected for main sequence stars.

  3. A Spectroscopic Study of Anomalous Stellar Populations in M67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGahee, Courtney; King, Jeremy R.; Deliyannis, Constantine P.

    2015-01-01

    A population of so-called "yellow straggler" stars occupy precarious color magnitude diagram positions in the old open cluster M67 that cannot be explained by standard single star evolution theory. These stars may have been formed by Roche lobe overflow mass transfer in close binary systems. We present new radial velocities and spectroscopic abundances of M67 yellow stragglers to test this hypothesis, and find that these objects possess a high binary frequency, but no enhancements of s-process elements that might be a smoking gun signature of mass transfer. Observations were conducted using the WIYN 3.5 m telescope in conjunction with the HYDRA spectrograph at Kitt Peak National Observatory. Support for this project was provided by NSF grants AST 09-08342, AST 0607567, and AST 1211699.

  4. Abundances and possible diffusion of elements in M 67 stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Önehag, Anna; Gustafsson, Bengt; Korn, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Context. The rich open cluster M 67 is known to have a chemical composition close to solar and an age of about 3.5-4.8 Gyr. It offers an important opportunity to check and develop our understanding of the physics and the evolution of solar-type stars. Aims: We present a spectroscopic study at high resolution, R ≈ 50 000, of 14 stars located on the main sequence, at the turn-off point, and on the early subgiant branch in the cluster in order to investigate its detailed chemical composition, for comparison with the Sun and solar twins in the solar neighbourhood, and to explore selective atomic diffusion of chemical elements as predicted by stellar-structure theory. Methods: We have obtained VLT/FLAMES-UVES spectra and analysed these strictly differentially in order to explore chemical-abundance similarities and differences between the M 67 stars and the Sun and among the M 67 stars themselves. Results: Individual abundances of 19 different chemical elements are obtained for the stars. They are found to agree very well with solar abundances, with abundance ratios closer to solar than those of most solar twins in the solar neighbourhood. An exception is Li, which shows considerable scatter among the cluster stars. There is a tendency for the cluster-star abundances to be more depleted than the abundances in the field stars in correlation with the condensation temperature of the elements, a tendency also found earlier for the Sun. Moreover, the heavy-element abundances are found to be reduced in the hotter stars and dwarfs by typically ≤0.05 dex, as compared to the abundances of the subgiants. Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis that the gas of the proto-cluster was depleted by formation and cleansing of dust before the stars formed. They also add support to the proposal that the Sun was formed in a dense stellar environment. Moreover, the observed minor reductions of heavy elements, relative to our standard star M 67-1194 and the subgiants, in the

  5. A spectroscopic study of anomalous stellar populations in M67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGahee, Courtney Elizabeth

    A population of stars exists in the old, open cluster M67, whose photometry, color magnitude diagram locations and associated evolutionary states cannot be explained by current, standard single star evolution theory. These stars are often referred to as "yellow straggler" stars. Yellow stragglers have been identified in multiple star clusters suggesting that these stars constitute a real population. Additionally, according to independent studies, at least some of the yellow straggler stars in M67 are likely cluster members. Therefore, cluster non-membership is not a sufficient explanation for the observed anomalous photometry of these stars. It is possible that the yellow stragglers occupy their precarious color magnitude diagram positions as a result of the evolution of mass transfer blue straggler stars. These are stars which have been formed by Roche Lobe overflow mass transfer in close binary systems. If this the case for the yellow stragglers, it is hypothesized that they could potentially exhibit two spectroscopic characteristics that can be indicative of this type of mass transfer system. Specifically, variable radial velocities can be used to indicate that the yellow stragglers exist in binary systems and enhancements of s-process elements in yellow stragglers can indicate Roche Lobe overflow mass transfer from a once asymptotic giant branch star which has since evolved into a white dwarf. This dissertation details the radial velocity survey and the chemical abundance analysis that have been conducted to investigate the yellow stragglers with regard to this hypothesis. The radial velocity survey revealed that eight of the ten yellow stragglers studied exhibit variable radial velocities indicating that the yellow straggler population of M67 possess a high binary frequency. However, the chemical abundance analysis revealed that none of the yellow stragglers exhibited enhancements of the s-process elements Y and Ba. Therefore, a history which involves Roche

  6. One Percent Strömvil Photometry in M 67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, A. G. D.; Boyle, R. P.; Janusz, R.

    2005-05-01

    The Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope on Mt. Graham is being used in a program of CCD photometry of open and globular clusters. We are using the Ströomvil System (Straižys et al. 1996), a combination of the Strömgren and Vilnius Systems. This system allows stars to be classified as to temperature, surface gravity, metallicity and reddening from the photometric measures alone. However, to make accurate estimates of the stellar parameters the photometry should be accurate to 1 or 1.5 percent. In our initial runs on the VATT we did not achieve this accuracy. The problem turned out to be scattered light in the telescope and this has now been reduced so we can do accurate photometry. Boyle has written a routine in IRAF which allows us to correct the flats for any differences. We take rotated frames and also frames which are offset in position by one third of a frame, east-west and north-south. Measures of the offset stars give us the corrections that need to be made to the flat. Robert Janusz has written a program, the CommandLog, which allows us to paste IRAF commands in the correct order to reduce measures made on a given observing run. There is an automatic version where one can test various parameters and get a set of solutions. Now we have a set of Strömvil frames in the open cluster, M 67 and we compare our color-magnitude diagram with those of BATC (Fan et al. 1996) and Vilnius (Boyle et al. 1998). A preliminary report of the M 67 photometry will be found in Laugalys et al. (2004). Here we report on a selected set of stars in the M 67 frames, those with errors 1 percent or less.

  7. On Using the Color-Magnitude Diagram Morphology of M67 to Test Solar Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magic, Z.; Serenelli, A.; Weiss, A.; Chaboyer, B.

    2010-08-01

    The open cluster M67 has solar metallicity and an age of about 4 Gyr. The turnoff (TO) mass is close to the minimum mass for which solar metallicity stars develop a convective core during main sequence evolution as a result of the development of hydrogen burning through the CNO cycle. The morphology of the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of M67 around the TO shows a clear hook-like feature, a direct sign that stars close to the TO have convective cores. VandenBerg et al. investigated the possibility of using the morphology of the M67 TO to put constraints on the solar metallicity, particularly CNO elements, for which solar abundances have been revised downward by more than 30% over the last few years. Here, we extend their work, filling the gaps in their analysis. To this aim, we compute isochrones appropriate for M67 using new (low metallicity) and old (high metallicity) solar abundances and study whether the characteristic TO in the CMD of M67 can be reproduced or not. We also study the importance of other constitutive physics on determining the presence of such a hook, particularly element diffusion, overshooting and nuclear reaction rates. We find that using the new solar abundance determinations, with low CNO abundances, makes it more difficult to reproduce the characteristic CMD of M67. This result is in agreement with results by VandenBerg et al. However, changes in the constitutive physics of the models, particularly overshooting, can influence and alter this result to the extent that isochrones constructed with models using low CNO solar abundances can also reproduce the TO morphology in M67. We conclude that only if all factors affecting the TO morphology are completely under control (and this is not the case), M67 could be used to put constraints on solar abundances.

  8. Studies on the corona of open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Jordi, C.; Muiños, J. L.; Galadí-Enríquez, D.; Masana, E.

    2013-05-01

    High quality proper motions on an extended area of a selection of Open Clusters (OCs) will let us study their coronas with unprecedented accuracy. We are in the process of obtaining astrometry with the Meridian Circles of San Fernando CMASF at El Leoncito (Argentina) and the CTA at La Palma of an area few times the known radius (from Webda) of a selection of OCs. We will make use of Strömgren wide-field photometry to complement their characterization. We have already analysed the old open cluster M67, deriving properties for 2738 stars fainter and, in a wider area, than any previous precise survey in the cluster region. With new data from the CMASF we have covered an area of about 2°×1.4° and down to 17 magnitude in r^'. Proper motions are then used to determine the membership probabilities of stars in the region, applying parametric and non-parametric approaches to cluster/field segregation. Adding photometric criteria, we obtained a preliminary list of 665 probable member stars, up to a distance 0.96° from the cluster centre. These are preliminary results on our work that will lead us to the most complete study of its structure, dynamics and mass segregation up to date. We have already obtained proper motions for NGC 1817, NGC 2264 and NGC 2509 that are now being processed.

  9. The K2 M67 Study: An Evolved Blue Straggler in M67 from K2 Mission Asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiner, Emily; Mathieu, Robert D.; Stello, Dennis; Vanderburg, Andrew; Sandquist, Eric

    2016-11-01

    Yellow straggler stars (YSSs) fall above the subgiant branch in optical color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), between the blue stragglers and the red giants. YSSs may represent a population of evolved blue stragglers, but none have the direct and precise mass and radius measurements needed to determine their evolutionary states and formation histories. Here we report the first asteroseismic mass and radius measurements of such a star, the yellow straggler S1237 in the open cluster M67. We apply asteroseismic scaling relations to a frequency analysis of the Kepler K2 light curve and find a mass of 2.9 ± 0.2 M⊙ and a radius of 9.2 ± 0.2 R⊙. This is more than twice the mass of the main-sequence turnoff in M67, suggesting that S1237 is indeed an evolved blue straggler. S1237 is the primary in a spectroscopic binary. We update the binary orbital solution and use spectral energy distribution fitting to constrain the CMD location of the secondary star. We find that the secondary is likely an upper main-sequence star near the turnoff, but a slightly hotter blue straggler companion is also possible. We then compare the asteroseismic mass of the primary to its mass from CMD fitting, finding that the photometry implies a mass and radius more than 2σ below the asteroseismic measurement. Finally, we consider formation mechanisms for this star and suggest that S1237 may have formed from dynamical encounters resulting in stellar collisions or a binary merger. This is paper 73 in the WIYN Open Cluster Study.

  10. The Chemical Homogeneity of Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovy, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Determining the level of chemical homogeneity in open clusters is of fundamental importance in the study of the evolution of star-forming clouds and that of the Galactic disk. Yet limiting the initial abundance spread in clusters has been hampered by difficulties in obtaining consistent spectroscopic abundances for different stellar types. Without reference to any specific model of stellar photospheres, a model for a homogeneous cluster is that it forms a one-dimensional sequence, with any differences between members due to variations in stellar mass and observational uncertainties. I present a novel method for investigating the abundance spread in open clusters that tests this one-dimensional hypothesis at the level of observed stellar spectra, rather than constraining homogeneity using derived abundances as is traditionally done. Using high-resolution APOGEE spectra for 49 giants in M67, NGC 6819, and NGC 2420 I demonstrate that these spectra form one-dimensional sequences for each cluster. With detailed forward modeling of the spectra and Approximate Bayesian Computation, I derive strong limits on the initial abundance spread of 15 elements: <0.01 (0.02) {dex} for C and Fe, ≲0.015 (0.03) {dex} for N, O, Mg, Si, and Ni, ≲0.02 (0.03) {dex} for Al, Ca, and Mn, and ≲0.03 (0.05) {dex} for Na, S, K, Ti, and V (at 68% and 95% confidence, respectively). The strong limits on C and O imply that no pollution by massive core-collapse supernovae occurred during star formation in open clusters, which, thus, need to form within ≲6 {Myr}. Further development of this and related techniques will bring the power of differential abundances to stars other than solar twins in large spectroscopic surveys and will help unravel the history of star formation and chemical enrichment in the Milky Way through chemical tagging.

  11. Tidal radius estimates for three open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, V. M.; Loktin, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    A new method is developed for estimating tidal radii and masses of open star clusters (OCL) based on the sky-plane coordinates and proper motions and/or radial velocities of cluster member stars. To this end, we perform the correlation and spectral analysis of oscillations of absolute values of stellar velocity components relative to the cluster mass center along three coordinate planes and along each coordinate axis in five OCL models. Mutual correlation functions for fluctuations of absolute values of velocity field components are computed. The spatial Fourier transform of the mutual correlation functions in the case of zero time offset is used to compute wavenumber spectra of oscillations of absolute values of stellar velocity components. The oscillation spectra of these quantities contain series of local maxima at equidistant wavenumber k values. The ratio of the tidal radius of the cluster to the wavenumber difference Δ k of adjacent local maxima in the oscillation spectra of absolute values of velocity field components is found to be the same for all five OCL models. This ratio is used to estimate the tidal radii and masses of the Pleiades, Praesepe, and M67 based on the proper motions and sky-plane coordinates of the member stars of these clusters. The radial dependences of the absolute values of the tangential and radial projections of cluster star velocities computed using the proper motions relative to the cluster center are determined, along with the corresponding autocorrelation functions and wavenumber spectra of oscillations of absolute values of velocity field components. The Pleiades virial mass is estimated assuming that the cluster is either isolated or non-isolated. Also derived are the estimates of the Pleiades dynamical mass assuming that it is non-stationary and non-isolated. The inferred Pleiades tidal radii corresponding to these masses are reported.

  12. Chromospheric Activity in Red Giants of M67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Whitney, B. A.; Pasquini, L.

    1994-12-01

    Red giants in the old open cluster M67 present a well-studied, homogeneous group of 1.27Msun stars with which to determine the evolution of chromospheric activity and mass loss. Echelle spectra of the Ca II H and K line region (lambda 3950) have been obtained with the 4-m telescope at KPNO, the MMT of the F. L. Whipple Observatory (K only), and the 3.6-m ESO telescope at La Silla, Chile. Spectra of 16 red giant stars down to V ~ 11 were obtained; five of the sample are identified as clump giants. The flux of the emission reversal in the Ca II K core has been calibrated using normalization based on the narrow-band absolute spectrophotometry of Gunn &\\ Stryker (1983, ApJS, 52, 121). A new spectral synthesis of the Calcium line region for radiative models of the M67 giants based on Kurucz atmospheres provides the correction necessary to extract the chromospheric component of the flux. The Ca K emission reversals display asymmetries indicative of outward motions for giants more luminous than M_V ~ +0.5. The chromospheric emission flux in Ca II K decreases with increasing stellar luminosity. Clump giants, which are thought to be in a core-helium burning stage, show Ca II emission comparable to the stars on the red giant branch. Evidence for chromospheric variability is found from multiple observations of several objects. Implications of these results upon the evolution of chromospheres and presence of mass loss in giants will be discussed.

  13. VARIABLE STARS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 7142

    SciTech Connect

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Serio, Andrew W.; Shetrone, Matthew E-mail: aserio@gemini.edu

    2011-12-15

    We present new discoveries of variable stars near the turnoff of the old open cluster NGC 7142. Contrary to previous studies, we detect eight contact or near-contact eclipsing binaries (including three near the cluster turnoff), and most of these have good probability of being cluster members. We also identified one long-period variable that resides far to the red of the cluster giant branch, and four new detached eclipsing binaries. We have re-examined the question of distance and reddening for the cluster and find that the distance is larger and the reddening lower than in most previous studies. In turn this implies that NGC 7142 is probably slightly younger than M67, and is about 3 Gyr old. With an age of this size, NGC 7142 would be one of a small group of clusters with main-sequence turnoff stars at the transition between convective and radiative cores.

  14. Lithium in a short-period tidally locked binary of M67: Implications for stellar evolution, Galactic Lithium evolution, and cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deliyannis, Constantine P.; King, Jeremy R.; Boesgaard, Ann M.; Ryan, Sean G.

    1994-01-01

    In open clusters, late-F stars exhibit a Li maximum (the Li 'peak' region) at lower abundance with age, which could be due either to stellar depletion or Galactic Li enrichment (or some other cause). We have observed a short-period tidally locked binary (SPTLB) on the Li peak region in the old cluster M67 to distinguish between alternatives. SPTLBs which synchronized in the early pre-main sequence would avoid the rotational mixing which, according to Yale models, may be responsible for depleting Li with age in open cluster dwarfs. We find that both components of the M67 SPTLB have a Li abundance lying about a factor of 2 or more above any other M67 single star and about a factor of 3 or more above the mean Li peak region abundance in M67. Our results suggest that the initial Li abundance in M67 is at least as high as approximately 3.0 = 12 + log (N(sub Li)/N(sub H)). Our high M67 SPTLB Li abundance and those in other clusters support the combination of Zahn's tidal circularization and the Yale rotational mixing theories and may indicate that the halo Li plateau (analogous to the cluster Li peak region) abundance has been depleted from a higher primordial value. Implications are discussed.

  15. Lithium in a short-period tidally locked binary of M67: Implications for stellar evolution, Galactic Lithium evolution, and cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deliyannis, Constantine P.; King, Jeremy R.; Boesgaard, Ann M.; Ryan, Sean G.

    1994-01-01

    In open clusters, late-F stars exhibit a Li maximum (the Li 'peak' region) at lower abundance with age, which could be due either to stellar depletion or Galactic Li enrichment (or some other cause). We have observed a short-period tidally locked binary (SPTLB) on the Li peak region in the old cluster M67 to distinguish between alternatives. SPTLBs which synchronized in the early pre-main sequence would avoid the rotational mixing which, according to Yale models, may be responsible for depleting Li with age in open cluster dwarfs. We find that both components of the M67 SPTLB have a Li abundance lying about a factor of 2 or more above any other M67 single star and about a factor of 3 or more above the mean Li peak region abundance in M67. Our results suggest that the initial Li abundance in M67 is at least as high as approximately 3.0 = 12 + log (N(sub Li)/N(sub H)). Our high M67 SPTLB Li abundance and those in other clusters support the combination of Zahn's tidal circularization and the Yale rotational mixing theories and may indicate that the halo Li plateau (analogous to the cluster Li peak region) abundance has been depleted from a higher primordial value. Implications are discussed.

  16. Search for giant planets in M 67. I. Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquini, L.; Brucalassi, A.; Ruiz, M. T.; Bonifacio, P.; Lovis, C.; Saglia, R.; Melo, C.; Biazzo, K.; Randich, S.; Bedin, L. R.

    2012-09-01

    Context. Precise stellar radial velocities (RVs) are used to search for massive (Jupiter masses or higher) exoplanets around the stars of the open cluster M 67. Aims: We aim to obtain a census of massive exoplanets in a cluster of solar metallicity and age in order to study the dependence of planet formation on stellar mass and to compare in detail the chemical composition of stars with and without planets. This first work presents the sample and the observations, discusses the cluster characteristics and the RV distribution of the stars, and individuates the most likely planetary host candidates. Methods: We observed a total of 88 main-sequence stars, subgiants, and giants all highly probable members of M 67, using four telescopes and instrument combinations: the HARPS spectrograph at the ESO 3.6 m, the SOPHIE spectrograph at OHP, the CORALIE spectrograph at the Euler swiss telescope and the HRS spectrograph at Hobby Eberly Telescope. We investigate whether exoplanets are present by obtaining RVs with precisions as good as ≃ 10 m s-1. To date, we have performed 680 single observations (Dec. 2011) and a preliminary analysis of data, spanning a period of up to eight years. We computed zero-point deviations for each spectrograph with respect to HARPS, finding that for SOPHIE and CORALIE the offsets are minimal (at -11.4 m s-1 and 26.8 m s-1, respectively), while for our HET measurements the offset is larger, 242.0 m s-1. After reducing all the observations to the HARPS zero point, the RV measurements for each star are used to evaluate the RV variability along the cluster color magnitude diagram (CMD). Results: Although the sample was pre-selected to avoid the inclusion of binaries, we identify 11 previously unknown binary candidates. The RV variance (including the observational error) for the bulk of stars is almost constant with stellar magnitude (therefore stellar gravity) at σ = 20 m s-1. This number includes both the stellar intrinsic variability and the

  17. Stellar photometry including saturated images: Results on M67 with WFPC2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliland, Ronald L.

    1994-01-01

    The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is providing unsurpassed imaging capabilities and supporting accurate stellar photometry over large fields of view at high angular resolution. I discuss a feature of the WFPC2 CCD systems that nominally limits the dynamic range attainable with single exposures: a 12 bit analog to digital converter that does not allow sampling of the CCD full-well depth even at the low gain (14e(sup -)/DN) setting. I demonstrate that accurate stellar photometry can be performed on stellar images that are strongly saturated. Two 40 s exposures in V and I bands on the old open cluster M67 are analyzed to demonstrate photometric capabilities with a dynamic range of over 12 mag from single exposures. New photometric results for both bright and faint objects in M67 are derived from the WFPC2 data.

  18. The open cluster NGC 6716

    SciTech Connect

    Grice, N.A.; Dawson, D.W. Western Connecticut State Univ., Danbury, CT )

    1990-08-01

    NGC 6716 is a young open star cluster in Sagittarius. Lindoff (1971) obtained photoelectric photometry for 12 stars and photographic UBV photometry for 115 stars in the cluster field down to V = 13.8. This work has been expanded to include more photoelectric standards and IRIS photometry for 332 stars in the cluster field down to V = 16. A reddening E(B-V) = 0.17 mag, a distance modulus of 8.69 + or - 0.15 mag (d = 547 pc), and an age of around 100 million years for the cluster are derived. Of the stars studied, 75 were judged as likely cluster members, 63 as possible members, and 194 as probable nonmembers. 13 refs.

  19. Be Stars in Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, A. E.

    2017-06-01

    Based on high and medium resolution spectra, we analyze the population of Be stars in young open clusters. We have found a clear dependence of the relative content of early-type (B0-B3) stars on the cluster age. The relative concentration of Be stars of spectral types B0-B3 gradually increases with cluster age, reaching its maximum value 0.46 in clusters with ages of 12-20 Myr. Such a distribution of Be stars in clusters unequivocally points to the evolutionary status of the Be phenomenon. Two possibilities of Be stars' origin is discussed. The first one is for single B stars with rotational velocities increasing from moderate in the beginning of their life on Main Sequence (MS) to near critical in the end of MS. The second one includes evolution of close double systems, that are widely spreaded among early type stars.

  20. H-alpha and H-beta Standard Stars in M 67 and NGC 752

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, Michael D.; Saylor, Clint A.; Hintz, Maureen; Hintz, Eric G.

    2017-01-01

    The BYU H-alpha photometric system was defined in Joner and Hintz (2015, AJ, 150, 204) using multiple years of spectroscopic observations. The spectrophotometric methods used to form the new index were also utilized to produce an H-beta index for each of the newly established H-alpha standard stars. We present H-alpha and H-beta filter photometry for stars in the open clusters M 67 and NGC 752 that has been carefully transformed to the standard systems. These stars are suitable to use as standards for transforming CCD observations to the H-alpha and H-beta photometric systems.

  1. Tests of the CM model for turbulent convection. I - Application to M 67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antona, F.; Mazzitelli, I.; Gratton, R. G.

    1992-04-01

    The performance of the model proposed by Canuto and Mazzitelli (CM) (1991, 1992) for turbulent convection is tested with reference to stellar objects other than the sun. A comparison of the new evolutionary tracks and isochrones, computed within the CM framework, with the H-R diagram features of the open cluster M67, is presented. The CM isochrones are adequate to reproduce the general features of the HR diagram morphology, at least as well as the mixing length theory isochrones. The CM model appears to be even more efficient at matching the observed red giants, though this may depend on the inferred temperatures of the few cluster giants. It is concluded that the CM model has also passed the test for the red giants. A choice as the best theoretical fit for M67 is made in favor of the one obtained by increasing the distance modulus of the cluster from the current accepted value of 9.7 to 9.9.

  2. Search for giant planets in M 67. IV. Survey results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucalassi, A.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Saglia, R.; Pasquini, L.; Ruiz, M. T.; Bonifacio, P.; Bedin, L. R.; Libralato, M.; Biazzo, K.; Melo, C.; Lovis, C.; Randich, S.

    2017-07-01

    Context. We present the results of a seven-year-long radial velocity survey of a sample of 88 main-sequence and evolved stars to reveal signatures of Jupiter-mass planets in the solar-age and solar-metallicity open cluster M 67. Aims: We aim at studying the frequency of giant planets in this cluster with respect to the field stars. In addition, our sample is also ideal to perform a long-term study to compare the chemical composition of stars with and without giant planets in detail. Methods: We analyzed precise radial velocity (RV) measurements obtained with the HARPS spectrograph at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla), the SOPHIE spectrograph at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (France), the HRS spectrograph at the Hobby Eberly Telescope (Texas), and the HARPS-N spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (La Palma). Additional RV data come from the CORALIE spectrograph at the Euler Swiss Telescope (La Silla). We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the occurrence rate of giant planets in our radial velocity survey. We considered orbital periods between 1.0 day and 1000 days and planet masses between 0.2 MJ and 10.0 MJ. We used a measure of the observational detection efficiency to determine the frequency of planets for each star. Results: All the planets previously announced in this RV campaign with their properties are summarized here: 3 hot Jupiters around the main-sequence stars YBP1194, YBP1514, and YBP401, and 1 giant planet around the evolved star S364. Two additional planet candidates around the stars YBP778 and S978 are also analyzed in the present work. We discuss stars that exhibit large RV variability or trends individually. For 2 additional stars, long-term trends are compatible with new binary candidates or substellar objects, which increases the total number of binary candidates detected in our campaign to 14. Based on the Doppler-detected planets discovered in this survey, we find an occurrence of giant planets of 18

  3. The abundance of fluorine in the Hyades, NGC 752, and M67

    SciTech Connect

    Nault, K. A.; Pilachowski, C. A. E-mail: catyp@astro.indiana.edu

    2013-12-01

    The abundance of fluorine is determined from the 2.3358 μm feature of the molecule HF for several giants in the Hyades, NGC 752, and M67 open clusters from spectra obtained with the Phoenix IR spectrometer on the 2.1 m telescope at Kitt Peak. The abundance of fluorine in cluster giants is consistent with that observed in field stars, and may indicate that stars with super-solar metallicities and young ages may be enhanced in fluorine by perhaps 0.2-0.3 dex compared to older or lower-metallicity field stars. Multiple sources probably contribute to the fluorine abundance in the Galactic disk, although the relative contributions of possible sources remain uncertain. Fluorine production in asymptotic giant branch stars, however, is unlikely to be the dominant source.

  4. Chemical composition of the old open clusters melotte 66 and NGC 2243

    SciTech Connect

    Gratton, R.G.

    1982-06-15

    The chemical composition of the old open cluster Melotte 66 and NGC 2243 is determined by means of high-dispersion spectra of some red giants and a model atmosphere analysis. The two clusters are found to be quite metal poor ((Fe/H) = -0.7 +- 0.1 for Melotte 66 and (Fe/H) = -1.2 +- 0.1 for NGC 2243), with oxygen perhaps enhanced in NGC 2243. A reanalysis is made of the color-magnitude diagrams of the four old open clusters which have been studied with high dispersion (M67, NGC 2420, NGC 2243, and Melotte 66), and new values for the distance moduli of M67 and Melotte 66 are determined. Age estimates are 4 x 10/sup 9/ years for M67 and NGC 2420 and 6 x 10/sup 9/ years for NGC 2243 and Melotte 66. The helium content = 0.25 +- 0.03 is estimated from the magnitude of the horizontal branch and the ratio of the horizontal branch stars to red giants, and seems remarkably constant within this sample of clusters. The results suggest that the time scale of the galactic halo collapse is long (5--10 x 10/sup 9/ years), in agreement with recent models.

  5. An application of the k-th nearest neighbor method to open cluster membership determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin-Hua

    2016-12-01

    We introduce a non-parametric method for open cluster membership determination in three-dimensional (3D) velocity space (proper motion and radial velocity). Clean 3D cluster members can be obtained by statistically analyzing the Euclidean distance between each star and its k-th nearest neighbor in 3D velocity space. We use 513 sample stars in the direction of open cluster M67 to construct a 3D velocity space and test our method; 291 3D cluster members are obtained. The color-magnitude diagram, proper motions, radial velocities and spatial distribution of these 3D cluster members demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. From the 291 3D cluster members, the mean radial velocity and absolute proper motion of M67 are Vr = +33.46 ± 0.05 km s-1 and (PMRA, PMDEC) = (-7.64 ± 0.07, -5.98 ± 0.07) mas yr-1, respectively. In addition, we use 640 sample stars with precise proper motions and radial velocities in the direction of open cluster NGC 188 to test our method. The test results also show that our method is effective.

  6. X-Ray source populations in old open clusters: Collinder 261

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vats, Smriti; van den Berg, Maureen; Wijnands, Rudy

    2014-09-01

    We are carrying out an X-ray survey of old open clusters with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Single old stars, being slow rotators, are very faint in X-rays (L_X < 1×10^27 erg/s). Hence, X-rays produced by mass transfer in cataclysmic variables (CVs) or by rapid rotation of the stars in tidally locked, detached binaries (active binaries; ABs) can be detected, without contamination from single stars. By comparing the properties of various types of interacting binaries in different environments (the Galactic field, old open clusters, globular clusters), we aim to study binary evolution and how it may be affected by dynamical encounters with other cluster stars. Stellar clusters are good targets to study binaries, as age, distance, chemical composition, are well constrained. Collinder (Cr) 261 is an old open cluster (age ~ 7 Gyr), with one of the richest populations inferred of close binaries and blue stragglers of all open clusters and is therefore an obvious target to study the products of close encounters in open clusters. We will present the first results of this study, detailing the low-luminosity X-ray population of Cr 261, in conjunction with other open clusters in our survey (NGC 188, Berkeley 17, NGC 6253, M67, NGC 6791) and in comparison with populations in globular clusters.

  7. Giant Planets in Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, S. N.; White, R. J.; Latham, D. W.

    2015-10-01

    Two decades after the discovery of 51 Peg b, more than 200 hot Jupiters have now been confirmed, but the details of their inward migration remain uncertain. While it is widely accepted that short period giant planets could not have formed in situ, several different mechanisms (e.g., Type II migration, planet-planet scattering, Kozai-Lidov cycles) may contribute to shrinking planetary orbits, and the relative importance of each is not well-constrained. Migration through the gas disk is expected to preserve circular, coplanar orbits and must occur quickly (within ˜ 10 Myr), whereas multi-body processes should initially excite eccentricities and inclinations and may take hundreds of millions of years. Subsequent evolution of the system (e.g., orbital circularization and inclination damping via tidal interaction with the host star) may obscure these differences, so observing hot Jupiters soon after migration occurs can constrain the importance of each mechanism. Fortunately, the well-characterized stars in young and adolescent open clusters (with known ages and compositions) provide natural laboratories for such studies, and recent surveys have begun to take advantage of this opportunity. We present a review of the discoveries in this emerging realm of exoplanet science, discuss the constraints they provide for giant planet formation and migration, and reflect on the future direction of the field.

  8. LITHIUM ABUNDANCES OF THE SUPER-METAL-RICH OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6253

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, Jeffrey D.; Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Maderak, Ryan M.; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara; Twarog, Bruce E-mail: con@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: bjat@ku.edu

    2012-11-01

    High-resolution CTIO 4 m/HYDRA spectroscopy of the super-metal-rich open cluster NGC 6253 ([Fe/H] = +0.43 {+-} 0.01) has been used to study the stellar lithium (Li) abundances near the cluster's turnoff. NGC 6253 greatly expands the range of [Fe/H] for clusters that have a Li abundance analysis. This is important for studying the complicated effects of, and potential correlations with, stellar Fe abundance on surface Li abundance. Comparisons to the younger and less-metal-rich Hyades and to the similarly aged but solar-metallicity M67 show that NGC 6253's Li abundances are qualitatively consistent with the prediction, from Standard Stellar Evolution Theory, that higher-metallicity stars have a greater Li depletion. Comparison with M67 provides evidence that the more-metal-rich NGC 6253 had a higher initial Li, which is consistent with expectations from models of Galactic Li production. NGC 6253 is also compared to the intermediate-aged NGC 3680, NGC 752, and IC 4651 open clusters. Comparison of the Li-gap positions in all six clusters shows that (1) the gap's position in T{sub eff} is independent of metallicity, but (2) higher-metallicity clusters have their gaps in higher-mass stars. In addition, the Li gap's position is shown not to evolve with age, which provides an important constraint for the non-standard depletion mechanisms that may create the Li gap.

  9. M 67: a constraint on Z_⊙ and/or on diffusive processes in stellar interiors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VandenBerg, D. A.; Gustafsson, B.; Edvardsson, B.; Eriksson, K.; Ferguson, J. W.

    The mass of the lowest mass star that has a convective core throughout the main-sequence phase is predicted to be a fairly sensitive function of Z (especially the CNO abundances). The ˜ 4 Gyr open cluster M 67 thus provides a constraint on Z_⊙ (and the solar metals mix) because (i) it has the same metallicity as the Sun according to high-resolution spectroscopy, and (ii) its turnoff stars have masses just above this lower mass limit. While isochrones computed for Z = 0.0165, assuming the Grevesse & Sauval (1998) heavy-element mixture, are able to reproduce the M 67 color-magnitude diagram satisfactorily, those for the solar abundances derived by M. Asplund et al. (implying Z_⊙ = 0.0125) do not predict a gap near the turnoff where one is observed. These results suggest either that there is a problem with the solar metal abundances derived by Asplund et al. or that the neglect of diffusive processes in the present models is responsible for this difficulty. If the latter is the correct explanation, then M 67 provides an important constraint on the rates of diffusive processes in the deep interiors of stars.

  10. High-Quality Broadband BVRI Photometry of Benchmark Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, Michael D.

    Photometric techniques are often used to observe stars and it can be demonstrated that fundamental stellar properties can be observationally determined using calibrated sets of photometric data. Many of the most powerful techniques utilized to calibrate stellar photometry employ the use of stars in clusters since the individual stars are believed to have many common properties such as age, composition, and approximate distance. Broadband photometric Johnson/Cousins BVRI observations are presented for several nearby open clusters. The new photometry has been tested for consistency relative to archival work and shown to be both accurate and precise. The careful use of a regular routine when making photometric observations, along with the monitoring of instrumental systems and the use of various quality control techniques when making observations or performing data reductions, will enhance an observer's ability to produce high-quality photometric measurements. This work contains a condensed review of the history of photometry, along with a brief description of several popular photometric systems that are often utilized in the field of stellar astrophysics. Publications written by Taylor or produced during the early Taylor and Joner collaboration are deemed especially relevant to the current work. A synopsis of seven archival publications is offered, along with a review of notable reports of VRI photometric observations for the nearby Hyades open star cluster. The body of this present work consists of four publications that appeared between the years 2005 and 2008, along with a soon to be submitted manuscript for a fifth publication. Each of these papers deals specifically with high-quality broadband photometry of open clusters with new data being presented for the Hyades, Coma, NGC 752, Praesepe, and M67. It is concluded that the VRI photometry produced during the Taylor and Joner collaborative investigations forms a high-quality data set that has been: (1) stable for

  11. Lithium in Open Cluster Red Giants Hosting Substellar Companions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    We have measured stellar parameters, [Fe/H], lithium abundances, rotation, and (12)C/13C in a small sample of red giants (RGs) in three open clusters that are each home to a RG star that hosts a substellar companion (SSC) (NGC 2423 3, NGC 4349 127, and BD+12 1917 in M67). Our goal is to explore whether the presence of SSCs influences the Li content. Both (12)C/13C and stellar rotation are measured as additional tracers of stellar mixing. One of the companion hosts, NGC 2423?3, is found to be Li-rich with A(Li)(sub NLTE) = 1.56 dex, and this abundance is significantly higher than the A(Li) of the two comparison stars in NGC 2423. All three SSC hosts have the highest A(Li) and (12)C/13C when compared to the control RGs in their respective clusters; however, except for NGC 2423?3, at least one control star has similarly high abundances within the uncertainties. Higher A(Li) could suggest that the formation or presence of planets plays a role in the degree of internal mixing on or before the RG branch. However, a multitude of factors affect A(Li) during the RG phase, and when the abundances of our sample are compared with the abundances of RGs in other open clusters available in the literature, we find that they all fall well within a much larger distribution of A(Li) and (12)C/13C. Thus, even the high Li in NGC 2423 3 cannot be concretely tied to the presence of the SSC.

  12. Lithium in Open Cluster Red Giants Hosting Substellar Companions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    We have measured stellar parameters, [Fe/H], lithium abundances, rotation, and (12)C/13C in a small sample of red giants (RGs) in three open clusters that are each home to a RG star that hosts a substellar companion (SSC) (NGC 2423 3, NGC 4349 127, and BD+12 1917 in M67). Our goal is to explore whether the presence of SSCs influences the Li content. Both (12)C/13C and stellar rotation are measured as additional tracers of stellar mixing. One of the companion hosts, NGC 2423?3, is found to be Li-rich with A(Li)(sub NLTE) = 1.56 dex, and this abundance is significantly higher than the A(Li) of the two comparison stars in NGC 2423. All three SSC hosts have the highest A(Li) and (12)C/13C when compared to the control RGs in their respective clusters; however, except for NGC 2423?3, at least one control star has similarly high abundances within the uncertainties. Higher A(Li) could suggest that the formation or presence of planets plays a role in the degree of internal mixing on or before the RG branch. However, a multitude of factors affect A(Li) during the RG phase, and when the abundances of our sample are compared with the abundances of RGs in other open clusters available in the literature, we find that they all fall well within a much larger distribution of A(Li) and (12)C/13C. Thus, even the high Li in NGC 2423 3 cannot be concretely tied to the presence of the SSC.

  13. Lithium in Open Cluster Red Giants Hosting Substellar Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2016-02-01

    We have measured stellar parameters, [Fe/H], lithium abundances, rotation, and 12C/13C in a small sample of red giants (RGs) in three open clusters that are each home to a RG star that hosts a substellar companion (SSC) (NGC 2423 3, NGC 4349 127, and BD+12 1917 in M67). Our goal is to explore whether the presence of SSCs influences the Li content. Both 12C/13C and stellar rotation are measured as additional tracers of stellar mixing. One of the companion hosts, NGC 2423 3, is found to be Li-rich with A(Li){}{{NLTE}} = 1.56 dex, and this abundance is significantly higher than the A(Li) of the two comparison stars in NGC 2423. All three SSC hosts have the highest A(Li) and 12C/13C when compared to the control RGs in their respective clusters; however, except for NGC 2423 3, at least one control star has similarly high abundances within the uncertainties. Higher A(Li) could suggest that the formation or presence of planets plays a role in the degree of internal mixing on or before the RG branch. However, a multitude of factors affect A(Li) during the RG phase, and when the abundances of our sample are compared with the abundances of RGs in other open clusters available in the literature, we find that they all fall well within a much larger distribution of A(Li) and 12C/13C. Thus, even the high Li in NGC 2423 3 cannot be concretely tied to the presence of the SSC.

  14. Properties of Open Clusters Containing Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Uk; Chang, Heon-Young

    2017-06-01

    The presence of blue stragglers pose challenges to standard stellar evolution theory, in the sense that explaining their presence demands a complex interplay between stellar evolution and cluster dynamics. In the meantime, mass transfer in binary systems and stellar collisions are widely studied as a blue straggler formation channel. We explore properties of the Galactic open clusters where blue stragglers are found, in attempting to estimate the relative importance of these two favored processes, by comparing them with those resulting from open clusters in which blue stragglers are absent as of now. Unlike previous studies which require a sophisticated process in understanding the implication of the results, this approach is straightforward and has resulted in a supplementary supporting evidence for the current view on the blue straggler formation mechanism. Our main findings are as follows: (1) Open clusters in which blue stragglers are present have a broader distribution with respect to the Z-axis pointing towards the North Galactic Pole than those in which blue stragglers are absent. The probability that two distributions with respect to the Z-axis are drawn from the same distribution is 0.2%. (2) Average values of log_{10}(t) of the clusters with blue stragglers and those without blue stragglers are 8.58 ± 0.232 and 7.52 ± 0.285, respectively. (3) The clusters with blue stragglers tend to be relatively redder than the others, and are distributed broader in colors. (4) The clusters with blue stragglers are likely brighter than those without blue stragglers. (5) Finally, blue stragglers seem to form in condensed clusters rather than simply dense clusters. Hence, we conclude that mass transfer in binaries seems to be a relatively important physical mechanism of the generation of blue stragglers in open clusters, provided they are sufficiently old.

  15. Planet host stars in open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, XiaoLing; Chen, YuQin; Zhao, Gang

    2015-03-01

    We have compiled a list of all planet host star candidates reported in the literature, which are likely to be cluster members, and we checked their memberships by the spatial location, radial velocity, proper motion and photometric criteria. We found that only six stars, BD-13 2130, HD 28305, Kepler-66, Kepler-67, Pr0201 and Pr0211, are planet orbiting stars in open clusters to date. Two stars, HD 70573 and HD 89744, belong to moving groups and one star, TYC 8975-2606-1, may not be a planet host star, while three stars, HD 16175, HD 46375 and HD 108874 are not members of open clusters. We note that all these six planetary systems in the stellar cluster environment are younger than ˜1 Gyr, which might indicate that the planetary system in open cluster can not survive for a long time, and we speculate that close stellar encounters between member stars in open cluster can potentially destroy, or at least strongly affect, the presence of planetary systems.

  16. Be Stars in Open Stellar Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, A. E.

    2017-06-01

    The current status of the problem of anomalous increases in the relative number of Be stars in young open stellar clusters is summarized in this article. The relative content of Be stars is shown to increase with the age of the clusters and reaches a maximum for stars in spectral classes B0-B3 when the age of the clusters is 12-20 Myr. In some clusters that are rich in B stars, the relative content exceeds 40%. It is shown that in young clusters with ages less than 9 Myr, Be stars are very rare or not observed at all. Models of the evolution of rotating massive stars indicates that the Be phenomenon may occur toward the end of the lifetime of B stars in the main sequence because of an increase in the ratio of the rotation velocity of a star to the critical velocity, but this cannot explain the presence of more than 40% Be stars in some young open stellar clusters. In this review, considerable attention is devoted to massive binary systems in different stages of the evolution of the binary system. The transfer of angular momentum during exchanges of mass in systems with different periods is a noteworthy alternative to the evolution of angular momentum in single stars. Some examples are shown of binary systems of different types which are or may be encountered in open stellar clusters.

  17. The SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline. II. Validation with Galactic Globular and Open Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.S.; Beers, T.C.; Sivarani, T.; Johnson, J.A.; An, D.; Wilhelm, R.; Prieto, C.Allende; Koesterke, L.; Re Fiorentin, P.; Bailer-Jones, C.A.L.; Norris, J.E.

    2007-10-01

    The authors validate the performance and accuracy of the current SEGUE (Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration) Stellar Parameter Pipeline (SSPP), which determines stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity) by comparing derived overall metallicities and radial velocities from selected likely members of three globular clusters (M 13, M 15, and M 2) and two open clusters (NGC 2420 and M 67) to the literature values. Spectroscopic and photometric data obtained during the course of the original Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-1) and its first extension (SDSS-II/SEGUE) are used to determine stellar radial velocities and atmospheric parameter estimates for stars in these clusters. Based on the scatter in the metallicities derived for the members of each cluster, they quantify the typical uncertainty of the SSPP values, {sigma}([Fe/H]) = 0.13 dex for stars in the range of 4500 K {le} T{sub eff} {le} 7500 K and 2.0 {le} log g {le} 5.0, at least over the metallicity interval spanned by the clusters studied (-2.3 {le} [Fe/H] < 0). The surface gravities and effective temperatures derived by the SSPP are also compared with those estimated from the comparison of the color-magnitude diagrams with stellar evolution models; they find satisfactory agreement. At present, the SSPP underestimates [Fe/H] for near-solar-metallicity stars, represented by members of M 67 in this study, by {approx} 0.3 dex.

  18. Do open clusters have distinguishable chemical signatures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Soubiran, C.; Heiter, U.

    2014-07-01

    Past studies have already shown that stars in open clusters are chemically homogeneous (e.g. De Silva et al. 2006, 2007 and 2009). These results support the idea that stars born from the same giant molecular cloud should have the same chemical composition. In this context, the chemical tagging technique was proposed by Freeman et al. (2002). The principle is to recover disrupted stellar clusters by looking only to the stellar chemical composition. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this approach, it is necessary to test if we can distinguish between stars born from different molecular clouds. For this purpose, we studied the chemical composition of stars in 32 old and intermediate-age open clusters, and we applied machine learning algorithms to recover the original cluster by only considering the chemical signatures.

  19. Open clusters in Auriga OB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, Amparo; Negueruela, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    We study the area around the H II region Sh 2-234, including the young open cluster Stock 8, to investigate the extent and definition of the association Aur OB2 and the possible role of triggering in massive cluster formation. We obtained Strömgren and J, H, KS photometry for Stock 8 and Strömgren photometry for two other cluster candidates in the area, which we confirm as young open clusters and name Alicante 11 and Alicante 12. We took spectroscopy of ˜33 early-type stars in the area, including the brightest cluster members. We calculate a common distance of 2.80^{+0.27}_{-0.24} kpc for the three open clusters and surrounding association. We derive an age 4-6 Ma for Stock 8, and do not find a significantly different age for the other clusters or the association. The star LS V +34°23, with spectral type O8 II(f), is likely the main source of ionization of Sh 2-234. We observe an important population of pre-main-sequence stars, some of them with discs, associated with the B-type members lying on the main sequence. We interpret the region as an area of recent star formation with some residual and very localized ongoing star formation. We do not find evidence for sequential star formation on a large scale. The classical definition of Aur OB2 has to be reconsidered, because its two main open clusters, Stock 8 and NGC 1893, are not at the same distance. Stock 8 is probably located in the Perseus arm, but other nearby H II regions whose distances also place them in this arm show quite different distances and radial velocities and, therefore, are not connected.

  20. Re-grouping stars based on the chemical tagging technique: A case study of M67 and IC4651

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Soubiran, C.

    2016-12-01

    The chemical tagging technique proposed by te{2002ARA&A..40..487F} is based on the idea that stars formed from the same molecular cloud should share the same chemical signature. Thus, using only the chemical composition of stars we should be able to re-group the ones that once belonged to the same stellar aggregate. In te{2015A&A...577A..47B}, we tested the technique on open cluster stars using iSpec tep{2014A&A...569A.111B}, we demonstrated their chemical homogeneity but we found that the 14 studied elements lead to chemical signatures too similar to reliably distinguish stars from different clusters. This represents a challenge to the technique and a new question was open: Could the inclusion of other elements help to better distinguish stars from different aggregates? With an updated and improved version of iSpec, we derived abundances for 28 elements using spectra from HARPS, UVES and NARVAL archives for the open clusters M67 and IC4651, and we found that the chemical signatures of both clusters are very similar.

  1. THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER BERKELEY 55

    SciTech Connect

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Marco, Amparo E-mail: amparo.marco@ua.es

    2012-02-15

    We present UBV photometry of the highly reddened and poorly studied open cluster Berkeley 55, revealing an important population of B-type stars and several evolved stars of high luminosity. Intermediate-resolution far-red spectra of several candidate members confirm the presence of one F-type supergiant and six late supergiants or bright giants. The brightest blue stars are mid-B giants. Spectroscopic and photometric analyses indicate an age 50 {+-} 10 Myr. The cluster is located at a distance d Almost-Equal-To 4 kpc, consistent with other tracers of the Perseus Arm in this direction. Berkeley 55 is thus a moderately young open cluster with a sizable population of candidate red (super)giant members, which can provide valuable information about the evolution of intermediate-mass stars.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial velocities in M67. I. 1278 candidate members (Geller+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, A. M.; Latham, D. W.; Mathieu, R. D.

    2015-10-01

    This is the first in a series of papers studying the dynamical state of the old open cluster M67 through precise radial velocities. This is also the paper LXVII of the WIYN Open Cluster Study. Our radial velocity survey of M67 began as part of the dissertation work of Mathieu (1983PhDT.........8M), taking advantage of the CfA Digital Speedometers (DS). Three nearly identical instruments were used, initially on the MMT (from HJD2445337 to HJD2450830) and 1.5m Tillinghast Reflector (from HJD2444184 to HJD2454958) at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopins, Arizona, and then later on the 1.5m Wyeth Reflector (from HJD2445722 to HJD2453433) at the Oak Ridge Observatory in the Town of Harvard, Massachusetts. Subsequently the M67 target samples were expanded several times. Radial velocities measurements from other programs were integrated into the database, and our observational facilities were extended to include Hydra Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) at the WIYN Observatory (from HJD2453386 to HJD2456709) and the new Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES) on the Tillinghast Reflector (from HJD2455143 to HJD2456801). Details about the telescopes, observing procedures, and data reductions of spectra obtained with the CfA DS can be found in Latham (1985srv..conf...21L, 1992ASPC...32..110L). The corresponding information for spectra obtained with Hydra at the WIYN Observatory can be found in Geller et al. 2008 (cat. J/AJ/135/2264), Geller et al. 2010 (cat. J/AJ/139/1383) and Hole et al. (2009). TRES is a stabilized fiber-fed echelle spectrograph with a CCD detector and resolution of 44000. The initial CfA sample was defined in 1982. The last surviving CfA Digital Speedometer, on the 1.5m Tillinghast Reflector, was retired in the summer of 2009. Over the following five observing seasons, TRES was used to continue the radial velocity observations of targets (mostly binaries) from both the CfA and the WIYN samples. Importantly, Roger Griffin and James

  3. A revised moving cluster distance to the Pleiades open cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, P. A. B.; Moraux, E.; Bouy, H.; Bouvier, J.; Olivares, J.; Teixeira, R.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The distance to the Pleiades open cluster has been extensively debated in the literature over several decades. Although different methods point to a discrepancy in the trigonometric parallaxes produced by the Hipparcos mission, the number of individual stars with known distances is still small compared to the number of cluster members to help solve this problem. Aims: We provide a new distance estimate for the Pleiades based on the moving cluster method, which will be useful to further discuss the so-called Pleiades distance controversy and compare it with the very precise parallaxes from the Gaia space mission. Methods: We apply a refurbished implementation of the convergent point search method to an updated census of Pleiades stars to calculate the convergent point position of the cluster from stellar proper motions. Then, we derive individual parallaxes for 64 cluster members using radial velocities compiled from the literature, and approximate parallaxes for another 1146 stars based on the spatial velocity of the cluster. This represents the largest sample of Pleiades stars with individual distances to date. Results: The parallaxes derived in this work are in good agreement with previous results obtained in different studies (excluding Hipparcos) for individual stars in the cluster. We report a mean parallax of 7.44 ± 0.08 mas and distance of pc that is consistent with the weighted mean of 135.0 ± 0.6 pc obtained from the non-Hipparcos results in the literature. Conclusions: Our result for the distance to the Pleiades open cluster is not consistent with the Hipparcos catalog, but favors the recent and more precise distance determination of 136.2 ± 1.2 pc obtained from Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations. It is also in good agreement with the mean distance of 133 ± 5 pc obtained from the first trigonometric parallaxes delivered by the Gaia satellite for the brightest cluster members in common with our sample. Full Table B.2 is only

  4. Prospecting for Chemical Tags among Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, David L.; Reddy, Arumalla B. S.

    2016-11-01

    Determination of the chemical composition of red giants in a large sample of open clusters (OCs) shows that the abundances of the heavy elements La, Ce, Nd, and Sm, but not so obviously Y and Eu, vary from one cluster to another across a sample in which all the clusters have nearly solar metallicity. For La, Ce, Nd, and Sm the amplitudes of the variations at solar metallicity scale approximately with the main s-process contribution to solar system material. Consideration of published abundances of field stars suggests that such a spread in heavy-element abundances is present for the thin and thick disk stars of different metallicities. This new result provides an opportunity to chemically tag stars by their heavy elements and to reconstruct dissolved OCs from the field-star population.

  5. A Constraint on Zsolar from Fits of Isochrones to the Color-Magnitude Diagram of M67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Gustafsson, Bengt; Edvardsson, Bengt; Eriksson, Kjell; Ferguson, Jason

    2007-09-01

    The mass at which a transition is made between stars that have radiative or convective cores throughout the core H burning phase is a fairly sensitive function of Z (particularly, the CNO abundances). As a consequence, the ~4 Gyr, open cluster M67 provides a constraint on Zsolar (and the solar heavy-element mixture) because (1) high-resolution spectroscopy indicates that this system has virtually the same metal abundances as the Sun, and (2) its turnoff stars have masses just above the lower limit for sustained core convection on the main sequence. In this study, evolutionary tracks and isochrones using the latest MARCS model atmospheres as boundary conditions have been computed for 0.6-1.4 Msolar on the assumption of a metals mix (implying Zsolar~0.0125) based on the solar abundances derived by M. Asplund and collaborators using 3D model atmospheres. These calculations do not predict a turnoff gap where one is observed in M67. No such difficulty is found if the analysis uses isochrones for Zsolar=0.0165, assuming the Grevesse and Sauval mix of heavy elements. Our findings, like the inferences from helioseismology, indicate a problem with the abundances of Asplund and collaborators. However, it is possible that low-Z models with diffusive processes taken into account will be less problematic.

  6. On the oxygen abundances of M 67 stars from the turn-off point through the red giant branch†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yoichi; Honda, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    With an aim to examine whether the surface oxygen composition suffers any appreciable change due to evolution-induced mixing of nuclear-processed material in the envelope of red giants, abundance determinations for O/Fe/Ni based on the synthetic spectrum-fitting method were performed by using the moderate-dispersion spectra in the 7770-7792 Å region (comprising O I 7771-5, Fe I 7780, and Ni I 7788 lines) for 16 stars of the old open cluster M 67 in various evolutionary stages from the turn-off point through the red giant branch. We could not find any meaningful difference in the oxygen abundances between the non-giant group (Teff > 5000 K) and the red-giant group (Teff < 5000 K), which are almost consistent with each other on average (despite that both have rather large dispersions of a few tenths dex caused by insufficient data quality), though only one giant star (S 1054) appears to show an exceptionally low O abundance and thus needs a more detailed study. This result may suggest that oxygen content in the stellar envelope is hardly affected (or any changes are insignificant) by the mixing of H-burning products in the red giant phase, as far as M 67 stars of low mass (˜ 1.3 M⊙) are concerned, which is consistent with the prediction from the conventional stellar evolution theory of first dredge-up.

  7. NGC 7789: An open cluster case study

    SciTech Connect

    Overbeek, Jamie C.; Friel, Eileen D.; Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Jacobson, Heather R.; Johnson, Christian I.

    2015-01-01

    We have obtained high-resolution spectra of 32 giants in the open cluster NGC 7789 using the Wisconsin–Indiana–Yale–NOAO Hydra spectrograph. We explore differences in atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances caused by the use of the linelist developed for the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) compared to one based on Arcturus used in our previous work. [Fe/H] values decrease when using the GES linelist instead of the Arcturus-based linelist; these differences are probably driven by systematically lower (∼−0.1 dex) GES surface gravities. Using the GES linelist we determine abundances for 10 elements—Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Na, Ni, Zr, Ba, and La. We find the cluster's average metallicity [Fe/H] = 0.03 ± 0.07 dex, in good agreement with literature values, and a lower [Mg/Fe] abundance than has been reported before for this cluster (0.11 ± 0.05 dex). We also find the neutron-capture element barium to be highly enhanced—[Ba/Fe] = +0.48 ± 0.08—and disparate from cluster measurements of neutron-capture elements La and Zr (−0.08 ± 0.05 and 0.08 ± 0.08, respectively). This is in accordance with recent discoveries of supersolar Ba enhancement in young clusters along with more modest enhancement of other neutron-capture elements formed in similar environments.

  8. NGC 7789: an Open Cluster Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overbeek, Jamie C.; Friel, Eileen D.; Jacobson, Heather R.; Johnson, Christian I.; Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Mészáros, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    We have obtained high-resolution spectra of 32 giants in the open cluster NGC 7789 using the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO Hydra spectrograph. We explore differences in atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances caused by the use of the linelist developed for the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) compared to one based on Arcturus used in our previous work. [Fe/H] values decrease when using the GES linelist instead of the Arcturus-based linelist; these differences are probably driven by systematically lower (˜-0.1 dex) GES surface gravities. Using the GES linelist we determine abundances for 10 elements—Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Na, Ni, Zr, Ba, and La. We find the cluster's average metallicity [Fe/H] = 0.03 ± 0.07 dex, in good agreement with literature values, and a lower [Mg/Fe] abundance than has been reported before for this cluster (0.11 ± 0.05 dex). We also find the neutron-capture element barium to be highly enhanced—[Ba/Fe] = +0.48 ± 0.08—and disparate from cluster measurements of neutron-capture elements La and Zr (-0.08 ± 0.05 and 0.08 ± 0.08, respectively). This is in accordance with recent discoveries of supersolar Ba enhancement in young clusters along with more modest enhancement of other neutron-capture elements formed in similar environments.

  9. The Hyades open cluster is chemically inhomogeneous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Yong, D.; Asplund, M.; Ramírez, I.; Meléndez, J.

    2016-04-01

    We present a high-precision differential abundance analysis of 16 solar-type stars in the Hyades open cluster based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 350-400) spectra obtained from the McDonald 2.7-m telescope. We derived stellar parameters and differential chemical abundances for 19 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba) with uncertainties as low as ˜0.01-0.02 dex. Our main results include: (1) there is no clear chemical signature of planet formation detected among the sample stars, i.e. no correlations in abundances versus condensation temperature; (2) the observed abundance dispersions are a factor of ≈1.5-2 larger than the average measurement errors for most elements; (3) there are positive correlations, of high statistical significance, between the abundances of at least 90 per cent of pairs of elements. We demonstrate that none of these findings can be explained by errors due to the stellar parameters. Our results reveal that the Hyades is chemically inhomogeneous at the 0.02 dex level. Possible explanations for the abundance variations include (1) inhomogeneous chemical evolution in the proto-cluster environment, (2) supernova ejection in the proto-cluster cloud and (3) pollution of metal-poor gas before complete mixing of the proto-cluster cloud. Our results provide significant new constraints on the chemical composition of open clusters and a challenge to the current view of Galactic archaeology.

  10. No “Maunder Minimum” Candidates in M67: Mitigating Interstellar Contamination of Chromospheric Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Jason Lee

    2017-06-01

    The solar analogs of M67 let us glimpse the probable behavior of the Sun on timescales surpassing the duration of human civilization. M67 can serve as a solar proxy because its stars share a similar age and composition with the Sun. Previous surveys of M67 observed that 15% of its Sun-like stars exhibited chromospheric activity levels below solar minimum, which suggest that these stars might be in activity-minimum states analogous to the Maunder Minimum. The activity diagnostic used, the HK index (relative intensities of the Ca ii H & K lines integrated over 1 Å bandpasses), was measured from low-resolution spectra (R ≈ 5000), as is traditional and suitable for nearby, bright stars. However, for stars beyond the Local Bubble, the interstellar medium (ISM) imprints absorption lines in spectra at Ca ii H & K, which negatively bias activity measurements when these lines fall within the HK index bandpass. I model the ISM clouds in the M67 foreground with high-resolution spectra of blue stragglers and solar analogs. I demonstrate that ISM absorption varies across the cluster and must be accounted for on a star-by-star basis. I then apply the ISM model to a solar spectrum and broaden it to the lower spectral resolution employed by prior surveys. Comparing HK indices measured from ISM-free and ISM-contaminated spectra, I find that all stars observed below solar minimum can be explained by this ISM bias. I conclude that there is no compelling evidence for Maunder Minimum candidates in M67 at this time.

  11. A CHANDRA X-RAY STUDY OF THE INTERACTING BINARIES IN THE OLD OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6791

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Berg, Maureen; Verbunt, Frank

    2013-06-20

    We present the first X-ray study of NGC 6791, one of the oldest open clusters known (8 Gyr). Our Chandra observation is aimed at uncovering the population of close interacting binaries down to L{sub X} Almost-Equal-To 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1} (0.3-7 keV). We detect 86 sources within 8' of the cluster center, including 59 inside the half-mass radius. We identify 20 sources with proper-motion cluster members, which are a mix of cataclysmic variables (CVs), active binaries (ABs), and binaries containing sub-subgiants. With follow-up optical spectroscopy, we confirm the nature of one CV. We discover one new, X-ray variable candidate CV with Balmer and He II emission lines in its optical spectrum; this is the first X-ray-selected CV in an open cluster. The number of CVs per unit mass is consistent with the field, suggesting that the 3-4 CVs observed in NGC 6791 are primordial. We compare the X-ray properties of NGC 6791 with those of a few old open (NGC 6819, M 67) and globular clusters (47 Tuc, NGC 6397). It is puzzling that the number of ABs brighter than 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1} normalized by cluster mass is lower in NGC 6791 than in M 67 by a factor {approx}3-7. CVs, ABs, and sub-subgiants brighter than 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1} are under-represented per unit mass in the globular clusters compared to the oldest open clusters, and this accounts for the lower total X-ray luminosity per unit mass of the former. This indicates that the net effect of dynamical encounters may be the destruction of even some of the hardest (i.e., X-ray-emitting) binaries.

  12. Catalog of open clusters and associated interstellar matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David

    1988-01-01

    The Catalog of Open Clusters and Associated Interstellar Matter summarizes observations of 128 open clusters and their associated ionized, atomic, and molecular iinterstellar matter. Cluster sizes, distances, radial velocities, ages, and masses, and the radial velocities and masses of associated interstellar medium components, are given. The database contains information from approximately 400 references published in the scientific literature before 1988.

  13. Gravitational interactions between globular and open clusters: an introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente Marcos, R.; de la Fuente Marcos, C.; Reilly, D.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, it has been assumed that globular and open clusters never interact. However, recent evidence suggests that: globular clusters passing through the disk may be able to perturb giant molecular clouds (GMCs) triggering formation of open clusters and some old open clusters may be linked to accreted globulars. Here, we further explore the existence of possible dynamical connections between globular and open clusters, and realize that the most obvious link must be in the form of gravitational interactions. If open clusters are born out of GMCs, they have to move in similar orbits. If we accept that globulars can interact with GMCs, triggering star formation, it follows that globular and open clusters must also interact. Consistently, theoretical arguments as well as observational evidence, show that globular and open clusters certainly are interacting populations and their interactions are far more common than usually thought, especially for objects part of the bulge/disk. Monte Carlo calculations confirm that conclusion. Globular clusters seem capable of not only inducing formation of open clusters but, more often, their demise. Relatively frequent high speed cluster encounters or cluster harassment may also cause, on the long-term, slow erosion and tidal truncation on the globulars involved. The disputed object FSR 1767 (2MASS-GC04) may be, statistically speaking, the best example of an ongoing interaction.

  14. WIYN Open Cluster Study: UBVRI Photometry of NGC 2158

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taverne, Luke T.; Steinhauer, Aaron J.; Deliyannis, Constantine P.

    2015-01-01

    We present WIYN 0.9m HDI UBVRI photometry of NGC 2158, a very rich, intermediate-aged, open cluster located near the galactic anti-center. We report derived values for the cluster age, distance, reddening.

  15. First CCD UBVI photometric analysis of six open cluster candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Ahumada, A. V.

    2011-04-01

    We have obtained CCD UBVIKC photometry down to V ˜ 22 for the open cluster candidates Haffner 3, Haffner 5, NGC 2368, Haffner 25, Hogg 3 and Hogg 4 and their surrounding fields. None of these objects have been photometrically studied so far. Our analysis shows that these stellar groups are not genuine open clusters since no clear main sequences or other meaningful features can be seen in their colour-magnitude and colour-colour diagrams. We checked for possible differential reddening across the studied fields that could be hiding the characteristics of real open clusters. However, the dust in the directions to these objects appears to be uniformly distributed. Moreover, star counts carried out within and outside the open cluster candidate fields do not support the hypothesis that these objects are real open clusters or even open cluster remnants.

  16. Toward the Detection of Transiting Hot Earths and Hot Neptunes in Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, J.; Gaudi, B. S.

    2006-06-01

    Radial velocity searches for extrasolar planets have recently detected several very low mass (7-20 M_oplus) planets in close orbits with periods less than 10 days. We consider the prospects for detecting the analogs of these planets in Galactic open clusters via transits. We outline the requirements for constructing a transit survey that would allow one to probe such ``Hot Earths'' and ``Hot Neptunes.'' Specifically, we present a simple criterion for detection that defines the minimum aperture required to detect planets of a given radius in a cluster at a given distance. Adopting photometric precisions that have been demonstrated in state-of-the-art variability surveys, we then predict the number of planets one could potentially detect with ambitious transit surveys toward several open clusters. Dedicated surveys lasting more than 20 nights with Pan-STARRS toward the Hyades and Praesepe could detect a handful of Hot Earths, if the majority of stars host such planets. Similar surveys with larger aperture telescopes (eg CFHT, MMT), toward M67, M35, M50, and M37 could detect Hot Neptunes, provided that their frequency is greater than 1%. The majority of planets will be detected around M dwarfs; detecting Hot Neptunes around such primaries requires photometric precisions of approx 1%, whereas Hot Earths require approx 0.1 %. We discuss potential hurdles in detecting and confirming small planets in ground-based surveys, including correlated noise, false positives, and intrinsic stellar variability.

  17. SDSS-III/APOGEE: Science and Survey Calibrations and using Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frinchaboy, Peter M.; O'Connell, J.; Meszaros, Sz.; Cunha, K. M.; Smith, V. V.; Garcia Perez, A.; Shetrone, M. D.; Allende Prieto, C.; Johnson, J.; Zasowski, G.; Majewski, S. R.; Schiavon, R. P.; Holtzman, J. A.; Nidever, D.; Bizyaev, D.; Hearty, F. R.; Jackson, K.; Thompson, B. A.; Wilson, J. C.; Beers, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from the first year of the SDSS-III/Apache Point Obseratory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey of open cluster targets. APOGEE is studying several key open clusters for calibration and science (e.g., M67, NGC 6791), and here we present early science results and comparison to previous work on a number of clusters focusing on radial velocities, stellar parameters, and abundances. Funding for SDSS-III has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The SDSS-III web site is http://www.sdss3.org/. SDSS-III is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS-III Collaboration including the University of Arizona, the Brazilian Participation Group, Brookhaven National Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Carnegie Mellon University, University of Florida, the French Participation Group, the German Participation Group, Harvard University, the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Michigan State/Notre Dame/JINA Participation Group, Johns Hopkins University, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, New Mexico State University, New York University, Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the Spanish Participation Group, University of Tokyo, University of Utah, Vanderbilt University, University of Virginia, University of Washington, and Yale University.

  18. Searching for the birthplaces of open clusters with ages of several billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharova, I. A.; Shevtsova, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of finding the birthplaces of open clusters (OC) with ages of several billion years. The proposed method is based on the comparison of the results of the chemical evolution modeling of the Galactic disk with the parameters of the cluster. Five OCs older than 7 Gyr are known: NGC6791, BH176, Collinder 261, Berkeley 17, and Berkeley 39. The oxygen and iron abundances in NGC6791 and the oxygen abundance in BH176 are twice the solar level, the heavy-element abundances in other clusters are close to the corresponding solar values. According to chemical evolution models, at the time of the formation of the objects considered the regions where the oxygen and iron abundances reached the corresponding levels extended out to 5 kpc from the Galactic center.At present time theOCs considered are located several kpc from the Galactic center. Some of these clusters are located extremely high, about 1 kpc above the disk midplane, i.e., they have been subject to some mechanism that has carried them into orbits uncharacteristic of this type of objects. It follows from a comparison with the results of chemical evolution that younger clusters with ages of 4-5 Gyr, e.g., NGC1193,M67, and others, may have formed in a broad range of Galactocentric distances. Their large heights above the disk midplane is sufficient to suggest that these clusters have moved away from their likely birthplaces. Clusters are carried far away from the Galactic disk until the present time: about 40 clusters with ages from 0 to 2 Gyr are observed at heights ranging from 300 to 750 pc.

  19. Detailed studies om three open clusters from Gaia ESO Survey (GES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguer-Núnez, L.; Casamiquela, L.; Jordana, N.; Massana, P.; Jordi, C.; Masana, E.

    2017-03-01

    We present results for the intermediate-age and old open clusters NGC 6633, NGC 6705 (M 11) and NGC 2682 (M 67). We have used new Str ̈omgren-Crawford photometry, proper motions from ROA observations and spectral information from Gaia-ESO Survey (GES), to study the physical parameters of the stars in the three cluster's areas. The astrometric studies cover an area of about 1°x2° and down to r' ˜ 17 while our INT-WFC CCD intermediate-band photometry covers an area of about 40'x40' down to V ˜ 19. The stars of those areas selected as cluster members from their proper motions, are classified into photometric regions and their physical parameters determined, using uvbyHβ photometry and standard relations among colour indices for each of the photometric regions of the HR diagram. That allows us to determine reddening, distances, absolute magnitudes, spectral types, effective temperatures, gravities and metallicities, thus providing an astrophysical characterization of the clusters. These results are compared with the physical parameters obtained from GES spectral data as well as radial velocities to confirm membership. All these data lead us to a comparison of photometric and spectroscopic physical parameters.

  20. Absolute Spectrophotometry of 237 Open Cluster Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampitt, L.; Burstein, D.

    1994-12-01

    We present absolute spectrophotometry of 237 stars in 7 nearby open clusters: Hyades, Pleiades, Alpha Persei, Praesepe, Coma Berenices, IC 4665, and M 39. The observations were taken using the Wampler single-channel scanner (Wampler 1966) on the Crossley 0.9m telescope at Lick Observatory from July 1973 through December 1974. 21 bandpasses spanning the spectral range 3500 Angstroms to 7780 Angstroms were observed for each star, with bandwiths ranging from 32Angstroms to 64 Angstroms. Data are standardized to the Hayes--Latham (1975) system. Our measurements are compared to filter colors on the Johnson BV, Stromgren ubvy, and Geneva U V B_1 B_2 V_1 G systems, as well as to spectrophotometry of a few stars published by Gunn, Stryker & Tinsley and in the Spectrophotometric Standards Catalog (Adelman; as distributed by the NSSDC). Both internal and external comparisons to the filter systems indicate a formal statistical accuracy per bandpass of 0.01 to 0.02 mag, with apparent larger ( ~ 0.03 mag) differences in absolute calibration between this data set and existing spectrophotometry. These data will comprise part of the spectrophotometry that will be used to calibrate the Beijing-Arizona-Taipei-Connecticut Color Survey of the Sky (see separate paper by Burstein et al. at this meeting).

  1. Surface Abundance and Binary Properties of Alternative-Evolution Stars in Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliman, Katelyn Elise

    There is a large population of stars not described by single-star stellar evolution narratives. These non-standard stars are broadly known as blue stragglers (BS), yellow giants, and subsubgiants (SSG). In this thesis I present my work on the non-standard stellar populations in open clusters focussing on the role of binaries and the information learned from surface abundance measurements, particularly for BS formation. Formation theories for BSs include mergers in hierarchical triple systems, collisions during dynamical encounters, and mass transfer from an evolved companion. Such mass transfer events can pollute the surface abundance of the BS with the nucleosynthesis products from the evolved donor. Specifically, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) mass transfer should enhance the surface abundances of s-process elements, like barium, created during the thermally-pulsing phase of AGB evolution. The products of mergers and collisions would have no such enhancements. This makes barium an excellent marker for a mass-transfer formation history with an AGB-donor. In this thesis I start with the radial velocity (RV) surveys of the open clusters NGC 6819 and NGC 7789. I then introduce my discovery of five barium enriched BSs in NGC 6819, four of which have no RV evidence of a companion. Next, I triple the number of confirmed open cluster SSGs through my discovery of four such systems in NGC 6791 and present robust orbital solutions for three of them. And finally I discuss the implications of my work in context with the extensively studied open clusters M67 and NGC 188.

  2. A new open cluster binary system in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Ahumada, A. V.

    2011-10-01

    We have obtained CCD UBVI_{KC} photometry for the open clusters (OCs) Hogg 12 and NGC 3590. Based on photometric and morphological criteria, as well as on the stellar density in the region, our evidence is sufficient to consider them a new open cluster binary system candidate.

  3. On the metallicity of open clusters. III. Homogenised sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netopil, M.; Paunzen, E.; Heiter, U.; Soubiran, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Open clusters are known as excellent tools for various topics in Galactic research. For example, they allow accurately tracing the chemical structure of the Galactic disc. However, the metallicity is known only for a rather low percentage of the open cluster population, and these values are based on a variety of methods and data. Therefore, a large and homogeneous sample is highly desirable. Aims: In the third part of our series we compile a large sample of homogenised open cluster metallicities using a wide variety of different sources. These data and a sample of Cepheids are used to investigate the radial metallicity gradient, age effects, and to test current models. Methods: We used photometric and spectroscopic data to derive cluster metallicities. The different sources were checked and tested for possible offsets and correlations. Results: In total, metallicities for 172 open cluster were derived. We used the spectroscopic data of 100 objects for a study of the radial metallicity distribution and the age-metallicity relation. We found a possible increase of metallicity with age, which, if confirmed, would provide observational evidence for radial migration. Although a statistical significance is given, more studies are certainly needed to exclude selection effects, for example. The comparison of open clusters and Cepheids with recent Galactic models agrees well in general. However, the models do not reproduce the flat gradient of the open clusters in the outer disc. Thus, the effect of radial migration is either underestimated in the models, or an additional mechanism is at work. Conclusions: Apart from the Cepheids, open clusters are the best tracers for metallicity over large Galactocentric distances in the Milky Way. For a sound statistical analysis, a sufficiently large and homogeneous sample of cluster metallicities is needed. Our compilation is currently by far the largest and provides the basis for several basic studies such as the statistical

  4. STELLAR NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN THE HYADES OPEN CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, Simon C.; King, Jeremy R.; The, L.-S. E-mail: jking2@ces.clemson.edu

    2009-08-10

    We report a comprehensive light-element (Li, C, N, O, Na, Mg, and Al) abundance analysis of three solar-type main sequence (MS) dwarfs and three red giant branch (RGB) clump stars in the Hyades open cluster using high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy. The abundances have been derived in a self-consistent fashion, and for each group (MS or RGB), the CNO abundances are found to be in excellent star-to-star agreement. Using the dwarfs to infer the initial composition of the giants, the combined abundance patterns confirm that the giants have undergone the first dredge-up and that material processed by the CN cycle has been mixed to the surface layers. The observed abundances are compared to predictions of a standard stellar model based on the Clemson-American University of Beirut (CAUB) stellar evolution code. The model reproduces the observed evolution of the N and O abundances, as well as the previously derived {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratio, but it fails to predict by a factor of 1.5 the observed level of {sup 12}C depletion. A similar discord appears to exist in previously reported observed and modeled C abundances of giants in the Galactic disk. Random uncertainties in the mean abundances and uncertainties related to possible systematic errors in the Hyades dwarf and giant parameter scales cannot account for the discrepancy in the observed and modeled abundances. Li abundances are derived to determine if noncanonical extra mixing, like that seen in low-mass metal-poor giants, has occurred in the Hyades giants. The Li abundance of the giant {gamma} Tau is in good accord with the predicted level of surface Li dilution, but a {approx}0.35 dex spread in the giant Li abundances is found and cannot be explained by the stellar model. Possible sources of the spread are discussed; however, it is apparent that the differential mechanism responsible for the Li dispersion must be unrelated to the uniformly low {sup 12}C abundances of the giants. Na, Mg, and Al

  5. Stellar Nucleosynthesis in the Hyades Open Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, Simon C.; King, Jeremy R.; The, Lih-Sin

    2009-08-01

    We report a comprehensive light-element (Li, C, N, O, Na, Mg, and Al) abundance analysis of three solar-type main sequence (MS) dwarfs and three red giant branch (RGB) clump stars in the Hyades open cluster using high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy. The abundances have been derived in a self-consistent fashion, and for each group (MS or RGB), the CNO abundances are found to be in excellent star-to-star agreement. Using the dwarfs to infer the initial composition of the giants, the combined abundance patterns confirm that the giants have undergone the first dredge-up and that material processed by the CN cycle has been mixed to the surface layers. The observed abundances are compared to predictions of a standard stellar model based on the Clemson-American University of Beirut (CAUB) stellar evolution code. The model reproduces the observed evolution of the N and O abundances, as well as the previously derived 12C/13C ratio, but it fails to predict by a factor of 1.5 the observed level of 12C depletion. A similar discord appears to exist in previously reported observed and modeled C abundances of giants in the Galactic disk. Random uncertainties in the mean abundances and uncertainties related to possible systematic errors in the Hyades dwarf and giant parameter scales cannot account for the discrepancy in the observed and modeled abundances. Li abundances are derived to determine if noncanonical extra mixing, like that seen in low-mass metal-poor giants, has occurred in the Hyades giants. The Li abundance of the giant γ Tau is in good accord with the predicted level of surface Li dilution, but a ~0.35 dex spread in the giant Li abundances is found and cannot be explained by the stellar model. Possible sources of the spread are discussed; however, it is apparent that the differential mechanism responsible for the Li dispersion must be unrelated to the uniformly low 12C abundances of the giants. Na, Mg, and Al abundances are derived as an additional

  6. Open clusters rich in red supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio

    2015-08-01

    In the past few years, several clusters containing large numbers of red supergiants have been discovered. These clusters are amongst the most massive young clusters known in the Milky Way, with stellar masses reaching a few tens of thousands of solar masses. They have provided us, for the first time, with large homogeneous samples of red supergiants of a given age. These large populations make them, despite heavy extinction along their sightlines, powerful laboratories to understand the evolutionary status of red supergiants. While some of the clusters, such as the eponymous RSGC1, are so obscured that their members are only observable in the near-IR, at least van der Bergh-Hagen 222 is observable even in the U band, allowing for an excellent characterisation of cluster and stellar properties. The information gleaned so far from these clusters gives strong support to the idea that late-M type supergiants represent a separate class, characterised by very heavy mass loss. It also shows that the spectral-type distribution of red supergiants in the Milky Way is very strongly peaked towards M1, while providing strong hints about the possible evolutionary sequence of red supergiants. In addition, the clusters of red supergiants represent ideal tools to study metallicity in the inner regions of the Milky Way.

  7. Deep Infrared ZAMS Fits to Benchmark Open Clusters Hosting Delta Scuti Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majaess, D. J.; Turner, D. G.; Lane, D. J.; Krajci, T.

    2011-09-01

    This research aims to secure precise distances for cluster δ Scuti stars in order to investigate their properties via a VI Wesenheit framework. Deep JHKs color-color and zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) relations derived from ~700 unreddened stars featuring 2MASS photometry and precise Hipparcos parallaxes (d≤25 pc) are applied to establish distances to several benchmark open clusters that host δ Scuti stars: Hyades, Pleiades, Praesepe, α Persei, and M67 (d = 47 ± 2, 138 ± 6, 183 ± 8, 171 ± 8, 815 ± 40 pc). That analysis provided constraints on the Δ Sct sample's absolute Wesenheit magnitudes (W_VI,0), evolutionary status, and pulsation modes (order, n). The reliability of JHKs established cluster parameters is demonstrated via a comparison with van Leeuwen (2009a) revised Hipparcos results. Distances for seven of nine nearby (d≤250 pc) clusters agree, and the discrepant cases (Pleiades and Blanco 1) are unrelated to (insignificant) Te-(J-Ks) variations with cluster age or iron abundance. JHKs photometry is tabulated for ~3x10^3 probable cluster members on the basis of proper motions (NOMAD). The deep JHKs photometry extends into the low mass regime (~0.4 M_sun) and ensures precise (≤5%) ZAMS fits. Pulsation modes inferred for the cluster δ Scuti stars from VI Wesenheit and independent analyses are comparable (±n), and the methods are consistent in identifying higher order pulsators. Most small-amplitude cluster δ Scuti stars lie on VI Wesenheit loci characterizing n≥1 pulsators. A distance established to NGC 1817 from δ Scuti stars (d~1.7 kpc) via a universal VI Wesenheit template agrees with estimates in the literature, assuming the variables delineate the n≥1 boundary. Small statistics in tandem with other factors presently encumber the use of mmag Δ Scuti stars as viable distance indicators to intermediate-age open clusters, yet a VI Wesenheit approach is a pertinent means for studying δ Scuti stars in harmony with other methods.

  8. The search for delta Scuti stars in open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandsen, S.; Arentoft, T.

    1998-05-01

    In order to improve the tests of models of stellar evolution, observations giving tighter constraints on the models were initiated by the formation of an informal group STACC (Frandsen, 1992). The purpose of the group is to search for and make observations of delta Scuti stars in open clusters. This paper presents some of the results of the search, mainly for distant open clusters with a rich population of variables. Included is an announcement of a target list (Frandsen & Arentoft 1998, The Book) and four examples of new Colour-Magnitude (CM) diagrams of open clusters considered to be interesting targets. Finally, we present the fruits of extensive searching: an open cluster that contains many delta Scuti stars. Based on observations made at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, the Nordic Optical Telescope, ORM, La Palma and the IAC80, OT, Tenerife

  9. Looking for Interacting Binaries in Old Open Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindley, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    We requested a 12 ks observation of the old open cluster NGC7142 with the aim to investigate the population of interacting binaries, and compare the properties with those of interacting binaries in other old open clusters. Unfortunately, the observation suffered from long periods of background flaring, and as a result the effective exposure time was shortened to only approximately 25% of the planned exposure. The sensitivity to detect sources in the cluster was therefore much reduced, hampering a useful comparison with other clusters observed with Chandra and XMM. We detect 5 sources (all less than 300 counts) in the full field of view of the detectors; based on the large separations from the cluster center, we expect that at least 3-4 are not associated with the cluster. A brief paper that reports the results is in preparation.

  10. New variable stars in open clusters. I. Methods and results for 20 open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunzen, E.; Zwintz, K.; Maitzen, H. M.; Pintado, O. I.; Rode-Paunzen, M.

    2004-04-01

    We present high precision CCD photometry of 1791 objects in 20 open clusters with an age of 10 Myr to 1 Gyr. These observations were performed within the Δ a photometric system which is primarily used to detect chemically peculiar stars of the upper main sequence. Time bases range from 30 min up to 60 days with data from several nights. We describe the time series analysis reaching a detection limit of down to 0.006 mag for apparent variability. In total, we have detected 35 variable objects of which four are not members of their corresponding clusters. The variables cover the entire Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, hence they are interesting targets for follow-up observations. Based on observations obtained at Complejo Astronómico el Leoncito (CASLEO), operated under the agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba y San Juan; ESO-La Silla and UTSO-Las Campanas.

  11. Spin alignment of stars in old open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, Enrico; Lee, Yueh-Ning; García, Rafael A.; Hennebelle, Patrick; Mathur, Savita; Beck, Paul G.; Mathis, Stephane; Stello, Dennis; Bouvier, Jérôme

    2017-03-01

    Stellar clusters form by gravitational collapse of turbulent molecular clouds, with up to several thousand stars per cluster1. They are thought to be the birthplace of most stars and therefore play an important role in our understanding of star formation, a fundamental problem in astrophysics2,3. The initial conditions of the molecular cloud establish its dynamical history until the stellar cluster is born. However, the evolution of the cloud's angular momentum during cluster formation is not well understood4. Current observations have suggested that turbulence scrambles the angular momentum of the cluster-forming cloud, preventing spin alignment among stars within a cluster5. Here we use asteroseismology6-8 to measure the inclination angles of spin axes in 48 stars from the two old open clusters NGC 6791 and NGC 6819. The stars within each cluster show strong alignment. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of proto-cluster formation show that at least 50% of the initial proto-cluster kinetic energy has to be rotational in order to obtain strong stellar-spin alignment within a cluster. Our result indicates that the global angular momentum of the cluster-forming clouds was efficiently transferred to each star and that its imprint has survived several gigayears since the clusters formed.

  12. Value, Cost, and Sharing: Open Issues in Constrained Clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2006-01-01

    Clustering is an important tool for data mining, since it can identify major patterns or trends without any supervision (labeled data). Over the past five years, semi-supervised (constrained) clustering methods have become very popular. These methods began with incorporating pairwise constraints and have developed into more general methods that can learn appropriate distance metrics. However, several important open questions have arisen about which constraints are most useful, how they can be actively acquired, and when and how they should be propagated to neighboring points. This position paper describes these open questions and suggests future directions for constrained clustering research.

  13. Value, Cost, and Sharing: Open Issues in Constrained Clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2006-01-01

    Clustering is an important tool for data mining, since it can identify major patterns or trends without any supervision (labeled data). Over the past five years, semi-supervised (constrained) clustering methods have become very popular. These methods began with incorporating pairwise constraints and have developed into more general methods that can learn appropriate distance metrics. However, several important open questions have arisen about which constraints are most useful, how they can be actively acquired, and when and how they should be propagated to neighboring points. This position paper describes these open questions and suggests future directions for constrained clustering research.

  14. On the physical reality of overlooked open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2017-04-01

    We present UBVRI and CT1T2 photometry for 15 catalogued open clusters of relative high brightness and compact appearance. From these unprecedented photometric data sets, covering wavelengths from the blue up to the near-infrared, we performed a thorough assessment of their reality as stellar aggregates. We statistically assigned to each observed star within the object region a probability of being a fiducial feature of that field in terms of its local luminosity function, colour distribution and stellar density. Likewise, we used accurate parallaxes and proper motions measured by the Gaia satellite to help our decision on the open cluster reality. 10 catalogued aggregates did not show any hint of being real physical systems; three of them had been assumed to be open clusters in previous studies, though. On the other hand, we estimated reliable fundamental parameters for the remaining five studied objects, which were confirmed as real open clusters. They resulted to be clusters distributed in a wide age range, 8.0 ≤ log (t yr-1) ≤ 9.4, of solar metal content and placed between 2.0 and 5.5 kpc from the Sun. Their ages and metallicities are in agreement with the presently known picture of the spatial distribution of open clusters in the Galactic disc.

  15. On the physical reality of overlooked open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2017-01-01

    We present UBVRI and CT1T2 photometry for fifteen catalogued open clusters of relative high brightness and compact appearance. From these unprecedented photometric data sets, covering wavelengths from the blue up to the near-infrared, we performed a thorough assessment of their reality as stellar aggregates. We statistically assigned to each observed star within the object region a probability of being a fiducial feature of that field in terms of its local luminosity function, colour distribution and stellar density. Likewise, we used accurate parallaxes and proper motions measured by the Gaia satellite to help our decision on the open cluster reality. Ten catalogued aggregates did not show any hint of being real physical systems; three of them had been assumed to be open clusters in previous studies, though. On the other hand, we estimated reliable fundamental parameters for the remaining five studied objects, which were confirmed as real open clusters. They resulted to be clusters distributed in a wide age range, 8.0 ≤ log (t yr-1) ≤ 9.4, of solar metal content and placed between 2.0 and 5.5 kpc from the Sun. Their ages and metallicities are in agreement with the presently known picture of the spatial distribution of open clusters in the Galactic disc.

  16. Membership determination of open cluster with parametric method: cross entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoirul Fitriana, Itsna; Ikbal Arifiyanto, M.

    2016-11-01

    Stellar open clusters are useful for studying the structure and evolution of Galaxy. Determination of the open cluster members can be viewed from their kinematics: proper motion and radial velocity. It is because the star cluster members will have a motion in the same direction, towards a convergent point. Parametric method with a double elliptic bivariate gaussian function which contains 11 parameters is used as a model of the proper motion distribution. The value of these parameters are determined numerically by cross entropy method. This method is a method of data fitting using the likelihood function whose value is maximized to get the proper parameters. This method solves the problem of determining the initial value that is often difficult to determine in other numerical methods. There are four open clusters which we have analysed: NGC 2244, ASCC 100, NGC 5168, and NGC 2169. The resulting of proper motion parameters of this method matches the parameters in the literature.

  17. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Insights into the inner-disc evolution from open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrini, L.; Randich, S.; Donati, P.; Bragaglia, A.; Adibekyan, V.; Romano, D.; Smiljanic, R.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Friel, E.; Overbeek, J.; Jacobson, H.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Vallenari, A.; Sordo, R.; Pancino, E.; Geisler, D.; San Roman, I.; Villanova, S.; Casey, A.; Hourihane, A.; Worley, C. C.; Francois, P.; Gilmore, G.; Bensby, T.; Flaccomio, E.; Korn, A. J.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Franciosini, E.; Heiter, U.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; de Laverny, P.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G.; Sousa, S. G.; Zaggia, S.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The inner disc, which links the thin disc with the bulge, has been somewhat neglected in the past because of the intrinsic difficulties in its study, among which crowding and high extinction. Open clusters located in the inner disc are among thebest tracers of its chemistry at different ages and distances. Aims: We analyse the chemical patterns of four open clusters located within 7 kpc of the Galactic centre and of field stars to infer the properties of the inner disc with the Gaia-ESO survey idr2/3 data release. Methods: We derive the parameters of the newly observed cluster, Berkeley 81, finding an age of about 1 Gyr and a Galactocentric distance of ~5.4 kpc. We construct the chemical patterns of clusters and we compare them with those of field stars in the solar neighbourhood and in the inner-disc samples. Results: Comparing the three populations we observe that inner-disc clusters and field stars are both, on average, enhanced in [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe], and [Si/Fe]. Using the idr2/3 results of M67, we estimate the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effect on the abundances of Mg and Si in giant stars. After empirically correcting for NLTE effects, we note that NGC 6705 and Be 81 still have a high [α/Fe]. Conclusions: The location of the four open clusters and of the field population reveals that the evolution of the metallicity [Fe/H] and of [α/Fe] can be explained within the framework of a simple chemical evolution model: both [Fe/H] and [α/Fe] of Trumpler 20 and of NGC 4815 are in agreement with expectations from a simple chemical evolution model. On the other hand, NGC 6705, and to a lesser degree Berkeley 81, have higher [α/Fe] than expected for their ages, location in the disc, and metallicity. These differences might originate from local enrichment processes as explained in the inhomogeneous evolution framework. Based on observations collected with the FLAMES spectrograph at VLT/UT2 telescope (Paranal Observatory, ESO, Chile), for the Gaia

  18. Near-infrared Photometry of the Open Cluster NGC 2420

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, Neda; De Robertis, Michael M.; Dawson, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Open clusters have been used in numerous studies of stellar formation and evolution and have provided important constraints on theoretical stellar models. In this study, we carried out deep near-infrared imaging (I, J, H and Ks bands) with the 1024×1024 CFHT-IR camera at the Cassegrain focus of the Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6 m telescope of two fields in the relatively old open cluster, NGC 2420. This cluster was selected due to its relatively low metallicity, [Fe/H] ˜ -0.5, and rather high Galactic latitude (for an open cluster), b ≈ 20°, reducing the effects of reddening as well as reducing the extent of contamination by non-members of the cluster. The empirical data were calibrated using 2MASS and Stetson standards in the field. Non-cluster stars were removed using a field-cluster decontamination algorithm. By fitting available theoretical isochrones to the observed color-magnitude diagrams, we have been able to estimate the age, metallicity and distance of the cluster which are compared to previous studies.

  19. Highly dynamically evolved intermediate-age open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Dias, Wilton S.; Sampedro, Laura M.

    2017-04-01

    We present a comprehensive UBVRI and Washington CT1T2 photometric analysis of seven catalogued open clusters, namely: Ruprecht 3, 9, 37, 74, 150, ESO 324-15 and 436-2. The multiband photometric data sets in combination with 2MASS photometry and Gaia astrometry for the brighter stars were used to estimate their structural parameters and fundamental astrophysical properties. We found that Ruprecht 3 and ESO 436-2 do not show self-consistent evidence of being physical systems. The remained studied objects are open clusters of intermediate age (9.0 ≤ log(t yr-1) ≤ 9.6), of relatively small size (rcls ∼ 0.4-1.3 pc) and placed between 0.6 and 2.9 kpc from the Sun. We analysed the relationships between core, half-mass, tidal and Jacoby radii as well as half-mass relaxation times to conclude that the studied clusters are in an evolved dynamical stage. The total cluster masses obtained by summing those of the observed cluster stars resulted to be ∼10-15 per cent of the masses of open clusters of similar age located closer than 2 kpc from the Sun. We found that cluster stars occupy volumes as large as those for tidally filled clusters.

  20. Deep Observations of the Open Cluster NGC 6253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, E. J.

    2015-06-01

    We have obtained deep observations of the metal-rich open cluster NGC 6253 with GMOS on the Gemini-South telescope, with the goal of observing the cluster white dwarfs for the first time. These observations are an important piece and further test of the variously proposed scenarios to explain the formation of the strange white dwarfs in the metal rich open cluster NGC 6791. We will use the new observations of NGC 6253 to measure the cluster's white dwarf age and search for any anomalies in the white dwarf luminosity function. The high metallicity of this cluster will allow us to explore and better understand the formation of white dwarfs in such a high metallicity environment. These observations are an important piece in the continuing puzzle that has important implications on mass loss, white dwarf cooling, and stellar evolution as a whole.

  1. Map-based trigonometric parallaxes of open clusters: Coma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatewood, George

    1995-01-01

    This is the fourth study in a series to determine the direct trigonometric parallaxes of four of the nearest open star clusters, the Hyades, the Pleiades, the Praesepe, and the nearby cluster in Coma (Gatewood et al. 1990; Gatewood et al. 1992); Gatewood & Kiewiet de Jonge 1994). The results for the open star cluster in Coma are compared with those of the other three clusters, and the members are found to be significantly subluminous. The trigonometric parallax of the cluster is estimated from that of three members studied with the Multichannel Astrometric Photometer (MAP) at the Thaw Refractor of the University of Pittsburgh's Allegheny Observatory. The weighted mean parallax of the cluster is +13.53 +/- 0.54 mass (0.00054 min), corresponding to a distance modulus of 4.34 +/- 0.09 mag. The U-B excess of the Coma cluster members may be used to adjust the observed absolute magnitudes and the B-V measurements as suggested by Sandage & Eggen (1959). The agreement obtained in this manner suggests that, like subdwarf stars, the stars of the Coma cluster appear subluminous because of line blanketing. One of the three members observed in this study was recognized as a member by its parallax and is the faintest known member of the cluster.

  2. Map-based trigonometric parallaxes of open clusters: Coma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatewood, George

    1995-01-01

    This is the fourth study in a series to determine the direct trigonometric parallaxes of four of the nearest open star clusters, the Hyades, the Pleiades, the Praesepe, and the nearby cluster in Coma (Gatewood et al. 1990; Gatewood et al. 1992); Gatewood & Kiewiet de Jonge 1994). The results for the open star cluster in Coma are compared with those of the other three clusters, and the members are found to be significantly subluminous. The trigonometric parallax of the cluster is estimated from that of three members studied with the Multichannel Astrometric Photometer (MAP) at the Thaw Refractor of the University of Pittsburgh's Allegheny Observatory. The weighted mean parallax of the cluster is +13.53 +/- 0.54 mass (0.00054 min), corresponding to a distance modulus of 4.34 +/- 0.09 mag. The U-B excess of the Coma cluster members may be used to adjust the observed absolute magnitudes and the B-V measurements as suggested by Sandage & Eggen (1959). The agreement obtained in this manner suggests that, like subdwarf stars, the stars of the Coma cluster appear subluminous because of line blanketing. One of the three members observed in this study was recognized as a member by its parallax and is the faintest known member of the cluster.

  3. Integrated spectral properties of 7 galactic open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.; Piatti, A. E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents flux-calibrated integrated spectra in the range 3600-9000 Ä for 7 concentrated, relatively populous Galactic open clusters. We perform simultaneous estimates of age and foreground interstellar reddening by comparing the continuum distribution and line strengths of the cluster spectra with those of template cluster spectra with known parameters. For five clusters these two parameters have been determined for the first time (Ruprecht 144, BH 132, Pismis 21, Lyng\\aa 11 and BH 217), while the results here derived for the remaining two clusters (Hogg 15 and Melotte 105) show very good agreement with previous studies based mainly on colour-magnitude diagrams. We also provide metallicity estimates for six clusters from the equivalent widths of CaII triplet and TiO features. The present cluster sample improves the age resolution around solar metal content in the cluster spectral library for population synthesis. We compare the properties of the present sample with those of clusters in similar directions. Hogg 15 and Pismis 21 are among the most reddened clusters in sectors centered at l = 270o and l = 0o, respectively. Besides, the present results would favour an important dissolution rate of star clusters in these zones. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  4. Singlet-paired coupled cluster theory for open shells.

    PubMed

    Gomez, John A; Henderson, Thomas M; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2016-06-28

    Restricted single-reference coupled cluster theory truncated to single and double excitations accurately describes weakly correlated systems, but often breaks down in the presence of static or strong correlation. Good coupled cluster energies in the presence of degeneracies can be obtained by using a symmetry-broken reference, such as unrestricted Hartree-Fock, but at the cost of good quantum numbers. A large body of work has shown that modifying the coupled cluster ansatz allows for the treatment of strong correlation within a single-reference, symmetry-adapted framework. The recently introduced singlet-paired coupled cluster doubles (CCD0) method is one such model, which recovers correct behavior for strong correlation without requiring symmetry breaking in the reference. Here, we extend singlet-paired coupled cluster for application to open shells via restricted open-shell singlet-paired coupled cluster singles and doubles (ROCCSD0). The ROCCSD0 approach retains the benefits of standard coupled cluster theory and recovers correct behavior for strongly correlated, open-shell systems using a spin-preserving ROHF reference.

  5. Study of Intermediate Age (~10-30 Myr) Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olguin, Lorenzo; Michel, Raul; Contreras, Maria; Hernandez, Jesus; Schuster, William; Chavarria-Kleinhenn, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    We present the study of a sample of intermediate age open clusters (age ~ 10-30 Myr) using optical (UBVRI) and infrared photometric data. Optical photometry was obtained as part of the San Pedro Martir Open Clusters Project (SPM-OCP, Schuster et al. 2007; Michel et al. 2013). Infrared photometry was retrieved from 2MASS public data archive and WISE database. Open clusters included in the SPM-OCP were selected from catalogues presented by Dias et al. (2002) and Froebrich, Scholz & Raftery (2007). One of the main goals of the SPM-OCP is to compile a self-consistent and homogeneous set of cluster fundamental parameters such as reddening, distance, age, and metallicity whenever possible. In this work, we have analyzed a set of 25 clusters from the SPM-OCP with estimated ages between 10 and 30 Myr. Derived fundamental parameters for each cluster in the sample as well as an example of typical color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are presented. Kinematic membership was established by using proper motion data taken from the literature. Based on infrared photometry, we have searched for candidate stars to posses a circumstellar disk within each clusters. For those selected candidates a follow-up spectroscpic study is being carried out. This work was partially supported by UNAM-PAPIIT grant IN-109311.

  6. Search for variables in six Galactic open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunzen, Ernst; Handler, Gerald; Lendl, Monika; Baumann, Bernhard; Rab, Christian; Meingast, Stefan; Rode-Paunzen, Monika; Netopil, Martin; Antoci, Victoria; Zhu, Liying; Zejda, Miloslav; Božić, Hrvoje

    2017-04-01

    Variables in open cluster (known distance, age, and metallicity) fields play an important role in stellar astrophysics because they allow to investigate the interior of stars. Therefore, six Galactic open clusters were selected to search for new variables and to complement data for already known variables. As five of these clusters are younger than 40 Myr, we aim at finding variable high-mass stars such as β Cephei and Slowly Pulsating B-type stars as well as classical pulsating stars within the instability strip. About 26 000 images (312 h) photometric images were taken at the 0.8 m (Vienna, Austria) and 1.0 m (Hvar, Croatia) telescope using V and I filters. The differential light curves were analyzed with standard time series analysis methods. In total, 11 variables were found in all investigated clusters. For nine of them, we were able to determine their nature and period. In addition, the membership probabilities from the literature were analyzed.

  7. Stellar Multiplicity of the Open Cluster ASCC 113

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, C. A.; Orlov, V. G.

    2015-10-01

    We present a high angular resolution survey of binary stars and multiple systems in the galactic open cluster ASCC 113. Combining our speckle-interferometric observations with data taken from the literature, we estimated a ratio of 27:7 (single to binaries) for the the most probable members, so the multiplicity fraction for this cluster is 20.6% ± 3%. For field stars, we estimated a ratio of multiplicities to be 125:27:4:1:0:0:0:1 (between one and eight companions), which is equivalent to a multiplicity fraction of 20.9% ± 1%. We concluded that the multiplicity fraction in the cluster and in the field are statistically indistinguishable from each other; we also concluded that the multiplicity frequency in this open cluster is rather small, ˜ 20%, in agreement with high angular resolution surveys in the Pleiades, Hyades, alpha \\ Per and Praesepe.

  8. Toward open-shell nuclei with coupled-cluster theory

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, G. R.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Hagen, G.; Papenbrock, T.

    2011-05-15

    We develop a method based on equation-of-motion coupled-cluster theory to describe properties of open-shell nuclei with A{+-}2 nucleons outside a closed shell. We perform proof-of-principle calculations for the ground states of the helium isotopes {sup 3-6}He and the first excited 2{sup +} state in {sup 6}He. The comparison with exact results from matrix diagonalization in small model spaces demonstrates the accuracy of the coupled-cluster methods. Three-particle-one-hole excitations of {sup 4}He play an important role for the accurate description of {sup 6}He. For the open-shell nucleus {sup 6}He, the computational cost of the method is comparable with the coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles approximation while its accuracy is similar to the coupled-cluster with singles, doubles, and triples excitations.

  9. Open clusters and associations in the Gaia era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraux, E.

    2016-11-01

    Open clusters and associations are groups of young stars, respectively bound and unbound, that share the same origin and disperse over time into the galactic field. As such, their formation and evolution are the key to understand the origin and properties of galactic stellar populations. Moreover, since their members have about the same age, they are ideal laboratories to study the properties of young stars and constrain stellar evolution theories. In this contribution, I present our current knowledge on open clusters and associations. I focus on the methods used to derive the statistical properties (IMF, spatial distribution, IMF) of young stars and briefly discuss how they depend on the environment. I then describe how open clusters can be used as probes to investigate the structure, dynamics and chemical composition of the Milky Way. I conclude by presenting the Gaia mission and discuss how it will revolutionize this field of research.

  10. NGC 1252: a high altitude, metal poor open cluster remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente Marcos, R.; de la Fuente Marcos, C.; Moni Bidin, C.; Carraro, G.; Costa, E.

    2013-09-01

    If stars form in clusters but most stars belong to the field, understanding the details of the transition from the former to the latter is imperative to explain the observational properties of the field. Aging open clusters are one of the sources of field stars. The disruption rate of open clusters slows down with age but, as an object gets older, the distinction between the remaining cluster or open cluster remnant (OCR) and the surrounding field becomes less and less obvious. As a result, finding good OCR candidates or confirming the OCR nature of some of the best candidates still remain elusive. One of these objects is NGC 1252, a scattered group of about 20 stars in Horologium. Here we use new wide-field photometry in the UBVI passbands, proper motions from the Yale/San Juan SPM 4.0 catalogue and high-resolution spectroscopy concurrently with results from N-body simulations to decipher NGC 1252's enigmatic character. Spectroscopy shows that most of the brightest stars in the studied area are chemically, kinematically and spatially unrelated to each other. However, after analysing proper motions, we find one relevant kinematic group. This sparse object is relatively close (˜1 kpc), metal poor and is probably not only one of the oldest clusters (3 Gyr) within 1.5 kpc from the Sun but also one of the clusters located farthest from the disc, at an altitude of nearly -900 pc. That makes NGC 1252 the first open cluster that can be truly considered a high Galactic altitude OCR: an unusual object that may hint at a star formation event induced on a high Galactic altitude gas cloud. We also conclude that the variable TW Horologii and the blue straggler candidate HD 20286 are unlikely to be part of NGC 1252. NGC 1252 17 is identified as an unrelated, Population II cannonball star moving at about 400 km s-1.

  11. Multicolor CCD Photometry of the Open Cluster IC361

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    journal Volume 19 Numbers 1/2 2010 Contents V. Straizys, A. Kazlauskas. Young stars in the Camelopardalis dust and molecular clouds. VI. YSOs...Vilnius + I system for 7250 stars down to 1= 19.6 mag has been obtained in the 20’ x 26’ field of the open cluster IC 361 in Camelopardalis . The catalog...1= 19.6 mag has been obtained in the 20’ x 26’ field of the open cluster IC 361 in Camelopardalis . The catalog of 1420 stars down to V ~ 18.5 mag

  12. The Membership and Distance of the Open Cluster Collinder 419

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Gies, Douglas R.; Parks, J. Robert; Grundstrom, Erika D.; McSwain, M. Virginia; Berger, David H.; Mason, Brian D.; tenBrummelaar, Theo A.; Turner, Nils H.

    2010-01-01

    The young open cluster Collinder 419 surrounds the massive O star, HD 193322, that is itself a remarkable multiple star system containing at least four components. Here we present a discussion of the cluster distance based upon new spectral classifications of the brighter members, UBV photometry, and an analysis of astrometric and photometric data from the third U. S. Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog and Two Micron All Sky Survey Catalog. We determine an average cluster reddening of E(B - V) = 0.37 +/-.05 mag and a cluster distance of 741 plus or minus 36 pc. The cluster probably contains some very young stars that may include a reddened M3 III star, IRAS 20161+4035.

  13. THE MEMBERSHIP AND DISTANCE OF THE OPEN CLUSTER COLLINDER 419

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Lewis C.; Gies, Douglas R.; Parks, J. Robert; Grundstrom, Erika D.; McSwain, M. Virginia; Berger, David H.; Mason, Brian D.; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Turner, Nils H. E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.ed E-mail: erika.grundstrom@vanderbilt.ed E-mail: dberger@sysplan.co E-mail: theo@chara-array.or

    2010-09-15

    The young open cluster Collinder 419 surrounds the massive O star, HD 193322, that is itself a remarkable multiple star system containing at least four components. Here we present a discussion of the cluster distance based upon new spectral classifications of the brighter members, UBV photometry, and an analysis of astrometric and photometric data from the third U. S. Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog and Two Micron All Sky Survey Catalog. We determine an average cluster reddening of E(B - V) = 0.37 {+-} 0.05 mag and a cluster distance of 741 {+-} 36 pc. The cluster probably contains some very young stars that may include a reddened M3 III star, IRAS 20161+4035.

  14. Integrated spectral study of small angular diameter galactic open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clariá, J. J.; Ahumada, A. V.; Bica, E.; Pavani, D. B.; Parisi, M. C.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents flux-calibrated integrated spectra obtained at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina) for a sample of 9 Galactic open clusters of small angular diameter. The spectra cover the optical range (3800-6800 Å), with a resolution of ∼14 Å. With one exception (Ruprecht 158), the selected clusters are projected into the fourth Galactic quadrant (282o < l < 345o) near the Galactic plane (∣b∣ ≤ 9o). We performed simultaneous estimates of foreground interstellar reddening and age by comparing the continuum distribution and line strenghts of the cluster spectra with those of template cluster spectra with known parameters. We thus provide spectroscopic information independent from that derived through color-magnitude diagram studies. We found three clusters (Collinder 249, NGC 4463 and Ruprecht 122) younger than ∼40 Myr, four moderately young ones (BH 92, Harvard 5, Hogg 14 and Pismis 23) with ages within 200-400 Myr, and two intermediate-age ones (Ruprecht 158 and ESO 065-SC07) with ages within 1.0-2.2 Gyr. The derived foreground E(B - V) color excesses vary from around 0.0 in Ruprecht 158 to ∼1.1 in Pismis 23. In general terms, the results obtained show good agreement with previous photometric results. In Ruprecht 158 and BH 92, however, some differences are found between the parameters here obtained and previous values in the literature. Individual spectra of some comparatively bright stars located in the fields of 5 out of the 9 clusters here studied, allowed us to evaluate their membership status. The current cluster sample complements that of 46 open clusters previously studied by our group in an effort to gather a spectral library with several clusters per age bin. The cluster spectral library that we have been building is an important tool to tie studies of resolved and unresolved stellar content.

  15. Search for variables in the open cluster King 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunzen, E.; Netopil, M.; Rode-Paunzen, M.; Bozic, H.

    2015-06-01

    We present the time series analysis of CCD photometry from the 1 m telescope at the Hvar Observatory (Croatia) for 54 stars in the area of the young open clusters King 12. We found no new variable but list upper detection limits.

  16. First photometric analysis of six open cluster candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Ahumada, A. V.

    2011-10-01

    In this study we try to clarify the nature of six catalogued open cluster (OC) candidates using CCD UBVI_{KC} photometry down to V = 22. The objects are Haffner 3, Haffner 5, NGC 2368, Haffner 25, Hogg 3 and Hogg 4. None of them was found to be a real OC.

  17. A Multisite Cluster Randomized Field Trial of Open Court Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Schneck, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors report achievement outcomes of a multisite cluster randomized field trial of Open Court Reading 2005 (OCR), a K-6 literacy curriculum published by SRA/McGraw-Hill. The participants are 49 first-grade through fifth-grade classrooms from predominantly minority and poor contexts across the nation. Blocking by grade level…

  18. Morphology of open clusters NGC 1857 and Czernik 20 using clustering algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Mahulkar, V.; Pandaokar, S.; Singh, P. K.

    2017-01-01

    The morphology and cluster membership of the Galactic open clusters-Czernik 20 and NGC 1857 were analyzed using two different clustering algorithms. We present the maiden use of density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) to determine open cluster morphology from spatial distribution. The region of analysis has also been spatially classified using a statistical membership determination algorithm. We utilized near infrared (NIR) data for a suitably large region around the clusters from the United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey Galactic Plane Survey star catalogue database, and also from the Two Micron All Sky Survey star catalogue database. The densest regions of the cluster morphologies (1 for Czernik 20 and 2 for NGC 1857) thus identified were analyzed with a K-band extinction map and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). To address significant discrepancy in known distance and reddening parameters, we carried out field decontamination of these CMDs and subsequent isochrone fitting of the cleaned CMDs to obtain reliable distance and reddening parameters for the clusters (Czernik 20: D = 2900 pc; E(J- K) = 0 . 33; NGC 1857: D = 2400 pc; E(J- K) =0.18-0.19). The isochrones were also used to convert the luminosity functions for the densest regions of Czernik 20 and NGC 1857 into mass function, to derive their slopes. Additionally, a previously unknown over-density consistent with that of a star cluster is identified in the region of analysis.

  19. Old open clusters in the outer Galactic disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, G.; Geisler, D.; Villanova, S.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Majewski, S. R.

    2007-12-01

    Context: The outer parts of the Milky Way disk are believed to be one of the main arenas where the accretion of external material in the form of dwarf galaxies and subsequent formation of streams is taking place. The Monoceros stream and the Canis Major and Argo over-densities are notorious examples. Understanding whether what we detect is the signature of accretion or, more conservatively, simply the intrinsic nature of the disk, represents one of the major goals of modern Galactic astronomy. Aims: We try to shed more light on the properties of the outer disk by exploring the properties of distant anti-center old open clusters. We want to verify whether distant clusters follow the chemical and dynamical behavior of the solar vicinity disk, or whether their properties can be better explained in terms of an extra-galactic population. Methods: VLT high resolution spectra have been acquired for five distant open clusters: Ruprecht 4, Ruprecht 7, Berkeley 25, Berkeley 73 and Berkeley 75. We derive accurate radial velocities to distinguish field interlopers and cluster members. For the latter we perform a detailed abundance analysis and derive the iron abundance [Fe/H] and the abundance ratios of several α elements. Results: Our analysis confirms previous indications that the radial abundance gradient in the outer Galactic disk does not follow the expectations extrapolated from the solar vicinity, but exhibits a shallower slope. By combining the metallicity of the five program clusters with eight more clusters for which high resolution spectroscopy is available, we find that the mean metallicity in the outer disk between 12 and 21 kpc from the Galactic center is [Fe/H] ≈ -0.35, with only marginal indications for a radial variation. In addition, all the program clusters exhibit solar scaled or slightly enhanced α elements, similar to open clusters in the solar vicinity and thin disk stars. Conclusions: We investigate whether this outer disk cluster sample might

  20. The open cluster NGC 2818 and its associated planetary nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Pedreros, M. )

    1989-12-01

    New CCD UBV photometry of the open cluster NGC 2818 central region indicates that previously derived values of distance and reddening for the cluster have been considerably overestimated, leading to erroneous values for the physical parameters of its associated planetary nebula (PK 261 + 8.1 deg). The analysis of the new data yields E(B-V) = 0.18 + or - 0.03 and V(0)-M(v) = 11.80 + or - 0.2 (2.3 + or - 0.2 kpc) for the cluster's color excess and distance modulus, respectively. If cluster membership is assumed for the planetary nebula, the above estimates result in physical parameters that compare better with those of a typical planetary nebula in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. 26 refs.

  1. PROPERTIES OF THE OLD OPEN CLUSTER CZERNIK 30

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Christian R.; Friel, Eileen D.; Slack, Taleah J.; Boberg, Owen M. E-mail: efriel@indiana.edu

    2015-12-15

    We present new photometric and spectroscopic data of the old open cluster Czernik 30. Wide field BVI photometry allows us to correct for the high field contamination by statistical subtraction to produce a color–magnitude diagram (CMD) that clearly reveals the cluster sequence. From spectra of stars in the cluster field obtained with the Hydra spectrograph on the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO 3.5 m telescope we determine a mean cluster velocity of +79.9 ± 1.5 km s{sup −1} and provide membership information that helps further define the cluster giant branch and red clump. Stellar abundances for the brighter giants in the cluster indicate a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = −0.2 ± 0.15. Fitting theoretical isochrones to the CMD we determine the following properties of Czernik 30: age = 2.8 ± 0.3 Gyr, (m − M){sub v} = 14.8 ± 0.1, E(B − V) = 0.24 ± 0.06, and E(V − I) = 0.36 ± 0.04. Czernik 30 is an old, sub-solar metallicity cluster located at a Galactocentric radius of R{sub gc}  ∼ 13.3 kpc. Given its age and position just beyond the transition to a flat abundance gradient seen in the open cluster population, Czernik 30 provides an interesting target for future observations.

  2. CCD UBV photometry of the open cluster NGC 6819

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ak, T.; Bostancı, Z. F.; Yontan, T.; Bilir, S.; Güver, T.; Ak, S.; Ürgüp, H.; Paunzen, E.

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of CCD UBV observations of the open cluster NGC 6819. We calculated the stellar density profile in the cluster's field to determine the structural parameters of NGC 6819. Using the existing astrometric data, we calculated the probabilities of the stars being physical members of the cluster, and used these objects in the determination of the astrophysical parameters of NGC 6819. We inferred the reddening and metallicity of the cluster as E(B-V)=0.130±0.035 mag and [Fe/H]=+0.051± 0.020 dex, respectively, using the U-B vs B-V two-colour diagram and UV excesses of the F-G type main-sequence stars. We fit the colour-magnitude diagrams of NGC 6819 with the PARSEC isochrones and derived the distance modula, distance and age of the cluster as μV=12.22± 0.10 mag, d=2309±106 pc and t=2.4±0.2 Gyr, respectively. The parameters of the galactic orbit estimated for NGC 6819 indicate that the cluster is orbiting in a slightly eccentric orbit of e=0.06 with a period of P_{orb}= 142 Myr. The slope of the mass function estimated for the cluster is close to the one found for the stars in the solar neighbourhood.

  3. 2MASS analytical study of four open cluster candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisht, D.; Yadav, R. K. S.; Durgapal, A. K.

    2017-04-01

    The astrophysical parameters of four poorly studied open star clusters namely Teutsch 126, Teutsch 54, Teutsch 61 and Czernik 3, have been estimated using the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) database. The stellar density distributions and color-magnitude diagrams are used to determine their structural parameters (cluster center, cluster radius, core radius, tidal radius, Galactocenteric coordinates and the distance from the Galactic plane). We have also derived age, color excesses, total mass, relaxation time, luminosity and mass function for each clusters. The mass function slopes for these clusters are derived as 1.59 ± 0.62, 1.31 ± 0.60, 1.22 ± 0.75 and 1.62 ± 0.56 for Teutsch 126, Teutsch 54, Teutsch 61 and Czernik 3 respectively. These values are very close with the Salpeter value (x = 1.35) within the errors. The effect of mass-segregation are observed in the clusters Teutsch 126 and Teutsch 61. Estimated values of dynamical relaxation time are less than age of the clusters under study. This concludes that these objects are dynamically relaxed. The possible reason for relaxation may be due to the dynamical evolution or imprint of star formation or both.

  4. Search for New Open Clusters in Huge Catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotukhin, I.; Koposov, S.; Glushkova, E.

    2006-07-01

    Current catalogues (lists indeed) of open clusters are simply heterogeneous and incomplete compilations. No attempts to search for open clusters through huge photometric catalogues using an homogeneous approach have been done so far. We have developed a method based on the analysis of star densities. Our algorithm finds star density peaks and then builds the color-magnitude diagram. We exploit the fact that only stars lying on the isochrone show a density peak whereas field stars show a flat distribution. An automatic procedure eliminates occasional density peaks and obtains the isochrone and the geometrical parameters of the survived candidates (coordinates, size, distance, age and color excess). A preliminary study of 150 sq. degrees in the Galaxy Anticentre region yielded 10 new clusters. The system will allow us to build, for the first time, an homogeneous catalogue of open clusters on an all-sky basis. Although we have started with 2MASS data, it will be possible to apply the automated pipeline on any multicolor catalogue provided that a VO-compliant way of access (e.g. ADQL + SkyNode) is implemented (SDSS, etc.).

  5. Astrometric and Photometric Study of the Open Cluster NGC 2323

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, M. Y.; Elsanhoury, W. H.

    2017-06-01

    We present a study of the open cluster NGC 2323 using astrometric and photometric data. In our study we used two methods that are able to separate open cluster's stars from those that belong to the stellar background. Our results of calculations by these two methods indicate that: 1) according to the membership probability, NGC 2323 should contain 497 stars, 2) the cluster center should be at 07h 02m 48.02s and -08° 20' 17" 74, 3) the limiting radius of NGC 2323 is 2.31 ± 0.04 pc, the surface number density at this radius is 98.16 stars pc^{-2}, 4) the magnitude function has a maximum at about m_{v} = 14 mag, 5) the total mass of NGC 2323 is estimated dynamically by using astrometric data to be 890 M_{⊙}, and statistically by using photometric data to be 900 M_{⊙}, and 6) the distance and age of the cluster are found to be equal to 900 ± 100 pc, and 140 ± 20 Myr, respectively. Finally the dynamical evolution parameter τ of the cluster is about 436.2.

  6. Dynamics of the coronas of open star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, V. M.; Putkov, S. I.; Seleznev, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    A method for distinguishing coronas in models of open star clusters is proposed. The method uses trajectories of stars that do not leave the coronas over time intervals t comparable to the mean lifetime τ of the clusters. Corona models are constructed for six numerical cluster models, and the direction and character of the dynamical evolution of the coronas are determined. Retrograde stellar motions are dominant in the coronas. In spite of some signs of dynamical instability of the coronas (small densities compared to the critical density and accelerated expansion of the coronas), the formation of close-toequilibrium density and phase-density distributions at distances from one to three cluster tidal radii from the cluster center can be seen. Approximations are constructed for the corona and cluster phase density using distributions that depend on three parameters (the parameters of the stellar motion in the Lindblad rotating coordinate system). This temporary equilibrium of the corona is due to balance in the number of starsmoving from the central areas of the cluster to the corona, and from the corona to the corona periphery or beyond. Evidence that corona stars can be gravitationally bound at distances out to four tidal radii from the cluster center is found: the presence of nearly periodic retrograde mean motions of a large number of corona stars in the Galactic plane; 91-99% of corona stars satisfy the gravitational binding criterion of Ross, Mennim and Heggie over time intervals that are close to the mean cluster lifetime. The escape rate from the corona is estimated for t ≥ τ, and found to be from 0.03 to 0.23 of the number of corona stars per violent relaxation time.

  7. Map-based trigonometric parallaxes of open clusters: The Praesepe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatewood, George; De Jonge, Joost Kiewiet

    1994-01-01

    Trigonometric parallaxes for stars in the Praesepe open star cluster are deduced from data collected with the Multichannel Astrometric Photometer (MAP) at the Thaw Refractor of the University of Pittsburgh's Allegheny Observatory. The weighted mean parallax of five cluster members is +5.21 +/- 0.79 mas (0.00079 arcsec), corresponding to a distance modulus of 6.42 +/- 0.33 mag. We briefly compare this result with that derived earlier for the Hyades and note agreement with the distance found by main-sequence fitting. We also discuss briefly an improvement in the weighting scheme of the centroiding algorithm used in this series.

  8. Cepheids in Galactic Open Clusters: An All-sky Census

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Richard I.; Eyer, Laurent; Mowlavi, Nami

    2012-04-01

    We perform an all-sky search for classical (type I) Cepheids that are members of Galactic Open Clusters. Our approach is multi-dimensional, using all available spatial and kinematic parameters. The quantification of errors is crucial for this analysis, so care is taken to find adequate and realistic representations of parameter uncertainties. The data employed in the calculation are taken from published catalogues and the literature, supplemented by specific radial-velocity observations. Our work in progress is outlined here, and issues related to the inhomogeneity of cluster radii in the literature are discussed in some detail.

  9. Tidal disruption of open clusters in their parent molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Kevin

    1989-01-01

    A simple model of tidal encounters has been applied to the problem of an open cluster in a clumpy molecular cloud. The parameters of the clumps are taken from the Blitz, Stark, and Long (1988) catalog of clumps in the Rosette molecular cloud. Encounters are modeled as impulsive, rectilinear collisions between Plummer spheres, but the tidal approximation is not invoked. Mass and binding energy changes during an encounter are computed by considering the velocity impulses given to individual stars in a random realization of a Plummer sphere. Mean rates of mass and binding energy loss are then computed by integrating over many encounters. Self-similar evolutionary calculations using these rates indicate that the disruption process is most sensitive to the cluster radius and relatively insensitive to cluster mass. The calculations indicate that clusters which are born in a cloud similar to the Rosette with a cluster radius greater than about 2.5 pc will not survive long enough to leave the cloud. The majority of clusters, however, have smaller radii and will survive the passage through their parent cloud.

  10. Open clusters in the Kepler field. II. NGC 6866

    SciTech Connect

    Janes, Kenneth; Hoq, Sadia; Barnes, Sydney A.; Meibom, Søren

    2014-06-01

    We have developed a maximum-likelihood procedure to fit theoretical isochrones to the observed cluster color-magnitude diagrams of NGC 6866, an open cluster in the Kepler spacecraft field of view. The Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm permits exploration of the entire parameter space of a set of isochrones to find both the best solution and the statistical uncertainties. For clusters in the age range of NGC 6866 with few, if any, red giant members, a purely photometric determination of the cluster properties is not well-constrained. Nevertheless, based on our UBVRI photometry alone, we have derived the distance, reddening, age, and metallicity of the cluster and established estimates for the binary nature and membership probability of individual stars. We derive the following values for the cluster properties: (m – M) {sub V} = 10.98 ± 0.24, E(B – V) = 0.16 ± 0.04 (so the distance = 1250 pc), age =705 ± 170 Myr, and Z = 0.014 ± 0.005.

  11. A Photometric Study of Five Open Clusters in the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jinhyuk; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2011-10-01

    We present a photometric study of five open clusters (Czernik 5, Alessi 53, Berkeley 49, Berkeley 84, and Pfleiderer 3) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The position and size of these clusters are determined using the radial number density profiles of the stars, and the member stars of the clusters are selected using the proper motion data in the literature. We estimate the reddening, distance and age of the clusters based on the isochrone fitting in the color-magnitude diagram. The foreground reddenings for these clusters are estimated to be E(B-V)=0.71-1.55 mag. The distances to these clusters are derived to be 2.0-4.4 kpc, and their distances from the Galactic center range from 7.57 kpc to 12.35 kpc. Their ages are in the range from 250 Myr to 1 Gyr. Berkeley 49 and Berkeley 84 are located in the Orion spur, Czernik 5 is in the Perseus arm, and Pfleiderer 3 and Alessi 53 are located beyond the Perseus arm.

  12. Setting Stellar Chronometers: The PTF(+) Open Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agüeros, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    While we have known for 45 years that a solar-type star's rotation rate and magnetic activity depend on its age (Skumanich 1972), many details still elude us. We cannot yet fully describe the evolution of rotation or activity for stars of a given mass, nor can we use rotation or activity measurements to estimate accurately the ages of isolated field stars. Fortunately, recent technological advances have transformed our ability to observe open clusters, the best laboratories for testing age-dependent stellar properties. We are currently surveying low-mass stars in six open clusters ranging in age from 35 Myr to 3.5 Gyr; here, I focus on our results for the Hyades and Praesepe. These data will allow us to improve our understanding of the age-rotation-activity relation for ≲1M⊙ stars.

  13. Rotation periods of open-cluster stars, 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Charles F.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Dasgupta, Amil; Backman, Dana E.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.; Baker, Shawn W.; Marschall, Laurence A.; Whitney, Barbara A.; Kuijken, Konrad; Stauffer, John R.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results from a photometric monitoring program of 15 open cluster stars and one weak-lined T Tauri star during late 1993/early 1994. Several show rotators which are members of the Alpha Persei, Pleiades, and Hyades open clusters have been monitored and period estimates derived. Using all available Pleiades stars with photometric periods together with current X-ray flux measurements, we illustrate the X-ray activity/rotation relation among Pleiades late-G/K dwarfs. The data show a clear break in the rotation-activity relation around P approximately 6-7 days -- in general accordance with previous results using more heterogeneous samples of G/K stars.

  14. Chemical abundances of solar-type dwarfs in open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, Simon C.

    Open clusters have proven continuously to be invaluable tools to the studies of stellar physics and Galactic evolution. Until recently, however, the chemical abundances of the populous and astrophysically important late-F, G, and K open cluster dwarfs have gone largely unanalyzed. In this thesis I report on the study of the chemical abundances derived from high-resolution, moderate-to-high signal-to-noise echelle spectra obtained with the 10-m Keck I, 9.2-m Hobby- Eberly, 8.2-m VLT, 4.0-m KPNO, 2.7-m Harlan J. Smith, and the 2.1-m Otto Struve telescopes of cool dwarfs in the Pleiades, Hyades, and M34 open clusters. The main result of the study is the identification of excitation-related abundance trends found among cool open cluster dwarfs ( T eff <= 5500 K), as well as an overionization of Fe- abundances derived from singly ionized lines are greater than those derived from neutral lines- among the cool Hyades dwarfs; the trends are such that abundances derived from high-excitation (h >= 4.0 eV) spectral lines and using atmospheric models assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) increase with decreasing T eff . Particular attention is given to the high-excitation (h = 9.15 eV) near-IR ll7774 O I triplet, a line used often in the derivation of stellar O abundances and known to be susceptible to non-LTE (NLTE) effects. The O I triplet-based abundances show a dramatic increase with decreasing T eff in all three clusters, behavior that is in stark contrast to expectations from canonical NLTE calculations. Other elements with lines of various excitation potentials are also analyzed and are found to exhibit abundance trends that are qualitatively similar to those of the O I triplet. Possible explanations for the observed cool open cluster dwarf abundance anomalies are investigated, and photospheric surface temperature inhomogeneities possibly due to spots, faculae, and/or plages are found to be a plausible culprit. Indeed, multi-component LTE model atmospheres are

  15. Numerical experiments on galaxy clustering in open universes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Numerical studies were performed on the dynamical effects on the evolution of clumps, filaments, voids, and galaxy clusters by various final Omega values. The final Omega values examined ranged from 0.03-1, and attention was given to defining observations of superclusters which would aid in determining an actual value for Omega. The numerical trials consisted of n-body integration programs governed by the total expansion and final Omega value and included comparisons between results for open and closed universes. All runs started from the same initial conditions. The dispersion trajectories of particles and the final galactic cluster forms were found to be equivalent, regardless of the final Omega value. The possibility of deriving a value for Omega from velocity data on galaxies which have not yet joined clusters is discussed.

  16. Rotation periods of open-cluster stars, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Charles F.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Marilli, Ettore; Catalano, Santo; Williams, Scott D.; Backman, Dana E.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.; Adige, Vikram; Marschall, Laurence A.; Stauffer, John R.

    1993-01-01

    We present the results from a photometric monitoring program of 21 stars observed during 1992 in the Pleiades and Alpha Persei open clusters. Period determinations for 16 stars are given, 13 of which are the first periods reported for these stars. Brightness variations for an additional five cluster stars are also given. One K dwarf member of the alpha Per cluster is observed to have a period of rotation of only 4.39 hr. perhaps the shortest period currently known among BY Draconis variables. The individual photometric measurements have been deposited with the NSSDC. Combining current X-ray flux determinations with known photometric periods, we illustrate the X-ray activity/rotation relation among Pleiades K dwarfs based on available data.

  17. Disintegration of the Aged Open Cluster Berkeley 17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Souradeep; Mishra, Ishan; Vaidya, Kaushar; Chen, W. P.

    2017-10-01

    We present the analysis of the morphological shape of Berkeley 17, the oldest known open cluster (∼10 Gyr), using the probabilistic star counting of Pan-STARRS point sources, and confirm its core-tail shape, plus an antitail, previously detected with the 2MASS data. The stellar population, as diagnosed by the color–magnitude diagram and theoretical isochrones, shows many massive members in the clusters core, whereas there is a paucity of such members in both of the tails. This manifests mass segregation in this aged star cluster with the low-mass members being stripped away from the system. It has been claimed that Berkeley 17 is associated with an excessive number of blue straggler candidates. A comparison of nearby reference fields indicates that about half of these may be field contamination.

  18. OPEN CLUSTERS AS PROBES OF THE GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD. I. CLUSTER PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hoq, Sadia; Clemens, D. P. E-mail: clemens@bu.edu

    2015-10-15

    Stars in open clusters are powerful probes of the intervening Galactic magnetic field via background starlight polarimetry because they provide constraints on the magnetic field distances. We use 2MASS photometric data for a sample of 31 clusters in the outer Galaxy for which near-IR polarimetric data were obtained to determine the cluster distances, ages, and reddenings via fitting theoretical isochrones to cluster color–magnitude diagrams. The fitting approach uses an objective χ{sup 2} minimization technique to derive the cluster properties and their uncertainties. We found the ages, distances, and reddenings for 24 of the clusters, and the distances and reddenings for 6 additional clusters that were either sparse or faint in the near-IR. The derived ranges of log(age), distance, and E(B−V) were 7.25–9.63, ∼670–6160 pc, and 0.02–1.46 mag, respectively. The distance uncertainties ranged from ∼8% to 20%. The derived parameters were compared to previous studies, and most cluster parameters agree within our uncertainties. To test the accuracy of the fitting technique, synthetic clusters with 50, 100, or 200 cluster members and a wide range of ages were fit. These tests recovered the input parameters within their uncertainties for more than 90% of the individual synthetic cluster parameters. These results indicate that the fitting technique likely provides reliable estimates of cluster properties. The distances derived will be used in an upcoming study of the Galactic magnetic field in the outer Galaxy.

  19. An updated maximum likelihood approach to open cluster distance determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, M.; Arenou, F.; Luri, X.; Masana, E.

    2014-04-01

    Aims: An improved method for estimating distances to open clusters is presented and applied to Hipparcos data for the Pleiades and the Hyades. The method is applied in the context of the historic Pleiades distance problem, with a discussion of previous criticisms of Hipparcos parallaxes. This is followed by an outlook for Gaia, where the improved method could be especially useful. Methods: Based on maximum likelihood estimation, the method combines parallax, position, apparent magnitude, colour, proper motion, and radial velocity information to estimate the parameters describing an open cluster precisely and without bias. Results: We find the distance to the Pleiades to be 120.3 ± 1.5 pc, in accordance with previously published work using the same dataset. We find that error correlations cannot be responsible for the still present discrepancy between Hipparcos and photometric methods. Additionally, the three-dimensional space velocity and physical structure of Pleiades is parametrised, where we find strong evidence of mass segregation. The distance to the Hyades is found to be 46.35 ± 0.35 pc, also in accordance with previous results. Through the use of simulations, we confirm that the method is unbiased, so will be useful for accurate open cluster parameter estimation with Gaia at distances up to several thousand parsec. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. Peculiarities of α-element abundances in Galactic open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsakov, V. A.; Gozha, M. L.; Koval', V. V.; Shpigel', L. V.

    2016-01-01

    A catalog compiling the parameters of 346 open clusters, including their metallicities, positions, ages, and velocities has been composed. The elements of the Galactic orbits for 272 of the clusters have been calculated. Spectroscopic determinations of the relative abundances, [el/Fe], for 14 elements synthesized in various nuclear processes averaged over data from 109 publications are presented for 90 clusters. The compiled data indicate that the relative abundances of primary α elements (oxygen and magnesium) exhibit different dependences on metallicity, age, Galactocentric distance, and the elements of the Galactic orbits in clusters with high, elongated orbits satisfying the criterion ( Z max 2 + 4 e 2)1/2 > 0.40 and in field stars of the Galactic thin disk ( Z max is the maximum distance of the orbit from the Galactic plane in kiloparsec and e is the eccentricity of the Galactic orbit). Since no systematic effects distorting the relative abundances of the studied elements in these clusters have been found, these difference suggest real differences between clusters with high, elongated orbits and field stars. In particular, this supports the earlier conclusion, based on an analysis of the elements of the Galactic orbits, that some clusters formed as a result of interactions between high-velocity,metal-poor clouds and the interstellar mediumof theGalactic thin disk. On average, clusters with high, elongated orbits and metallicities [Fe/H] < -0.1 display lower relative abundances of the primary a elements than do field stars. The low [O, Mg/Fe] ratios of these clusters can be understood if the high-velocity clouds that gave rise to them were formed of interstellar material from regions where the star-formation rate and/or the masses of Type II supernovae were lower than near the Galactic plane. It is also shown that, on average, the relative abundances of the primary a elements are higher in relatively metal-rich clusters with high, elongated orbits than in

  1. A spectroscopic study of the open cluster NGC 6250

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. J.; Stift, M. J.; Fossati, L.; Bagnulo, S.; Scalia, C.; Leone, F.; Smalley, B.

    2017-04-01

    We present the chemical abundance analysis of 19 upper main-sequence stars of the young open cluster NGC 6250 (log t ∼ 7.42 yr). This work is part of a project aimed at setting observational constraints on the theory of atomic diffusion in stellar photospheres, by means of a systematic study of the abundances of the chemical elements of early F-, A- and late B-type stars of well-determined age. Our data set consists of low-, medium- and high-resolution spectra obtained with the Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) instrument of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). To perform our analysis, we have developed a new suite of software tools for the chemical abundance analysis of stellar photospheres in local thermodynamical equilibrium. Together with the chemical composition of the stellar photospheres, we have provided new estimates of the cluster mean radial velocity, proper motion, refined the cluster membership, and we have given the stellar parameters including masses and fractional age. We find no evidence of statistically significant correlation between any of the parameters, including abundance and cluster age, except perhaps for an increase in Ba abundance with cluster age. We have proven that our new software tool may be successfully used for the chemical abundance analysis of large data sets of stellar spectra.

  2. Fundamental Parameters of the Open Cluster Kronberger 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujatha, S.; Krishna Kumar, K.; Komala, S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present the fundamental physical parameters and the present-day mass function of the open cluster Kronberger 1. The cluster radius is estimated to be 3' and the interstellar extinction E(B-V) in the line-of-sight of the cluster is found to be 0.45±0.05 mag. This cluster is located in the direction of Auriga constellation at a distance of 2.5±0.2 kpc. From the appropriate theoretical isochrones, the log(age) of the cluster is found to be 7.65. The mass function slope for Kronberger 1 is derived for the first time and it is estimated to be α = 2.72±0.2 which is in agreement with the slope of α = 2.35 given by Salpeter. Similar results are obtained from a near infrared study performed using data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey thus substantiating the results obtained from the optical analysis. These results indicate that Kronberger 1 is a suitable object for mapping the spiral arm structure of our Galaxy and for understanding the behavior of mass function in the Galactic disk.

  3. Nine new open clusters within 500 pc from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röser, Siegfried; Schilbach, Elena; Goldman, Bertrand

    2016-10-01

    Aims: One of the results of the Milky Way Star Clusters (MWSC) survey was the detection of a slight under-density of old (ca. 1 Gyr) clusters within the nearest kilo-parsec from the Sun. This under-density may be due to an ineffectiveness in the detection of larger structures with lower surface brightness. We report on our attempts to reveal such clusters. Methods: We derived proper motions from a combination of Tycho-2 with URAT1, and obtained a mean precision of about 1.4 mas/yr per co-ordinate for 1.3 million stars north of -20° declination. We cut the sky into narrow proper motion slices and searched for spatial over-densities of stars in each slice. We then examined stars from over-densities in optical and near-infrared colour-magnitude diagrams to determine if they are compatible with isochrones of a cluster. We estimated the field star contamination using our data and the Besançon Galactic model. Results: We detected nine hitherto unknown open clusters in the vicinity of the Sun with ages between 70 Myr and 1 Gyr, and distances between 200 and 500 pc.

  4. Towards a comprehensive knowledge of the open cluster Haffner 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2017-03-01

    We turn our attention to Haffner 9, a Milky Way open cluster whose previous fundamental parameter estimates are far from being in agreement. In order to provide with accurate estimates, we present high-quality Washington CT1 and Johnson BVI photometry of the cluster field. We put particular care in statistically cleaning the colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) from field star contamination, which was found a common source in previous works for the discordant fundamental parameter estimates. The resulting cluster CMD fiducial features were confirmed from a proper motion membership analysis. Haffner 9 is a moderately young object (age ∼350 Myr), placed in the Perseus arm - at a heliocentric distance of ∼3.2 kpc - , with a lower limit for its present mass of ∼160 M⊙ and of nearly metal solar content. The combination of the cluster structural and fundamental parameters suggest that it is in an advanced stage of internal dynamical evolution, possibly in the phase typical of those with mass segregation in their core regions. However, the cluster still keeps its mass function close to that of the Salpeter's law.

  5. Roche volume filling and the dissolution of open star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, A.; Berczik, P.; Just, A.; Noel, T.

    2015-08-01

    From direct N-body simulations we find that the dynamical evolution of star clusters is strongly influenced by the Roche volume filling factor. We present a parameter study of the dissolution of open star clusters with different Roche volume filling factors and different particle numbers. We study both Roche volume underfilling and overfilling models and compare with the Roche volume filling case. We find that in the Roche volume overfilling limit of our simulations two-body relaxation is no longer the dominant dissolution mechanism but the changing cluster potential. We call this mechanism ``mass-loss driven dissolution'' in contrast to ``two-body relaxation driven dissolution'' which occurs in the Roche volume underfilling regime. We have measured scaling exponents of the dissolution time with the two-body relaxation time. In this experimental study we find a decreasing scaling exponent with increasing Roche volume filling factor. The evolution of the escaper number in the Roche volume overfilling limit can be described by a log-logistic differential equation. We report the finding of a resonance condition which may play a role for the evolution of star clusters and may be calibrated by the main periodic orbit in the large island of retrograde quasiperiodic orbits in the Poincaré surfaces of section. We also report on the existence of a stability curve which may be of relevance with respect to the structure of star clusters.

  6. A Bayesian Analysis of the Ages of Four Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Elizabeth J.; von Hippel, Ted; van Dyk, David A.; Stenning, David C.; Robinson, Elliot; Stein, Nathan; Jefferys, William H.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we apply a Bayesian technique to determine the best fit of stellar evolution models to find the main sequence turn-off age and other cluster parameters of four intermediate-age open clusters: NGC 2360, NGC 2477, NGC 2660, and NGC 3960. Our algorithm utilizes a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique to fit these various parameters, objectively finding the best-fit isochrone for each cluster. The result is a high-precision isochrone fit. We compare these results with the those of traditional “by-eye” isochrone fitting methods. By applying this Bayesian technique to NGC 2360, NGC 2477, NGC 2660, and NGC 3960, we determine the ages of these clusters to be 1.35 ± 0.05, 1.02 ± 0.02, 1.64 ± 0.04, and 0.860 ± 0.04 Gyr, respectively. The results of this paper continue our effort to determine cluster ages to a higher precision than that offered by these traditional methods of isochrone fitting.

  7. 3D cluster members and near-infrared distance of open cluster NGC 6819

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin-Hua; Xu, Shou-Kun; Chen, Li

    2015-12-01

    In order to obtain clean members of the open cluster NGC 6819, the proper motions and radial velocities of 1691 stars are used to construct a three-dimensional (3D) velocity space. Based on the DBSCAN clustering algorithm, 537 3D cluster members are obtained. From the 537 3D cluster members, the average radial velocity and absolute proper motion of the cluster are Vr = +2.30 ± 0.04 km s-1 and (PMRA, PMDec) = (-2.5 ± 0.5, -4.3 ± 0.5) mas yr-1, respectively. The proper motions, radial velocities, spatial positions and color-magnitude diagram of the 537 3D members indicate that our membership determination is effective. Among the 537 3D cluster members, 15 red clump giants can be easily identified by eye and are used as reliable standard candles for the distance estimate of the cluster. The distance modulus of the cluster is determined to be (m - M)0 = 11.86 ± 0.05 mag (2355 ± 54 pc), which is quite consistent with published values. The uncertainty of our distance modulus is dominated by the intrinsic dispersion in the luminosities of red clump giants (˜ 0.04 mag).

  8. Photometry and spectroscopy in the open cluster alpha Persei, 2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Charles F.

    1994-01-01

    Results from a combination of new spectroscopic and photometric observations in the lower main sequence and pre-main sequence of the open cluster alpha Persei are presented. New echelle spectroscopy has provided radial and rotational velocity information for thirteen candidate members, three of which are nonmembers based on radial velocity, absence of a Li 6707 A feature, and absence of H alpha emission. A set of revised rotational velocity estimates for several slowly rotating candidates identified earlier is given, yielding rotational velocities as low as 7 km/s for two apparent cluster members. VI photometry for several pre-main-sequence members is given; the new (V, V-I(sub K) photometry yields a more clearly defined pre-main sequence. A list of approximately 30 new faint candidate members based on the (V, V-I(sub K)), charge coupled device (CCD) photometry is presented in an effort to identify additional cluster members at very low masses. Low-dispersion spectra obtained for several of these candidates provide in some cases supporting evidence for cluster membership. The single brown dwarf candidate in this cluster is for the first time placed in a color-magnitude diagram with other cluster members, providing a better means for establishing its true status. Stars from among the list of new photometric candidates may provide the means for establishing a sequence of cluster members down to very faint magnitudes (V approximately 21) and consequently very low masses. New coordinate determinations for previous candidate members and finding charts for the new photometric candidates are provided in Appendices.

  9. Photometry and spectroscopy in the open cluster Alpha Persei, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Charles F.

    1993-01-01

    Results from a combination of new spectroscopic and photometric observations in the lower main-sequence and pre-main sequence of the open cluster alpha Persei are presented. New echelle spectroscopy has provided radial and rotational velocity information for thirteen candidate members, three of which are nonmembers based on radial velocity, absence of a Li 6707A feature, and absence of H-alpha emission. A set of revised rotational velocity estimates for several slowly rotating candidates identified earlier is given, yielding rotational velocities as low as 7 km/s for two apparent cluster members. VRI photometry for several pre-main sequence members is given; the new (V,V-I(sub K)) photometry yields a more clearly defined pre-main sequence. A list of approximately 43 new faint candidate members based on the (V,V-I(sub K)) CCD photometry is presented in an effort to identify additional cluster members at very low masses. Low-dispersion spectra obtained for several of these candidates provide in some cases supporting evidence for cluster membership. The single brown dwarf candidate in this cluster is for the first time placed in a color-magnitude diagram with other cluster members, providing a better means for establishing its true status. Stars from among the list of new photometric candidates may provide the means for establishing a sequence of cluster members down to very faint magnitudes (V approximately 21) and consequently very low masses. New coordinate determinations for previous candidate members and finding charts for the new photometric candidates are provided in appendices.

  10. Photometry and spectroscopy in the open cluster alpha Persei, 2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Charles F.

    1994-01-01

    Results from a combination of new spectroscopic and photometric observations in the lower main sequence and pre-main sequence of the open cluster alpha Persei are presented. New echelle spectroscopy has provided radial and rotational velocity information for thirteen candidate members, three of which are nonmembers based on radial velocity, absence of a Li 6707 A feature, and absence of H alpha emission. A set of revised rotational velocity estimates for several slowly rotating candidates identified earlier is given, yielding rotational velocities as low as 7 km/s for two apparent cluster members. VI photometry for several pre-main-sequence members is given; the new (V, V-I(sub K) photometry yields a more clearly defined pre-main sequence. A list of approximately 30 new faint candidate members based on the (V, V-I(sub K)), charge coupled device (CCD) photometry is presented in an effort to identify additional cluster members at very low masses. Low-dispersion spectra obtained for several of these candidates provide in some cases supporting evidence for cluster membership. The single brown dwarf candidate in this cluster is for the first time placed in a color-magnitude diagram with other cluster members, providing a better means for establishing its true status. Stars from among the list of new photometric candidates may provide the means for establishing a sequence of cluster members down to very faint magnitudes (V approximately 21) and consequently very low masses. New coordinate determinations for previous candidate members and finding charts for the new photometric candidates are provided in Appendices.

  11. Spectroscopic and Photometric Study of Open Cluster Trumpler 27

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obonyo, W. O.; Baki, P.

    2016-12-01

    Open clusters are essential laboratories for understanding stellar evolution, as they allow constraints to be placed on stellar ages and luminosities. As distance indicators, they are important tracers of star formation in the Milky Way. One such cluster is Trumpler 27. Spectroscopic and photometric data of Trumpler 27 was used to estimate its distance, radial velocity, age, membership and reddening. The Spectroscopic data collected from SAAO's 1.9m telescope and photometric ones from catalogues were used to estimate reddening, identify cluster stars and approximate cluster distance. Classification of spectra was done by comparing them to spectral templates. The result from this work suggests that Trumpler 27 is made up of ∼55 stars which are at different stages of evolution. The stars include main sequence stars, blue supergiants, two cool supergiants and maybe the two WR stars. The cluster's age and distance were found to be 10Myrs old and 2.6 ± 0.2 kpc away from the Sun respectively suggesting that it is located on the outer part of Scutum Centaurus arm of the Galaxy. Its reddening, E(B - V) varies substantially across the field with the average value being 1.3±0.2. It has a radial velocity of -15.3±3km/s, as approximated from some of its cool supergiants. There is a likelihood of a younger population of OB stars located at 3.5 kpc away from the sun, that is right behind Trumpler 27 interpreted as either a cluster or background stars that mimic a cluster.

  12. Investigation of the open star cluster NGC 6800

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananjevskaja, Yu. K.; Frolov, V. N.; Polyakov, E. V.

    2015-07-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of the Galactic open cluster NGC 6800 are presented. The positions of stars to a limiting magnitude B ≃ 16{./ m }5 in an 80' × 80' field centered at the cluster were measured on eight plates from the Pulkovo normal astrograph with a maximum epoch difference of 57 years. The measurements were performed with the Pulkovo "Fantasy" automated measuring system. The corresponding field from the 2MASS catalogue was used as an additional plate. As a result, the relative proper motions of stars were obtained with a root-mean-square error of 3.0 mas yr-1. A catalogue of BV and JHK magnitudes for objects in the investigated region was compiled from available published resources. The astrometric selection of cluster members was made by the maximum likelihood method. An individual cluster membership probability of a star P ≥ 60% served as the first selection criterion. The position of a star on the photometric color-magnitude ( V ~ B - V, J ~ J - K s ) diagrams was considered as the second selection criterion. On the basis of these criteria, it was established that 109 stars are members of NGC 6800, These data were used to refine the physical parameters of the cluster: the mean reddening E( B - V) = 0 m . 40, the true distance modulus ( V - M V )0 = 10{./ m }05, and the cluster age ~250 Myr. The luminosity and mass functions were constructed. The position of the center of the cluster NGC 6800 was improved: α = 19h27m11{./s}2 and δ = +25°07'24〃(2000). The catalogue of relative proper motions for stars in the field is available in electronic form only.

  13. The distance to the young open cluster Westerlund 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, G.; Turner, D.; Majaess, D.; Baume, G.

    2013-07-01

    A new X-ray, UBVRIc, and JHKs study of the young cluster Westerlund 2 was undertaken to resolve discrepancies tied to the cluster's distance. Existing spectroscopic observations for bright cluster members and new multi-band photometry imply a reddening relation toward Westerlund 2 described by EU - B/EB - V = 0.63 + 0.02EB - V. Variable-extinction analyses for Westerlund 2 and nearby IC 2581 based upon spectroscopic distance moduli and ZAMS fitting yield values of RV = AV/EB - V = 3.88 ± 0.18 and 3.77 ± 0.19, respectively, and confirm prior assertions that anomalous interstellar extinction is widespread throughout Carina. The results were confirmed by applying the color-difference method to UBVRIcJHKs data for 19 spectroscopically observed cluster members, yielding RV = 3.85 ± 0.07. The derived distance to Westerlund 2 of d = 2.85 ± 0.43 kpc places the cluster on the far side of the Carina spiral arm. The cluster's age is no more than τ ~ 2 × 106 yr as inferred from the cluster's brightest stars and an X-ray (Chandra) cleaned analysis of its pre-main-sequence demographic. Four Wolf-Rayet stars in the cluster core and surrounding corona (WR20a, WR20b, WR20c, and WR20aa) are very likely cluster members, and their inferred luminosities are consistent with those of other late-WN stars in open clusters. The color-magnitude diagram for Westerlund 2 also displays a gap at spectral type B0.5 V with associated color spread at higher and lower absolute magnitudes that might be linked to close binary mergers. These features, in conjunction with the evidence for mass loss from the WR stars, may help to explain the high flux of γ-rays, cosmic rays, and X-rays from the direction toward Westerlund 2. Based on observations carried out at Las Campanas Observatory.Full photometric data are available at the CDS via anomymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/555/A50

  14. Abundances and kinematics for ten anticentre open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Donati, P.; Vallenari, A.; Sordo, R.; Bragaglia, A.; Magrini, L.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Open clusters are distributed all across the Galactic disk and are convenient tracers of its properties. In particular, outer disk clusters bear a key role in the investigation of the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk. Aims: The goal of this study is to derive homogeneous elemental abundances for a sample of ten outer disk open clusters, and investigate possible links with disk structures such as the Galactic anticentre stellar structure. Methods: We analysed high-resolution spectra of red giants, obtained from the Keck-HIRES and VLT-UVES archives. We derived elemental abundances and stellar atmosphere parameters by means of the classical equivalent width method. We also performed orbit integrations using proper motions. Results: The Fe abundances we derive trace a shallow negative radial metallicity gradient of slope -0.027 ± 0.007 dex kpc-1 in the outer 12 kpc of the disk. The [α/Fe] gradient appears flat, with a slope of 0.006 ± 0.007 dex kpc-1. The two outermost clusters (Be 29 and Sau 1) appear to follow elliptical orbits. The cluster Be 20 also exhibits a peculiar orbit with a large excursion above the plane. Conclusions: The irregular orbits of the three most metal poor clusters (two of which are located at the edge of the Galactic disk), are compatible with an inside-out formation scenario for the Milky Way in which extragalactic material is accreted onto the outer disk. This is the case if the irregular orbits of these clusters are confirmed by more robust astrometric measurements such as those of the Gaia mission. We cannot determine whether Be 20, Be 29, and Sau 1 are of extragalactic origin, as they may be old, genuine Galactic clusters whose orbits were perturbed by accretion events or minor mergers in the past 5 Gyr, or they may be representants of the thick disk population. The nature of these objects is intriguing and deserves further investigation in the near future. The measured equivalent widths are only available at the CDS via

  15. TWO BARIUM STARS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 5822

    SciTech Connect

    Katime Santrich, O. J.; Pereira, C. B.; De Castro, D. B. E-mail: claudio@on.br

    2013-08-01

    Open clusters are very useful examples to explain the constraint of the nucleosynthesis process with the luminosities of stars because the distances of the clusters are better known than those of field stars. We carried out a detailed spectroscopic analysis to derive the chemical composition of two red giants in the young open cluster NGC 5822, NGC 5822-2, and NGC 5822-201. We obtained abundances of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Si, Ti, Ni, Cr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. The atmospheric parameters of the studied stars and their chemical abundances were determined using high-resolution optical spectroscopy. We employed the local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. The abundances of the light elements were derived using the spectral synthesis technique. We found that NGC 5822-2 and -201 have, respectively, a mean overabundance of the elements created by the s-process, ''s'', with the notation [s/Fe] of 0.77 {+-} 0.12 and 0.83 {+-} 0.05. These values are higher than those for field giants of similar metallicity. We also found that NGC 5822-2 and -201 have, respectively, luminosities of 140 L{sub Sun} and 76 L{sub Sun }, which are much lower than the luminosity of an asymptotic giant branch star. We conclude that NGC 5822-2 and NGC 5822-201 are two new barium stars first identified in the open cluster NGC 5822. The mass transfer hypothesis is the best scenario to explain the observed overabundances.

  16. Testing the chemical tagging technique with open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Soubiran, C.; Heiter, U.; Asplund, M.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Feltzing, S.; González-Hernández, J. I.; Jiménez-Esteban, F.; Korn, A. J.; Marino, A. F.; Montes, D.; San Roman, I.; Tabernero, H. M.; Tautvaišienė, G.

    2015-05-01

    Context. Stars are born together from giant molecular clouds and, if we assume that the priors were chemically homogeneous and well-mixed, we expect them to share the same chemical composition. Most of the stellar aggregates are disrupted while orbiting the Galaxy and most of the dynamic information is lost, thus the only possibility of reconstructing the stellar formation history is to analyze the chemical abundances that we observe today. Aims: The chemical tagging technique aims to recover disrupted stellar clusters based merely on their chemical composition. We evaluate the viability of this technique to recover co-natal stars that are no longer gravitationally bound. Methods: Open clusters are co-natal aggregates that have managed to survive together. We compiled stellar spectra from 31 old and intermediate-age open clusters, homogeneously derived atmospheric parameters, and 17 abundance species, and applied machine learning algorithms to group the stars based on their chemical composition. This approach allows us to evaluate the viability and efficiency of the chemical tagging technique. Results: We found that stars at different evolutionary stages have distinct chemical patterns that may be due to NLTE effects, atomic diffusion, mixing, and biases. When separating stars into dwarfs and giants, we observed that a few open clusters show distinct chemical signatures while the majority show a high degree of overlap. This limits the recovery of co-natal aggregates by applying the chemical tagging technique. Nevertheless, there is room for improvement if more elements are included and models are improved. Based on observations obtained at the Telescope Bernard Lyot (USR5026) operated by the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse (Paul Sabatier), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and on public data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility under requests number 81252 and 81618.

  17. Time-Series Monitoring of Open Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojaev, A. S.; Semakov, D. G.

    2006-08-01

    Star clusters especially a compact ones (with diameter of few to ten arcmin) are suitable targets to search of light variability for orchestera of stars by means of ordinary Casegrain telescope plus CCD system. A special patroling with short time-fixed exposures and mmag accuracy could be used also to study of stellar oscillation for group of stars simultaneously. The last can be carried out both separately from one site and within international campaigns. Detection and study of optical variability of X-ray sources including X-ray binaries with compact objects might be as a result of a long-term monitoring of such clusters as well. We present the program of open star clusters monitoring with Zeiss 1 meter RCC telescope of Maidanak observatory has been recently automated. In combination with quite good seeing at this observatory (see, e.g., Sarazin, M. 1999, URL http://www.eso.org/gen-fac/pubs/astclim/) the automatic telescope equipped with large-format (2KX2K) CCD camera AP-10 available will allow to collect homogenious time-series for analysis. We already started this program in 2001 and had a set of patrol observations with Zeiss 0.6 meter telescope and AP-10 camera in 2003. 7 compact open clusters in the Milky Way (NGC 7801, King1, King 13, King18, King20, Berkeley 55, IC 4996) have been monitored for stellar variability and some results of photometry will be presented. A few interesting variables were discovered and dozens were suspected for variability to the moment in these clusters for the first time. We have made steps to join the Whole-Earth Telescope effort in its future campaigns.

  18. Strengthening the open cluster distance scale via VVV photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majaess, D.; Turner, D.; Moni Bidin, C.; Geisler, D.; Borissova, J.; Minniti, D.; Bonatto, C.; Gieren, W.; Carraro, G.; Kurtev, R.; Mauro, F.; Chené, A.-N.; Forbes, D.; Lucas, P.; Dékány, I.; Saito, R. K.; Soto, M.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 14% of known Galactic open clusters possess absolute errors ≤ 20% as evaluated from n ≥ 3 independent distance estimates, and the statistics for age estimates are markedly worse. That impedes such diverse efforts as calibrating standard candles and constraining masses for substellar companions. New data from the VVV survey may be employed to establish precise cluster distances with comparatively reduced uncertainties ( ≤ 10%). This is illustrated by deriving parameters for Pismis 19 and NGC 4349, two pertinent open clusters which hitherto feature sizable uncertainties (60%). Fundamental parameters determined for Pismis 19 from new VVV JHKs photometry are d = 2.40 ± 0.15 kpc, ⟨EJ - H⟩ = 0.34 ± 0.04, and log τ = 9.05 ± 0.10, whereas for NGC 4349 the analysis yielded d = 1.63 ± 0.13 kpc, EJ - H = 0.09 ± 0.02, log τ = 8.55 ± 0.10. The results exhibit a significant ( ≥ 5 × ) reduction in uncertainties, and indicate that: i) existing parameters for the substellar object NGC 4349 127b require revision, in part because the new cluster parameters imply that the host is 20% less-massive (ℳ∗/ℳ⊙ ~ 3.1); ii) R Cru is not a member of NGC 4349 and should be excluded from period-Wesenheit calibrations that anchor the distance scale; iii) and results for Pismis 19 underscore the advantages gleaned from employing deep VVV JHKs data to examine obscured (AV ~ 4) and differentially reddened intermediate-age clusters. Based on observations taken within the ESO VISTA Public Survey VVV, Programme ID 179.B-2002.

  19. The Origin of Gamma-Rays from Young Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Yutaka; Muller, Erik; Saito, Masao; Kobayashi, Naoto; Yasui, Chikako

    2012-04-01

    Young massive open clusters are often believed to be sites of cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration. In such clusters, OB stars explode for short intervals of time, and CRs may be accelerated to higher energies than those in a single supernova remnant. Thus, with MOPRA we propose to observe two young massive open clusters, Westerlund 1 and RSGC 1, from which gamma-rays have been detected. We observe them in order to reveal the origin of the gamma-rays and acceleration mechanism of the CRs from which gamma-rays originate. We plan to observe recombination line emission of H73a and CO to find the kinematics and distribution of interstellar matter (ISM). From the velocity fields of the ISM, we will find the position of the energy source. From the ratio of the ISM kinetic energy to the total CR energy, we can find the efficiency of CR acceleration, which gives us a clue to the acceleration mechanism of the CRs. From the correlation between ISM maps and gamma-ray maps, we can conclude whether ISM is working as the targets of the CR.

  20. The open cluster King 1 in the second quadrant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, Ricardo; Rodríguez Espinosa, Loreto; Casamiquela, Laia; Balaguer Nuñez, Lola; Jordi, Carme; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Stetson, Peter B.

    2017-10-01

    We analyse the poorly studied open cluster King 1 in the second Galactic quadrant. From wide-field photometry, we have studied the spatial distribution of this cluster. We determined that the centre of King 1 is located at α2000 = 00h22m and δ2000 = +64°23΄. By parameterizing the stellar density with a King profile, we have obtained a central density of ρ0 = 6.5 ± 0.2 star arcmin-2 and a core radius of rcore = 1.9 ± 0.2 arcmin. By comparing the observed colour-magnitude diagram of King 1 with those of similar open clusters and with different sets of isochrones, we have estimated an age of 2.8 ± 0.3 Gyr, a distance modulus of (m - M)o = 10.6 ± 0.1 mag and a reddening of E(B - V) = 0.80 ± 0.05 mag. To complete our analysis, we acquired medium resolution spectra for 189 stars in the area of King 1. From their derived radial velocities, we determined an average velocity = -53.1 ± 3.1 km s-1. From the strength of the infrared Ca ii lines in red giants we have determined an average metallicity of <[M/H]> = +0.07 ± 0.08 dex. From spectral synthesis, we have also estimated an α-elements abundance of <[α/M]> = -0.10 ± 0.08 dex.

  1. NGC 6067: A young and populous open cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Santiago, J.; Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; Tabernero, H. M.; González-Fernández, C.; Castro, N.

    2017-03-01

    NGC 6067 is a young open cluster hosting the largest population of evolved stars among known Milky Way clusters in the 50 – 100 Ma age range. It thus represents the best laboratory in our Galaxy to constrain the evolutionary tracks of 5-7 M_{⊙} stars. We have used high-resolution spectra of a large sample of bright cluster members (45), combined with archival photometry, to obtain accurate parameters for the cluster as well as stellar atmospheric parameters. We derive a distance of 1.78±0.12 kpc, an age of 90±20 My and a tidal radius of 14.8^{6.8}_{3.2} arcmin. We estimate an initial mass above 5700 M_{⊙}, for a present-day evolved population of two Cepheids, two A supergiants and 12 red giants with masses ≈ 6 M_{⊙}. We also determine chemical abundances of Li, O, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Ni, Rb, Y, and Ba for the clump stars. We find a supersolar metallicity, [Fe/H]=+0.19±0.05, and a homogeneous chemical composition, consistent with the Galactic metallicity gradient. The presence of a Li-rich red giant, star 276, is also detected. An over-abundance of Ba is found, supporting the enhanced s-process. The mass of V340 Nor, a Cepheid that seems younger than the cluster itself, suggests that it has been a mass gainer in an interacting binary. The ratio of blue to red giants is smaller than one, in agreement with models with moderate overshooting, but the properties of the cluster Cepheids do not seem consistent with current Padova models for supersolar metallicity.

  2. The old, metal-poor, anticentre open cluster Trumpler 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, P.; Cocozza, G.; Bragaglia, A.; Pancino, E.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carrera, R.; Tosi, M.

    2015-01-01

    As part of a long-term programme, we analyse the evolutionary status and properties of the old and populous open cluster Trumpler 5 (Tr 5), located in the Galactic anticentre direction, almost on the Galactic plane. Tr 5 was observed with Wide Field Imager@MPG/ESO Telescope using the Bessel U, B, and V filters. The cluster parameters have been obtained using the synthetic colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) method, i.e. the direct comparison of the observational CMD with a library of synthetic CMDs generated with different stellar evolution sets (Padova, FRANEC, and FST). Age, reddening, and distance are derived through the synthetic CMD method using stellar evolutionary models with subsolar metallicity (Z = 0.004 or Z = 0.006). Additional spectroscopic observations with Ultraviolet VLT Echelle Spectrograph@Very Large Telescope of three red clump stars of the cluster were used to determine more robustly the chemical properties of the cluster. Our analysis shows that Tr 5 has subsolar metallicity, with [Fe/H] = -0.403 ± 0.006 dex (derived from spectroscopy), age between 2.9 and 4 Gyr (the lower age is found using stellar models without core overshooting), reddening E(B - V) in the range 0.60-0.66 mag complicated by a differential pattern (of the order of ˜±0.1 mag), and distance modulus (m - M)0 = 12.4 ± 0.1 mag.

  3. CCD UBV(RI)C photometry of twenty open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oralhan, İnci Akkaya; Karataş, Yüksel; Schuster, William J.; Michel, Raúl; Chavarría, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental astrophysical parameters have been derived for 20 open clusters (OCs) using CCD UBV(RI)C photometric data observed with the 84 cm telescope at the San Pedro Mártir National Astronomical Observatory, México. The interstellar reddenings, metallicities, distances, and ages have been compared to the literature values. Significant differences are usually due to the usage of diverse empirical calibrations and differing assumptions, such as concerning cluster metallicity, as well as distinct isochrones which correspond to differing element-abundance ratios, internal stellar physics, and photometric systems. Different interstellar reddenings, as well as varying reduction and cluster-membership techniques, are also responsible for these kinds of systematic differences and errors. The morphological ages, which are derived from the morphological indices (δV and δ1) in the CM diagrams, are in good agreement with the isochrone ages of 12 OCs, those with good red clump (RC) and red giant (RG) star candidates. No metal abundance gradient is detected for the range 6.82⩽RGC⩽15.37 kpc, nor any correlation between the cluster ages and metal abundances for these 20 OCs. Young, metal-poor OCs, observed here in the third Galactic quadrant, may be associated with stellar over-densities, such as that in Canis Major (Martin et al.) and the Monoceros Ring (Newberg et al.), or signatures of past accretion events, as discussed by Yong et al. and Carraro et al.

  4. A Dynamical Evolution Study of 40 2MASS Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güneş, Orhan; Karataş, Yüksel; Bonatto, Charles

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the dynamical evolution of 40 open clusters (OCs) by means of their astrophysical parameters derived from field-decontaminated 2MASS photometry. We find a bifurcation in the planes core radius vs. age and cluster radius vs. age, in which part of the clusters appear to expand with time probably due to the presence of stellar black holes while others seem to shrink due to dynamical relaxation. Mass functions (MFs) are built for 3/4 of the sample (31 OCs), which are used to search for indications of mass segregation and external dynamical processes by means of relations among astrophysical, structural and evolutionary parameters. We detect a flattening of MF slopes ocurring at the evolutionary parameters τ_{core}≤ 32 and τ_{overall}≤ 30, respectively. Within the uncertainties involved, the overall MF slopes of 14 out of 31 OCs with m_{overall} > 500 M_{⊙} are consistent with Kroupa's initial mass function, implying little or no dynamical evolution for these clusters. The remaining 17 OCs with MF slopes departing from that of Kroupa show mild/large scale mass segregation due to dynamical evolution.

  5. The open cluster Havlen-Moffat No. 1 revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, R. A.; Baume, G.

    2001-06-01

    A deep CCD UBVRI photometric survey combined with UBVRI polarimetric observations of 21 bright stars was carried out in the region of the open cluster Havlen-Moffat No. 1. Our data reveal that the extinction law in this cluster is variable and that six cluster stars show very high polarisation values (>4%), probably because of the presence of a nearby small dust cloud. The cluster is at a distance of d = 3300 pc, it is 2-4 Myr old and the initial mass function of its most massive stars (M > 3 Msun ) has a flat slope of x~ 0.7. As an additional result, it was possible to reconcile the absolute magnitudes of the two WN7-type members using the R-values valid in the regions where they are located. Based on observations collected at the University of Toronto Southern Observatory, Las Campanas, Chile, and the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, (CASLEO), Argentina, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/371/908.

  6. WIYN open cluster study. LIX. Radial velocity membership of the evolved population of the old open cluster NGC 6791

    SciTech Connect

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Gosnell, Natalie M.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Platais, Imants E-mail: imants@pha.jhu.edu

    2014-10-01

    The open cluster NGC 6791 has been the focus of much recent study due to its intriguing combination of old age and high metallicity (∼8 Gyr, [Fe/H] = +0.30), as well as its location within the Kepler field. As part of the WIYN Open Cluster Study, we present precise (σ = 0.38 km s{sup –1}) radial velocities for proper motion candidate members of NGC 6791 from Platais et al. Our survey, extending down to g' ∼ 16.8, is comprised of the evolved cluster population, including blue stragglers, giants, and horizontal branch stars. Of the 280 proper-motion-selected stars above our magnitude limit, 93% have at least one radial velocity measurement and 79% have three measurements over the course of at least 200 days, sufficient for secure radial-velocity-determined membership of non-velocity-variable stars. The Platais et al. proper motion catalog includes 12 anomalous horizontal branch candidates blueward of the red clump, of which we find only 4 to be cluster members. Three fall slightly blueward of the red clump and the fourth is consistent with being a blue straggler. The cleaned color-magnitude diagram shows a richly populated red giant branch and a blue straggler population. Half of the blue stragglers are in binaries. From our radial velocity measurement distribution, we find the cluster's radial velocity dispersion to be σ {sub c} = 0.62 ± 0.10 km s{sup –1}. This corresponds to a dynamical mass of ∼4600 M {sub ☉}.

  7. The Galactic open cluster system: evidence of enhanced formation episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.

    The exciting debate about the existence of signs of enhanced formation of Galactic open clusters (OCs) is revisited here on the basis of a revised age distribution. By using the recently updated 2009 version of the Dias et al. catalogue of 1787 OCs, we found that the present OC's age distribution presents two primary excesses at t ~ 10-15 Myr and 1.5 Gyr. We interpret both excesses as signs of enhanced formation episodes similar to those that occurred in other galaxies (e.g., M 51, NGC 1705). When restricting the OC sample to those located in the solar neighbourhood, with the aim of avoiding incompleteness effects, we also find that these clusters are engraved with clear signs of enhanced formation at both ages.

  8. Blue stragglers in open clusters. III. NGC 7789

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönberner, D.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Drilling, J. S.

    2001-02-01

    We performed for the first time a detailed LTE spectroscopic study of a sample of blue straggler stars in the moderately old open cluster NGC 7789. For eight stars the parameters and abundances of several elements were determined. The cluster members show a remarkable surface magnesium deficiency which is quite unusual for late B - early A stars. Iron and titanium abundances are in agreement with other photometric and spectroscopic estimates of the NGC 7789 metallicity. All the confirmed blue stragglers have rather low projected rotational velocities (with one exception for K88, vsin i = 80 km s-1). Based on the spectra collected at Kitt Peak National Observatory, operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under contract with the National Science Foundation, and at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Plank Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy.}

  9. Two Intermediate Age Open Clusters - NGC752 and NGC3680

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, G.; Bertelli, G.; Bressan, A.; Chiosi, C.

    1993-10-01

    In this paper, with the aid of synthetic color-magnitude diagram (CMD) technique we study two scarcely populated and slightly metal-poor intermediate age open clusters, namely NGC 752 and NGC 3680. The analysis is made using both standard and overshoot models calculated by the Padova group (Fagotto 1990; Alongi et al. 1991, 1993). The advantage with the synthetic CMD technique is that it allows for quantitative predictions for the star counts and luminosity functions. Adopting the metallicity indicated for each cluster by current determinations, we seek to determine the color excess, distance modulus, and age at the same time. Looking at the fit of the whole CMD, the behaviour of the main sequence stars LF, and two suitable ratios of star counts we try to discriminate between the two evolutionary schemes. We suggest that models with convective overshoot ought to be preferred to the classical ones.

  10. Late-Type Membership of the Open Cluster NGC 2232

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orban, Chris; Patten, Brian

    2004-01-01

    NGC 2232 is one of the nearest open clusters (approx.360 pc) with an age of approx.25 Myr. This places it in the unique position to study the transition from T Tauri activity to the Zero Age Main Sequence. In order for those studies to begin, late-type members must be identified for the cluster. X-ray observations combined with ground-based photometry and spectroscopy offers the best way to accomplish this goal. We present photometry in the VRI bands, 2MASS near-infrared measurements in the J, H , Ks bands and spectra for the suspected optical counterparts to the X-ray sources in the field of NGC 2232. 46 candidate members were identified through these efforts ranging from F5 to M5.

  11. LITHIUM IN THE INTERMEDIATE-AGE OPEN CLUSTER, NGC 3680

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Twarog, Bruce A.; Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Croxall, Kevin V.; Cummings, Jeffrey D. E-mail: btwarog@ku.edu E-mail: kcroxall@indiana.edu

    2009-10-15

    High-dispersion spectra centered on the Li 6708 A line have been obtained for 70 potential members of the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 3680, with an emphasis on stars in the turnoff region of the cluster color-magnitude diagram (CMD). A measurable Li abundance has been derived for 53 stars, 39 of which have radial velocities and proper motions consistent with cluster membership. After being transferred to common temperature and abundance scales, previous Li estimates have been combined to generate a sample of 49 members, 40 of which bracket the cluster Li-dip. Spectroscopic elemental analysis of eight giants and five turnoff stars produces [Fe/H] = -0.17 {+-} 0.07 (sd) and -0.07 {+-} 0.02 (sd), respectively. We also report measurements of Ca, Si, and Ni which are consistent with scaled-solar ratios within the errors. Adopting [Fe/H] = -0.08 (Section 3.6), Y {sup 2} isochrone comparisons lead to an age of 1.75 {+-} 0.1 Gyr and an apparent modulus of (m - M) = 10.30 {+-} 0.15 for the cluster, placing the center of the Li-dip at 1.35 {+-} 0.03 M {sub sun}. Among the giants, five of the nine cluster members are now known to have measurable Li with A(Li) near 1.0. A combined sample of dwarfs in the Hyades and Praesepe is used to delineate the Li-dip profile at 0.7 Gyr and [Fe/H] = +0.15, establishing its center at 1.42 {+-} 0.02 M {sub sun} and noting the possible existence of a secondary dip on its red boundary. When evolved to the typical age of the clusters NGC 752 (age = 1.45 Gyr, (m - M) = 8.4), IC 4651 (age = 1.5 Gyr, (m - M) = 10.4), and NGC 3680, the Hyades/Praesepe Li-dip profile reproduces the observed morphology of the combined Li-dip within the CMDs of the intermediate-age clusters while implying a metallicity dependence for the central mass of the Li-dip given by M/M {sub sun} = 1.38 {+-} 0.04 + 0.4 {+-} 0.2 [Fe/H]. The implications of the similarity of the Li-dichotomy among giants in NGC 752 and IC 4651 and the disagreement with the pattern among NGC

  12. On the physical nature of six galactic open cluster candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Ahumada, A. V.

    We present CCD UBVI_(KC) photometry in the fields of the unstudied open cluster (OC) candidates Haffner 3, Haffner 5, NGC 2368, Haffner 25, Hogg 3 and Hogg 4. Our analysis shows that none of these objects are genuine OCs since no clear main sequences or other typical features can be seen in their colour-magnitude and colour-colour diagrams. Star counts performed within and outside the OC candidate fields not only support these results but also suggest that these objects are not OC remnants. A detailed version of this work can be seen in New Astronomy, 16, 161 (2011).

  13. The OPD photometric survey of open clusters II. robust determination of the fundamental parameters of 24 open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, H.; Dias, W. S.; Hickel, G. R.; Caetano, T. C.

    2017-02-01

    In the second paper of the series we continue the investigation of open cluster fundamental parameters using a robust global optimization method to fit model isochrones to photometric data. We present optical UBVRI CCD photometry (Johnsons-Cousins system) observations for 24 neglected open clusters, of which 14 have high quality data in the visible obtained for the first time, as a part of our ongoing survey being carried out in the 0.6 m telescope of the Pico dos Dias Observatory in Brazil. All objects were then analyzed with a global optimization tool developed by our group which estimates the membership likelihood of the observed stars and fits an isochrone from which a distance, age, reddening, total to selective extinction ratio RV (included in this work as a new free parameter) and metallicity are estimated. Based on those estimates and their associated errors we analyzed the status of each object as real clusters or not, finding that two are likely to be asterisms. We also identify important discrepancies between our results and previous ones obtained in the literature which were determined using 2MASS photometry.

  14. Open Clusters as Tracers of the Galactic Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantat-Gaudin, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Open clusters (OCs) are routinely used as reliable tracers of the properties and evolution of the galactic disk, as they can be found at all galactocentric distances and span a wide range of ages. More than 3000 OCs are listed in catalogues, although few have been studied in details. The goal of this work is to study the properties of open clusters. This work was conducted in the framework of the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES). GES is an observational campaign targeting more than 100,000 stars in all major components of the Milky Way, including stars in a hundred open clusters. It uses the FLAMES instrument at the VLT to produce high and medium-resolution spectra, which provide accurate radial velocities and individual elemental abundances. In this framework, the goals of the Thesis are: * to study the properties of OCs and of their stars from photometry and spectroscopy to derive their age, the extinction and the chemical composition of the stars, to begin to build a homogeneous data base. Looking at literature data it is clear that different authors derive substantially different chemical compositions, and in general OC parameters. * the study of OCs and their chemical homogeneity (or inhomogeneity) can cast light on what is still an open issue: the presence of multiple populations in clusters. While multiple generations of stars are now ubiquitously found in globular clusters in the Milky Way and in the Magellanic Clouds, they have not been yet detected in open clusters. What is the main driver of the self-pollution process? * to study the cluster formation process. All, or at least a significant fraction of stars form in clusters. Young clusters (a few Myr) can retain some of the properties of the molecular cloud they originate from and give us insight about the cluster assembly process. The first GES data release contains data for the young OC Gamma Velorum, in which two (dynamically different) subpopulations have been identified. This cluster can serve as a test case

  15. Polarimetry of an intermediate-age open cluster: NGC 5617

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsatti, A. M.; Feinstein, C.; Vergne, M. M.; Martínez, R. E.; Vega, E. I.

    2010-04-01

    Aims: We present polarimetric observations in the UBVRI bands of 72 stars located in the direction of the medium age open cluster NGC 5617. Our intention is to use polarimetry as a tool in membership identification, by building on previous investigations intended mainly to determine the cluster's general characteristics rather than provide membership suitable for studies such as stellar content and metallicity, as well as study the characteristics of the dust lying between the Sun and the cluster. Methods: The obsevations were carried out using the five-channel photopolarimeter of the Torino Astronomical Observatory attached to the 2.15 m telescope at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO; Argentina). Results: We are able to add 32 stars to the list of members of NGC 5617, and review the situation for others listed in the literature. In particular, we find that five blue straggler stars in the region of the cluster are located behind the same dust as the member stars are and we confirm the membership of two red giants. The proposed polarimetric memberships are compared with those derived by photometric and kinematical methods, with excellent results. Among the observed stars, we identify 10 with intrinsic polarization in their light. NGC 5617 can be polarimetrically characterized with Pmax = 4.40 % and θv = 73.1 deg. The spread in polarization values for the stars observed in the direction of the cluster seems to be caused by the uneven distribution of dust in front of the cluster's face. Finally, we find that in the direction of the cluster, the interstellar medium is apparently free of dust, from the Sun's position up to the Carina-Sagittarius arm, where NGC 5617 seems to be located at its farthest border. Based on observations obtained at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  16. The Old, Super-Metal-Rich Open Cluster, NGC 6791

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; Lum, Michael G. G.; Deliyannis, Constantine P.

    2015-08-01

    Stellar evolution and Galactic evolution have both been greatly advanced by the study of star clusters. In addition the elemental abundance results from clusters have revealed information about Galactic chemical evolution and nucleosynthesis. The cluster, NGC 6791, has a number of bizarre properties that make it especially interesting for comparative cluster studies. It is old (8.3 Gyr) yet metal-rich ([Fe/H] = +0.30). It has a heliocentric distance of 4 kpc and a galactic latitude of +11 degrees which makes it 1 kpc above the galactic plane. Its boxy orbit has a high eccentricity (~0.5) with a perigalactic distance of 3 kpc and an apogalactic distance of 10 kpc. The orbital period of ~130 Myr indicates that it has crossed the Galactic plane several times yet has remained as an intact cluster. We have determined abundances from high-resolution (R = 46,000) Keck/HIRES spectra of turn-off stars in this open cluster NGC 6791. We have a solid determination of [Fe/H] = +0.30 +/-0.02 from measurements of some 40 unblended, unsaturated lines of both Fe I and Fe II in eight turn-off stars. Our O abundances come from the O I triplet near 7774 Å and are corrected for small nLTE effects. We find consistent ratios of [O/Fe]n with a mean of -0.06 +/-0.02, indicating a single population of stars. Our results for the alpha elements [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] are near solar and compare well with those of old, metal-rich field stars. The Fe-peak elements, Cr and Ni, have values of [Cr/Fe] = +0.05 +/-0.02 and [Ni/Fe] = +0.04 +/-0.01. Determinations of upper limits were found for Li by spectrum synthesis; this is consistent with the upper limits in this temperature range for turn-off/subgiant stars in the relatively old, super-metal-rich cluster NGC 6253. We speculate that no stars in NGC 6791 have retained the Li with which they formed.

  17. TX Cnc AS A MEMBER OF THE PRAESEPE OPEN CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. B.; Deng, L.; Lu, P.

    2009-08-15

    We present B-, V-, and I-band CCD photometry of the W UMa-type binary system TX Cnc, which is a member star of the Praesepe open cluster. Based on the observations, new ephemeris and a revised photometric solution of the binary system were derived. Combined with the results of the radial velocity solution contributed by Pribulla et al., the absolute parameters of the system were determined. The mass, radius, and luminosity of the primary component are derived to be 1.35 {+-} 0.02 M {sub sun}, 1.27 {+-} 0.04 R {sub sun}, and 2.13 {+-} 0.11 L {sub sun}. Those for the secondary star are computed as 0.61 {+-} 0.01 M {sub sun}, 0.89 {+-} 0.03 R {sub sun}, and 1.26 {+-} 0.07 L {sub sun}, respectively. Based on these results, a distance modulus of (m - M) {sub V} = 6.34 {+-} 0.05 is determined for the star. It confirms the membership of TX Cnc to the Praesepe open cluster. The evolutionary status and the physical nature of the binary system are discussed compared with the theoretical model.

  18. Efficient open-shell coupled-cluster and perturbation theories

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.J.; Jayatilaka, D.

    1993-12-31

    A new spin orbital basis is employed in the development of efficient open-shell coupled-cluster and perturbation theories that are based on a restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) reference function. The spin orbital basis is different from the standard one in the spin functions that are associated with the singly occupied spatial orbital. The occupied orbital (in the spin orbital basis) is assigned the {sigma}{sup +} = 1/{radical}2({alpha} + {beta}) spin function while the unoccupied orbital is assigned the {sigma}{sup {minus}} = 1/{radical}2({alpha} {minus} {beta}) spin function. The doubly occupied and unoccupied orbitals (in the reference function) are assigned the standard {alpha} and {beta} spin orbitals. The coupled-cluster and perturbation theory wave functions based on this set of {open_quotes}symmetric spin orbitals{close_quotes} exhibit much more symmetry than those based on the standard spin orbital basis. This, together with interacting space arguments, leads to a dramatic reduction in the computational cost.

  19. DEBRIS DISKS OF MEMBERS OF THE BLANCO 1 OPEN CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, John R.; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Rebull, Luisa M.; James, David; Strom, Steven; Wolk, Scott; Carpenter, John M.; Barrado y Navascues, David; Backman, Dana; Cargile, P. A.

    2010-08-20

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope to obtain Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) 24 {mu}m photometry for 37 members of the {approx}100 Myr old open cluster Blanco 1. For the brightest 25 of these stars (where we have 3{sigma} uncertainties less than 15%), we find significant mid-IR excesses for eight stars, corresponding to a debris disk detection frequency of about 32%. The stars with excesses include two A stars, four F dwarfs, and two G dwarfs. The most significant linkage between 24 {mu}m excess and any other stellar property for our Blanco 1 sample of stars is with binarity. Blanco 1 members that are photometric binaries show few or no detected 24 {mu}m excesses whereas a quarter of the apparently single Blanco 1 members do have excesses. We have examined the MIPS data for two other clusters of similar age to Blanco 1-NGC 2547 and the Pleiades. The AFGK photometric binary star members of both of these clusters also show a much lower frequency of 24 {mu}m excesses compared to stars that lie near the single-star main sequence. We provide a new determination of the relation between the V - K {sub s} color and K {sub s} - [24] color for main sequence photospheres based on Hyades members observed with MIPS. As a result of our analysis of the Hyades data, we identify three low mass Hyades members as candidates for having debris disks near the MIPS detection limit.

  20. Stellar rotational periods in the planet hosting open cluster Praesepe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Géza; Hartman, Joel D.; Bakos, Gáspár Á.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Penev, Kaloyan; Latham, David W.; Bhatti, Waqas; Csubry, Zoltán; de Val-Borro, Miguel

    2014-08-01

    By using the dense coverage of the extrasolar planet survey project HATNet (Hungarian-made Automated Telescope Network), we Fourier analyse 381 high-probability members of the nearby open cluster Praesepe (Beehive/M44/NGC 2632). In addition to the detection of 10 variables (of δ Scuti and other types), we identify 180 rotational variables (including the two known planet hosts). This sample increases the number of known rotational variables in this cluster for spectral classes earlier than M by more than a factor of 3. These stars closely follow a colour/magnitude-period relation from early F to late K stars. We approximate this relation by polynomials for an easier reference to the rotational characteristics in different colours. The total (peak-to-peak) amplitudes of the large majority (94 per cent) of these variables span the range of 0.005-0.04 mag. The periods cover a range from 2.5 to 15 d. These data strongly confirm that Praesepe and the Hyades have the same gyrochronological ages. Regarding the two planet hosts, Pr0211 (the one with the shorter orbital period) has a rotational period that is ˜2 d shorter than the one expected from the main rotational pattern in this cluster. This, together with other examples discussed in the paper, may hint that star-planet interaction via tidal dissipation can be significant in some cases in the rotational evolution of stars hosting hot Jupiters.

  1. Photometric study of the young open cluster NGC 3293

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baume, G.; Vázquez, R. A.; Carraro, G.; Feinstein, A.

    2003-05-01

    Deep and extensive CCD photometric observations at UBV(RI)_CHalpha were carried out in the area of the open cluster NGC 3293. The new data set allows to see the entire cluster sequence down to MV ~ +4.5, revealing that stars with MV < -2 are evolving off the main sequence; stars with -2 < MV < +2 are located on the main sequence and stars with MV > +2 are placed above it. According to our analysis, the cluster distance is d = 2750 +/- 250 pc (V0-MV = 12.2 +/- 0.2) and its nuclear age is 8 +/- 1 Myr. NGC 3293 contains an important fraction of pre-main sequence (PMS) stars distributed along a parallel band to the ZAMS with masses from 1 to 2.5 cal Msun and a mean contraction age of 10 Myr. This last value does not differ too much from the nuclear age estimate. If we take into account the many factors that may affect the PMS star positions on the colour-magnitude diagram, both ages can be perfectly reconciled. The star formation rate, on the other hand, suggests that NGC 3293 stars formed surely in one single event, therefore favouring a coeval process of star formation. Using the Halpha data, we detected nineteen stars with signs of Halpha emission in the region of NGC 3293, another indication that the star formation process is still active in the region. The computed initial mass function for the cluster has a slope of x = 1.2 +/- 0.2, a bit flatter than the typical slope for field stars and similar to the values found for other young open clusters. Based on observations collected at UTSO, ESO (Dutch 0.9 m telescope) and CASLEO. The CCD and data acquisition system at CASLEO has been partly financed by R.M. Rich through U.S. NSF Grant AST-90-15827. Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via an anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/402/549

  2. X-Ray Activity in the Open Cluster IC 4665

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giamapapa, Mark S.; Prosser, Charles F.; Fleming, Thomas A.

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of a joint ROSAT High Resolution Imager (HRI) and optical investigation of the open cluster IC 4665. The ROSAT data contains detections for 28 stellar sources in the field, including 22 cluster members and candidate members spanning the color range -0.18 less than or equal to (B - V(sub o)) less than or equal to +1.63 (approx. B3 - M3). Upper limits are given for the remaining members (or candidate members) in the HRI field. Keck HIRES spectra have been obtained that yield radial and rotational velocity measures, respectively, for faint, low mass candidate members located within the field of the ROSAT HRI observation. In addition, photometry of possible optical counterparts to previously uncatalogued X-ray sources in the HRI field is presented. The trends in X-ray properties with (B - V) color in IC 4665 are found to be quite similar to that for other, more nearby young clusters such as the Pleiades and alpha Persei. In particular, a maximum in normalized X-ray luminosity of log (L(sub x)/L(sub bol)) approx. equal 3 is observed, beginning in the color range of (B - V)(sub o) = 0.7 - 0.8. This is similar to the corresponding color range among Pleiades members, in agreement with the earlier estimate, that the age of IC 4665 is similar to the age of the Pleiades. The correlation of rotation and X-ray emission levels is consistent with that in other young clusters. Among the high mass stars in IC 4665, five B stars are detected as X-ray sources. Of these, one is a spectroscopic binary while the remaining objects are apparently single staxs. The level of intrinsic X-ray emission observed in the rapidly rotating (v sini greater than 200 km/ s), single B stars is consistent with an origin due to shock heating of the ambient medium by radiatively driven, rotationally enhanced winds. On the basis of these observations and the results for other clusters, we argue that observed levels of X-ray emission in high mass stars of log (L(sub x)/L(sub bol

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances in 23 open clusters. I. (Overbeek+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overbeek, J. C.; Friel, E. D.; Jacobson, H. R.

    2016-08-01

    Our open cluster (OC) data set is comprised mainly of KPNO 4m, CTIO, and HET spectra taken in past observing runs (described in Friel et al. 2003AJ....126.2372F, 2005, J/AJ/129/2725; Jacobson et al. 2008AJ....135.2341J, 2009, J/AJ/137/4753; Friel et al. 2010, J/AJ/139/1942; Jacobson & Friel 2013, J/AJ/145/107). These are observations of red giants in Be17, Be39, Cr261, M67, NGC188, NGC1193, NGC1245, NGC1817, NGC1883, NGC2141, NGC2158, NGC2194, NGC2355, NGC6939, and NGC7142. We have also obtained Keck spectra of five clusters, Be18, Be21, Be22, Be32, and PWM4, and CTIO spectra for Be31, courtesy of D. Yong (see Yong et al. 2005AJ....130..597Y, 2012, J/AJ/144/95 for details). We have McDonald 2.7m spectra of five stars in NGC 7789 courtesy of M. Briley (2013, private communication), and VLT UVES spectra of four stars in NGC 6192 from L. Magrini (see Magrini et al. 2010, J/A+A/523/A11, for details). We have 23 OCs total in our sample, which are summarized in Table 1. The signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of these data range from 60 to 180 per pixel, and the resolution ranges from R~25000 (older KPNO data) to R~47000 (UVES, Keck, and McDonald data). We have recently taken additional spectra of two stars each in NGC1817, NGC2141, and NGC6939 with the Apache Point Observatory (APO) 3.5m telescope. Our APO data were taken on the nights of 2014 November 16 (NGC 1817 and NGC 6939), 2015 January 6, 15, 26, and 28 (NGC 2141). We used the ARC Echelle Spectrograph on standard settings (3200-10000Å, R~32000). (8 data files).

  4. Revisiting the region of the open cluster NGC 5606

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsatti, A. M.; Feinstein, C.; Vega, E. I.; Vergne, M. M.

    2007-08-01

    We present polarimetric observations in the UBVRI bands corresponding to 54 stars located in the direction of NGC 5606. Our intention is to analyze the dust characteristics between the Sun and the cluster, as well as to confirm doubtful memberships using polarimetric tools. We also want to determine if a group of 11 B and A stars identified in the past by Vázquez & Feinstein (1991, A&AS, 87, 383) in front of NGC 5606 has any physical entity. From polarimetric data we have found at least two dust layers along the line of sight to the open cluster. The observations show that both dust layers have their local magnetic field with an orientation which is close to the direction of the Galactic Plane (θ = 70.0 °), but the direction of the polarimetric vector for the members of the cluster seems to be lower than this value. NGC 5606 can be polarimetrically characterized with P_max = 2.97% and θv = 63.5 °. The internal dispersion of the polarization values for the members of NGC 5606 seems to be compatible with intracluster dust. We were able to add four possible new members to the list of stars in NGC 5606, and to reject others accepted as members in past investigations; and we identified 17 (out of the 54 observed stars) with intrinsic polarization in their light. The group of late B- and A-type stars could be physically related, with characteristics of an open cluster of intermediate age (between 0.79 and 1. × 108 yr). For this group we obtained representative values of P = 2.12% and θv = 70.0 °. The new cluster, which we have provisionally named Anon (La Plata 1), extends from NE to SW across the face of NGC 5606 covering about 10'. The fitting procedure of Schmidt-Kaler's ZAMS (1982, in Landolt/Bornstein, Neue Series VI/2b) was used to derive the distance to the group, obtaining a distance modulus of Vo - Mv = 9.90 (649 pc from the Sun). The mean color excess associated with the small group is EB-V = 0.27 ± 0.08 mag and the dust distribution shows great

  5. A populous intermediate-age open cluster and evidence of an embedded cluster among the FSR globular cluster candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bica, E.; Bonatto, C.

    2008-03-01

    We study the nature of the globular cluster (GC) candidates FSR 1603 and FSR1755 selected from the catalogue of Froebrich, Scholz & Raftery. Their properties are investigated with Two-Micron All-Sky Survey field-star decontaminated photometry, which is used to build colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and stellar radial density profiles. FSR1603 has the open cluster Ruprecht 101 as optical counterpart, and we show it to be a massive intermediate-age cluster. Relevant parameters of FSR1603 are the age ~1Gyr, distance from the Sun dsolar ~ 2.7kpc, Galactocentric distance RGC ~ 6.4kpc, core radius RC ~ 1.1pc, mass function slope χ ~ 1.8, observed stellar mass (for stars with mass in the range 1.27 <= m <= 2.03Msolar) Mobs ~ 500Msolar and a total (extrapolated to m = 0.08Msolar) stellar mass Mtot ~ 2300Msolar. FSR1755, on the other hand, is not a populous cluster. It may be a sparse young cluster embedded in the HII region Sh2-3, subject to an absorption AV ~ 4.1, located at dsolar ~ 1.3kpc. Important field-star contamination, spatially variable heavy dust obscuration, even in Ks, and gas emission characterize its field. A nearly vertical, sparse blue stellar sequence shows up in the CMDs.

  6. Red giants in the vicinity of open clusters. Field stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, Yu. V.; Antipova, L. I.; Boyarchuk, A. A.; Zhao, G.; Liang, Ya.

    2009-08-01

    We present a comparative analysis of the atmospheric abundances of red giants in the vicinity of open clusters. The atmospheric parameters, atmospheric abundances, masses, ages, Galactic velocities, and elements of the Galactic orbits are derived for all the studied stars. We have discovered high metal abundances (close to 0.3dex) for five stars, which we classify as super-metal-rich stars. Several stars have lower [Na/Fe] than normal red giants with similar atmospheric parameters. The kinematic characteristics of these stars are somewhat different from those for objects in the Galactic thin disk. We suggest that the observed effect can be explained by inhomogeneity of the chemical composition of gas-dust clouds, which could be due to different rates of SNe II supernovae in different regions of the Galaxy.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: M67 variable stars photometry (Nardiello+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardiello, D.; Libralato, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Piotto, G.; Ochner, P.; Cunial, A.; Borsato, L.; Granata, V.

    2016-07-01

    All images of the OC M 67 [(RA,DE)=(08:51:18,+11:48:00)] were collected with the Asiago 67/92cm Schmidt Telescope located on Mount Ekar (longitude 11.5710°E, latitude 45.8430°N, altitude 1370m), that belongs to the Astronomical Observatory of Padova (OAPD), which is part of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF). At the focus of the Schmidt telescope there is a SBIG STL-11000M camera, equipped with a Kodak KAI-11000M detector (4050x2672 pixel, field of view: 58x38-arcmin2, pixel scale: 862.5mas/pixel). In the first observing season (2012) M 67 data were collected in white light (hereafter indicated with filter N, where N stands for 'None'), with exposure time of 120s, and 60s (during the almost-full moon nights); during the second (2013) and the third season (2014) we collected 180s+15s R-filter and 180s B-filter images. Finally, during the fourth season (2015), the observations were carried out in I band (240s+15s) and V band (240s). A catalogue for variable stars in M 67 field is presented. (1 data file).

  8. The OCCASO Survey: Open Clusters Chemical Abundances from Spanish Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casamiquela, L.; Carrera, R.; Jordi, C.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.

    2014-07-01

    Stellar clusters are crucial in the study of a variety of topics including the star formation process, stellar nucleosynthesis and evolution, dynamical interaction among stars, or the assembly and evolution of galaxies. In particular, Open Clusters (OCs) have been widely used to constrain the formation and evolution of the Milky Way disc. They provide information about the chemical patterns and the existence of radial and vertical gradients or an age-metallicity relation. However, all these investigations are hampered by the fact that only a small fraction of clusters have been studied homogeneously. Galactic surveys performed from the ground such as the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES), or the GALactic Archaeology with HERMES (GALAH) include OCs among their targets. OCs are also sampled from the space by the Gaia and Kepler missions. The OCCASO goal is to derive abundances for more than 20 chemical species in at least 6 Red Clump stars in ˜30 Northern hemisphere OCs. In order to ensure the reliability of the derived chemical abundances, these are derived using different analysis techniques similar to what is being performed by GES. One of the OCCASO requirements is the homogeneity between instruments, methods and model atmospheres used, and in the same scale than the GES-UVES abundances. For this reason we are performing different tests checking internal and external consistency. Derived stellar atmosphere parameters and Fe abundances will be published in the first data release scheduled for the first semester of 2015. The online pdf of the poster with first results is available at https://gaia.ub.edu/Twiki/pub/GREATITNFC/ProgramFinalconference/poster_OCCASO.pdf.

  9. Interstellar Polarization and Extinction towards the Open Cluster NGC 457

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topasna, Gregory A.; Daman, Eryn A.; Kaltcheva, Nadia T.

    2017-10-01

    NGC 457 is a moderately reddened and relatively young open cluster very rich in variable stars, particularly Be stars, but not associated with any prominent star-forming field. We combine new multi-wavelength polarization measurements with existing UBV and uvby photometries to obtain precise estimates of the total-to-selective extinction in the field of the cluster and re-evaluate its distance and age. The polarization measurements show a tight alignment of the polarization vectors with the Galactic plane and yield an average value of the total-to-selective extinction of 3.05 ± 0.17 for the cluster’s field. Using this value and the confirmed color excess E(B-V)=0.500+/- 0.030 mag, we obtain a distance modulus of 12.20 ± 0.39, corresponding to 2.75 ± 0.49 kpc and, assuming slightly sub-solar metallicity, an age of 15.8 Myr.

  10. Searching for Be stars in the open cluster NGC 663

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, P. C.; Lin, C. C.; Chen, W. P.; Lee, C. D.; Ip, W. H.; Ngeow, C. C.; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason

    2015-02-01

    We present Be star candidates in the open cluster NGC 663, identified by Hα imaging photometry with the Palomar Transient Factory Survey, as a pilot program to investigate how the Be star phenomena, the emission spectra, extended circumstellar envelopes, and fast rotation, correlate with massive stellar evolution. Stellar membership of the candidates was verified by 2MASS magnitudes and colors and by proper motions (PMs). We discover four new Be stars and exclude one known Be star from being a member due to its inconsistent PMs. The fraction of Be stars to member stars [N(Be)/N(members)] in NGC 663 is 3.5%. The spectral type of the 34 Be stars in NGC 663 shows bimodal peaks at B0–B2 and B5–B7, which is consistent with the statistics in most star clusters. Additionally, we also discover 23 emission-line stars of different types, including non-member Be stars, dwarfs, and giants.

  11. WIYN OPEN CLUSTER STUDY LII: WIDE-FIELD CCD PHOTOMETRY OF THE OLD OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6819

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Soung-Chul; Kim, Sang Chul; Kyeong, Jaemann; Sarajedini, Ata; Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Sarrazine, Angela R. E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.edu E-mail: asarrazi@bellsouth.net

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive photometric study of the old open cluster, NGC 6819, using 1 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 1 Degree-Sign field VI MOSAIC CCD imaging taken with the WIYN 0.9 m telescope. The resultant color-magnitude diagram (CMD) shows a well-developed main sequence (MS) extending from V {approx} 14.5 mag down to our photometric limit of V {approx} 21 mag. Fitting theoretical isochrones with the adopted values of the reddening and metallicity (E(B - V) = 0.14, [Fe/H] = +0.09 dex) to the observed CMD yields a distance modulus of (m - M){sub 0} = 11.93 {+-} 0.10 and an age of {approx}2.6 Gyr for NGC 6819. Our wide-field imaging reveals that NGC 6819 is larger in areal extent (R = 13') than previously thought. The wide field also benefits our estimate of the degree of field star contamination, and ultimately yields improved measurements of the structural parameters (r{sub c} = 2.'80, r{sub t} = 38.'2, and r{sub h} = 7') and tidal mass of the cluster (M {sub tid} = 3542.4 M {sub Sun }). The flattened luminosity and mass functions indicate that NGC 6819 has experienced mass segregation as a result of its dynamical evolution. Our variability study of the cluster blue straggler star (BSS) population using the Welch-Stetson variability index (I {sub WS}) has revealed a number of variable BSS candidates.

  12. The Blue Straggler RS Canum Venaticorum Star S1082 in M67: A Detailed Light Curve and the Possibility of a Triple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Latham, David W.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Milone, Alejandra A. E.

    2003-02-01

    Using both photometric and spectroscopic data, we present a picture of the very unusual blue straggler S1082 in the old open cluster M67 whose light is the sum of a close binary (P=1.0677978 days) and another cluster member. The primary of the close binary and the third star are both blue stragglers in their own rights. Using relative photometry with millimagnitude accuracy, we provide a complete V-band light curve for the system and show a number of unusual features: brightness variations at the 0.01-0.03 mag level from month to month at all phases, a narrow primary and broad secondary eclipse, brightness differences between phases 0.25 and 0.75, and short duration (~1 hr) drops in brightness. Much of the light-curve variation appears to be because of spot activity on the cooler, fainter, nearly synchronized component of the close binary. We use spectra from several sources to constrain the temperatures of the three known components, the relative flux contributions, rotational velocities, and radial velocities. The data clearly show that the brightest star (narrow-line component) seen in the spectrum is on an orbit with period P=1189+/-7 days and eccentricity e=0.57+/-0.08, although we cannot prove that there is a dynamical link between it and the close binary. The systematic velocities of all of the stars indicate that they are members of the cluster. Our models of the system indicate that the cooler component of the close binary lies on the main sequence near the cluster turnoff, while the hotter component lies near an extension of the main sequence blueward of the turnoff, and thus qualifies as a blue straggler by itself. The reduction of the masses of the stars in the close binary compared with previous models indicates that it is possible that the more massive component of the close binary formed from a merger of just two turnoff-mass stars. Based in part on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET), which is a joint project of the

  13. Peakbagging in the open cluster NGC 6819: Opening a treasure chest or Pandora's box?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handberg, R.; Miglio, A.; Brogaard, K.; Bossini, D.; Elsworth, Y. P.

    2016-09-01

    Here we report on an extensive peakbagging effort on the evolved red giant stars of the open cluster NGC 6819. This consists of around 50 stars spanning all the way up the red giant branch (RGB) and down to and including the red clump (RC). These stars represent a unique sample because of their common distance, metallicity and age. By employing sophisticated pre-processing of the time series and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques, we have extracted individual frequencies, heights, and line widths for hundreds of individual oscillation modes in the sample of stars. We show that average asteroseismic parameters derived from these can be used to distinguish the stellar evolutionary state between RGB and RC stars without having to measure the often difficult dipole modes. Furthermore, we show how the fitting of some of these dipole modes can improve the detectability of acoustic glitches arising from the helium II ionization zone and how this can potentially be used to constrain the helium content in the cluster. We also discuss some of the difficulties facing similar studies in the future, where it seems that detailed studies of star clusters are facing some difficult times ahead.

  14. jClustering, an open framework for the development of 4D clustering algorithms.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Pérez, José María; García-Villalba, Carmen; Pascau, Javier; Desco, Manuel; Vaquero, Juan J

    2013-01-01

    We present jClustering, an open framework for the design of clustering algorithms in dynamic medical imaging. We developed this tool because of the difficulty involved in manually segmenting dynamic PET images and the lack of availability of source code for published segmentation algorithms. Providing an easily extensible open tool encourages publication of source code to facilitate the process of comparing algorithms and provide interested third parties with the opportunity to review code. The internal structure of the framework allows an external developer to implement new algorithms easily and quickly, focusing only on the particulars of the method being implemented and not on image data handling and preprocessing. This tool has been coded in Java and is presented as an ImageJ plugin in order to take advantage of all the functionalities offered by this imaging analysis platform. Both binary packages and source code have been published, the latter under a free software license (GNU General Public License) to allow modification if necessary.

  15. jClustering, an Open Framework for the Development of 4D Clustering Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Mateos-Pérez, José María; García-Villalba, Carmen; Pascau, Javier; Desco, Manuel; Vaquero, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    We present jClustering, an open framework for the design of clustering algorithms in dynamic medical imaging. We developed this tool because of the difficulty involved in manually segmenting dynamic PET images and the lack of availability of source code for published segmentation algorithms. Providing an easily extensible open tool encourages publication of source code to facilitate the process of comparing algorithms and provide interested third parties with the opportunity to review code. The internal structure of the framework allows an external developer to implement new algorithms easily and quickly, focusing only on the particulars of the method being implemented and not on image data handling and preprocessing. This tool has been coded in Java and is presented as an ImageJ plugin in order to take advantage of all the functionalities offered by this imaging analysis platform. Both binary packages and source code have been published, the latter under a free software license (GNU General Public License) to allow modification if necessary. PMID:23990913

  16. Spectrophotometry of 237 Stars in 7 Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampitt, Lori; Burstein, David

    1997-08-01

    Spectrophotometry is presented for 237 stars in 7 nearby open clusters: Hyades, Pleiades, Alpha Persei, Praesepe, Coma Berenices, IC 4665, and M39. The observations were taken by Lee McDonald and David Burstein using the Wampler single-channel scanner on the Crossley 0.9m telescope at Lick Observatory from July 1973 through December 1974. Sixteen bandpasses spanning the spectral range 3500 Angstroms to 7780 Angstroms were observed for each star, with bandwidths 32Angstroms, 48 Angstroms or 64 Angstroms. Data are standardized to the Hayes-Latham system to mutual accuracy of 0.016 mag per passband. The accuracy of the spectrophotometry is assessed in three ways on a star-by-star basis. First, comparisons are made with previously published spectrophotometry for 19 stars observed in common. Second, (B-V) colors and uvby colors are compared for 236 stars and 221 stars, respectively. Finally, comparsions are made for 200 main sequence stars to the spectral synthesis models of Kurucz, fixing log g = 4.0 and [Fe/H] = 0.0, and only varying effective temperature. The accuracy of tests using uvby colors and the Kurucz models are shown to track each other closely, yielding an accuracy estimate (1 sigma ) of 0.01 mag for the 13 colors formed from bandpasses longward of the Balmer jump, and 0.02 mag for the 3 colors formed from the three bandpasses below the Balmer jump. In contrast, larger scatter is found relative to the previously published spectrophotometry of Bohm-Vitense & Johnson (16 stars in common) and Gunn & Stryker (3 stars). We also show that the scatter in the fits of the spectrophotometric colors and the uvby filter colors is a reasonable way to identify the observations of which specific stars are accurate to 1 sigma , 2 sigma , .... As such, the residuals from both the filter color fits and the Kurucz model fits are tabulated for each star where it was possible to make a comparison, so users of these data can choose stars according to the accuracy of the data

  17. BVI Photometric Study of the Old Open Cluster Ruprecht 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Chul; Kyeong, Jaemann; Park, Hong Soo; Han, Ilseung; Lee, Joon Hyeop; Moon, Dae-Sik; Lee, Youngdae; Kim, Seongjae

    2017-06-01

    We present a BVI optical photometric study of the old open cluster Ruprecht 6 using the data obtained with the SMARTS 1.0 m telescope at the CTIO, Chile. Its color-magnitude diagrams show the clear existence of the main-sequence stars, whose turn-off point is located around V ≈ 18.45 mag and B-V ≈ 0.85 mag. Three red clump (RC) stars are identified at V = 16.00 mag, I = 14.41 mag and B-V = 1.35 mag. From the mean K_s-band magnitude of RC stars (K_s=12.39 ± 0.21 mag) in Ruprecht 6 from 2MASS photometry and the known absolute magnitudes of the RC stars (M_{K_S} = -1.595 ± 0.025 mag), we obtain the distance modulus to Ruprecht 6 of (m-M)_0 = 13.84 ± 0.21 mag (d=5.86 ± 0.60 kpc). From the (J-K_s) and (B-V) colors of the RC stars, comparison of the (B-V) and (V-I) colors of the bright stars in Ruprecht 6 with those of the intrinsic colors of dwarf and giant stars, and the PARSEC isochrone fittings, we derive the reddening values of E(B-V) = 0.42 mag and E(V-I) = 0.60 mag. Using the PARSEC isochrone fittings onto the color-magnitude diagrams, we estimate the age and metallicity to be: log(t)=9.50 ± 0.10 (t=3.16 ± 0.82 Gyr) and [Fe/H] = -0.42 ± 0.04 dex. We present the Galactocentric radial metallicity gradient analysis for old (age > 1 Gyr) open clusters of the Dias et al. catalog, which likely follow a single relation of [Fe/H] =(-0.034±0.007) R_{GC} + (0.190±0.080) (rms = 0.201) for the whole radial range or a dual relation of [Fe/H] =(-0.077±0.017) R_{GC} + (0.609±0.161) (rms = 0.152) and constant ([Fe/H] ˜ -0.3 dex) value, inside and outside of R_{GC} ˜ 12 kpc, respectively. The metallicity and Galactocentric radius (13.28± 0.54 kpc) of Ruprecht 6 obtained in this study seem to be consistent with both of the relations.

  18. Lithium abundances and extra mixing processes in evolved stars of M 67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canto Martins, B. L.; Lèbre, A.; Palacios, A.; de Laverny, P.; Richard, O.; Melo, C. H. F.; Do Nascimento, J. D., Jr.; de Medeiros, J. R.

    2011-03-01

    Aims: We present a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of evolved stars in M 67 (turn-off, subgiant and giant stars) in order to bring observational constraints to evolutionary models taking into account non-standard transport processes. Methods: We determined the stellar parameters (Teff, log g, [Fe/H]), microturbulent and rotational velocities and, lithium abundances (ALi) for 27 evolved stars of M 67 with the spectral synthesis method based on MARCS model atmospheres. We also computed non-standard stellar evolution models, taking into account atomic diffusion and rotation-induced transport of angular momentum and chemicals that were compared with this set of homogeneous data. Results: The lithium abundances that we derive for the 27 stars in our sample follow a clear evolutionary pattern ranging from the turn-off to the Red Giant Branch. Our abundance determination confirms the well known decrease of lithium content for evolved stars. For the first time, we provide a consistent interpretation of both the surface rotation velocity and of the lithium abundance patterns observed in an homogeneous sample of TO and evolved stars of M 67. We show that the lithium evolution is determined by the evolution of the angular momentum through rotation-induced mixing in low-mass stars, in particular for those with initial masses larger than 1.30 M⊙ when at solar metallicity. Based on observations collected at ESO, Paranal, Chile (VLT/FLAMES program ID 072.D-0309 and 074.D-0179).Table 6 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chandra observation of M67 (Van Den Berg+, 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, M.; Tagliaferri, G.; Belloni, T.; Verbunt, F.

    2004-04-01

    table1.dat summarizes the X-ray properties of the 158 sources detected by Chandra, and lists the ROSAT (Belloni et al., 1998A&A...335..517B) and optical (candidate) counterparts. table4.dat gives the estimated positions of fifteen faint candidate optical counterparts that were identified by eye in a deep ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) V-band image of M67. These sources are not included in the corresponding EIS source catalogue (Momany et al., 2001A&A...379..436M). (3 data files).

  20. Do open star clusters evolve towards energy equipartition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, Mario; Mapelli, Michela; Jeffries, Robin D.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate whether open clusters (OCs) tend to energy equipartition, by means of direct N-body simulations with a broken power-law mass function. We find that the simulated OCs become strongly mass segregated, but the local velocity dispersion does not depend on the stellar mass for most of the mass range: the curve of the velocity dispersion as a function of mass is nearly flat even after several half-mass relaxation times, regardless of the adopted stellar evolution recipes and Galactic tidal field model. This result holds both if we start from virialized King models and if we use clumpy sub-virial initial conditions. The velocity dispersion of the most massive stars and stellar remnants tends to be higher than the velocity dispersion of the lighter stars. This trend is particularly evident in simulations without stellar evolution. We interpret this result as a consequence of the strong mass segregation, which leads to Spitzer's instability. Stellar winds delay the onset of the instability. Our simulations strongly support the result that OCs do not attain equipartition, for a wide range of initial conditions.

  1. Sub-subgiants in Old Open Cluster NGC 6791

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliman, Katelyn E.; Leiner, Emily; Mathieu, Robert D.; Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Platais, Imants

    2016-01-01

    In an optical color-magnitude diagram sub-subgiants (SSGs) lie red of the main-sequence and fainter than the red giant branch in a region not easily populated by standard stellar evolution theory. We present radial-velocity follow-up to five SSG candidates in the old open cluster NGC 6791 (8 Gyr, [Fe/H]= +0.3). Our observations began in 2014 July with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. We find four SSGs to be three-dimensional kinematic members of NGC 6791, with three also being short-period binary systems. The existence of these newly discovered SSGs in NGC 6791 strengthens the case that SSGs are a new class of non-standard stellar products, and that a physical mechanism must be found that explains the unusual evolutionary path of these stars. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation under grant AST- 0908082 and the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium.

  2. A SPITZER VIEW OF THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER NGC 2264

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Hwankyung; Stauffer, John R.; Bessell, Michael S. E-mail: stauffer@ipac.caltech.edu

    2009-10-15

    We have performed mid-IR photometry of the young open cluster NGC 2264 using the images obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer instruments and presented a normalized classification scheme of young stellar objects in various color-color diagrams to make full use of the information from multicolor photometry. These results are compared with the classification scheme based on the slope of the spectral energy distribution (SED). From the spatial distributions of Class I and II stars, we have identified two subclusterings of Class I objects in the CONE region of Sung et al. The disked stars in the other star-forming region S Mon are mostly Class II objects. These three regions show a distinct difference in the fractional distribution of SED slopes as well as the mean value of SED slopes. The fraction of stars with primordial disks is nearly flat between log m = 0.2 and -0.5 and that of transition disks is very high for solar mass stars. In addition, we have derived a somewhat higher value of the primordial disk fraction for NGC 2264 members located below the main pre-main-sequence locus (so-called BMS stars). This result supports the idea that BMS stars are young stars with nearly edge-on disks. We have also found that the fraction of primordial disks is very low near the most massive star S Mon and increases with distance from S Mon.

  3. Interstellar Extinction toward the Young Open Cluster NGC 1502

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topasna, Gregory A.; Kaltcheva, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    We present new multi-wavelength polarization measurements of 20 stars in the direction of the open cluster NGC 1502. Polarimetric results are combined with uvbyβ photometric data to obtain precise estimates of the total-to-selective extinction and distance for each star. NGC 1502 is located at the periphery of the Cam OB1 association and probably within the Orion Spur, with published distance estimates varying between 0.7 and 1.5 kpc. Our analysis suggests that the stars studied here form two concentrations along the line of sight. If a value of 3.2 for the total-to-selective extinction is assumed, the stars group at 0.8 ± 0.02 kpc and 1.1 ± 0.05 kpc. However, using the wavelength of maximum polarization to calculate the total-to-selective extinction for each star yields 0.9 ± 0.03 kpc and 1.3 ± 0.04 kpc, respectively. This approach indicates that combining polarimetric and uvbyβ data provides a more detailed stellar distribution of this region. Acknowledgments: Part of this work was supported by NSF grant AST-1516932.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Shape parameters for 154 Galactic open clusters (Zhai+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, M.; Abt, H.; Zhao, G.; Li, C.

    2017-06-01

    The data used are from database WEBDA (http://www.univie.ac.at/webda/). We have found 946 open clusters with equatorial coordinates for each cluster member. Since cluster members are easily contaminated by field stars, we have only adopted stars with membership probabilities higher than 70% as cluster members. It is rarely possible to determine a cluster's shape with a small number of members, so we have only considered relatively richer clusters, which host more than 20 of the most probable member stars. After these selections, there are 154 clusters left. (1 data file).

  5. Intermediate and old age Open Clusters science case for high resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordi, C.; Carrera, R.; Balaguer-Núnez, L.; Casamiquela, L.

    2017-03-01

    Open Clusters are dynamically-bound groups of stars that formed from the same giant molecular cloud, having a similar age and bulk chemical composition. Open Clusters are key objects for studying the formation and evolution of the Galactic disk. They are targets in on-going large spectroscopic surveys like Gaia-ESO and OCCASO surveys. We discuss the science case of the intermediate age and old Open Clusters for WEAVE, the upcoming multifiber spectroscopic facility in the WHT. In particular we do an overview of the target selection and the survey strategy. Additionally, the impact of the discovery of new clusters by Gaia space mission is discussed.

  6. Open cluster evolutions in binary system: How they dissolved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyatikanto, R.; Arifyanto, M. I.; Wulandari, H. R. T.

    2014-03-01

    Binarity among stellar clusters in galaxy is such a reality which has been realized for a long time, but still hides several questions and problems to be solved. Some of binary star clusters are formed by close encounter, but the others are formed together from similar womb. Some of them undergo separation process, while the others are in the middle of merger toward common future. The products of merger binary star cluster have typical characteristics which differ from solo clusters, especially in their spatial distribution and their stellar members kinematics. On the other hand, these merger products still have to face dissolving processes triggered by both internal and external factors. In this study, we performed N-body simulations of merger binary clusters with different initial conditions. After merging, these clusters dissolve with greater mass-loss rate because of their angular momentum. These rotating clusters also experience more deceleration caused by external tidal field.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances in Galactic open clusters (Marsakov+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsakov, V. A.; Gozha, M. L.; Koval', V. V.; Shpigel', L. V.

    2016-07-01

    Spectroscopic determinations of the relative abundances of alpha-elements (O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti), slow neutron capture elements (Y, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Zr), rapid neutron capture element (Eu), and elements with an odd number of protons (Na, Al) are collected for 90 open clusters of the Galaxy. Metallicities are presented for 346 clusters. In addition catalog contains positions, ages, velocities, elements of Galactic orbits for open clusters. (2 data files).

  8. NEWS ON THE s PROCESS FROM YOUNG OPEN CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Maiorca, Enrico; Busso, Maurizio; Palmerini, Sara; Trippella, Oscar; Magrini, Laura; Randich, Sofia

    2012-03-01

    Recent spectroscopic measurements in open clusters younger than the Sun with [Fe/H] {approx}> 0 showed that the abundances of neutron-rich elements have continued to increase in the Galaxy after the formation of the Sun, roughly maintaining a solar-like distribution. This growth requires neutron fluences larger than those so far assumed, as these would have too few neutrons per iron seed. We suggest that the observed enhancements can be produced by nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of low mass (M < 1.5 M{sub Sun }) if they release neutrons from the {sup 13}C({alpha},n){sup 16}O reaction in reservoirs larger by a factor of four than assumed in more massive AGB stars (M > 1.5 M{sub Sun }). Adopting such a stronger neutron source as a contributor to the abundances at the time of formation of the Sun, we show that this also affects the solar s-process distribution, so that its main component is well reproduced, without the need to assume ad hoc primary sources for the synthesis of s elements up to A {approx} 130, contrary to suggestions from other works. The changes in the expected abundances that we find are primarily due to the following reasons. (1) Enhancing the neutron source increases the efficiency of the s process, so that the ensuing stellar yields now mimic the solar distribution at a metallicity higher than before ([Fe/H ] {approx}> -0.1). (2) The age-metallicity relation is rather flat for several Gyr in that metallicity regime, so that those conditions remain stable and the enhanced nuclear yields, which are necessary to maintain a solar-like abundance pattern, can dominate the composition of the interstellar medium from which subsequent stars are formed.

  9. Nucleophilic ring opening of bridging thietanes in open triosmium cluster complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.D.; Belinski, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    The complexes Os{sub 3}(CO){sub 9}({mu}{sub 3}-S)[{mu}-SCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}CH{sub 2}] (1) and Os{sub 3}(CO){sub 9}({mu}{sub 3}-S)[{mu}-SCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}] (2) were obtained from the reactions of Os{sub 3}(CO){sub 10}({mu}{sub 3}-S) with 3,3-dimethylthietane (DMT) and thietane, respectively, at -42 {degree}C in the presence of Me{sub 3}NO. Compound 1 was characterized by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and was found to contain a DMT group bridging two of the nonbonded metal atoms in the open cluster of three metal atoms by using both lone pairs of electrons on the sulfur atom. Compound 1 reacted with bis(triphenylphosphine)nitrogen(1+) chloride ([PPN]Cl) at 25 {degrees}C to yield the salt [PPN][Os{sub 3}-(CO){sub 9}({mu}-SCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}CH{sub 2}Cl)({mu}{sub 3}-S)] (3; 76%), in which the chloride ion was added to one of the methylene groups of the DMT ring in a process that caused the ring to open by cleavage of one of the carbon-sulfur bonds. A 4-chloro-3,3-dimethylpropanethiolate ligand bridges the open edge of the anionic triosmium cluster. Compound 3 was converted to the neutral complex Os{sub 3}(CO){sub 9}[{mu}-SCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}CH{sub 2}Cl]({mu}{sub 3}-S)({mu}-H) (4) by reaction with HCl at 25 {degrees}C. Compound 4 is structurally similar to 3, except that is contains a hydride ligand bridging one of the two metal-metal bonds. Compounds 1 and 2 react with HCl in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} solvent to yield the neutral compounds 4 and Os{sub 3}(CO){sub 9}[{mu}-SCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}Cl]({mu}{sub 3}-S)({mu}-H) (5) in 89% and 90% yields, respectively, in one step. 11 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Open Clusters as Laboratories: The Angular Momentum Evolution of Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, John R.

    1998-01-01

    The core group concentrated on three primary research topics: (1) ROSAT observation of the coronal activity of low mass stars in young open clusters; (2) the determination of stellar ages and the determination of the timescale for dissipation of circumstellar disks around young stars; and (3) the determination of rotation velocities of low mass stars in young open cluster and the inferred angular momentum evolution of low mass stars. With accurate ages for the clusters, we can then derive an independent estimate of the timescale for debris disks to dissipate. As the second half of that project, we are using the Caltech/UC/NASA Keck telescopes to obtain spectra of brown dwarf candidates in a number of nearby, young open clusters, from which we can determine new and accurate cluster ages. The final primary program that we have addressed was the determination of rotational velocities for low mass stars in our target open clusters. Our group has obtained rotational velocities for a large number of stars in several open clusters during this LTSA program, and we have published the results in several papers. One particularly time-consuming aspect of our program was the development of a database of the photometry and rotational velocities for nearby open clusters, which we have made available to the community.

  11. Open Clusters as Laboratories: The Angular Momentum Evolution of Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, John R.

    1998-01-01

    The core group concentrated on three primary research topics: (1) ROSAT observation of the coronal activity of low mass stars in young open clusters; (2) the determination of stellar ages and the determination of the timescale for dissipation of circumstellar disks around young stars; and (3) the determination of rotation velocities of low mass stars in young open cluster and the inferred angular momentum evolution of low mass stars. With accurate ages for the clusters, we can then derive an independent estimate of the timescale for debris disks to dissipate. As the second half of that project, we are using the Caltech/UC/NASA Keck telescopes to obtain spectra of brown dwarf candidates in a number of nearby, young open clusters, from which we can determine new and accurate cluster ages. The final primary program that we have addressed was the determination of rotational velocities for low mass stars in our target open clusters. Our group has obtained rotational velocities for a large number of stars in several open clusters during this LTSA program, and we have published the results in several papers. One particularly time-consuming aspect of our program was the development of a database of the photometry and rotational velocities for nearby open clusters, which we have made available to the community.

  12. On the Survival of High-altitude Open Clusters within the Milky Way Galaxy Tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Medina, L. A.; Pichardo, B.; Peimbert, A.; Moreno, E.

    2017-01-01

    It is a common assumption that high-altitude open clusters live longer compared to clusters moving close to the Galactic plane. This is because, at high altitudes, open clusters are far from the disruptive effects of in-plane substructures, such as spiral arms, molecular clouds, and the bar. However, an important aspect to consider in this scenario is that orbits of high-altitude open clusters will eventually cross the Galactic plane, where the vertical tidal field of the disk is strong. In this work, we simulate the interaction of open clusters with the tidal field of a detailed Milky Way Galactic model at different average altitudes and galactocentric radii. We find that the life expectancy of clusters decreases as the maximum orbital altitude increases and reaches a minimum at altitudes of approximately 600 pc. Clusters near the Galactic plane live longer because they do not experience strong vertical tidal shocks from the Galactic disk; then, for orbital altitudes higher than 600 pc, clusters again start to live longer due to the decrease in the number of encounters with the disk. With our study, we find that the compressive nature of the tides in the arms region and the bar play an important role in the survival of small clusters by protecting them from disruption: clusters inside the arms can live up to twice as long as those outside the arms at similar galactocentric distances.

  13. Massive open star clusters using the VVV survey. II. Discovery of six clusters with Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chené, A.-N.; Borissova, J.; Bonatto, C.; Majaess, D. J.; Baume, G.; Clarke, J. R. A.; Kurtev, R.; Schnurr, O.; Bouret, J.-C.; Catelan, M.; Emerson, J. P.; Feinstein, C.; Geisler, D.; de Grijs, R.; Hervé, A.; Ivanov, V. D.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Lucas, P.; Mahy, L.; Martins, F.; Mauro, F.; Minniti, D.; Moni Bidin, C.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The ESO Public Survey "VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea" (VVV) provides deep multi-epoch infrared observations for an unprecedented 562 sq. degrees of the Galactic bulge, and adjacent regions of the disk. Nearly 150 new open clusters and cluster candidates have been discovered in this survey. Aims: This is the second in a series of papers about young, massive open clusters observed using the VVV survey. We present the first study of six recently discovered clusters. These clusters contain at least one newly discovered Wolf-Rayet (WR) star. Methods: Following the methodology presented in the first paper of the series, wide-field, deep JHKs VVV observations, combined with new infrared spectroscopy, are employed to constrain fundamental parameters for a subset of clusters. Results: We find that the six studied stellar groups are real young (2-7 Myr) and massive (between 0.8 and 2.2 × 103 M⊙) clusters. They are highly obscured (AV ~ 5-24 mag) and compact (1-2 pc). In addition to WR stars, two of the six clusters also contain at least one red supergiant star, and one of these two clusters also contains a blue supergiant. We claim the discovery of 8 new WR stars, and 3 stars showing WR-like emission lines which could be classified WR or OIf. Preliminary analysis provides initial masses of ~30-50 M⊙ for the WR stars. Finally, we discuss the spiral structure of the Galaxy using the six new clusters as tracers, together with the previously studied VVV clusters. Based on observations with ISAAC, VLT, ESO (programme 087.D-0341A), New Technology Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory (programme 087.D-0490A) and with the Clay telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory (programme CN2011A-086). Also based on data from the VVV survey (programme 172.B-2002).

  14. The same frequency of planets inside and outside open clusters of stars.

    PubMed

    Meibom, Søren; Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, Francois; Latham, David W; Rowe, Jason F; Ciardi, David R; Bryson, Steven T; Rogers, Leslie A; Henze, Christopher E; Janes, Kenneth; Barnes, Sydney A; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Isaacson, Howard; Fischer, Debra A; Howell, Steve B; Horch, Elliott P; Jenkins, Jon M; Schuler, Simon C; Crepp, Justin

    2013-07-04

    Most stars and their planets form in open clusters. Over 95 per cent of such clusters have stellar densities too low (less than a hundred stars per cubic parsec) to withstand internal and external dynamical stresses and fall apart within a few hundred million years. Older open clusters have survived by virtue of being richer and denser in stars (1,000 to 10,000 per cubic parsec) when they formed. Such clusters represent a stellar environment very different from the birthplace of the Sun and other planet-hosting field stars. So far more than 800 planets have been found around Sun-like stars in the field. The field planets are usually the size of Neptune or smaller. In contrast, only four planets have been found orbiting stars in open clusters, all with masses similar to or greater than that of Jupiter. Here we report observations of the transits of two Sun-like stars by planets smaller than Neptune in the billion-year-old open cluster NGC6811. This demonstrates that small planets can form and survive in a dense cluster environment, and implies that the frequency and properties of planets in open clusters are consistent with those of planets around field stars in the Galaxy.

  15. OpenCluster: A Flexible Distributed Computing Framework for Astronomical Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shoulin; Wang, Feng; Deng, Hui; Liu, Cuiyin; Dai, Wei; Liang, Bo; Mei, Ying; Shi, Congming; Liu, Yingbo; Wu, Jingping

    2017-02-01

    The volume of data generated by modern astronomical telescopes is extremely large and rapidly growing. However, current high-performance data processing architectures/frameworks are not well suited for astronomers because of their limitations and programming difficulties. In this paper, we therefore present OpenCluster, an open-source distributed computing framework to support rapidly developing high-performance processing pipelines of astronomical big data. We first detail the OpenCluster design principles and implementations and present the APIs facilitated by the framework. We then demonstrate a case in which OpenCluster is used to resolve complex data processing problems for developing a pipeline for the Mingantu Ultrawide Spectral Radioheliograph. Finally, we present our OpenCluster performance evaluation. Overall, OpenCluster provides not only high fault tolerance and simple programming interfaces, but also a flexible means of scaling up the number of interacting entities. OpenCluster thereby provides an easily integrated distributed computing framework for quickly developing a high-performance data processing system of astronomical telescopes and for significantly reducing software development expenses.

  16. 2MASS photometry and kinematical studies of open cluster NGC 188

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsanhoury, W. H.; Haroon, A. A.; Chupina, N. V.; Vereshchagin, S. V.; Sariya, Devesh P.; Yadav, R. K. S.; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present our results for the photometric and kinematical studies of old open cluster NGC 188. We determined various astrophysical parameters like limited radius, core and tidal radii, distance, luminosity and mass functions, total mass, relaxation time etc. for the cluster using 2MASS catalog. We obtained the cluster's distance from the Sun as 1721 ± 41 pc and log (age)= 9.85 ± 0.05 at Solar metallicity. The relaxation time of the cluster is smaller than the estimated cluster age which suggests that the cluster is dynamically relaxed. Our results agree with the values mentioned in the literature. We also determined the clusters apex coordinates as (281°.88, -44∘ .76) using AD-diagram method. Other kinematical parameters like space velocity components, cluster center and elements of Solar motion etc. have also been computed.

  17. Distance estimates to five open clusters based on 2mass data of red clump giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Gao, Xinhua

    2013-02-01

    Red clump (RC) giants are excellent standard candles in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud. The near-infrared K-band intrinsic luminosity of RC giants exhibits only a small variance and a weak dependence on chemical composition and age. In addition, RCs are often easily recognizable in the color-magnitude diagrams of open clusters, which renders them extremely useful distance indicators for some intermediate-age or old open clusters. Here we determine the distance moduli of five Galactic open clusters covering a range of metallicities and ages, based on RC giants in the cluster regions using 2mass photometric data. We compare our result with those from main-sequence fitting and also briefly discuss the advantages and disadvantages of RC-based cluster distance determination.

  18. The Shape Evolution of Galactic Open Clusters from Observations Under Galactic External Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Meng; Abt, Helmut; Zhao, Gang; Li, Chengdong

    2017-02-01

    We present the Galactic characteristics of 154 open clusters using the stellar statistics method with data from the WEBDA database. We find that all clusters in our sample are elongated in shape, which indicates that the spherical clusters are stretched out to be ellipsoid as a function of age ({log}({age}/{year})=6.64{--}9.7). By dividing a cluster into a central core and an outer part, we have computed the apparent ellipticities of these two parts respectively. The scale relations between ellipticities and age indicate that the outer parts of open clusters become more elliptical while the central cores remain circular. We suppose that the outer parts become more elliptical because they are more subjected to the external forces, e.g., Galactic differential rotation, while the central cores form a circular shape under the domination of stellar dynamics. We have also performed an analysis of the crucial influence of cluster mass and location on its shape.

  19. Open clusters as laboratories: The angular momentum evolution of young stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, John R.

    1994-01-01

    This is the annual status report for the third year of our LTSA grant 'Open Clusters as Laboratories.' Because we have now had a few years to work on the project, we have started to produce and publish a large number of papers. We have been extremely successful in obtaining ROSAT observations of open clusters. With the demise of the PSPC on ROSAT, our main data source has come to an end and we will be able to concentrate on analyzing those data.

  20. Physical properties and membership in the open cluster NGC 6633 through uvby-β photoelectric photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, J. H.; Robleto-Orús, A.; Piña, D. S.; Rentería, A.; Villarreal, C.; Chow-Martínez, M.; Trejo, O.

    2017-10-01

    uvby-β photoelectric photometry of stars in the direction of the open clusters NGC 6633 is presented. From the uvby-β photometry of the stars in this direction, we classify the spectral types which allow us to determine the reddening and, hence, their distance. Membership of the stars to the cluster and reddening were determined.

  1. Global survey of star clusters in the Milky Way. IV. 63 new open clusters detected by proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, R.-D.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Piskunov, A. E.; Röser, S.; Schilbach, E.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The global Milky Way Star Clusters (MWSC) survey provided new cluster membership lists and mean cluster parameters for nearly 80% of all previously known Galactic clusters. The MWSC data reduction pipeline involved the catalogue of positions and proper motions (PPMXL) on the International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) and near-infrared photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Aims: In the first extension to the MWSC, photometric filters were applied to the 2MASS catalogue to find new cluster candidates that were subsequently confirmed or rejected by the MWSC pipeline. To further extend the MWSC census, particularly of nearby clusters, we aimed at discovering new clusters by conducting an almost global search in proper motion catalogues as a starting point. Methods: We first selected high-quality samples from the PPMXL and the Fourth US Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC4) for comparison and verification of the proper motions. For 441 circular proper motion bins (radius 15 mas/yr) within ±50 mas/yr, the sky outside a thin Galactic plane zone (| b | < 5°) was binned in small areas ("sky pixels") of 0.25 × 0.25 deg2. Sky pixels with enhanced numbers of stars with a certain common proper motion in both catalogues were considered as cluster candidates. After visual inspection of the sky images, we built an automated procedure that combined these representations of the sky for neighbouring proper motion subsamples after a background correction. The 692 compact cluster candidates detected above a threshold that was equivalent to a minimum of 12 to 130 cluster stars in dependence on the Galactic latitude were then cross-checked with known star clusters and clusters of galaxies. New candidates served as input for the MWSC pipeline. Results: About half of our candidates overlapped with known clusters (46 globular and 68 open clusters in the Galaxy, about 150 known clusters of galaxies) or the Magellanic Clouds. About 10% of our

  2. N-Body Numerical Simulations for Orbits of Old Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, L.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Friel, E. D.

    1996-12-01

    Analysis on age distributions of open clusters has shown that the average time it takes for a cluster to be completely disrupted is a few hundred million years. However, the ages of the old open clusters are on the order of one to ten billion years. The purpose of this project was to model the clusters as n-body systems and find relations between orbital kinematics and survivability. This work builds off of an earlier project which modeled the orbits using just a center of mass, or "one-body" model (1). Data were available for the complete orbital parameters of seven old open clusters. These seven, along with too purely theoretical open clusters were placed in the simulations. The clusters consisted of one hundred bodies (each of one solar mass) which were placed in a model galactic potential (2). Internal interactions were taken into account, but a relatively large softening parameter was used so that binary interactions would not dominate. The results show that there is a correlation between radial distance from the galactic center and survivability. For example, the cluster ngc6791 was found to contain approximately 55% of its original mass after one gyr. The closest radial approach for ngc6791 is 4.6 kpcs. However, ngc752, which has a distance of closest radial approach of 8.7 kpcs, retained 80% of its original mass. Model clusters were identical except for center of mass positions and velocities. These results support the observation that almost all old open clusters are found at large radial distances from the center of the galaxy (usually greater than 8kpcs). Currently, data analysis is still being carried out to find trends in mass loss verses time. [1] Finlay, Friel, Noriega-Crespo & Cudworth, 1995. [2] Allen & Santillan 1991, RevMxAA.

  3. On the stellar X-ray content of the Open Cluster Remnant NGC 1901

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Oliveira, Raimundo

    2009-10-01

    Open Cluster Remnants (OCRs) are poorly populated groups of stars in an advanced stage of the evolution of open clusters. They are especially rich in late-type stars and binary systems of stars, of which a fraction is expected to be interacting binaries (RS CVn, cataclysmic variables, and low-mass X-ray binaries). We propose to investigate the X-ray content of the OCR NGC 1901, looking for signatures of accreting/interacting binary systems and active stars in order to put constraints on the evolutionary models describing the final stages of star clusters.

  4. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Overview and Membership Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donor, John; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; O'Connell, Julia; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Thompson, Benjamin A.; Melendez, Matthew; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; Allende-Prieto, Carlos; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Schultheis, Mathias; Stassun, Keivan G.; Apogee Team

    2017-01-01

    The Open Cluster Chemical Analysis and Mapping (OCCAM) survey aims to produce a comprehensive, uniform, infrared-based data set for hundreds of open clusters, and constrain key Galactic dynamical and chemical parameters using the SDSS/APOGEE survey. We present the sample and methods being used by the survey to determine membership for the few-star sampling for most clusters as observed by the SDSS/APOGEE. We present verification of the membership method using the DR13 sample, and show an extension of the method by incorporation of proper motion and parallax data from the ESA Gaia mission.This work is supported by an NSF AAG grant AST-1311835.

  5. piRNA clusters and open chromatin structure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are major structural components of eukaryotic genomes; however, mobilization of TEs generally has negative effects on the host genome. To counteract this threat, host cells have evolved genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that keep TEs silenced. One such mechanism involves the Piwi-piRNA complex, which represses TEs in animal gonads either by cleaving TE transcripts in the cytoplasm or by directing specific chromatin modifications at TE loci in the nucleus. Most Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are derived from genomic piRNA clusters. There has been remarkable progress in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying piRNA biogenesis. However, little is known about how a specific locus in the genome is converted into a piRNA-producing site. In this review, we will discuss a possible link between chromatin boundaries and piRNA cluster formation. PMID:25126116

  6. Lithium Abundances in the Young Open Cluster IC 2602

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randich, S.; Aharpour, N.; Pallavicini, R.; Prosser, C. F.; Stauffer, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    We have obtained high-resolution spectra for 28 candidate late-type stars in the 30 Myr old cluster IC 2602. NLTE Li abundances have been derived from measured equivalent widths. The log n(Li) - T(sub eff) and log n(Li) - mass distributions for our sample stars have been compared with those of the Pleiades and alpha Persei. Our data show that F stars in the three clusters have the same lithium content, which corresponds to the initial content for Pop. I stars. G and early-K IC 2602 stars are, on average, somewhat more Li-rich than their counterparts in the two slightly older clusters. Finally, the latest-type IC 2602 stars are heavily Li depleted, with their Li content being as low as the lowest measured among the Pleiades. As in the Pleiades and alpha Per, a star-to-star scatter in lithium is observed among 30 Myr old late-K/early-K dwarfs in IC 2602, indicating that this spread develops in the pre-main sequence phases.

  7. Reddening and age for 13 southern Galactic open clusters determined from integrated spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.; Dutra, C. M.; Torres, M. C.

    2001-10-01

    In this study we present flux-calibrated integrated spectra in the range 3800-6800 Å for 13 concentrated open clusters with Galactic longitudes between 219deg and 316deg, nine of which have not been previously studied. Using the equivalent widths of the Balmer lines and comparing the cluster spectra with template spectra of Magellanic Clouds and Galactic star clusters with known parameters, we derive both foreground interstellar reddening values and age. For nine clusters these two parameters have been determined for the first time, while for the rest of the sample the results show good agreement with previous studies. The present analysis indicates four very young (Hogg 11, NGC 5606, vdB-RN 80 and Pismis 17), seven moderately young (ESO 429-SC13, Hogg 3, Hogg 12, Haffner 7, BH 87, NGC 2368 and Bochum 12) and two intermediate-age (Berkeley 75 and NGC 2635) open clusters. The derived foreground interstellar reddening values are in the range 0.00 <= E(B-V) <= 0.38. The age and reddening distributions of the present sample of relatively faint open clusters match those of open clusters with known parameters in a 90deg sector centered at l = 270deg. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  8. Hogg 12 and NGC 3590: A New Open Cluster Binary System Candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Clariá, Juan J.; Ahumada, Andrea V.

    2010-05-01

    We have obtained CCD UBVIKC photometry down to V ∼ 22.0 for the open clusters Hogg 12 and NGC 3590 and the fields surrounding them. Based on photometric and morphological criteria, as well as on the stellar density in the region, our evidence is sufficient to confirm that Hogg 12 is a genuine open cluster. NGC 3590 was used as a control cluster. The color-magnitude diagrams of Hogg 12, cleaned from field star contamination, reveal that this is a solar metal content cluster, affected by E(B - V) = 0.40 ± 0.05, located at a heliocentric distance d = 2.0 ± 0.5 kpc, and of an age similar to that of NGC 3590 (t = 30 Myr). Both clusters are surprisingly small objects whose radii are barely ∼1 pc, andthey are separated in the sky by scarcely 3.6 pc. These facts, added to their similar ages, reddenings, and metallicities, allow us to consider them a new open cluster binary system candidate. Of the ∼180 open cluster binary systems estimated to exist in the Galaxy, of which 27 are actually well known, Hogg 12 and NGC 3590 appear to be one of the two closest pairs.

  9. ON THE ORIGIN OF HIGH-ALTITUDE OPEN CLUSTERS IN THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Medina, L. A.; Pichardo, B.; Moreno, E.; Peimbert, A.; Velazquez, H.

    2016-01-20

    We present a dynamical study of the effect of the bar and spiral arms on the simulated orbits of open clusters in the Galaxy. Specifically, this work is devoted to the puzzling presence of high-altitude open clusters in the Galaxy. For this purpose we employ a very detailed observationally motivated potential model for the Milky Way and a careful set of initial conditions representing the newly born open clusters in the thin disk. We find that the spiral arms are able to raise an important percentage of open clusters (about one-sixth of the total employed in our simulations, depending on the structural parameters of the arms) above the Galactic plane to heights beyond 200 pc, producing a bulge-shaped structure toward the center of the Galaxy. Contrary to what was expected, the spiral arms produce a much greater vertical effect on the clusters than the bar, both in quantity and height; this is due to the sharper concentration of the mass on the spiral arms, when compared to the bar. When a bar and spiral arms are included, spiral arms are still capable of raising an important percentage of the simulated open clusters through chaotic diffusion (as tested from classification analysis of the resultant high-z orbits), but the bar seems to restrain them, diminishing the elevation above the plane by a factor of about two.

  10. On the Origin of High-altitude Open Clusters in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Medina, L. A.; Pichardo, B.; Moreno, E.; Peimbert, A.; Velazquez, H.

    2016-01-01

    We present a dynamical study of the effect of the bar and spiral arms on the simulated orbits of open clusters in the Galaxy. Specifically, this work is devoted to the puzzling presence of high-altitude open clusters in the Galaxy. For this purpose we employ a very detailed observationally motivated potential model for the Milky Way and a careful set of initial conditions representing the newly born open clusters in the thin disk. We find that the spiral arms are able to raise an important percentage of open clusters (about one-sixth of the total employed in our simulations, depending on the structural parameters of the arms) above the Galactic plane to heights beyond 200 pc, producing a bulge-shaped structure toward the center of the Galaxy. Contrary to what was expected, the spiral arms produce a much greater vertical effect on the clusters than the bar, both in quantity and height; this is due to the sharper concentration of the mass on the spiral arms, when compared to the bar. When a bar and spiral arms are included, spiral arms are still capable of raising an important percentage of the simulated open clusters through chaotic diffusion (as tested from classification analysis of the resultant high-z orbits), but the bar seems to restrain them, diminishing the elevation above the plane by a factor of about two.

  11. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Optical Extension for Neutron Capture Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez, Matthew; O'Connell, Julia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Donor, John; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Stassun, Keivan G.; APOGEE Team

    2017-01-01

    The Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) survey is a systematic survey of Galactic open clusters using data primarily from the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 survey. However, neutron capture elements are very limited in the IR region covered by APOGEE. In an effort to fully study detailed Galactic chemical evolution, we are conducting a high resolution (R~60,000) spectroscopic abundance analysis of neutron capture elements for OCCAM clusters in the optical regime to complement the APOGEE results. As part of this effort, we present Ba II, La II, Ce II and Eu II results for a few open clusters without previous abundance measurements using data obtained at McDonald Observatory with the 2.1m Otto Struve telescope and Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph.This work is supported by an NSF AAG grant AST-1311835.

  12. S-P coupling induced unusual open-shell metal clusters.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Bo; Berkdemir, Cuneyt; Melko, Joshua J; Castleman, A W

    2014-04-02

    Metal clusters featuring closed supershells or aromatic character usually exhibit remarkably enhanced stability in their cluster series. However, not all stable clusters are subject to these fundamental constraints. Here, by employing photoelectron imaging spectroscopy and ab initio calculations, we present experimental and theoretical evidence on the existence of unexpectedly stable open-shell clusters, which are more stable than their closed-shell and aromatic counterparts. The stabilization of these open-shell Al-Mg clusters is proposed to originate from the S-P molecular orbital coupling, leading to highly stable species with increased HOMO-LUMO gaps, akin to s-p hybridization in an organic carbon atom that is beneficial to form stable species. Introduction of the coupling effect highlighted here not only shows the limitations of the conventional closed-shell model and aromaticity but also provides the possibility to design valuable building blocks.

  13. The Initial Mass Function of Young Open Clusters in the Galaxy: A Preliminary Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Beomdu; Sung, Hwankyung; Hur, Hyeonoh; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2017-03-01

    The initial mass function (IMF) is an essential tool with which to study star formation processes. We have initiated the photometric survey of young open clusters in the Galaxy, from which the stellar IMFs are obtained in a homogeneous way. A total of 16 famous young open clusters have preferentially been studied up to now. These clusters have a wide range of surface densities (log σ = -1 to 3 [stars pc-2] for stars with mass larger than 5M ⊙) and cluster masses (M cl = 165 to 50, 000M ⊙), and also are distributed in five different spiral arms in the Galaxy. It is possible to test the dependence of star formation processes on the global properties of individual clusters or environmental conditions. We present a preliminary result on the variation of the IMF in this paper.

  14. A DEEP UBVRI CCD PHOTOMETRY OF SIX OPEN STAR CLUSTERS IN THE GALACTIC ANTICENTER REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Lata, Sneh; Pandey, Anil K.; Kumar, Brijesh; Bhatt, Himali; Pace, Giancarlo; Sharma, Saurabh

    2010-02-15

    We present deep UBVRI CCD photometry of six open star clusters situated in the Galactic anticenter region (l{approx} 120-200 deg.). The sample includes three unstudied (Be 6, Be 77, King 17) and three partly studied open clusters (Be 9, NGC 2186, and NGC 2304). The fundamental parameters have been determined by comparing color-color and color-magnitude diagrams with the theoretical models. The structural parameters and morphology of the clusters were discussed on the basis of radial density profiles and isodensity contours, respectively. The isodensity contours show that all the clusters have asymmetric shapes. An investigation of structural parameters indicates that the evolution of core and corona of the clusters is mainly controlled by internal relaxation processes.

  15. Photometry of the open cluster NGC 6996 in the North America nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdanavicius, K.; Straizys, V.

    1990-11-01

    Thirty stars in the direction of the open cluster NGC 6996 are measured in the Vilnius photometric system. Photometric spectral types, absolute magnitudes, interstellar reddenings, extinctions, and distances are determined for most of them. Fifteen stars are suspected to be cluster members. Their mean distance is 620 + or - 30 pc and mean extinction A(v) is 1.74 mag. The extinction within the cluster is variable. The age of the cluster is of the order of 100 million yr, and this excludes the possibility that it is evolutionary related with the North America and Pelican Nebulae complex. The distance of this complex 550 pc is confirmed.

  16. Construction and application of Red5 cluster based on OpenStack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaqing; Song, Jianxin

    2017-08-01

    With the application and development of cloud computing technology in various fields, the resource utilization rate of the data center has been improved obviously, and the system based on cloud computing platform has also improved the expansibility and stability. In the traditional way, Red5 cluster resource utilization is low and the system stability is poor. This paper uses cloud computing to efficiently calculate the resource allocation ability, and builds a Red5 server cluster based on OpenStack. Multimedia applications can be published to the Red5 cloud server cluster. The system achieves the flexible construction of computing resources, but also greatly improves the stability of the cluster and service efficiency.

  17. Experiences Using OpenMP Based on Compiler Directed Software DSM on a PC Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Matthias; Jost, Gabriele; Mueller, Matthias; Ruehle, Roland; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this work we report on our experiences running OpenMP (message passing) programs on a commodity cluster of PCs (personal computers) running a software distributed shared memory (DSM) system. We describe our test environment and report on the performance of a subset of the NAS (NASA Advanced Supercomputing) Parallel Benchmarks that have been automatically parallelized for OpenMP. We compare the performance of the OpenMP implementations with that of their message passing counterparts and discuss performance differences.

  18. Experiences using OpenMP based on Computer Directed Software DSM on a PC Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Matthias; Jost, Gabriele; Mueller, Matthias; Ruehle, Roland

    2003-01-01

    In this work we report on our experiences running OpenMP programs on a commodity cluster of PCs running a software distributed shared memory (DSM) system. We describe our test environment and report on the performance of a subset of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks that have been automaticaly parallelized for OpenMP. We compare the performance of the OpenMP implementations with that of their message passing counterparts and discuss performance differences.

  19. Experiences using OpenMP based on Computer Directed Software DSM on a PC Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Matthias; Jost, Gabriele; Mueller, Matthias; Ruehle, Roland

    2003-01-01

    In this work we report on our experiences running OpenMP programs on a commodity cluster of PCs running a software distributed shared memory (DSM) system. We describe our test environment and report on the performance of a subset of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks that have been automaticaly parallelized for OpenMP. We compare the performance of the OpenMP implementations with that of their message passing counterparts and discuss performance differences.

  20. γ-ray production in young open clusters: Berk 87, Cyg OB2 and Westerlund 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, W.

    2007-11-01

    Young open clusters are sites of cosmic ray acceleration as indicated by recent detections of the TeV γ-ray sources in the directions of two open clusters (Cyg OB2 and Westerlund 2). In fact, up to now a few different scenarios for acceleration of particles inside open clusters have been considered, i.e. shocks in massive star winds, pulsars and their nebulae, supernova shocks, massive compact binaries. Here we consider in detail the radiation processes due to both electrons and hadrons accelerated inside the open cluster. As a specific scenario, we apply the acceleration process at the shocks arising in the winds of Wolf-Rayet (WR) type stars. Particles diffuse through the medium of the open cluster during the activity time of the acceleration scenario defined by the age of the WR star. They interact with the matter and radiation, at first inside the open cluster and, later in the dense surrounding clouds. We calculate the broad-band spectrum in different processes for three exemplary open clusters (Berk 87, Cyg OB2, Westerlund 2) for which the best observational constraints on the spectra are at present available. It is assumed that the high-energy phenomena, observed from the X-ray up to the GeV-TeV γ-ray energies, are related to each other. We conclude that the most likely description of the radiation processes in these objects is achieved in the hybrid (leptonic-hadronic) model in which leptons are responsible for the observed X-ray and GeV γ-ray emission and hadrons are responsible for the TeV γ-ray emission.

  1. A Chandra X-ray census of the interacting binaries in old open clusters - NGC 188

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vats, Smriti; Van Den Berg, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    We present a new X-ray study of NGC 188, one of the oldest open clusters known in the Milky Way (7 Gyr). Our X-ray observation using the Chandra X-ray Observatory is aimed at uncovering the population of close interacting binaries in the cluster. We detect 84 X-ray sources with a limiting X-ray luminosity, LX ~ 4×1029 erg s-1 (0.3-7 keV), of which 28 are within the half-mass radius. Of these, 13 are proper-motion or radial-velocity cluster members, wherein we identify a mix of active binaries (ABs) and blue straggler stars (BSSs). We also identify one tentative cataclysmic variable (CV) candidate which is a known short-period photometric variable, but whose membership to NGC 188 is unknown. We have compared the X-ray luminosity per unit of cluster mass (i.e. the X-ray emissivity) of NGC 188 with those of other old Galactic open clusters and dense globular clusters (47 Tuc, NGC 6397). Our findings confirm the earlier result that old open clusters have higher X-ray emissivities than the globular clusters (LX ≥1×1030 erg s-1). This may be explained by dynamical encounters in globulars, which could have a net effect of destroying binaries, or the typically higher metallicities of open clusters. We find one intriguing X-ray source in NGC 188 that is a BSS and cluster member, whose X-ray luminosity cannot be explained by its currently understood binary configuration. Its X-ray detection invokes the need for a third companion in the system.

  2. Massive open star clusters using the VVV survey. V. Young clusters with an OB stellar population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez Alegría, S.; Borissova, J.; Chené, A.-N.; Bonatto, C.; Kurtev, R.; Amigo, P.; Kuhn, M.; Gromadzki, M.; Carballo-Bello, J. A.

    2016-04-01

    Context. The ESO public survey VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) has contributed with deep multi-epoch photometry of the Galactic bulge and the adjacent part of the disk over 526 sq. deg. More than a hundred cluster candidates have been reported thanks to this survey. Aims: We present the fifth article in a series of papers focused on young and massive clusters discovered in the VVV survey. In this paper, we present the physical characterization of five clusters with a spectroscopically confirmed OB-type stellar population. Methods: To characterize the clusters, we used near-infrared photometry (J, H, and KS) from the VVV survey and near-infrared K-band spectroscopy from ISAAC at VLT, following the methodology presented in the previous articles of the series. Results: All clusters in our sample are very young (ages between 1-20 Myr), and their total mass are between (1.07+0.40-0.30)×102 M⊙ and (4.17+4.15-2.08)×103 M⊙. We observed a relation between the clusters total mass Mecl and the mass of their most massive stellar member mmax, for clusters with an age <10 Myr. Based on observations taken within the ESO VISTA Public Survey VVV (programme ID 179.B-2002), and with ISAAC/VLT (programme 087.D-0341(A)).

  3. Investigation of open clusters based on IPHAS and APASS survey data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dambis, A. K.; Glushkova, E. V.; Berdnikov, L. N.; Joshi, Y. C.; Pandey, A. K.

    2017-02-01

    We adapt the classical Q-method based on a reddening-free parameter constructed from three passband magnitudes to the filter set of Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric Hα Survey and combine it with the maximum-likelihood-based cluster parameter estimator by Naylor & Jeffries (2006) to determine the extinction, heliocentric distances, and ages of young open clusters using Hαri data. The method is also adapted for the case of significant variations of extinction across the cluster field. Our technique is validated by comparing the colour excesses, distances, and ages determined in this study with the most bona fide values reported for the 18 well-studied young open clusters in the past and a fairly good agreement is found between our extinction and distance estimates and earlier published results, although our age estimates are not very consistent with those published by other authors. We also show that individual extinction values can be determined rather accurately for stars with (r - i) > 0.1. Our results open up a prospect for determining a uniform set of parameters for northern clusters based on homogeneous photometric data, and for searching for new, hitherto undiscovered open clusters.

  4. Chemical abundance gradients from open clusters in the Milky Way disk: Results from the APOGEE survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, K.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Souto, D.; Thompson, B.; Zasowski, G.; Allende Prieto, C.; Carrera, R.; Chiappini, C.; Donor, J.; García-Hernández, D. A.; García Pérez, A. E.; Hayden, M. R.; Holtzman, J.; Jackson, K. M.; Johnson, J. A.; Majewski, S. R.; Mészáros, S.; Meyer, B.; Nidever, D. L.; O'Connell, J.; Schiavon, R. P.; Schultheis, M.; Shetrone, M.; Simmons, A.; Smith, V. V.; et al.

    2016-09-01

    Metallicity gradients provide strong constraints for understanding the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. We report on radial abundance gradients of Fe, Ni, Ca, Si, and Mg obtained from a sample of 304 red-giant members of 29 disk open clusters, mostly concentrated at galactocentric distances between ˜ 8-15 kpc, but including two open clusters in the outer disk. The observations are from the APOGEE survey. The chemical abundances were derived automatically by the ASPCAP pipeline and these are part of the SDSS III Data Release 12. The gradients, obtained from least squares fits to the data, are relatively flat, with slopes ranging from -0.026 to -0.033 dex kpc-1 for the α-elements [O/H], [Ca/H], [Si/H], and [Mg/H], and -0.035 dex kpc-1 and -0.040 dex kpc-1 for [Fe/H] and [Ni/H], respectively. Our results are not at odds with the possibility that metallicity ([Fe/H]) gradients are steeper in the inner disk ({R_GC˜ 7}-12 kpc) and flatter towards the outer disk. The open cluster sample studied spans a significant range in age. When breaking the sample into age bins, there is some indication that the younger open cluster population in our sample (log age < 8.7) has a flatter metallicity gradient when compared with the gradients obtained from older open clusters.

  5. A RAVE investigation on Galactic open clusters. I. Radial velocities and metallicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, C.; Scholz, R.-D.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Piskunov, A. E.; Schilbach, E.; Röser, S.; Boeche, C.; Kordopatis, G.; Siebert, A.; Williams, M.; Munari, U.; Matijevič, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Zwitter, T.; de Jong, R. S.; Steinmetz, M.; Gilmore, G.; Seabroke, G.; Freeman, K.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q.; Reid, W.; Watson, F.; Gibson, B. K.; Bienaymé, O.; Wyse, R.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Siviero, A.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Galactic open clusters (OCs) mainly belong to the young stellar population in the Milky Way disk, but are there groups and complexes of OCs that possibly define an additional level in hierarchical star formation? Current compilations are too incomplete to address this question, especially regarding radial velocities (RVs) and metallicities ([M/H]). Aims: Here we provide and discuss newly obtained RV and [M/H] data, which will enable us to reinvestigate potential groupings of open clusters and associations. Methods: We extracted additional RVs and [M/H] from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) via a cross-match with the Catalogue of Stars in Open Cluster Areas (CSOCA). For the identified OCs in RAVE we derived overlineRV and overline{[M/H]} from a cleaned working sample and compared the results with previous findings. Results: Although our RAVE sample does not show the same accuracy as the entire survey, we were able to derive reliable overlineRV for 110 Galactic open clusters. For 37 OCs we publish overlineRV for the first time. Moreover, we determined overline{[M/H]} for 81 open clusters, extending the number of OCs with overline{[M/H]} by 69. Tables 8 and 9 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/562/A54

  6. The wide variety of evolutionary stages among 34 unstudied Teutsch open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatto, C.; Bica, E.

    2010-10-01

    Context. Close investigations of unstudied open-cluster candidates may improve the statistics of objects undergoing the dissolution phase. Aims: We plan to settle the nature and derive astrophysical (fundamental, structural, and stellar mass content) parameters for 34 unstudied open cluster candidates from the near-infrared Teutsch list. Methods: The analysis employs 2MASS photometry, field-star decontamination (to enhance the intrinsic colour-magnitude diagram morphology), and colour-magnitude filters (for high contrast in stellar radial density profiles). Results: We find 8 clusters younger than ~30 Myr, 21 with ages within 100-900 Myr, 3 older than 1 Gyr, and possibly 1 as old as ~7 Gyr. Part of the sample is affected by reddening as high as AV ~ 9, and about half is located more than d_⊙ ~ 3 kpc away from the Sun, with a few reaching d_⊙ = 6-9 kpc. The sample contains essentially low-luminosity clusters in the optical, with < M_V> ≈ -3±3. These properties are consistent with their near-infrared origin. Cluster size increases both with Galactocentric distance and height over the plane, which is consistent with the low level of tidal stress (and field contamination) associated with these regions. The average mass density falls off with cluster radius as ρ ~ R-3, which in clusters younger than ~20 Myr and more massive than ~103 M_⊙ has been interpreted as diffusion-related cluster expansion. Conclusions: Besides the derivation of astrophysical parameters for a sample of unstudied open clusters, in this paper we identify a set of clusters older than several 102 Myr, with 4 of them having survived a few Gyr. Surveys of open cluster candidates should be further explored to fill in the gap between the detected and predicted number of clusters. An improved statistic, especially on the population of clusters in highly evolved phases, can be used to investigate cluster formation rates and constrain the dissolution-time scale in the Galaxy. Appendix A is only

  7. WIYN Open Cluster Study. LXXII. A uvbyCaHβ CCD Analysis of the Metal-deficient Open Cluster NGC 2506

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Twarog, Bruce A.

    2016-12-01

    Precision uvbyCaHβ photometry of the metal-deficient, old open cluster NGC 2506 is presented. The survey covers an area of 20\\prime × 20\\prime and extends to V˜ 18 for b - y and Hβ and to V˜ 17.0 for c 1 and hk. For V brighter than 16.0, photometric scatter among the indices leads to the recovery of six known variables within the cluster core and five new variables in the outer 5\\prime of the survey field. Proper motions, radial velocities, and precise multicolor indices are used to isolate a highly probable sample of cluster members from the very rich color-magnitude diagram. From 257 highly probable members at the cluster turnoff, we derive a reddening estimate of E(b-y)=0.042+/- 0.001 (E(B-V)=0.058+/- 0.001), where the errors refer to the internal standard errors of the mean. [Fe/H] is derived from the A/F dwarf members using both m 1 and hk, leading to [Fe/H] = -0.296 ± 0.011 (sem) and -0.317 ± 0.004 (sem), respectively. The weighted average, heavily dominated by hk, is [Fe/H] = -0.316 ± 0.033. Based on red giant members, we place an upper limit of ±0.010 on the variation in the reddening across the face of the cluster. We also identify two dozen potential red giant cluster members outside the cluster core. Victoria-Regina isochrones on the Strömgren system produce an excellent match to the cluster for an apparent modulus of (m-M)=12.75+/- 0.1 and an age of 1.85 ± 0.05 Gyr.

  8. CCD UBV photometry and kinematics of the open cluster NGC 225

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilir, Selçuk; Bostancı, Z. Funda; Yontan, Talar; Güver, Tolga; Bakış, Volkan; Ak, Tansel; Ak, Serap; Paunzen, Ernst; Eker, Zeki

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of CCD UBV photometric and spectroscopic observations of the open cluster NGC 225. In order to determine the structural parameters of NGC 225, we calculated the stellar density profile in the cluster's field. We estimated the probabilities of the stars being physical members of the cluster using the existing astrometric data. The most likely members of the cluster were used in the determination of the astrophysical parameters of the cluster. We calculated the mean radial velocity of the cluster as Vr = - 8.3 ± 5.0 km s-1 from the optical spectra of eight stars in the cluster's field. Using the U - B vs B - V two-colour diagram and UV excesses of the F-G type main-sequence stars, the reddening and metallicity of NGC 225 were inferred as E (B - V) = 0.151 ± 0.047 mag and [Fe /H ] = - 0.11 ± 0.01 dex, respectively. We fitted the colour-magnitude diagrams of NGC 225 with the PARSEC isochrones and derived the distance modulus, distance and age of the cluster as μV = 9.3 ± 0.07 mag, d = 585 ± 20 pc and t = 900 ± 100 Myr, respectively. We also estimated the galactic orbital parameters and space velocity components of the cluster and found that the cluster has a slightly eccentric orbit of e = 0.07 ± 0.01 and an orbital period of Porb = 255 ± 5 Myr.

  9. Radial Velocities, Metallicities, and Improved Fundamental Parameters of Outer Disk Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasowski, Gail; Hamm, K.; Beaton, R.; Damke, G.; Carlberg, J. K.; Majewski, S. R.; Frinchaboy, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Open stellar clusters have proven to be powerful tools for understanding the structure and stellar evolution of our Galaxy. Using photometry from 2MASS and the new Spitzer-IRAC GLIMPSE-360 surveys, Zasowski et al. (2013) identified and characterized more than a dozen new or poorly studied, heavily reddened open clusters in the outer Galactic disk. Here, we present follow-up spectroscopy for 11 of the clusters. Low resolution optical spectra were obtained with the DIS spectrograph on the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope (R˜1200) for candidate members of seven clusters (GLM-CYGX 16, GLM-G360 18, GLM-G360 105, SAI 24, Berkeley 14, Berkeley 14a, and Czernik 20), and with the B&C spectrograph on the Las Campanas Observatory duPont telescope (R˜5400) for three clusters (GLM-G360 50, GLM-G360 75, and GLM-G360 79). High resolution (R˜22,500) infrared (H-band) spectra were also obtained for one cluster (GLM-G360 90) as part of an ancillary program for the SDSS-III/APOGEE survey. We use the mean chemical abundances and radial velocities (RVs) to identify likely cluster members and then revisit our previous isochrone fits. With reddening constrained by the Rayleigh-Jeans Color Excess method and mean metallicities by spectroscopy, the cluster distances and ages are estimated from improved isochrone fits to the stellar overdensity, weighted by confirmed RV and/or abundance members.

  10. Gaia-ESO Survey: Properties of the intermediate age open cluster NGC 4815

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friel, E. D.; Donati, P.; Bragaglia, A.; Jacobson, H. R.; Magrini, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Randich, S.; Tosi, M.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Vallenari, A.; Smiljanic, R.; Carraro, G.; Sordo, R.; Maiorca, E.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Sestito, P.; Zaggia, S.; Jiménez-Esteban, F. M.; Gilmore, G.; Jeffries, R. D.; Alfaro, E.; Bensby, T.; Koposov, S. E.; Korn, A. J.; Pancino, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Franciosini, E.; Hill, V.; Jackson, R. J.; de Laverny, P.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Hourihane, A.; Costado, M. T.; Jofré, P.; Lind, K.

    2014-03-01

    Context. NGC 4815 is a populous ~500 Myr open cluster at Rgc ~ 7 kpc observed in the first six months of the Gaia-ESO Survey. Located in the inner Galactic disk, NGC 4815 is an important potential tracer of the abundance gradient, where relatively few intermediate age open clusters are found. Aims: The Gaia-ESO Survey data can provide an improved characterization of the cluster properties, such as age, distance, reddening, and abundance profile. Methods: We use the survey derived radial velocities, stellar atmospheric parameters, metallicity, and elemental abundances for stars targeted as potential members of this cluster to carry out an analysis of cluster properties. The radial velocity distribution of stars in the cluster field is used to define the cluster systemic velocity and derive likely cluster membership for stars observed by the Gaia-ESO Survey. We investigate the distributions of Fe and Fe-peak elements, alpha-elements, and the light elements Na and Al and characterize the cluster's internal chemical homogeneity comparing it to the properties of radial velocity non-member stars. Utilizing these cluster properties, the cluster color-magnitude diagram is analyzed and theoretical isochrones are fit to derive cluster reddening, distance, and age. Results: NGC 4815 is found to have a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.03 ± 0.05 dex (s.d.). Elemental abundances of cluster members show typically very small internal variation, with internal dispersions of ~0.05 dex. The alpha-elements [Ca/Fe] and [Si/Fe] show solar ratios, but [Mg/Fe] is moderately enhanced, while [Ti/Fe] appears slightly deficient. As with many open clusters, the light elements [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe] are enhanced, [Na/Fe] significantly so, although the role of internal mixing and the assumption of local thermodynamical equilibrium in the analysis remain to be investigated. From isochrone fits to color-magnitude diagrams, we find a cluster age of 0.5 to 0.63 Gyr, a reddening of E(B - V) = 0.59 to 0

  11. On the subject of the Ba overabundance in the open clusters stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishenina, T. V.; Korotin, S. A.; Carraro, G.; Kovtyukh, V. V.; Yegorova, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    For eight distant open clusters, namely Ruprecht 4, Ruprecht 7, Berkeley 25, Berkeley 73, Berkeley 75, NGC 6192, NGC 6404, and NGC 6583, we determined the yttrium and barium abundances using the UVES, VLT spectra (ESO, Chile). The stars of one young cluster (Ruprecht 7) demonstrate significant barium overabundance(∼0.55 dex) that can not be due to the determination error. We have considered the Ba abundance determination errors due to LTE approach, saturation of the lines, synthetic and observed barium line fitting, and the causes of the Ba overabundance associated with the Galactic disc enrichment or the origin of open clusters. Possible explanation for this overabundance can be the origin of n-capture elements enrichment of the clusters (galactic or extragalactic) or additional sources of the Ba production.

  12. First estimates of the fundamental parameters of the very small open cluster Ruprecht 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Parisi, M. C.; Ahumada, A. V.

    New CCD observations with the Washington C and T1 filters in the field of the open cluster Ruprecht 1 are presented. The cluster turned out to be very small, its linear radius being 2.6 +/- 0.2 pc. Ruprecht 1 is moderately reddened [E(B-V) = 0.25] and moderately young (~ 230 Myr). Heliocentric distances of 1.9 +/- 0.4 kpc and 1.5 +/- 0.3 kpc are determined for Z (metallicity) = 0.02 and 0.08, respectively, although evidence is presented favouring a solar metal content rather than a subsolar one. We compare the cluster properties with tose of known open clusters located within 1 kpc around it.

  13. Photometry Using Kepler "Superstamps" of Open Clusters NGC 6791 & NGC 6819

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Drury, Jason A.; Bellamy, Beau R.; Stello, Dennis; Bedding, Timothy R.; Reed, Mike; Quick, Breanna

    2015-09-01

    The Kepler space telescope has proven to be a gold mine for the study of variable stars. Usually, Kepler only reads out a handful of pixels around each pre-selected target star, omitting a large number of stars in the Kepler field. Fortunately, for the open clusters NGC 6791 and NGC 6819, Kepler also read out larger "superstamps" which contained complete images of the central region of each cluster. These cluster images can be used to study additional stars in the open clusters that were not originally on Kepler's target list. We discuss our work on using two photometric techniques to analyze these superstamps and present sample results from this project to demonstrate the value of this technique for a wide variety of variable stars.

  14. Two 'b's in the Beehive: The Discovery of the First Hot Jupiters in an Open Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latham, David W.; Quinn, S. N.; White, R. J.

    2012-10-01

    We report the discovery of two giant planets orbiting stars in Praesepe (also known as the Beehive Cluster), the first known hot Jupiters in an open cluster. Pr0201b orbits a V=10.52 late F dwarf with a period of 4.4264 days and has a minimum mass of 0.540 Mjup, while Pr0211b orbits a V=12.06 late G dwarf with a period of 2.1451 days and has a minimum mass of 1.844 Mjup. Because they reside in a cluster, the ages of these planets are amongst the best-determined of any planet outside our own solar system. As we endeavor to learn more about the frequency and characteristics of planets, the environment in which most stars form -- open clusters like Praesepe -- may provide essential clues.

  15. Neutron Capture Elements in the Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Julia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Hearty, Fred R.; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; Sdss /Apogee-1, III

    2015-01-01

    The Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) survey is a systematic survey of Galactic open clusters using data primarily from the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 survey. The high-resolution (R=22,500), near-infrared (H-band) APOGEE-1 survey allows for cluster membership probability determination and analysis of light and iron-peak elements. Neutron capture elements, however, prove to be elusive in the IR region covered by APOGEE. In an effort to fully study detailed Galactic chemical evolution, we conducted a high resolution (R~60,000) spectroscopic abundance analysis of neutron capture elements for OCCAM clusters in the optical regime to complement the APOGEE results. We present results based on prominent resonance lines for Eu, La, Ba, and Ce in the ~5400-6750 AA range using data obtained at McDonald Observatory with the 2.1m Otto Struve telescope and Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph.

  16. The Palomar-Las Campanas Observatory-NOAO (PLCON) Open Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, R. L.; Tollefson, J.; Reafsnyder, S.; Frinchaboy, P.; Craig, Aidan; Postlethwaite, J.; Marshall, T.

    2000-12-01

    The Palomar-Las Campanas Observatory-NOAO (PLCON) Open Cluster Survey is a long-term survey intended to provide CCD derived, VI color-magnitude diagrams for the majority of the Milky Way's open clusters, most of which have been poorly studied in the past, or never studied at all. From these data, systematic estimates of cluster reddenings, distances and ages can be derived using a limited number of telescopes, CCDs and filter sets. These data will be useful for systematic studies of Galactic structure in the disk, the properties of unique/interesting stars within clusters, stellar evolution theory, and a host of other timely astrophysical questions. This paper will report on recent results from the Survey. This work is supported, in part, by grants from the National Science Foundation and the California State University, Sacramento Research and Creative Activity Awards Program.

  17. CCD photometry of Andromeda IV - Dwarf irregular galaxy or M31 open cluster?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Joseph H.

    1993-01-01

    CCD photometry of Andromeda IV was obtained during discretionary time in August of 1989 at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea and the data were reduced at CFHT during the summer of 1991. And IV has been catalogued both as a dwarf galaxy and as an open star cluster in M31. The color-magnitude diagrams presented indicate that this object has a young population of stars with a narrow age range, consistent with the characteristics of an open star cluster or stellar association. A radial velocity measurement taken from the literature and analyzed with respect to the rotation curve of M31 indicates this object resides in the disk of the Andromeda Galaxy, strengthening the conclusion that it is indeed a very large open star cluster or a densely populated stellar association rather than a dwarf irregular galaxy.

  18. Gaia Data Release 1. Open cluster astrometry: performance, limitations, and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaia Collaboration; van Leeuwen, F.; Vallenari, A.; Jordi, C.; Lindegren, L.; Bastian, U.; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Panem, C.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Perryman, M.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J.-M.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J.-B.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lorenz, D.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F.-X.; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Shih, I.-C.; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; vanLeeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Wevers, T.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H.-H.; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P.-M.; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A.-M.; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D.-W.; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A.-T.; Nordlander, T.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Ocvirk, P.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J.-M.; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2017-05-01

    Context. The first Gaia Data Release contains the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS). This is a subset of about 2 million stars for which, besides the position and photometry, the proper motion and parallax are calculated using Hipparcos and Tycho-2 positions in 1991.25 as prior information. Aims: We investigate the scientific potential and limitations of the TGAS component by means of the astrometric data for open clusters. Methods: Mean cluster parallax and proper motion values are derived taking into account the error correlations within the astrometric solutions for individual stars, an estimate of the internal velocity dispersion in the cluster, and, where relevant, the effects of the depth of the cluster along the line of sight. Internal consistency of the TGAS data is assessed. Results: Values given for standard uncertainties are still inaccurate and may lead to unrealistic unit-weight standard deviations of least squares solutions for cluster parameters. Reconstructed mean cluster parallax and proper motion values are generally in very good agreement with earlier Hipparcos-based determination, although the Gaia mean parallax for the Pleiades is a significant exception. We have no current explanation for that discrepancy. Most clusters are observed to extend to nearly 15 pc from the cluster centre, and it will be up to future Gaia releases to establish whether those potential cluster-member stars are still dynamically bound to the clusters. Conclusions: The Gaia DR1 provides the means to examine open clusters far beyond their more easily visible cores, and can provide membership assessments based on proper motions and parallaxes. A combined HR diagram shows the same features as observed before using the Hipparcos data, with clearly increased luminosities for older A and F dwarfs. Tables D.1 to D.19 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/601/A

  19. Open-Source Sequence Clustering Methods Improve the State Of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Navas-Molina, Jose A.; Mercier, Céline; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech; Mahé, Frédéric; He, Yan; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Rognes, Torbjørn; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Knight, Rob

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sequence clustering is a common early step in amplicon-based microbial community analysis, when raw sequencing reads are clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to reduce the run time of subsequent analysis steps. Here, we evaluated the performance of recently released state-of-the-art open-source clustering software products, namely, OTUCLUST, Swarm, SUMACLUST, and SortMeRNA, against current principal options (UCLUST and USEARCH) in QIIME, hierarchical clustering methods in mothur, and USEARCH’s most recent clustering algorithm, UPARSE. All the latest open-source tools showed promising results, reporting up to 60% fewer spurious OTUs than UCLUST, indicating that the underlying clustering algorithm can vastly reduce the number of these derived OTUs. Furthermore, we observed that stringent quality filtering, such as is done in UPARSE, can cause a significant underestimation of species abundance and diversity, leading to incorrect biological results. Swarm, SUMACLUST, and SortMeRNA have been included in the QIIME 1.9.0 release. IMPORTANCE Massive collections of next-generation sequencing data call for fast, accurate, and easily accessible bioinformatics algorithms to perform sequence clustering. A comprehensive benchmark is presented, including open-source tools and the popular USEARCH suite. Simulated, mock, and environmental communities were used to analyze sensitivity, selectivity, species diversity (alpha and beta), and taxonomic composition. The results demonstrate that recent clustering algorithms can significantly improve accuracy and preserve estimated diversity without the application of aggressive filtering. Moreover, these tools are all open source, apply multiple levels of multithreading, and scale to the demands of modern next-generation sequencing data, which is essential for the analysis of massive multidisciplinary studies such as the Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) (J. A. Gilbert, J. K. Jansson, and R. Knight, BMC Biol 12:69, 2014

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Gaia DR1 open cluster members (Gaia Collaboration+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaia Collaboration; van Leeuwen F.; Vallenari, A.; Jordi, C.; Lindegren, L.; Bastian, U.; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Panem, C.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Hog, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Perryman, M.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castaneda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; de Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernandez, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordonez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thevenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Fremat, Y.; Garcia-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J.-M.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Alvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Anton, S.; Arcay, B.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Nunez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Barrado Y Navascues, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bello Garcia, A.; Belokuro, V. V.; Ben Djoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienayme, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Bruesemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de, Felice F.; de Laverny, P.; de Luise, F.; de March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; Del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Duran, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcao, A. J.; Farras Casas, M.; Fede Rici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernandez-Hernandez, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; Garcia-Sedano, F.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; Gonzalez-Marcos, A.; Gonzalez-Nunez, J.; Gonzalez-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gurpide, A.; Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofre, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J.-B.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Lecler, C. N.; Lec Oeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrom, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Loeffler, W.; Lopez, M.; Lorenz, D.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhaes Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalko, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevic, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnar, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordenovic, C.; Ordieres-Mere, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikaeinen, H.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F.-X.; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prsa, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Reyle, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gomez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagrista Selles, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Shih, I.-C.; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmueller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Sueveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; van Hemelryck, E.; Vanleeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Wevers, T.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Yoldas, A.; Zerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escude, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H.-H.; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P.-M.; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chereau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frezouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gomez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A.-M.; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D.-W.; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; Lebouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A.-T.; Nordlander, T.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Ocvirk, P.; O Lias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Peturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels+, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straizys, V.; Ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J.-M.; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2017-04-01

    We have determined and examined the astrometric data for 19 open clusters, ranging from the Hyades at just under 47pc to NGC 2422 at nearly 440pc. The clusters are : the Hyades, Coma Berenices, the Pleiades, Praesepe, alpha Per, IC 2391, IC 2602, Blanco 1, NGC 2451, NGC 6475, NGC 7092, NGC 2516, NGC 2232, IC 4665, NGC 6633, Collinder 140, NGC 2422, NGC 3532 and NGC 2547. (2 data files).

  1. Open-Source Sequence Clustering Methods Improve the State Of the Art.

    PubMed

    Kopylova, Evguenia; Navas-Molina, Jose A; Mercier, Céline; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech; Mahé, Frédéric; He, Yan; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Rognes, Torbjørn; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Sequence clustering is a common early step in amplicon-based microbial community analysis, when raw sequencing reads are clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to reduce the run time of subsequent analysis steps. Here, we evaluated the performance of recently released state-of-the-art open-source clustering software products, namely, OTUCLUST, Swarm, SUMACLUST, and SortMeRNA, against current principal options (UCLUST and USEARCH) in QIIME, hierarchical clustering methods in mothur, and USEARCH's most recent clustering algorithm, UPARSE. All the latest open-source tools showed promising results, reporting up to 60% fewer spurious OTUs than UCLUST, indicating that the underlying clustering algorithm can vastly reduce the number of these derived OTUs. Furthermore, we observed that stringent quality filtering, such as is done in UPARSE, can cause a significant underestimation of species abundance and diversity, leading to incorrect biological results. Swarm, SUMACLUST, and SortMeRNA have been included in the QIIME 1.9.0 release. IMPORTANCE Massive collections of next-generation sequencing data call for fast, accurate, and easily accessible bioinformatics algorithms to perform sequence clustering. A comprehensive benchmark is presented, including open-source tools and the popular USEARCH suite. Simulated, mock, and environmental communities were used to analyze sensitivity, selectivity, species diversity (alpha and beta), and taxonomic composition. The results demonstrate that recent clustering algorithms can significantly improve accuracy and preserve estimated diversity without the application of aggressive filtering. Moreover, these tools are all open source, apply multiple levels of multithreading, and scale to the demands of modern next-generation sequencing data, which is essential for the analysis of massive multidisciplinary studies such as the Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) (J. A. Gilbert, J. K. Jansson, and R. Knight, BMC Biol 12:69, 2014, http

  2. TWO 'b's IN THE BEEHIVE: THE DISCOVERY OF THE FIRST HOT JUPITERS IN AN OPEN CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Samuel N.; White, Russel J.; Cantrell, Justin R.; Latham, David W.; Furesz, Gabor; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew H.; Geary, John C.; Torres, Guillermo; Bieryla, Allyson; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael C.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Stefanik, Robert P.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Dahm, Scott E.

    2012-09-10

    We report the discovery of two giant planets orbiting stars in Praesepe (also known as the Beehive Cluster). These are the first known hot Jupiters in an open cluster and the only planets known to orbit Sun-like, main-sequence stars in a cluster. The planets are detected from Doppler-shifted radial velocities; line bisector spans and activity indices show no correlation with orbital phase, confirming the variations are caused by planetary companions. Pr0201b orbits a V = 10.52 late F dwarf with a period of 4.4264 {+-} 0.0070 days and has a minimum mass of 0.540 {+-} 0.039 M{sub Jup}, and Pr0211b orbits a V = 12.06 late G dwarf with a period of 2.1451 {+-} 0.0012 days and has a minimum mass of 1.844 {+-} 0.064 M{sub Jup}. The detection of two planets among 53 single members surveyed establishes a lower limit of 3.8{sup +5.0}{sub -2.4}% on the hot Jupiter frequency in this metal-rich open cluster. Given the precisely known age of the cluster, this discovery also demonstrates that, in at least two cases, giant planet migration occurred within 600 Myr after formation. As we endeavor to learn more about the frequency and formation history of planets, environments with well-determined properties-such as open clusters like Praesepe-may provide essential clues to this end.

  3. Blue straggler stars in Galactic open clusters and the effect of field star contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, G.; Vázquez, R. A.; Moitinho, A.

    2008-05-01

    Context: We investigate the distribution of blue straggler stars in the field of three open star clusters. Aims: The main purpose is to highlight the crucial role played by general Galactic disk fore-/back-ground field stars, which are often located in the same region of the color magnitude diagram as blue straggler stars. Methods: We analyze photometry taken from the literature of 3 open clusters of intermediate/old age rich in blue straggler stars, which are projected in the direction of the Perseus arm, and study their spatial distribution and the color magnitude diagram. Results: As expected, we find that a large portion of the blue straggler population in these clusters are simply young field stars belonging to the spiral arm. This result has important consequences on the theories of the formation and statistics of blue straggler stars in different population environments: open clusters, globular clusters, or dwarf galaxies. Conclusions: As previously emphasized by many authors, a detailed membership analysis is mandatory before comparing the blue straggler population in star clusters to theoretical models. Moreover, these sequences of young field stars (blue plumes) are potentially powerful tracers of Galactic structure and they require further consideration.

  4. Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS). 0. Target Selection and Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hwankyung; Lim, Beomdu; Bessell, Michael S.; Kim, Jinyoung S.; Hur, Hyeonoh; Chun, Moo-Young; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2013-06-01

    Star clusters are superb astrophysical laboratories containing cospatial and coeval samples of stars with similar chemical composition. We initiate the Sejong Open cluster Survey (SOS) - a project dedicated to providing homogeneous photometry of a large number of open clusters in the SAAO Johnson-Cousins' UBVI system. To achieve our main goal, we pay much attention to the observation of standard stars in order to reproduce the SAAO standard system. Many of our targets are relatively small sparse clusters that escaped previous observations. As clusters are considered building blocks of the Galactic disk, their physical properties such as the initial mass function, the pattern of mass segregation, etc. give valuable information on the formation and evolution of the Galactic disk. The spatial distribution of young open clusters will be used to revise the local spiral arm structure of the Galaxy. In addition, the homogeneous data can also be used to test stellar evolutionary theory, especially concerning rare massive stars. In this paper we present the target selection criteria, the observational strategy for accurate photometry, and the adopted calibrations for data analysis such as color-color relations, zero-age main sequence relations, Sp - M_V relations, Sp - T_{eff} relations, Sp - color relations, and T_{eff} - BC relations. Finally we provide some data analysis such as the determination of the reddening law, the membership selection criteria, and distance determination.

  5. Extended Stromgren Photometry in the Intermediate-age Open Cluster, NGC 5822

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony-Twarog, Barbara; Twarog, Bruce A.

    2010-02-01

    Open clusters remain invaluable objects for probing evolution on a galactic scale and testing the finer details of stellar evolution. In recent years we have focused on the study of open clusters as markers of Galactic disk evolution, evaluating the cluster parameters to test the reality and significance of detailed structure within the disk abundance gradient, confirming the apparent change in the slope of the gradient beyond the solar circle, evidence for an apparent inside-out development of the disk (Twarog et al. 1997). The current proposal is built around a comprehensive photometric study of the Hyades-age open cluster NGC 5822 as a prelude to high-dispersion spectroscopic analysis of the Li abundance for stars from the rich giant branch to the main sequence well below the so-called Li-dip. Our proposed CCD study on the extended Stromgren system, the first CCD study of this cluster on any photometric system, will supply reddening, metallicity, distance, and cluster age, while allowing us to identify and eliminate probable non- members and binaries, thereby optimizing the sample for spectroscopic followup.

  6. White Dwarfs in the Metal-Rich Open Cluster NGC 6253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, E. J.; Campos, F.; Romero, A.; Kepler, S. O.

    2017-03-01

    We have obtained 53 images with the g filter and 19 images with the i filter, each with 600-second exposures of the super metal rich open cluster NGC 6253 with the Gemini-South telescope to create deep images of the cluster to observe the cluster white dwarfs for the first time. We will analyze the white dwarf luminosity function to measure the cluster's white dwarf age, search for any anomalous features (as has been seen in the similarly metal rich cluster NGC 6791), and constrain the initial-final mass relation at high metallicities. We present an update on these observations and our program to study the formation of white dwarfs in super high metallicity environments.

  7. The Monitor Project: a search for low mass EBs in the young open cluster M50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkby, J. L.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Aigrain, S.; Irwin, J.

    2009-02-01

    We present preliminary results from a high-cadence photometric monitoring survey of the 130 Myr old open cluster M50. Using the semi-automated occultation detection process developed by Miller et al. [1], we uncovered eight low mass (<1 Msolar) eclipsing binary candidates in the cluster. Preliminary analysis of spectroscopic follow-up on five of these candidates confirms their binary nature. One candidate also exhibits a systemic velocity broadly consistent with the cluster radial velocity, indicating cluster membership. Confirmation of these eight candidates as true members of the M50 cluster will allow us to provide important constraints to the mass-radius relationship for objects below 1Msolar at ages younger than 1 Gyr, where current observations remain scarce.

  8. A photometric study of the old open clusters Berkeley 73, Berkeley 75 and Berkeley 25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, G.; Geisler, D.; Moitinho, A.; Baume, G.; Vázquez, R. A.

    2005-11-01

    CCD BVI photometry of the faint open clusters Berkeley 73, Berkeley 75 and Berkeley 25 are presented. The two latter are previously unstudied clusters to our knowledge. While Berkeley 73 is found to be of intermediate-age (about 1.5 Gyr old), Berkeley 75 and Berkeley 25 are old clusters, with ages greater than 3.0 Gyr. We provide also estimates of the clusters size. All these clusters lie far away from the Galactic Center, at R_GC ≥ 16 kpc, and quite high on the Galactic plane, at |Z⊙| ≥ 1.5 kpc. They are therefore important targets to probe the properties of the structure of the Galaxy in this direction, where the Canis Major over-density has been discovered to be located.

  9. CCD UBV(RI)C and 2MASS photometry of seven open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkaya Oralhan, {İ.; Michel, R.

    Fundamental astrophysical parameters have been derived for Be 45, Be 55, Di 07, Feib 01, Ki 02, NGC 457 and NGC 1548 open clusters (OCs) using CCD U BV (RI)_C photometric data and PPMXL database. CCD U BV (RI)_C photometric data observed with the 84 cm telescope at the San Pedro Mártir National Astronomical Observatory (SPMO), México. The cluster members and field stars in the cluster regions have separated through their Proper Motion (PM) vector point diagrams. We have used JH{Ks} photometry of 2MASS data taken from PPMXL catalogue to have stellar Radial Density Profile (RDP) and determine limit radius of these seven clusters. Five different Color-Magnitude diagrams ane one color-color diagram have been used together with Padova isochrones and intrinsic-colour calibrations to obtain reddenings, metallicities, distance moduli, and ages for these seven clusters.

  10. A comprehensive photometric study of dynamically evolved small van den Bergh-Hagen open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2016-12-01

    We present results from Johnson UBV, Kron-Cousins RI and Washington CT1T2 photometries for seven van den Bergh-Hagen (vdBH) open clusters, namely, vdBH 1, 10, 31, 72, 87, 92, and 118. The high-quality, multiband photometric data sets were used to trace the cluster stellar density radial profiles and to build colour-magnitude diagrams and colour-colour diagrams from which we estimated their structural parameters and fundamental astrophysical properties. The clusters in our sample cover a wide age range, from ˜60 Myr up to 2.8 Gyr, are of relatively small size (˜1-6 pc) and are placed at distances from the Sun which vary between 1.8 and 6.3 kpc, respectively. We also estimated lower limits for the cluster present-day masses as well as half-mass relaxation times (tr). The resulting values in combination with the structural parameter values suggest that the studied clusters are in advanced stages of their internal dynamical evolution (age/tr ˜ 20-320), possibly in the typical phase of those tidally filled with mass segregation in their core regions. Compared to open clusters in the solar neighbourhood, the seven vdBH clusters are within more massive (˜80-380 M⊙), with higher concentration parameter values (c ˜ 0.75-1.15) and dynamically evolved ones.

  11. Hierarchical cluster analysis of progression patterns in open-angle glaucoma patients with medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyoung Won; Rho, Seungsoo; Lee, Hye Sun; Lee, Naeun; Hong, Samin; Seong, Gong Je; Sung, Kyung Rim; Kim, Chan Yun

    2014-04-29

    To classify medically treated open-angle glaucoma (OAG) by the pattern of progression using hierarchical cluster analysis, and to determine OAG progression characteristics by comparing clusters. Ninety-five eyes of 95 OAG patients who received medical treatment, and who had undergone visual field (VF) testing at least once per year for 5 or more years. OAG was classified into subgroups using hierarchical cluster analysis based on the following five variables: baseline mean deviation (MD), baseline visual field index (VFI), MD slope, VFI slope, and Glaucoma Progression Analysis (GPA) printout. After that, other parameters were compared between clusters. Two clusters were made after a hierarchical cluster analysis. Cluster 1 showed -4.06 ± 2.43 dB baseline MD, 92.58% ± 6.27% baseline VFI, -0.28 ± 0.38 dB per year MD slope, -0.52% ± 0.81% per year VFI slope, and all "no progression" cases in GPA printout, whereas cluster 2 showed -8.68 ± 3.81 baseline MD, 77.54 ± 12.98 baseline VFI, -0.72 ± 0.55 MD slope, -2.22 ± 1.89 VFI slope, and seven "possible" and four "likely" progression cases in GPA printout. There were no significant differences in age, sex, mean IOP, central corneal thickness, and axial length between clusters. However, cluster 2 included more high-tension glaucoma patients and used a greater number of antiglaucoma eye drops significantly compared with cluster 1. Hierarchical cluster analysis of progression patterns divided OAG into slow and fast progression groups, evidenced by assessing the parameters of glaucomatous progression in VF testing. In the fast progression group, the prevalence of high-tension glaucoma was greater and the number of antiglaucoma medications administered was increased versus the slow progression group. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  12. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Galactic Gradients using SDSS-IV/DR13 and Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Donor, John; O'Connell, Julia; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Thompson, Benjamin A.; Melendez, Matthew; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; Allende-Prieto, Carlos; Carrera, Ricardo; García Pérez, Ana; Hayden, Michael R.; Hearty, Fred R.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Johnson, Jennifer; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Nidever, David L.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Schultheis, Mathias; Smith, Verne V.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Stassun, Keivan G.; APOGEE Team

    2017-01-01

    The Open Cluster Chemical Analysis and Mapping (OCCAM) survey aims to produce a comprehensive, uniform, infrared-based data set forhundreds of open clusters, and constrain key Galactic dynamical and chemical parameters using the SDSS/APOGEE survey. We report on multi-element radial abundance gradients obtained from a sample of over 30 disk open clusters. The chemical abundances were derived automatically by the ASPCAP pipeline and these are part of the SDSS IV Data Release 13. The open cluster sample studied spans a significant range in age allowing exploration of the evolution of the Galactic abundance gradient.This work is supported by an NSF AAG grant AST-1311835.

  13. The Gaia-ESO survey: the inner disk intermediate-age open cluster NGC 6802

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, B.; Geisler, D.; Friel, E.; Villanova, S.; Smiljanic, R.; Casey, A. R.; Randich, S.; Magrini, L.; San Roman, I.; Muñoz, C.; Cohen, R. E.; Mauro, F.; Bragaglia, A.; Donati, P.; Tautvaišien*error*ė, G.; Drazdauskas, A.; Ženovienė, R.; Snaith, O.; Sousa, S.; Adibekyan, V.; Costado, M. T.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Jiménez-Esteban, F.; Carraro, G.; Zwitter, T.; François, P.; Jofrè, P.; Sordo, R.; Gilmore, G.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Bayo, A.; Damiani, F.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2017-05-01

    Milky Way open clusters are very diverse in terms of age, chemical composition, and kinematic properties. Intermediate-age and old open clusters are less common, and it is even harder to find them inside the solar Galactocentric radius, due to the high mortality rate and strong extinction inside this region. NGC 6802 is one of the inner disk open clusters (IOCs) observed by the Gaia-ESO survey (GES). This cluster is an important target for calibrating the abundances derived in the survey due to the kinematic and chemical homogeneity of the members in open clusters. Using the measurements from Gaia-ESO internal data release 4 (iDR4), we identify 95 main-sequence dwarfs as cluster members from the GIRAFFE target list, and eight giants as cluster members from the UVES target list. The dwarf cluster members have a median radial velocity of 13.6 ± 1.9 km s-1, while the giant cluster members have a median radial velocity of 12.0 ± 0.9 km s-1 and a median [Fe/H] of 0.10 ± 0.02 dex. The color-magnitude diagram of these cluster members suggests an age of 0.9 ± 0.1 Gyr, with (m-M)0 = 11.4 and E(B-V) = 0.86. We perform the first detailed chemical abundance analysis of NGC 6802, including 27 elemental species. To gain a more general picture about IOCs, the measurements of NGC 6802 are compared with those of other IOCs previously studied by GES, that is, NGC 4815, Trumpler 20, NGC 6705, and Berkeley 81. NGC 6802 shows similar C, N, Na, and Al abundances as other IOCs. These elements are compared with nucleosynthetic models as a function of cluster turn-off mass. The α, iron-peak, and neutron-capture elements are also explored in a self-consistent way. Full Tables A.3-A.6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/601/A56

  14. OPEN CLUSTERS IN THE MILKY WAY OUTER DISK: NEWLY DISCOVERED AND UNSTUDIED CLUSTERS IN THE SPITZER GLIMPSE-360, CYG-X, AND SMOG SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Zasowski, G.; Beaton, R. L.; Hamm, K. K.; Majewski, S. R.; Patterson, R. J.; Babler, B.; Churchwell, E.; Meade, M.; Whitney, B. A.; Benjamin, R. A.; Watson, C.

    2013-09-15

    Open stellar clusters are extremely valuable probes of Galactic structure, star formation, kinematics, and chemical abundance patterns. Near-infrared (NIR) data have enabled the detection of hundreds of clusters hidden from optical surveys, and mid-infrared (MIR) data are poised to offer an even clearer view into the most heavily obscured parts of the Milky Way. We use new MIR images from the Spitzer GLIMPSE-360, Cyg-X, and SMOG surveys to visually identify a large number of open cluster candidates in the outer disk of the Milky Way (65 Degree-Sign < l < 265 Degree-Sign ). Using NIR color-magnitude diagrams, stellar isochrones, and stellar reddening estimates, we derive cluster parameters (metallicity, distance, reddening) for those objects without previous identification and/or parameters in the literature. In total, we present coordinates and sizes of 20 previously unknown open cluster candidates; for 7 of these we also present metallicity, distance, and reddening values. In addition, we provide the first estimates of these values for nine clusters that had been previously cataloged. We compare our cluster sizes and other derived parameters to those in the open cluster catalog of Dias et al. and find strong similarities except for a higher mean reddening for our objects, which signifies our increased detection sensitivity in regions of high extinction. The results of this cluster search and analysis demonstrate the ability of MIR imaging and photometry to augment significantly the current census of open clusters in the Galaxy.

  15. A multimembership catalogue for 1876 open clusters using UCAC4 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampedro, L.; Dias, W. S.; Alfaro, E. J.; Monteiro, H.; Molino, A.

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this work is to determine the cluster members of 1876 open clusters, using positions and proper motions of the astrometric fourth United States Naval Observatory (USNO) CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC4). For this purpose, we apply three different methods, all based on a Bayesian approach, but with different formulations: a purely parametric method, another completely non-parametric algorithm and a third, recently developed by Sampedro & Alfaro, using both formulations at different steps of the whole process. The first and second statistical moments of the members' phase-space subspace, obtained after applying the three methods, are compared for every cluster. Although, on average, the three methods yield similar results, there are also specific differences between them, as well as for some particular clusters. The comparison with other published catalogues shows good agreement. We have also estimated, for the first time, the mean proper motion for a sample of 18 clusters. The results are organized in a single catalogue formed by two main files, one with the most relevant information for each cluster, partially including that in UCAC4, and the other showing the individual membership probabilities for each star in the cluster area. The final catalogue, with an interface design that enables an easy interaction with the user, is available in electronic format at the Stellar Systems Group (SSG-IAA) web site (http://ssg.iaa.es/en/content/sampedro-cluster-catalog).

  16. First CCD UBVI photometric analysis of four moderately young open clusters in the third galactic quadrant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Clariá, Juan J.; Ahumada, Andrea V.

    2010-10-01

    We present CCD photometry in the Johnson UBV and Kron-Cousins I systems down to V ~ 22.0 for the open clusters NGC2311, Trumpler6, NGC2432 and BH54 and their surrounding fields. Trumpler6 and BH54 have never been studied before and so we provide, for the first time, estimates of their fundamental parameters. We obtained colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and colour-colour diagrams cleaned from field star contamination by statistically subtracting stars in terms of spatial density, magnitude and colour distributions. Cluster angular radii were estimated from star counts in appropriate-sized boxes distributed throughout the entire observed fields. Using the cleaned CMDs and colour-colour diagrams, we applied sound photometric membership criteria to discriminate cluster members from interloper field stars. The interstellar extinction across the cluster fields derived from the 100-μm dust emission full-sky maps can be considered uniform within the quoted uncertainties. The E(B - V) and E(V - I) colour excesses and the apparent distance moduli of the clusters were estimated from the fit of the zero-age main-sequence to the colour-colour diagrams and CMDs, respectively. Cluster ages were determined from the comparison of the four clusters' CMDs with solar metallicity theoretical isochrones of the Geneva group. All the clusters were found to be moderately young objects, their ages ranging between 60 and 250Myr.

  17. PULSATING B-TYPE STARS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 884: FREQUENCIES, MODE IDENTIFICATION, AND ASTEROSEISMOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Saesen, S.; Briquet, M.; Aerts, C.; Carrier, F.; Miglio, A.

    2013-10-01

    Recent progress in the seismic interpretation of field β Cep stars has resulted in improvements of the physical description in the stellar structure and evolution model computations of massive stars. Further asteroseismic constraints can be obtained from studying ensembles of stars in a young open cluster, which all have similar age, distance, and chemical composition. We present an observational asteroseismology study based on the discovery of numerous multi-periodic and mono-periodic B stars in the open cluster NGC 884. We describe a thorough investigation of the pulsational properties of all B-type stars in the cluster. Overall, our detailed frequency analysis resulted in 115 detected frequencies in 65 stars. We found 36 mono-periodic, 16 bi-periodic, 10 tri-periodic, and 2 quadru-periodic stars and one star with nine independent frequencies. We also derived the amplitudes and phases of all detected frequencies in the U, B, V, and I filter, if available. We achieved unambiguous identifications of the mode degree for 12 of the detected frequencies in nine of the pulsators. Imposing the identified degrees and measured frequencies of the radial, dipole, and quadrupole modes of five pulsators led to a seismic cluster age estimate of log (age/yr) = 7.12-7.28 from a comparison with stellar models. Our study is a proof-of-concept for and illustrates the current status of ensemble asteroseismology of a young open cluster.

  18. A Key Science of the Starburst Open Cluster Westerlund 1: The Initial Mass Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, B.; Sung, H.; Hur, H.

    2014-08-01

    The initial mass function (IMF) is an important tool to understand the star formation processes and chemical evolution of distant galaxies as well as our Galaxy. While the IMF of the intermediate- to low-mass stars is relatively well studied, that of the most massive stars (>15M⊙) is poorly known due to the paucity of such stars in the Solar neighborhood. The starburst open cluster Westerlund 1 known as the most massive open cluster in the Galaxy is an ideal laboratory to study the IMF of the high-mass part owing to the vast number of massive stars. In this study we present the IMF of the cluster derived from both optical and near infrared photometry. The slope of the IMF appears to be shallow (Γ =-0.8 ±0.1) for masses larger than 5 M⊙. Here, we will present a discussion on the shape of the IMFs for three starburst open clusters including NGC 3603 and the Arches cluster.

  19. Neutron Capture Elements in the Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Julia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; Hearty, Fred R.

    2016-01-01

    The Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) survey is a systematic survey of Galactic open clusters using data primarily from the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 survey. The high-resolution (R=22,500), near-infrared (H-band) APOGEE-1 survey allows for cluster membership probability determination and analysis of light and iron-peak elements. Neutron capture elements, however, prove to be elusive in the IR region covered by APOGEE. In an effort to fully study detailed Galactic chemical evolution, we conducted a high resolution (R~60,000) spectroscopic abundance analysis of neutron capture elements for OCCAM clusters in the optical regime to complement the APOGEE results. We present results for ten open clusters using data obtained at McDonald Observatory with the 2.1m Otto Struve telescope and Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph. We see abundance trends for Ba II, La II and Eu II that are consistent with Galactic abundance patterns for these elements. Ce II appears to be slightly enhanced in all program stars with a median value of ~0.1 dex and a spread of 0.5 dex for the entire sample.

  20. Distance moduli of open cluster NGC 6819 from Red Giant Clump stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedigamba, O. P.; Balona, L. A.; Medupe, R.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we study Kepler open cluster NGC 6819 using Kepler data of Red Giant Clump (RGC) single member (SM) stars. The Kepler data spans a period of 4 years starting in 2009. In particular, we derive distance moduli for each individual RGC star, from which we get the mean distance modulus of μ0 = 11.520 ± 0.105 mag for the cluster when we use reddening from the Kepler Input Catalogue (KIC) for each RGC star. A value of μ0 = 11.747 ± 0.086 mag is obtained when uniform reddening value E(B - V) = 0.15 is used for the cluster. The values of μ0 obtained with RGC stars are in agreement with the values in the literature with other methods. We report for the case of Kepler open cluster NGC 6819 that RGC stars can be used as 'distance candles' as has been done in the literature with other open clusters.

  1. A new Be star in an open cluster - NGC 6871-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigsby, James A.; Morrison, Nancy D.

    1988-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of H-alpha show that star eight in the open cluster NGC 6871 is a previously-undiscovered Be star. The H-alpha profile was observed to vary from clear emission to pure absorption over a period of ten days; later observations over a five-day interval show weak emission along with asymmetries and filling in of the profile.

  2. Recent Advances in Open-Shell Perturbation Theory and Coupled-Cluster Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Comparisons of various recently developed open-shell RHF perturbation theories will be presented. Among the aspects considered are spin-contamination, computational cost, and quality of numerical results. In addition, a new approach to avoid the disk storage and I/O bottlenecks in large scale coupled-cluster calculations will be discussed.

  3. Gamma rays and neutrinos from dense environment of massive binary systems in open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Włodek; Pabich, Jerzy; Sobczak, Tomasz

    2014-11-01

    TeV gamma-ray emission has been recently observed from the direction of a few open clusters containing massive stars. We consider the high energy processes occurring within massive binary systems and in their dense environment by assuming that nuclei, from the stellar winds of massive stars, are accelerated at the collision region of the stellar winds. We calculate the rates of injection of protons and neutrons from fragmentation of these nuclei in collisions with stellar radiation and matter of the winds from the massive companions in a binary system. Protons and neutrons can interact with the matter, within the stellar wind cavity, and within the open cluster, producing pions which decay into γ rays and neutrinos. We discuss the detectability of such γ -ray emission by the present and future Cherenkov telescopes for the case of two binary systems Eta Carinae, within the Carina Nebula, and WR 20a, within the Westerlund 2 open cluster. We also calculate the neutrino fluxes produced by protons around the binary systems and within the open clusters. This neutrino emission is confronted with ANTARES upper limits on the neutrino fluxes from discrete sources and with the sensitivity of IceCube.

  4. Spectral analysis of A and F dwarf members of the open cluster M6: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıçoǧlu, T.; Monier, R.; Fossati, L.

    2010-12-01

    We present the first abundance analysis of CD-32 13109 (NGC 6405 47), member of the M6 open cluster. The photospheric abundances of 14 chemical elements were determined by comparing synthetic spectra and observed spectra of the star. Findings show that this star should be an Am star.

  5. Discovery of Variable Stars in the Field of the Galactic Open Cluster NGC 7039

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Juei-Hwa; Chen, Hui-Chen; Chen, Ying-Tung; Chang, Ding-Cheng; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Chen, W. P.; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2011-06-01

    We report variable stars identified in the field of the Galactic open cluster, NGC 7039. In the fall/winter of 2009, imaging photometry has been acquired, mainly in the R band, for eight open clusters using the 81 cm Tenagra telescope in Arizona. We present the results for our first target, NGC 7039. We have found 42 new variable stars and six suspected variable stars. Among the variable stars, there are 14 eclipsing binaries, including one RS Canum Venaticorum-type system, one RR Lyrae, two Cepheid, one β Cephei, three δ Scuti, eight pulsatinglike stars, five variable stars with periods longer than the observation window of 41 days, and eight irregular variable stars. Two contact binary systems could be members of NGC 7039 because of their loci in the color-magnitude diagram and their distance moduli close to that of the open cluster. One of the contact binary systems shows infrared excess in the (J - H) and (H - Ks) diagrams. It could have circumstellar dust. None of the pulsating stars belong to the open cluster.

  6. Open clusters in the log Age vs. M_V plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellazzini, M.; Perina, S.; Galleti, S.; Federici, L.; Buzzoni, A.; Fusi Pecci, F.

    In the log Age vs. integrated absolute magnitude (M_V) plane, the open clusters of the Milky Way form a well-defined band parallel to theoretical sequences decribing the passive evolution of Simple Stellar Populations and display a pretty sharp upper threshold in mass (M˜ 2× 104 M⊙) over a 4 dex range of ages.

  7. OCCASO - II. Physical parameters and Fe abundances of red clump stars in 18 open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casamiquela, L.; Carrera, R.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Jordi, C.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Pancino, E.; Anders, F.; Chiappini, C.; Díaz-Pérez, L.; Aguado, D. S.; Aparicio, A.; Garcia-Dias, R.; Heiter, U.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Murabito, S.; del Pino, A.

    2017-10-01

    Open clusters have long been used to study the chemodynamical evolution of the Galactic disc. This requires a homogeneously analysed sample covering a wide range of ages and distances. In this paper, we present the Open Clusters Chemical Abundances from Spanish Observatories (OCCASO) second data release. This comprises a sample of high-resolution (R > 65 000) and high signal-to-noise spectra of 115 red clump stars in 18 open clusters. We derive atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, ξ), and [Fe/H] abundances using two analysis techniques: equivalent widths and spectral synthesis. A detailed comparison and a critical review of the results of the two methods are made. Both methods are carefully tested between them, with the Gaia FGK benchmark stars, and with an extensive sample of literature values. We perform a membership study using radial velocities and the resulting abundances. Finally, we compare our results with a chemodynamical model of the Milky Way thin disc concluding that the oldest open clusters are consistent with the models only when dynamical effects are taken into account.

  8. Recent Advances in Open-Shell Perturbation Theory and Coupled-Cluster Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Comparisons of various recently developed open-shell RHF perturbation theories will be presented. Among the aspects considered are spin-contamination, computational cost, and quality of numerical results. In addition, a new approach to avoid the disk storage and I/O bottlenecks in large scale coupled-cluster calculations will be discussed.

  9. A Search For Planets in the Metal-Rich Open Cluster Praesepe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Russel

    The most promising way to distinguish between competing theories of planet formation and subsequent migration is to find and determine the basic properties of short period (< 1 yr) planets with well-determined ages younger than 1 billion years. Open clusters are the most promising locations to do this, but disappointingly no main sequence open cluster stars are known to harbor planets. This is primarily a consequence of most clusters being too distant for precise radial velocity measurements at visual wavelength. A better determined frequency of planets within open clusters would also clarify if this environment inhibits their formation, as has recently been suggested. If confirmed, that would imply that most stars will not have planets since most stars are believed to form in dense clusters. Here we request funding to support a 2-year program to search for radial velocity planets in the 600 Myr Praesepe open cluster. Praesepe is the most metal rich open cluster within 1000 pc of the sun. Based on known planet frequency - metallicity correlations, its high metallicity suggests a planet frequency enhanced by nearly a factor of 4 relative to sun- like stars; approximately 1 in 20 of its members should harbor a short period (3-10 day) hot Jupiter-like planet, and 1 in 400 of its members should have a transiting planet. The observations will be carried out using the Mayall 4-m/Echelle and Keck/HIRES facilities; nearly 100 Praesepe FGK stars will be surveyed over a 1+ year baseline. Precise radial velocities will be obtained using telluric features as a wavelength reference. We have demonstrated this technique achieves a precision of at least 50 m/s, and anticipate a final precision of 10 m/s, similar to what has been previously achieved. This precision and proposed temporal sampling will enable us to confidently identify nearly all Jupiter-sized planets with periods less than ~1 yr. The discovery of the first planets orbiting dwarf stars within an open cluster with a

  10. TIME-SERIES SPECTROSCOPY OF TWO CANDIDATE DOUBLE DEGENERATES IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6633

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kurtis A.; Chakraborty, Subho; Serna-Grey, Donald; Gianninas, A.; Canton, Paul A.

    2015-12-15

    SNe Ia are heavily used tools in precision cosmology, yet we still are not certain what the progenitor systems are. General plausibility arguments suggest there is potential for identifying double degenerate SN Ia progenitors in intermediate-age open star clusters. We present time-resolved high-resolution spectroscopy of two white dwarfs (WDs) in the field of the open cluster NGC 6633 that had previously been identified as candidate double degenerates in the cluster. However, three hours of continuous observations of each candidate failed to detect any significant radial velocity variations at the ≳10 km s{sup −1} level, making it highly unlikely that either WD is a double degenerate that will merge within a Hubble Time. The WD LAWDS NGC 6633 4 has a radial velocity inconsistent with cluster membership at the 2.5σ level, while the radial velocity of LAWDS NGC 6633 7 is consistent with cluster membership. We conservatively conclude that LAWDS 7 is a viable massive double degenerate candidate, though unlikely to be a Type Ia progenitor. Astrometric data from GAIA will likely be needed to determine if either WD is truly a cluster member.

  11. SODIUM AND OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6791 FROM APOGEE H-BAND SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Cunha, Katia; Souto, Diogo; Smith, Verne V.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Bergemann, Maria; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Frinchaboy, Peter; Zasowski, Gail; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Holtzman, Jon; García Pérez, Ana E.; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David; Beers, Timothy; Carrera, Ricardo; Geisler, Doug; Gunn, James; and others

    2015-01-10

    The open cluster NGC 6791 is among the oldest, most massive, and metal-rich open clusters in the Galaxy. High-resolution H-band spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) of 11 red giants in NGC 6791 are analyzed for their chemical abundances of iron, oxygen, and sodium. The abundances of these three elements are found to be homogeneous (with abundance dispersions at the level of ∼0.05-0.07 dex) in these cluster red giants, which span much of the red-giant branch (T {sub eff} ∼ 3500-4600 K), and include two red clump giants. From the infrared spectra, this cluster is confirmed to be among the most metal-rich clusters in the Galaxy (([Fe/H]) = 0.34 ± 0.06) and is found to have a roughly solar value of [O/Fe] and slightly enhanced [Na/Fe]. Our non-LTE calculations for the studied Na I lines in the APOGEE spectral region (16373.86 Å and 16388.85 Å) indicate only small departures from LTE (≤0.04 dex) for the parameter range and metallicity of the studied stars. The previously reported double population of cluster members with different Na abundances is not found among the studied sample.

  12. Photometric and spectroscopic study of the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 2355

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, P.; Bragaglia, A.; Carretta, E.; D'Orazi, V.; Tosi, M.; Cusano, F.; Carini, R.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we analyse the evolutionary status and properties of the old open cluster NGC 2355, located in the Galactic anticentre direction, as a part of the long-term programme Bologna Open Clusters Chemical Evolution. NGC 2355 was observed with the Large Binocular Camera at the Large Binocular Telescope using the Bessel B, V, and Ic filters. The cluster parameters have been obtained using the synthetic colour-magnitude diagram method, as done in other papers of this series. Additional spectroscopic observations with the Fibre-fed Echelle Spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope of three giant stars were used to determine the chemical properties of the cluster. Our analysis shows that NGC 2355 has metallicity slightly less than solar, with [Fe/H]= -0.06 dex, age between 0.8 and 1 Gyr, reddening E(B - V) in the range 0.14-0.19 mag, and distance modulus (m - M)0 of about 11 mag. We also investigate the abundances of O, Na, Al, α, iron-peak, and neutron capture elements, showing that NGC 2355 falls within the abundance distribution of similar clusters (same age and metallicity). The Galactocentric distance of NGC 2355 places it at the border between two regimes of metallicity distribution; this makes it an important cluster for the study of the chemical properties and evolution of the disc.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Proper motions of open clusters from UCAC4 (Dias+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, W. S.; Monteiro, H.; Caetano, T. C.; Lepine, J. R. D.; Assafin, M.; Oliveira, A. F.

    2014-04-01

    We present a catalog of mean proper motions and membership probabilities of individual stars for optically visible open clusters, which have been determined using data from the UCAC4 catalog in a homogeneous way. The mean proper motion of the cluster and the membership probabilities of the stars in the region of each cluster were determined by applying the statistical method in a modified fashion. In this study, we applied a global optimization procedure to fit the observed distribution of proper motions with two overlapping normal bivariate frequency functions, which also take the individual proper motion errors into account. For 724 clusters, this is the first determination of proper motion, and for the whole sample, we present results with a much larger number of identified astrometric member stars. Furthermore, it was possible to estimate the mean radial velocity of 364 clusters (102 unpublished so far) with the stellar membership using published radial velocity catalogs. These results provide an increase of 30% and 19% in the sample of open clusters with a determined mean absolute proper motion and mean radial velocity, respectively. (5 data files).

  14. Proper motions of the optically visible open clusters based on the UCAC4 catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, W. S.; Monteiro, H.; Caetano, T. C.; Lépine, J. R. D.; Assafin, M.; Oliveira, A. F.

    2014-04-01

    We present a catalog of mean proper motions and membership probabilities of individual stars for optically visible open clusters, which have been determined using data from the UCAC4 catalog in a homogeneous way. The mean proper motion of the cluster and the membership probabilities of the stars in the region of each cluster were determined by applying the statistical method in a modified fashion. In this study, we applied a global optimization procedure to fit the observed distribution of proper motions with two overlapping normal bivariate frequency functions, which also take the individual proper motion errors into account. For 724 clusters, this is the first determination of proper motion, and for the whole sample, we present results with a much larger number of identified astrometric member stars. Furthermore, it was possible to estimate the mean radial velocity of 364 clusters (102 unpublished so far) with the stellar membership using published radial velocity catalogs. These results provide an increase of 30% and 19% in the sample of open clusters with a determined mean absolute proper motion and mean radial velocity, respectively. Tables 2 to 1809 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/564/A79

  15. Photometric Determination of Binary Mass Ratios in the WIYN Open Cluster Study (WOCS) Using Theoretical Isochrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, K.; Durisen, R. H.; Deliyannis, C. P.

    2003-05-01

    Binary stars in Galactic open clusters are difficult to detect without spectroscopic observations. However, from theoretical isochrones, we find that binary stars with different primary masses M1 and mass ratios q = M2/M1 have measurably different behaviors in various UBVRI color-magnitude and color-color diagrams. By using appropriate Yonsei-Yale Isochrones, in the best cases we can evaluate M1 and q to within about +/- 0.1Msun and +/- 0.1, respectively, for individual proper-motion members that have multiple WOCS UBVRI measurements of high quality. The cluster metallicity, reddening, and distance modulus and best-fit isochrones are determined self-consistently from the same WOCS data. This technique allows us to detect binaries and determine their mass ratios in open clusters without time-consuming spectrocopy, which is only sensitive to a limited range of binary separations. We will report results from this photometric technique for WOCS cluster M35 for M1 in the range of 1 to 4 Msun. For the lower main sequence, we used the empirical colors to reduce the error introduced by the problematic color transformations of Y2 Isochrones. In addition to other sources of uncertainty, we have considered effects of rapid rotation and pulsational instability. We plan to apply our method to other WOCS clusters in the future and explore differences in binary fractions and/or mass ratio distributions as a function of cluster age, metallicity, and other parameters.

  16. On the stellar X-ray content of the Open Cluster Remnant NGC 1901

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Oliveira, Raimundo

    2008-10-01

    Open Cluster Remnants (OCRs) are poorly populated groups of stars in an advanced stage of the evolution of open clusters. These systems are specially rich in late-type stars and binary systems of stars, of which a fraction is predicted by numerical simulations and evolutionary models to be RS CVn, cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binaries. X-ray observations play an important role for the identification of those kinds of interacting binaries, which is crucial to validate the current models describing the final stages of star clusters. We propose to investigate for the first time the X-ray content of an OCR, NGC 1901, looking for signatures of accreting/interacting binary systems and active stars in order to put constraints on the evolutionary models.

  17. Comparing the OpenMP, MPI, and Hybrid Programming Paradigm on an SMP Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Hao-Qiang; anMey, Dieter; Hatay, Ferhat F.

    2003-01-01

    Clusters of SMP (Symmetric Multi-Processors) nodes provide support for a wide range of parallel programming paradigms. The shared address space within each node is suitable for OpenMP parallelization. Message passing can be employed within and across the nodes of a cluster. Multiple levels of parallelism can be achieved by combining message passing and OpenMP parallelization. Which programming paradigm is the best will depend on the nature of the given problem, the hardware components of the cluster, the network, and the available software. In this study we compare the performance of different implementations of the same CFD benchmark application, using the same numerical algorithm but employing different programming paradigms.

  18. Study of open clusters within 1.8 kpc and understanding the Galactic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Y. C.; Dambis, A. K.; Pandey, A. K.; Joshi, S.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Significant progress has been made in recent years to understand the formation and evolution of our Galaxy, but we still lack a complete understanding of the Galaxy and its structure. Aims: Using an almost complete sample of Galactic open star clusters within 1.8 kpc, we aim to understand the general properties of the open cluster system in the Galaxy and probe the Galactic structure. Methods: We first extracted 1241 open clusters within 1.8 kpc of the Sun from the Milky Way Star Clusters (MWSC) catalog. Considering it an almost complete sample of clusters within this distance, we performed a comprehensive statistical analysis of various cluster parameters such as spatial position, age, size, mass, and extinction. Results: We find an average cluster scale height of zh = 60 ± 2 pc for clusters younger than 700 Myr, which increases to 64 ± 2 pc when we include all the clusters. The zh is found to be strongly dependent on RGC and age, and on an average, zh is more than twice as large as in the outer region than in the inner region of the solar circle, except for the youngest population of clusters. The solar offset is found to be 6.2 ± 1.1 pc above the formal Galactic plane. We derive a local mass density of ρ0 = 0.090 ± 0.005 M⊙/ pc3 and estimate a negligibly small amount of dark matter in the solar neighborhood. The reddening in the direction of clusters suggests a strong correlation with their vertical distance from the Galactic plane with a respective slope of dE(B-V) / dz = 0.40 ± 0.04 and 0.42 ± 0.05 mag/kpc below and above the Galactic plane. We observe a linear mass-radius and mass-age relations in the open clusters and derive the slopes of dR/ d(log M) = 2.08 ± 0.10 and d(log M) / d(log T) = -0.36 ± 0.05, respectively. Conclusions: The dependence of the spatial distribution of clusters on their age points to a complex interplay between cluster formation and survivability within the Galaxy. The geometrical characteristics of a significant

  19. Variable stars in the field of the open cluster NGC 6939

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Georgiev, Ts.; Niedzielski, A.

    2008-05-01

    The results of CCD photometric survey performed with the 90/180 cm Schmidt-Cassegrain Telescope of the Nicolaus Copernicus University Astronomical Observatory in Piwnice (Poland) and the 70/172 cm Schmidt Telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory (NAO) at Rozhen (Bulgaria) of the field of the 1 Gyr old open cluster NGC 6939 are presented. Twenty two variable stars were detected, four of them previously known. Four eclipsing systems (3 detached and 1 contact binary) were found to be members of the cluster. Analysis of the brightness of the contact binary V20 strongly supports the distance to the cluster of 1.74 ± 0.20 kpc. The small population of contact binaries in NGC 6939 confirms also the relatively young age of the cluster.

  20. A CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE STUDY OF RED GIANTS IN OPEN CLUSTERS NGC 2204 AND NGC 2243

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Heather R.; Friel, Eileen D.; Pilachowski, Catherine A. E-mail: edfriel@mac.com

    2011-02-15

    Detailed element abundances have been determined for 10-13 stars each in the open clusters (OCs) NGC 2204 and NGC 2243 based on Hydra multi-object echelle spectra obtained with the CTIO 4 m telescope. We have found average cluster metallicities of [Fe/H] = -0.23 {+-} 0.04 and -0.42 {+-} 0.05 for NGC 2204 and NGC 2243, respectively, from an equivalent width analysis. NGC 2243 is the most metal-poor cluster at its Galactocentric radius and is one of the most metal-poor OCs currently known. These two clusters lie {approx}1 kpc below the Galactic plane; it is therefore worthwhile to compare their abundance patterns to those of clusters both closer to and further from the plane. To that end, we combined the results of the current study with those of clusters from our previous work as well as from the literature. To minimize systematic differences between different studies, element abundances of many outer disk OCs as well as thin and thick disk field stars have been placed on our abundance scale. Plots of [X/Fe] versus [Fe/H] for NGC 2204, NGC 2243, other clusters from the literature, and thin and thick disk field stars show NGC 2204 and NGC 2243 to have element abundance patterns comparable to those of other clusters regardless of distance from the plane or center of the Galaxy. Similarly, no individual cluster or group of clusters far from the Galactic mid-plane can be identified as belonging to the thick disk based on their abundance patterns.

  1. The Gaia-ESO Survey: the inner disk, intermediate-age open cluster Trumpler 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overbeek, J. C.; Friel, E. D.; Donati, P.; Smiljanic, R.; Jacobson, H. R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Held, E. V.; Magrini, L.; Bragaglia, A.; Randich, S.; Vallenari, A.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Jiménez-Esteban, F.; Frasca, A.; Geisler, D.; Villanova, S.; Tang, B.; Muñoz, C.; Marconi, G.; Carraro, G.; San Roman, I.; Drazdauskas, A.; Ženovienė, R.; Gilmore, G.; Jeffries, R. D.; Flaccomio, E.; Pancino, E.; Bayo, A.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Jofré, P.; Monaco, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Zaggia, S.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Trumpler 23 is a moderately populated, intermediate-age open cluster within the solar circle at a RGC 6 kpc. It is in a crowded field very close to the Galactic plane and the color-magnitude diagram shows significant field contamination and possible differential reddening; it is a relatively understudied cluster for these reasons, but its location makes it a key object for determining Galactic abundance distributions. Aims: New data from the Gaia-ESO Survey enable the first ever radial velocity and spectroscopic metallicity measurements for this cluster. We aim to use velocities to isolate cluster members, providing more leverage for determining cluster parameters. Methods: Gaia-ESO Survey data for 167 potential members have yielded radial velocity measurements, which were used to determine the systemic velocity of the cluster and membership of individual stars. Atmospheric parameters were also used as a check on membership when available. Literature photometry was used to re-determine cluster parameters based on radial velocity member stars only; theoretical isochrones are fit in the V, V-I diagram. Cluster abundance measurements of ten radial-velocity member stars with high-resolution spectroscopy are presented for 24 elements. These abundances have been compared to local disk stars, and where possible placed within the context of literature gradient studies. Results: We find Trumpler 23 to have an age of 0.80 ± 0.10 Gyr, significant differential reddening with an estimated mean cluster E(V-I) of 1.02, and an apparent distance modulus of 14.15 ± 0.20. We find an average cluster metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.14 ± 0.03 dex, a solar [α/Fe] abundance, and notably subsolar [s-process/Fe] abundances.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalogue of variable stars in open clusters (Zejda+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zejda, M.; Paunzen, E.; Baumann, B.; Mikulasek, Z.; Liska, J.

    2012-08-01

    The catalogue of variable stars in open clusters were prepared by cross-matching of Variable Stars Index (http://www.aavso.org/vsx) version Apr 29, 2012 (available online, Cat. B/vsx) against the version 3.1. catalogue of open clusters DAML02 (Dias et al. 2002A&A...389..871D, Cat. B/ocl) available on the website http://www.astro.iag.usp.br/~wilton. The open clusters were divided into two categories according to their size, where the limiting diameter was 60 arcmin. The list of all suspected variables and variable stars located within the fields of open clusters up to two times of given cluster radius were generated (Table 1). 8938 and 9127 variable stars are given in 461 "smaller" and 74 "larger" clusters, respectively. All found variable stars were matched against the PPMXL catalog of positions and proper motions within the ICRS (Roeser et al., 2010AJ....139.2440R, Cat. I/317). Proper motion data were included in our catalogue. Unfortunately, a homogeneous data set of mean cluster proper motions has not been available until now. Therefore we used the following sources (sorted alphabetically) to compile a new catalogue: Baumgardt et al. (2000, Cat. J/A+AS/146/251): based on the Hipparcos catalogue Beshenov & Loktin (2004A&AT...23..103B): based on the Tycho-2 catalogue Dias et al. (2001, Cat. J/A+A/376/441, 2002A&A...389..871D, Cat. B/ocl): based on the Tycho-2 catalogue Dias et al. (2006, Cat. J/A+A/446/949): based on the UCAC2 catalog (Zacharias et al., 2004AJ....127.3043Z, Cat. I/289) Frinchaboy & Majewski (2008, Cat. J/AJ/136/118): based on the Tycho-2 catalogue Kharchenko et al. (2005, J/A+A/438/1163): based on the ASCC2.5 catalogue (Kharchenko, 2001KFNT...17..409K, Cat. I/280) Krone-Martins et al. (2010, Cat. J/A+A/516/A3): based on the Bordeaux PM2000 proper motion catalogue (Ducourant et al., 2006A&A...448.1235D, Cat. I/300) Robichon et al. (1999, Cat. J/A+A/345/471): based on the Hipparcos catalogue van Leeuwen (2009A&A...497..209V): based on the new

  3. Optical and Near Infrared Study of the Open Cluster Czernik 17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujatha, S.; Krishna, K. K.; Komala, S.; Babu, G. S. D.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present the fundamental physical parameters of the poorly studied open cluster Czernik 17. The parameters have been derived from the UBVRI CCD photometric observations obtained with the 2-m Himalayan Chandra Telescope as well as using data taken from the Two-Micron All Sky Survey. This cluster is located in the direction of Camelopardalis constellation with a radial extent of 4' and is estimated to be at a distance of 7 ± 0.5 kpc. The interstellar extinction in the line of sight of the cluster is found to be E(B-V) = 0.72 ± 0.05 mag. Based on the evolutionary stage of the evolved stars the log(age) of the cluster is found to be 8.05 to 8.1 making it a relatively young cluster which can be considered as a spiral arm tracer of the outer arm. We have constructed the luminosity function for the stars within the adopted cluster radius which shows the common trend of the number of stars increasing toward the fainter magnitudes. We also find the presence of Böhm-Vitense gaps in the main-sequence branch of the color-magnitude diagrams of this cluster which may be attributed to surface convection which has the effect of making the stars redder although the luminosity remains unchanged.

  4. Theory of metal/rare-gas clusters: aspects of open-shell atomic dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boatz, J. A.; Hinde, R. J.; Sheehy, J. A.; Langhoff, P. W.

    2003-05-01

    Studies are reported of the structures and vibronic spectra of metal/rare-gas clusters and their ions employing new theoretical methods devised recently for these purposes. Particular attention is addressed to open-shell atomic dopants (B, Al,...), in which cases the theory must include anisotropic (M-Rg) and spin-orbit interactions in the ground states, the avoided crossings of nearly degenerate electronically excited potential energy surfaces, and significant fragmentation following the cluster ionization commonly employed in experimental detection schemes. Detailed computational applications of the theory are reported of AlArN clusters (N = 2 to 54), and comparisons made with the results of multi-photon excitation and ionization measurements. The significantly different structures of the neutral and ionic clusters predicted in these cases, in which Al is largely external to the Ar cluster and the Al^+ ion is inside the cluster, indicates that fragmentation plays a central role in the interpretation of the experiments. The cluster spectra are seen to be highly sensitive to the details of the atomic Ar arrangements around the Al chromophore, and, accordingly, the measurements provide useful spectroscopic probes of the nature and evolution of the Al trapping sites with increasing degree of solvation when the complex electronic and vibrational phenomena underlying the data are appropriately interpreted theoretically.

  5. AMPLITUDES OF SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS: CONSTRAINTS FROM RED GIANTS IN OPEN CLUSTERS OBSERVED BY KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel; Bedding, Timothy R.; Benomar, Othman; Kallinger, Thomas; Basu, Sarbani; Mosser, BenoIt; Hekker, Saskia; Mathur, Savita; GarcIa, Rafael A.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Verner, Graham A.; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Meibom, Soeren; Molenda-Zakowicz, Joanna; Szabo, Robert

    2011-08-10

    Scaling relations that link asteroseismic quantities to global stellar properties are important for gaining understanding of the intricate physics that underpins stellar pulsations. The common notion that all stars in an open cluster have essentially the same distance, age, and initial composition implies that the stellar parameters can be measured to much higher precision than what is usually achievable for single stars. This makes clusters ideal for exploring the relation between the mode amplitude of solar-like oscillations and the global stellar properties. We have analyzed data obtained with NASA's Kepler space telescope to study solar-like oscillations in 100 red giant stars located in either of the three open clusters, NGC 6791, NGC 6819, and NGC 6811. By fitting the measured amplitudes to predictions from simple scaling relations that depend on luminosity, mass, and effective temperature, we find that the data cannot be described by any power of the luminosity-to-mass ratio as previously assumed. As a result we provide a new improved empirical relation which treats luminosity and mass separately. This relation turns out to also work remarkably well for main-sequence and subgiant stars. In addition, the measured amplitudes reveal the potential presence of a number of previously unknown unresolved binaries in the red clump in NGC 6791 and NGC 6819, pointing to an interesting new application for asteroseismology as a probe into the formation history of open clusters.

  6. Chemically peculiar A/F stars in open clusters of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebran, M.; Monier, R.

    2010-12-01

    Abundance anomalies have been determined at the surface of many field and open cluster A and F dwarfs. These abundance anomalies are most likely caused by microscopic diffusion at work within the stable envelopes of A stars. However diffusion can be counteracted by several other mixing processes such as convection, rotational mixing and mass loss. We present a short review of the surface abundance patterns of A/F stars in the Pleiades (100 Myr), Coma Berenices (450 Myr) and Hyades (650 Myr) open clusters. Real star-to-star variations of the abundances were found for several chemical elements in the A dwarfs in these clusters. The derived abundances are then compared to evolutionary models from the Montreal group. These comparisons strongly suggest the occurence of hydrodynamical processes at play within the radiative zones of these stars and hindering the effects of microscopic diffusion (mixing processes/mass loss). In the frame of Gaia mission, simulations are presented that predict the number of A stars and open clusters that Gaia will observe in the Galaxy.

  7. CAMPAIGN: an open-source library of GPU-accelerated data clustering algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Kohlhoff, Kai J.; Sosnick, Marc H.; Hsu, William T.; Pande, Vijay S.; Altman, Russ B.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Data clustering techniques are an essential component of a good data analysis toolbox. Many current bioinformatics applications are inherently compute-intense and work with very large datasets. Sequential algorithms are inadequate for providing the necessary performance. For this reason, we have created Clustering Algorithms for Massively Parallel Architectures, Including GPU Nodes (CAMPAIGN), a central resource for data clustering algorithms and tools that are implemented specifically for execution on massively parallel processing architectures. Results: CAMPAIGN is a library of data clustering algorithms and tools, written in ‘C for CUDA’ for Nvidia GPUs. The library provides up to two orders of magnitude speed-up over respective CPU-based clustering algorithms and is intended as an open-source resource. New modules from the community will be accepted into the library and the layout of it is such that it can easily be extended to promising future platforms such as OpenCL. Availability: Releases of the CAMPAIGN library are freely available for download under the LGPL from https://simtk.org/home/campaign. Source code can also be obtained through anonymous subversion access as described on https://simtk.org/scm/?group_id=453. Contact: kjk33@cantab.net PMID:21712246

  8. The OCCASO survey: presentation and radial velocities of 12 Milky Way open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casamiquela, L.; Carrera, R.; Jordi, C.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Pancino, E.; Hidalgo, S. L.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Murabito, S.; del Pino, A.; Aparicio, A.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Gallart, C.

    2016-05-01

    Open clusters (OCs) are crucial for studying the formation and evolution of the Galactic disc. However, the lack of a large number of OCs analysed homogeneously hampers the investigations about chemical patterns and the existence of Galactocentric radial and vertical gradients, or an age-metallicity relation. To overcome this, we have designed the Open Cluster Chemical Abundances from Spanish Observatories (OCCASO) survey. We aim to provide homogeneous radial velocities, physical parameters and individual chemical abundances of six or more red clump stars for a sample of 25 old and intermediate-age OCs visible from the Northern hemisphere. To do so, we use high-resolution spectroscopic facilities (R ≥ 62 000) available at Spanish observatories. We present the motivation, design and current status of the survey, together with the first data release of radial velocities for 77 stars in 12 OCs, which represents about 50 per cent of the survey. We include clusters never studied with high-resolution spectroscopy before (NGC 1907, NGC 6991, NGC 7762), and clusters in common with other large spectroscopic surveys like the Gaia-ESO Survey (NGC 6705) and Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (NGC 2682 and NGC 6819). We perform internal comparisons between instruments to evaluate and correct internal systematics of the results, and compare our radial velocities with previous determinations in the literature, when available. Finally, radial velocities for each cluster are used to perform a preliminary kinematic study in relation with the Galactic disc.

  9. The Initial Mass Function of the Massive Young Open Cluster Westerlund 2 and its Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, H.; Sung, H.; Lim, B.; Park, B.-G.; Chun, M.-Y.; Bessel, S. M.; Sohn, T. S.

    2013-06-01

    The starburst type young open cluster, Westerlund 2, is one of highly reddened young massive galactic clusters observable in the optical wavelength. Deep UBVI optical photometric data for Westerlund 2 was obtained with the CTIO 4m Blanco telescope and MOSAIC II CCD camera in March 2009. The members of Westerlund 2 are selected from Chandra X-ray data, near-IR data, and mid-IR Spitzer data from previous studies. The color-magnitude diagram of Westerlund 2 clearly shows the well-developed pre-main sequence (PMS) for the first in the optical pass bands. The mass of most massive PMS stars well exceeds 5 Mo. In addition, we found several early-type stars in the halo of Westerlund 2. These early-type stars in the halo are spatially well aligned to the bright ridge of RCW 49 nebula, extended from ~5' east of the cluster to ~7' southwest of the cluster. The initial mass function (IMF) of Westerlund 2 is obtained down to the 80% completeness limit of V=22.6 mag (m > 3, Mo). The slope of the upper end of the IMF of is determined to be shallower (Gamma = -0.9 ± 0.1) than other star forming regions such as NGC 2264, NGC 6231 or young open clusters in the eta Carina nebula.

  10. Variable Stars in the 50BiN Open Cluster Survey. I. NGC 2301

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Deng, Licai; Zhang, Xiaobin; Xin, Yu; Yan, Zhengzhou; Tian, Jianfeng; Luo, Yangping; Luo, Changqing; Zhang, Chunguang; Peng, Yingjiang; Pan, Yang; Sun, Jinjiang; Luo, Zhiquan

    2015-11-01

    The current work is the first contribution from the 50 cm Binocular Network, whose primary goal is to systematically detect and characterize variable stars in Galactic open clusters. In this paper, we report the results of a search for variables in the open cluster NGC 2301. Eighteen variable stars including 12 new objects were detected in a 20‧ × 20‧ field around the cluster. The physical properties, classifications, and memberships are discussed using the behaviors of the light curves, the positions on the color-magnitude diagram, and the archival proper-motion data. Among the 12 new objects, 5 are low-amplitude δ Scuti stars, 4 of which are probable members of the cluster. One of them is discovered to be a δ Scuti star in an eclipsing binary system. One γ Doradus candidate is identified as a cluster member, but is apparently located very close to the blue edge of the γ Doradus instability strip and therefore can be used to pin down the blue edge of the instability strip. The remaining five new variables are classified as an EW-type eclipsing binary with an orbital period of 0.5785 days and four unknown type variable stars. In addition, revised basic data for the six known variables are given according to our observations.

  11. CAMPAIGN: an open-source library of GPU-accelerated data clustering algorithms.

    PubMed

    Kohlhoff, Kai J; Sosnick, Marc H; Hsu, William T; Pande, Vijay S; Altman, Russ B

    2011-08-15

    Data clustering techniques are an essential component of a good data analysis toolbox. Many current bioinformatics applications are inherently compute-intense and work with very large datasets. Sequential algorithms are inadequate for providing the necessary performance. For this reason, we have created Clustering Algorithms for Massively Parallel Architectures, Including GPU Nodes (CAMPAIGN), a central resource for data clustering algorithms and tools that are implemented specifically for execution on massively parallel processing architectures. CAMPAIGN is a library of data clustering algorithms and tools, written in 'C for CUDA' for Nvidia GPUs. The library provides up to two orders of magnitude speed-up over respective CPU-based clustering algorithms and is intended as an open-source resource. New modules from the community will be accepted into the library and the layout of it is such that it can easily be extended to promising future platforms such as OpenCL. Releases of the CAMPAIGN library are freely available for download under the LGPL from https://simtk.org/home/campaign. Source code can also be obtained through anonymous subversion access as described on https://simtk.org/scm/?group_id=453. kjk33@cantab.net.

  12. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Galactic Neutron CaptureAbundance Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Julia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Melendez, Matthew; Cunha, Katia; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; APOGEE Team

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of elements, as a function or age, throughout the Milky Way disk provides a key constraint for galaxy evolution models. In an effort to provide these constraints, we have conducted an investigation into the r- and s- process elemental abundances for a large sample of open clusters as part of an optical follow-up to the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 survey. Stars were identified as cluster members by the Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) survey, which culls member candidates by radial velocity, metallicity and proper motion from the observed APOGEE sample. To obtain data for neutron capture elements in these clusters, we conducted a long-term observing campaign covering three years (2013-2016) using the McDonald Observatory Otto Struve 2.1-m telescope and Sandiford Cass Echelle Spectrograph (R ~ 60,000). We present Galactic neutron capture abundance gradients using 30+ clusters, within 6 kpc of the Sun, covering a range of ages from ~80 Myr to ~10 Gyr .

  13. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Galactic Neutron Capture Abundance Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Julia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Melendez, Matthew; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; APOGEE Team

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of elements, as a function or age, throughout the Milky Way disk provides a key constraint for galaxy evolution models. In an effort to provide these constraints, we have conducted an investigation into the r- and s- process elemental abundances for a large sample of open clusters as part of an optical follow-up to the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 survey. Stars were identified as cluster members by the Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) survey, which culls member candidates by radial velocity, metallicity, and proper motion from the observed APOGEE sample. To obtain data for neutron capture elements in these clusters, we conducted a long-term observing campaign covering three years (2013-2016) using the McDonald Observatory Otto Struve 2.1-m telescope and Sandiford Cass Echelle Spectrograph (R ~ 60,000). We present Galactic neutron-capture abundance gradients using 30+ clusters, within 6 kpc of the Sun, covering a range of ages from ~80 Myr to ~10 Gyr .

  14. The Detached Eclipsing Binary KV 29 and the Age of the Open Cluster M11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavarsad, Ernest A.; Sandquist, Eric L.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Orosz, Jerome A.

    2016-11-01

    We present an extensive set of photometry and radial velocities for the detached eclipsing binary KV 29 in the intermediate-aged open cluster M11 (NGC 6705). Spectroscopy shows that the system is double lined, and all available evidence (proper motion, photometry, and position on the color-magnitude diagram) indicates that it is a member of the cluster. We find the period of the binary to be 4.64276 ± 0.00001 days. We find masses {3.604}-0.011+0.002{M}⊙ and {1.837}-0.006+0.001{M}⊙ and radii {5.392}-0.035+0.018{R}⊙ and {1.656}-0.044+0.007{R}⊙ for the primary and secondary stars, respectively. Because the primary star in the binary is rapidly evolving and is brighter than the cluster turnoff in a color-magnitude diagram, the measurement of its mass leads to a strong constraint on the cluster age. We find the age of M11 to be {222}-3+2+/- 15 Myr, where the quoted uncertainties come from statistical errors in the calculated masses and radii, and systematic uncertainties due to the ambiguity of the metallicity of the open cluster and variations within the isochrone models concerning heavy elements and convective overshooting.

  15. The X-ray properties of the young open cluster around alpha Persei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randich, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Prosser, C. F.; Stauffer, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    The observations of the 50 Myr old alpha Persei open cluster, performed by the Rosat's position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC), are discussed. The X-ray observations cover an area of about 10 sq deg. A total of 160 X-ray sources were detected. The comparison between the X-ray luminosity distribution functions of the alpha Persei sample and the Pleiades indicated that F and G-type stars in the alpha Persei are more X-ray luminous than their older counterparts in the Pleiades. No significant difference was found between the distributions of the K and M-type dwarfs in the two clusters.

  16. Isochrone Fittings for the Open Star Clusters NGC 3680 and Melotte 66

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemaud, Nikolas; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Thompson, B. A.

    2013-01-01

    I will be displaying the results from isochrone fittings on two open star clusters. The stellar evolution models used to generate the isochrones are from Dartmouth (Dotter et al. 2007) and Padova (Mango et al. 2008). Both of the models were applied to two star clusters: NGC 3680 and Melotte 66. The analysis is performed by utilizing infrared observations from the CPAPIR instrument; which is operated in conjunction with CTIO’s 1.5m telescope. This research was made possible by the NSF’s REU grant; award number 0851558.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CCD UBVRI photometry of 7 open star clusters (Sagar+, 2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagar, R.; Munari, U.; de Boer, K. S.

    2002-01-01

    We derive cluster parameters and mass functions from new UBVRI CCD photometric observations of ~3500 stars reaching down to V~20mag for the distant southern open star clusters NGC 3105, NGC 3603, Melotte 105, Hogg 15, NGC 4815, Pismis 20 and NGC 6253. For NGC 3105 and Hogg 15, CCD data are presented for the first time. The observations were carried out in 1992 between February 28 and March 8, June 5 and 9, and July 9 and 12 in the Cousins U, B, V, R and I photometric bands using CCD detector at the 1.0-m Elizabeth Telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO), Sutherland. (8 data files).

  18. The X-ray properties of the young open cluster around alpha Persei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randich, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Prosser, C. F.; Stauffer, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    The observations of the 50 Myr old alpha Persei open cluster, performed by the Rosat's position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC), are discussed. The X-ray observations cover an area of about 10 sq deg. A total of 160 X-ray sources were detected. The comparison between the X-ray luminosity distribution functions of the alpha Persei sample and the Pleiades indicated that F and G-type stars in the alpha Persei are more X-ray luminous than their older counterparts in the Pleiades. No significant difference was found between the distributions of the K and M-type dwarfs in the two clusters.

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF THE LITHIUM DEPLETION BOUNDARY AND AGE OF THE SOUTHERN OPEN CLUSTER BLANCO 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cargile, P. A.; James, D. J.; Jeffries, R. D.

    2010-12-20

    We present results from a spectroscopic study of the very low mass members of the Southern open cluster Blanco 1 using the Gemini-N telescope. We obtained intermediate resolution (R {approx} 4400) GMOS spectra for 15 cluster candidate members with I {approx} 14-20 mag, and employed a series of membership criteria-proximity to the cluster's sequence in an I/I - K{sub s} color-magnitude diagram (CMD), kinematics agreeing with the cluster systemic motion, magnetic activity as a youth indicator-to classify 10 of these objects as probable cluster members. For these objects, we searched for the presence of the Li I 6708 A feature to identify the lithium depletion boundary (LDB) in Blanco 1. The I/I - K{sub s} CMD shows a clear mass segregation in the Li distribution along the cluster sequence; namely, all higher mass stars are found to be Li poor, while lower mass stars are found to be Li rich. The division between Li-poor and Li-rich (i.e., the LDB) in Blanco 1 is found at I = 18.78 {+-} 0.24 and I - K{sub s} = 3.05 {+-} 0.10. Using current pre-main-sequence evolutionary models, we determine an LDB age of 132 {+-} 24 Myr. Comparing our derived LDB age to upper-main-sequence isochrone ages for Blanco 1, as well as for other open clusters with identified LDBs, we find good chronometric consistency when using stellar evolution models that incorporate a moderate degree of convective core overshoot.

  20. A uvbyCaHβ Analysis of the Old Open Cluster, NGC 6819

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Twarog, Bruce A.

    2014-09-01

    NGC 6819 is a richly populated, older open cluster situated within the Kepler field. A CCD survey of the cluster on the uvbyCaHβ system, coupled with proper-motion membership, has been used to isolate 382 highly probable, single-star unevolved main-sequence members over a 20' field centered on the cluster. From 278 F dwarfs with high precision photometry in all indices, a mean reddening of E(b - y) = 0.117 ± 0.005 or E(B - V) = 0.160 ± 0.007 is derived, where the standard errors of the mean include both internal errors and the photometric zero-point uncertainty. With the reddening fixed, the metallicity derived from the same 278 stars is [Fe/H] = -0.116 ± 0.101 from m 1 and -0.055 ± 0.033 from hk, for a weighted average of [Fe/H] = -0.06 ± 0.04, where the quoted standard errors of the mean include the internal errors from the photometric scatter plus the uncertainty in the photometric zero points. If metallicity is derived using individual reddening values for each star to account for potential reddening variation across the face of the cluster, the analogous result is unchanged. The cluster members at the turnoff of the color-magnitude diagram are used to test and confirm the recently discovered variation in reddening across the face of the cluster, with a probable range in the variation of ΔE(B - V) = 0.045 ± 0.015. With the slightly higher reddening and lower [Fe/H] compared to commonly adopted values, isochrone fitting leads to an age of 2.3 ± 0.2 Gyr for an apparent modulus of (m - M) = 12.40 ± 0.12. WIYN Open Cluster study LXI.

  1. NGC2587: a sparse open cluster projected on to a populous star field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Clariá, Juan J.; Ahumada, Andrea V.

    2009-08-01

    We present CCD photometry in the Johnson U, B and V and Kron-Cousins I passbands for the open cluster NGC2587. The sample consists of 4406 stars reaching down to V ~ 21.0. We developed a new method to clean statistically the colour-magnitude diagrams. NGC2587 appears to be a sparse, relatively bright open cluster, with a few tens of members projected on to a populous star field. The comparatively bright F7/8 II type star HD70927, located close to the cluster centre, seems not to be a member. Our analysis suggests that NGC2587 is slightly younger than the Hyades and probably of solar metallicity. A cluster radius of roughly 8 arcmin was estimated from the radial stellar density profile. From 18 probable cluster members with measured proper motions, we derive the following mean values for NGC2587: μα = -4.3 +/- 3.6masyr-1 and μδ = -2.5 +/- 3.4masyr-1. Adopting the theoretical metal content Z = 0.02, which provides the best global fit, we derive a cluster age of 500+60-50. Simultaneously, colour excesses E(B - V) = 0.10 and E(V - I) = 0.15 and an apparent distance modulus of V - MV = 12.50 are obtained. The interstellar extinction in the cluster direction is found to follow the normal law. NGC2587 is located at a distance of (2.70 +/- 0.70) kpc from the Sun and ~9.8 kpc from the Galactic centre.

  2. Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Jai Ram; He, Yan; Navas-Molina, Jose A; Walters, William A; Ursell, Luke K; Gibbons, Sean M; Chase, John; McDonald, Daniel; Gonzalez, Antonio; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Clemente, Jose C; Gilbert, Jack A; Huse, Susan M; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J Gregory

    2014-01-01

    We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA) sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime) and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity). Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to "classic" open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, "classic" open-reference OTU clustering is often faster). We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons). To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of "classic" open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by "classic" open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIME's uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository) that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced). Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in QIIME's OTU picking workflows and

  3. OpenACC programs of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komura, Yukihiro

    2015-12-01

    We present sample OpenACC programs of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm. OpenACC is a directive-based programming model for accelerators without requiring modification to the underlying CPU code itself. In this paper, we deal with the classical spin models as with the sample CUDA programs (Komura and Okabe, 2014), that is, two-dimensional (2D) Ising model, three-dimensional (3D) Ising model, 2D Potts model, 3D Potts model, 2D XY model and 3D XY model. We explain the details of sample OpenACC programs and compare the performance of the present OpenACC implementations with that of the CUDA implementations for the 2D and 3D Ising models and the 2D and 3D XY models.

  4. The young open cluster NGC 7067 using Strömgren photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monguió, M.; Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; González-Fernández, C.; Alonso-Santiago, J.; Costado, M. T.; Casamiquela, L.; López-Corredoira, M.; Molgó, J.; Vilardell, F.; Alfaro, E. J.; Antoja, T.; Figueras, F.; Garcia, M.; Jordi, C.; Romero-Gómez, M.

    2017-04-01

    NGC 7067 is a young open cluster located in the direction between the first and the second Galactic quadrants and close to the Perseus spiral arm. This makes it useful for studies of the nature of the Milky Way spiral arms. Strömgren photometry taken with the Wide Field Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope allowed us to compute individual physical parameters for the observed stars and hence to derive the cluster's physical parameters. Spectra from the 1.93-m telescope at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence helped to check and improve the results. We obtained photometry for 1233 stars, individual physical parameters for 515 and spectra for 9 of them. The 139 selected cluster members lead to a cluster distance of 4.4 ± 0.4 kpc, with an age below log10(t(yr)) = 7.3 and a present mass of 1260 ± 160 M⊙. The morphology of the data reveals that the centre of the cluster is at (α, δ) = (21: 24: 13.69, +48: 00: 39.2) J2000, with a radius of 6.1 arcmin. Strömgren and spectroscopic data allowed us to improve the previous parameters available for the cluster in the literature.

  5. DETECTION OF SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS FROM KEPLER PHOTOMETRY OF THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6819

    SciTech Connect

    Stello, Dennis; Bedding, Timothy R.; Huber, Daniel; Basu, Sarbani; Bruntt, Hans; Mosser, BenoIt; Barban, Caroline; Goupil, Marie-Jo; Stevens, Ian R.; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Hekker, Saskia; Brown, Timothy M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Kjeldsen, Hans; Arentoft, Torben; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Ballot, Jerome; GarcIa, Rafael A.

    2010-04-20

    Asteroseismology of stars in clusters has been a long-sought goal because the assumption of a common age, distance, and initial chemical composition allows strong tests of the theory of stellar evolution. We report results from the first 34 days of science data from the Kepler Mission for the open cluster NGC 6819-one of the four clusters in the field of view. We obtain the first clear detections of solar-like oscillations in the cluster red giants and are able to measure the large frequency separation, {delta}{nu}, and the frequency of maximum oscillation power, {nu}{sub max}. We find that the asteroseismic parameters allow us to test cluster membership of the stars, and even with the limited seismic data in hand, we can already identify four possible non-members despite their having a better than 80% membership probability from radial velocity measurements. We are also able to determine the oscillation amplitudes for stars that span about 2 orders of magnitude in luminosity and find good agreement with the prediction that oscillation amplitudes scale as the luminosity to the power of 0.7. These early results demonstrate the unique potential of asteroseismology of the stellar clusters observed by Kepler.

  6. WIYN OPEN CLUSTER STUDY. LV. ASTROMETRY AND MEMBERSHIP IN NGC 6819

    SciTech Connect

    Platais, Imants; Gosnell, Natalie M.; Meibom, Soren; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Bellini, Andrea; Veillet, Christian; Burkhead, Martin S.

    2013-08-01

    We present proper motions and astrometric membership analysis for 15,750 stars around the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 6819. The accuracy of relative proper motions for well-measured stars ranges from {approx}0.2 mas yr{sup -1} within 10' of the cluster center to 1.1 mas yr{sup -1} outside this radius. In the proper motion vector-point diagram, the separation between the cluster members and field stars is convincing down to V {approx} 18 and within 10' from the cluster center. The formal sum of membership probabilities indicates a total of {approx}2500 cluster members down to V {approx} 22. We confirm the cluster membership of several variable stars, including some eclipsing binaries. The estimated absolute proper motion of NGC 6819 is {mu}{sub x}{sup abs}=-2.6{+-}0.5 and {mu}{sub y}{sup abs}=-4.2{+-}0.5 mas yr{sup -1}. A cross-identification between the proper motion catalog and a list of X-ray sources in the field of NGC 6819 resulted in a number of new likely optical counterparts, including a candidate CV. For the first time we show that there is significant differential reddening toward NGC 6819.

  7. The Be Population in 10 Galactic Open Clusters From the Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia Thao, Pa; Richardson, Noel; Gerhartz, Cody; Bjorkman, Karen S.; Bjorkman, Jon Eric; Wisniewski, John P.; Burrow, Anthony; Lomax, Jamie R.; Covey, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    As part of a multi-site, multi-epoch campaign to study the time-scales of disk growth and dissipation for classical Be stars, we have studied ten Galactic open clusters with multi-color photometry (Johnson BVRIJK and narrow band H-alpha and an adjacent continuum filter). We have created color-color diagrams to isolate the Be stars in the targeted clusters. These clusters have previously been determined to contain multiple Be stars. From our early analysis of the clusters we have found a number of new candidate Be stars, as well as a few stars in each cluster that appear to have lost their gaseous disks. Such studies of clusters will provide a statistical basis for understanding the evolution of the disks around these stars and may provide insights into the formation processes for the Be stars. We are grateful for support of the NSF REU program at the University of Toledo through NSF grant 1262810, as well as for support from NSF AST 1411563, 1412110, and 1412135.

  8. Integrated spectral properties of 22 small angular diameter galactic open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.

    2007-10-01

    Aims:Flux-calibrated integrated spectra of a sample of 22 Galactic open clusters of small angular diameter are presented. With one exception (ESO 429-SC2), all objects have Galactic longitudes in the range 208° < l < 33°. The spectra cover the range ≈3600-6800 Å, with a resolution of ≈14 Å. The properties of the present cluster sample are compared with those of well-studied clusters located in two 90° sectors, centred at l = 257° and l = 347°. The dissolution rate of Galactic open clusters in these two sectors is examined. Methods: Using the equivalent widths of the Balmer lines and comparing line intensities and continuum distribution of the cluster spectra with those of template cluster spectra with known properties, we derive both foreground reddening values and ages. Thus, we provide information independent of that determined through colour-magnitude diagrams. Results: The derived E(B-V) values for the whole sample vary from 0.0 in ESO 445-SC74 to 1.90 in Pismis 24, while the ages range from ~3 Myr (NGC 6604 and BH 151) to ~3.5 Gyr (Ruprecht 2). For six clusters (Dolidze 34, ESO 429-SC2, ESO 445-SC74, Ruprecht 2, BH 151 and Hogg 9) the foreground E(B-V) colour excesses and ages are determined for the first time. The results obtained for the remaining clusters show, in general terms, good agreement with previous photometric results. Conclusions: The age and reddening distributions of the present sample match those of known clusters in the two selected Galactic sectors. The present results would favour a major dissolution rate of star clusters in these two sectors. Two new solar-metallicity templates are defined corresponding to the age groups of (4-5) Myr and 30 Myr among those of Piatti et al. (2002, MNRAS, 335, 233). The Piatti et al. templates of 20 Myr and (3-4) Gyr are here redefined. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y T

  9. Google Classroom and Open Clusters: An Authentic Science Research Project for High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Chelen H.; Linahan, Marcella; Cuba, Allison Frances; Dickmann, Samantha Rose; Hogan, Eleanor B.; Karos, Demetra N.; Kozikowski, Kendall G.; Kozikowski, Lauren Paige; Nelson, Samantha Brooks; O'Hara, Kevin Thomas; Ropinski, Brandi Lucia; Scarpa, Gabriella; Garmany, Catharine D.

    2016-01-01

    STEM education is about offering unique opportunities to our students. For the past three years, students from two high schools (Breck School in Minneapolis, MN, and Carmel Catholic High School in Mundelein, IL) have collaborated on authentic astronomy research projects. This past year they surveyed archival data of open clusters to determine if a clear turnoff point could be unequivocally determined. Age and distance to each open cluster were calculated. Additionally, students requested time on several telescopes to obtain original data to compare to the archival data. Students from each school worked in collaborative teams, sharing and verifying results through regular online hangouts and chats. Work papers were stored in a shared drive and on a student-designed Google site to facilitate dissemination of documents between the two schools.

  10. WIYN Open Cluster Study. VII. NGC 2451A and the Hipparcos Distance Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platais, Imants; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Barnes, Sydney; Girard, Terrence M.; Demarque, Pierre; van Altena, William F.; Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Horch, Elliott

    2001-09-01

    We provide new evidence that NGC 2451A is undoubtedly a young open cluster, although sparsely populated. New cluster membership has been derived from relative proper motions of 5868 stars. In total, 136 stars down to V~15 have membership probability Pμ>=2%. New CCD BV photometry indicates that about 70 stars are indeed main-sequence stars of NGC 2451A. This is also supported by our measurements of radial velocities. A total of 34 very likely cluster members yield a mean heliocentric radial velocity for NGC 2451A equal to +22.9 km s-1. The high quality of our BV photometry, a confirmation of cluster membership from proper motions and radial velocities, and a recently obtained metallicity estimate for several cluster stars allow us to perform a precise isochrone fit. The Yale isochrones, updated by the latest available input physics, have been fitted to the cluster's color-magnitude diagram, yielding a distance modulus V0-MV in the range 6.35 to 6.38, which is in excellent agreement with the distance modulus (m-M)0=6.38 derived from the Hipparcos data recently by van Leeuwen and Robichon et al. For NGC 2451A the isochrone fit yields an age of 60+/-20 Myr; hence, the cluster appears to be somewhat younger than the Pleiades. We also present alternative evidence suggesting that the cluster could be slightly older than the Pleiades. The most important result of this study is an excellent match between the main-sequence fitting and Hipparcos distances to NGC 2451A. If we consider noticeable similarities between NGC 2451A and Pleiades, then the Hipparcos distance anomaly for Pleiades may not require an explanation of astrophysical nature.

  11. Evidences of tidal distortion and mass loss from the old open cluster NGC 6791

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, Giovanni; Dalessandro, Emanuele

    2017-03-01

    We present the first evidence of clear signatures of tidal distortions in the density distribution of the fascinating open cluster NGC 6791. We find that the 2D density map shows a clear elongation and an irregular distribution starting from ~ 300'' from the cluster center and two tails extending in opposite directions beyond the tidal radius. These features are aligned to both the absolute proper motion and to the Galactic centre directions. Accordingly we find that both the surface brightness and star count density profiles reveal a departure from a King model starting from ~ 600''. These observational evidences suggest that NGC 6791 is currently undergoing mass-loss likely due to gravitational shocking and interactions with the tidal field of the Milky Way. We derive the expected mass-loss due to stellar evolution and tidal interactions and we estimate the initial cluster mass to be Mini = (1.5 - 4.0) × 105 M ⊙.

  12. Open and Globular Cluster Distances for Extragalactic, Galactic, and Stellar Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worthey, Guy S.

    2004-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of SIM's few-milliarcsecond astrometric precision is its ability to obtain accurate parallax measurements across more than half of the Galaxy. The "open and globular" project obtains parallax distances to a set of star clusters. One important, goal is to pinpoint the zeropoint of the distance scale for main-sequence fitting. Another goal is to improve stellar evolutionary isochrones and integrated light models. Another goal is to use the clusters themselves to address unsolved problems of late-stage stellar evolution and Galactic and extragalactic chemical evolution. The clusters to be observed are chosen to span the widest possible range of abundance and age, to be as rich as possible, and to be as well-studied as possible.

  13. Galactic Structure from Open Clusters: Photometric Characterization of Reddening, Distance and Abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony-Twarog, Barbara; Twarog, Bruce A.; Schuster, William

    1999-02-01

    Our recent work with open clusters has indicated a surprising demarcation of the Milky Way disk's metallicity as a function of distance from the Galactic center - an apparently abrupt drop in [Fe/H] from solar to -0.3 at R_GC=10 kpc (Twarog, Ashman & Anthony- Twarog 1997). We have asserted that due to uncertain reddenings, distances and abundance data, the step-down in [Fe/H] at 10 kpc has long been masked in previous studies or interpreted as a declining radial gradient in the disk's metallicity. Current work, including observations proposed here, will address these issues for disk clusters by using uvbyCaH(beta) photometry to determine foreground reddenings, abundances and cluster distances.

  14. Open Clusters in Carina: NGC 3603, Westerlund 2 and Sher 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsatti, A. M.; Vega, E. I.; Martínez, R. E.

    2013-10-01

    We present polarimetric observations in the UBVRI bands of stars located in the directions of NGC 3603, Westerlund 2 and Sher 1. Our main objectives are to study the characteristics of the dust lying between the Sun and the clusters, to analyze polarimetric evidence on the existence (or not) of abnormal reddening in NGC 3603 and Westerlund 2; and to identify stars with signatures of intrinsic polarization. 40% of the stars observed in Westerlund 2 display indications of intrinsic polarization, a percentage similar to those found in the open clusters NGC 6611 and IC 2944: but in NGC 3603 it is very small. Mean polarization efficiencies are low, due to the presence of several dust clouds located in the way to the clusters. We are in favor of the existence of abnormal reddening in NGC 3603, while in Westerlund 2 there are only indications.

  15. X-ray Source Populations in Old Open Clusters - Collinder 261

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vats, Smriti

    2014-11-01

    We are carrying out an X-ray survey of old open clusters (OCs) with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Single old stars emit very faint X-rays, making X-rays produced by mass transfer in CVs, or by rapid rotation of the stars in tidally-locked, detached binaries detectable, without contamination from single stars. By comparing properties of interacting binaries in different environments, we aim to study binary evolution, and how dynamical encounters with other cluster members affect it. Collinder (Cr) 261 is an old OC(~7Gyr), with one of the richest populations inferred, of close binary populations and blue stragglers of all OCs. We will present the first results, detailing the X-ray population of Cr 261, in conjugation with other OCs, and in comparison with populations in globular clusters.

  16. The ODD Old, Super-Metal-Rich Open Cluster, NGC 6791

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; Lum, Michael G.; Deliyannis, Constantine P.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the composition of turn-off stars in the intriguing open cluster, NGC 6791, which is old, but super-metal-rich using Keck/HIRES spectra. We find [Fe/H] = +0.30 +/-0.02[O/Fe]n -0.06 +/-0.02,[Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe] near solar and the two Fe-peak elements, Cr and Ni, are consistent with Fe.

  17. CONFIGURATIONS OF BOUNDED AND FREE-FLOATING PLANETS IN VERY YOUNG OPEN CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Huigen; Zhang Hui; Zhou Jilin

    2013-08-01

    Open clusters (OCs) are usually young and suitable for studying the formation and evolution of planetary systems. So far, only four planets have been found with radial velocity measurements in OCs. Meanwhile, a lot of free-floating planets (FFPs) have been detected. We utilize N-body simulations to investigate the evolution and final configurations of multi-planetary systems in very young open clusters with an age <10 Myr. After an evolution of 10 Myr, 61%-72% of the planets remain bounded and more than 55% of the planetary systems will maintain their initial orbital configurations. For systems with one planet ejected, more than 25% of them have the surviving planets in misaligned orbits. In the clusters, the fraction of planetary systems with misalignment is >6%, and only 1% have planets in retrograde orbits. We also obtain a positive correlation between the survival planet number and the distance from the cluster center r: planetary systems with a larger r tend to be more stable. Moreover, stars with a mass >2.5 M{sub Sun} are likely unstable and lose their planets. These results are roughly consistent with current observations. Planetary systems in binaries are less stable and we achieve a rough criterion: most of the binary systems with a{sub b}(1-e{sub b}{sup 2})>100 AU can retain all the initial planets. Finally, 80% of the FFPs are ejected out of the clusters, while the rest ({approx}20%) still stay in host clusters and most of them are concentrated in the center (<2 pc)

  18. On galaxy structure: CO clouds, open clusters and stars between 270 and 300 deg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, E. E.; Carraro, G.; Moitinho, A.; Perren, G. I.; Bronfman, L.; Vázquez, R. A.

    2017-10-01

    The most used open cluster databases of our Galaxy include about 240 objects located in the region to in galactic longitude and to in galactic latitude. Only 146 out of the total number of these clusters have been investigated with some detail. On this occasion we present preliminary results of a study including optical and CO radio observations sweeping the above mentioned extension of the Milky Way combined with literature data. As for optical data we have selected a total of 16 regions including potential clusters (some of them never observed before) to be surveyed in the system with the main purpose of scrutinising not only the properties of the open cluster system in that place but also to detect and characterise the properties of field hot stars that could help to reveal the far spiral structure in this place. The present study is a continuation of our sine die project aimed at describing the spiral structure in the third and fourth galactic quadrants.

  19. Calibrating the lithium-age relation with open clusters observed with GES (Gaia-ESO Survey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez Albarrán, M. L.; Montes, D.; Gómez Garrido, M.; Tabernero, H. M..; González Hernández, J. I.; GES Survey Builders

    2017-03-01

    Li depletion is strongly age-dependent but currently available data have shown a complex pattern of Li depletion on the pre- and main-sequence stars that is not yet understood. The lithium abundance observed in late-type stars depend not only of the age and the temperature but also on metallicity, mixing mechanisms, convection structure, rotation and magnetic activity. The large number of stars observed within the Gaia-ESO survey (GES - https://www.gaia-eso.eu/) for many open clusters and associations can be used to calibrate the lithium-age relation and its dependence with other parameters that can be derived from the UVES and GIRAFFE spectroscopic observations. We present here the preliminary results of the analysis of membership and Li abundance of the young clusters and associations, as well as of the intermediate-age and old open clusters, observed until now in GES (iDR4) in order to conduct a comparative study. All this information allowed us to characterize the properties of the members of these clusters and identify a series of field contaminant stars, both lithium-rich giants and non-giant outliers.

  20. Fundamental parameters of the highly reddened young open clusters Westerlund 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Bica, E.; Claria, J. J.

    1998-02-01

    We study the compact open clusters Westerlund1 (BH197) and Westerlund2. We present CCD integrated spectroscopy for both clusters, and CCD imaging in the V and I bands for the former one. So far, Westerlund1 is possibly the most reddened open cluster studied in detail (Av ~ 13.0). It has an age of 8 +/- 3 Myr and a distance from the Sun of d_sun ~ 1.0 +/- 0.4 kpc. For Westerlund2 we derive a visual absorption AV~ 5.0 mag, an age of 2-3 Myr, and d_sun=5.7+/- 0.3 kpc. From luminosity and structural arguments we conclude that Westerlund1, although young and compact, it is a massive cluster, in contrast to Westerlund2. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas de la Republica Argentina and the Universities of La Plata, Cordoba and San Juan, Argentina, and at the University of Toronto (David Dunlap Observatory) 24-inch telescope, Las Campanas, Chile. The photometric observations are available at CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  1. Cepheids in open clusters: an 8D all-sky census

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Richard I.; Eyer, Laurent; Mowlavi, Nami

    2013-09-01

    Cepheids in Galactic open clusters (CCs) are of great importance as zero-point calibrators of the Galactic Cepheid period-luminosity relationship (PLR). We perform an eight-dimensional all-sky census that aims to identify new bona fide CCs and provides a ranking of membership confidence for known CC candidates according to membership probabilities. The probabilities are computed for combinations of known Galactic open clusters and classical Cepheid candidates, based on spatial, kinematic and population-specific membership constraints. Data employed in this analysis are taken largely from published literature and supplemented by a year-round observing programme on both hemispheres dedicated to determining systemic radial velocities of Cepheids. In total, we find 23 bona fide CCs, 5 of which are candidates identified for the first time, including an overtone-Cepheid member in NGC 129. We discuss a subset of CC candidates in detail, some of which have been previously mentioned in the literature. Our results indicate unlikely membership for seven Cepheids that have been previously discussed in terms of cluster membership. We furthermore revisit the Galactic PLR using our bona fide CC sample and obtain a result consistent with the recent calibration by Turner. However, our calibration remains limited mainly by cluster uncertainties and the small number of long-period calibrators. In the near future, Gaia will enable our study to be carried out in much greater detail and accuracy, thanks to data homogeneity and greater levels of completeness.

  2. The Monitor project: the search for transits in the open cluster NGC 2362

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Adam A.; Irwin, Jonathan; Aigrain, Suzanne; Hodgkin, Simon; Hebb, Leslie

    2008-06-01

    We present the results of a systematic search for transiting planets in a ~5 Myr open cluster, NGC 2362. We observed ~1200 candidate cluster members, of which ~475 are believed to be genuine cluster members, for a total of ~100 h. We identify 15 light curves with reductions in flux that pass all our detection criteria, and six of the candidates have occultation depths compatible with a planetary companion. The variability in these six light curves would require very large planets to reproduce the observed transit depth. If we assume that none of our candidates are, in fact, planets then we can place upper limits on the fraction of stars with hot Jupiters (HJs) in NGC 2362. We obtain 99 per cent confidence upper limits of 0.22 and 0.70 on the fraction of stars with HJs (fp) for 1-3 and 3-10 d orbits, respectively, assuming all HJs have a planetary radius of 1.5RJup. These upper limits represent observational constraints on the number of stars with HJs at an age <~10 Myr, when the vast majority of stars are thought to have lost their protoplanetary discs. Finally, we extend our results to the entire Monitor project, a survey searching young, open clusters for planetary transits, and find that the survey as currently designed should be capable of placing upper limits on fp near the observed values of fp in the solar neighbourhood.

  3. DISCOVERY OF 14 NEW SLOWLY PULSATING B STARS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 7654

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y. P.; Han, Z. W.

    2012-02-10

    We carried out time-series BV CCD photometric observations of the open cluster NGC 7654 (Messier 52) to search for variable stars. Eighteen slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars have been detected, among which 14 candidates are newly discovered, three known ones are confirmed, and a previously found {delta} Scuti star is also identified as an SPB candidate. Twelve SPBs are probable cluster members based on membership analysis. This makes NGC 7654 the richest galactic open cluster in terms of SPB star content. It is also a new discovery that NGC 7654 hosts three {gamma} Dor star candidates. We found that all these stars (18 SPB and 3 {gamma} Dor stars) have periods longer than their corresponding fundamental radial mode. With such a big sample of g-mode pulsators in a single cluster, it is clear that multi-mode pulsation is more common in the upper part of the main sequence than in the lower part. All the stars span a narrow strip on the period-luminosity plane, which also includes the {gamma} Dor stars at the low-luminosity extension. This result implies that there may be a single period-luminosity relation applicable to all g-mode main-sequence pulsators. As a by-product, three EA-type eclipsing binaries and an EW-type eclipsing binary are also discovered.

  4. BARIUM SURFACE ABUNDANCES OF BLUE STRAGGLERS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6819

    SciTech Connect

    Milliman, Katelyn E.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Schuler, Simon C.

    2015-09-15

    We present a barium surface abundance of 12 blue stragglers (BSs) and 18 main-sequence (MS) stars in the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 6819 (2.5 Gyr) based on spectra obtained from the Hydra Multi-object Spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. For the MS stars we find [Fe/H] = +0.05 ± 0.04 and [Ba/Fe] = −0.01 ± 0.10. The majority of the BS stars are consistent with these values. We identify five BSs with significant barium enhancement. These stars most likely formed through mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star that polluted the surface of the BS with the nucleosynthesis products generated during thermal pulsations. This conclusion aligns with the results from the substantial work done on the BSs in old open cluster NGC 188 that identifies mass transfer as the dominant mechanism for BS formation in that open cluster. However, four of the BSs with enhanced barium show no radial-velocity evidence for a companion. The one star that is in a binary is a double-lined system, meaning the companion is not a white dwarf and not the remnant of a prior AGB star. In this paper we attempt to develop a consistent scenario to explain the origin of these five BSs.

  5. A deep survey for transiting hot planets in the open cluster M37 with the MMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Joel David

    This thesis presents the results of a deep (14.5 [Special characters omitted.] the intermediate age open cluster M37 (NGC 2099) using the 6.5m MMT. We combine spectroscopic and photometric observations of the cluster to refine estimates of the cluster fundamental parameters, identify variable stars, study stellar rotation, and place limits on the fraction of stars with planets as small as Neptune. We determine new estimates of the fundamental cluster parameters: t 550 ± 30 Myr, E ( B - V ) = 0.227 ± 0.038, ( m - M ) v = 11.57 ± 0.13 and [ M/ H ] = +0.045 ± 0.044. We obtain light curves for ~ 23,000 stars and identify 1445 variable stars, 99% of which are new discoveries. These variables include 575 rotational variables that are potential cluster members. Using this rich sample we investigate a number of relations between rotation period, color and the amplitude of photometric variability, and we combine these results with published observations of other open clusters to test the standard theory of lower-main sequence stellar angular momentum evolution. Notably we find that the period of the Sun and the periods of solar mass stars in M37, and the Hyades do not follow the "Skumanich law", i.e. they cannot be related by a simple model invoking solid-body rotation with a standard wind angular momentum-loss law. Finally, we do not detect any transiting planets among the ~ 1450 observed cluster members. We do, however, identify a ~ 1 R J candidate planet transiting a Galactic field star. We use this null result to place 95% confidence upper limits on the fraction of cluster members and field stars with planets as a function of planetary radius and orbital period. We find that < 25% of cluster members have 0.35 R J planets with periods shorter than 1 day, and < 16% of field stars have 0.3 R J planets with periods shorter than 1 day. This is the first transit survey to place limits on the fraction of stars with planets as small as Neptune.

  6. An application of the KNND method for detecting nearby open clusters based on Gaia-DR1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin-Hua

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a preliminary test of the k-th nearest neighbor distance (KNND) method for detecting nearby open clusters based on Gaia-DR1. We select 38 386 nearby stars (< 100 {pc}) from the Gaia-DR1 catalog, and then use the KNND method to detect overdense regions in three-dimensional space. We find two overdense regions (the Hyades and Coma Berenices (Coma Ber) open clusters), and obtain 57 reliable cluster members. Based on these cluster members, the distances to the Hyades and Coma Ber clusters are determined to be 46.0±0.2 and 83.5±0.3 pc, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the KNND method can be used to detect open clusters based on a large volume of astrometry data.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: M67 variable stars from Kepler/K2-Campaign-5 (Gonzalez, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, G.

    2017-06-01

    M 67 was observed continuously between 2015 April 27 and July 10 during the Kepler/K2-Campaign-5 (hereafter, 'Campaign-5 field'). It includes 28 850 long-cadence, 204 short-cadence, and several other special targets. Several data products for the Campaign-5 field were released to the public on the NASA Barbara A. Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) website on 2015 October 30 (https://archive.stsci.edu/k2/). We downloaded tar files containing all the long-cadence light-curve (CLC) files of the Campaign-5 targets from the MAST archive. In addition, we downloaded the comprehensive K2 input catalogue (EPIC) for the Campaign-5 field. We supplemented the NASA K2 data with ground-based data, of which Nardiello et al. (2016, Cat. J/MNRAS/455/2337) is our primary source. Nardiello et al. (2016, Cat. J/MNRAS/455/2337) list the positions and white-light magnitudes for 6905 objects in the M 67 field, but they only list BVRI magnitudes, proper motions and membership probabilities for a subset of this large sample. Cross-referencing (using coordinates) the Campaign-5 input catalogue with the Nardiello et al. (2016, Cat. J/MNRAS/455/2337) catalogue resulted in 3201 matches. Of these, 639 have light curves available in the MAST Campaign-5 archive. This will be the working sample. (1 data file).

  8. The Substellar Mass Function in the Central Region of the Open Cluster Praesepe from Deep LBT Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Boudreault, S.; Goldman, B.; Henning, Th.; Caballero, J. A.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.

    2011-12-01

    Studies of the mass function (MF) of open clusters of different ages allow us to probe the efficiency with which brown dwarfs (BDs) are evaporated from clusters to populate the field. Surveys in old clusters (age gtrsim 100 Myr) do not suffer so severely from several problems encountered in young clusters, such as intra-cluster extinction and large uncertainties in BD models. Here we present the results of a deep photometric survey to study the MF of the old open cluster Praesepe (age 590+150-120 Myr and distance 190+6.0-5.8 pc), down to a 5σ detection limit at i˜25.6 mag (˜40 MJup). We identify 62 cluster member candidates, of which 40 are substellar, from comparison with predictions from a dusty atmosphere model. The MF rises from the substellar boundary until ˜60 MJup and then declines. This is quite different from the form inferred for other open clusters older than 50 Myr, but seems to be similar to those found in very young open cluster, whose MFs peak at ˜10 MJup. Either Praesepe really does have a different MF from other clusters or they had similar initial MFs but have differed in their dynamical evolution. We further have identified six foreground T dwarf candidates towards Praesepe, which require follow-up spectroscopy to confirm their nature.

  9. Early turbulent mixing as the origin of chemical homogeneity in open star clusters.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yi; Krumholz, Mark R

    2014-09-25

    The abundances of elements in stars are critical clues to stars' origins. Observed star-to-star variations in logarithmic abundance within an open star cluster--a gravitationally bound ensemble of stars in the Galactic plane--are typically only about 0.01 to 0.05 over many elements, which is noticeably smaller than the variation of about 0.06 to 0.3 seen in the interstellar medium from which the stars form. It is unknown why star clusters are so homogenous, and whether homogeneity should also prevail in regions of lower star formation efficiency that do not produce bound clusters. Here we report simulations that trace the mixing of chemical elements as star-forming clouds assemble and collapse. We show that turbulent mixing during cloud assembly naturally produces a stellar abundance scatter at least five times smaller than that in the gas, which is sufficient to explain the observed chemical homogeneity of stars. Moreover, mixing occurs very early, so that regions with star formation efficiencies of about 10 per cent are nearly as well mixed as those with formation efficiencies of about 50 per cent. This implies that even regions that do not form bound clusters are likely to be well mixed, and improves the prospects of using 'chemical tagging' to reconstruct (via their unique chemical signatures, or tags) star clusters whose constituent stars have become unbound from one another and spread across the Galactic disk.

  10. UBVI photometric study of open star clusters Ruprecht 25 and Czernik 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisht, D.; Yadav, R. K. S.; Durgapal, A. K.

    2016-11-01

    We present a UBVI CCD photometric study of two open star clusters Ruprecht 25 and Czernik 6 using the data taken with 104-cm Sampurnanand telescope, ARIES, Nainital, India. The optical CCD data for these clusters are obtained for the first time. The clusters radii are found to be 2‧.4 and 1‧.5. Using two colour (U - B) versus (B - V) diagram we have estimated the reddening as E(B - V) = 0.55 ± 0.05 mag for Ruprecht 25 and 0.48 ± 0.05 mag for Czernik 6, while the corresponding distances are 5.8 ± 0.5 and 5.0 ± 0.3 kpc. Ages of 800 ± 80 Myr for Ruprecht 25 and 40 ± 10 Myr for Czernik 6 are determined using the stellar isochrones of metallicity Z = 0.019 . We have also determined the relaxation time for the clusters Ruprecht 25 and Czernik 6. Our analysis indicates that both clusters are dynamically relaxed. This may be due to the dynamical evolution or imprint of star formation itself or both.

  11. BRIGHT VARIABLE STARS IN NGC 6819: AN OPEN CLUSTER IN THE KEPLER FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Talamantes, Antonio; Sandquist, Eric L.; Clem, James L.; Robb, Russell M.; Balam, David D.; Shetrone, Matthew E-mail: erics@mintaka.sdsu.ed E-mail: robb@uvic.c E-mail: shetrone@astro.as.utexas.ed

    2010-11-15

    We describe a variability study of the moderately old open cluster NGC 6819. We have detected four new detached eclipsing binaries near the cluster turnoff (one of which may be in a triple system). Several of these systems should be able to provide mass and radius information, and can therefore constrain the age of the cluster. We have also newly detected one possible detached binary member about 3.5 mag below the turnoff. One EW-type binary (probably not a cluster member) shows unusually strong night-to-night light curve variations in sets of observations separated by eight years. According to the best current information, the three brightest variables we detected (two of them new) are cluster members, making them blue stragglers. The first one is a {delta} Scu pulsating variable, the second one is a close but detached binary, and the third one contains a detached short-period binary that shows total eclipses. In each case, however, there is evidence hinting that the system may have been produced through the interaction of more than two stars.

  12. Radial Velocities, Binarity, and Kinematic Membership in the Open Cluster NGC 2516

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Jorge Federico; Lapasset, Emilio

    2000-05-01

    We present echelle spectroscopic observations for 36 bright (V<9.6) stars in the open cluster NGC 2516, including several blue straggler candidates and four red giants. Radial velocities are derived by cross-correlations using high signal-to-noise ratio standard spectra as templates. From 22 cluster members a mean cluster velocity of +22.0+/-0.2 km s-1 was derived. Membership probabilities of the observed stars are computed on the basis of their distance to the cluster center and kinematic criteria. We report the discovery of three double-lined spectroscopic binaries and several probable binaries among main-sequence stars. A binary frequency of more than 26% is found among the high-mass main-sequence stars. The blue straggler HD 66341 is a slowly rotating cluster member with constant velocity, while HD 66194 is a fast-rotating Be star with probable variations in radial velocity. Other blue straggler candidates, such as HD 65663, 65950, 66066, and 65987, must be considered turnoff stars. The observations presented here were obtained at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET) and the national universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  13. Young open clusters in the Galactic star forming region NGC 6357

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massi, F.; Giannetti, A.; Di Carlo, E.; Brand, J.; Beltrán, M. T.; Marconi, G.

    2015-01-01

    Context. NGC 6357 is an active star forming region with very young massive open clusters. These clusters contain some of the most massive stars in the Galaxy and strongly interact with nearby giant molecular clouds. Aims: We study the young stellar populations of the region and of the open cluster Pismis 24, focusing on their relationship with the nearby giant molecular clouds. We seek evidence of triggered star formation "propagating" from the clusters. Methods: We used new deep JHKs photometry, along with unpublished deep Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared photometry, complemented with optical HST/WFPC2 high spatial resolution photometry and X-ray Chandra observations, to constrain age, initial mass function, and star formation modes in progress. We carefully examine and discuss all sources of bias (saturation, confusion, different sensitivities, extinction). Results: NGC 6357 hosts three large young stellar clusters, of which Pismis 24 is the most prominent. We found that Pismis 24 is a very young (~1-3 Myr) open cluster with a Salpeter-like initial mass function and a few thousand members. A comparison between optical and infrared photometry indicates that the fraction of members with a near-infrared excess (i.e., with a circumstellar disk) is in the range 0.3-0.6, consistent with its photometrically derived age. We also find that Pismis 24 is likely subdivided into a few different subclusters, one of which contains almost all the massive members. There are indications of current star formation triggered by these massive stars, but clear age trends could not be derived (although the fraction of stars with a near-infrared excess does increase towards the Hii region associated with the cluster). The gas out of which Pismis 24 formed must have been distributed in dense clumps within a cloud of less dense gas ~1 pc in radius. Conclusions: Our findings provide some new insight into how young stellar populations and massive stars emerge, and evolve in the first few Myr after

  14. The Evolutionary Status of Be Stars: Results from a Photometric Study of Southern Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSwain, M. Virginia; Gies, Douglas R.

    2005-11-01

    Be stars are a class of rapidly rotating B stars with circumstellar disks that cause Balmer and other line emission. There are three possible reasons for the rapid rotation of Be stars: they may have been born as rapid rotators, spun up by binary mass transfer, or spun up during the main-sequence (MS) evolution of B stars. To test the various formation scenarios, we have conducted a photometric survey of 55 open clusters in the southern sky. Of these, five clusters are probably not physically associated groups and our results for two other clusters are not reliable, but we identify 52 definite Be stars and an additional 129 Be candidates in the remaining clusters. We use our results to examine the age and evolutionary dependence of the Be phenomenon. We find an overall increase in the fraction of Be stars with age until 100 Myr, and Be stars are most common among the brightest, most massive B-type stars above the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS). We show that a spin-up phase at the terminal-age main sequence (TAMS) cannot produce the observed distribution of Be stars, but up to 73% of the Be stars detected may have been spun-up by binary mass transfer. Most of the remaining Be stars were likely rapid rotators at birth. Previous studies have suggested that low metallicity and high cluster density may also favor Be star formation. Our results indicate a possible increase in the fraction of Be stars with increasing cluster distance from the Galactic center (in environments of decreasing metallicity). However, the trend is not significant and could be ruled out due to the intrinsic scatter in our data. We also find no relationship between the fraction of Be stars and cluster density.

  15. A CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE STUDY OF 10 OPEN CLUSTERS BASED ON WIYN -HYDRA SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Heather R.; Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Friel, Eileen D. E-mail: catyp@astro.indiana.edu

    2011-08-15

    We present a detailed chemical abundance study of evolved stars in 10 open clusters based on Hydra multi-object echelle spectra obtained with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. From an analysis of both equivalent widths and spectrum synthesis, abundances have been determined for the elements Fe, Na, O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Ni, Zr, and for two of the 10 clusters, Al and Cr. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed abundance analysis for clusters NGC 1245, NGC 2194, NGC 2355, and NGC 2425. These 10 clusters were selected for analysis because they span a Galactocentric distance range R{sub gc} {approx} 9-13 kpc, the approximate location of the transition between the inner and outer disks. Combined with cluster samples from our previous work and those of other studies in the literature, we explore abundance trends as a function of cluster R{sub gc}, age, and [Fe/H]. As found previously by us and other studies, the [Fe/H] distribution appears to decrease with increasing R{sub gc} to a distance of {approx}12 kpc and then flattens to a roughly constant value in the outer disk. Cluster average element [X/Fe] ratios appear to be independent of R{sub gc}, although the picture for [O/Fe] is more complicated with a clear trend of [O/Fe] with [Fe/H] and sample incompleteness. Other than oxygen, no other element [X/Fe] exhibits a clear trend with [Fe/H]; likewise, there does not appear to be any strong correlation between abundance and cluster age. We divided clusters into different age bins to explore temporal variations in the radial element distributions. The radial metallicity gradient appears to have flattened slightly as a function of time, as found by other studies. There is also some indication that the transition from the inner disk metallicity gradient to the {approx}constant [Fe/H] distribution of the outer disk occurs at different Galactocentric radii for different age bins. However, interpretation of the time evolution of radial abundance distributions is complicated by the

  16. Open clusters. I. Fundamental parameters of B stars in NGC 3766 and NGC 4755

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidelman, Y.; Cidale, L. S.; Zorec, J.; Arias, M. L.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Spectroscopic investigations of galactic open clusters are scarce and limited to a reduced sample of cluster members. Aims: We intend to perform a complete study of the physical parameters of two galactic clusters as well as of their individual members. Methods: To carry out this study, we used the BCD (Barbier-Chalonge-Divan) spectrophotometric system, which is based on the study of the Balmer discontinuity and is independent of interstellar and circumstellar extinction. Additional physical properties were derived from the line profiles (FWHM) and stellar evolution models. We analyzed low-resolution spectra around the Balmer discontinuity for normal B-type and Be stars in two open clusters: NGC 3766 and NGC 4755. We determined the stellar fundamental parameters, such as effective temperatures, surface gravities, spectral types, luminosity classes, absolute and bolometric magnitudes, and color gradient excesses. The stellar rotation velocity was also determined. Complementary information, mainly stellar mass, age, and radius of the star population were calculated using stellar evolution models. In some cases, the stellar fundamental parameters were derived for the first time. The obtained results allowed us also to determine the reddening, age, and distance to the clusters. Results: The cluster parameters obtained through the BCD method agree very well with those derived from classical methods based on photometric data. The BCD system also provides physical properties of the star members. This study enables us to test the good behavior of Mbol(λ1,D)-calibrations and detect systematic discrepancies between log g estimates from model atmospheres and those derived from stellar evolution models. To improve our knowledge on the formation and evolution of the clusters, more statistical studies on the initial mass luminosity and angular momentum distributions should be addressed. Therefore, the BCD spectrophotometric system could be a powerful tool for studying

  17. DEEP, WIDE-FIELD CCD PHOTOMETRY FOR THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 3532

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, James L.; Landolt, Arlo U.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie E-mail: landolt@phys.lsu.edu E-mail: wachter@ipac.caltech.edu

    2011-04-15

    We present the results of a deep, wide-field CCD survey for the open cluster NGC 3532. Our new BV(RI){sub c} photometry effectively covers a one square degree area and reaches an unprecedented depth of V {approx} 21 to reveal that NGC 3532 is a rich open cluster that harbors a large number of faint, low-mass stars. We employ a number of methods to reduce the impact of field star contamination in the cluster color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), including supplementing our photometry with JHK{sub s} data from the 2MASS catalog. These efforts allow us to define a robust sample of candidate main-sequence stars suitable for a purely empirical determination of the cluster's parameters by comparing them to the well-established Hyades main sequence. Our results confirm previous findings that NGC 3532 lies fairly near to the Sun [(m - M){sub 0} = 8.46 {+-} 0.05; 492{sup +12}{sub -11} pc] and has an extremely low reddening for its location near the Galactic plane [E(B - V) = 0.028 {+-} 0.006]. Moreover, an age of {approx}300 Myr has been derived for the cluster by fitting a set of overshooting isochrones to the well-populated upper main sequence. This new photometry also extends faint enough to reach the cluster white dwarf sequence, as confirmed by our photometric recovery of eight spectroscopically identified members of the cluster. Using the location of these eight members, along with the latest theoretical cooling tracks, we have identified {approx}30 additional white dwarf stars in the [V, (B - V)] CMD that have a high probability of belonging to NGC 3532. Reassuringly, the age we derive from fitting white dwarf isochrones to the locus of these stars, 300 {+-} 100 Myr, is consistent with the age derived from the turnoff. Our analysis of the photometry also includes an estimation of the binary star fraction as well as a determination of the cluster's luminosity and mass functions.

  18. A study of the two northern open clusters NGC 1582 and NGC 1663

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baume, G.; Villanova, S.; Carraro, G.

    2003-08-01

    We present CCD UBV(I)C observations obtained in the field of the previously unstudied northern open clusters NGC 1582 and NGC 1663. For the former, we also provide high-resolution spectra of the brightest stars and complement our data with Two-Micron All-Sky-Survey (2MASS) near-infrared photometry and with astrometric data from the Tycho-2 catalog. From the analysis of all these data, we argue that NGC 1582 is a very poor, quite large and heavily contaminated open cluster. It turns out to have a reddening EB-V = 0.35 +/- 0.03, to be situated 1100 +/- 100 pc from the Sun and to have an age of 300 +/- 100 Myr. On the other hand, we were not able to unambiguously clarify the nature of NGC 1663. By assuming it is a real cluster and from the analysis of its photometric diagrams, we found a color excess value EB-V = 0.20, an intermediate age value ( ~ 2000 Myr) and a distance of about 700 pc. The distribution of the stars in the region however suggests we are probably facing an open cluster remnant. As an additional result, we obtained aperture photometry of three previously unclassified galaxies placed in the field of NGC 1663 and performed a preliminary morphological classification of them. Based on observations carried out at Mt Ekar, Asiago, Italy. Data are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/407/527

  19. The CNO Bi-cycle in the Open Cluster NGC 752

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Keith; Schuler, S.; King, J.; The, L.

    2011-01-01

    The CNO bi-cycle is the primary energy source for main sequence stars more massive than the sun. To test our understanding of stellar evolution models using the CNO bi-cycle, we have undertaken light-element (CNO) abundance analysis of three main sequence dwarf stars and three red giant stars in the open cluster NGC 752 utilizing high resolution (R 50,000) spectroscopy from the Keck Observatory. Preliminary results indicate, as expected, there is a depletion of carbon in the giants relative to the dwarfs. Additional analysis is needed to determine if the amount of depletion is in line with model predictions, as seen in the Hyades open cluster. Oxygen abundances are derived from the high-excitation O I triplet, and there is a 0.19 dex offset in the [O/H] abundances between the giants and dwarfs which may be explained by non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE), although further analysis is needed to verify this. The standard procedure for spectroscopically determining stellar parameters used here allows for a measurement of the cluster metallicity, [Fe/H] = 0.04 ± 0.02. In addition to the Fe abundances we have determined Na, Mg, and Al abundances to determine the status of other nucleosynthesis processes. The Na, Mg and Al abundances of the giants are enhanced relative to the dwarfs, which is consistent with similar findings in giants of other open clusters. Support for K. Hawkins was provided by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program and the Department of Defense ASSURE program through Scientific Program Order No. 13 (AST-0754223) of the Cooperative Agreement No. AST-0132798 between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and the NSF.

  20. An X-Ray Survey of the Open Cluster NGC 6475 (M7) with ROSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Charles F.; Stauffer, John R.; Caillault, J.-P.; Balachandran, Suchitra; Stern, Robert A.; Randich, Sofia

    1995-01-01

    A ROSAT x-ray survey, with complimentary optical photometry, of the open cluster NGC 6475 has enabled the detection of approx. 50 late-F to K0 and approx. 70 K/M dwarf new candidate members, providing the first reliable detection of low-mass stars in this low. galactic latitude, 220 Myr old cluster. The x-ray observations reported here have a typical limiting sensitivity of L(sub x) approx. equal to 10(exp 29) erg/s. The detection frequency of early type cluster members is consistent with the hypothesis that the x-ray emitting early type stars are binary systems with an unseen, low-mass secondary producing the x rays. The ratio between x-ray and bolometric luminosity among NGC 6475 members saturates at a spectral-type/color which is intermediate between that in much younger and in much older clusters, consistent with rotational spindown of solar-type stars upon their arrival on the ZAMS. The upper envelope of x-ray luminosity as a function of spectral type is comparable to that of the Pleiades, with the observed spread in x-ray luminosity among low-mass members being likely due to the presence of binaries and relatively rapid rotators. However, the list of x-ray selected candidate members is likely biased against low-mass, slowly rotating single stars. While some preliminary spectroscopic information is given in an appendix, further spectroscopic observations of the new candidate members will aid in interpreting the coronal activity among solar-type NGC 6475 members and their relation to similar stars in older and younger open clusters.

  1. Variability Survey in the Open Cluster Stock 14 and the Surrounding Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobek, D.; Pigulski, A.; Shobbrook, R. R.; Narwid, A.

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of a photometric variability survey in the young open cluster Stock 14 and the surrounding fields. In total, we detected 103 variable stars of which 88 are new discoveries. We confirm short-period, low-amplitude light variations in two eclipsing members of the cluster, HD 101838 and HD 101794. In addition, we find two new β Cep stars of which one, HD 101993, is also a member. The sample of pulsating cluster members is supplemented by one multimode slowly pulsating B-type star and several single-mode candidates of this type. The other pulsating stars in our sample are mostly field stars. In particular, we found fourteen δ Sct stars including one γ Dor/δ Sct hybrid pulsator. From our UBV photometry we derived new parameters of Stock 14: the mean reddening E(B-V)=0.21±0.02 mag, the true distance modulus, 11.90±0.05 mag, and the age, 20±10 Myr. Finally, we use the new photometry to analyze changes of the 6.322-d orbital period of the bright eclipsing binary and the member of the cluster, V346 Cen. In addition to the known apsidal motion, we find that another effect, possibly light-time effect in a hierarchical system of a very long orbital period, affects these changes. The updated value of the period of apsidal motion for this system amounts to 306±4 yr. The open cluster Stock 14 was found to be a fairly good candidate for successful ensemble asteroseismology.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic open clusters in RAVE (Conrad+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, C.; Scholz, R.-D.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Piskunov, A. E.; Schilbach, E.; Roser, S.; Boeche, C.; Kordopatis, G.; Siebert, A.; Williams, M.; Munari, U.; Matijevic, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Zwitter, T.; de Jong, R. S.; Steinmetz, M.; Gilmore, G.; Seabroke, G.; Freeman, K.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q.; Reid, W.; Watson, F.; Gibson, B. K.; Bienayme, O.; Wyse, R.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Siviero, A.

    2014-01-01

    The presented tables summarise new radial velocities and average metallicities for Galactic open clusters extracted from the Catalogue of Open Cluster Data (COCD; Kharchenko et al. 2005, Cat. J/A+A/438/1163, J/A+A/440/403). The data were obtained from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE; Kordopatis et al. 2013AJ....146..134K) through a cross match with the stellar catalogues related to the COCD. The RV and [M/H] values were computed as weighted means, considering the individual uncertainties of the included members and their cluster membership probability based on position, proper motion, and photometry. The three uncertainties listed originate from different calculations: "RVRAVE" and "MetRAVE" are the weighted mean values for RV and [M/H] "errRV" and "errMet" are equivalent to the uncertainty of the mean values "sigRV" and "sigMet" are the standard deviations of the mean values "eRV" and "eMet" weighted mean values of the individual uncertainties of the included open cluster (OC) members For the calculations we primarily considered most probable OC members (best members) with a membership probability of at least 61%. Only in cases where just one or no most probable members was available we also included possible members (good members) with membership probabilities above 14%. In the table we include the numbers for both types of members separately: best members -> "bmem" and good members -> "gmem". We included reference values for RVs from the second version of the Catalogue of Radial Velocities with Astrometric Data (CRVAD-2) and the Catalogue of Radial Velocities of Open Clusters and Associations (CRVOCA) provided by Kharchenko et al. 2007, Cat. III/254). The CRVAD-2 reference values were computed according to the RAVE values for identified OC members. The CRVOCA references were directly extracted from the catalogue and number of OC members used are given in column "nmem". The reference values for [M/H] were obtained from the online compilation provided by Dias

  3. Be Stars and Physical Properties of the Young Open Cluster NGC 6834

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, G. J.; Grebel, E. K.; Yoss, K. M.

    1996-12-01

    We present initial results for the young open cluster NGC 6834 obtained with the 1-m telescope at Mount Laguna Observatory. We observed this cluster as part of a CCD-photometric survey for Be stars using B,V filters and two narrow-band interference filters at Hα and Hα continuum. Through a census of Be stars in clusters, where stars are coeval, equidistant, have the same metallicities, and share a common origin, we hope to gain a better understanding of the properties and origins of the still enigmatic Be phenomenon. Our B,V color-magnitude diagram of NGC 6834 shows an extended blue main sequence widened at fainter magnitudes by field star contamination. Fitting Geneva isochrones with solar metallicity to the cluster population, we find an age of ~ 50 Myr, a mean reddening of E(B-V)~ 0.7 mag, and a distance modulus of 12.2 mag (i.e. a distance of ~ 2750 pc). Our data reach roughly 4 magnitudes fainter in V than previous photographic or photoelectric studies. For the detection of Be stars, we use a two-color diagram. The most prominent feature distinguishing Be stars from B stars is their Balmer emission. The (Hα \\ continuum - Hα ) index allows us to find stars bright in Hα . The (B-V) color index serves to distinguish blue stars from red giants and red supergiants, which also may exhibit Hα emission. We find six Be star candidates in NGC 6834, that stand out clearly through their enhanced Balmer emission. Only one was known previously in this cluster. The brightness in Hα is well-correlated with reddened (B-V) colors. The relatively small number of Be stars in NGC 6834 is consistent with the young age of the cluster and the spectral type (B5) at the main-sequence turnoff.

  4. The Enigma of the Open Cluster M29 (NGC 6913) Solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straižys, V.; Milašius, K.; Boyle, R. P.; Vrba, F. J.; Munari, U.; Walborn, N. R.; Černis, K.; Kazlauskas, A.; Zdanavičius, K.; Janusz, R.; Zdanavičius, J.; Laugalys, V.

    2014-11-01

    Determining the distance to the open cluster M29 (NGC 6913) has proven difficult, with distances determined by various authors differing by a factor of two or more. To solve this problem, we have initiated a new photometric investigation of the cluster in the Vilnius seven-color photometric system, supplementing it with available data in the BV and JHK s photometric systems and spectra of the nine brightest stars of spectral classes O and B. Photometric spectral classes and luminosities of 260 stars in a 15' × 15' area down to V = 19 mag are used to investigate the interstellar extinction run with distance and to estimate the distance of the Great Cygnus Rift, ~ 800 pc. The interstellar reddening law in the optical and near-infrared regions is found to be close to normal, with the ratio of extinction to color excess RBV = 2.87. The extinction AV of cluster members is between 2.5 and 3.8 mag, with a mean value of 2.97 mag, or E B - V = 1.03. The average distance of eight stars of spectral types O9-B2 is 1.54 ± 0.15 kpc. Two stars from the seven brightest stars are field stars: HDE 229238 is a background B0.5 supergiant and HD 194378 is a foreground F star. In the intrinsic color-magnitude diagram, seven fainter stars of spectral classes B3-B8 are identified as possible members of the cluster. The 15 selected members of the cluster of spectral classes O9-B8 plotted on the log L/L ⊙ versus log T eff diagram, together with the isochrones from the Padova database, give the age of the cluster as 5 ± 1 Myr.

  5. A uvbyCaHβ analysis of the old open cluster, NGC 6819

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Twarog, Bruce A.; Deliyannis, Constantine P. E-mail: btwarog@ku.edu

    2014-09-01

    NGC 6819 is a richly populated, older open cluster situated within the Kepler field. A CCD survey of the cluster on the uvbyCaHβ system, coupled with proper-motion membership, has been used to isolate 382 highly probable, single-star unevolved main-sequence members over a 20' field centered on the cluster. From 278 F dwarfs with high precision photometry in all indices, a mean reddening of E(b – y) = 0.117 ± 0.005 or E(B – V) = 0.160 ± 0.007 is derived, where the standard errors of the mean include both internal errors and the photometric zero-point uncertainty. With the reddening fixed, the metallicity derived from the same 278 stars is [Fe/H] = –0.116 ± 0.101 from m {sub 1} and –0.055 ± 0.033 from hk, for a weighted average of [Fe/H] = –0.06 ± 0.04, where the quoted standard errors of the mean include the internal errors from the photometric scatter plus the uncertainty in the photometric zero points. If metallicity is derived using individual reddening values for each star to account for potential reddening variation across the face of the cluster, the analogous result is unchanged. The cluster members at the turnoff of the color-magnitude diagram are used to test and confirm the recently discovered variation in reddening across the face of the cluster, with a probable range in the variation of ΔE(B – V) = 0.045 ± 0.015. With the slightly higher reddening and lower [Fe/H] compared to commonly adopted values, isochrone fitting leads to an age of 2.3 ± 0.2 Gyr for an apparent modulus of (m – M) = 12.40 ± 0.12.

  6. Radial Velocities and Kinematic Membership in the Open Cluster NGC 3114

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Jorge Federico; Lapasset, Emilio

    2001-05-01

    Echelle spectroscopic observations for 30 bright stars in the field of the sparse open cluster NGC 3114 are presented. The sample includes main-sequence stars, yellow and red giants, and blue straggler candidates. Radial velocities are derived by cross-correlations using high signal-to-noise ratio standard spectra as templates. The cluster mean velocity is well defined from eight giants and several main-sequence stars whose average is =-3.52+/-0.25 km s-1. The membership probabilities of the observed stars are computed on the basis of the velocity distributions of the cluster and field stars, and the expected percentage of contamination at each position. We classified 19 cluster members and 10 nonmembers; the remaining star is a known spectroscopic binary for which no membership probability was assigned. Among the members, there is a bright yellow giant, seven red giants, and four blue straggler candidates, although they should be considered as turn-off stars. The location of two of them in the color-magnitude diagram (slightly blueward of the turn-off) can be explained by their low rotational velocities. No velocity variations were detected in the 16 stars measured more than once, which indicates that NGC 3114 possess an abnormally low binary frequency. From spectral types of cluster members, a distance modulus (V-Mv)=9.8+/-0.2 mag and a reddening E(B-V)=0.07+/-0.01 mag are derived. The cluster age is estimated to be 1.6×108 yr. The observations presented here were obtained at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET) and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan.

  7. The enigma of the open cluster M29 (NGC 6913) solved

    SciTech Connect

    Straižys, V.; Milašius, K.; Černis, K.; Kazlauskas, A.; Zdanavičius, K.; Zdanavičius, J.; Laugalys, V.; Boyle, R. P.; Vrba, F. J.; Munari, U.; Walborn, N. R.; Janusz, R.

    2014-11-01

    Determining the distance to the open cluster M29 (NGC 6913) has proven difficult, with distances determined by various authors differing by a factor of two or more. To solve this problem, we have initiated a new photometric investigation of the cluster in the Vilnius seven-color photometric system, supplementing it with available data in the BV and JHK {sub s} photometric systems and spectra of the nine brightest stars of spectral classes O and B. Photometric spectral classes and luminosities of 260 stars in a 15' × 15' area down to V = 19 mag are used to investigate the interstellar extinction run with distance and to estimate the distance of the Great Cygnus Rift, ∼ 800 pc. The interstellar reddening law in the optical and near-infrared regions is found to be close to normal, with the ratio of extinction to color excess R{sub BV} = 2.87. The extinction A{sub V} of cluster members is between 2.5 and 3.8 mag, with a mean value of 2.97 mag, or E {sub B–V} = 1.03. The average distance of eight stars of spectral types O9-B2 is 1.54 ± 0.15 kpc. Two stars from the seven brightest stars are field stars: HDE 229238 is a background B0.5 supergiant and HD 194378 is a foreground F star. In the intrinsic color-magnitude diagram, seven fainter stars of spectral classes B3-B8 are identified as possible members of the cluster. The 15 selected members of the cluster of spectral classes O9-B8 plotted on the log L/L {sub ☉} versus log T {sub eff} diagram, together with the isochrones from the Padova database, give the age of the cluster as 5 ± 1 Myr.

  8. Membership and Coronal Activity in the NGC 2232 and Cr 140 Open Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patten, Brian M.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This is the second annual performance report for our grant "Membership and Coronal Activity in the NGC 2232 and Cr 140 Open Clusters." We propose to identify X-ray sources and extract net source counts in 8 archival ROSAT HRI images in the regions of the NGC 2232 and Cr 140 open clusters. These X-ray data will be combined with ground-based photometry and spectroscopy in order to identify G, K, and early-M type cluster members. At present, no members later than approximately F5 are currently known for either cluster. With ages of approximately 25 Myr and at a distance of just 320 - 360 pc, the combined late-type membership of the NGC 2232 and Cr 140 clusters will yield an almost unique sample of solar-type stars in the post-T Tauri/pre-main sequence phase of evolution. These stars will be used to assess the level and dispersion in coronal activity levels, as part of a probe of the importance of magnetic braking and the level of magnetic dynamo activity, for solar-type stars just before they reach the ZAMS. Over the past year we have successfully acquired all of the ground-based data necessary to support the analysis of the archival ROSAT X-ray data in the regions around both of these clusters. By the end of 2001 we expect to have completed the reduction and analysis of the ground-based photometry and spectroscopy and will begin the integration of these data with the ROSAT X-ray data. A certain amount of pressure to complete the work on NGC 2232 is coming from the SIRTF project, as this cluster may be a key component to a circumstellar disk evolution GTO program. We are only too happy to try to help and have worked to speed the analysis as much as possible. The primary activity to be undertaken in the next few months is the integration of the groundbased photometry and spectroscopy with the archival ROSAT X-ray data and then writing the paper summarizing our results. The most time consuming portion of this next phase is, of course, seeing the paper through

  9. Protoplanetary and Transitional Disks in the Open Stellar Cluster IC 2395

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balog, Zoltan; Siegler, Nick; Rieke, G. H.; Kiss, L. L.; Muzerolle, James; Gutermuth, R. A.; Bell, Cameron P. M.; Vinkó, J.; Su, K. Y. L.; Young, E. T.; Gáspár, András

    2016-11-01

    We present new deep UBVRI images and high-resolution multi-object optical spectroscopy of the young (˜6-10 Myr old), relatively nearby (800 pc) open cluster IC 2395. We identify nearly 300 cluster members and use the photometry to estimate their spectral types, which extend from early B to middle M. We also present an infrared imaging survey of the central region using the IRAC and MIPS instruments on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, covering the wavelength range from 3.6 to 24 μm. Our infrared observations allow us to detect dust in circumstellar disks originating over a typical range of radii from ˜0.1 to ˜10 au from the central star. We identify 18 Class II, 8 transitional disk, and 23 debris disk candidates, respectively, 6.5%, 2.9%, and 8.3% of the cluster members with appropriate data. We apply the same criteria for transitional disk identification to 19 other stellar clusters and associations spanning ages from ˜1 to ˜18 Myr. We find that the number of disks in the transitional phase as a fraction of the total with strong 24 μm excesses ([8] - [24] ≥ 1.5) increases from (8.4 ± 1.3)% at ˜3 Myr to (46 ± 5)% at ˜10 Myr. Alternative definitions of transitional disks will yield different percentages but should show the same trend.

  10. A study of variable stars in the open cluster NGC 1582 and its surrounding field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Fang-Fang; Esamdin, Ali; Ma, Lu; Liu, Jin-Zhong; Zhang, Yu; Niu, Hu-Biao; Yang, Tao-Zhi

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents Charge-Coupled Device time-series photometric observations of the open cluster NGC 1582 and its surrounding field with Johnson B, V and R filters by using the Nanshan 1 m telescope administered by Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory. 19 variable stars and three variable candidates were detected in a 45‧ × 48.75‧ field around the cluster. 12 of the variable stars are newly-discovered variable objects. The physical properties, classifications and memberships of these 22 objects are studied through their light curves, their positions on the color-magnitude diagram and with archival data from the Naval Observatory Merged Astrometric Dataset. Among these objects, five are eclipsing binary systems, six are pulsating variable stars including one known δ Scuti star and one newly-discovered RR Lyrae star. The distance to the RR Lyrae star is estimated to be 7.9 ± 0.3 kpc, indicating that the star is located far behind the cluster. Four variable stars are probable members of the cluster, and 13 of the 22 objects are confirmed to be field stars.

  11. Ruprecht 147: The Oldest Nearby Open Cluster as a New Benchmark for Stellar Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Jason L.; Wolfgang, Angie; Wright, Jason T.; Brewer, John M.; Johnson, John Asher

    2013-05-01

    Ruprecht 147 is a hitherto unappreciated open cluster that holds great promise as a standard in fundamental stellar astrophysics. We have conducted a radial velocity survey of astrometric candidates with Lick, Palomar, and MMT observatories and have identified over 100 members, including 5 blue stragglers, 11 red giants, and 5 double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2s). We estimate the cluster metallicity from spectroscopic analysis, using Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME), and find it to be [M/H] = +0.07 ± 0.03. We have obtained deep CFHT/MegaCam g'r'i'z' photometry and fit Padova isochrones to the (g' - i') and Two Micron All Sky Survey (J - KS ) color-magnitude diagrams, using the τ2 maximum-likelihood procedure of Naylor, and an alternative method using two-dimensional cross-correlations developed in this work. We find best fits for Padova isochrones at age t = 2.5 ± 0.25 Gyr, m - M = 7.35 ± 0.1, and AV = 0.25 ± 0.05, with additional uncertainty from the unresolved binary population and possibility of differential extinction across this large cluster. The inferred age is heavily dependent on our choice of stellar evolution model: fitting Dartmouth and PARSEC models yield age parameters of 3 Gyr and 3.25 Gyr, respectively. At ~300 pc and ~3 Gyr, Ruprecht 147 is by far the oldest nearby star cluster.

  12. The Internal Proper Motions of Stars in the Open Cluster M35

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Bernard J.; Harrison, Thomas E.; McArthur, Barbara E.; Benedict, G. Fritz

    2011-08-01

    Relative proper motions, based on 108 orbits of Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor data extending from 1992 to 2006, are reported for 74 stars in the open cluster M35 (NGC 2168). A subset of 22 of these objects are then used to compute the cluster's internal proper motion dispersions in both right ascension and declination. We find that these dispersions are equal to within their measurement errors. The average one-dimensional dispersion is 0.018 ± 0.002 arcsec century-1. When combined with the M35 radial velocity dispersion of 0.65 ± 0.10 km s-1 found by Geller et al., this produces a cluster distance of 762 ± 145 pc. Using isochrone fits to the cluster main sequence, this distance suggests that M35 has an age of about 133 Myr. Although this age is consistent with that typically found for M35, the formal error in the dynamical distance of ±19% can accommodate ages between 65 Myr and 201 Myr.

  13. RUPRECHT 147: THE OLDEST NEARBY OPEN CLUSTER AS A NEW BENCHMARK FOR STELLAR ASTROPHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Jason L.; Wright, Jason T.; Wolfgang, Angie; Brewer, John M.; Johnson, John Asher

    2013-05-15

    Ruprecht 147 is a hitherto unappreciated open cluster that holds great promise as a standard in fundamental stellar astrophysics. We have conducted a radial velocity survey of astrometric candidates with Lick, Palomar, and MMT observatories and have identified over 100 members, including 5 blue stragglers, 11 red giants, and 5 double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2s). We estimate the cluster metallicity from spectroscopic analysis, using Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME), and find it to be [M/H] = +0.07 {+-} 0.03. We have obtained deep CFHT/MegaCam g'r'i'z' photometry and fit Padova isochrones to the (g' - i') and Two Micron All Sky Survey (J - K{sub S} ) color-magnitude diagrams, using the {tau}{sup 2} maximum-likelihood procedure of Naylor, and an alternative method using two-dimensional cross-correlations developed in this work. We find best fits for Padova isochrones at age t = 2.5 {+-} 0.25 Gyr, m - M = 7.35 {+-} 0.1, and A{sub V} = 0.25 {+-} 0.05, with additional uncertainty from the unresolved binary population and possibility of differential extinction across this large cluster. The inferred age is heavily dependent on our choice of stellar evolution model: fitting Dartmouth and PARSEC models yield age parameters of 3 Gyr and 3.25 Gyr, respectively. At {approx}300 pc and {approx}3 Gyr, Ruprecht 147 is by far the oldest nearby star cluster.

  14. UBVI CCD Photometry of the Open Clusters NGC 4609 and Hogg 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kook, Seung-Hwa; Sung, Hwankyung; Bessell, M. S.

    2010-10-01

    {UBVI CCD photometry is obtained for the open clusters NGC 4609 and Hogg 15 in Crux. For NGC 4609, CCD data are presented for the first time. From new photometry we derive the reddening, distance modulus and age of each cluster - NGC 4609 : E(B-V) = 0.37 ± 0.03, V_0 - M_V = 10.60 ± 0.08, log τ= 7.7 ± 0.1; Hogg 15 : E(B-V) = 1.13 ± 0.11, V_0 - M_V = 12.50 ± 0.15, log τ ≲ 6.6. The young age of Hogg 15 strongly implies that WR 47 is a member of the cluster. We also determine the mass function of these clusters and obtain a slope Γ = -1.2 (± 0.3) for NGC 4609 which is normal and a somewhat shallow slope (Γ = -0.95 ± 0.5) for Hogg 15.

  15. Iron Abundances and Atmospheric Parameters of Red Giants in the Open Cluster IC 4756

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Julie O.

    Three red giants were investigated within the open cluster IC 4756 using observations taken from the McDonald Observatory's 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope and the Sandiford Cassegrain Echelle Spectrometer (SES). Iron abundances were calculated for each star based on the equivalent widths of Fe I and Fe II lines measured using the line lists of Bubar and King (2010) and Schuler et al. (2005). Also derived were the basic atmospheric parameters: effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and microturbulence. Her 35, Her 85, and Her 249 were found to have corresponding [Fe I/H] of 0.06 +/- 0.04, -0.16 +/- 0.03, and -0.16 +/- 0.06 as derived from the neutral lines. These values, when compared to the results of other studies, suggest that the cluster has an overall metallicity within the solar to subsolar value. This would indicate IC 4756 as a slightly metal-poor object. The star Her 85 is also examined to determine if derived atmospheric parameters support the classification of more recent studies as a nonmember of the cluster. The studies base their decisions on its deviation in radial velocity from the cluster mean. It is concluded that there is little solid evidence to support the dismissal of Her 85 from metallicity studies of IC 4756 and present-day membership and proper motion studies with modern equipment are required to confirm or reject this theory.

  16. THE INTERNAL PROPER MOTIONS OF STARS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER M35

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, Bernard J.; Harrison, Thomas E.; McArthur, Barbara E.; Fritz Benedict, G.

    2011-08-15

    Relative proper motions, based on 108 orbits of Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor data extending from 1992 to 2006, are reported for 74 stars in the open cluster M35 (NGC 2168). A subset of 22 of these objects are then used to compute the cluster's internal proper motion dispersions in both right ascension and declination. We find that these dispersions are equal to within their measurement errors. The average one-dimensional dispersion is 0.018 {+-} 0.002 arcsec century{sup -1}. When combined with the M35 radial velocity dispersion of 0.65 {+-} 0.10 km s{sup -1} found by Geller et al., this produces a cluster distance of 762 {+-} 145 pc. Using isochrone fits to the cluster main sequence, this distance suggests that M35 has an age of about 133 Myr. Although this age is consistent with that typically found for M35, the formal error in the dynamical distance of {+-}19% can accommodate ages between 65 Myr and 201 Myr.

  17. Membership and Coronal Activity in the NGC 2232 and Cr 140 Open Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Patten, Brian M.

    2004-01-01

    Making use of eight archival ROSAT HRI images in the regions of the NGC 2232 and Cr 140, this project's primary focus is to identify X-ray sources and to extract net source counts for these sources in these two open clusters. These X-ray data would be combined with ground-based photometry and spectroscopy in order to identify G, K, and early-M type cluster members. Such membership data are important because, at present, no members later than spectral type approx. F5 are currently known for either cluster. With ages estimated to be approx. 25 Myr and at distances of just approx. 350 pc, the combined late-type membership of the NGC 2232 and Cr 140 clusters would yield an almost unique sample of solar-type stars in the post-T Tauri/pre-main sequence phase of evolution. These stars could be used to assess the level and dispersion of coronal activity levels, as a part of a probe of the importance of magnetic braking and the level of magnetic dynamo activity, for solar-type stars just before they reach the zero-age main sequence.

  18. Characterization of a young open cluster G144.9+0.4 in Cam OB1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Wen-Ping; Panwar, Neelam

    2013-06-01

    Open clusters are good laboratories to study stellar evolution and dynamical interaction among member stars. We are carrying out a program to identify uncharted clusters using sky-survey data. Our preliminary result is finding stellar density enhancement using the 2MASS Point Source Catalog in Galactic latitude |b| < 50 deg. One such density peak (G144.9+0.4), located in the Cam OB1 association, is a young star cluster centered at (ℓ,b) = (144.904,+0.434), first recognized but not well characterized, by Glushkova et al. [8]. We used the PPMXL proper motions to constrain the membership. Our analysis yields a distance of 1.0 kpc. G144.9+0.4 is hence physically related to the Cam OB1 association. Based on the 2MASS and WISE colors, seven classical T-Tauri Star candidates are found within the cluster, though, three of these have proper motions inconsistent with members. One of the kinematic members has been confirmed by spectroscopy to be a CTTS.

  19. Stellar rotation, binarity, and lithium in the open cluster IC 4756

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Weingrill, J.; Granzer, T.; Bihain, G.; Weber, M.; Barnes, S. A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. An important aspect in the evolutionary scenario of cool stars is their rotation and the rotationally induced magnetic activity and interior mixing. Stars in open clusters are particularly useful tracers for these aspects because of their known ages. Aims: We aim to characterize the open cluster IC 4756 and measure stellar rotation periods and surface differential rotation for a sample of its member stars. Methods: Thirty-seven cluster stars were observed continuously with the CoRoT satellite for 78 days in 2010. Follow-up high-resolution spectroscopy of the CoRoT targets and deep Strömgren uvbyβ and Hα photometry of the entire cluster were obtained with our robotic STELLA facility and its echelle spectrograph and wide-field imager, respectively. Results: We determined high-precision photometric periods for 27 of the 37 CoRoT targets and found values between 0.155 and 11.4 days. Twenty of these are rotation periods. Twelve targets are spectroscopic binaries of which 11 were previously unknown; orbits are given for six of them. Six targets were found that show evidence of differential rotation with ΔΩ/Ω in the range 0.04-0.15. Five stars are non-radially pulsating stars with fundamental periods of below 1 d, two stars are semi-contact binaries, and one target is a micro-flaring star that also shows rotational modulation. Nine stars in total were not considered members because of much redder color(s) and deviant radial velocities with respect to the cluster mean. Hα photometry indicates that the cluster ensemble does not contain magnetically over-active stars. The cluster average metallicity is -0.08 ± 0.06 (rms) and its logarithmic lithium abundance for 12 G-dwarf stars is 2.39 ± 0.17 (rms). Conclusions: The cluster is 890 ± 70 Myrs old with an average turn-off mass of 1.8 M⊙ and a solar or slightly subsolar metallicity. The distance modulus is 8m.02 and the average reddening E(b - y) = 0m.16.. The cluster is masked by a very inhomogeneous

  20. Evidence of enhanced formation episodes in the Galactic open cluster system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.

    2010-04-01

    Aims: The exciting debate about the existence of signs of enhanced formation of Galactic open clusters (OCs) is revisited here on the basis of a revised age distribution. Methods: The data were taken from the recently updated 2009 version of the Dias et al.'s 1787 OC catalogue. Results: We found that the present OC's age distribution presents two primary excesses at t ~ 10-15 Myr and 1.5 Gyr, which are signs of enhanced formation episodes similar to those that occurred in other galaxies (e.g., M 51, NGC 1705). When restricting the OC sample to those located in the solar neighbourhood, with the aim of avoiding incompleteness effects, we also find that these clusters are engraved with clear signs of enhanced formation at both ages.

  1. The Role of Collybistin in Gephyrin Clustering at Inhibitory Synapses: Facts and Open Questions

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Soykan, Tolga

    2011-01-01

    Collybistin (Cb) is a brain-specific GDP/GTP-exchange factor, which interacts with the inhibitory receptor anchoring protein gephyrin. Data from mice carrying an inactivated Cb gene indicate that Cb is required for the formation and maintenance of gephyrin and gephyrin-dependent GABAA receptor (GABAAR) clusters at inhibitory postsynapses in selected regions of the mammalian forebrain. However, important aspects of how Cb’s GDP/GTP-exchange activity, structure, and regulation contribute to gephyrin and GABAAR clustering, as well as its role in synaptic plasticity, remain poorly understood. Here we review the current state of knowledge about Cb’s function and address open questions concerning its contribution to synapse formation, maintenance, plasticity, and adaptive changes in response to altered network activity. PMID:21738498

  2. Is the Hogg 12-NGC 3590 pair a new open cluster binary system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Ahumada, A. V.

    Based on CCD UBVI_(KC) images obtained at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO, Chile) and on morphological criteria, as well as on the stellar density in the region, we confirm that Hogg 12 is a genuine open cluster (OC) separated in the sky from NGC 3590 by scarcely 3.6 pc. The colour-magnitude diagrams of Hogg 12, cleaned from field star contamina- tion, reveal that this is a solar metal content cluster, affected by E(B-V) = 0.40 ± 0.05, located at a heliocentric distance d = 2.0 ± 0.5 kpc, and of an age similar to that of NGC 3590. Evidence that these two objects form an OC binary system is presented. A detailed version of this work can be seen in PASP, 122, 516 (2010).

  3. Interpreting the colour-magnitude diagrams of open star clusters through numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalirai, Jasonjot Singh; Tosi, Monica

    2004-06-01

    We present detailed comparisons between high quality observational colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of open star clusters and synthetic CMDs based on Monte Carlo numerical simulations. The comparisons account for all of the main parameters which determine the shape of the CMD for a stellar population. For the four clusters studied, NGC 6819, 2099 (M37), 2168 (M35) and 2323 (M50), we derive reddening, distance, age, binary fraction, star formation rate and indicative metallicity by comparing the locations and density of points in the observed CMDs to the simulated CMDs. We estimate the uncertainties related to stellar evolution theories by adopting various sets of stellar models for all of the synthetic CMDs and discuss which stellar models provide the theoretical CMDs that best reproduce the observations.

  4. Pulsation of Pre-Main Sequence Stars in Young Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwintz, Konstanze; Weiss, Werner W.

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this proposal is to determine observationally the parameter space of the pre-main sequence instability strip. For that purpose we intend to obtain photometric timeseries with high time resolution and low noise level of the stars in young open clusters (IC 4996, NGC 6910 and NGC 6383) and to identify pre-main sequence pulsators. Several cluster members have the spectral types of interest (A-F) and lie between the birthline and the zero-age main sequence. Up to now the number of pre-main sequence pulsators is absolutely inadequate to determine reliably the hot and cool border of the according instability region. Its definition is indispensable for a better understanding of the internal structure and evolution of such stars.

  5. New Wolf-Rayet stars in Galactic open clusters - Sher 1 and the giant H II region core Westerlund 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Shara, Michael M.; Potter, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Two new Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars were found in open clusters: a WN4 star in the O9 cluster Sher 1 and a WN7 star in the O7 cluster Westerlund 2. This confirms a previous trend, namely that fainter, hotter WN stars tend to be older than brighter, cooler WN stars. This may be a consequence of evolution via extreme mass loss.

  6. New Wolf-Rayet stars in Galactic open clusters - Sher 1 and the giant H II region core Westerlund 2

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, A.F.J.; Shara, M.M.; Potter, M. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD )

    1991-08-01

    Two new Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars were found in open clusters: a WN4 star in the O9 cluster Sher 1 and a WN7 star in the O7 cluster Westerlund 2. This confirms a previous trend, namely that fainter, hotter WN stars tend to be older than brighter, cooler WN stars. This may be a consequence of evolution via extreme mass loss. 18 refs.

  7. On the assessment of the nature of open star clusters and the determination of their basic parameters with limited data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, Giovanni; Baume, Gustavo; Seleznev, Anton F.; Costa, Edgardo

    2017-07-01

    Our knowledge of stellar evolution and of the structure and chemical evolution of the Galactic disk largely builds on the study of open star clusters. Because of their crucial role in these relevant topics, large homogeneous catalogues of open cluster parameters are highly desirable. Although efforts have been made to develop automatic tools to analyse large numbers of clusters, the results obtained so far vary from study to study, and sometimes are very contradictory when compared to dedicated studies of individual clusters. In this work we highlight the common causes of these discrepancies for some open clusters, and show that at present dedicated studies yield a much better assessment of the nature of star clusters, even in the absence of ideal data-sets. We make use of deep, wide-field, multi-colour photometry to discuss the nature of six strategically selected open star clusters: Trumpler 22, Lynga 6, Hogg 19, Hogg 21, Pismis 10 and Pismis 14. We have precisely derived their basic parameters by means of a combination of star counts and photometric diagrams. Trumpler 22 and Lynga 6 are included in our study because they are widely known, and thus provided a check of our data and methodology. The remaining four clusters are very poorly known, and their available parameters have been obtained using automatic tools only. Our results are in some cases in severe disagreement with those from automatic surveys.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: On the metallicity of open clusters. III. (Netopil+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netopil, M.; Paunzen, E.; Heiter, U.; Soubiran, C.

    2016-03-01

    In Paper II (Heiter et al., Paper II 2014A&A...561A..93H) we have evaluated available spectroscopic iron abundance determinations of open cluster stars and presented mean values for 78 open clusters. The results are based on high-resolution data (R>=25000) with high signal-to-noise ratios (S/N>=50). Furthermore, quality criteria were introduced by adopting only [Fe/H] measurements of stars with Teff=4400-6500K and logg>=2.0dex. We have to note that the mean iron abundance for Berkeley 29, listed in Paper II, also incorporates some measurements based upon lower S/N data. In the present paper we therefore list the correct values for the higher and lower quality data. Since publication of Paper II, some new studies were made (Boesgaard et al., 2013ApJ...775...58B; Bocek Topcu et al., 2015, Cat. J/MNRAS/446/3562; Carraro et al., 2014A&A...568A..86C; Donati et al., 2015, Cat. J/MNRAS/446/1411; Magrini et al.. 2014A&A...563A..44M, 2015A&A...580A..85M; Molenda-Zakowicz et al., 2014MNRAS.445.2446M; Monaco et al., 2014A&A...564L...6M; Reddy et al., 2015MNRAS.450.4301R), which we examined the same way as described in Paper II. This adds ten open clusters to our list (Berkeley 81, NGC 1342, NGC 1662, NGC 1912, NGC 2354, NGC 4337, NGC 4815, NGC 6811, Trumpler 5, and Trumpler 20) and supplementary data for NGC 752, NGC 2447, NGC 2632, and NGC 6705. (1 data file).

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WIYN open cluster study. LV. NGC 6819 (Platais+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platais, I.; Gosnell, N. M.; Meibom, S.; Kozhurina-Platais, V.; Bellini, A.; Veillet, C.; Burkhead, M. S.

    2014-06-01

    As part of the WIYN Open Cluster Study (WOCS; Mathieu, 2000ASPC..198..517M), we initiated a proper motion study of NGC 6819 based upon the new measurements of archival long-focus photographic plates in combination with recent CCD observations. A total of 30 scanned photographic plates are available for NGC 6819. However, only 23 of them are adequate for the purpose of astrometry. The plates are taken with the McDonald 82inch, the Yale 1m, the Hale 5m, the Mt. Wilson 60inch, and the CFHT 3.6m (Table1). (3 data files).

  10. CCD by Photometry of the Old Rich Open Cluster KING:2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, A.; Bertelli, G.; Chiosi, C.; Garcia-Pelayo, J. M.

    1990-07-01

    We present preliminary results of CCD BV photometry of the old open cluster King 2. The values obtained for the main parameters are:E(B-V)=0.31, (m-M)0=13.78, metal content approximately solar, and age 6×109 yr. From the comparison with synthetic colour-mgnitude diagrams generated by models with overshoot we try to answer the question whether or not convective elements generated in the core can penetrate into the surrounding stable zone (separated by a discontinuity of molecular weight).

  11. New β Cephei variable in the Southern open cluster NGC 6200: ALS 3728

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulusoy, C.; Niemczura, E.; Ulaş, B.; Gülmez, T.

    2013-10-01

    We report the evidence of a new β Cephei type variable located in the Southern open cluster NGC 6200: ALS 3728. Spectroscopic and photometric observations of NGC 6200 stars were carried out at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in 2011. It was found that ALS 3728 has a frequency of about 4.95 d-1 with highest amplitude. The star also shows a remarkable stillstand phase just before its light maxima which is a typical characteristic occurring among these type of stars. Furthermore, a mode identification is applied for the dominant frequency calculated from the Fourier analysis.

  12. Search for variable stars in the young open cluster Stock 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Tirthendu; Sharma, Saurabh; Pandey, Rakesh; Pandey, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    We have carried out multi-epoch deep I band photometry of the open cluster Stock 18 to search for variable stars in star forming regions. In the present study, we report identification of 28 periodic and 165 non-periodic variables stars. The periods of most of the periodic variables are in between 2 to 20 hours and their magnitude varies between 0.05 to 0.6 mag. We have derived spectral energy distributions for 48 probable pre-main sequence variables and the average age and mass is found to be 2.7 ± 0.3 Myrs and 2.7 ± 0.2 M⊙, respectively.

  13. Pushing up the size limit of chalcogenide supertetrahedral clusters: two- and three-dimensional photoluminescent open frameworks from (Cu(5)In(30)S(54))(13-) clusters.

    PubMed

    Bu, Xianhui; Zheng, Nanfeng; Li, Yuqi; Feng, Pingyun

    2002-10-30

    Direct band gap copper indium chalcogenides are of great technological importance in part because of their high photovoltaic conversion efficiency. Covalent superlattices constructed from copper indium chalcogenide clusters are of particular interest because they may combine open framework architecture with semiconducting properties. Here two photoluminescent covalent superlattices built from core-shell type copper indium sulfide supertetrahedral clusters are reported. Each cluster consists of 35 metal cations and is so far the largest known supertetrahedral cluster with a metal-to-metal distance of 1.6 nm. In addition, this is the first example of supertetrahedral clusters in heterometallic copper indium chalcogenides. The preparation of these large clusters has narrowed down the size gap between colloidal nanoclusters and small supertetrahedral clusters and revealed new possibilities in the construction of nanoporous semiconducting superlattices with tunable pore size. Through the combination of metal ions with different oxidation states to provide both overall and local charge neutrality, an effective approach has been demonstrated in the rational synthesis of chalcogenide open framework materials with large and unprecedented supertetrahedral clusters.

  14. Evidence of tidal distortions and mass-loss from the old open cluster NGC 6791

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalessandro, E.; Miocchi, P.; Carraro, G.; Jílková, L.; Moitinho, A.

    2015-05-01

    We present the first evidence of clear signatures of tidal distortions in the density distribution of the fascinating open cluster NGC 6791. We used deep and wide-field data obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope covering a 2° × 2° area around the cluster. The 2D density map obtained with the optimal matched filter technique shows a clear elongation and an irregular distribution starting from ˜300 arcsec from the cluster centre. At larger distances, two tails extending in opposite directions beyond the tidal radius are also visible. These features are aligned to both the absolute proper motion and to the Galactic Centre directions. Moreover, other overdensities appear to be stretched in a direction perpendicular to the Galactic plane. Accordingly to the behaviour observed in the density map, we find that both the surface brightness and the star count density profiles reveal a departure from a King model starting from ˜600 arcsec from the centre. These observational evidence suggest that NGC 6791 is currently experiencing mass-loss likely due to gravitational shocking and interactions with the tidal field. We use this evidence to argue that NGC 6791 should have lost a significant fraction of its original mass. A larger initial mass would in fact explain why the cluster survived so long. Using available recipes based on analytic studies and N-body simulations, we derived the expected mass-loss due to stellar evolution and tidal interactions and estimated the initial cluster mass to be Mini = (1.5-4) × 105 M⊙.

  15. Proper motions and CCD photometry of stars in the region of the open cluster NGC 6866

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, V. N.; Ananjevskaja, Yu. K.; Gorshanov, D. L.; Polyakov, E. V.

    2010-05-01

    We present the results of our comprehensive study of the Galactic open star cluster NGC 6866. The positions of stars in the investigated region have been obtained with the “Fantasy” automatic measuring machine from 10 plates of the normal astrograph at the Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory. The size of the investigated field is 40' × 40', the limiting magnitude is B ˜ 16{·/ m }6, and the maximum epoch difference is 79 yr. For 1202 field stars, we have determined the relative proper motions with an rms error of 2.5 mas yr-1. Out of them, 423 stars may be considered cluster members with a probability P > 70% according to the astrometric criterion. Photometric diagrams have been used as an additional criterion. We have performed two-color BV CCD photometry of stars with the Pulkovo ZA-320M mirror astrograph. The U magnitudes from the literature have also been used to construct the two-color diagrams. A total of 267 stars have turned out to be members of NGC 6866 according to the two criteria. We present refined physical parameters of the cluster and its age estimate (5.6 × 108 yr). The cluster membership of red and blue giants, variable, double, and multiple stars is considered. We have found an almost complete coincidence of the positions of one of the stars in the region (a cluster nonmember) and a soft X-ray source in the ROSAT catalog. The “Fantasy” automatic measuring machine is described in the Appendix.

  16. NGC 6067: a young and massive open cluster with high metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Santiago, J.; Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; Tabernero, H. M.; González-Fernández, C.; Castro, N.

    2017-08-01

    NGC 6067 is a young open cluster hosting the largest population of evolved stars among known Milky Way clusters in the 50-150 Ma age range. It thus represents the best laboratory in our Galaxy to constrain the evolutionary tracks of 5-7 M⊙ stars. We have used high-resolution spectra of a large sample of bright cluster members (45), combined with archival photometry, to obtain accurate parameters for the cluster as well as stellar atmospheric parameters. We derive a distance of 1.78 ± 0.12 kpc, an age of 90 ± 20 Ma and a tidal radius of 14.8^{+6.8}_{-3.2} arcmin. We estimate an initial mass above 5700 M⊙, for a present-day evolved population of two Cepheids, two A supergiants and 12 red giants with masses ≈6 M⊙. We also determine chemical abundances of Li, O, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Ni, Rb, Y and Ba for the red clump stars. We find a supersolar metallicity, [Fe/H] = +0.19 ± 0.05, and a homogeneous chemical composition, consistent with the Galactic metallicity gradient. The presence of a Li-rich red giant, star 276 with A(Li) = 2.41, is also detected. An overabundance of Ba is found, supporting the enhanced s-process. The ratio of yellow to red giants is much smaller than 1, in agreement with models with moderate overshooting, but the properties of the cluster Cepheids do not seem consistent with current Padova models for supersolar metallicity.

  17. Chemical Abundances in a Sample of Red Giants in the Open Cluster NGC 2420 from APOGEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souto, Diogo; Cunha, K.; Smith, V.; Allende Prieto, C.; Pinsonneault, M.; Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Mészáros, Sz.; Bovy, J.; García Pérez, A. E.; Anders, F.; Bizyaev, D.; Carrera, R.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Holtzman, J.; Ivans, I.; Majewski, S. R.; Shetrone, M.; Sobeck, J.; Pan, K.; Tang, B.; Villanova, S.; Geisler, D.

    2016-10-01

    NGC 2420 is a ˜2 Gyr old well-populated open cluster that lies about 2 kpc beyond the solar circle, in the general direction of the Galactic anti-center. Most previous abundance studies have found this cluster to be mildly metal-poor, but with a large scatter in the obtained metallicities. Detailed chemical abundance distributions are derived for 12 red-giant members of NGC 2420 via a manual abundance analysis of high-resolution (R = 22,500) near-infrared (λ1.5-1.7 μm) spectra obtained from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey. The sample analyzed contains six stars that are identified as members of the first-ascent red giant branch (RGB), as well as six members of the red clump (RC). We find small scatter in the star-to-star abundances in NGC 2420, with a mean cluster abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.16 ± 0.04 for the 12 red giants. The internal abundance dispersion for all elements (C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni) is also very small (˜0.03-0.06 dex), indicating a uniform cluster abundance distribution within the uncertainties. NGC 2420 is one of the clusters used to calibrate the APOGEE Stellar Parameter and Chemical Abundance Pipeline (ASPCAP). The results from this manual analysis compare well with ASPCAP abundances for most of the elements studied, although for Na, Al, and V there are more significant offsets. No evidence of extra-mixing at the RGB luminosity bump is found in the 12C and 14N abundances from the pre-luminosity-bump RGB stars in comparison to the post-He core-flash RC stars.

  18. Ab initio Bogoliubov coupled cluster theory for open-shell nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Signoracci, Angelo J.; Duguet, Thomas; Hagen, Gaute; Jansen, G. R.

    2015-06-29

    Background: Ab initio many-body methods have been developed over the past 10 yr to address closed-shell nuclei up to mass A≈130 on the basis of realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions. A current frontier relates to the extension of those many-body methods to the description of open-shell nuclei. Several routes to address open-shell nuclei are currently under investigation, including ideas that exploit spontaneous symmetry breaking. Purpose: Singly open-shell nuclei can be efficiently described via the sole breaking of U(1) gauge symmetry associated with particle-number conservation as a way to account for their superfluid character. While this route was recently followed within the framework of self-consistent Green's function theory, the goal of the present work is to formulate a similar extension within the framework of coupled cluster theory. Methods: We formulate and apply Bogoliubov coupled cluster (BCC) theory, which consists of representing the exact ground-state wave function of the system as the exponential of a quasiparticle excitation cluster operator acting on a Bogoliubov reference state. Equations for the ground-state energy and the cluster amplitudes are derived at the singles and doubles level (BCCSD) both algebraically and diagrammatically. The formalism includes three-nucleon forces at the normal-ordered two-body level. The first BCC code is implemented in m scheme, which will permit the treatment of doubly open-shell nuclei via the further breaking of SU(2) symmetry associated with angular momentum conservation. Results: Proof-of-principle calculations in an Nmax=6 spherical harmonic oscillator basis for 16,18O and 18Ne in the BCCD approximation are in good agreement with standard coupled cluster results with the same chiral two-nucleon interaction, while 20O and 20Mg display underbinding relative to experiment. The breaking of U(1) symmetry, monitored by computing the variance

  19. Ab initio Bogoliubov coupled cluster theory for open-shell nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signoracci, A.; Duguet, T.; Hagen, G.; Jansen, G. R.

    2015-06-01

    Background: Ab initio many-body methods have been developed over the past 10 yr to address closed-shell nuclei up to mass A ≈130 on the basis of realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions. A current frontier relates to the extension of those many-body methods to the description of open-shell nuclei. Several routes to address open-shell nuclei are currently under investigation, including ideas that exploit spontaneous symmetry breaking. Purpose: Singly open-shell nuclei can be efficiently described via the sole breaking of U(1) gauge symmetry associated with particle-number conservation as a way to account for their superfluid character. While this route was recently followed within the framework of self-consistent Green's function theory, the goal of the present work is to formulate a similar extension within the framework of coupled cluster theory. Methods: We formulate and apply Bogoliubov coupled cluster (BCC) theory, which consists of representing the exact ground-state wave function of the system as the exponential of a quasiparticle excitation cluster operator acting on a Bogoliubov reference state. Equations for the ground-state energy and the cluster amplitudes are derived at the singles and doubles level (BCCSD) both algebraically and diagrammatically. The formalism includes three-nucleon forces at the normal-ordered two-body level. The first BCC code is implemented in m scheme, which will permit the treatment of doubly open-shell nuclei via the further breaking of SU(2) symmetry associated with angular momentum conservation. Results: Proof-of-principle calculations in an Nmax=6 spherical harmonic oscillator basis for O,1816 and 18Ne in the BCCD approximation are in good agreement with standard coupled cluster results with the same chiral two-nucleon interaction, while 20O and 20Mg display underbinding relative to experiment. The breaking of U(1) symmetry, monitored by computing the variance associated with the particle-number operator, is relatively

  20. Ab initio Bogoliubov coupled cluster theory for open-shell nuclei

    DOE PAGES

    Signoracci, Angelo J.; Duguet, Thomas; Hagen, Gaute; ...

    2015-06-29

    Background: Ab initio many-body methods have been developed over the past 10 yr to address closed-shell nuclei up to mass A≈130 on the basis of realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions. A current frontier relates to the extension of those many-body methods to the description of open-shell nuclei. Several routes to address open-shell nuclei are currently under investigation, including ideas that exploit spontaneous symmetry breaking. Purpose: Singly open-shell nuclei can be efficiently described via the sole breaking of U(1) gauge symmetry associated with particle-number conservation as a way to account for their superfluid character. While this route was recently followed withinmore » the framework of self-consistent Green's function theory, the goal of the present work is to formulate a similar extension within the framework of coupled cluster theory. Methods: We formulate and apply Bogoliubov coupled cluster (BCC) theory, which consists of representing the exact ground-state wave function of the system as the exponential of a quasiparticle excitation cluster operator acting on a Bogoliubov reference state. Equations for the ground-state energy and the cluster amplitudes are derived at the singles and doubles level (BCCSD) both algebraically and diagrammatically. The formalism includes three-nucleon forces at the normal-ordered two-body level. The first BCC code is implemented in m scheme, which will permit the treatment of doubly open-shell nuclei via the further breaking of SU(2) symmetry associated with angular momentum conservation. Results: Proof-of-principle calculations in an Nmax=6 spherical harmonic oscillator basis for 16,18O and 18Ne in the BCCD approximation are in good agreement with standard coupled cluster results with the same chiral two-nucleon interaction, while 20O and 20Mg display underbinding relative to experiment. The breaking of U(1) symmetry, monitored by computing the variance associated with the particle-number operator, is

  1. WIYN Open Cluster Study. XLVIII. The Hard-binary Population of NGC 188

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Aaron M.; Mathieu, Robert D.

    2012-08-01

    We present an in-depth study of the hard-binary population of the old (7 Gyr) open cluster NGC 188. Utilizing 85 spectroscopic binary orbits out of a complete sample of 129 detected binary members, we study the cluster binary frequency and the distributions of binary orbital elements among the main-sequence (MS), giant, and blue straggler (BS) populations. The results are derived from our ongoing radial velocity survey of the cluster, which spans in magnitude from the brightest stars in the cluster to V = 16.5 (about 1.1-0.9 M ⊙), and extends to a projected radius of 17 pc (~13 core radii). Our detectable binaries have periods ranging from a few days to of order 104 days, and thus are hard binaries that dynamically power the cluster. The MS solar-type hard binaries in NGC 188 are nearly indistinguishable from similar binaries in the Galactic field. We observe a global solar-type MS hard-binary frequency in NGC 188 of 23% ± 2%, which when corrected for incompleteness results in a frequency of 29% ± 3% for binaries with periods less than 104 days. For MS hard binaries in the cluster, we observe a log-period distribution that rises toward our detection limit, a roughly Gaussian eccentricity distribution centered on e = 0.35 (for binaries with periods longer than the circularization period), and a secondary-mass distribution that rises toward lower-mass companions. Importantly, the NGC 188 BS binaries show significantly different characteristics than the solar-type MS binaries in NGC 188. We observe a BS hard-binary frequency of 76% ± 19%, three times that of the MS. The excess of this binary frequency over the normal MS binary frequency is valid at the >99% confidence level. Furthermore, the BS binary eccentricity-log-period distribution is distinct from that of the MS at the 99% confidence level, with the majority of the BS binaries having periods of order 1000 days and lower eccentricities. The secondary-mass distribution for these long-period BS binaries is

  2. Candidate free-floating super-Jupiters in the young σ Orionis open cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihain, G.; Rebolo, R.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Villó-Pérez, I.; Díaz-Sánchez, A.; Pérez-Garrido, A.; Caballero, J. A.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Eislöffel, J.; Forveille, T.; Goldman, B.; Henning, T.; Martín, E. L.; Mundt, R.

    2009-11-01

    Context: Free-floating substellar candidates with estimated theoretical masses of as low as ∼5 Jupiter masses have been found in the ∼3 Myr old σ Orionis open cluster. As the overlap with the planetary mass domain increases, the question of how these objects form becomes important. The determination of their number density and whether a mass cut-off limit exists is crucial to understanding their formation. Aims: We propose to search for objects of yet lower masses in the cluster and determine the shape of the mass function at low mass. Methods: Using new- and (re-analysed) published IZJHKs[3.6]-[8.0]-band data of an area of 840 arcmin2, we performed a search for LT-type cluster member candidates in the magnitude range J=19.5-21.5 mag, based on their expected magnitudes and colours. Results: Besides recovering the T type object S Ori 70 and two other known objects, we find three new cluster member candidates, S Ori 72-74, with J≈21 mag and within 12 arcmin of the cluster centre. They have theoretical masses of 4-2 +3 MJup and are among the least massive free-floating objects detected by direct imaging outside the Solar System. The photometry in archival Spitzer [3.6]-[5.8]-band images infers that S Ori 72 is an L/T transition candidate and S Ori 73 a T-type candidate, following the expected cluster sequence in the mid-infrared. Finally, the L-type candidate S Ori 74 with lower quality photometry is located at 11.8 arcsec (∼4250 AU) of a stellar member of σ Orionis and could be a companion. After contaminant correction in the area complete to J=21.1 mag, we estimate that there remain between zero and two cluster members in the mass interval 6-4 MJup. Conclusions: We present S Ori 73, a new candidate T type and candidate σ Orionis member of a few Jupiter masses. Our result suggests a possible turnover in the substellar mass spectrum below ∼6 Jupiter masses, which could be investigated further by wider and deeper photometric surveys.

  3. The Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Open Sites on Metal Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigra, Michael Mark

    undercoordinated sites led me to synthesize small gold clusters consisting of a high fraction of coordinatively unsaturated open sites. This was enabled through an approach that utilized bulky calix[4]arene ligands that are bound to a gold core. Since the size of the calix[4]arene ligand is commensurate with the size of the gold cluster core, the calix[4]arene ligand does not pack closely together on the gold cluster surface. This in turn results in areas of accessible gold atom sites between ligands. Additionally, these calix[4]arene ligands prevent cluster aggregation and electronically tune the gold core in a manner conceptually similar to enzymes affecting reactivity through organic side-chains acting as ligands. I quantified the number of open sites that result from this packing problem on the gold cluster surface, using fluorescence probe chemisorption experiments. The results of these chemisorption measurements support the mechanical model of accessibility whereby accessibility is not dependent on the identity of the functional group, whether it be calixarene phosphines or N-heterocyclic carbenes, bound to the gold surface, but rather to the relative radii of curvature of bound ligands and the gold cluster core. Additional materials characterization was completed with transmission electron microscopy in both bright-field imaging of zeolites, in MCM-22 and delaminated ITQ-2 and UCB-1 materials, and in dark field imaging of glucan coatings on oxide particles. These materials could prove to be interesting materials as to use as supports for the calixarene-bound metal clusters described above or for other metal clusters.

  4. The age-mass-metallicity-activity relation for solar-type stars: comparisons with asteroseismology and the NGC 188 open cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo-Oliveira, D.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Schiavon, R. P.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The Mount Wilson Ca ii index log(R'_HK) is the accepted standard metric of calibration for the chromospheric activity versus age relation for FGK stars. Recent results claim its inability to discern activity levels, and thus ages, for stars older than ~2 Gyr, which would severely hamper its application to date disk stars older than the Sun. Aims: We present a new activity-age calibration of the Mt. Wilson index that explicitly takes mass and [Fe/H] biases into account; these biases are implicit in samples of stars selected to have precise ages, which have so far not been appreciated. Methods: We show that these selection biases tend to blur the activity-age relation for large age ranges. We calibrate the Mt. Wilson index for a sample of field FGK stars with precise ages, covering a wide range of mass and [Fe/H] , augmented with data from the Pleiades, Hyades, M 67 clusters, and the Ursa Major moving group. Results: We further test the calibration with extensive new Gemini/GMOS log ()R'HK) data of the old, solar [Fe/H] clusters, M 67 and NGC 188. The observed NGC 188 activity level is clearly lower than M 67. We correctly recover the isochronal age of both clusters and establish the viability of deriving usable chromospheric ages for solar-type stars up to at least ~6 Gyr, where average errors are ~0.14 dex provided that we explicitly account for the mass and [Fe/H] dimensions. We test our calibration against asteroseismological ages, finding excellent correlation (ρ = + 0.89). We show that our calibration improves the chromospheric age determination for a wide range of ages, masses, and metallicities in comparison to previous age-activity relations.

  5. The WFI Hα spectroscopic survey of the Magellanic Clouds: Be stars in SMC open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martayan, Christophe; Baade, Dietrich; Fabregat, Juan

    2009-03-01

    At low metallicity, B-type stars show lower loss of mass and, therefore, angular momentum so that it is expected that there are more Be stars in the Magellanic Clouds than in the Milky Way. However, till now, searches for Be stars were only performed in a very small number of open clusters in the Magellanic Clouds. Using the ESO/WFI in its slitless spectroscopic mode, we performed a Hα survey of the Large and Small Magellanic Cloud. Eight million low-resolution spectra centered on Hα were obtained. For their automatic analysis, we developed the ALBUM code. Here, we present the observations, the method to exploit the data and first results for 84 open clusters in the SMC. In particular, cross-correlating our catalogs with OGLE positional and photometric data, we classified more than 4000 stars and were able to find the B and Be stars in them. We show the evolution of the rates of Be stars as functions of area density, metallicity, spectral type, and age.

  6. Kepler red-clump stars in the field and in open clusters: constraints on core mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossini, D.; Miglio, A.; Salaris, M.; Vrard, M.; Cassisi, S.; Mosser, B.; Montalbán, J.; Girardi, L.; Noels, A.; Bressan, A.; Pietrinferni, A.; Tayar, J.

    2017-08-01

    Convective mixing in helium-core-burning (HeCB) stars is one of the outstanding issues in stellar modelling. The precise asteroseismic measurements of gravity-mode period spacing (ΔΠ1) have opened the door to detailed studies of the near-core structure of such stars, which had not been possible before. Here, we provide stringent tests of various core-mixing scenarios against the largely unbiased population of red-clump stars belonging to the old-open clusters monitored by Kepler, and by coupling the updated precise inference on ΔΠ1 in thousands of field stars with spectroscopic constraints. We find that models with moderate overshooting successfully reproduce the range observed of ΔΠ1 in clusters. In particular, we show that there is no evidence for the need to extend the size of the adiabatically stratified core, at least at the beginning of the HeCB phase. This conclusion is based primarily on ensemble studies of ΔΠ1 as a function of mass and metallicity. While ΔΠ1 shows no appreciable dependence on the mass, we have found a clear dependence of ΔΠ1 on metallicity, which is also supported by predictions from models.

  7. Spectroscopy and Strömgren Photometry in the Young Open Cluster NGC 2169

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, C. C.; Gray, R. O.; Murdick, L.; Robinson, P.

    2000-12-01

    NGC 2169 is a young (1.5 x 107 yr) open cluster in Orion with no associated nebulosity. As part of our program of searching for peculiar stars in open clusters, we have obtained classification--resolution (1.8Å/2 pixels) spectra for 23 stars, low--resolution (20Å/2 pixels) spectra for an additional 9 stars, and Strömgren uvby photometry for 40 stars in the field of NGC 2169 down to V ~ 15.5. The observations were made on the 0.8 meter telescope of Appalachian State University's Dark Sky Observatory. NGC 2169 appears to have very few members later than spectral type A3. However, the Strömgren photometry yields 5 new candidate members of NGC 2169, plus a population of possible but not probable pre--main--sequence stars. The spectroscopy shows that most stars in NGC 2169 are normal, except for two helium--weak B--type stars, and a mild Silicon Bp star. More spectroscopy and photometry is planned in the field. This project has been partially funded by a small AAS Grant, plus an Undergraduate Research Scholarship from the Graduate School of Appalachian State University to C.C. Yost. We would also like to acknowledge a grant from the Fund for Astrophysical Research.

  8. ACCRETION RATES ON PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS IN THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6530

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, Jose; Del Valle, Luciano; Ruiz, Maria Teresa E-mail: ldelvall@das.uchile.cl

    2012-01-15

    It is well accepted that during the star formation process, material from a protoplanetary disk is accreted onto the central object during the first {approx}1-5 Myr. Different authors have published measurements of accretion rates for young low- and intermediate-mass stars in several nearby star-forming regions (SFRs). Due to its somewhat larger distance, the SFR M8 (the Lagoon Nebula) has not been studied to the same extent, despite its abundant population of young stellar objects. We have obtained optical band low-resolution spectra of a sample of pre-main-sequence stars in the open cluster NGC 6530 located in the aforementioned nebulae using the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph at Gemini-South in multi-object mode. Spectra cover the H{sub {alpha}} emission line used to measure the accretion rate, following the method presented by Natta et al. The observed spectral characteristics are fully consistent with pre-main-sequence stars, showing lithium absorption lines, which are very common in young stellar objects, as well as prominent and broad H{sub {alpha}} emission lines, indicating a T Tauri evolutionary stage. This work presents the first determinations of mass accretion rates of young stellar objects in the open cluster NGC 6530, confirming that they are classical T Tauri stars going through the accretion phase. These observations contribute to a better understanding of the stellar content and evolutionary phase of the very active Lagoon Nebula SFR.

  9. On the lithium dip in the metal poor open cluster NGC 2243

    SciTech Connect

    François, P.; Pasquini, L.; Palsa, R.; Biazzo, K.; Bonifacio, P.

    2014-05-02

    Lithium is a key element for studying the mixing mechanisms operating in stellar interiors. It can also be used to probe the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the Big Bang nucleosynthesis. Measuring the abundance of Lithium in stars belonging to Open Clusters (hereafter OC) allows a detailed comparison with stellar evolutionary models. NGC 2243 is particularly interesting thanks to its relative low metallicity ([Fe/H]=−0.54 ± 0.10 dex). We performed a detailed analysis of high-resolution spectra obtained with the multi-object facility FLAMES at the VLT 8.2m telescope. Lithium abundance has been measured in 27 stars. We found a Li dip center of 1.06 M{sub ⊙}, which is significantly smaller than that observed in solar metallicity and metal-rich clusters. This finding confirms and strengthens the conclusion that the mass of the stars in the Li dip strongly depends on stellar metallicity. The mean Li abundance of the cluster is log n(Li) = 2.70 dex, which is substantially higher than that observed in 47 Tue. We derived an iron abundance of [Fe/H]=−0.54±0.10 dex for NGC 2243, in agreement (within the errors) with previous findings.

  10. New Neutron-capture Measurements in 23 Open Clusters. I. The r-Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overbeek, Jamie C.; Friel, Eileen D.; Jacobson, Heather R.

    2016-06-01

    Neutron-capture elements, those with Z > 35, are the least well understood in terms of nucleosynthesis and formation environments. The rapid neutron-capture, or r-process, elements are formed in the environments and/or remnants of massive stars, while the slow neutron-capture, or s-process, elements are primarily formed in low-mass AGB stars. These elements can provide much information about Galactic star formation and enrichment, but observational data are limited. We have assembled a sample of 68 stars in 23 open clusters that we use to probe abundance trends for six neutron-capture elements (Eu, Gd, Dy, Mo, Pr, and Nd) with cluster age and location in the disk of the Galaxy. In order to keep our analysis as homogeneous as possible, we use an automated synthesis fitting program, which also enables us to measure multiple (3-10) lines for each element. We find that the pure r-process elements (Eu, Gd, and Dy) have positive trends with increasing cluster age, while the mixed r- and s-process elements (Mo, Pr, and Nd) have insignificant trends consistent with zero. Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, and Dy have similar, slight (although mostly statistically significant) gradients of ˜0.04 dex kpc-1. The mixed elements also appear to have nonlinear relationships with R GC.

  11. Spectroscopic Binaries and Kinematic Membership in the Open Cluster NGC 3532

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Jorge Federico; Lapasset, Emilio

    2002-06-01

    We report spectroscopic observations for bright stars in the open cluster NGC 3532 up to 1 mag below the turnoff point. We compute radial velocities by cross-correlations and determine spectral types and rotational velocities. Using 21 stars identified as certain members, we derive a mean cluster velocity of +3.4+/-0.3 km s-1. From radial velocities and angular distances to the cluster center, we compute membership probabilities for all but two stars that are radial velocity variables. Only one out of 34 program stars is a clear kinematic nonmember. Three spectroscopic binaries and three additional possible radial velocity variables are detected among the 23 stars measured more than once. We report the star HD 96609 as a double-lined spectroscopic binary. Using the two-dimensional cross-correlation technique TODCOR developed by Zucker & Mazeh, we derive the radial velocity curves for both components and obtain the orbital parameters with errors of 0.3% and 0.7% for the projected orbital semiaxis and masses, respectively. This system is composed of two main-sequence stars in a circular orbit, with a period of 8.19 days. The observations presented here were obtained at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET) and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  12. The Open Connectome Project Data Cluster: Scalable Analysis and Vision for High-Throughput Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Randal; Roncal, William Gray; Kleissas, Dean; Lillaney, Kunal; Manavalan, Priya; Perlman, Eric; Berger, Daniel R.; Bock, Davi D.; Chung, Kwanghun; Grosenick, Logan; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Weiler, Nicholas C.; Deisseroth, Karl; Kazhdan, Michael; Lichtman, Jeff; Reid, R. Clay; Smith, Stephen J.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vogelstein, Joshua T.; Vogelstein, R. Jacob

    2013-01-01

    We describe a scalable database cluster for the spatial analysis and annotation of high-throughput brain imaging data, initially for 3-d electron microscopy image stacks, but for time-series and multi-channel data as well. The system was designed primarily for workloads that build connectomes— neural connectivity maps of the brain—using the parallel execution of computer vision algorithms on high-performance compute clusters. These services and open-science data sets are publicly available at openconnecto.me. The system design inherits much from NoSQL scale-out and data-intensive computing architectures. We distribute data to cluster nodes by partitioning a spatial index. We direct I/O to different systems—reads to parallel disk arrays and writes to solid-state storage—to avoid I/O interference and maximize throughput. All programming interfaces are RESTful Web services, which are simple and stateless, improving scalability and usability. We include a performance evaluation of the production system, highlighting the effec-tiveness of spatial data organization. PMID:24401992

  13. The Open Connectome Project Data Cluster: Scalable Analysis and Vision for High-Throughput Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Burns, Randal; Roncal, William Gray; Kleissas, Dean; Lillaney, Kunal; Manavalan, Priya; Perlman, Eric; Berger, Daniel R; Bock, Davi D; Chung, Kwanghun; Grosenick, Logan; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Weiler, Nicholas C; Deisseroth, Karl; Kazhdan, Michael; Lichtman, Jeff; Reid, R Clay; Smith, Stephen J; Szalay, Alexander S; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Vogelstein, R Jacob

    2013-01-01

    We describe a scalable database cluster for the spatial analysis and annotation of high-throughput brain imaging data, initially for 3-d electron microscopy image stacks, but for time-series and multi-channel data as well. The system was designed primarily for workloads that build connectomes- neural connectivity maps of the brain-using the parallel execution of computer vision algorithms on high-performance compute clusters. These services and open-science data sets are publicly available at openconnecto.me. The system design inherits much from NoSQL scale-out and data-intensive computing architectures. We distribute data to cluster nodes by partitioning a spatial index. We direct I/O to different systems-reads to parallel disk arrays and writes to solid-state storage-to avoid I/O interference and maximize throughput. All programming interfaces are RESTful Web services, which are simple and stateless, improving scalability and usability. We include a performance evaluation of the production system, highlighting the effec-tiveness of spatial data organization.

  14. High-resolution elemental abundance analysis of the open cluster IC 4756

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; De Silva, Gayandhi M.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Parker, Stacey Jo

    2012-11-01

    We present detailed elemental abundances of 12 subgiants in the open cluster IC 4756 including Na, Al, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni, Fe, Zn and Ba. We measure the cluster to have [Fe/H] = -0.01 ± 0.10. Most of the measured star-to-star [X/H] abundance variation is below σ < 0.03, as expected from a coeval stellar population preserving natal abundance patterns, supporting the use of elemental abundances as a probe to reconstruct dispersed clusters. We find discrepancies between Cr I and Cr II abundances as well as between Ti I and Ti II abundances, where the ionized abundances are larger by about 0.2 dex. This follows other such studies which demonstrate the effects of overionization in cool stars. IC 4756 are supersolar in Mg, Si, Na and Al, but are solar in the other elements. The fact that IC 4756 is supersolar in some α-elements (Mg, Si) but solar in the others (Ca, Ti) suggests that the production of α-elements is not simply one dimensional and could be exploited for chemical tagging.

  15. Photometric and Proper Motion Study of the Neglected Open Cluster NGC 2215

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, M. T.; Inwood, L.; McKinnon, D. H.; Dias, W. S.; Sacchi, M.; Scott, B.; Zolinski, M.; Danaia, L.; Edwards, R.

    2015-06-01

    Optical UBVRI photometric measurements using the Faulkes Telescope North were taken in early 2011 and combined with 2MASS JHKs and WISE infrared photometry as well as UCAC4 proper motion data in order to estimate the main parameters of the galactic open cluster NGC 2215 of which large uncertainty exists in the current literature. Fitting a King model we estimate a core radius of 1.‧12 ± 0.‧04 (0.24 ± 0.01 pc) and a limiting radius of 4.‧3 ± 0.‧5 (0.94 ± 0.11 pc) for the cluster. The results of isochrone fits indicates an age of log (t)=8.85+/- 0.10 with a distance of d=790+/- 90 pc, a metallicity of [Fe/H]=-0.40+/- 0.10 dex, and a reddening of E(B-V)=0.26+/- 0.04. A proportion of the work in this study was undertaken by Australian and Canadian upper secondary school students involved in the Space to Grow astronomy education project, and is the first scientific publication to have utilized our star cluster photometry curriculum materials.

  16. A Hubble Space Telescope Photometric Study of the Galactic Open Cluster Westerlund 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Alvarez, Carlos; Kobulnicky, H.

    2012-01-01

    The young and massive Galactic open cluster Westerlund 2 has been a source of controversy because of the widely varying and inconsistent estimates for its distance. In this study we use Hubble Space Telescope multi-band photometry to make improved photometric measurements in the crowded cluster core where many of the most luminous members are now resolved into multiple stars. Using new stellar spectroscopy, we provide a more reliable distance measurement based on the mean spectroscopic parallax of 20 O-type member stars. The new spectrophotometric distance, after correction for reddening, is 7.38 ± 0.02 (random) ± 0.08 (systematic) kpc. We also use the HST optical photometry along with mid-infrared photometry to correct for reddening on a star-by-star basis. Differential reddening causes AV to vary from 1.11 mag to as much as 39.25 mag across the cluster. The best solar metallicity isochrone fit to the de-reddened color-magnitude diagram corresponds to an age of 1 - 3 Myr.

  17. License plate detection in an open environment by density-based boundary clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jiangmin; Wang, Guoyou; Liu, Jianguo; Xia, Yuanchun

    2017-05-01

    Due to the variation of background, illumination, and view point, license plate detection in an open environment is challenging. We propose a detection method by boundary clustering. To start with, a boundary map is obtained through Canny edge detector and removal of unwanted horizontal background edges. Second, boundaries are classified into different clusters by a density-based approach. In the approach, the density of each boundary is defined by the total gradient intensity of its neighboring and reachable boundaries. Also, the cluster centers and the number of them are determined automatically according to a minimum-distance principle. At last, a set of horizontal candidate regions with accurately located borders are extracted for classification. The classifier is trained on the histogram of oriented gradient feature by a linear support vector machine model. Experiments on three public datasets including images captured under different scenarios demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms several state-of-the-art methods in detection accuracy and its performance in efficiency is also comparable.

  18. The galactic open cluster NGC 7419 and its five red supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, Alain; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Drissen, Laurent

    1994-07-01

    UBV CCD photometry has been carried out on the heavily reddened (Av = 6.7) Cepheus open cluster NGC 7419. An age of 14 +/- 2 million yr and a distance of 2.3 kpc have been derived using the isochrones of Maeder. The mass function of the cluster satisfies the Salpeter form N(M) is approximately M(-gamma) with gamma = 2.25. The cluster is dynamically relaxed. Radial velocities of the five red supergiants and the six brightest blue stars (mean approximately equals -74 km/s) confirm their membership. However, the radial velocity of the nearby carbon star (MZ Cep) is a factor of 2 too low for it to be a member. There is at most one blue supergiant member; this is much less than the number of red supergiants, in contrast with theoretical predictions. The red supergiants range in type from M2Iab to M7.5I, the coolest (MY Cep) -- an OH/IR source -- being strongly variable in the visible, but not in the IR. The two supergiants cooler than M2 do not fit the theoretical isochrones.

  19. The Initial-Final Mass Relation: Analysis of White Dwarfs in the M7 Open Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Jeff D.; Kalirai, Jason S.; Geisler, Douglas; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Mauro, Francesco; Deliyannis, Constantine P.

    2017-01-01

    The initial-final mass relation (IFMR) is a direct comparison of the mass a star forms with on the main sequence to its final mass as a white dwarf. This provides critical information for our understanding of stellar evolution and mass loss, and how these are dependent on initial mass. Our group has done detailed analysis of the known white dwarfs in star clusters to improve the semi-empirical IFMR, but limited data (most importantly at the highest masses) causes remaining uncertainties. Our new wide-field photometric and spectroscopic observations of the young and nearby M7 open cluster have discovered and confirmed five new white dwarfs consistent with single-star membership. Four are intermediate-mass white dwarfs (0.65 to 0.85 Msun) and the final is a white dwarf estimated to be at 1.25 Msun and with an estimated initial mass of 6.75 Msun. Higher signal-to-noise follow-up spectra are required, but these and similar observations of other young and nearby clusters will begin to characterize the poorly explored ultra-high-mass end of the IFMR.

  20. DETECTABILITY OF FREE FLOATING PLANETS IN OPEN CLUSTERS WITH THE JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Pacucci, Fabio; Ferrara, Andrea; D'Onghia, Elena

    2013-12-01

    Recent observations have shown the presence of extra-solar planets in Galactic open stellar clusters, such as in Praesepe (M44). These systems provide a favorable environment for planetary formation due to the high heavy-element content exhibited by the majority of their population. The large stellar density, and corresponding high close-encounter event rate, may induce strong perturbations of planetary orbits with large semimajor axes. Here we present a set of N-body simulations implementing a novel scheme to treat the tidal effects of external stellar perturbers on planetary orbit eccentricity and inclination. By simulating five nearby open clusters, we determine the rate of occurrence of bodies extracted from their parent stellar system by quasi-impulsive tidal interactions. We find that the specific free-floating planet production rate N-dot {sub o} (total number of free-floating planets per unit of time, normalized by the total number of stars), is proportional to the stellar density ρ{sub *} of the cluster: N-dot {sub o}=αρ{sub ⋆}, with α = (23 ± 5) × 10{sup –6} pc{sup 3} Myr{sup –1}. For the Pleiades (M45), we predict that ∼26% of stars should have lost their planets. This raises the exciting possibility of directly observing these wandering planets with the James Webb Space Telescope in the near-infrared band. Assuming a surface temperature for the planet of ∼500 K, a free-floating planet of Jupiter size inside the Pleiades would have a specific flux of F {sub ν} (4.4 μm) ≈4 × 10{sup 2} nJy, which would lead to a very clear detection (S/N ∼ 100) in only one hour of integration.

  1. A super lithium-rich red-clump star in the open cluster Trumpler 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, L.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Bonifacio, P.; Villanova, S.; Carraro, G.; Caffau, E.; Steffen, M.; Ahumada, J. A.; Beletsky, Y.; Beccari, G.

    2014-04-01

    Context. The existence of lithium-rich low-mass red giant stars still represents a challenge for stellar evolution models. Stellar clusters are privileged environments for this kind of investigation. Aims: To investigate the chemical abundance pattern of the old open cluster Trumpler 5, we observed a sample of four red-clump stars with high-resolution optical spectrographs. One of them (#3416) reveals extremely strong lithium lines in its spectrum. Methods: One-dimensional, local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis was performed on the spectra of the observed stars. A 3D-NLTE analysis was performed to derive the lithium abundance of star #3416. Results: Star #3416 is super Li-rich with A(Li) = 3.75 dex. The lack of 6Li enrichment (6Li/7Li < 2%), the low carbon isotopic ratio (12C/13C = 14 ± 3), and the lack of evidence for radial velocity variation or enhanced rotational velocity (vsini = 2.8 km s-1) all suggest that lithium production has occurred in this star through the Cameron & Fowler mechanism. Conclusions: We identified a super Li-rich core helium-burning, red-clump star in an open cluster. Internal production is the most likely cause of the observed enrichment. Given the expected short duration of a star's Li-rich phase, enrichment is likely to have occurred at the red clump or in the immediately preceding phases, namely during the He-flash at the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) or while ascending the brightest portion of the RGB. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program ID 088.D-0045(A).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. The evolution of the Milky Way: new insights from open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Arumalla B. S.; Lambert, David L.; Giridhar, Sunetra

    2016-12-01

    We have collected high-dispersion echelle spectra of red giant members in the 12 open clusters (OCs) and derived stellar parameters and chemical abundances for 26 species by either line equivalent widths or synthetic spectrum analyses. We confirm the lack of an age-metallicity relation for OCs but argue that such a lack of trend for OCs arise from the limited coverage in metallicity compared to that of field stars which span a wide range in metallicity and age. We confirm that the radial metallicity gradient of OCs is steeper (flatter) for Rgc < 12 kpc (>12 kpc). We demonstrate that the sample of clusters constituting a steep radial metallicity gradient of slope -0.052 ± 0.011 dex kpc-1 at Rgc < 12 kpc are younger than 1.5 Gyr and located close to the Galactic mid-plane (| z| < 0.5 kpc) with kinematics typical of the thin disc. Whereas the clusters describing a shallow slope of -0.015 ± 0.007 dex kpc-1 at Rgc > 12 kpc are relatively old, thick disc members with a striking spread in age and height above the mid-plane (0.5 < | z| < 2.5 kpc). Our investigation reveals that the OCs and field stars yield consistent radial metallicity gradients if the comparison is limited to samples drawn from the similar vertical heights. We argue via the computation of Galactic orbits that all the outer disc clusters were actually born inwards of 12 kpc but the orbital eccentricity has taken them to present locations very far from their birthplaces.

  3. WOCS 40007: A DETACHED ECLIPSING BINARY NEAR THE TURNOFF OF THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6819

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, Mark W. Jr.; Sandquist, Eric L.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Brewer, Lauren N. E-mail: erics@mintaka.sdsu.edu E-mail: lbrewer@rohan.sdsu.edu; and others

    2013-09-15

    We analyze extensive BVR{sub c}I{sub c} time-series photometry and radial-velocity measurements for WOCS 40007 (Auner 259; KIC 5113053), a double-lined detached eclipsing binary and a member of the open cluster NGC 6819. Utilizing photometric observations from the 1 m telescope at Mount Laguna Observatory and spectra from the WIYN 3.5 m telescope, we measure precise and accurate masses ({approx}1.6% uncertainty) and radii ({approx}0.5%) for the binary components. In addition, we discover a third star orbiting the binary with a period greater than 3000 days using radial velocities and Kepler eclipse timings. Because the stars in the eclipsing binary are near the cluster turnoff, they are evolving rapidly in size and are sensitive to age. With a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.09 {+-} 0.03, we find the age of NGC 6819 to be about 2.4 Gyr from color-magnitude diagram (CMD) isochrone fitting and 3.1 {+-} 0.4 Gyr by analyzing the mass-radius (M-R) data for this binary. The M-R age is above previous determinations for this cluster, but consistent within 1{sigma} uncertainties. When the M-R data for the primary star of the additional cluster binary WOCS 23009 is included, the weighted age estimate drops to 2.5 {+-} 0.2 Gyr, with a systematic uncertainty of at least 0.2 Gyr. The age difference between our CMD and M-R findings may be the result of systematic error in the metallicity or helium abundance used in models, or due to slight radius inflation of one or both stars in the WOCS 40007 binary.

  4. ANALYSIS OF DETACHED ECLIPSING BINARIES NEAR THE TURNOFF OF THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 7142

    SciTech Connect

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Serio, Andrew W.; Orosz, Jerome; Shetrone, Matthew E-mail: aserio@gemini.edu E-mail: shetrone@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2013-08-01

    We analyze extensive BVR{sub C}I{sub C} photometry and radial velocity measurements for three double-lined deeply eclipsing binary stars in the field of the old open cluster NGC 7142. The short period (P = 1.9096825 days) detached binary V375 Cep is a high probability cluster member, and has a total eclipse of the secondary star. The characteristics of the primary star (M = 1.288 {+-} 0.017 M{sub Sun }) at the cluster turnoff indicate an age of 3.6 Gyr (with a random uncertainty of 0.25 Gyr), consistent with earlier analysis of the color-magnitude diagram. The secondary star (M = 0.871 {+-} 0.008 M{sub Sun }) is not expected to have evolved significantly, but its radius is more than 10% larger than predicted by models. Because this binary system has a known age, it is useful for testing the idea that radius inflation can occur in short period binaries for stars with significant convective envelopes due to the inhibition of energy transport by magnetic fields. The brighter star in the binary also produces a precision estimate of the distance modulus, independent of reddening estimates: (m - M){sub V} = 12.86 {+-} 0.07. The other two eclipsing binary systems are not cluster members, although one of the systems (V2) could only be conclusively ruled out as a present or former member once the stellar characteristics were determined. That binary is within 0. Degree-Sign 5 of edge-on, is in a fairly long-period eccentric binary, and contains two almost indistinguishable stars. The other binary (V1) has a small but nonzero eccentricity (e = 0.038) in spite of having an orbital period under 5 days.

  5. Bayesian investigation of isochrone consistency using the old open cluster NGC 188

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, Shane; Courteau, Stéphane; Von Hippel, Ted; Geller, Aaron M. E-mail: courteau@astro.queensu.ca E-mail: a-geller@northwestern.edu

    2015-03-01

    This paper provides a detailed comparison of the differences in parameters derived for a star cluster from its color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs) depending on the filters and models used. We examine the consistency and reliability of fitting three widely used stellar evolution models to 15 combinations of optical and near-IR photometry for the old open cluster NGC 188. The optical filter response curves match those of theoretical systems and are thus not the source of fit inconsistencies. NGC 188 is ideally suited to this study thanks to a wide variety of high-quality photometry and available proper motions and radial velocities that enable us to remove non-cluster members and many binaries. Our Bayesian fitting technique yields inferred values of age, metallicity, distance modulus, and absorption as a function of the photometric band combinations and stellar models. We show that the historically favored three-band combinations of UBV and VRI can be meaningfully inconsistent with each other and with longer baseline data sets such as UBVRIJHK{sub S}. Differences among model sets can also be substantial. For instance, fitting Yi et al. (2001) and Dotter et al. (2008) models to UBVRIJHK{sub S} photometry for NGC 188 yields the following cluster parameters: age = (5.78 ± 0.03, 6.45 ± 0.04) Gyr, [Fe/H] = (+0.125 ± 0.003, −0.077 ± 0.003) dex, (m−M){sub V} = (11.441 ± 0.007, 11.525 ± 0.005) mag, and A{sub V} = (0.162 ± 0.003, 0.236 ± 0.003) mag, respectively. Within the formal fitting errors, these two fits are substantially and statistically different. Such differences among fits using different filters and models are a cautionary tale regarding our current ability to fit star cluster CMDs. Additional modeling of this kind, with more models and star clusters, and future Gaia parallaxes are critical for isolating and quantifying the most relevant uncertainties in stellar evolutionary models.

  6. Phase Transition for the Large-Dimensional Contact Process with Random Recovery Rates on Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xiaofeng

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we are concerned with the contact process with random recovery rates on open clusters of bond percolation on Z^d. Let ξ be a random variable such that P(ξ ≥ 1)=1, which ensures E1/ξ <+∞, then we assign i. i. d. copies of ξ on the vertices as the random recovery rates. Assuming that each edge is open with probability p and the infection can only spread through the open edges, then we obtain that limsup _{d→ +∞}λ _d≤ λ _c=1/pE{1}/{ξ}, where λ _d is the critical value of the process on Z^d, i.e., the maximum of the infection rates with which the infection dies out with probability one when only the origin is infected at t=0. To prove the above main result, we show that the following phase transition occurs. Assuming that lceil log drceil vertices are infected at t=0, where these vertices can be located anywhere, then when the infection rate λ >λ _c, the process survives with high probability as d→ +∞ while when λ <λ _c, the process dies out at time O(log d) with high probability.

  7. Formation history of old open clusters constrained by detailed asteroseismology of red giant stars observed by Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, E.; Lee, Y.-N.; García, R. A.; Hennebelle, P.; Mathur, S.; Beck, P. G.; Mathis, S.; Stello, D.; Bouvier, J.

    2016-12-01

    Stars originate by the gravitational collapse of a turbulent molecular cloud, often forming clusters of thousands of stars. Stellar clusters therefore play an important role in our understanding of star formation, a fundamental problem in astrophysics that is difficult to investigate because pre-stellar cores are typically obscured by dust. Thanks to a Bayesian analysis of about 50 red giants of NGC 6791 and NGC 6819, two old open clusters observed by NASA Kepler, we characterize thousands of individual oscillation modes. We show for the first time how the measured asteroseismic properties lead us to a discovery about the rotation history of these clusters. Finally, our findings are compared to 3D hydrodynamical simulations for stellar cluster formation to put strong constraints on the physical processes of turbulence and rotation, which are in action in the early formation stage of the stellar clusters.

  8. Proper motions and CCD-photometry of stars in the region of the open cluster Trumpler 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, V. N.; Ananjevskaja, J. K.; Jilinski, E. G.; Gorshanov, D. L.; Bronnikova, N. M.

    2006-06-01

    The results of a complex study of the galactic open cluster Trumpler 2 are presented. In order to obtain the proper motions, the positions of approximately 3000 stars up to the limit magnitude B˜16.25 mag in the area 80 arcmin×80 arcmin around the cluster were measured on 6 plates with a maximal epoch difference of 63 years. The root-mean error of the relative proper motions is 4.2 mas yr-1. The catalogue of {BV} magnitudes of all the stars in the investigated area was compiled. The selection of the cluster members within the region of R<16 arcmin from the center of the cluster was made. Altogether, 148 stars were considered to be cluster members by both astrometrical and photometrical criteria. We present the estimated age (8.91×107 yr) and physical parameters of the cluster and append the catalogues of the proper motions and of the photometry of the stars.

  9. Comparative assessment of bone pose estimation using Point Cluster Technique and OpenSim.

    PubMed

    Lathrop, Rebecca L; Chaudhari, Ajit M W; Siston, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Estimating the position of the bones from optical motion capture data is a challenge associated with human movement analysis. Bone pose estimation techniques such as the Point Cluster Technique (PCT) and simulations of movement through software packages such as OpenSim are used to minimize soft tissue artifact and estimate skeletal position; however, using different methods for analysis may produce differing kinematic results which could lead to differences in clinical interpretation such as a misclassification of normal or pathological gait. This study evaluated the differences present in knee joint kinematics as a result of calculating joint angles using various techniques. We calculated knee joint kinematics from experimental gait data using the standard PCT, the least squares approach in OpenSim applied to experimental marker data, and the least squares approach in OpenSim applied to the results of the PCT algorithm. Maximum and resultant RMS differences in knee angles were calculated between all techniques. We observed differences in flexion/extension, varus/valgus, and internal/external rotation angles between all approaches. The largest differences were between the PCT results and all results calculated using OpenSim. The RMS differences averaged nearly 5° for flexion/extension angles with maximum differences exceeding 15°. Average RMS differences were relatively small (< 1.08°) between results calculated within OpenSim, suggesting that the choice of marker weighting is not critical to the results of the least squares inverse kinematics calculations. The largest difference between techniques appeared to be a constant offset between the PCT and all OpenSim results, which may be due to differences in the definition of anatomical reference frames, scaling of musculoskeletal models, and/or placement of virtual markers within OpenSim. Different methods for data analysis can produce largely different kinematic results, which could lead to the misclassification

  10. A Survey of Open Clusters in the u'g'r'i'z' Filter System. 3. Results for the Cluster NGC 188

    SciTech Connect

    Fornal, Bartosz; Tucker, Douglas L.; Smith, J.Allyn; Allam, Sahar S.; Rider, Cristin J.; Sung, Hwankyung; /Jagiellonian U. /Fermilab /Austin Peay State U. /Wyoming U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Sejong U.

    2006-11-01

    The authors continue the series of papers describing the results of a photometric survey of open star clusters, primarily in the southern hemisphere, taken in the u'g'r'i'z' filter system. The entire observed sample covered more than 100 clusters, but here they present data only on NGC 188, which is one of the oldest open clusters known in the Milky Way. They fit the Padova theoretical isochrones to the data. Assuming a solar metallicity for NGC 188, they find a distance of 1700 {+-} 100 pc, an age of 7.5 {+-} 0.7 Gyr, and a reddening E(B-V) of 0.025 {+-} 0.005. This yields a distance modulus of 11.23 {+-} 0.14.

  11. Membership, binarity and metallicity of red giants in the southern open cluster NGC 2354

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clariá, J. J.; Mermilliod, J.-C.; Piatti, A. E.

    1999-01-01

    We present new Coravel radial-velocity observations and photoelectric photometry in the UBV, DDO and Washington systems for a sample of red giant candidates in the field of the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 2354. Photometric membership probabilities show very good agreement with those obtained from Coravel radial velocities. The analysis of the photometric and kinematical data allow us to confirm cluster membership for 9 red giants, one of them being a spectroscopic binary, while 4 confirmed spectroscopic binaries appear to be probable members. We have also discovered 4 spectroscopic binaries not belonging to the cluster. A mean radial velocity of (33.40 +/- 0.27) km s(-1) and a mean reddening E(B-V) = 0.13 +/- 0.03 were derived for the cluster giants. NGC 2354 has a mean ultraviolet excess = -0.03 +/- 0.01, relative to the field K giants, and a mean new cyanogen anomaly Delta CN = -0.035 +/- 0.007, both implying [Fe/H] ~ -0.3. The moderately metal-poor character of NGC 2354 is confirmed using five different metal abundance indicators of the Washington system. The cluster giant branch is formed by a well defined clump of 7 stars and 4 stars with high membership probabilities seem to define an ascending giant branch. The whole red giant locus cannot be reproduced by any theoretical track. Based on observations collected with the Danish\\protect\\linebreak 1.54-m telescope at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla (Chile); at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan, Argentina, and at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories, operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under contract with the National Science Foundation.

  12. Nucleophilic ring opening of bridging thietane ligands in trirhenium carbonyl cluster complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.D.; Cortopassi, J.E.; Falloon, S.B.

    1992-11-01

    The reactions of 3,3-dimethylthietane, SCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}CH{sub 2} (3,3-DMT), and thietane, SCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}, with Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 10}[{mu}-SCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}]({mu}-H){sub 3}, 2b. Compound 2a was characterized crystallographically and was found to consist of a trirhenium cluster with three bridging hydride ligands and a bridging thietane ligand coordinated through its sulfur atom. 2a and 2b react with halide ions by ring-opening additions to the 3,3-DMT ligand to yield the complex anions [Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 10}({mu}-SCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}CH{sub 2}x)({mu}-h){sub 3}]{sup -} 3A-6A, X = F (71%), Cl(71%), Br(84%), I(87%) and [Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 10}({mu}-SCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}Cl)({mu}-H){sub 3}]{sup -}, 4b (67%). Similarly, addition of NMe{sub 3} to 2a and 2b yielded the ring-opened zwitterions Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 10}({mu}-SCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NMe{sub 3})({mu}-H){sub 3}, 7 a crystographically. They are zwitterions positively charged at the nitrogen atoms and negatively charged on the trirhenium clusters. Complex 7b was also obtained in a 48% yield from the reaction of Re{sub 3}(C){sub 12}({mu}-H){sub 3} with Me{sub 3}NO in the presence of thietane, but the corresponding reaction using 3,3-DMT yielded only 2a and Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 11}(SCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}CH{sub 2})({mu}-H){sub 3}, 8. Attempts to obtain a ring-opening addition to 2a by reaction with PMe{sub 2}Ph yielded only Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 10}(PMe{sub 2}PH){sub 2}({mu}-H){sub 3} by ligand substitution. Attempts to obtain ring opening addition to 8 by reaction with I{sup -} yielded only [Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 11}I({mu}-H){sub 3}]{sup -} by ligand substitution. 20 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Nucleosynthesis in the Hyades Open Cluster: Evidence for the Enhanced Depletion of 12C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, Simon C.; King, Jeremy R.; The, Lih-Sin

    2010-03-01

    We present the results of a light element abundance analysis of three solar-type main sequence (MS) dwarfs and three red giant branch (RGB) clump stars in the Hyades open cluster using high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy. The CNO abundances of each group (MS or RGB) are in excellent star-to-star agreement and confirm that the giants have undergone first dredge-up mixing. The observed abundances are compared to predictions of a standard stellar model based on the Clemson-American University of Beirut (CAUB) stellar evolution code. The model reproduces the observed evolution of the N and O abundances, as well as the previously derived 12C/13C ratio, but it fails to predict the observed level of 12C depletion in the giants. More tellingly, the sum of the observed giant CNO abundances does not equal that of the dwarfs.

  14. Entrapment of Metal Clusters in MOF Channels by Extended Hooks Anchored at Open Metal Sites

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shou-Tian; Zhao, Xiang; Lau, Samuel; Fuhr, Addis; Feng, Pingyun; Bu, Xianhui

    2015-01-01

    Reported here is a new concept and its practical implementation that involves the novel utilization of open metal sites (OMS) for architectural pore design. Specifically, it is shown here that OMS can be used to run extended hooks (isonicotinate in this work) from the framework wall to channel centers to effect the capture of single metal ions or clusters, with the concurrent partition of the large channel space into multiple domains, alteration of host-guest charge relationship and associated guest-exchange properties, as well as the transfer of OMS from the wall to the channel centers. The concept of the extended hook, demonstrated here in the multi-component dual-metal and dual-ligand system, should be generally applicable to a range of framework types. PMID:23826752

  15. A homogeneous photometric and spectroscopic survey of open clusters in the Perseus Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, Amparo; Negueruela, Ignacio; Monguió, Maria

    2015-08-01

    We are carrying out a homogeneous photometric survey of all young (< 100 Ma) open clusters in the Perseus Arm between Galactic longitudes 90º and 140º, using Strömgren filters at the Isaac Newton Telescope in La Palma. We intend to derive relative ages and distances with typical accuracies of 5 Ma and 200 pc. Our data will allow us to test the predictions of different models for the main mechanism producing the spiral structure of the Milky Way. In addition, we will enormously improve our knowledge of stellar evolution for stars in the 6-15 Msolar range. Moreover, the huge dataset of homogeneous photometry for thousands of stars (including ~2000 B-type stars) will have an enormous legacy value

  16. HD 285507b: An eccentric hot Jupiter in the hyades open cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Samuel N.; White, Russel J.; Latham, David W.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Torres, Guillermo; Stefanik, Robert P.; Berlind, Perry; Bieryla, Allyson; Calkins, Michael C.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Fűrész, Gabor; Geary, John C.; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew H.

    2014-05-20

    We report the discovery of the first hot Jupiter in the Hyades open cluster. HD 285507b orbits a V = 10.47 K4.5V dwarf (M {sub *} = 0.734 M {sub ☉}; R {sub *} = 0.656 R {sub ☉}) in a slightly eccentric (e=0.086{sub −0.019}{sup +0.018}) orbit with a period of 6.0881{sub −0.0018}{sup +0.0019} days. The induced stellar radial velocity corresponds to a minimum companion mass of M {sub P}sin i = 0.917 ± 0.033 M {sub Jup}. Line bisector spans and stellar activity measures show no correlation with orbital phase, and the radial velocity amplitude is independent of wavelength, supporting the conclusion that the variations are caused by a planetary companion. Follow-up photometry indicates with high confidence that the planet does not transit. HD 285507b joins a small but growing list of planets in open clusters, and its existence lends support to a planet formation scenario in which a high stellar space density does not inhibit giant planet formation and migration. We calculate the circularization timescale for HD 285507b to be larger than the age of the Hyades, which may indicate that this planet's non-zero eccentricity is the result of migration via interactions with a third body. We also demonstrate a significant difference between the eccentricity distributions of hot Jupiters that have had time to tidally circularize and those that have not, which we interpret as evidence against Type II migration in the final stages of hot Jupiter formation. Finally, the dependence of the circularization timescale on the planetary tidal quality factor, Q {sub P}, allows us to constrain the average value for hot Jupiters to be logQ{sub P}=6.14{sub −0.25}{sup +0.41}.

  17. Photometric investigation of two contact binaries in the young open cluster NGC 957

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, ChangQing; Zhang, XiaoBin; Deng, Licai; Wang, Kun; Luo, Yangping; Fang, Xiangsong

    2017-04-01

    We present V- and R- band time-series CCD photometry of two contact binaries in the region of the young open cluster NGC 957. The two eclipsing binaries were discovered by Bukowiecki et al., 2009. OEJV 112, 1 and named as V4 and V5, respectively. In the present paper, the first detailed studies of the two contact binary systems are carried out. Firstly, based on the light curves, 28 times of minimum light were detected for V4 and 21 times of minimum light for V5, respectively. Secondly, the orbital periods of V4 and V5 were redetermined as PV4 = 0.40032(5) days and PV5 = 0.30752 (4)days, respectively. The photometric solutions were analyzed by using Wilson Decinny Code. The results reveal that both V4 and V5 are W UMa-type contact binaries with a degree of fV4 = 31(± 1)% and fV5 = 65(± 1)%. The mass ratios were determined to be qV4 = 0.30 and qV5 = 0.19. For V5, the well known O'Connell effect was detected in the dataset, which effect can be explained by employing a dark spot placed on the more massive primary component. Finally, based on the distances of the two contact binaries, which were calculated by using an relation given by Gettel et al., the two contact binaries are judged to be foreground stars in the open cluster NGC 957.

  18. CCD Photometric Study of the Contact Binary TX Cnc in the Young Open Cluster NGC 2632

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liang; Qian, Sheng-Bang; Boonrucksar, Soonthornthum; Zhu, Li-Ying; He, Jia-Jia; Yuan, J.-Z.

    2007-06-01

    TX Cnc is a member of the young open cluster NGC2632. In the present paper, four CCD epochs of light minimum and a complete V light curve of TX Cnc are presented. A period investigation based on all available photoelectric or CCD data showed that it is superimposed on a long-term increase (dP/dt=+3.97×10-8) and weak evidence suggests that it includes a small-amplitude period oscillation (A3=0d.0028; T3=26.6yr). The light curves in the V band obtained in 2004 were analyzed with the 2003 version of the W-D code. It was shown that TX Cnc is an overcontact binary system with a degree of contact factor f=24.8%. The absolute parameters of the system were calculated: M1=1.319±0.007M⊙, M2=0.600±0.01M⊙; R1=1.28±0.19R⊙, R2=0.91±0.13R⊙. TX Cnc may be on the TRO-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian (2001a, b, 2003a), and may contain an invisible tertiary component (m3≈0.097M⊙). If this is true, the tertiary component has played an important role in the formation and evolution of TX Cnc by removing angular momentum from the central system (Pribulla & Rucinski 2006). In this way the contact binary configuration can be formed in the shortlife time of a young open cluster via AML.

  19. The RACE-OC project: Rotation and ACtivity Evolution in Open Clusters .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, S.

    The RACE-OC (Rotation and ACtivity Evolution in Open Clusters) is a project aimed at studying the evolution of rotation and magnetic activity of the late-type members belonging to open clusters with an age in the range from about 1 to 500 Myr. In late-type stars rotation and solar-like magnetic activity are closely inter-related. In fact, presence and level of stellar magnetic activity depend on rotation. On the other hand, magnetic activity influences the evolution of the angular momentum and determines the atmospheric structure from the PMS to Post-MS evolutionary stages (Dorren & Guinan \\cite{Dorren94}; Guinan et al. \\cite{Guinan01}). Studies of the rotation and magnetic activity evolution versus time are particularly relevant to 1) determine the radiative and magnetic properties of the young Sun; 2) study its evolution history to the present; 3) construct irradiance tables to be used to model paleo-planetary atmospheres. Our aim is to describe the evolution versus time of either the stellar angular momentum and magnetic activity, by inferring from observational data accurate empirical relations between global stellar properties, rotation and activity manifestations at different atmospheric levels to be compared to current stellar evolution and hydromagnetic dynamo models. The multiband CCD photometric observations have been so far carried out with the 0.6m REM (Rapid Eye Mount) telescope (La Silla, Chile) of INAF; the 2m HCT (Himalayan Chandra Telescope) of IIA, the 1.3m Cassegrain telescope of Skinakas Observatory (University of Crete) and, finally, the 1.3m RCT (Robotic Controlled Telescope, Arizona) of Villanova University.

  20. Observation Of New Variable Stars In The Field Of Open Cluster M23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Jeffrey A.; Brown, T. S.; Frank, K. A.; Joshi, U.; Lacoul, B. K.; Rengstorf, N. P.; Schiefelbein, A. M.

    2007-05-01

    In 2002 a program of surveying regions containing bright open star clusters was initiated using the observing facilities at Luther College. As part of this program the half degree square field containing open cluster M23 was observed in 2003, 2005 and 2006, resulting in approximately 45,000 2.5-second images, 45,000 3.5-second images and 65,000 5.0-second images. The data set contains images from 94 nights spanning a time range from JD 2452810 to JD 2454005. We have searched for stellar variability on timescales from seconds to years in approximately 1600 stars in this field. Unambiguous variability is apparent in 30 stars ranging in magnitude from about 10 to 17. Twenty-eight of these stars have not been previously reported as variable. Seven of the stars are eclipsing binaries, including two apparent W UMa-type contact binaries and one additional eclipsing binary with a period shorter than 0.6 days. The remaining 23 variables are red pulsating stars with long periods. Most of these stars have amplitudes smaller than two magnitudes and periods between 200 and 400 days. Thus, they are likely Semi-Regular variables. We present celestial coordinates, estimated amplitude and estimated period for each of these stars, as well as several selected light curves. Finally, we have performed low-precision BVRI photometry of the field and have placed most of the observed variables on color magnitude diagrams. We are grateful for support from the Roy J. Carver Charitable Trust and the R. J. McElroy Trust.

  1. Accretion Rates on Pre-main-sequence Stars in the Young Open Cluster NGC 6530

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, José; del Valle, Luciano; Ruiz, María Teresa

    2012-01-01

    It is well accepted that during the star formation process, material from a protoplanetary disk is accreted onto the central object during the first ~1-5 Myr. Different authors have published measurements of accretion rates for young low- and intermediate-mass stars in several nearby star-forming regions (SFRs). Due to its somewhat larger distance, the SFR M8 (the Lagoon Nebula) has not been studied to the same extent, despite its abundant population of young stellar objects. We have obtained optical band low-resolution spectra of a sample of pre-main-sequence stars in the open cluster NGC 6530 located in the aforementioned nebulae using the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph at Gemini-South in multi-object mode. Spectra cover the Hα emission line used to measure the accretion rate, following the method presented by Natta et al. The observed spectral characteristics are fully consistent with pre-main-sequence stars, showing lithium absorption lines, which are very common in young stellar objects, as well as prominent and broad Hα emission lines, indicating a T Tauri evolutionary stage. This work presents the first determinations of mass accretion rates of young stellar objects in the open cluster NGC 6530, confirming that they are classical T Tauri stars going through the accretion phase. These observations contribute to a better understanding of the stellar content and evolutionary phase of the very active Lagoon Nebula SFR. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciencia e Tecnologia (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva

  2. Polarimetry of the Highly Reddened Open Clusters HOGG 15 and Lyngå 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsatti, A. M.; Vega, E.; Marraco, H. G.

    1998-07-01

    We present UBVRI polarimetric observations of stars belonging to the highly reddened open clusters Hogg 15 and Lyngå 14. The wavelength of maximum polarization is computed and then analyzed in the context of its relation to the optical properties and characteristic particle size distribution of the grains responsible for the polarization in each case. The amount and direction of the linear polarization are also computed. Results indicate that the polarization efficiency is relatively low in both cases, compared with the values attributed to the interstellar medium, and probably due to depolarization effects. Only one out of the 12 observed members in Hogg 15, and none in Lyngå 14, presents indications of intrinsic polarization in its measures. There exists some ``intracluster'' dust in association with Hogg 15, with a slightly different grain size distribution when compared with the Coalsack dust itself. For Lyngå 14, we conclude that the polarization detected in this case possibly comes from dust present in a nearby cloud located along the line of sight to the cluster, with some dust related to the cluster itself. The magnetic field in the direction to Hogg 15 follows the general trend of the polarization directions in the region, but this is not true for Lyngå 14, where differences seem to exist. Based on observations at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement among the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina, Secretaría de Ciencia y Tecnología de la Nación, and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  3. TIME-RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF THE POLAR EU CANCRI IN THE OPEN CLUSTER MESSIER 67

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kurtis A.; Howell, Steve B.; Bellini, Andrea; Rubin, Kate H. R.; Bolte, Michael E-mail: steve.b.howell@nasa.gov E-mail: psmith@as.arizona.edu E-mail: rubin@mpia.de

    2013-05-15

    We present time-resolved spectroscopic and polarimetric observations of the AM Her system EU Cnc. EU Cnc is located near the core of the old open cluster Messier 67; new proper motion measurements indicate that EU Cnc is indeed a member of the star cluster, and this system therefore is useful to constrain the formation and evolution of magnetic cataclysmic variables. The spectra exhibit two-component emission features with independent radial velocity variations as well as time-variable cyclotron emission indicating a magnetic field strength of 41 MG. The period of the radial velocity and cyclotron hump variations are consistent with the previously known photometric period, and the spectroscopic flux variations are consistent in amplitude with previous photometric amplitude measurements. The secondary star is also detected in the spectrum. We also present polarimetric imaging measurements of EU Cnc that show a clear detection of polarization, and the degree of polarization drops below our detection threshold at phases when the cyclotron emission features are fading or not evident. The combined data are all consistent with the interpretation that EU Cnc is a low-state polar in the cluster Messier 67. The mass function of the system gives an estimate of the accretor mass of M{sub WD} {>=} 0.68 M{sub Sun} with M{sub WD} Almost-Equal-To 0.83 M{sub Sun} for an average inclination. We are thus able to place a lower limit on the progenitor mass of the accreting white dwarf of {>=}1.43 M{sub Sun }.

  4. A spectroscopic investigation of early-type stars in the young open cluster Westerlund 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauw, G.; Sana, H.; Nazé, Y.

    2011-11-01

    Context. The distance of the very young open cluster Westerlund 2, which contains the very massive binary system WR 20a and is likely associated with a TeV source, has been the subject of much debate. Aims: We attempt a joint analysis of spectroscopic and photometric data of eclipsing binaries in the cluster to constrain its distance. Methods: A sample of 15 stars, including three eclipsing binaries (MSP 44, MSP 96, and MSP 223) was monitored with the FLAMES multi-object spectrograph. The spectroscopic data are analysed together with existing B V photometry. Results: The analysis of the three eclipsing binaries clearly supports the larger values of the distance, around 8 kpc, and rules out values of about 2.4 - 2.8 kpc that have been suggested in the literature. Furthermore, our spectroscopic monitoring reveals no clear signature of binarity with periods shorter than 50 days in either the WN6ha star WR 20b, the early O-type stars MSP 18, MSP 171, MSP 182, MSP 183, MSP 199, and MSP 203, or three previously unknown mid O-type stars. The only newly identified candidate binary system is MSP 167. The absence of a binary signature is especially surprising for WR 20b and MSP 18, which were previously found to be bright X-ray sources. Conclusions: The distance of Westerlund 2 is confirmed to be around 8 kpc as previously suggested based on the spectrophotometry of its population of O-type stars and the analysis of the light curve of WR 20a. Our results suggest that short-period binary systems are not likely to be common, at least not among the population of O-type stars in the cluster. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (Cerro Paranal, Chile).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. CCD photometry of the open clusters NGC 2627, NGC 5617, Pismis 7, and Ruprecht 75

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    We present broad-band, optical CCD photometry of the galactic open clusters NGC 2627, NGC 5617, Pismis 7, and Ruprecht 75. By means of the comparison between the observed cluster sequences and the theoretical isochrones of Girardi et al. (2000, A&AS 141, 371), we derive the following parameters. For NGC 2627, E(B-V)=0.04-0.02+0.10, log (age)=9.25+0.10-0.05, and (m-M)_0 = 11.33±0.31; for NGC 5617, E(B-V)=0.54-0.08+0.09 , log (age)= 8.15-0.15+0.25, and (m-M)_0 = 11.53-0.43+0.36; for Pismis 7, E(B-V)= 0.69-0.16+0.18, log (age)= 8.70±0.10, and (m-M)_0 =13.46±0.56; and for Ruprecht 75, E(B-V)= 0.24-0.13+0.18, log (age)= 9.15± 0.05, and (m-M)_0 =13.16-0.57+0.60. The isochrones have been renormalized to the solar values (B-V)_⊙=0.65 and M_V=4.84, along the lines established in Ahumada (2003, RMxAA 39, 41), and following, for instance, Twarog, Ashman & Anthony-Twarog (1997, AJ 114, 2556). Besides, a comparison is made between the isochrones by Girardi et al. (2000) and those, also renormalized, by Castellani, Degl'Innocenti & Marconi (1999, MNRAS 303, 265) in the range of ages and metallicities of interest. It is noted that discrepancies arise mainly for the amount of core overshooting incorporated into the models, which implies different ages for a given cluster.

  6. The chemical compositions and evolutionary status of red giants in the open cluster NGC 6940

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böcek Topcu, G.; Afşar, M.; Sneden, C.

    2016-11-01

    We present the high-resolution (R ≈ 60 000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≃ 120) spectroscopic analysis of 12 red giant members of the Galactic open cluster NGC 6940. We applied Yonsei-Yale isochrones to the colour-magnitude diagram, which suggested an age of 1.1 Gyr for the cluster with a turn-off mass of 2 M⊙. Atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, [Fe/H], and ξt) were determined via equivalent widths of Fe I, Fe II, Ti I, and Ti II lines. Calculated mean metallicity of the cluster is <[Fe/H]> = 0.04 ± 0.02. We derived abundances of α (Mg, Si, Ca), Fe-group (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn), and n-capture (Y, La, Nd, Eu) elements to be about solar. Light odd-Z elements Na and Al are slightly enhanced in MMU 108 and MMU 152 by ˜0.34 and ˜0.16 dex, respectively. Abundances of light elements Li, C, N, O, and 12C/13C ratios were derived from spectrum syntheses of the Li I resonance doublet at 6707 Å, [O I] line at 6300 Å, C2 Swan bandheads at 5164 and 5635 Å, and strong 12,13CN system lines in the 7995-8040 Å region. Most carbon isotopic ratios are similar to those found in other solar-metallicity giants, but MMU 152 has an unusual value of 12C/13C = 6. Evaluation of the LiCNO abundances and 12C/13C ratios along with the present theoretical models suggests that all the red giants in our sample are core-helium-burning clump stars.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UBVR photometry of the open cluster King 2 (Aparicio+ 1990)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, A.; Bertelli, G.; Chiosi, C.; Garcia-Pelayo, J. M.

    2003-06-01

    In this paper we present the Johnson-Cousins UBVR CCD photometry of the stars in King 2, an old open cluster towards the galactic anticenter. We have obtained the colour-magnitude diagram, the colour excess, the reddening, an estimate of the metallicity, and the distance modulus. The comparison of the observational colour-magnitude diagram with the theoretical simulations based on stellar models with convective overshoot shows that a major revision of the model structure is required. To this aim, we explore the possibility that the formulation of convective overshoot for stars in the mass range 1 to 2M{sun} ought to be different from the one currently in use. The point of major uncertainty that we see to affect the stars in this domain is whether or not convective overshoot may erode the gradient in molecular weight in the regions surrounding the convective core. We find that models, in which this is not allowed to occur, better fit the overall morphology of the colour-magnitude diagram of King 2. In addition to this, analyzing the width of the main sequence band we suggest that a significant fraction of the stars are members of binary systems, and evaluate the range spanned by their mass ratios. Finally, we derive the luminosity function and the mass function for the main sequence stars of the cluster. (1 data file).

  8. Basic physical properties of the close binary V497 Cep in the open cluster NGC 7160

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakut, K.; Tarasov, A. E.; İbanoğlu, C.; Harmanec, P.; Kalomeni, B.; Holmgren, D. E.; Božić, H.; Eenens, P.

    2003-07-01

    New light and radial-velocity curves of V497 Cep , a binary in the open cluster NGC 7160, were obtained and the linear ephemeris of the system was refined to HJD (Min I) = (2 446 299.1596 +/- 0.0064) + (1.2028287d +/- 0.0000015d ) x E. The first light and radial-velocity curve solutions allowed us to derive the basic physical properties of this astrophysically important binary. It was found that the observed light variation of V497 Cep consists of a strong ellipticity effect and a small contribution from grazing eclipses. A comparison of masses and radii of V497 Cep with theoretical evolutionary tracks indicates that both binary components are very close to the zero-age main sequence. A comparison of disentangled line profiles of the He I 6678 line with synthetic, rotationally broadened line profiles indicates that the rotation of both stars is synchronized with the orbital revolution as expected. This finding increases the credibility of our solutions. We find E(B-V)=0fm39 . The distance to the cluster NGC 7160 was found to be about 760 (+/- 100) pc which agrees well with other available estimates. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/1087

  9. An open-source software package for multivariate modeling and clustering: applications to air quality management.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuquan; Huang, Guohe; Zhao, Shan; Guo, Junhong

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an open-source software package, rSCA, which is developed based upon a stepwise cluster analysis method and serves as a statistical tool for modeling the relationships between multiple dependent and independent variables. The rSCA package is efficient in dealing with both continuous and discrete variables, as well as nonlinear relationships between the variables. It divides the sample sets of dependent variables into different subsets (or subclusters) through a series of cutting and merging operations based upon the theory of multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The modeling results are given by a cluster tree, which includes both intermediate and leaf subclusters as well as the flow paths from the root of the tree to each leaf subcluster specified by a series of cutting and merging actions. The rSCA package is a handy and easy-to-use tool and is freely available at http://cran.r-project.org/package=rSCA . By applying the developed package to air quality management in an urban environment, we demonstrate its effectiveness in dealing with the complicated relationships among multiple variables in real-world problems.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Optically visible open clusters and Candidates (Dias+ 2002-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, W. S.; Alessi, B. S.; Moitinho, A.; Lepine, J. R. D.

    2010-04-01

    We have compiled a new catalogue of open clusters in the Galaxy which updates the previous catalogues of Lynga (1987, Cat. ) and of Mermilliod (1995, in Information and On-Line Data in Astronomy, ed. D. Egret & M. A. Albrecht (Dordrecht: Kluwer), 127) (included in the WEBDA database, http://obswww.unige.ch/webda). New objects and new data, in particular, data on kinematics (proper motions) that were not present in the old catalogues, have been included. Virtually all the clusters (1629) presently known were included, which represents an increment of about 476 objects relative to the Lynga (1987, Cat. ) catalogue. The catalogue is presented in a single table containing all the important data, which makes it easy to use. In total, 99% of the objects have estimates of their apparent diameters, and 38% have distance, E(B-V) and age determinations. Concerning the data on kinematics, 22% have their mean proper motions listed, 14% their mean radial velocities, and 11% have both information simultaneously. (5 data files).

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Optically visible open clusters and Candidates (Dias+ 2002-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, W. S.; Alessi, B. S.; Moitinho, A.; Lepine, J. R. D.

    2014-10-01

    We have compiled a new catalogue of open clusters in the Galaxy which updates the previous catalogues of Lynga (1987, Cat. VII/92) and of Mermilliod (1995, in Information and On-Line Data in Astronomy, ed. D. Egret & M. A. Albrecht (Dordrecht: Kluwer), 127) (included in the WEBDA database, http://obswww.unige.ch/webda). New objects and new data, in particular, data on kinematics (proper motions) that were not present in the old catalogues, have been included. Virtually all the clusters (2167) presently known were included, which represents an increment of about 986 objects relative to the Lynga (1987, VII/92) catalogue. The catalogue is presented in a single table containing all the important data, which makes it easy to use. In total, 99.7% of the objects have estimates of their apparent diameters, and 74.5% have distance, E(B-V) and age determinations. Concerning the data on kinematics, 54.7% have their mean proper motions listed, 25% their mean radial velocities, and 24.2% have both information simultaneously. (6 data files).

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Optically visible open clusters and Candidates (Dias+ 2002-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, W. S.; Alessi, B. S.; Moitinho, A.; Lepine, J. R. D.

    2012-01-01

    We have compiled a new catalogue of open clusters in the Galaxy which updates the previous catalogues of Lynga (1987, Cat. ) and of Mermilliod (1995, in Information and On-Line Data in Astronomy, ed. D. Egret & M. A. Albrecht (Dordrecht: Kluwer), 127) (included in the WEBDA database, http://obswww.unige.ch/webda). New objects and new data, in particular, data on kinematics (proper motions) that were not present in the old catalogues, have been included. Virtually all the clusters (1629) presently known were included, which represents an increment of about 476 objects relative to the Lynga (1987, Cat. ) catalogue. The catalogue is presented in a single table containing all the important data, which makes it easy to use. In total, 99% of the objects have estimates of their apparent diameters, and 38% have distance, E(B-V) and age determinations. Concerning the data on kinematics, 22% have their mean proper motions listed, 14% their mean radial velocities, and 11% have both information simultaneously. (6 data files).

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Optically visible open clusters and Candidates (Dias+ 2002-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, W. S.; Alessi, B. S.; Moitinho, A.; Lepine, J. R. D.

    2007-09-01

    We have compiled a new catalogue of open clusters in the Galaxy which updates the previous catalogues of Lynga (1987, Cat. ) and of Mermilliod (1995, in Information and On-Line Data in Astronomy, ed. D. Egret & M. A. Albrecht (Dordrecht: Kluwer), 127) (included in the WEBDA database, http://obswww.unige.ch/webda). New objects and new data, in particular, data on kinematics (proper motions) that were not present in the old catalogues, have been included. Virtually all the clusters (1629) presently known were included, which represents an increment of about 476 objects relative to the Lynga (1987, Cat. ) catalogue. The catalogue is presented in a single table containing all the important data, which makes it easy to use. In total, 99% of the objects have estimates of their apparent diameters, and 38% have distance, E(B-V) and age determinations. Concerning the data on kinematics, 22% have their mean proper motions listed, 14% their mean radial velocities, and 11% have both information simultaneously. (5 data files).

  14. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF MEMBER STARS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 2632 (PRAESEPE)

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X. L.; Chen, Y. Q.; Zhao, G.

    2015-11-15

    Based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra, we present abundances of 17 elements (Fe, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Y, Zr, Ba, La) for six stars (one Am star, one F dwarf star, and four GK giant stars) and radial velocities for 18 proper-motion selected member stars in the open cluster NGC 2632. In the Am star, s-process elements Y and Ba are clearly overabundant, which may be considered as an indicator of a peculiar Am star. The average [Fe/H] is 0.16 ± 0.06 from four GK giant member stars, which is similar to that of solar-type stars in the literature. As compared with dwarf stars, significant overabundances are found for Na, Mg, and Ba elements in our giant stars, which can be explained by the evolutionary effect. We also detect a star-to-star scatter of [Na/Fe] ratios among four giants which locate approximately at the same position in the CMD. Finally, we perform an analysis on the possible connection between the abundance and spatial structure of NGC 2632, but we find no inhomogeneous abundance among different clumps of stars in this cluster based on our limited sample.

  15. NSVS 1908107, an EB-type eclipsing binary in the open cluster NGC 869

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yang; Luo, Zhi-Quan; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Deng, Li-Cai; Wang, Kun; Luo, Yang-Ping; Fang, Wei-Jing; Peng, Yin-Jiang; Sun, Jin-Jiang; Liu, Qi-Li; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    We present a time-series BV CCD photometry for an EB-type eclipsing binary NSVS 1908107, a member of the young open cluster NGC 869. The photometric solution was obtained by using the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney code. It reveals that the system is a semi-detached binary with the secondary component filling its Roche lobe. The mass ratio was determined to be 0.059±0.001. With the physical parameters of the cluster, the masses, radii and luminosities of the two components of NSVS 1908107 are estimated to be M 1 = 10.34±2.29 M ⊙, R 1 = 4.65±0.34 R ⊙, L 1 = 8076±371 L ⊙ and M 2 = 0.61±0.13 M ⊙, R 2 = 2.40±0.17 R ⊙, L 2 = 1054±48 L ⊙ respectively. The results show that the secondary component could be a giant or subgiant star with the outer envelope being stripped.

  16. Chemical Abundances of Member Stars in the Open Cluster NGC 2632 (Praesepe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. L.; Chen, Y. Q.; Zhao, G.

    2015-11-01

    Based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra, we present abundances of 17 elements (Fe, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Y, Zr, Ba, La) for six stars (one Am star, one F dwarf star, and four GK giant stars) and radial velocities for 18 proper-motion selected member stars in the open cluster NGC 2632. In the Am star, s-process elements Y and Ba are clearly overabundant, which may be considered as an indicator of a peculiar Am star. The average [Fe/H] is 0.16 ± 0.06 from four GK giant member stars, which is similar to that of solar-type stars in the literature. As compared with dwarf stars, significant overabundances are found for Na, Mg, and Ba elements in our giant stars, which can be explained by the evolutionary effect. We also detect a star-to-star scatter of [Na/Fe] ratios among four giants which locate approximately at the same position in the CMD. Finally, we perform an analysis on the possible connection between the abundance and spatial structure of NGC 2632, but we find no inhomogeneous abundance among different clumps of stars in this cluster based on our limited sample.

  17. Open clusters as laboratories for stellar spin-down and magnetic activity decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Stephanie; Agueros, Marcel A.; Covey, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    The oldest open clusters within 250 pc of the Sun, the Hyades and Praesepe, are important benchmarks for calibrating stellar properties such as rotation and magnetic activity. As they have the same age and roughly solar metallicity, these clusters serve as an ideal laboratory for testing the agreement between theoretical and empirical rotation-activity relations at ~600 Myr. The repurposed Kepler mission, K2, has allowed us to measure rotation periods for dozens of Hyads and hundreds of Praesepe members, including the first periods measured for fully convective Hyads. These data have enabled new tests of models describing the evolution of stellar rotation; discrepancies with these models imply that we still do not fully understand how magnetic fields affect stellar spin-down. I will present rotation periods measured for 48 Hyads and 699 Praesepe members with K2, along with associated Halpha and X-ray fluxes. I will also show how we can compare the dependence of H-alpha and X-ray emission on rotation in order to test theories of magnetic field topology and stellar dynamos. These tests inform models of stellar wind-driven angular momentum loss and the age-rotation-activity relation.

  18. Climatological analyses of LMA data with an open-source lightning flash-clustering algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Brody R.; Bruning, Eric C.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 63 million lightning flashes have been identified and analyzed from multiple years of Washington, D. C., northern Alabama, and northeast Colorado lightning mapping array (LMA) data using an open-source flash-clustering algorithm. LMA networks detect radiation produced by lightning breakdown processes, allowing for high-resolution mapping of lightning flashes. Similar to other existing clustering algorithms, the algorithm described herein groups lightning-produced radiation sources by space and time to estimate total flash counts and information about each detected flash. Various flash characteristics and their sensitivity to detection efficiency are investigated to elucidate biases in the algorithm, detail detection efficiencies of various LMAs, and guide future improvements. Furthermore, flash density values in each region are compared to corresponding satellite estimates. While total flash density values produced by the algorithm in Washington, D. C. ( 20 flashes km-2 yr-1), and Alabama ( 35 flashes km-2 yr-1) are within 50% of satellite estimates, LMA-based estimates are approximately a factor of 3 larger (50 flashes km-2 yr-1) than satellite estimates in northeast Colorado. Accordingly, estimates of the ratio of in-cloud to cloud-to-ground flashes near the LMA network ( 20) are approximately a factor of 3 larger than satellite estimates in Colorado. These large differences between estimates may be related to the distinct environment conducive to intense convection, low-altitude flashes, and unique charge structures in northeast Colorado.

  19. X-ray and optical spectroscopy of the massive young open cluster IC 1805

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauw, G.; Nazé, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Very young open clusters are ideal places to study the X-ray properties of a homogeneous population of early-type stars. In this respect, the IC 1805 open cluster is very interesting as it hosts the O4 If+ star HD 15570 thought to be in an evolutionary stage intermediate between a normal O-star and a Wolf-Rayet star. Aims: Such a star could provide a test for theoretical models ai