Science.gov

Sample records for open pit method

  1. Open-pit explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Dannenberg, J.

    1982-07-01

    This paper explains how mine operators are taking a closer look at the power of explosives and how primary breakage affects other open-pit mining costs. Slurries have overcome most of the disadvantages attributed to them in their early years and may replace Anfo. Effective blasting is the key to an efficient, low-cost mining operation. Reviews are presented on research in crater studies, computer-aided design, the expanding gas theory, and high-speed motion picture cameras that show the importance of shock energy in fracturing the rock interfaces throughout the burden. The paper concludes with MSHA-approved courses in blasting offered throughout the US.

  2. Ultimate open pit stochastic optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotte, Denis; Caron, Josiane

    2013-02-01

    Classical open pit optimization (maximum closure problem) is made on block estimates, without directly considering the block grades uncertainty. We propose an alternative approach of stochastic optimization. The stochastic optimization is taken as the optimal pit computed on the block expected profits, rather than expected grades, computed from a series of conditional simulations. The stochastic optimization generates, by construction, larger ore and waste tonnages than the classical optimization. Contrary to the classical approach, the stochastic optimization is conditionally unbiased for the realized profit given the predicted profit. A series of simulated deposits with different variograms are used to compare the stochastic approach, the classical approach and the simulated approach that maximizes expected profit among simulated designs. Profits obtained with the stochastic optimization are generally larger than the classical or simulated pit. The main factor controlling the relative gain of stochastic optimization compared to classical approach and simulated pit is shown to be the information level as measured by the boreholes spacing/range ratio. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the classical approach increase with the treatment costs but decrease with mining costs. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the simulated pit approach increase both with the treatment and mining costs. At early stages of an open pit project, when uncertainty is large, the stochastic optimization approach appears preferable to the classical approach or the simulated pit approach for fair comparison of the values of alternative projects and for the initial design and planning of the open pit.

  3. Open-pit equipment notebook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Beds of consolidated material need to be drilled and blasted before successful excavation. In open-pit mining it is common to move fragmented material across to spoil piles by dragline, shovel, or bucketwheel excavator. One method recently introduced uses explosives to throw much of the overburden across the pit, thus reducing the amount of material needing rehandling. The increased cost of explosives must be balanced with the reduced cost of power needed by the prime excavator. The drill hole pattern and the use of high energy explosives require careful design. Making the choice between hydraulic excavators with a backhoe or front shovel, wheel loaders, and rope-operated shovels continues to be an interesting area of debate. While the rope-operated electric shovel is best for large output, smaller shovels are being replaced by hydraulic excavators for numerous reasons. One of the advantages of hydraulic excavators is that they weigh around half that of rope-operated shovels with the same size bucket. Another advantage is their mobility. They can move at a speed roughly twice that of a rope-operated shovel. Hydraulic excavators can successfully attack a solid face that needs blasting before being loaded by a wheel loader or rope-operated shovel. Neither the rope-operated shovel nor the wheel loader has the wrist-action of the hydraulic excavator. The backhoe's ability to dig below the level on which it is situated and to load trucks that are on the pit floor is important. Recently, many equipment manufacturers have introduced microprocessor-controlled systems for higher power and simpler operation. The choice between wheel loaders and hydraulic excavators should be based on site conditions.

  4. Open pit blasting in India

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, D.A.; Garg, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    Open pit blasting in India uses two types of explosives. First there are bulk explosives for wet and dry holes, and there are packaged explosives. The Indian open pit coal mining is projected to use 190 thousand metric tons of explosives in 1995. This volume is projected to grow for the next ten years, whereas the underground coal mining will hold fairly constant. Bulk explosives started in about 1977 with watergels. In the late 1980s, bulk emulsions and heavy ANFOs were introduced. This system is still being expanded and is replacing packaged products in the larger mines. Packaged products are still popular where the annual consumption is less than 2,000 metric tons per year. Also, packaged products are used in small wet shots. Porous ammonium nitrate prill have recently become available but ANFO is not very common because of the high cost of the prill and the wet blasting conditions. As the market expands there will be a continuing demand for packaged products but an increasing demand for bulk waterproof products, particularly in the larger operations. Dynamites are produced at four plants in India. The annual production of about 45,000 metric tons per year is holding fairly constant, but is likely to decrease in the future. The future blasting in India will primarily use pumped emulsions and heavy ANFO on an increasing basis, but the packaged products will maintain their position.

  5. Energy saving ideas for open pit mining

    SciTech Connect

    Rixen, W.; Benecke, K.J.

    1981-05-01

    The increasing cost of diesel fuel is making truck haulage in open pit mines less economic. Belt conveyor systems have much lower operating costs but are not as flexible in their application and require more detailed pit planning. The possibility of combining the flexibility of trucks with the low cost of conveyors is offered by the application of semi-mobile crushing plants followed by belt conveyors for the main haul out of the pit. In the first part of this article. Dr.-Ing W. Rixen describes some of the semi-mobile plants already in operation, while in the second section. Dr.-Ing K.J. Benecke discusses a theoretical case study involving trucks, crushers, and conveyors. Since a belt conveyor cannot transport rocks of a size often produced when blasting hard strata, a crusher must be installed before the belt conveyor to reduce the material to a transportable size. This also serves as a primary crusher. The crushing plant is positioned centrally in the mine and trucks haul overburden and ore from the individual faces to the crusher without having to climb long gradients. Therefore, truck haul distances and operating costs are significantly reduced. The resulting savings in operating costs greatly exceeds the additional capital costs for the crushing plant. The use of fully mobile crushers directly fed by the face shovel is well established. Whereas the partial elimination of truck haulage by semi-mobile in-pit crushers is a more recent development. This latter method restricts truck haulage to in-pit operation only, saving costly haulage of material up-grade out of the pit to the crusher or overburden dump. It is particularly applicable to operations where blending is required. In such cases, the flexibility and adaptability of trucks to frequently changing faces is essential, while the semi-mobile crusher reduces haul distances to a minimum.

  6. Nature-oriented open coal mining technologies using mined-out space in an open-pit. Part II: A method for selecting rational sequence of mining flat dipping stratified deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Molotilov, S.G.; Norri, V.K.; Cheskidov, V.I.; Mattis, A.R.

    2007-01-15

    A method is proposed for selecting a rational mining sequence with internal dumping for flat stratified deposits, using new principles of the open-pit process-space formation and development. The main criteria for substantiating the mining sequence are geometrical form and development direction of the open-pit space, structure of the working wall and transportation network, internal dumping capacities and mining earthworks volumes.

  7. Sub-pixel method for analysis of optical data in determining the overburden dumps and open pit mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, D.; Nikolov, H.; Petkov, D.; Banushev, B.

    2011-11-01

    Mining plants are one of the factors having major negative impact on the area where they are situated. In our study this is the case of the mine production plant consisting of Elacite mine and Mirkovo floatation plant both located in central part of Stara Planina Mountain. In this study an attempt is made to delineate the overburden dumps and open pit mines by means of remotely sensed multispectral data with moderate spatial resolution (e.g. Landsat TM/ETM+ 30m) is a challenging task. The major difficulties arise from: 1) large period using the dump (introducing the need for multitemporal data); 2) the unknown proportions of vegetation, soil and embedding rock samples in the boundary areas and their seasonal variations; 3) relatively restricted access to places of interest. A variety of methods have been proposed to overcome the problems with pixels corresponding to two or more end-members, but a promising one is the soft classification which assign single pixel to several land cover classes in proportion to the area of the pixel that each class covers. In this scenario for every pixel of the data the correct proportion of the end-members should be found and then co-registered with the corresponding original pixel. As a result this sub-pixel classification procedure generates a number of fraction images equal to the number of land cover classes (end-members). The sub-pixel mapping algorithms we have exploited so far have one property in common: accuracy assessment of sub-pixel mapping algorithms is not easy because of missing high resolution ground truth data. One possible solution is to incorporate in the method adopted additional ex-situ and in-situ measured data from field and laboratory spectrometers with bandwidth about 1 nm. This study presents a successful implementation of soft classification method with additional, precise spectrometric data for determination of dump areas of the copper plant and open ore mine. The results achieved are proving that the in

  8. LONGITUDINAL VIEW OF THE SOAKING PIT BUILDING INTERIOR WITH OPEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LONGITUDINAL VIEW OF THE SOAKING PIT BUILDING INTERIOR WITH OPEN HEARTH IN BACKGROUND AND FURNACE PIT/ STACK AREA TO THE LEFT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Open Hearth Plant, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  9. Heavy Duty Tireman. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColman, Don

    This training outline for heavy duty tiremen, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  10. 78 FR 33894 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment... members of the Armed Forces to toxic airborne chemicals and fumes caused by open burn pits. DATES: Written...: cynthia.harvey-pryor@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry...

  11. 78 FR 54956 - Agency Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment....rennie@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard...

  12. Numerical modelling of the groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine: Kolahdarvazeh pit, Central Iran.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Aslani, Soheyla; Baafi, Ernest

    2014-12-01

    The groundwater inflow into a mine during its life and after ceasing operations is one of the most important concerns of the mining industry. This paper presents a hydrogeological assessment of the Irankuh Zn-Pb mine at 20 km south of Esfahan and 1 km northeast of Abnil in west-Central Iran. During mine excavation, the upper impervious bed of a confined aquifer was broken and water at high-pressure flowed into an open pit mine associated with the Kolahdarvazeh deposit. The inflow rates were 6.7 and 1.4 m(3)/s at the maximum and minimum quantities, respectively. Permeability, storage coefficient, thickness and initial head of the fully saturated confined aquifer were 3.5 × 10(-4) m/s, 0.2, 30 m and 60 m, respectively. The hydraulic heads as a function of time were monitored at four observation wells in the vicinity of the pit over 19 weeks and at an observation well near a test well over 21 h. In addition, by measuring the rate of pumping out from the pit sump, at a constant head (usually equal to height of the pit floor), the real inflow rates to the pit were monitored. The main innovations of this work were to make comparison between numerical modelling using a finite element software called SEEP/W and actual data related to inflow and extend the applicability of the numerical model. This model was further used to estimate the hydraulic heads at the observation wells around the pit over 19 weeks during mining operations. Data from a pump-out test and observation wells were used for model calibration and verification. In order to evaluate the model efficiency, the modelling results of inflow quantity and hydraulic heads were compared to those from analytical solutions, as well as the field data. The mean percent error in relation to field data for the inflow quantity was 0.108. It varied between 1.16 and 1.46 for hydraulic head predictions, which are much lower values than the mean percent errors resulted from the analytical solutions (from 1.8 to 5

  13. Numerical modelling of the groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine: Kolahdarvazeh pit, Central Iran.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Aslani, Soheyla; Baafi, Ernest

    2014-12-01

    The groundwater inflow into a mine during its life and after ceasing operations is one of the most important concerns of the mining industry. This paper presents a hydrogeological assessment of the Irankuh Zn-Pb mine at 20 km south of Esfahan and 1 km northeast of Abnil in west-Central Iran. During mine excavation, the upper impervious bed of a confined aquifer was broken and water at high-pressure flowed into an open pit mine associated with the Kolahdarvazeh deposit. The inflow rates were 6.7 and 1.4 m(3)/s at the maximum and minimum quantities, respectively. Permeability, storage coefficient, thickness and initial head of the fully saturated confined aquifer were 3.5 × 10(-4) m/s, 0.2, 30 m and 60 m, respectively. The hydraulic heads as a function of time were monitored at four observation wells in the vicinity of the pit over 19 weeks and at an observation well near a test well over 21 h. In addition, by measuring the rate of pumping out from the pit sump, at a constant head (usually equal to height of the pit floor), the real inflow rates to the pit were monitored. The main innovations of this work were to make comparison between numerical modelling using a finite element software called SEEP/W and actual data related to inflow and extend the applicability of the numerical model. This model was further used to estimate the hydraulic heads at the observation wells around the pit over 19 weeks during mining operations. Data from a pump-out test and observation wells were used for model calibration and verification. In order to evaluate the model efficiency, the modelling results of inflow quantity and hydraulic heads were compared to those from analytical solutions, as well as the field data. The mean percent error in relation to field data for the inflow quantity was 0.108. It varied between 1.16 and 1.46 for hydraulic head predictions, which are much lower values than the mean percent errors resulted from the analytical solutions (from 1.8 to 5

  14. Open pit slope deformation monitoring by fiber Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guoquan; Xiong, Daiyu; Duan, Yun; Cao, Xiaoshuang

    2015-01-01

    With microstrain resolution and the capability to sample at rates of 2000 Hz or higher, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensor offers exciting new possibilities for in situ deformation monitoring induced by blasting load in an open pit slope. Here, we are developing a new technology for measuring deformation in real time on the microstrain in an open pit slope during the blasting. A fiber optically instrumented rock mass strain sensor measured strain at 100-cm intervals along a two anchor rock bolt grouted in the slope intact rock mass. In field testing, a number of transient signals have been observed, which in some cases were large enough to trigger rapid sampling. The combination of short- and long-term observation offers new insight into the slope stability and blasting cumulative effects. Therefore, FBG sensors are a useful tool for measuring in situ strain in intact rock masses.

  15. Radon release and dispersion from an open pit uranium mine

    SciTech Connect

    Kisieleski, W.E.

    1980-06-01

    Radon-222 flux from representative sections of the United Nuclear St. Anthony open-pit mine complex was measured. The collected radon was adsorbed on activated charcoal and the radon activity was measured by gamma spectroscopy. System design, calibration, and the procedure to determine radon flux density (pCi/m/sup 2/.s) are described. A continuous series of radon flux densities were measured over a 5-month period at a control point in the mine. The average flux density at the control point was 1.9 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. A close correlation between radon flux density variations and changes in barometric pressure was observed by a comparison of meteorological data and average daily radon flux density measured at the control point. The release rate from each section of the mine was calculated from the average radon flux density and the area of the section, as determined from enlarged aerial photographs. The average radon flux density for eight locations over the ore-bearing section was 7.3 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average flux density for four locations over undisturbed topsoil was 0.17 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average Ra-226 content of ten samples taken from the ore-bearing region was 102 pCi/g ore. The ratio of radon flux density to radium content (specific flux) was 0.072. The release rate from the entire St. Anthony open pit was determined to be 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ pCi/s. This rate is comparable to the natural release of radon from one square mile of undisturbed topsoil. 16 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Nielson, K.K.; Mauch, M.L.

    1982-08-01

    The quantity of /sup 222/Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and /sup 226/Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall.

  17. PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT MINE HIGHWALLS

    EPA Science Inventory



    Exposed, open pit mine highwalls contribute significantly to the production of acid mine

    drainage (AMD) thus causing environmental concerns upon closure of an operating mine. Available information on the generation of AMD from open-pit mine highwalls is very limit...

  18. The Experience of Implementation of Innovative Technology of Quarry Waste Water Purifying in Kuzbass Open Pit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesin, Yu V.; Hellmer, M. C.

    2016-08-01

    Among all industries in Kuzbass (Western Siberia, Russia) the coal industry provides the most environmental threat. However, the construction of new and maintenance of existing open pit mines do not often correspond to the tasks of improving the environmental safety of surface mining. So the article describes the use of innovative quarry waste water purifying technology implemented in Kuzbass open pit mine «Shestaki». This technology is based on using artificial filter arrays made of overburden rock.

  19. Method for Identifying Lava Tubes Among Pit Craters Using Brightness Profile Across Pits on the Moon or Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jongil; Hong, Ik-Seon; Cho, Eunjin; Yi, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Caves can serve as major outposts for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars. In addition, caves can protect people and electronic equipment from external hazards such as cosmic ray radiation and meteorites impacts and serve as a shelter. Numerous pit craters have been discovered on the Moon and Mars and are potential entrances to caves; the principal topographic features of pit craters are their visible internal floors and pits with vertical walls. We have devised two topographical models for investigating the relationship between the topographical characteristics and the inner void of pit craters. One of our models is a concave floor void model and the other is a convex floor tube model. For each model, optical photographs have been obtained under conditions similar to those in which optical photographs have been acquired for craters on the Moon and Mars. Brightness profiles were analyzed for determining the profile patterns of the void pit craters. The profile patterns were compared to the brightness profiles of Martian pit craters, because no good-quality images of lunar pit craters were available. In future studies, the model profile patterns will be compared to those of lunar pit craters, and the proposed method will likely become useful for finding lunar caves and consequently for planning lunar bases for manned lunar expeditions.

  20. Utilization of open pit burned household waste ash--a feasibility study in Dhaka.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Obaidul; Sharif, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Informal incineration or open pit burning of waste materials is a common practice in the peripheral area of Dhaka, one of the fastest growing mega-cities in the world. This study deals with the effect of open pit burned (i.e. open burned) household waste bottom ash on fired clay bricks. Between 0 to 50% (by weight) of open pit burned household waste bottom ash was mixed with clay to make bricks. The molded specimens were air-dried at room temperature for 24 h and then oven dried at 100 °C for another 24 h to remove the water. The raw bricks were fired in a muffle furnace to a designated temperature (800, 900 and 1000 °C, respectively). The firing behaviour (mechanical strength, water absorption and shrinkage) was determined. The microstructures, phase compositions and leachates were evaluated for bricks manufactured at different firing temperatures. These results demonstrate that open pit burned ash can be recycled in clay bricks. This study also presents physical observations of the incinerated ash particles and determination of the chemical compositions of the raw materials by wet analysis. Open pit burned ash can be introduced easily into bricks up to 20% wt. The concentrations of hazardous components in the leachates were below the standard threshold for inert waste category landfill and their environmental risk during their use-life step can be considered negligible.

  1. Utilization of open pit burned household waste ash--a feasibility study in Dhaka.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Obaidul; Sharif, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Informal incineration or open pit burning of waste materials is a common practice in the peripheral area of Dhaka, one of the fastest growing mega-cities in the world. This study deals with the effect of open pit burned (i.e. open burned) household waste bottom ash on fired clay bricks. Between 0 to 50% (by weight) of open pit burned household waste bottom ash was mixed with clay to make bricks. The molded specimens were air-dried at room temperature for 24 h and then oven dried at 100 °C for another 24 h to remove the water. The raw bricks were fired in a muffle furnace to a designated temperature (800, 900 and 1000 °C, respectively). The firing behaviour (mechanical strength, water absorption and shrinkage) was determined. The microstructures, phase compositions and leachates were evaluated for bricks manufactured at different firing temperatures. These results demonstrate that open pit burned ash can be recycled in clay bricks. This study also presents physical observations of the incinerated ash particles and determination of the chemical compositions of the raw materials by wet analysis. Open pit burned ash can be introduced easily into bricks up to 20% wt. The concentrations of hazardous components in the leachates were below the standard threshold for inert waste category landfill and their environmental risk during their use-life step can be considered negligible. PMID:24646568

  2. Results of the Promethee Method Application in Selecting the Technological System at the Majdan III Open Pit Mine / Wyniki Zastosowania Metody Promethee do Wyboru Systemu Technologicznego W Kopalni Odkrywkowej Majdan III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujić, Slobodan; Hudej, Marjan; Miljanović, Igor

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses the application of the PROMETHEE model and the results achieved in practice, following the example of the multi-criteria selection of the technological system at the Majdan III clay mineral raw material open pit mine of the Potisje Company, Republic of Serbia. After the introduction comments, reasons are explained for selecting the new technological system, conditions and limitations for the seven alternative solutions considered are described, mathematical foundation for the PROMETHEE method and a multi-criteria model of the problem in question are presented. The solution with the following structure was ranked first and accepted by the Company management as the best: Bucket chain excavator - Conveyor belts - Spreader (ECS), alongside a decision is made on the acquisition of machinery and system construction. The system was put into operation in 2000. The experience and the data accumulated in the previous twelve years confirm that the decision made on the application of the ECS technology was just, and the conclusion lists the benefits achieved. W artykule omówiono zastosowanie modelu Promethee i przedyskutowano uzyskane w ten sposób wyniki na przykładzie wielokryterialnego wyboru systemu technologicznego do zastosowania w kopalni odkrywkowej minerałów ilastych Majdan III, należącej do przedsiębiorstwa górniczego Potisje (Republika Serbii). Po uwagach wprowadzających przedstawiono powody wyboru nowego ciągu technologicznego, omówiono warunki oraz ograniczenia dla siedmiu alternatywnych rozwiązań, podstawy matematyczne metody Promethee oraz wielokryterialny model zagadnienia. Rozwiązanie uznane za najlepsze i zaaprobowane przez zarząd przedsiębiorstwa zakłada zastosowanie następującego ciągu technologicznego: koparka łancuchowa jednonaczyniowa - przenośniki taśmowe - rozkładarka(system ECS). Podjęto także decyzje odnośnie zakupu sprzętu i instalacji systemu, który uruchomiony został w 2000 roku. Doświadczenia i

  3. Stimulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria in lake water from a former open-pit mine through addition of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.M.; Wielinga, B.W.; Gannon, J.E.; Moore, J.N.

    1999-03-01

    A method to improve water quality in a lake occupying a former open-pit mine was evaluated in a laboratory-scale study. Untreated pit lake water contained high levels of sulfate, iron, and arsenic and was mildly acidic ({approximately} pH 6). Varying amounts of two locally available organic waste products were added to pit water and maintained in microcosms under anoxic conditions. In selected microcosms, populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria increased with time; sulfide was generated by sulfate reduction; sulfate, iron, and arsenic concentrations approached zero; and pH approached neutrality. Best results were obtained with intermediate amounts of waste potato skin.

  4. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT HIGHWALLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 26, Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Generation from Open-Pit Highwalls. The intent of this project was to obtain performance data on the ability of four technologies to prevent the gener...

  5. 78 FR 44625 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... June 5, 2013 (78 FR 33894), and posting the draft questionnaire that was the subject of that notice, on... 5, 2013, VA published a notice in the Federal Register (78 FR 33894) (FR Doc. 2013-13224) announcing... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard...

  6. A method to predict evolving post-closure pit lake chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.; Fennemore, G.G.

    1998-12-31

    There are currently over 50 active open pit mines in Nevada, at least 30 of which may be inundated by ground water upon pit closure, forming lakes as deep as 200 m when the pumps dewatering the excavation are turned off. With the growing awareness of environmental issues related to mining, prediction of future pit-lake chemistry has become mandatory during permitting, to determine both potential ecological risk, and long-term impacts on downgradient groundwater quality. This paper outline a methodology that couples a groundwater model (MODFLOW) with the rate of solute leaching from pit wall rocks (derived from field experiments and the FND pyrite oxidation model), and the geochemical reactions occurring in the pit lake water column (using PHREEQC). The model would predict pit lake water quality (chemogenesis) from the juvenile infilling condition through a mature, hydrogeologically steady-state condition.

  7. Automatic monitoring system for high-steep slope in open-pit mine based on GPS and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chunmei; Li, Xianfu; Qin, Sunwei; Qiu, Dandan; Wu, Yanlin; Xiao, Yun; Zhou, Jian

    2008-12-01

    Recently, GPS has been more and more applicative in open pit mine slope safety monitoring. Daye Iron Mine open pit high-steep slope automatic monitoring system mainly consists of three modules, namely, GPS data processing module, monitoring and warning module, emergency plans module. According to the rock mass structural feature and the side slope stability evaluation, it is arranged altogether to seven GPS distortion monitoring points on the sharp of Fault F9 at Daye iron Mine, adopted the combination of monofrequent static GPS receiver and data-transmission radio to carry on the observation, the data processing mainly uses three transect interpolation method to solve the questions of discontinuity and Effectiveness in the data succession. According to the displacement monitoring data from 1990 to 1996 of Daye Iron Mine East Open Pit Shizi mountain Landslide A2, researching the displacement criterion, rate criterion, acceleration criterion, creep curve tangent angle criterion etc of landslide failure, the result shows that the landslide A2 is the lapse type crag nature landslide whose movement in three phases, namely creep stage, accelerated phase, destruction stage. It is different of the failure criterion in different stages and different position that is at the rear, central, front margin of the landslide. It has important guiding significance to put forward the comprehensive failure criterion of seven new-settled monitoring points combining the slope deformation destruction and macroscopic evidence.

  8. Characterizing a fractured aquifer in Mexico using geological attributes related to open-pit groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Enrique; Garfias, Jaime

    2013-09-01

    A multivariable analysis of the Rock Quality Designation ( RQD) and its relation with the hydraulic conductivity of 17 dewatering wells in an open-pit mine (central Mexico) is presented as a tool for groundwater exploration in fractured aquifers. A solid model was constructed with the RQD data using three sizes for each grid cell and four interpolation methods. The inverse-distance method with a small grid gives the best results. The resulting RQD solid model was used to locate 22 pilot holes, on which an air-lift test was performed as a qualitative assessment of their usefulness. The results showed a lower water production (1.8 l/s) in shale that has low alteration, whereas in highly altered shale, breccias, and intrusive rock, the flow rate was 3.9 l/s. This implies an important relationship between the pilot-hole performance, the lithology, and the rock alteration, but it was also found that some fractures or faults, which cannot be detected clearly by the RQD, play an important role in the hydrodynamics of the aquifer. In conclusion, it is necessary to consider all available factors that can help to identify the hydrodynamic behavior of the aquifer because using only RQD data can lead to errors in prospecting for groundwater.

  9. Groundwater age, mixing and flow rates in the vicinity of large open pit mines, Pilbara region, northwestern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Peter; Dogramaci, Shawan; McCallum, James; Hedley, Joanne

    2016-09-01

    Determining groundwater ages from environmental tracer concentrations measured on samples obtained from open bores or long-screened intervals is fraught with difficulty because the sampled water represents a variety of ages. A multi-tracer technique (Cl, 14C, 3H, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113 and SF6) was used to decipher the groundwater ages sampled from long-screened production bores in a regional aquifer around an open pit mine in the Pilbara region of northwest Australia. The changes in tracer concentrations due to continuous dewatering over 7 years (2008-2014) were examined, and the tracer methods were compared. Tracer concentrations suggest that groundwater samples are a mixture of young and old water; the former is inferred to represent localised recharge from an adjacent creek, and the latter to be diffuse recharge. An increase in 14C activity with time in wells closest to the creek suggests that dewatering of the open pit to achieve dry mining conditions has resulted in change in flow direction, so that localised recharge from the creek now forms a larger proportion of the pumped groundwater. The recharge rate prior to development, calculated from a steady-state Cl mass balance, is 6 mm/y, and is consistent with calculations based on the 14C activity. Changes in CFC-12 concentrations with time may be related to the change in water-table position relative to the depth of the well screen.

  10. Volume Computation of a Stockpile - a Study Case Comparing GPS and Uav Measurements in AN Open Pit Quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeva, P. L.; Filipova, S. L.; Filipov, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    The following paper aims to test and evaluate the accuracy of UAV data for volumetric measurements to the conventional GNSS techniques. For this purpose, an appropriate open pit quarry has been chosen. Two sets of measurements were performed. Firstly, a stockpile was measured by GNSS technologies and later other terrestrial GNSS measurements for modelling the berms of the quarry were taken. Secondly, the area of the whole quarry including the stockpile site was mapped by a UAV flight. Having considered how dynamic our world is, new techniques and methods should be presented in numerous fields. For instance, the management of an open pit quarry requires gaining, processing and storing a large amount of information which is constantly changing with time. Fast and precise acquisition of measurements regarding the process taking place in a quarry is the key to an effective and stable maintenance. In other words, this means getting an objective evaluations of the processes, using up-to-date technologies and reliable accuracy of the results. Often legislations concerning mine engineering state that the volumetric calculations are to present ±3% accuracy of the whole amount. On one hand, extremely precise measurements could be performed by GNSS technologies, however, it could be really time consuming. On the other hand, UAV photogrammetry presents a fast, accurate method for mapping large areas and calculating stockpiles volumes. The study case was performed as a part of a master thesis.

  11. Evaluation of methods for attaching PIT tags and biotelemetry devices to freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated methods to attach PIT tags and transmitters to freshwater mussels. Mussels received externally-mounted PIT tags using cyanoacrylate or underwater epoxy, and a sub-group of those with PIT tags attached using cyanoacrylate also received dummy transmitters. Tag retention and survival were 100% after a 30 day laboratory observation period for each method. During the subsequent 18 months of field observation, underwater epoxy and cyanoacrylate proved to be adequate adhesives for attaching PIT tags and transmitters. Epoxy performed best with 100% PIT tag retention. Cyanoacrylate also provided high retention rates of PIT tags and transmitters, >90%. Mortality was minimal at 4.7% for all relocated mussels over 18 months. All mortalities were those tagged with cyanoacrylate. Three of the mortalities occurred among mussels fitted with dummy transmitters, and seven among PIT tags only. Percent recapture of the different tag/adhesive combinations ranged from 48 - 77.5% during 6- and 18-month surveys. Results suggest both adhesives provide a reliable method for external attachment of tags during freshwater mussel research; however, epoxy may be better suited because of slightly higher tag retention and reduced emersion times during attachment. Copyright ?? 2008 Malacological Society of Australasia.

  12. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment.

  13. Long term monitoring of water basin of an abandoned copper open pit mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, H.; Borisova, D.

    2012-04-01

    Nonoperating open pit mines, very often as a matter of fact abandoned, create serious ecological risk for the region of their location especially for the quality of the water since the rainfall fills the bottom of the pit forming water body having different depth. This water as a rule has very high concentration of the metals in it and is highly toxic. One example for such opencast, idle copper mine is Medet located in the central part of Bulgaria who was started for exploitation in 1964 and at that moment being the largest in Europe for production of copper concentrate. In the vicinity of it after autumn and spring rains there are many cases reported for water contamination by heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, cadmium in the rivers running close to this open pit mine. This justifies the need for long term and sustainable monitoring of the area of the water basin of this idle mine in order to estimate its acid drainage and imaging spectroscopy combined with is-situ investigations is proved to provide reliable results about the area of the water table. In the course of this study we have investigated historical data gathered by remote sensing which allowed us to make conclusions about the year behavior of this area. Our expectations are that the results of this research will help in the rehabilitation process of this idle mine and will provide the local authorities engaged in water quality monitoring with a tool to estimate the possible damage caused to the local rivers and springs. With this research we also would like to contribute to the fulfillment of the following EU Directives: Directive 2006/21/°C on the Management of Waste from the Extractive Industries and Directive 2004/35/ °C on Environmental Liability with regard to the Prevention and Remedying of Environmental Damage.

  14. Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits

    DOEpatents

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1996-12-24

    Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water. 3 figs.

  15. Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits

    DOEpatents

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    1996-01-01

    Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water.

  16. A study of radiation parameters in an open-pit mine.

    PubMed

    Leach, V A; Lokan, K H; Martin, L J

    1982-09-01

    Radiation parameters associated with the open pit mining of a small (10,000 tonnes), but high grade (2%) uranium deposit at Nabarlek, N.T., have been investigated in detail. External radiation levels, radon emanation rates and radon daughter levels were measured systematically during the development of the mine, and are correlated with ore grade, properties of the host rock and atmospheric conditions. Significant radon daughter concentrations were observed only under stable atmospheric conditions, usually during the might and were invariably associated with thermal inversions. The mean cumulative exposure to radon daughters was estimated from the measured levels to be 0.065 Working Level Months for employees working in the pit for the entire four and a half months of mining. The mean cumulative external gamma ray exposure for the same employee group was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters to be 2.3 mSv (230 mrem). For most other employees, however, exposures were much lower. Data on long lived radionuclides in dust and on particle size distribution are also presented.

  17. A New Methodology for Open Pit Slope Design in Karst-Prone Ground Conditions Based on Integrated Stochastic-Limit Equilibrium Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke; Cao, Ping; Ma, Guowei; Fan, Wenchen; Meng, Jingjing; Li, Kaihui

    2016-07-01

    Using the Chengmenshan Copper Mine as a case study, a new methodology for open pit slope design in karst-prone ground conditions is presented based on integrated stochastic-limit equilibrium analysis. The numerical modeling and optimization design procedure contain a collection of drill core data, karst cave stochastic model generation, SLIDE simulation and bisection method optimization. Borehole investigations are performed, and the statistical result shows that the length of the karst cave fits a negative exponential distribution model, but the length of carbonatite does not exactly follow any standard distribution. The inverse transform method and acceptance-rejection method are used to reproduce the length of the karst cave and carbonatite, respectively. A code for karst cave stochastic model generation, named KCSMG, is developed. The stability of the rock slope with the karst cave stochastic model is analyzed by combining the KCSMG code and the SLIDE program. This approach is then applied to study the effect of the karst cave on the stability of the open pit slope, and a procedure to optimize the open pit slope angle is presented.

  18. A simplified economic filter for open-pit gold-silver mining in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Donald A.; Menzie, W. David; Long, Keith R.

    1998-01-01

    In resource assessments of undiscovered mineral deposits and in the early stages of exploration, including planning, a need for prefeasibility cost models exists. In exploration, these models to filter economic from uneconomic deposits help to focus on targets that can really benefit the exploration enterprise. In resource assessment, these models can be used to eliminate deposits that would probably be uneconomic even if discovered. The U. S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) previously developed simplified cost models for such problems (Camm, 1991). These cost models estimate operating and capital expenditures for a mineral deposit given its tonnage, grade, and depth. These cost models were also incorporated in USBM prefeasibility software (Smith, 1991). Because the cost data used to estimate operating and capital costs in these models are now over ten years old, we decided that it was necessary to test these equations with more current data. We limited this study to open-pit gold-silver mines located in the United States.

  19. The Suggestion of the Macrophoto Method for the Evaluation of the Gear Damages by Pitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopiláková, Beáta; Bošanský, Miroslav; Zápotočný, Ján

    2012-12-01

    It is necessary to determine regularly the span of a damaged gear surface caused by pitting. It is an arduous task, because the size of the damage on the tooth flank depends on the number of cycles and the torque. Therefore it is needed to check continually the degree of the surface damage during the testing. When evaluating it is needed to take into account both the area of one tooth and all teeth. In the past various tedious methods with the arduous manual evaluating were used to evaluate pitting . The article deals with the analysis and evaluating of pitting by a new original macrophoto method via the electronic microscope with the computer processing. The main advantage of this method is its speed, exactness and universality.

  20. Strain analysis of pressure vessels contained pits based on digital image correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wan; Feng, Xiu; Li, Junrui; Shi, Xinfeng; Bai, Tian

    2016-01-01

    This investigation applied the digital image correlation technique (DIC) on a pressure vessel that contained several surface pit defects under high pressure. Data on the deformation of the defects and peripheral area is obtained by this method. The results show that the stress and strain increase with the depth among different pits and are the largest at the bottom of any given pit. This method has proven to be a good choice for this type of experiment, where elastic and plastic surface strains need to be measured. The DIC can satisfy the requirements of being in situ, in real time, full-field and make non-contact measurements with more accurate and obvious experimental results compared with traditional measurement methods and pressure vessel test regulations. Also, it is a new, effective way for monitoring defects in online pressure vessels as well as a reliable basis for pressure vessels' safety evaluation.

  1. SQA of finite element method (FEM) codes used for analyses of pit storage/transport packages

    SciTech Connect

    Russel, E.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the software quality assurance of finite element method codes used for analyses of pit storage and transport projects. This methodology utilizes the ISO 9000-3: Guideline for application of 9001 to the development, supply, and maintenance of software, for establishing well-defined software engineering processes to consistently maintain high quality management approaches.

  2. A simplified economic filter for open-pit mining and heap-leach recovery of copper in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Keith R.; Singer, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    Determining the economic viability of mineral deposits of various sizes and grades is a critical task in all phases of mineral supply, from land-use management to mine development. This study evaluates two simple tools for estimating the economic viability of porphyry copper deposits mined by open-pit, heap-leach methods when only limited information on these deposits is available. These two methods are useful for evaluating deposits that either (1) are undiscovered deposits predicted by a mineral resource assessment, or (2) have been discovered but for which little data has been collected or released. The first tool uses ordinary least-squared regression analysis of cost and operating data from selected deposits to estimate a predictive relationship between mining rate, itself estimated from deposit size, and capital and operating costs. The second method uses cost models developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (Camm, 1991) updated using appropriate cost indices. We find that the cost model method works best for estimating capital costs and the empirical model works best for estimating operating costs for mines to be developed in the United States.

  3. Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.

    PubMed

    Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don

    2009-01-01

    According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit. PMID:20037244

  4. What Were the Reasons for the Rapid Landslide Occurrence in "Piaseczno" Open Pit? - Analysis of the Landslide Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakóbczyk, Joanna; Cała, Marek; Stopkowicz, Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Landslides are major natural hazards occurring in opencast mining. The problem of slope stability failure in the existing open pit mines as well as in those which are at a stage of technical closure is current issue in Poland and all over the world. This problem requires conducting in-depth and meaningful analysis which will identify the causes of processes characterized by a very rapid course and large extent. The paper presents the analysis of the landslide causes, which took place on May 11, 2011 on the western slope of the internal dump in "Piaseczno" sulphur mine (at a stage of technical closure). It was the first native sulphur open pit mine in Poland in which the exploitation was carried out from 1958 untill 1971. Reclamation works have been ongoing since 2005. The aim of these works is to create water body which will be used for recreational purposes. During the reclamation works on the western slope of "Piaseczno" reservoir the landslide processes were activated. A detailed description of geology and preliminary analyses of landslide processes are given in [1]. The development of landslide took place in a very violent manner. Moreover, the occurrence of the landslide caused the movement of the reservoir shoreline by about 350 meters and created a bay with the area of approximately 6 hectares. Displacement of 600 000 m3 of soil masses under the water resulted in its level rising by 56 cm. The total volume of ground masses was over 1 million m3. The analysis of the landslide process activation was carried out for two representative cross-sections of the internal dump. Numerical calculations were performed using the Limit Equilibrium Method (SLOPE/W GeoStudio) and the Finite Difference Method using the Shear Strength Reduction Method (FLAC Slope). They were aimed at determining the shape and extent of potential slip surface, which would correspond to the observed landslide. The purpose of the analysis, the results of which are presented in the article, was to

  5. Isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural biodegradation processes in open cast pit mining landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, Christina; Knöller, Kay; Koschorreck, Matthias; Ussath, Maria; Hoth, Nils

    2014-05-01

    In Germany, a major share of the energy production is based on the burning of lignite from open cast pit mines. The remediation and re-cultivation of the former mining areas in the Lusatian and Central German lignite mining district is an enormous technical and economical challenge. After mine closures, the surrounding landscapes are threatened by acid mine drainage (AMD), i.e. the acidification and mineralization of rising groundwater with metals and inorganic contaminants. The high content of sulfur (sulfuric acid, sulfate), nitrogen (ammonium) and iron compounds (iron-hydroxides) deteriorates the groundwater quality and decelerates sustainable development of tourism in (former) mining landscapes. Natural biodegradation or attenuation (NA) processes of inorganic contaminants are considered to be a technically low impact and an economically beneficial solution. The investigations of the stable isotope compositions of compounds involved in NA processes helps clarify the dynamics of natural degradation and provides specific informations on retention processes of sulfate and nitrogen-compounds in mine dump water, mine dump sediment, and residual pit lakes. In an active mine dump we investigated zones where the process of bacterial sulfate reduction, as one very important NA process, takes place and how NA can be enhanced by injecting reactive substrates. Stable isotopes signatures of sulfur and nitrogen components were examined and evaluated in concert with hydrogeochemical data. In addition, we delineated the sources of ammonium pollution in mine dump sediments and investigated nitrification by 15N-labeling techniques to calculate the limit of the conversion of harmful ammonium to nitrate in residual mining lakes. Ultimately, we provided an isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural attenuation of sulfate and ammonium at mine dump sites and mining lakes. Also, we estimated the risk potential for water in different compartments of the hydrological system. In

  6. Modern carbonate microbialites from an asbestos open pit pond, Yukon, Canada.

    PubMed

    Power, I M; Wilson, S A; Dipple, G M; Southam, G

    2011-03-01

    Microbialites were discovered in an open pit pond at an abandoned asbestos mine near Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada. These microbialites are extremely young and presumably began forming soon after the mine closed in 1978. Detailed characterization of the periphyton and microbialites using light and scanning electron microscopy was coupled with mineralogical and isotopic analyses to investigate the mechanisms by which these microbialites formed. The microbialites are columnar in form (cm scale), have an internal spherulitic fabric (mm scale), and are mostly made of aragonite, which is supersaturated in the subsaline pond water. Initial precipitation is seen as acicular aragonite crystals nucleating onto microbial biomass and detrital particles. Continued precipitation entombs benthic diatoms (e.g. Brachysira vitrea), filamentous algae (e.g. Oedogonium sp.), dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. The presence of phototrophs at spherulite centers strongly suggests that these microbes play an important initial role in aragonite precipitation. Substantial growth of individual spherulites occurs abiotically through periodic precipitation of aragonite that forms concentric laminations around spherulite centers while pauses in spherulite growth allow for colonization by microbes. Aragonite associated with biomass (δ(13)C = -4.6‰ VPDB) showed a (13)C-enrichment of 0.8‰ relative to aragonite exhibiting no biomass (δ(13)C = -5.4‰ VPDB), which suggests a modest removal of isotopically light dissolved inorganic carbon by phototrophs. The combination of a low sedimentation rate, high calcification rate, and low microbial growth rate appears to result in the formation of these microbialites. The formation of microbialites at an historic mine site demonstrates that an anthropogenically constructed environment can foster microbial carbonate formation.

  7. Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity using Abandoned Works (open pits and deep mines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, E.; Willems, T.; Bodeux, S.; Orban, P.; Dassargues, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a good alternative to increase the efficiency of power plants, which cannot regulate the amount of electricity generated according to the demand (wind, solar or even nuclear power plants). PSH plants, which consist in two reservoirs located at different heights (upper and lower), can store energy during low demand periods (pumping water from the lower to the upper reservoir) and generate electricity during the high demand peaks (falling water from the upper to the lower reservoir). Given that the two reservoirs must be located at different heights, PSH plants cannot be constructed in flat regions. Nevertheless, in these regions, an alternative could be to use abandoned underground works (open pits or deep mines) as lower reservoirs to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants. To select the best place to construct a plant, two considerations must be taken into account regarding the interaction between UPSH plants and groundwater: 1) the alteration of the natural conditions of aquifers and 2), the efficiency of the plant since the electricity generated depends on the hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir. Obviously, a detailed numerical model must be necessary before to select a location. However, a screening methodology to reject the most disadvantageous sites in a short period of time would be useful. Groundwater flow impacts caused by UPSH plants are analyzed numerically and the main variables involved in the groundwater evolution are identified. The most noticeable effect consists in an oscillation of the groundwater. The hydraulic head around which groundwater oscillates, the magnitude of the oscillations and the time to achieve a "dynamic steady state" depend on the boundaries, the parameters of the aquifer and the characteristics of the underground reservoir. A screening methodology is proposed to assess the main impacts caused in aquifers by UPSH plants. Finally, the efficiency

  8. Air quality impact assessment of multiple open pit coal mines in northern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Huertas, José I; Huertas, María E; Izquierdo, Sebastián; González, Enrique D

    2012-01-01

    The coal mining region in northern Colombia is one of the largest open pit mining regions of the world. In 2009, there were 8 mining companies in operation with an approximate coal production of ∼70 Mtons/year. Since 2007, the Colombian air quality monitoring network has reported readings that exceed the daily and annual air quality standards for total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm (PM₁₀) in nearby villages. This paper describes work carried out in order to establish an appropriate clean air program for this region, based on the Colombian national environmental authority requirement for modeling of TSP and PM(10) dispersion. A TSP and PM₁₀ emission inventory was initially developed, and topographic and meteorological information for the region was collected and analyzed. Using this information, the dispersion of TSP was modeled in ISC3 and AERMOD using meteorological data collected by 3 local stations during 2008 and 2009. The results obtained were compared to actual values measured by the air quality monitoring network. High correlation coefficients (>0.73) were obtained, indicating that the models accurately described the main factors affecting particle dispersion in the region. The model was then used to forecast concentrations of particulate matter for 2010. Based on results from the model, areas within the modeling region were identified as highly, fairly, moderately and marginally polluted according to local regulations. Additionally, the contribution particulate matter to the pollution at each village was estimated. Using these predicted values, the Colombian environmental authority imposed new decontamination measures on the mining companies operating in the region. These measures included the relocation of three villages financed by the mine companies based on forecasted pollution levels.

  9. Nonomuraea indica sp. nov., novel actinomycetes isolated from lime-stone open pit mine, India.

    PubMed

    Quadri, Syed Raziuddin; Tian, Xin-Peng; Zhang, Jing; Li, Jie; Nie, Guo-Xing; Tang, Shu-Kun; Al Ruwaili, Jamal; Agsar, Dayanand; Li, Wen-Jun; Dastager, Syed G

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, nonmotile actinomycete strain designated DRQ-2(T) was isolated from the soil sample collected from lime-stone open pit mine from the Gulbarga region, Karnataka province, India. Strain DRQ-2(T) was identified as a member of the genus Nonomuraea by a polyphasic approach. Strain DRQ-2(T) could be differentiated from other members of the genus Nonomuraea on the basis of physiology and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain DRQ-2(T) showed highest sequence similarity to Nonomuraea muscovyensis DSM 45913(T) (99.1%), N. salmonea DSM 43678(T) (98.2%) and N. maheshkhaliensis JCM 13929(T) with 98.0%, respectively. Chemotaxonomic properties showing predominant menaquinones of MK-9 (H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H6), major polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmono methyl ethanolamine (PME), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), hydroxy-PME (OH-PME), hydroxy PE (OH-PEE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipid and unknown phospholipid, fatty acids with major amounts of i-C16:0, ai-C15:0 and ai-C17:0 supported allocation of the strain to the genus Nonomuraea. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain DRQ-2(T) from closely related species. The genomic DNA G+C content of the organism was 72.5 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotypic and molecular characteristics, strain DRQ-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name N. indica sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain DRQ-2(T) (=NCIM 5480(T)= CCTCC AA 209050(T)). PMID:25783226

  10. Nonomuraea indica sp. nov., novel actinomycetes isolated from lime-stone open pit mine, India.

    PubMed

    Quadri, Syed Raziuddin; Tian, Xin-Peng; Zhang, Jing; Li, Jie; Nie, Guo-Xing; Tang, Shu-Kun; Al Ruwaili, Jamal; Agsar, Dayanand; Li, Wen-Jun; Dastager, Syed G

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, nonmotile actinomycete strain designated DRQ-2(T) was isolated from the soil sample collected from lime-stone open pit mine from the Gulbarga region, Karnataka province, India. Strain DRQ-2(T) was identified as a member of the genus Nonomuraea by a polyphasic approach. Strain DRQ-2(T) could be differentiated from other members of the genus Nonomuraea on the basis of physiology and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain DRQ-2(T) showed highest sequence similarity to Nonomuraea muscovyensis DSM 45913(T) (99.1%), N. salmonea DSM 43678(T) (98.2%) and N. maheshkhaliensis JCM 13929(T) with 98.0%, respectively. Chemotaxonomic properties showing predominant menaquinones of MK-9 (H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H6), major polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmono methyl ethanolamine (PME), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), hydroxy-PME (OH-PME), hydroxy PE (OH-PEE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipid and unknown phospholipid, fatty acids with major amounts of i-C16:0, ai-C15:0 and ai-C17:0 supported allocation of the strain to the genus Nonomuraea. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain DRQ-2(T) from closely related species. The genomic DNA G+C content of the organism was 72.5 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotypic and molecular characteristics, strain DRQ-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name N. indica sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain DRQ-2(T) (=NCIM 5480(T)= CCTCC AA 209050(T)).

  11. Analysis of the Pit Removal Methods in Digital Terrain Models of Various Resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šamanović, S.; Medak, D.; Gajski, D.

    2016-06-01

    Digital terrain model (DTM) is the base for calculation of the surface runoff under the influence of the gravity (gravity flow) in hydrological analysis. It is important to produce hydrologically corrected DTM with the removed natural and artificial depressions to avoid numerical problems in algorithms of the gravity flow. The pit removal procedure changes geomorphometry of the DTM. GIS software packages use pit removal algorithm independently of geomorphmetric features of the analyzed area. In need of minimally modified DTM after the pit removal areas, the carving method (deepen drainage routes) and the filling method (fill sink) were analyzed on three different geomorphometric areas (bare mountain range, hilly wooded area and the plain area intersected with the network of the drainage canals). The recommendation is given for the choice of geomorphometric least changing DTM algorithm. The input data are raster data of elevation points created by stereoscopic photogrammetry method in 5x5 and 25x25 meter resolution. Differences have been noticed during the process of creating raster data. The recommendation is given for the choice of the most acceptable method for each type of area on the basis of comparison of the original elevation points with the elevation points in created DTM.

  12. Real-time methods for non-destructive detection of pits in fresh cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of pits in processed cherries is a concern for both processors and consumers, in many cases causing injury and potential lawsuits. While machines used for pitting cherries are extremely efficient, if one or more plungers in a pitting head become misaligned, a large number of pits may p...

  13. Assessment and modelling of heavy metal contamination from Madneuli open-pit mine, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchelidze, T.; Melikadze, G.; Leveinen, J.; Kaija, J.; Kumpalainen, S.

    2003-04-01

    Acid mine drainage from banked waste rocks (150 million m^3) and sulfide ore tailings of the Madneuli Cu-Au open-pit mine have created major environmental pollution problem in Bolnisi district, Georgia. Intensive leaching of exposed rocks and direct discharge of mine waters to nearby watercourses have lead to strong heavy metal pollution of groundwater and Rivers Kazretula, Poladauri and Mashavera. Increased concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cr, Cd and Hg exceeding maximum permissible values by 3-2000 times, are registered almost everywhere. Polluted surface waters are used intensively for irrigation. Besides, contaminated groundwater is pumped for irrigation and drinking water supply in alluvial deposits along the rivers. Because the spread of contamination is a slow process, the adverse health effects may not yet have emerged in the investigation area. The transport modelling was used in the framework of risk assessment to estimate the direction, rate and extent of chemical migration in the contaminated site in order to support environmental management and decisionmaking involving identification of high-risk areas, protection from pollutants, and planning of remediation work. Geochemical and contamination transport modelling conducted in this study suggest that the present contamination levels will eventually reach the total investigation area causing serious health risks to the local population in long terms. Mineral lifetime estimates suggest that the contamination might continue for centuries with current pollution loads. Furthermore, geochemical modelling showed that there is no reason to expect the natural attenuation of the contamination. The potential impacts of preventive actions were studied by preparing a model scenario where the present heavy metal contamination level was lowered to 0.1 mg/l in two streams entering the model area. The model results suggest that within 5 years, already significant reduction of concentrations can be reached. The

  14. Analytical data for waters of the Harvard Open Pit, Jamestown Mine, Tuolumne County, California, March 1998-September 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashley, R.P.; Savage, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Jamestown mine is located in the Jamestown mining district in western Tuolumne County, California (see Fig. 1). This district is one of many located on or near the Melones fault zone, a major regional suture in the Sierra Nevada foothills. The districts along the Melones fault comprise the Mother Lode gold belt (Clark, 1970). The Harvard pit is the largest of several open pits mined at the Jamestown site by Sonora Mining Corporation between 1986 and 1994 (Fig. 2; Algood, 1990). It is at the site of an historical mine named the Harvard that produced about 100,000 troy ounces of gold, mainly between 1906 and 1916 (Julihn and Horton, 1940). Sonora Mining mined and processed about 17,000,000 short tons of ore, with an overall stripping ratio of about 4.5:1, yielding about 660,000 troy ounces of gold (Nelson and Leicht, 1994). Most of this material came from the Harvard pit, which attained dimensions of about 2700 ft (830 m) in length, 1500 ft (460 m) in width, and 600 ft (185 m) in depth. The bottom of the pit is at an elevation of 870 ft (265 m). Since mining operations ceased in mid-1994, the open pit has been filling with water. As of November, 2000, lake level had reached an elevation of about 1170 ft (357 m). Water quality monitoring data gathered after mine closure showed rising levels of arsenic, sulfate, and other components in the lake, with particularly notable increases accompanying a period of rapid filling in 1995 (County of Tuolumne, 1998). The largest potential source for arsenic in the vicinity of the Harvard pit is arsenian pyrite, the most abundant sulfide mineral related to gold mineralization. A previous study of weathering of arsenian pyrite in similarly mineralized rocks at the Clio mine, in the nearby Jacksonville mining district, showed that arsenic released by weathering of arsenian pyrite is effectively attenuated by adsorption on goethite or coprecipitation with jarosite, depending upon the buffering capacity of the pyrite-bearing rock

  15. Mitigation of adverse effects at the Lezama-Leguizamon abandoned open-pit mine (Bilbao, northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz de Omeñaca, J.; Ereño, I.; Atxabal, K.; Azurmendi, I.

    1993-09-01

    Solid fills arranged in 1-m-thick layers were prepared with stone blocks and pebbles of a drainage bed every 8 m. Runoff gathering in a well and the use of silts and mud lands for bordering and sealing the limestones are the main techniques employed for minimizing unfavorable effects at the Lezama-Leguizamon abandoned open-pit mine. Since there were waste disposal problems in the area, the rate of disposal has made the activity profitable. No significant faults have been detected by control studies, and the objectives are being achieved without problems.

  16. Analytical data for waters of the Harvard Open Pit, Jamestown Mine, Tuolumne County, California, March 1998-September 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashley, R.P.; Savage, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Jamestown mine is located in the Jamestown mining district in western Tuolumne County, California (see Fig. 1). This district is one of many located on or near the Melones fault zone, a major regional suture in the Sierra Nevada foothills. The districts along the Melones fault comprise the Mother Lode gold belt (Clark, 1970). The Harvard pit is the largest of several open pits mined at the Jamestown site by Sonora Mining Corporation between 1986 and 1994 (Fig. 2; Algood, 1990). It is at the site of an historical mine named the Harvard that produced about 100,000 troy ounces of gold, mainly between 1906 and 1916 (Julihn and Horton, 1940). Sonora Mining mined and processed about 17,000,000 short tons of ore, with an overall stripping ratio of about 4.5:1, yielding about 660,000 troy ounces of gold (Nelson and Leicht, 1994). Most of this material came from the Harvard pit, which attained dimensions of about 2700 ft (830 m) in length, 1500 ft (460 m) in width, and 600 ft (185 m) in depth. The bottom of the pit is at an elevation of 870 ft (265 m). Since mining operations ceased in mid-1994, the open pit has been filling with water. As of November, 2000, lake level had reached an elevation of about 1170 ft (357 m). Water quality monitoring data gathered after mine closure showed rising levels of arsenic, sulfate, and other components in the lake, with particularly notable increases accompanying a period of rapid filling in 1995 (County of Tuolumne, 1998). The largest potential source for arsenic in the vicinity of the Harvard pit is arsenian pyrite, the most abundant sulfide mineral related to gold mineralization. A previous study of weathering of arsenian pyrite in similarly mineralized rocks at the Clio mine, in the nearby Jacksonville mining district, showed that arsenic released by weathering of arsenian pyrite is effectively attenuated by adsorption on goethite or coprecipitation with jarosite, depending upon the buffering capacity of the pyrite-bearing rock

  17. Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Willems, Thibault; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants.

  18. A Comparison of Vibration and Oil Debris Gear Damage Detection Methods Applied to Pitting Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.

    2000-01-01

    Helicopter Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) must provide reliable, real-time performance monitoring of helicopter operating parameters to prevent damage of flight critical components. Helicopter transmission diagnostics are an important part of a helicopter HUMS. In order to improve the reliability of transmission diagnostics, many researchers propose combining two technologies, vibration and oil monitoring, using data fusion and intelligent systems. Some benefits of combining multiple sensors to make decisions include improved detection capabilities and increased probability the event is detected. However, if the sensors are inaccurate, or the features extracted from the sensors are poor predictors of transmission health, integration of these sensors will decrease the accuracy of damage prediction. For this reason, one must verify the individual integrity of vibration and oil analysis methods prior to integrating the two technologies. This research focuses on comparing the capability of two vibration algorithms, FM4 and NA4, and a commercially available on-line oil debris monitor to detect pitting damage on spur gears in the NASA Glenn Research Center Spur Gear Fatigue Test Rig. Results from this research indicate that the rate of change of debris mass measured by the oil debris monitor is comparable to the vibration algorithms in detecting gear pitting damage.

  19. Investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from an open-pit uranium mine by passive vinyl collectors.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, H B; Koperski, J

    1991-05-01

    Detailed investigations of the aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from the biggest open-pit U mining and milling operation in Australia were carried out. Spatial distributions of the long-lived radionuclides of 238U series and their origin, i.e., mining and milling operations vs. natural background radiation, have been studied. Horizontal flux, dry deposition, and ground resuspension of the radionuclides were investigated along a 50-km transect in the direction of the prevailing monsoonal winds in the region. The study was performed by means of unconventional "sticky vinyl" passive dust collectors, occasionally supported by high-volume air filter samplers. The data from the flux measurements show an inverse square to inverse cubic dependence, and the dry deposition exhibits an inverse square dependence, of radionuclide load vs. distance. The pit has been the predominant contributor of long-lived U series radionuclides to the environment within the radius of several kilometers from the operations. An aerial dispersion computer code (LUCIFER), based on a Gaussian plume model, was developed for the project. Experimental data were used as the code input data. Good agreement between the measured data and the normalized computed results was obtained.

  20. Investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from an open-pit uranium mine by passive vinyl collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, H.B.; Koperski, J. )

    1991-05-01

    Detailed investigations of the aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from the biggest open-pit U mining and milling operation in Australia were carried out. Spatial distributions of the long-lived radionuclides of {sup 238}U series and their origin, i.e., mining and milling operations vs. natural background radiation, have been studied. Horizontal flux, dry deposition, and ground resuspension of the radionuclides were investigated along a 50-km transect in the direction of the prevailing monsoonal winds in the region. The study was performed by means of unconventional 'sticky vinyl' passive dust collectors, occasionally supported by high-volume air filter samplers. The data from the flux measurements show an inverse square to inverse cubic dependence, and the dry deposition exhibits an inverse square dependence, of radionuclide load vs. distance. The pit has been the predominant contributor of long-lived U series radionuclides to the environment within the radius of several kilometers from the operations. An aerial dispersion computer code (LUCIFER), based on a Gaussian plume model, was developed for the project. Experimental data were used as the code input data. Good agreement between the measured data and the normalized computed results was obtained.

  1. Marine Mammal Train Oil Production Methods: Experimental Reconstructions of Norwegian Iron Age Slab-Lined Pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Gørill

    2016-08-01

    Seal hunting and whaling have played an important part of people's livelihoods throughout prehistory as evidenced by rock carvings, remains of bones, artifacts from aquatic animals and hunting tools. This paper focuses on one of the more elusive resources relating to such activities: marine mammal blubber. Although marine blubber easily decomposes, the organic material has been documented from the Mesolithic Period onwards. Of particular interest in this article are the many structures in Northern Norway from the Iron Age and in Finland on Kökar, Åland, from both the Bronze and Early Iron Ages in which these periods exhibited traits interpreted as being related to oil rendering from marine mammal blubber. The article discusses methods used in this oil production activity based on historical sources, archaeological investigations and experimental reconstruction of Iron Age slab-lined pits from Northern Norway.

  2. Hyperspectral analysis for qualitative and quantitative features related to acid mine drainage at a remediated open-pit mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G.; Calvin, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    The exposure of pyrite to oxygen and water in mine waste environments is known to generate acidity and the accumulation of secondary iron minerals. Sulfates and secondary iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage (AMD) exhibit diverse spectral properties in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The use of hyperspectral imagery for identification of AMD mineralogy and contamination has been well studied. Fewer studies have examined the impacts of hydrologic variations on mapping AMD or the unique spectral signatures of mine waters. Open-pit mine lakes are an additional environmental hazard which have not been widely studied using imaging spectroscopy. A better understanding of AMD variation related to climate fluctuations and the spectral signatures of contaminated surface waters will aid future assessments of environmental contamination. This study examined the ability of multi-season airborne hyperspectral data to identify the geochemical evolution of substances and contaminant patterns at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site. The mine is located 24 miles southeast of Lake Tahoe and contains remnant tailings piles and several AMD collection ponds. The objectives were to 1) distinguish temporal changes in mineralogy at a the remediated open-pit sulfur mine, 2) identify the absorption features of mine affected waters, and 3) quantitatively link water spectra to known dissolved iron concentrations. Images from NASA's AVIRIS instrument were collected in the spring, summer, and fall seasons for two consecutive years at Leviathan (HyspIRI campaign). Images had a spatial resolution of 15 meters at nadir. Ground-based surveys using the ASD FieldSpecPro spectrometer and laboratory spectral and chemical analysis complemented the remote sensing data. Temporal changes in surface mineralogy were difficult to distinguish. However, seasonal changes in pond water quality were identified. Dissolved ferric iron and chlorophyll

  3. Uav-Based Point Cloud Generation for Open-Pit Mine Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazi, M.; Sohn, G.; Théau, J.; Ménard, P.

    2015-08-01

    Along with the advancement of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), improvement of high-resolution cameras and development of vision-based mapping techniques, unmanned aerial imagery has become a matter of remarkable interest among researchers and industries. These images have the potential to provide data with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution for three-dimensional (3D) modelling. In this paper, we present our theoretical and technical experiments regarding the development, implementation and evaluation of a UAV-based photogrammetric system for precise 3D modelling. This system was preliminarily evaluated for the application of gravel-pit surveying. The hardware of the system includes an electric powered helicopter, a 16-megapixels visible camera and inertial navigation system. The software of the system consists of the in-house programs built for sensor calibration, platform calibration, system integration and flight planning. It also includes the algorithms developed for structure from motion (SfM) computation including sparse matching, motion estimation, bundle adjustment and dense matching.

  4. An AFM-based pit-measuring method for indirect measurements of cell-surface membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Yong

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Air drying induced the transformation of cell-surface membrane vesicles into pits. • An AFM-based pit-measuring method was developed to measure cell-surface vesicles. • Our method detected at least two populations of cell-surface membrane vesicles. - Abstract: Circulating membrane vesicles, which are shed from many cell types, have multiple functions and have been correlated with many diseases. Although circulating membrane vesicles have been extensively characterized, the status of cell-surface membrane vesicles prior to their release is less understood due to the lack of effective measurement methods. Recently, as a powerful, micro- or nano-scale imaging tool, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been applied in measuring circulating membrane vesicles. However, it seems very difficult for AFM to directly image/identify and measure cell-bound membrane vesicles due to the similarity of surface morphology between membrane vesicles and cell surfaces. Therefore, until now no AFM studies on cell-surface membrane vesicles have been reported. In this study, we found that air drying can induce the transformation of most cell-surface membrane vesicles into pits that are more readily detectable by AFM. Based on this, we developed an AFM-based pit-measuring method and, for the first time, used AFM to indirectly measure cell-surface membrane vesicles on cultured endothelial cells. Using this approach, we observed and quantitatively measured at least two populations of cell-surface membrane vesicles, a nanoscale population (<500 nm in diameter peaking at ∼250 nm) and a microscale population (from 500 nm to ∼2 μm peaking at ∼0.8 μm), whereas confocal microscopy only detected the microscale population. The AFM-based pit-measuring method is potentially useful for studying cell-surface membrane vesicles and for investigating the mechanisms of membrane vesicle formation/release.

  5. Dynamics of the ecological-functional parameters of replantozems on dumps of open-pit coal mines in Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefilova, O. V.; Grodnitskaya, I. D.; Efimov, D. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics have been studied of the ecological-functional parameters (EFP) of replantozems formed on the dumps of the Borodinskiy open-pit coal mine in the Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin (55°52' N, 94°54' E) that were not involved into agricultural use during the first 30 years. The work was based on the integrated analysis of the agrochemical properties and the EFP, which characterized the state of the plant cover, the microbial cenoses, and the biochemical activity of the replantozems representing a chronological series (5, 20, and 30 years). Multicomponent plant communities were formed on the surface of the replantozems over the 30-year period. The filled horizon of the replantozems was slowly involved into the metabolic processes. The thickness of the biologically active layer did not exceed 10 cm. The microbial cenosis's functional activity was relatively stabilized, and the values of the microbial biomass and basal respiration approached the background ones only in the upper (0-5 cm) layer. The biochemical activity of the microorganisms agreed with the changes in the properties of the upper (0-10 cm) layer of the replantozems: the contents of the total nitrogen and humus increased, as well as the degree of the humic acids "maturity" and the concentration of the mobile phosphorus, while the alkalinity decreased.

  6. Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower using abandoned open pit mines: influence of groundwater seepage on the system efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plants can be used to manage the production of electrical energy according to the demand. These plants allow storing and generating electricity during low and high demand energy periods, respectively. Nevertheless, PSH plants require a determined topography because two reservoirs located at different heights are needed. At sites where PSH plants cannot be constructed due to topography requirements (flat regions), Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) plants can be used to adjust the electricity production. These plants consist in two reservoirs, the upper one is located at the surface (or at shallow depth) while the lower one is underground (or deeper). Abandoned open pit mines can be used as lower reservoirs but these are rarely isolated. As a consequence, UPSH plants will interact with surrounding aquifers exchanging groundwater. Groundwater seepage will modify hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir affecting global efficiency of the UPSH plant. The influence on the plant efficiency caused by the interaction between UPSH plants and aquifers will depend on the aquifer parameters, underground reservoir properties and pumping and injection characteristics. The alteration of the efficiency produced by the groundwater exchanges, which has not been previously considered, is now studied numerically. A set of numerical simulations are performed to establish in terms of efficiency the effects of groundwater exchanges and the optimum conditions to locate an UPSH plant.

  7. 13. DETAIL WEST OF TURBINE PIT SHOWING PIT DRAINED AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL WEST OF TURBINE PIT SHOWING PIT DRAINED AND TURBINE EXPOSED. ORIGINAL WATER LEVEL SHOWN BY LINE JUST ABOVE ARCHED OPENING TO LEFT. WATER LINE AFTER 1982 INSTALLATION OF FLASH BOARDS REVEALED BY DARK STAIN. - Middle Creek Hydroelectric Dam, On Middle Creek, West of U.S. Route 15, 3 miles South of Selinsgrove, Selinsgrove, Snyder County, PA

  8. Multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing data for the analysis of open-pit mining earth surface dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zengwen; Chen, Jianping; Li, Ke; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Open-pit mining activities can affect the earth surface processes inducing soil erosion, landslides, and subsidence. The recognition and the analysis of mining induced Earth surface changes and the related processes represent, therefore, a challenge for a sustainable environmental planning for those regions affected by an intense mining activity. The purpose of this study is to monitor the effects of open-pit mining and the associated landform processes using multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing data. The study area consists in an open-pit mine located in Miyun county, northern Beijing. For the study area different datasets are available for different years: a GeoEye image (2011, res. 1m/pix), two pairs of Cartosat - 1 stereo pairs (2009, 2012, res. 2.5m/pix) from which we extracted two DSMs (res. 5m/pix), an UAV aerial photograph (2014, res. 0.07m) and the derived DSM (2014, res. 0.1m). We also obtained a DTM (2014, res. 1m) from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) and a DSM (2014, res. 0.5m) using the Structure from Motion (SfM) technique by a camera. These data served as the basis to recognize, through the application of morphometric indicators, the areas subject to erosion and landsliding. A volumetric estimate of soil loss from 2009 to 2014 has been also quantified using the multiple DSMs provided by the multi-platform. The recognition and the analysis of earth surface dynamics using low-cost multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing such as SfM and UAVs represents a useful tool to mitigate the environmental consequences open-pit mining, and to mitigate the related natural disaster and risk.

  9. Mineralogy and characterization of deposited particles of the aero sediments collected in the vicinity of power plants and the open pit coal mine: Kolubara (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Cvetković, Željko; Logar, Mihovil; Rosić, Aleksandra

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, particular attention was paid to the presence of aerosol solid particles, which occurred mainly as a result of exploitation and coal combustion in the thermal power plants of the Kolubara basin. Not all of the particles created by this type of anthropogenic pollution have an equal impact on human health, but it largely depends on their size and shape. The mineralogical composition and particle size distribution in the samples of aero sediments were defined. The samples were collected close to the power plant and open pit coal mine, in the winter and summer period during the year 2007. The sampling was performed by using precipitators placed in eight locations within the territory of the Lazarevac municipality. In order to characterize the sedimentary particles, several methods were applied: microscopy, SEM-EDX and X-ray powder diffraction. The concentration of aero sediments was also determined during the test period. Variety in the mineralogical composition and particle size depends on the position of the measuring sites, geology of the locations, the annual period of collecting as well as possible interactions. By applying the mentioned methods, the presence of inhalational and respiratory particles variously distributed in the winter and in the summer period was established. The most common minerals are quartz and feldspar. The presence of gypsum, clay minerals, calcite and dolomite as secondary minerals was determined, as well as the participation of organic and inorganic amorphic matter. The presence of quartz as a toxic mineral has a particular impact on human health.

  10. Preliminary studies developing methods for the control of Chrysomya putoria, the African latrine fly, in pit latrines in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, T C; Jawara, M; D'Alessandro, U; Pinder, M; Lindsay, S W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore ways of controlling Chrysomya putoria, the African latrine fly, in pit latrines. As pit latrines are a major source of these flies, eliminating these important breeding sites is likely to reduce village fly populations, and may reduce the spread of diarrhoeal pathogens. Methods We treated 24 latrines in a Gambian village: six each with (i) pyriproxyfen, an insect juvenile hormone mimic formulated as Sumilarv® 0.5G, a 0.5% pyriproxyfen granule, (ii) expanded polystyrene beads (EPB), (iii) local soap or (iv) no treatment as controls. Flies were collected using exit traps placed over the drop holes, weekly for five weeks. In a separate study, we tested whether latrines also function as efficient flytraps using the faecal odours as attractants. We constructed six pit latrines each with a built-in flytrap and tested their catching efficiency compared to six fish-baited box traps positioned 10 m from the latrine. Focus group discussions conducted afterwards assessed the acceptability of the flytrap latrines. Results Numbers of emerging C. putoria were reduced by 96.0% (95% CIs: 94.5–97.2%) 4–5 weeks after treatment with pyriproxyfen; by 64.2% (95% CIs: 51.8–73.5%) after treatment with local soap; by 41.3% (95% CIs = 24.0–54.7%) after treatment with EPB 3–5 weeks after treatment. Flytraps placed on latrines collected C. putoria and were deemed acceptable to local communities. Conclusions Sumilarv 0.5G shows promise as a chemical control agent, whilst odour-baited latrine traps may prove a useful method of non-chemical fly control. Both methods warrant further development to reduce fly production from pit latrines. A combination of interventions may prove effective for the control of latrine flies and the diseases they transmit. PMID:23198767

  11. Cavitation Resistance in Seedless Vascular Plants: The Structure and Function of Interconduit Pit Membranes1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Brodersen, Craig; Jansen, Steven; Choat, Brendan; Rico, Christopher; Pittermann, Jarmila

    2014-01-01

    Plant water transport occurs through interconnected xylem conduits that are separated by partially digested regions in the cell wall known as pit membranes. These structures have a dual function. Their porous construction facilitates water movement between conduits while limiting the spread of air that may enter the conduits and render them dysfunctional during a drought. Pit membranes have been well studied in woody plants, but very little is known about their function in more ancient lineages such as seedless vascular plants. Here, we examine the relationships between conduit air seeding, pit hydraulic resistance, and pit anatomy in 10 species of ferns (pteridophytes) and two lycophytes. Air seeding pressures ranged from 0.8 ± 0.15 MPa (mean ± sd) in the hydric fern Athyrium filix-femina to 4.9 ± 0.94 MPa in Psilotum nudum, an epiphytic species. Notably, a positive correlation was found between conduit pit area and vulnerability to air seeding, suggesting that the rare-pit hypothesis explains air seeding in early-diverging lineages much as it does in many angiosperms. Pit area resistance was variable but averaged 54.6 MPa s m−1 across all surveyed pteridophytes. End walls contributed 52% to the overall transport resistance, similar to the 56% in angiosperm vessels and 64% in conifer tracheids. Taken together, our data imply that, irrespective of phylogenetic placement, selection acted on transport efficiency in seedless vascular plants and woody plants in equal measure by compensating for shorter conduits in tracheid-bearing plants with more permeable pit membranes. PMID:24777347

  12. Ground-based multispectral measurements for airborne data verification in non-operating open pit mine "Kremikovtsi"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno

    2013-10-01

    The impact of mining industry and metal production on the environment is presented all over the world. In our research we set focus on the impact of already non-operating ferrous "Kremikovtsi"open pit mine and related waste dumps and tailings which we consider to be the major factor responsible for pollution of one densely populated region in Bulgaria. The approach adopted is based on correct estimation of the distribution of the iron oxides inside open pit mines and the neighboring regions those considered in this case to be the key issue for the ecological state assessment of soils, vegetation and water. For this study the foremost source of data are those of airborne origin and those combined with ground-based in-situ and laboratory acquired data were used for verification of the environmental variables and thus in process of assessment of the present environmental status influenced by previous mining activities. The percentage of iron content was selected as main indicator for presence of metal pollution since it could be reliably identified by multispectral data used in this study and also because the iron compounds are widely spread in the most of the minerals, rocks and soils. In our research the number of samples from every source (air, field, lab) was taken in the way to be statistically sound and confident. In order to establish relationship between the degree of pollution of the soil and mulspectral data 40 soil samples were collected during a field campaign in the study area together with GPS measurements for two types of laboratory measurements: the first one, chemical and mineralogical analysis and the second one, non-destructive spectroscopy. In this work for environmental variables verification over large areas mulspectral satellite data from Landsat instruments TM/ETM+ and from ALI/OLI (Operational Land Imager) were used. Ground-based (laboratory and in-situ) spectrometric measurements were performed using the designed and constructed in Remote

  13. Application of ground vibration frequency spectrum analysis as a tool for optimizing the blast design in large open pit mines

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K.R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper explains the methodology for assessing the efficiency of rockmass fragmentation by explosive blasting, from ground vibration frequency spectrum analysis of the blast event. Explosives are used in the mining, quarrying and construction industries for fragmenting rockmass to a suitable size. When an explosive charge is detonated, in addition to fragmenting the rockmass, it will also generate ground vibration and air vibrations. Efficiency of a blast depend upon percentage of blast energy wasted in generating ground vibrations and air vibrations. This in turn will depend upon rockmass characteristics, amount of explosive energy used per delay and spatial distribution of explosive in the rockmass. Ground vibrations and air vibrations, arising out of explosive detonation in a rockmass, could be captured by micro-computer based engineering seismograph and sound level meter. Typical frequency range indicative of efficient rockmass fragmentation for a particular rockmass can be identified from ground vibration frequency spectra analysis of the blast event on a personal computer applying Fast Fourier transforms (FFT). The typical frequency range indicative of efficient rockmass fragmentation depends upon rockmass impedance and can be estimated from rockmass characteristics and monitoring few trial blasts. Blast event efficiency is estimated by comparing the typical frequency range with the dominant frequency range of the blast event record. A large number of blast events monitored and analyzed by the author in different rockmass formations and correlation of the results with observations made while fragmented material is lifted and loaded into trucks indicated that ground vibration frequency spectrum analysis could be used as a reliable and cost effective tool for assessing the blasting efficiency and optimizing blast design in large open-pit mines.

  14. A 3D scanning confocal imaging method measures pit volume and captures the role of Rac in osteoclast function.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Stephanie R; Georgiou, John; Glogauer, Michael; Grynpas, Marc D

    2012-07-01

    Modulation of Rho GTPases Rac1 and Rac2 impacts bone development, remodeling, and disease. In addition, GTPases are considered treatment targets for dysplastic and erosive bone diseases including Neurofibromatosis type 1. While it is important to understand the effects of Rac modulation on osteoclast function, two-dimensional resorption pit area measurements fall short in elucidating the volume aspect of bone resorption activity. Bone marrow from wild-type, Rac1 and Rac2 null mice was isolated from femora. Osteoclastogenesis was induced by adding M-CSF and RANKL in culture plates containing dentin slices and later stained with Picro Sirius Red to image resorption lacunae. Osteoclasts were also plated on glass cover slips and stained with phalloidin and DAPI to measure their surface area and the number of nuclei. Volumetric images were collected on a laser-scanning confocal system. Sirius Red confocal imaging provided an unambiguous, continuous definition of the pit boundary compared to reflected and transmitted light imaging. Rac1- and Rac2-deficient osteoclasts had fewer nuclei in comparison to wild-type counterparts. Rac1-deficient osteoclasts showed reduced resorption pit volume and surface area. Lacunae made by single Rac2 null osteoclasts had reduced volume but surprisingly surface area was unaffected. Surface area measures are deceiving since volume changed independently in resorption pits made by individual Rac2 null osteoclasts. Our innovative confocal imaging technique allows us to derive novel conclusions about Rac1 and Rac2 in osteoclast function. The data and method can be applied to study effects of genes and drugs including Rho GTPase modulators on osteoclast function and to develop pharmacotherapeutics to treat bone lytic disorders.

  15. Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Jarpe, S.P.; Moran, B.; Goldstein, P.; Glenn, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ``ground truth``, from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions.

  16. [An occupational physiology study at the Asarel Mining and Milling Works--screening for risk factors of the cardiovascular system in workers in an open-pit mine].

    PubMed

    Mincheva, L; Khadzhiolova, I

    1995-01-01

    It was the purpose of this study to define the frequency of occurrence of a number of individual and occupational factors contributing to development of arterial hypertension in "Asarel" MMW open-pit workers. The investigated subjects numbered 36 and ranged in age from 22 to 55 years (average, 36 +/- 1.9 years). The jobs represented included mainly: diggers, bulldozers, driver, drillers, blasters, road-service workers, electric and mechanic fitters. Endpoints measured and evaluated included: arterial blood pressure, pulse rate, biometric characteristics (age, occupational experience, body height and weight), common risk factors, such as family antecedents, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, level of physical activity at and off work, etc. For this sample of open-pit workers, findings indicated a relatively high incidence of hypertension (28% of subjects). The level of arterial hypertension consistently correlated with worker age, length of occupational experience, and body weight. There was high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors: alcohol consumption, family history, cigarette smoking, use of salty foods, overweight. The observed changes in the cardiovascular system and high prevalence of risk factors point to the necessity of taking specific medical prevention measures. These have been taken into consideration in designing the overall program of upgrading work conditions and organization, as well as improving the style of life of "Asarel" MMW workers. PMID:8524751

  17. Pitted keratolysis*

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Jr, Hiram Larangeira; Siqueira, Rodrigo Nunes; Meireles, Renan da Silva; Rampon, Greice; de Castro, Luis Antonio Suita; Silva, Ricardo Marques e

    2016-01-01

    Pitted keratolysis is a skin disorder that affects the stratum corneum of the plantar surface and is caused by Gram-positive bacteria. A 30-year-old male presented with small punched-out lesions on the plantar surface. A superficial shaving was carried out for scanning electron microscopy. Hypokeratosis was noted on the plantar skin and in the acrosyringium, where the normal elimination of corneocytes was not seen. At higher magnification (x 3,500) bacteria were easily found on the surface and the described transversal bacterial septation was observed. PMID:26982791

  18. The Influence of Radiation on Pit Solution Chemistry as it Pertains to the Transition from Metastable to Stable Pitting in Steels.

    SciTech Connect

    Galuszka-Muga, Barbara

    2005-05-19

    An investigation was undertaken of the effect of gamma radiation on metastable pitting of mild carbon steels immersed in a solution similar to those existing at high level waste (HLW) deposits in the US. The object was to observe the extent to which a dosage rate of 1 Mrad/hour (10 Kgrey/hour) affected measurable electrochemical parameters such as pitting potential, open circuit potential, rate of metastable pitting and repassivation potential. Methods for reliably measuring electrochemical potentials in a high radiation field were developed. Exploratory analyses were made of the ion product release and electrolyte composition change in a confined volume simulating the conditions of a corrosion initiated pit during gamma irradiation. As expected the results indicated that the metastable pitting rate (as well as the general rate of corrosion) was significantly enhanced by a radiation field.

  19. [An occupational physiology study at the Asarel Mining and Milling Works. The evaluation of the work load in the basic jobs in an open-pit mine].

    PubMed

    Mincheva, L; Khadzhiolova, I; Deianov, Kh

    1995-01-01

    This occupational physiology study was undertaken within a wider applied-research framework designed to evaluate the occupational environment and its impact on workers at "Asarel" Mining and Milling Works. Analysis of activities showed physical effort (dynamic and static) to be the major problem at the open pit, though varying in extent between jobs (most prominent for blasters and bulldozerists). Nervous/emotional strain, while not leading, was sustained mostly by diggers and blasters, followed by drivers. Organization of work (shift regimen, no regulated breaks, stepwise schedule of days off work) was hardly appropriate and did not allow for recovery. Interviewed workers qualified working conditions as extremely unfavorable; they disapproved with the physical factors of the occupational environment, the workplace, the state of machines and devices, and remuneration for work performed. Exertion from work, assessed by pulse rate and energy expended, was moderate for most activities of diggers, drivers, and drillers. The burden of physical effort was great for blasters at the open pit and for diggers and drillers performing extra repair operations (pulse rate, 100-110 strokes/min; energy expended, 5.2-5.5 Kcal/min). Hardest and least attractive was the work of blasters at stores for explosive materials (pulse rate, 120-141 strokes/min; energy expended, 5.5-6.5 Kcal/min). These adverse factors of labor activities might produce a negative impact on worker health and performance, leading to occupational impairment of their musculoskeletal system, to labor-related disorders of their cardiovascular and nervous systems, etc. Preventive measures are thus necessary to limit physical exertion, optimize the work-and-rest regimen; also, there is a need for conducting pertinent preventive medical examinations, providing social measures (conditions for transportation, rest, nutrition, sports), etc. PMID:8524750

  20. The 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive and the Flooding of the Brown Coal Meirama Open Pit (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.

    2009-04-01

    Coal mining in Galicia (NW Spain) has been an important activity which came to an end in December, 2007. Hence, for different reasons, the two large brown coal mines in Galicia (the As Pontes mine, run by ENDESA GENERACIÓN, and the Meirama mine, owned by Lignitos de Meirama, S.A., LIMEISA), have started closure procedures, both of which are considering the flooding of the mine pits to create two large lakes (~8 km2 in As Pontes and ~2 km2 in Meirama). They will be unique in Galicia, a nearly lake-free territory. An important point to consider as regards the flooding of the lignite mine pits in Galicia is how the process of the creation of a body of artificial water will adapt to the strict legal demands put forth in the Water Framework Directive. This problem has been carefully examined by different authors in other countries and it raises the question of the need to adapt sampling surveys to monitor a number of key parameters -priority substances, physical and chemical parameters, biological indicators, etc.- that cannot be overlooked. Flooding, in both cases consider the preferential entrance into the mine holes of river-diverted surface waters, in detriment of ground waters in order to minimize acidic inputs. Although both mines are located in the same hydraulic demarcation (i.e. administrative units that, in Spain, are in charge of the public administration and the enforcement of natural water-related laws) the problems facing the corresponding mine managers are different. In the case of Meirama, the mine hole covers the upper third part of the Barcés river catchment, which is a major source of water for the Cecebre reservoir. That reservoir constitutes the only supply of drinking water for the city of A Coruña (~250.000 inhabitants) and its surrounding towns. In this contribution we will discuss how mine managers and the administration have addressed the uncertainties derived from the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the particular case of

  1. Correlation of Risk Analysis Method Results with Numerical and Limit Equilibrium Methods in Overall Slope Stability Analysis of Southern Wall of Chadormalu Iron Open Pit Mine-Iran / Korelacja wyników analizy ryzyka z wynikami obliczeń numerycznych oraz wynikami uzyskanymi w oparciu o metodę równowagi granicznej zastosowanych do badania stabilności wyrobiska pochyłego na południowej ścianie odkrywkowej kopalni rud żelaza w chadormalu w Iranie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahangari, Kaveh; Paji, Arman Gholinezhad; Behdani, Alireza Siami

    2013-06-01

    Slope stability analysis is one of the most important factors in designing open pit mines. Therefore an optimal slope design that supports both aspects of economy and safety is very significant. There are many different methods in slope stability analysis including empirical, limit equilibrium, block theory, numerical, and probabilistic methods. In this study, to analyze the overall slope stability of southern wall of Chadormalu iron open pit mine three numerical, limit equilibrium and probabilistic methods have been used. Software and methods that is used for analytical investigation in this study are FLAC software for numerical analysis, SLIDE software and circuit failure chart for limit equilibrium analysis and qualitative fault tree and semi-quantitative risk matrix for probabilistic analysis. The results of all above mentioned methods, was a circular failure occurrence in Metasomatite rock zone between 1405 to 1525 m levels. The main factors of failure occurrence in this range were heavily jointing and existing of faults. Safety factors resulted from numerical method; Circular chart method and SLIDE software are 1.16, 1.25 and 1.27 respectively. Regarding instability and safety factors in Metasomatite rock zone, in order to stabilize the given zone, some considerations such as bench angle and height reduction should be planned. In results of risk matrix method this zone was mentioned too as a high risk zone that numerical and limit equilibrium methods confirmed this. Badanie stabilności wyrobiska pochyłego jest jednym z najważniejszych czynników uwzględnianych przy projektowaniu kopalni odkrywkowych. Optymalne zaprojektowanie wyrobiska pochyłego z uwzględnieniem czynników ekonomicznych oraz bezpieczeństwa jest niezmiernie ważne. Istnieje wiele metod badania stabilności wyrobiska pochyłego, między innymi metody empiryczne, metoda równowagi granicznej, teoria bloków oraz metody numeryczne i probabilistyczne. W pracy tej omówiono zastosowanie

  2. Applying persistent scatterer interferometry for surface displacement mapping in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Amazon region) with TerraSAR-X StripMap data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athayde Pinto, Carolina de; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Mura, José Claudio; Gama, Fabio Furlan; Ribeiro dos Santos, Athos; Silva, Guilherme Gregório; Hartwig, Marcos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The Azul mining complex, located in the Carajás Mineral Province, Amazon region, encompasses the most important manganese mine in Brazil. Vale S.A. company operates three simultaneous open pit excavations (mines 1, 2, and 3) in the area, which are conducted on rock alteration products of low geomechanical quality related to sandstones, siltstones, and a lateritic cover. In order to monitor ground deformation, 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) StripMap images covering the period of March 2012-April 2013 were used in the investigation. An advanced differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (A-DInSAR) approach based on persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) using an interferometric point target analysis algorithm was applied, and the results showed that most of the area was considered stable during the time span of the synthetic aperture radar acquisitions. However, persistent scatterers (PS) with high deformation rates were mapped over a waste pile, probably related to settlements, and also along the north flank of mine 1, indicative of cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. A spatial relationship of geological structures with PS was observed for this sector of the mine, given by PS showing deformation rates concentrated along a structural corridor with faults, fractures, and folds related to the Carajás fault system. Though only ground-based radar measurements for wall benches of mine 1 were available for a short time period of the TSX-1 coverage, the PS movement patterns showed concordance with geotechnical field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that satellite-based A-DInSAR can play for deformation monitoring and risk assessment in this kind of mining area.

  3. Comet 67P's Pitted Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    High-resolution imagery of comet 67P ChuryumovGerasimenko has revealed that its surface is covered in active pits some measuring hundreds of meters both wide and deep! But what processes caused these pits to form?Pitted LandscapeESAs Rosetta mission arrived at comet 67P in August 2014. As the comet continued its journey around the Sun, Rosetta extensively documented 67Ps surface through high-resolution images taken with the on-board instrument NavCam. These images have revealed that active, circular depressions are a common feature on the comets surface.In an attempt to determine how these pits formed, an international team of scientists led by Olivier Mousis (Laboratory of Astrophysics of Marseille) has run a series of simulations of a region of the comet the Seth region that contains a 200-meter-deep pit. These simulations include the effects of various phase transitions, heat transfer through the matrix of ices and dust, and gas diffusion throughout the porous material.Escaping VolatilesAdditional examples of pitted areas on 67Ps northern-hemisphere surface include the Ash region and the Maat region (both imaged September 2014 by NavCam) [Mousis et al. 2015]Previous studies have already eliminated two potential formation mechanisms for the pits: impacts (the sizes of the pits werent right) and erosion due to sunlight (the pits dont have the right shape). Mousis and collaborators assume that the pits are instead caused by the depletion of volatile materials chemical compounds with low boiling points either via explosive outbursts at the comets surface, or via sinkholes opening from below the surface. But what process causes the volatiles to deplete when the comet heats?The authors simulations demonstrate that volatiles trapped beneath the comets surface either in icy structures called clathrates or within amorphous ice can be suddenly released as the comet warms up. The team shows that the release of volatiles from these two structures can create 200-meter

  4. Reliability Analysis of Drilling Operation in Open Pit Mines / Analiza niezawodności urządzeń wiertniczych wykorzystywanych w kopalniach odkrywkowych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimdel, M. J.; Ataei, M.; Kakaei, R.; Hoseinie, S. H.

    2013-06-01

    Considering the high investment and operation costs, reliability analysis of mining machineries is essential to achieve a lean operation and to prevent the unwanted stoppages. In open pit mining, drilling, as the initial stage of the exploitation operations, has a significant role in the other stages. Failure of drilling machines causes total delay in blasting operation. In this paper, the reliability of drilling operation has been analyzed using the Markov method. The failure and operation data of four heavy rotary drilling machines in Sarcheshme copper mine in Iran have been used as a case study. Failure rate and repair rate of all machines have been calculated using available data. Then, 16 possible operation states have been defined and the probability of being of drilling fleet in each of the states was calculated using Markov theory. The results showed that there was 77.2% probability that all machines in fleet were in operational condition. It means that, considering 360 working days per year, drilling operation will be in a reliable condition in 277.92 days. Biorąc pod uwagę wysokość kosztów inwestycyjnych a także eksploatacyjnych, przeprowadzenie analizy niezawodności maszyn i urządzeń górniczych jest sprawą kluczową dla zapewnienia sprawnego działania i dla wyeliminowania niepożądanych przestojów. W kopalniach odkrywkowych prace wiertnicze prowadzone w początkowych etapach eksploatacji mają ogromne znaczenie również w późniejszych fazach działalności przedsięwzięcia. Awaria urządzeń wiertniczych powoduje opóźnienia przy pracach strzałowych. W pracy tej przeanalizowano niezawodność urządzeń wiertniczych w oparciu o metodę Markowa. Jako studium przypadku wykorzystano dane zebrane w trakcie eksploatacji i awarii czterech obrotowych urządzeń wiertniczych wykorzystywanych w kopalni rud miedzi Sarcheshme w Iranie. Awaryjność maszyn i zakres oraz częstość napraw obliczono na podstawie dostępnych danych. Zdefiniowano 16

  5. Dispersion and bioaccumulation of elements from an open-pit olivine mine in Southwest Greenland assessed using lichens, seaweeds, mussels and fish.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated dispersion and bioaccumulation of mining-related elements from an open-pit olivine mine at Seqi in Southwest Greenland (64° N) using lichens (Flavocetraria nivalis), seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and fish (Myoxocephalus scorpius). The mine operated between 2005 and 2009, and samples were taken every year within a monitoring area 0-17 km from the mine during the period 2004-2011. A total of 46 elements were analysed in the samples. After mining began, highly elevated metal concentrations, especially nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co), were observed in lichens relative to pre-mining levels (up to a factor of 130) caused by dust dispersion from the mining activity. Elevated metal concentrations could be measured in lichens in distances up to ~5 km from the mine/ore treatment facility. Moderately elevated concentrations of Ni and Cr (up to a factor of 7) were also observed in seaweeds and mussels but only in close vicinity (<1 km) to the mine. Analyses of fish showed no significant changes in element composition. After mine closure, the elevated metal concentrations in lichens, seaweeds and mussels decreased markedly, and in 2011, significantly elevated metal concentrations could only be measured in lichens and only within a distance of 1 km from the mine.

  6. Complementary Use of Information from Space-Based Dinsar and Field Measuring Systems for Operational Monitoring Purposes in Open Pit Iron Mines of Carajas Mining Complex (brazilian Amazon Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradella, W. R.; Mura, J. C.; Gama, F. F.; Santos, A. R.; Silva, G. G.; Galo, M.; Camargo, P. O.; Silva, A. Q.

    2015-04-01

    Now spanning five simultaneous open-pit operations with exploration carried out through open pit benching, Carajas complex encompasses the world's largest iron reserves. Open pit mining operations in the area can lead to slope instabilities with risks to personnel, equipment and production due to intense excavations in rock products of low geomechanical quality, blasting practices and heavy precipitation. Thus, an effective prediction and management of surface deformations should be a key concern for the mining operations. The ground displacement monitoring techniques in Carajas include surface measurement techniques at discrete points (total station/reflective prisms) and over area using SSR (Slope Stability Radar, a ground based radar). On the other hand, DInSAR techniques are receiving relevance in the mining industry for reasons such a synoptic and continuous coverage without the need for ground instrumentation and a point-to-point good accuracy of measuring displacements (millimeter to centimeter scale) over a dense grid. Using a stack of 33 StripMap TerraSAR-X images acquired over Carajas covering the time span from March 2012 to April 2013, a monitoring approach is discussed based on the complementary use of information provided by DInSAR (DInSAR Time-Series and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) and surface measuring techniques (total station/prisms, ground-based radar).

  7. Morphological analysis of pits formed on Al 2024-T3 in chloride aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. W. J.; Bustamante, A. G.; Codaro, E. N.; Nakazato, R. Z.; Hein, L. R. O.

    2004-09-01

    It has been used a new image analysis method, based on segmentation by shape parameters, for pits morphology examination from Al 2024 aluminum-copper alloy in chloride aqueous solution. Corrosion behavior of this alloys in naturally aerated 3.5% NaCl solution has been investigated through open circuit potential measurements. Afterwards, pits have been characterized by image analysis taking density and size measurements right from corroded surfaces. Morphological investigation has been conducted for profiles, cut orthogonally from mean surface planes, and observed through light microscopy. Image analysis data could demonstrate that pits are wider than deep, evoluting for conical, quasi-conical or irregular shapes. Most pits have presented a quasi-conical morphology, but the wider ones have evoluted to an irregular shape influenced by sub-surface microstructure. Image analysis based on shape segmentation could enhance the differences on morphological behavior.

  8. Method for making generally cylindrical underground openings

    DOEpatents

    Routh, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    A rapid, economical and safe method for making a generally cylindrical underground opening such as a shaft or a tunnel is described. A borehole is formed along the approximate center line of where it is desired to make the underground opening. The borehole is loaded with an explodable material and the explodable material is detonated. An enlarged cavity is formed by the explosive action of the detonated explodable material forcing outward and compacting the original walls of the borehole. The enlarged cavity may be increased in size by loading it with a second explodable material, and detonating the second explodable material. The process may be repeated as required until the desired underground opening is made. The explodable material used in the method may be free-flowing, and it may be contained in a pipe.

  9. Op-Ug TD Optimizer Tool Based on Matlab Code to Find Transition Depth From Open Pit to Block Caving / Narzędzie Optymalizacyjne Oparte O Kod Matlab Wykorzystane Do Określania Głębokości Przejściowej Od Wydobycia Odkrywkowego Do Wybierania Komorami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhtavar, E.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, transition from open pit to block caving has been considered as a challenging problem. For this purpose, the linear integer programing code of Matlab was initially developed on the basis of the binary integer model proposed by Bakhtavar et al (2012). Then a program based on graphical user interface (GUI) was set up and named "Op-Ug TD Optimizer". It is a beneficial tool for simple application of the model in all situations where open pit is considered together with block caving method for mining an ore deposit. Finally, Op-Ug TD Optimizer has been explained step by step through solving the transition from open pit to block caving problem of a case ore deposit. W pracy tej rozważano skomplikowane zagadnienie przejścia od wybierania odkrywkowego do komorowego. W tym celu opracowano kod programowania liniowego w środowisku MATLAB w oparciu o model liczb binarnych zaproponowany przez Bakhtavara (2012). Następnie opracowano program z wykorzystujący graficzny interfejs użytkownika o nazwie Optymalizator Op-Ug TD. Jest to niezwykle cenne narzędzie umożliwiające stosowanie modelu dla wszystkich warunków w sytuacjach gdy rozważamy prowadzenie wydobycia metodą odkrywkową oraz wydobycie komorowe przy eksploatacji złóż rud żelaza. W końcowej części pracy podano szczegółową instrukcję stosowanie programu Optymalizator na przedstawionym przykładzie przejścia od wydobycia rud żelaza metodami odkrywkowymi poprzez wydobycie komorami.

  10. Change detection over Sokolov open-pit mining area, Czech Republic, using multi-temporal HyMAP data (2009-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adar, S.; Notesco, G.; Brook, A.; Livne, I.; Rojik, P.; Kopacková, V.; Zelenkova, K.; Misurec, J.; Bourguignon, A.; Chevrel, S.; Ehrler, C.; Fisher, C.; Hanus, J.; Shkolnisky, Y.; Ben Dor, E.

    2011-11-01

    Two HyMap images acquired over the same lignite open-pit mining site in Sokolov, Czech Republic, during the summers of 2009 and 2010 (12 months apart), were investigated in this study. The site selected for this research is one of three test sites (the others being in South Africa and Kyrgyzstan) within the framework of the EO-MINERS FP7 Project (http://www.eo-miners.eu). The goal of EO-MINERS is to "integrate new and existing Earth Observation tools to improve best practice in mining activities and to reduce the mining related environmental and societal footprint". Accordingly, the main objective of the current study was to develop hyperspectral-based means for the detection of small spectral changes and to relate these changes to possible degradation or reclamation indicators of the area under investigation. To ensure significant detection of small spectral changes, the temporal domain was investigated along with careful generation of reflectance information. Thus, intensive spectroradiometric ground measurements were carried out to ensure calibration and validation aspects during both overflights. The performance of these corrections was assessed using the Quality Indicators setup developed under a different FP7 project-EUFAR (http://www.eufar.net), which helped select the highest quality data for further work. This approach allows direct distinction of the real information from noise. The reflectance images were used as input for the application of spectral-based change-detection algorithms and indices to account for small and reliable changes. The related algorithms were then developed and applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis to map spectral changes over the space of a year. Using field spectroscopy and ground truth measurements on both overpass dates, it was possible to explain the results and allocate spatial kinetic processes of the environmental changes during the time elapsed between the flights. It was found, for instance, that significant spectral changes

  11. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section... Mining Methods § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall perimeter. In places where persons work or travel in... stripped back for at least 10 feet from the top of the pit or quarry wall. Other conditions at or near...

  12. Projection methods: Results and open problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bauschke, H.

    1994-12-31

    The convex feasibility problem consists of finding a point in the intersection of convex constraint sets. It is very easy to state and has an immediate geometric appeal; its real significance, however, lies in the wide range of applications in mathematics and physical sciences. The method of cyclic projections is an iterative attempt to solve the convex feasibility problem: a convergent sequence is generated by projecting cyclically onto the constraint sets and its limit is a solution. This and similar other methods have been used in practice with great success and quite a few theoretical results are known. Nonetheless, some fundamental questions remain open! In this talk, I will present some (of my favorite) open problems and what`s known about them.

  13. Optic Nerve Pit

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is the effect of optic pit on vision? The pit itself does not affect vision and most patients remain without any symptoms for decades. About 50% of patients start feeling vision deterioration in their 20’s or 30’s. It is ...

  14. Using pitting and protection potentials to predict pitting behavior: New insights

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    A literature review was performed to identify test methods that have been used to examine pitting susceptibility of alloys in chloride (Cl{sup {minus}}) containing environments. Several techniques were identified and a critical analysis of the validity of the different electrochemical methods was performed with special attention given to the causes of variations observed in the pitting, or breakdown, potential (E{sub pit}) and the protection, or repassivation, potential (E{sub prot}). Experiments were performed on Type 317L stainless steel in three solutions containing high levels of Cl{sup {minus}} and Alloy G3 in two solutions containing high levels of Cl{sup {minus}}. The test solutions were designed to simulate environments present in flue gas desulfurization systems. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) experiments and constant potential-time experiments (up to 60 days) were performed to examine pit initiation and repassivation; and modified ASTM F-746 tests were performed to establish the protection potential as a function of prior pitting history. Analysis of the data suggests that there exists a unique pitting potential (E{sub u}) defined by the stochastic models for pit initiation that equals the most active value of E{sub pit} (long incubation times) and that equals the most noble E{sub prot} value (measured following only minimal pit growth). 24 refs., 34 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Arne - Exploring the Mare Tranquillitatis Pit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Thangavelautham, J.; Wagner, R.; Hernandez, V. A.; Finch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lunar mare "pits" are key science and exploration targets. The first three pits were discovered within Selene observations [1,2] and were proposed to represent collapses into lava tubes. Subsequent LROC images revealed 5 new mare pits and showed that the Mare Tranquillitatis pit (MTP; 8.335°N, 33.222°E) opens into a sublunarean void at least 20-meters in extent [3,4]. A key remaining task is determining pit subsurface extents, and thus fully understanding their exploration and scientific value. We propose a simple and cost effective reconnaissance of the MTP using a small lander (<130 kg) named Arne, that carries three flying microbots (or pit-bots) [5,6,7]. Key measurement objectives include decimeter scale characterization of the pit walls, 5-cm scale imaging of the eastern floor, determination of the extent of sublunarean void(s), and measurement of the magnetic and thermal environment. After landing and initial surface systems check Arne will transmit full resolution descent and surface images. Within two hours the first pit-bot will launch and fly into the eastern void. Depending on results from the first pit-bot the second and third will launch and perform follow-up observations. The primary mission is expected to last 48-hours; before the Sun sets on the lander there should be enough time to execute ten flights with each pit-bot. The pit-bots are 30-cm diameter spherical flying robots [5,6,7] equipped with stereo cameras, temperature sensors, sensors for obstacle avoidance and a laser rangefinder. Lithium hydride [5,6] and water/hydrogen peroxide power three micro-thrusters and achieve a specific impulse of 350-400 s. Each pit-bot can fly for 2 min at 2 m/s for more than 100 cycles; recharge time is 20 min. Arne will carry a magnetometer, thermometer, 2 high resolution cameras, and 6 wide angle cameras and obstacle avoidance infrared sensors enabling detailed characterization of extant sublunarean voids. [1] Haruyama et al. (2010) 41st LPSC, #1285. [2

  16. Open-pit coal-mining effects on rice paddy soil composition and metal bioavailability to Oryza sativa L. plants in Cam Pha, northeastern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Raul E; Marquez, J Eduardo; Hòa, Hoàng Thị Bích; Gieré, Reto

    2013-11-01

    This study quantified Cd, Pb, and Cu content, and the soil-plant transfer factors of these elements in rice paddies within Cam Pha, Quang Ninh province, northeastern Vietnam. The rice paddies are located at a distance of 2 km from the large Coc Sau open-pit coal mine. Electron microprobe analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive spectroscopy revealed a relatively high proportion of carbon particles rimmed by an iron sulfide mineral (probably pyrite) in the quartz-clay matrix of rice paddy soils at 20-30 cm depth. Bulk chemical analysis of these soils revealed the presence of Cd, Cu, and Pb at concentrations of 0.146±0.004, 23.3±0.1, and 23.5±0.1 mg/kg which exceeded calculated background concentrations of 0.006±0.004, 1.9±0.5, and 2.4±1.5 mg/kg respectively at one of the sites. Metals and metalloids in Cam Pha rice paddy soils, including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were found in concentrations ranging from 0.2±0.1 to 140±3 mg/kg, which were in close agreement with toxic metal contents in mine tailings and Coc Sau coal samples, suggesting mining operations as a major cause of paddy soil contamination. Native and model Oryza sativa L. rice plants were grown in the laboratory in a growth medium to which up to 1.5 mg/kg of paddy soil from Cam Pha was added to investigate the effects on plant growth. A decrease in growth by up to 60% with respect to a control sample was found for model plants, whereas a decrease of only 10% was observed for native (Nep cai hoa vang variety) rice plants. This result suggests an adaptation of native Cam Pha rice plants to toxic metals in the agricultural lands. The Cd, Cu, and Pb contents of the native rice plants from Cam Pha paddies exceeded permitted levels in foods. Cadmium and Pb were highest in the rice plant roots with concentrations of 0.84±0.02 and 7.7±0.3 mg/kg, suggesting an intake of these metals into the rice plant as shown, for example, by Cd and Pb concentrations of 0

  17. A new look at Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata of the East Midlands, UK: initial data from the Smalley open pit mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sian Davies-Vollum, K.; Guion, Paul; Satterfield, Dorothy; Suthren, Roger

    2010-05-01

    Outcrops of Pennsylvanian (Duckmantian) age coal-bearing strata in the East Midlands of England are rare and have become rarer as more of the surface environment has been developed. Much of the stratigraphic correlation and paleoenvironmental interpretation of these strata have thus been based on subsurface data from deep mine workings and coal exploration boreholes. However, in 2009, coal mining commenced at an open pit mine near Smalley, east Derbyshire in the UK East Midlands. The mine provides a unique opportunity to carry out examination of a large-scale outcrop of Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata in order to undertake detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. The coals that will be exposed during working belong to the Waterloo group of seams of Duckmantian age. Initial examination of the workings has been concentrated on two successive intervals: from the basal Third Waterloo Seam to the Bottom Second Waterloo seam, and the from above the Bottom Second Waterloo seam to the Top Second Waterloo seam. The two inter-seam intervals are approximately 10-12 meters thick. Examination of the coal seams and inter-seam intervals will continue as new faces are exposed, supplemented by exploration drilling data. Initial field observations on the first sections exposed suggest that the two inter-seam intervals represent the infill of lakes formed on a fluvio-lacustrine plain, with negligible marine influence. The strata immediately above the Third Waterloo Seam consist of dark grey fissile shaly mudrocks overlain by an upward coarsening sequence of pale grey siltstones with sandy laminae and current ripples indicating unidirectional tractional flows. These pass upwards into rippled fine sandstones, cut by shallow channels towards the top. The overall inter-seam sequence is interpreted as the deposits of a lacustrine delta system that infilled a shallow lake that was initially anoxic. Once the lake had been infilled, a peat mire was able to form, now represented by the

  18. Computer-Assisted Detection of Collapse Pits in LROC NAC Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R. V.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    150 small (average diameter 15m) pits in impact melt deposits of Copernican craters [1]. More recently, improvements to the algorithm revealed two new large mare pits, similar to the three pits discovered in Kaguya images [2]. One is in Schlüter crater, a mare-filled crater near Orientale basin, with a 20 x 40m opening, approximately 60 m deep. The second new pit is in Lacus Mortis (44.96°N, 25.61°E) in a tectonically complex region west of Burg crater, This pit is the largest mare pit found to date, with an opening approximately 100 x 150 m, and a floor more than 90 m below the surrounding terrain. Most interesting from an exploration point of view is the fact that the east wall appears to have collapsed, leaving a relatively smooth ~22° slope from the surrounding mare down to the pit floor. Computer-assisted feature detection is an effective method of locating rare features in the extremely large high-resolution NAC dataset. Pitscan enabled the discovery of unknown collapse pits both in the mare and highlands. These pits are an important resource for future surface exploration, both by providing access to pristine cross-sections of the near-surface and by providing radiation and micrometorite shielding for human outposts. [1] Wagner, R.V. et al. (2012), LPSC XLIII, #2266 [2] Haruyama, J. et al. (2010), LPSC XLI, #1285

  19. Drainage pits in cohesionless materials: implications for surface of Phobos.

    PubMed

    Horstman, K C; Melosh, H J

    1989-09-10

    Viking orbiter images show grooves and chains of pits crossing the surface of Phobos, many of which converge toward the large crater Stickney or its antipode. Although it has been proposed that the pits and grooves are chains of secondary craters, their morphology and geometric relations suggest that they are the surface traces of fractures in the underlying solid body of Phobos. Several models have been proposed to explain the pits, of which the most plausible are gas venting and drainage of regolith into open fractures. the latter mechanism is best supported by the image data and is the mechanism studied in this investigation. Drainage pits and fissures are modeled experimentally by using two rigid substrate plates placed edge to edge and covered by uniform thicknesses of dry fragmental debris (simulated regolith). Fracture extension is simulated by drawing the plates apart, allowing drainage of regolith into the newly created void. A typical drainage experiment begins with a shallow depression on the surface of the regolith, above the open fissure. Increased drainage causes local drainage pits to form; continued drainage causes the pits to coalesce, forming a cuspate groove. The resulting experimental patterns of pits and grooves have pronounced similarities to those observed on Phobos. Characteristics such as lack of raised rims, linearity of grooves and chains of pits, uniform spacing of pits, and progression from discrete pits to cuspate grooves are the same in the experiments and on Phobos. In contrast, gas-venting pits occur in irregular chains and have raised rims. These experiments thus indicate that the Phobos grooves and pits formed as drainage structures. The pit spacing in an experiment is measured at the time that the maximum number of pits forms, prior to groove development. The average pit spacing is compared to the regolith thickness for each material. Regression line fits indicate that the average spacing of drainage pits in unconsolidated

  20. Drainage pits in cohesionless materials: implications for surface of Phobos.

    PubMed

    Horstman, K C; Melosh, H J

    1989-09-10

    Viking orbiter images show grooves and chains of pits crossing the surface of Phobos, many of which converge toward the large crater Stickney or its antipode. Although it has been proposed that the pits and grooves are chains of secondary craters, their morphology and geometric relations suggest that they are the surface traces of fractures in the underlying solid body of Phobos. Several models have been proposed to explain the pits, of which the most plausible are gas venting and drainage of regolith into open fractures. the latter mechanism is best supported by the image data and is the mechanism studied in this investigation. Drainage pits and fissures are modeled experimentally by using two rigid substrate plates placed edge to edge and covered by uniform thicknesses of dry fragmental debris (simulated regolith). Fracture extension is simulated by drawing the plates apart, allowing drainage of regolith into the newly created void. A typical drainage experiment begins with a shallow depression on the surface of the regolith, above the open fissure. Increased drainage causes local drainage pits to form; continued drainage causes the pits to coalesce, forming a cuspate groove. The resulting experimental patterns of pits and grooves have pronounced similarities to those observed on Phobos. Characteristics such as lack of raised rims, linearity of grooves and chains of pits, uniform spacing of pits, and progression from discrete pits to cuspate grooves are the same in the experiments and on Phobos. In contrast, gas-venting pits occur in irregular chains and have raised rims. These experiments thus indicate that the Phobos grooves and pits formed as drainage structures. The pit spacing in an experiment is measured at the time that the maximum number of pits forms, prior to groove development. The average pit spacing is compared to the regolith thickness for each material. Regression line fits indicate that the average spacing of drainage pits in unconsolidated

  1. Sulci Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in serveral ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire ediface to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found in an area of 'sulci' ridges east of Olympus Mons. Graben cut the ridges, and one graben hosts the collapse pits. It is likely that these collapse pits are related to volatile release from material that filled the lows at some point after graben formation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 18.6, Longitude 234.6 East (125.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in

  2. Nanoformulation of poly(ethylene glycol) polymerized organic insect repellent by PIT emulsification method and its application for Japanese encephalitis vector control.

    PubMed

    Balaji, A P B; Mishra, Prabhakar; Suresh Kumar, R S; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2015-04-01

    The utilization of increased dosage of insect repellents to overcome mosquito resistance has raised environmental concerns globally. In accord to this, we have formulated an efficacious, water-dispersive, nanometric formulation of a poor water-soluble insect repellent, diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA) by poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymerization followed by PIT emulsification method. The critical micelle concentration of PEG in the spontaneously emulsified conventional DEPA droplets was determined, based on the droplets physical stability. Subjecting them to PIT emulsification yielded monodispersed polymeric nanomicelles of DEPA (Nano DEPA) with hydrodynamic mean diameter of 153.74 nm. The high-resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies revealed the characteristic core-shell structure of micelle. The comparative efficacy of Bulk DEPA and Nano DEPA was evaluated by larvicidal and WHO cone bioassay against the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The median lethal concentrations (48 h) for 3rd instars C. tritaeniorhynchus larvae were found to be 0.416 mg/L for Bulk DEPA and 0.052 mg/L for Nano DEPA, respectively. The median knockdown concentrations (60 min) for the two to three-day-old, sucrose-fed, female adult mosquitoes were 5.372% (v/v) and 3.471% (v/v) for Bulk and Nano DEPA, respectively. Further investigation by histopathological and biochemical studies propound that Nano DEPA exerted better bioefficacy as comparative to its bulk form even at minimal exposure concentrations. Hence, Nano DEPA will serve as an effective alternate in controlling the vector expansion with reduced dosage. PMID:25766922

  3. Monitoring of surface deformation in open pit mine using DInSAR time-series: a case study in the N5W iron mine (Carajás, Brazil) using TerraSAR-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Santos, Athos R.; Galo, Mauricio; Camargo, Paulo O.; Silva, Arnaldo Q.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    We present an investigation of surface deformation using Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) time-series carried out in an active open pit iron mine, the N5W, located in the Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region), using 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) scenes. This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine (pit walls) have been done based on ground based radar. Two complementary approaches were used: the standard DInSAR configuration, as an early warning of the slope instability conditions, and the DInSAR timeseries analysis. In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair. Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles. The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of 107 interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors. The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares (LS) solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity. The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment.

  4. RPC gas recovery by open loop method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Avinash; Kalmani, S. D.; Mondal, N. K.; Satyanarayana, B.

    2009-05-01

    RPC detectors require to be flushed with small but continuous flow of gas mixture. Dealing with large number of detectors, gas consumption to very large volumes. Gas flow is a running expense and constituent gases are too expensive to be treated as consumables. Exhaust gas mixture from detectors is a potential environmental hazard if discharged directly into the atmosphere. Storage of gases on a large scale also leads to inventory- and safety-related problems. A solution to these problems is the recovery and reuse of exhaust gas mixture from RPC detectors. Close loop method employs recirculation of exhausted gas mixture after purification, analysis and addition of top-up quantities. In open loop method, under consideration here, individual component gases are separated from gas mixture and reused as source. During open loop process, gases liquefiable at low pressures are separated from ones liquefiable at high pressure. The gas phase components within each group are successively separated by either fractional condensation or gravity separation. Gas mixture coming from RPC exhaust is first desiccated by passage through molecular sieve adsorbent type (3A+4A). Subsequent scrubbing over basic activated alumina removes toxic and acidic contaminants such as S 2F 10 produced during corona (arcing) discharge. In the first stage of separation isobutane and freon are concentrated by diffusion and liquefied by fractional condensation by cooling upto -30 °C. Liquefied gases are returned to source tanks. In the second stage of separation, argon and sulphur hexafluoride, the residual gases, are concentrated by settling due to density difference. SF 6 is stored for recovery by condensation at high pressure while argon is further purified by thermal cracking of crossover impurities at 1000 °C followed by wet scrubbing.

  5. Assessment of PEM4PIT parameters by analyzing catchment form and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, M.; Grimaldi, S.; Nardi, F.; Petroselli, A.

    2008-12-01

    A physically based approach (PEM4PIT, Physical Erosion Model for PIT removal) was recently introduced to correct hydrologic spurious depressions (pits) and flat areas in Digital Elevation Models. Despite PEM4PIT proved to be more suitable than commonly used geometric methods to reconstruct hydrologically connected topography and reliable stream network metrics, fundamental in rainfall/runoff modeling, the best choice of the three model parameters (slope-area exponent, (theta) erodibility (beta), and diffusivity (D)) remained an open issue to be investigated. In this work a methodology to select the optimal set of parameters is described. In particular two methods are illustrated for theta estimation, the former using Horton ratios (Flint, 1974) and the latter analyzing the "approximate characteristic form" of slope profile (Kirkby, 1971). Regarding beta and D, they are estimated applying separately a simplified topographic equilibrium equation for the basin domains interested by the fluvial erosion and diffusion processes, respectively. ASTER DEMs of several case studies watersheds are used as input dataset; finally PEM4PIT results are compared, in terms of extracted network, with the results of standard approaches and with the digitized bluelines.

  6. Ascraeus Mons Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found on the flank of Ascraeus Mons. The pits and channels are all related to lava tube formation and emptying.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 8, Longitude 253.9 East (106.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science

  7. Lava Tube Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found in the southern hemisphere of Mars. They are likely lava tube collapse pits related to flows from Hadriaca Patera.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -36.8, Longitude 89.6 East (270.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space

  8. Alba Patera Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    This image of the Alba Patera region has both lava tube collapse pits (running generally east/west) and subsidence related collapse within structural grabens.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 26.9, Longitude 256.5 East (103.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  9. Sulci Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    This is the Noctis Labyrinthus region of Mars. These collapse pits are forming along structural fractures that are allowing the release of volatiles from the subsurface. This is believed to be the way that chaos terrain forms on Mars. This area represents the early stage of chaos formation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -12.6, Longitude 264 East (96 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in

  10. Tharsis Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found within the extensive lava flows of the Tharsis region. They are related to lava tubes, likely coming from Ascraeus Mons.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 22.8, Longitude 266.8 East (93.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office

  11. Alba Patera Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found within graben surrounding Alba Patera. Alba Patera is an old volcano that has subsided after it's magma chamber was evacuated.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 43.1, Longitude 259.4 East (100.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  12. Tractus Catena Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found in graben located in Tractus Catena. These features are related to subsidence after magma chamber evacuation of Alba Patera.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 35.8, Longitude 241.7 East (118.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  13. Structure-interfacial properties relationship and quantification of the amphiphilicity of well-defined ionic and non-ionic surfactants using the PIT-slope method.

    PubMed

    Ontiveros, Jesús F; Pierlot, Christel; Catté, Marianne; Molinier, Valérie; Salager, Jean-Louis; Aubry, Jean-Marie

    2015-06-15

    The Phase Inversion Temperature of a reference C10E4/n-Octane/Water system exhibits a quasi-linear variation versus the mole fraction of a second surfactant S2 added in the mixture. This variation was recently proposed as a classification tool to quantify the Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) of commercial surfactants. The feasibility of the so-called PIT-slope method for a wide range of well-defined non-ionic and ionic surfactants is investigated. The comparison of various surfactants having the same dodecyl chain tail allows to rank the polar head hydrophilicity as: SO3Na⩾SO4Na⩾NMe3Br>E2SO3Na≈CO2Na⩾E1SO3Na⩾PhSO3Na>Isosorbide(exo)SO4Na≫IsosorbideendoSO4Na≫E8⩾NMe2O>E7>E6⩾Glucosyl>E5⩾Diglyceryl⩾E4>E3>E2≈Isosorbide(exo)>Glyceryl>Isosorbide(endo). The influence on the surfactant HLB of other structural parameters, i.e. hydrophobic chain length, unsaturation, replacement of Na(+) by K(+) counterion, and isomerism is also investigated. Finally, the method is successfully used to predict the optimal formulation of a new bio-based surfactant, 1-O-dodecyldiglycerol, when performing an oil scan at 25 °C.

  14. Pitting of 3003 aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.

    1996-12-31

    The Advanced Photon Source is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source. The storage ring vacuum chamber is fabricated from 6061 extruded Al. Water connections to the vacuum chambers that were fabricated from 3003 Al had developed water leaks, which were subsequently remedied after considerable investigations. Materials subjected to the pitting analysis in this study are 3003, 6061, and 6063 Al.

  15. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  16. Detecting pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2004-11-01

    The presence of pits in processed cherry products causes safety concerns for consumers and imposes potential liability for the food industry. The objective of this research was to investigate a hyperspectral transmission imaging technique for detecting the pit in tart cherries. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire transmission images from individual cherry fruit for four orientations before and after pits were removed over the spectral region between 450 nm and 1,000 nm. Cherries of three size groups (small, intermediate, and large), each with two color classes (light red and dark red) were used for determining the effect of fruit orientation, size, and color on the pit detection accuracy. Additional cherries were studied for the effect of defect (i.e., bruises) on the pit detection. Computer algorithms were developed using the neural network (NN) method to classify the cherries with and without the pit. Two types of data inputs, i.e., single spectra and selected regions of interest (ROIs), were compared. The spectral region between 690 nm and 850 nm was most appropriate for cherry pit detection. The NN with inputs of ROIs achieved higher pit detection rates ranging from 90.6% to 100%, with the average correct rate of 98.4%. Fruit orientation and color had a small effect (less than 1%) on pit detection. Fruit size and defect affected pit detection and their effect could be minimized by training the NN with properly selected cherry samples.

  17. Detecting Cavitation Pitting Without Disassembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.

    1986-01-01

    Technique for detecting cavitation pitting in pumps, turbines, and other machinery uses low-level nuclear irradiation. Isotopes concentrated below surface emit gamma radiation, a portion of which is attenuated by overlying material. Where there are cavitation pits, output of gamma-ray detector fluctuates as detector is scanned near pits. Important to detect cavitation pits because nozzle, turbine blade, or other pump component weakened by cavitation could fail catastrophically and cause machine to explode.

  18. A comparison of implantation methods for large PIT tags or injectable acoustic transmitters in juvenile Chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Katrina V.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Klett, Ryan S.; Li, Huidong; Seaburg, Adam; Eppard, M. B.

    2014-04-15

    The miniaturization of acoustic transmitters may allow greater flexibility in terms of the size and species of fish available to tag. New downsized injectable acoustic tags similar in shape to passive integrated transponder tags can be rapidly injected rather than surgically implanted through a sutured incision, as is current practice. Before wide-scale field use of these injectable transmitters, standard protocols to ensure the most effective and least damaging methods of implantation must be developed. Three implantation methods were tested in various sizes of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha. Methods included a needle bevel-down injection, a needle bevel-up injection with a 90-degree rotation, and tag implantation through an unsutured incision. Tagged fish were compared to untagged control groups. Weight and wound area were measured at tagging and every week for 3 weeks; holding tanks were checked daily for mortalities and tag losses. No differences among treatments were found in growth, tag loss, or survival, but wound area was significantly reduced among incision-treated fish. The bevel-up injection had the worst results in terms of tag loss and wound area and also had high mortality. Implantation through an incision resulted in the lowest tag loss but the highest mortality. Fish from the bevel-down treatment group had the least mortality; wound areas also were smaller than the bevel-up treatment group. Cumulatively, the data suggest that the unsutured incision and bevel-down injection methods were the most effective; the drawbacks of both methods are described in detail. However, we further recommend larger and longer studies to find more robust thresholds for tagging size that include more sensitive measures.

  19. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-08

    The objectives of this research project were to lay the foundation for further improvement in the use of geophysical methods for detection of buried wastes, and to increase the information content derived from surveys. Also, an important goal was to move from mere detection to characterization of buried wastes. The technical approach to achieve these objectives consisted of: (1) Collect a data set of high spatial density; (2) Acquire data with multiple sensors and integrate the interpretations inferred from the various sensors; (3) Test a simplified time domain electromagnetic system; and (4) Develop imaging and display formats of geophysical data readily understood by environmental scientists and engineers. The breadth of application of this work is far reaching. Not only are uncontrolled waste pits and trenches, abandoned underground storage tanks, and pipelines found throughout most US DOE facilities, but also at military installations and industrial facilities. Moreover, controlled land disposal sites may contain ``hot spots`` where drums and hazardous material may have been buried. The technologies addressed by the R&D will benefit all of these activities.

  20. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Fletcher, Andrew; Doshi, Ashray

    2015-01-01

    Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning. PMID:26274959

  1. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Fletcher, Andrew; Doshi, Ashray

    2015-01-01

    Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R2) greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning. PMID:26274959

  2. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Fletcher, Andrew; Doshi, Ashray

    2015-01-01

    Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning.

  3. Crevice and pitting corrosion behavior of stainless steels in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Zaragoza-Ayala, A.E.; Orozco-Cruz, R.

    1999-11-01

    Pitting and crevice corrosion tests in natural seawater were performed on a series of stainless steels (i.e., S31603, N08904, S32304, S31803, S32520, N08925 and S31266) in order to determine their resistance to these types of localized corrosion. Open circuit potential (OCP) measurements for these alloys show for short exposure times an ennoblement in the OCP. After a certain time, occasional fall and rise in the OCP values was observed, which can be related to nucleation and repassivation of pits and/or crevices on the metal surface. Analysis of the electrochemical behavior and microscopic observations shows that only S31603 and S32304 alloys were susceptible to crevice and pitting corrosion, whereas the remaining alloys exhibited good resistance. Pitting potentials determined by the potentiodynamic technique also show S3 1603 and S32304 are susceptible to pitting corrosion under the experimental conditions used in this work.

  4. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Under Contract between US DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Blackhawk Geosciences Division of Coleman Research Corporation (BGD-CRC), geophysical investigations were conducted to improve the detection of buried wastes. Site characterization is a costly and time consuming process with the most costly components being drilling, sampling, and chemical analysis of samples. There is a focused effort at US DOE and other agencies to investigate methodologies that reduce costs and shorten the time between characterization and clean-up. These methodologies take the form of employing non-invasive (geophysical) and minimal invasive (e.g., cone penetrometer driving) techniques of characterization, and implementing a near real-time, rational decision-making process (Expedited Site Characterization). Over the Cold Test Pit (CTP) at INEL, data were acquired with multiple sensors on a dense grid. Over the CTP the interpretations inferred from geophysical data are compared with the known placement of various waste forms in the pit. The geophysical sensors employed were magnetics, frequency and time domain electromagnetics, and ground penetrating radar. Also, because of the high data density acquired, filtering and other data processing and imaging techniques were tested. The conclusions derived from the geophysical surveys were that pit boundaries, berms between cells within the pit, and individual objects placed in the pit were best mapped by the new Geonics EM61 time domain EM metal detector. Part of the reason for the effectiveness of the time domain metal detector is that objects buried in the pit are dominantly metallic. Also, the utility of geophysical data is significantly enhanced by dimensional and 3-dimensional imaging formats. These images will particularly assist remediation engineers in visualizing buried wastes.

  5. Polar Cap Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows kidney bean-shaped pits, and other pits, formed by erosion in a landscape of frozen carbon dioxide. This images shows one of about a dozen different patterns that are common in various locations across the martian south polar residual cap, an area that has been receiving intense scrutiny by the MGS MOC this year, because it is visible on every orbit and in daylight for most of 2005.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 6.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  6. Cracked and Pitted Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-536, 6 November 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a typical view--at 1.5 meters (5 feet) per pixel--of surfaces in far western Utopia Planitia. In this region, the plains have developed cracks and pit chains arranged in a polygonal pattern. The pits form by collapse along the trend of a previously-formed crack. This picture is located near 45.0oN, 275.4oW. This April 2003 image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  7. Ariel's Densely Pitted Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This mosaic of the four highest-resolution images of Ariel represents the most detailed Voyager 2 picture of this satellite of Uranus. The images were taken through the clear filter of Voyager's narrow-angle camera on Jan. 24, 1986, at a distance of about 130,000 kilometers (80,000 miles). Ariel is about 1,200 km (750 mi) in diameter; the resolution here is 2.4 km (1.5 mi). Much of Ariel's surface is densely pitted with craters 5 to 10 km (3 to 6 mi) across. These craters are close to the threshold of detection in this picture. Numerous valleys and fault scarps crisscross the highly pitted terrain. Voyager scientists believe the valleys have formed over down-dropped fault blocks (graben); apparently, extensive faulting has occurred as a result of expansion and stretching of Ariel's crust. The largest fault valleys, near the terminator at right, as well as a smooth region near the center of this image, have been partly filled with deposits that are younger and less heavily cratered than the pitted terrain. Narrow, somewhat sinuous scarps and valleys have been formed, in turn, in these young deposits. It is not yet clear whether these sinuous features have been formed by faulting or by the flow of fluids.

    JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  8. Pit Viper strikes at the Hanford site. Pit maintenance using robotics at the Hanford Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder-Smith, Lynne

    2002-06-30

    The Pit Viper - a remote operations waste retrieval system - was developed to replace manual operations in the valve pits of waste storge tanks at the Hanford Site. The system consists of a typical industrial backhoe fitted with a robotic manipulator arm and is operated remotely from a control trailer located outside of the tank farm. Cameras mounted to the arm and within the containment tent allow the operator to view the entire pit area and operate the system using a joystick. The arm's gripper can grasp a variety of tools that allow personnel to perform cleaning, debris removal, and concrete repair tasks -- a more efficient and less dose-intensive process than the previous "long-pole" method. The project team overcame a variety of obstacles during development and testing of the Pit Viper system, and deployment occurred in Hanford Tank C-104 in December 2001.

  9. Mapping sand and gravel pits in the Patuxent River watershed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, T. J.; Witt, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT data from July 1973 and June 1978 for the Patuxent River Watershed of Maryland were processed in an effort to devise an economical method of monitoring the reclamation of sand and gravel pits. ASTEP-II and IDIMS software were utilized to derive signatures for sand and gravel pits and other land use/land cover types. Both unsupervised and supervised classifications of the two data sets were produced. Resultant statistics and color output products were compared in order to determine the extent of reclamation and expansion of sand and gravel pits over the five-year time span and to check the locations of more recent sand and gravel pits. Preliminary results indicate that, for a selected northern sub-acre, signatures derived for sand and gravel pits were nearly 90 percent accurate.

  10. Modelling the mechanical behaviour of pit membranes in bordered pits with respect to cavitation resistance in angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Tixier, Aude; Herbette, Stephane; Jansen, Steven; Capron, Marie; Tordjeman, Philippe; Cochard, Hervé; Badel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Various correlations have been identified between anatomical features of bordered pits in angiosperm xylem and vulnerability to cavitation, suggesting that the mechanical behaviour of the pits may play a role. Theoretical modelling of the membrane behaviour has been undertaken, but it requires input of parameters at the nanoscale level. However, to date, no experimental data have indicated clearly that pit membranes experience strain at high levels during cavitation events. Methods Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used in order to quantify the pit micromorphology of four tree species that show contrasting differences in vulnerability to cavitation, namely Sorbus aria, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica and Populus tremula. This allowed anatomical characters to be included in a mechanical model that was based on the Kirchhoff–Love thin plate theory. A mechanistic model was developed that included the geometric features of the pits that could be measured, with the purpose of evaluating the pit membrane strain that results from a pressure difference being applied across the membrane. This approach allowed an assessment to be made of the impact of the geometry of a pit on its mechanical behaviour, and provided an estimate of the impact on air-seeding resistance. Key Results The TEM observations showed evidence of residual strains on the pit membranes, thus demonstrating that this membrane may experience a large degree of strain during cavitation. The mechanical modelling revealed the interspecific variability of the strains experienced by the pit membrane, which varied according to the pit geometry and the pressure experienced. The modelling output combined with the TEM observations suggests that cavitation occurs after the pit membrane has been deflected against the pit border. Interspecific variability of the strains experienced was correlated with vulnerability to cavitation. Assuming that air-seeding occurs at a given pit membrane

  11. Flyover Modeling of Planetary Pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakumar, A.; Bhasin, N.; Daids, O.; Shanor, R.; Snyder, K.; Whittaker, W.

    2015-10-01

    This research uses vision, inertial, and LIDAR sensors to build a high resolution model of a planetary pit as a landing vehicle flies overhead. Pits allow access to subterranean caves, but cannot be fully observed from orbit due to their geometry.

  12. PIT Tagging Anurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCreary, Brome

    2008-01-01

    The following video demonstrates a procedure to insert a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag under the skin of an anuran (frog or toad) for research and monitoring purposes. Typically, a 12.5 mm tag (0.5 in.) is used to uniquely identify individual anurans as smal as 40 mm (1.6 in.) in length from snout to vent. Smaller tags are also available and allow smaller anurans to be tagged. The procedure does not differ for other sizes of tages or other sizes of anurans. Anyone using this procedure should ensure that the tag is small enough to fit easily behind the sacral hump of the anuran, as shown in this video.

  13. Pitting of steam-generator tubing alloys in solutions containing thiosulfate and sulfate or chloride.

    PubMed

    Zhang, William; Carcea, Anatolie G; Newman, Roger C

    2015-01-01

    The pitting of nuclear steam generator tubing alloys 600, 690 and 800 was studied at 60 °C using dilute thiosulfate solutions containing excess sulfate or (for Alloy 600) chloride. A potentiostatic scratch method was used. In sulfate solutions, all alloys pitted at low potentials, reflecting their lack of protective Mo. The alloys demonstrated the most severe pitting at a sulfate : thiosulfate concentration ratio of ∼40. Alloy 600 pitted worst at a chloride : thiosulfate ratio of ∼2000. The results are interpreted through the mutual electromigration of differently charged anions into a pit nucleus, and differences in the major alloy component. PMID:25898311

  14. Drainage pits in cohesionless materials - Implications for the surface of PHOBOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstman, K. C.; Melosh, H. J.

    1989-09-01

    The origin of the pits and grooves on the surface of Phobos visible on the Viking orbital images of Phobos is investigated using a model of the mechanism of venting and drainage of regolith into open fractures, which is the mechanism that is best supported by image data. In this model, drainage pits and fissures are modeled experimentally by considering two rigid substrate plates placed edge to edge and covered by uniform thicknesses of dry fragmental debris (simulated regolith); fracture extension is simulated by drawing the plates apart, allowing the regolith to drain into the newly created void. The resulting experimental patterns of pits and grooves were found to have pronounced similarities with those observed on Phobos, displaying many characteristics, such as the lack of raised rims, the linearity of grooves and chains of pits, a uniform spacing of pits, and the progression from discrete pits to cuspate grooves, which are the same as those observed on Phobos.

  15. 12. Detail of engine pit in machine shop section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail of engine pit in machine shop section of roundhouse. Engine house section of roundhouse visible in background through rectangular openings. View to southeast. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  16. Open Rotor Computational Aeroacoustic Analysis with an Immersed Boundary Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brehm, Christoph; Barad, Michael F.; Kiris, Cetin C.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable noise prediction capabilities are essential to enable novel fuel efficient open rotor designs that can meet the community and cabin noise standards. Toward this end, immersed boundary methods have reached a level of maturity so that they are being frequently employed for specific real world applications within NASA. This paper demonstrates that our higher-order immersed boundary method provides the ability for aeroacoustic analysis of wake-dominated flow fields generated by highly complex geometries. This is the first of a kind aeroacoustic simulation of an open rotor propulsion system employing an immersed boundary method. In addition to discussing the peculiarities of applying the immersed boundary method to this moving boundary problem, we will provide a detailed aeroacoustic analysis of the noise generation mechanisms encountered in the open rotor flow. The simulation data is compared to available experimental data and other computational results employing more conventional CFD methods. The noise generation mechanisms are analyzed employing spectral analysis, proper orthogonal decomposition and the causality method.

  17. Open Rotor Computational Aeroacoustic Analysis with an Immersed Boundary Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brehm, Christoph; Barad, Michael F.; Kiris, Cetin C.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable noise prediction capabilities are essential to enable novel fuel efficient open rotor designs that can meet the community and cabin noise standards. Toward this end, immersed boundary methods have reached a level of maturity where more and more complex flow problems can be tackled with this approach. This paper demonstrates that our higher-order immersed boundary method provides the ability for aeroacoustic analysis of wake-dominated flow fields generated by a contra-rotating open rotor. This is the first of a kind aeroacoustic simulation of an open rotor propulsion system employing an immersed boundary method. In addition to discussing the methodologies of how to apply the immersed boundary method to this moving boundary problem, we will provide a detailed validation of the aeroacoustic analysis approach employing the Launch Ascent and Vehicle Aerodynamics (LAVA) solver. Two free-stream Mach numbers with M=0.2 and M=0.78 are considered in this analysis that are based on the nominally take-off and cruise flow conditions. The simulation data is compared to available experimental data and other computational results employing more conventional CFD methods. Spectral analysis is used to determine the dominant wave propagation pattern in the acoustic near-field.

  18. Pit latrine effluent infiltration into groundwater: the Epworth case study.

    PubMed

    Chidavaenzi, M; Bradley, M; Jere, M; Nhandara, C

    2000-01-01

    Water can be a vehicle for the transmission of communicable diseases. Technologies have been developed to protect groundwater from external surface contamination. However, there is growing concern about the likelihood of pit latrine effluent infiltrating into groundwater reservoirs for well water supply systems. Investigations on seasonal variations and extent of pit latrine effluent infiltration into soil and groundwater have been carried out in Zimbabwe. Preliminary results show that groundwater flows in the direction of surface runoff, and that there is no lateral soil pollution above the groundwater surface. Pit latrine contents leach downwards and down slopes for distances that vary per season and soil type. The results also demonstrate the contribution of refuse pits and water collection methods to groundwater pollution.

  19. Collapse Pits in Bernard Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in serveral ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire ediface to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These pits occur in the floor of Bernard Crater. These collapse pits were likely formed by the release of volatiles from the materials deposited in the crater floor.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -24, Longitude 205.5 East (154.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission

  20. Sediment tracing from small torrential channels to gravel-bed rivers using pit tags method. A case study from the upper Guil catchment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, Kévin; Viel, Vincent; Carlier, Benoit; Lissak, Candide; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Fort, Monique; Madelin, Malika

    2016-04-01

    In mountainous areas, especially in large catchments with torrential tributaries, the production and sediment transport significantly increase flood impacts in the valley bottoms. The quantification and characterisation of sedimentary transfers are therefore major challenges to provide better flood risk management. As a part of SAMCO (ANR 12 SENV-0004 SAMCO) project, for mountain hazard assessment in a context of global changes, we tried to improve the knowledge of these hydromorphological systems at both spatial and temporal scales, by identifying sediment supply and sediment dynamics from torrential tributaries to the main channel. A sediment budget was used as a tool for quantifying erosion, transport and deposition processes. This research is focused on the upper Guil catchment (Queyras, Southern French Alps - 317 km2) entrenched in "schistes lustrés" and ophiolitic bedrock. This catchment is prone to catastrophic summer floods [June 1957 (>R.I. 100 yr), June 2000 (R.I. 30 yr)] characterised by huge sediment transport from tributaries to downvalley, very much facilitated by strong hillslope-channel connectivity (about 12,000 m3 volume of sediment aggraded in the Peyronnelle fan during the June 2000 RI-30 year flood event). We intend to highlight sediment dynamics on small torrential channels and its connection with gravel-bed streams. Four study sites characterised by avalanche and debris flow-dominated channels located in the upper Guil catchment were investigated. In order to better assess sediment movement, we used the pit-tags technique. In total, 560 pit-tags (pt) have been implemented in four catchments: Peyronnelle (320pt), Combe Morel (40pt), Bouchouse (120pt), and Maloqueste (80pt). Distances and trajectories of gravels sediments have been monitored since two years during summer periods. We specifically describe results obtained along the Peyronnelle channel affected by a large debris-flow during august 2015. Data are used to discuss lag time

  1. The effect of normal pulsed Nd-YAG laser irradiation on pits and fissures in human teeth.

    PubMed

    Bahar, A; Tagomori, S

    1994-01-01

    The effects of normal pulsed Nd-YAG laser irradiation on the acid resistance of human dental enamel of pits and fissures, the cleaning of the pit and fissure contents and fluoride uptake into deep pits and fissures were examined. The acid resistance of the pit and fissure enamel was evaluated by the amount of dissolved calcium per square millimeter of the surface area. The pit and fissure enamel treated with laser irradiation obtained an acid resistance 30% higher than that of the unlased controls. The cleaning effect of laser irradiation on the pit and fissure contents was compared with chemicomechanical and mechanical methods. The laser irradiation was found to clean the pits and fissures to a greater depth without alterating the shape of pits and fissures, compared with the other two methods. The distribution of calcium, phosphorus and fluoride in the enamel of the pits and fissures was then measured by electron probe microanalyzer. At the entrance and in the deep part of the pits and fissures, the fluoride content of the enamel treated with acidulated phosphate fluoride after laser irradiation was higher than that of the enamel treated with acidulated phosphate fluoride alone. These results thus suggest that Nd-YAG laser irradiation might be effective in increasing the acid resistance of the pit and fissure enamel, while removing the pit and fissure debris contents and increasing the fluoride uptake into the pit and fissure enamel.

  2. Retaining latch for a water pit gate

    DOEpatents

    Beale, Arden R.

    1997-01-01

    A retaining latch for use in a hazardous materials storage or handling facility to adjustably retain a water pit gate in a gate frame. A retaining latch is provided comprising a latch plate which is rotatably mounted to each end of the top of the gate and a recessed opening, formed in the gate frame, for engaging an edge of the latch plate. The latch plate is circular in profile with one side cut away or flat, such that the latch plate is D-shaped. The remaining circular edge of the latch plate comprises steps of successively reduced thickness. The stepped edge of the latch plate fits inside a recessed opening formed in the gate frame. As the latch plate is rotated, alternate steps of the latch plate are engaged by the recessed opening. When the latch plate is rotated such that the flat portion of the latch plate faces the recessed opening in the gate frame, there is no connection between the opening and the latch plate and the gate is unlatched from the gate frame.

  3. Retaining latch for a water pit gate

    DOEpatents

    Beale, A.R.

    1997-11-18

    A retaining latch is described for use in a hazardous materials storage or handling facility to adjustably retain a water pit gate in a gate frame. A retaining latch is provided comprising a latch plate which is rotatably mounted to each end of the top of the gate and a recessed opening, formed in the gate frame, for engaging an edge of the latch plate. The latch plate is circular in profile with one side cut away or flat, such that the latch plate is D-shaped. The remaining circular edge of the latch plate comprises steps of successively reduced thickness. The stepped edge of the latch plate fits inside a recessed opening formed in the gate frame. As the latch plate is rotated, alternate steps of the latch plate are engaged by the recessed opening. When the latch plate is rotated such that the flat portion of the latch plate faces the recessed opening in the gate frame, there is no connection between the opening and the latch plate and the gate is unlatched from the gate frame. 4 figs.

  4. Effects of wall linings on moisture ingress into traditional grain storage pits.

    PubMed

    el-Tayeb Abdalla, A; Stigter, C J; Mohamed, H A; Mohammed, A E; Gough, M C

    2001-07-01

    Increasing climate variability, resulting in frequent years of poor rainfall, has recently subjected the traditional subsistence farmers in the Central Clay Plain of the Sudan to longer periods of food shortage. However, excess production in years of good rainfall could bridge the gap of years with poor rainfall if the grain is properly stored. Resource-poor farmers have tried several linings to improve the traditional underground pit ("matmura") they use for storage of sorghum. In the experimental study described here, pits with two types of lining: (i) a mixture of mud, cow dung and straw and (ii) sorghum chaff, were compared with unlined pits. Six closed pits were used, two for each type, and temperature and moisture content were monitored. It was found that the temperature increased in all pits and at all positions within the pits, with few differences between the linings. Moisture levels also increased everywhere but the sources of moisture were at the sides and bottoms of the pits. The chaff-lined pits were superior to the others because they showed smaller increases in moisture content at all positions and thus maintained a better quality of sorghum. Joint traditional assessments with local farmers after the pits were opened supported these findings.

  5. Effects of wall linings on moisture ingress into traditional grain storage pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    el-Tayeb Abdalla, Ahmed; Stigter, C. J.; A/Hafiz Mohamed, Habiballa; El-Tayeb Mohammed, Ahmed; Gough, M. C.

    Increasing climate variability, resulting in frequent years of poor rainfall, has recently subjected the traditional subsistence farmers in the Central Clay Plain of the Sudan to longer periods of food shortage. However, excess production in years of good rainfall could bridge the gap of years with poor rainfall if the grain is properly stored. Resource-poor farmers have tried several linings to improve the traditional underground pit (''matmura'') they use for storage of sorghum. In the experimental study described here, pits with two types of lining: (i) a mixture of mud, cow dung and straw and (ii) sorghum chaff, were compared with unlined pits. Six closed pits were used, two for each type, and temperature and moisture content were monitored. It was found that the temperature increased in all pits and at all positions within the pits, with few differences between the linings. Moisture levels also increased everywhere but the sources of moisture were at the sides and bottoms of the pits. The chaff-lined pits were superior to the others because they showed smaller increases in moisture content at all positions and thus maintained a better quality of sorghum. Joint traditional assessments with local farmers after the pits were opened supported these findings.

  6. Application of gradient-based Hough transform to the detection of corrosion pits in optical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yafei; Cheng, Guangxu

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a circle detection technique named Hough transform to automatically recognize the corrosion pits in microscopic images. All the points in the input image are transformed into a parameter space, which is represented by a two-dimensional accumulative array with the same size of the original image. Local extreme values in the accumulative array, which represent the candidates of corrosion pits, are located using a maxima searching algorithm. The accuracy of detecting the number, radius and coordinate of pits from simulated images was examined. The results show that more than 95% of pits were successfully detected and the average errors of radius and coordinate are less than 10%, while these errors have negligible effect on the pit size distribution. The introduced method can also differentiate pits from scratches or inclusions, as indicated by the 100% accuracy of pit detection, from the simulated images presented in this study. Therefore, it is believed that the gradient-based Hough transform is a powerful method for the recognition of corrosion pits in microscopic images, making the statistical analysis of pit size and pit locations easier and more efficient.

  7. A New Method of Open Cluster Membership Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin-hua; Chen, Li; Hou, Zhen-jie

    2014-07-01

    Membership determination is the key-important step to study open clusters, which can directly influence on the estimation of open clusters’ physical parameters. DBSCAN (Density Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise) is a density-based clustering algorithm in data mining techniques. In this paper the DBSCAN algorithm has been used for the first time to make the membership determination of the open clusters NGC 6791 and M 67 (NGC 2682). Our results indicate that the DBSCAN algorithm can effectively eliminate the contamination of field stars. The obtained member stars of NGC 6791 exhibit clearly a doubled main-sequence structure in the color-magnitude diagram, implying that NGC 6791 may have a more complicated history of star formation and evolution. The clustering analysis of M67 indicates the presence of mass segregation, and the distinct relative motion between the central part and the outer part of the cluster. These results demonstrate that the DBSCAN algorithm is an effective method of membership determination, and that it has some advantages superior to the conventional kinematic method.

  8. Methods for improving solar cell open circuit voltage

    DOEpatents

    Jordan, John F.; Singh, Vijay P.

    1979-01-01

    A method for producing a solar cell having an increased open circuit voltage. A layer of cadmium sulfide (CdS) produced by a chemical spray technique and having residual chlorides is exposed to a flow of hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2 S) heated to a temperature of 400.degree.-600.degree. C. The residual chlorides are reduced and any remaining CdCl.sub.2 is converted to CdS. A heterojunction is formed over the CdS and electrodes are formed. Application of chromium as the positive electrode results in a further increase in the open circuit voltage available from the H.sub.2 S-treated solar cell.

  9. INTERACTIVE PIT LAKES 2004 CONFERENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This CD and the workshop provide a pit lakes forum for the exchange of scientific information on current domestic and international approaches, including arid and wet regions throughout the world. These approaches include characterization, modeling/monitoring, and treatment and r...

  10. openPSTD: The open source pseudospectral time-domain method for acoustic propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornikx, Maarten; Krijnen, Thomas; van Harten, Louis

    2016-06-01

    An open source implementation of the Fourier pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) method for computing the propagation of sound is presented, which is geared towards applications in the built environment. Being a wave-based method, PSTD captures phenomena like diffraction, but maintains efficiency in processing time and memory usage as it allows to spatially sample close to the Nyquist criterion, thus keeping both the required spatial and temporal resolution coarse. In the implementation it has been opted to model the physical geometry as a composition of rectangular two-dimensional subdomains, hence initially restricting the implementation to orthogonal and two-dimensional situations. The strategy of using subdomains divides the problem domain into local subsets, which enables the simulation software to be built according to Object-Oriented Programming best practices and allows room for further computational parallelization. The software is built using the open source components, Blender, Numpy and Python, and has been published under an open source license itself as well. For accelerating the software, an option has been included to accelerate the calculations by a partial implementation of the code on the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU), which increases the throughput by up to fifteen times. The details of the implementation are reported, as well as the accuracy of the code.

  11. Quantitative damage evaluation of localized deep pitting

    SciTech Connect

    Al Beed, A.A.; Al Garni, M.A.

    2000-04-01

    Localized deep pitting is considered difficult to precisely measure and evaluate using simple techniques and daily-use analysis approaches. A case study was made of carbon steel heat exchangers in a typical fresh cooling water environment that experienced severe pitting. To effectively and precisely evaluate the encountered pitting damage, a simple measurement and analyses approach was devised. In this article, the pitting measurement technique and the damage evaluation approach are presented and discussed in detail.

  12. Standard methods for open hole tension testing of textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portanova, M. A.; Masters, J. E.

    1995-01-01

    Sizing effects have been investigated by comparing the open hole failure strengths of each of the four different braided architectures as a function of specimen thickness, hole diameter, and the ratio of specimen width to hole diameter. The data used to make these comparisons was primarily generated by Boeing. Direct comparisons of Boeing's results were made with experiments conducted at West Virginia University whenever possible. Indirect comparisons were made with test results for other 2-D braids and 3-D weaves tested by Boeing and Lockheed. In general, failure strength was found to decrease with increasing plate thickness, increase with decreasing hole size, and decreasing with decreasing width to diameter ratio. The interpretation of the sensitive to each of these geometrical parameters was complicated by scatter in the test data. For open hole tension testing of textile composites, the use of standard testing practices employed by industry, such as ASTM D5766 - Standard Test Method for Open Hole Tensile Strength of Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates should provide adequate results for material comparisons studies.

  13. NIR detection of pits and pit fragments in fresh cherries (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the detection of pits and pit fragments in cherries was demonstrated. For detection of whole pits, 300 cherries were obtained locally and pits were removed from half. NIR reflectance spectra were obtained in triplicate...

  14. Workshop Proceedings: Pitting in Steam Generator Tubing

    SciTech Connect

    1984-10-01

    A two-day workshop focused on the probable causes of steam generator pitting at two nuclear plants and on whether pitting is a low-temperature or a high-temperature phenomenon. Participants also heard descriptions of various pit-resistant metals that are suitable for tube sleeving.

  15. CALL FOR ABSTRACTS - PIT LAKES 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    This call for abstracts is for the 11/16-18/2004 Pit Lakes 2004 meeting held in Reno, NV. This conference will provide a forum for the exchange of scientific information on current domestic and international pit lake approaches, including pit lakes from arid and wet regions throu...

  16. Pitting corrosion of inconel 600 in high-temperature water containing CuCl/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.R.; Szklarska-Smialowska, Z.

    1985-11-01

    Pitting corrosion of Inconel 600 was studied in aqueous sodium and cupric chloride solutions at 60 and 280 C. The pit nucleation potential, E /SUB np/ was evaluated in two different concentrations of sodium chloride. E /SUB np/ decreased with increasing concentrations of the chloride ion and with temperature. On specimen surfaces exposed to cupric chloride solutions, pitting occurred at open circuit potentials nearly equal to or higher than the E /SUB np/ determined by anodic polarization in 0.01 M NaCl solution. The number and size of the pits increased with increasing concentrations of cupric chloride and dissolved oxygen. On specimens partly covered with polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) tape (i.e., in the presence of artificial crevices), pitting occurre more easily at low concentrations of CuCl/sub 2/ (less than or equal to20 ppm CuCl/sub 2/ in deaerated solutions at 280 C). Tubes covered with oxide films that formed during the operation of model boilers exhibited greater pitting resistance than tubes with clean surfaces at 280 C, but less resistance at 60 C. Corrosion products contained in the pits were enriched in chromium with small amounts of copper, sulfur, and chlorine. The composition of corrosion products covering the pits was similar to that in the pits, but with the additional enrichment of iron. Presumably, sulfur present in Inconel 600 as an impurity was significant in the pitting process. The probable mechanism of the processes leading to pitting of Inconel 600 tubing in high-temperature water is discussed.

  17. Agile Methods for Open Source Safety-Critical Software

    PubMed Central

    Enquobahrie, Andinet; Ibanez, Luis; Cheng, Patrick; Yaniv, Ziv; Cleary, Kevin; Kokoori, Shylaja; Muffih, Benjamin; Heidenreich, John

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of software technology in a life-dependent environment requires the development team to execute a process that ensures a high level of software reliability and correctness. Despite their popularity, agile methods are generally assumed to be inappropriate as a process family in these environments due to their lack of emphasis on documentation, traceability, and other formal techniques. Agile methods, notably Scrum, favor empirical process control, or small constant adjustments in a tight feedback loop. This paper challenges the assumption that agile methods are inappropriate for safety-critical software development. Agile methods are flexible enough to encourage the right amount of ceremony; therefore if safety-critical systems require greater emphasis on activities like formal specification and requirements management, then an agile process will include these as necessary activities. Furthermore, agile methods focus more on continuous process management and code-level quality than classic software engineering process models. We present our experiences on the image-guided surgical toolkit (IGSTK) project as a backdrop. IGSTK is an open source software project employing agile practices since 2004. We started with the assumption that a lighter process is better, focused on evolving code, and only adding process elements as the need arose. IGSTK has been adopted by teaching hospitals and research labs, and used for clinical trials. Agile methods have matured since the academic community suggested they are not suitable for safety-critical systems almost a decade ago, we present our experiences as a case study for renewing the discussion. PMID:21799545

  18. Agile Methods for Open Source Safety-Critical Software.

    PubMed

    Gary, Kevin; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Ibanez, Luis; Cheng, Patrick; Yaniv, Ziv; Cleary, Kevin; Kokoori, Shylaja; Muffih, Benjamin; Heidenreich, John

    2011-08-01

    The introduction of software technology in a life-dependent environment requires the development team to execute a process that ensures a high level of software reliability and correctness. Despite their popularity, agile methods are generally assumed to be inappropriate as a process family in these environments due to their lack of emphasis on documentation, traceability, and other formal techniques. Agile methods, notably Scrum, favor empirical process control, or small constant adjustments in a tight feedback loop. This paper challenges the assumption that agile methods are inappropriate for safety-critical software development. Agile methods are flexible enough to encourage the rightamount of ceremony; therefore if safety-critical systems require greater emphasis on activities like formal specification and requirements management, then an agile process will include these as necessary activities. Furthermore, agile methods focus more on continuous process management and code-level quality than classic software engineering process models. We present our experiences on the image-guided surgical toolkit (IGSTK) project as a backdrop. IGSTK is an open source software project employing agile practices since 2004. We started with the assumption that a lighter process is better, focused on evolving code, and only adding process elements as the need arose. IGSTK has been adopted by teaching hospitals and research labs, and used for clinical trials. Agile methods have matured since the academic community suggested they are not suitable for safety-critical systems almost a decade ago, we present our experiences as a case study for renewing the discussion.

  19. Agile Methods for Open Source Safety-Critical Software.

    PubMed

    Gary, Kevin; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Ibanez, Luis; Cheng, Patrick; Yaniv, Ziv; Cleary, Kevin; Kokoori, Shylaja; Muffih, Benjamin; Heidenreich, John

    2011-08-01

    The introduction of software technology in a life-dependent environment requires the development team to execute a process that ensures a high level of software reliability and correctness. Despite their popularity, agile methods are generally assumed to be inappropriate as a process family in these environments due to their lack of emphasis on documentation, traceability, and other formal techniques. Agile methods, notably Scrum, favor empirical process control, or small constant adjustments in a tight feedback loop. This paper challenges the assumption that agile methods are inappropriate for safety-critical software development. Agile methods are flexible enough to encourage the rightamount of ceremony; therefore if safety-critical systems require greater emphasis on activities like formal specification and requirements management, then an agile process will include these as necessary activities. Furthermore, agile methods focus more on continuous process management and code-level quality than classic software engineering process models. We present our experiences on the image-guided surgical toolkit (IGSTK) project as a backdrop. IGSTK is an open source software project employing agile practices since 2004. We started with the assumption that a lighter process is better, focused on evolving code, and only adding process elements as the need arose. IGSTK has been adopted by teaching hospitals and research labs, and used for clinical trials. Agile methods have matured since the academic community suggested they are not suitable for safety-critical systems almost a decade ago, we present our experiences as a case study for renewing the discussion. PMID:21799545

  20. Assessment of Concrete Repair Techniques for Radiologically Contaminated Tank Farm Pump and Valve Pits

    SciTech Connect

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-09-19

    As part of the scope of Project W-314, ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations,'' the condition of pump and valve pit walls and floors is being assessed, and repairs made as needed, to support upgrading the infrastructure necessary to safely transfer tank waste for treatment. Flaws in the surfaces of the pits (e.g., concrete crack/faults, protective coating deterioration) must be repaired to ensure containment integrity and to facilitate future decontamination of the pits. This engineering study presents a cost/risk/benefit evaluation of concrete and protective coating repair methods in pump and valve pits using various manual and remote tool systems.

  1. An explicit-solvent conformation search method using open software

    PubMed Central

    Gaalswyk, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Computer modeling is a popular tool to identify the most-probable conformers of a molecule. Although the solvent can have a large effect on the stability of a conformation, many popular conformational search methods are only capable of describing molecules in the gas phase or with an implicit solvent model. We have developed a work-flow for performing a conformation search on explicitly-solvated molecules using open source software. This method uses replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) to sample the conformational states of the molecule efficiently. Cluster analysis is used to identify the most probable conformations from the simulated trajectory. This work-flow was tested on drug molecules α-amanitin and cabergoline to illustrate its capabilities and effectiveness. The preferred conformations of these molecules in gas phase, implicit solvent, and explicit solvent are significantly different. PMID:27280078

  2. Avian mortality at oil pits in the United States: A review of the problem and efforts for its solution.

    PubMed

    Trail, Pepper W

    2006-10-01

    Oil production operations produce waste fluids that may be stored in pits, open tanks, and other sites accessible to wildlife. Birds visit these fluid-filled pits and tanks ("oil pits"), which often resemble water sources, and may become trapped and die. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) has a program to reduce these impacts by locating problem pits, documenting mortality of protected wildlife species, and seeking cleanup or corrective action at problem pits with the help of state and federal agencies regulating the oil industry. Species identification and verification of protected status for birds recovered from oil pits are performed at the USFWS National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory. From 1992 to 2005, a minimum of 2060 individual birds were identified from remains recovered from oil pits, representing 172 species from 44 families. The taxonomic and ecological diversity of these birds indicates that oil pits pose a threat to virtually all species of birds that encounter them. Ninety-two percent of identified bird remains belonged to protected species. Most remains identified at the Forensics Laboratory were from passerines, particularly ground-foraging species. Based on Forensics Laboratory and USFWS field data, oil pits currently cause the deaths of 500,000-1 million birds per year. Although law enforcement and industry efforts have produced genuine progress on this issue, oil pits remain a significant source of mortality for birds in the United States.

  3. An assessment of hydrogeochemical computer codes applied toward modeling and predicting post-mining pit water geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, D.A.; Lyons, W.B. . Hydrology Program); Miller, G.C. . Dept. of Environmental Resource Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Geochemists for the mining industry utilize a variety of computer codes to model and predict post-mining pit water chemogenesis. This study surveys several of the PC-supported hydrogeochemical codes, applies them to specific open pit mine scenarios, and evaluates their suitability to predicting post-mining pit and groundwater hydro-geochemistry. The prediction of pit water geochemistry is important because of the potential adverse effects of mine drainage, which include acidity, trace metal contamination, pit water stratification, and sludge accumulation. The WATEQ codes of the USGS can calculate speciation and saturation states of a pit water or groundwater sample, but are not designed to model forward rock/water reactions. NETPATH can calculate the chemical mass transfer (inverse modeling) that has occurred during rock/water interaction, but again is not designed to model forward pit water chemogenesis. Several mining industry modelers use EPA's MINTEQA2 code, which has shown to be very flexible with its large database and ability to model adsorption. Reaction path codes, like PHREEQE and EQ3/6, can model reactions on an incremental basis as the pit fills over time, but also may require much user manipulation. New coupled codes like PHREEQM and HYDROGEOCHEM can simulate movement and reaction of groundwater through the aquifer as it approaches and inundates the pit. One aspect of post-mining hydrogeochemical modeling that has received little attention is the effect groundwater will have down gradient after it flows from the pit into the aquifer.

  4. Laser Safety Method For Duplex Open Loop Parallel Optical Link

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, Steven John; Hedin, Daniel Scott; Paschal, Matthew James

    2003-12-02

    A method and apparatus are provided to ensure that laser optical power does not exceed a "safe" level in an open loop parallel optical link in the event that a fiber optic ribbon cable is broken or otherwise severed. A duplex parallel optical link includes a transmitter and receiver pair and a fiber optic ribbon that includes a designated number of channels that cannot be split. The duplex transceiver includes a corresponding transmitter and receiver that are physically attached to each other and cannot be detached therefrom, so as to ensure safe, laser optical power in the event that the fiber optic ribbon cable is broken or severed. Safe optical power is ensured by redundant current and voltage safety checks.

  5. Apparatus and method for producing fragment-free openings

    DOEpatents

    Cherry, Christopher R.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for explosively penetrating hardened containers such as steel drums without producing metal fragmentation is disclosed. The apparatus can be used singularly or in combination with water disrupters and other disablement tools. The apparatus is mounted in close proximity to the target and features a main sheet explosive that is initiated at least three equidistant points along the sheet's periphery. A buffer material is placed between the sheet explosive and the target. As a result, the metallic fragments generated from the detonation of the detonator are attenuated so that no fragments from the detonator are transferred to the target. As a result, an opening can be created in containers such as steel drums through which access to the IED is obtained to defuse it with projectiles or fluids.

  6. Dissolution kinetics and etch pit studies of potassium aluminium sulphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hoek, B.; Van Enckevort, W. J. P.; Van Der Linden, W. H.

    1983-03-01

    The dissolution process of the {111} faces of potash alum is studied, both by microtopographic examinations of the etch pit patterns and by measurement of the dissolution kinetics in a rotating disc crystallizer. Both methods showed that the Cabrera-Levine dissolution theory holds for the two most common dislocation types ending on the {111} faces of potash alum. On the basis of the rotating disc experiments, the interfacial supersaturation of the etch pit experiments was roughly estimated. Using this, it was found that at interfacial supersaturations below -0.6% (dislocations with <110> Burgers vector) or below -0.85% (dislocations with <100> Burgers vector) numerous etch pits related to those dislocation types appeared. Below those undersaturations the dissolution process is mainly determined by volume diffusion. From the critical undersaturation, determined in the rotating disc crystallizer, the value of the edge free energy of a step was found to be approximately 0.01 J/m 2.

  7. Lessons Learned from Pit Viper System Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Catalan, Michael A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.

    2002-04-11

    Tele-operated and robotic systems operated in unstructured field environments pose unique challenges for tool design. Since field tasks are not always well defined and the robot work area usually cannot be designed for ease of operation, the tools must be versatile. It's important to carefully consider the orientation of the grip the robot takes on the tool, as it's not easily changed in the field. The stiffness of the robot and the possibility of robot positioning errors encourages the use of non-contact or minimal-contact tooling. While normal hand tools can usually be modified for use by the robot, this is not always the most effective approach. It's desirable to have tooling that is relatively independent of the robot; in this case, the robot places the tool near the desired work location and the tool performs its task relatively independently. Here we consider the adaptation of a number of tools for cleanup of a radioactively contaminated piping junction and valve pit. The tasks to be considered are debris removal (small nuts and bolts and pipe up to 100 mm in diameter), size reduction, surface cleaning, and support of past practice crane-based methods for working in the pits.

  8. Cause of pitting in beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Kershaw, R.P.

    1982-04-16

    Light microscopy, bare-film radiography, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron microprobe and physical testing were used to examine beryllium specimens exhibiting a stratified, pitted, pattern after chemical milling. The objective was to find the cause of this pattern. Specimens were found to have voids in excess of density specification allowances. These voids are attributed, at least in part, to the sublimation of beryllium fluoride during the vacuum hot pressing operation. The origin of the pattern is attributed to these voids and etching out of fines and associated impurities. Hot isostatic pressing with a subsequent heat treatment close residual porosity and dispersed impurities enough to correct the problem.

  9. Pits and Flutes on Stimpy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The rock 'Stimpy' is seen in this close-up image taken by the Sojourner rover's left front camera on Sol 70 (September 13). Detailed texture on the rock, such as pits and flutes, are clearly visible.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  10. Relationship Between Foveal Cone Specialization and Pit Morphology in Albinism

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Melissa A.; McAllister, John T.; Cooper, Robert F.; Dubis, Adam M.; Patitucci, Teresa N.; Summerfelt, Phyllis; Anderson, Jennifer L.; Stepien, Kimberly E.; Costakos, Deborah M.; Connor, Thomas B.; Wirostko, William J.; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Dubra, Alfredo; Curcio, Christine A.; Brilliant, Murray H.; Summers, C. Gail; Carroll, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Albinism is associated with disrupted foveal development, though intersubject variability is becoming appreciated. We sought to quantify this variability, and examine the relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in patients with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. Methods. We recruited 32 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. DNA was obtained from 25 subjects, and known albinism genes were analyzed for mutations. Relative inner and outer segment (IS and OS) lengthening (fovea-to-perifovea ratio) was determined from manually segmented spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) B-scans. Foveal pit morphology was quantified for eight subjects from macular SD-OCT volumes. Ten subjects underwent imaging with adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), and cone density was measured. Results. We found mutations in 22 of 25 subjects, including five novel mutations. All subjects lacked complete excavation of inner retinal layers at the fovea, though four subjects had foveal pits with normal diameter and/or volume. Peak cone density and OS lengthening were variable and overlapped with that observed in normal controls. A fifth hyper-reflective band was observed in the outer retina on SD-OCT in the majority of the subjects with albinism. Conclusions. Foveal cone specialization and pit morphology vary greatly in albinism. Normal cone packing was observed in the absence of a foveal pit, suggesting a pit is not required for packing to occur. The degree to which retinal anatomy correlates with genotype or visual function remains unclear, and future examination of larger patient groups will provide important insight on this issue. PMID:24845642

  11. Upper Extremity Injuries in NASCAR Drivers and Pit Crew

    PubMed Central

    Wertman, Gary; Gaston, R. Glenn; Heisel, William

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding the position-specific musculoskeletal forces placed on the body of athletes facilitates treatment, prevention, and return-to-play decisions. While position-specific injuries are well documented in most major sports, little is known about the epidemiology of position-specific injuries in National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing (NASCAR) drivers and pit crew. Purpose: To investigate position-specific upper extremity injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed to assess position-specific injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members. Included in the study were patients seen by a single institution between July 2003 and October 2014 with upper extremity injuries from race-related NASCAR events or practices. Charts were reviewed to identify the diagnosis, mechanism of injury, and position of each patient. Results: A total of 226 NASCAR team members were treated between July 2003 and October 2014. Of these, 118 injuries (52%) occurred during NASCAR racing events or practices. The majority of these injuries occurred in NASCAR changers (42%), followed by injuries in drivers (16%), carriers (14%), jack men (11%), fuel men (9%), and utility men (8%). The majority of the pit crew positions are at risk for epicondylitis, while drivers are most likely to experience neuropathies, such as hand-arm vibration syndrome. The changer sustains the most hand-related injuries (42%) on the pit crew team, while carriers commonly sustain injuries to their digits (29%). Conclusion: Orthopaedic injuries in NASCAR vary between positions. Injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members are a consequence of the distinctive forces associated with each position throughout the course of the racing season. Understanding these forces and position-associated injuries is important for preventive measures and facilitates diagnosis and return-to-play decisions

  12. Building pit dewatering: application of transient analytic elements.

    PubMed

    Zaadnoordijk, Willem J

    2006-01-01

    Analytic elements are well suited for the design of building pit dewatering. Wells and drains can be modeled accurately by analytic elements, both nearby to determine the pumping level and at some distance to verify the targeted drawdown at the building site and to estimate the consequences in the vicinity. The ability to shift locations of wells or drains easily makes the design process very flexible. The temporary pumping has transient effects, for which transient analytic elements may be used. This is illustrated using the free, open-source, object-oriented analytic element simulator Tim(SL) for the design of a building pit dewatering near a canal. Steady calculations are complemented with transient calculations. Finally, the bandwidths of the results are estimated using linear variance analysis.

  13. 7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted... allowances in this subpart is a whole pit or portions of pits computed as follows: (i) A single piece of pit shell, whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit shell...

  14. 7 CFR 52.779 - Freedom from pits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Canned red tart pitted cherries that are practically free from pits may be given a score of 18 to 20 points. “Practically free from pits” means that the number of pits that may be present in the drained...) classification. Canned red tart pitted cherries that are reasonably free from pits may be given a score of 16...

  15. COPPER PITTING AND PINHOLE LEAK RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Localized copper corrosion or pitting is a significant problem at many water utilities across the United States. Copper pinhole leak problems resulting from extensive pitting are widely under reported. Given the sensitive nature of the problem, extent of damage possible, costs o...

  16. Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

  17. Engaging patients through open notes: an evaluation using mixed methods

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Tobias; Mejilla, Roanne; Anselmo, Melissa; Podtschaske, Beatrice; Delbanco, Tom; Walker, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (A) To gain insights into the experiences of patients invited to view their doctors’ visit notes, with a focus on those who review multiple notes; (B) to examine the relationships among fully transparent electronic medical records and quality of care, the patient-doctor relationship, patient engagement, self-care, self-management skills and clinical outcomes. Design Mixed methods qualitative study: analyses of survey data, including content analysis of free-text answers, and quantitative-descriptive measures combined with semistructured individual interviews, patient activation measures, and member checks. Setting Greater Boston, USA. Participants Patients cared for by primary care physicians (PCPs) at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center who had electronic access to their PCP visit notes. Among those submitting surveys, 576 free-text answers were identified and analysed (414 from female patients, 162 from male patients; 23–88 years). In addition, 13 patients (9 female, 4 male; 58–87 years) were interviewed. Results Patient experiences indicate improved understanding (of health information), better relationships (with doctors), better quality (adherence and compliance; keeping track) and improved self-care (patient-centredness, empowerment). Patients want more doctors to offer access to their notes, and some wish to contribute to their generation. Those patients with repeated experience reviewing notes express fewer concerns and more perceived benefits. Conclusions As the use of fully transparent medical records spreads, it is important to gain a deeper understanding of possible benefits or harms, and to characterise target populations that may require varying modes of delivery. Patient desires for expansion of this practice extend to specialty care and settings beyond the physician's office. Patients are also interested in becoming involved actively in the generation of their medical records. The OpenNotes movement may increase patient

  18. The relationship between induction time for pitting and pitting potential for high purity aluminum.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Vandenavyle, Justin J.; Martinez, Michael A.

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a distribution of pit induction times (from potentiostatic experiments) could be used to predict a distribution of pitting potentials (from potentiodynamic experiments) for high-purity aluminum. Pit induction times were measured for 99.99 Al in 50 mM NaCl at potentials of -0.35, -0.3, -0.25, and -0.2 V vs. saturated calomel electrode. Analysis of the data showed that the pit germination rate generally was an exponential function of the applied potential; however, a subset of the germination rate data appeared to be mostly potential insensitive. The germination rate behavior was used as an input into a mathematical relationship that provided a prediction of pitting potential distribution. Good general agreement was found between the predicted distribution and an experimentally determined pitting potential distribution, suggesting that the relationships presented here provide a suitable means for quantitatively describing pit germination rate.

  19. Selenium Bioaccumulation in Stocked Fish as an Indicator of Fishery Potential in Pit Lakes on Reclaimed Coal Mines in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L. L.; Rasmussen, J. B.; Palace, V. P.; Sterling, G.; Hontela, A.

    2013-07-01

    Pit lakes are a common reclamation strategy for open pit mines; however, there is a concern about their water quality and suitability as fish habitat because they are often contaminated by metals or metalloids. This study assessed the exposure of fish and invertebrates to selenium (Se) and other metals and metalloids in pit lakes formed by open pit coal mining in Tertiary (thermal coal) and in Cretaceous (metallurgical coal) bedrock. Juvenile hatchery rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, were stocked into two thermal coal pit lakes (water Se < 2 μg/L, low water Se) and two metallurgical coal pit lakes (water Se > 15 μg/L, high water Se). Se accumulation in stocked fish and concentrations in invertebrates were characterized over a period of 2 years. In the metallurgical pits, invertebrates had higher Se concentrations and fish accumulated Se to higher levels (exceeding USEPA tissue Se guidelines) than biota in the thermal pits. Rainbow and brook trout accumulated similar concentrations of Se in their muscle and exhibited a similar relationship between whole-body and muscle Se concentrations. These results may be used by resource managers to assess compliance with whole-body tissue Se guidelines and to determine if pit lakes in coal mining areas pose a significant Se risk to wildlife or human health. The high Se exposure in metallurgical coal pits indicates that under the current mining and reclamation strategy, these lakes are not suitable for management as recreational "put and take" fisheries.

  20. Clean option: Berkeley Pit water treatment and resource recovery strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Monzyk, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development, established the Resource Recovery Project (RRP) in 1992 as a five-year effort to evaluate and demonstrate multiple technologies for recovering water, metals, and other industrial resources from contaminated surface and groundwater. Natural water resources located throughout the DOE complex and the and western states have been rendered unusable because of contamination from heavy metals. The Berkeley Pit, a large, inactive, open pit copper mine located in Butte, Montana, along with its associated groundwater system, has been selected by the RRP for use as a feedstock for a test bed facility located there. The test bed facility provides the infrastructure needed to evaluate promising technologies at the pilot plant scale. Data obtained from testing these technologies was used to assess their applicability for similar mine drainage water applications throughout the western states and at DOE. The objective of the Clean Option project is to develop strategies that provides a comprehensive and integrated approach to resource recovery using the Berkeley Pit water as a feedstock. The strategies not only consider the immediate problem of resource recovery from the contaminated water, but also manage the subsequent treatment of all resulting process streams. The strategies also employ the philosophy of waste minimization to optimize reduction of the waste volume requiring disposal, and the recovery and reuse of processing materials.

  1. Modeling pitting corrosion of iron exposed to alkaline solutions containing nitrate and nitrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lifeng

    2001-07-01

    Pitting corrosion could be extremely serious for dilute high-level radioactive waste stored or processed in carbon steel tanks at the Savannah River Site. In these solutions, nitrate is an aggressive ion with respect to pitting of carbon steel while nitrite can be used as an inhibitor. Excessive additions of nitrite increase the risk of generating unstable nitrogen compounds during waste processing, and insufficient additions of nitrite could increase the risk of corrosion-induced failure. Thus there are strong incentives to obtain a fundamental understanding of the role of nitrite in pitting corrosion prevention with these solution chemistries. In this dissertation, both a 1-D and a 2-D model are used to study the pitting mechanism as a function of nitrite/nitrate ratios. The 1-D model used BAND(J) to test a reaction mechanism for the passivation behavior by comparing the predicted Open Circuit Potential (OCP) with OCP data from experiments at different NO2-/NO3- ratio. The model predictions are compared with Cyclic Potentiodynamic Polarization (CPP) experiments. A 2-D model was developed for the propagation of a pit in iron by writing subroutines for finite element software of GAMBIT and FIDAP. Geometrically distributed anodic and cathodic reactions are assumed. The results show three partial explanations describing the inhibition influence of nitrite to iron corrosion: the competing reduction reaction of nitrate to nitrite, the formation of Fe(OH)+, and the function of the porous film. The current distributions and the effect of porosity of the film on pH are also explained. The calculation results also show that rate of pit growth decreases as the pit diameter increases until it reaches a constant value. The profile of the local current density on the pit wall is parabolic for small pits and it changes to a linear distribution for large pits. The model predicts that addition of nitrite will decrease the production of ferrous ions and those can prevent iron from

  2. Extraction and characterization of montmorency (Prunus cerasus L.) sour cherry pit oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pit oil was extracted and characterized by various methods including: gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorime...

  3. Statistical analysis of pitting corrosion in condenser tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Ault, J.P.; Gehring, G.A. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Condenser tube failure via wall penetration allows cooling water to contaminate the working fluid (steam). Contamination, especially from brackish or saltwater, will lower steam quality and thus lower overall plant efficiency. Because of the importance of minimizing leakages, power plant engineers are primarily concerned with the maximum localized corrosion in a unit rather than average corrosion values or rates. Extreme value analysis is a useful tool for evaluating the condition of condenser tubing. Extreme value statistical techniques allow the prediction of the most probable deepest pit in a given surface area based upon data acquired from a smaller surface area. Data is gathered from a physical examination of actual tubes (either in-service or from a sidestream unit) rather than small sample coupons. Three distinct applications of extreme value statistics to condenser tube evaluation are presented in this paper: (1) condition assessment of an operating condenser, (2) design data for material selection, and (3) research tool for assessing impact of various factors on condenser tube corrosion. The projections for operating units based on extreme value analysis are shown to be more useful than those made on the basis of other techniques such as eddy current or electrochemical measurements. Extreme value analysis would benefit from advances in two key areas: (1) development of an accurate and economical method for the measurement of maximum pit depths of condenser tubes in-situ would enhance the application of extreme value statistical analysis to the assessment of condenser tubing corrosion pitting and (2) development of methodologies to predict pit depth-time relationship in addition to pit depth-area relationship would be useful for modeling purposes.

  4. Primitive environment control for preservation of pit relics in archeology museums of China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhaolin; Luo, Xilian; Meng, Xiangzhao; Wang, Zanshe; Ma, Tao; Yu, Chuck; Rong, Bo; Li, Ku; Li, Wenwu; Tan, Ying

    2013-02-01

    Immovable historical relics in some archeology museums of China suffer deterioration due to their improper preservation environment. The existing environmental control systems used in archeology museums are often designed for the amenities of visitors, and these manipulated environments are often inappropriate for the conservation of abiotic relics. This paper points out that the large open space of the existing archeology museum could be a cause of deterioration of the relics from the point of view of indoor air convective flow. The paper illustrates the need to introduce a local pit environmental control, which could reintegrate a pit primitive environment for the preservation of the historical relics by using an air curtain system, orientated to isolate the unearthed relics, semiexposed in pits to the large gallery open space of the exhibition hall.

  5. Pitted keratolysis, erythromycin, and hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Pranteda, Guglielmo; Carlesimo, Marta; Pranteda, Giulia; Abruzzese, Claudia; Grimaldi, Miriam; De Micco, Sabrina; Muscianese, Marta; Bottoni, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Pitted keratolysis (PK) is a plantar skin disorder mainly caused by coryneform bacteria. A common treatment consists of the topical use of erythromycin. Hyperhidrosis is considered a predisposing factor for bacterial proliferation and, consequently, for the onset of PK. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PK erythromycin and hyperhidrosis. All patients with PK seen in Sant'Andrea Hospital, between January 2009 and December 2011, were collected. PK was clinically and microscopically diagnosed. All patients underwent only topical treatment with erythromycin 3% gel twice daily. At the beginning of the study and after 5 and 10 days of treatment, a clinical evaluation and a gravimetric measurement of plantar sweating were assessed. A total of 97 patients were diagnosed as PK and were included in the study. Gravimetric measurements showed that in 94 of 97 examined patients (96.90%) at the time of the diagnosis, there was a bilateral excessive sweating occurring specifically in the areas affected by PK. After 10 days of antibiotic therapy, hyperhidrosis regressed together with the clinical manifestations. According to these data, we hypothesize that hyperhidrosis is due to an eccrine sweat gland hyperfunction, probably secondary to bacterial infection. PMID:24703267

  6. Cherry Pit Primes Brad Pitt

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Deborah M.; Locantore, Jill Kester; Austin, Ayda A.; Chae, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated why proper names are difficult to retrieve, especially for older adults. On intermixed trials, young and older adults produced a word for a definition or a proper name for a picture of a famous person. Prior production of a homophone (e.g., pit) as the response on a definition trial increased correct naming and reduced tip-of-the-tongue experiences for a proper name (e.g., Pitt) on a picture-naming trial. Among participants with no awareness of the homophone manipulation, older but not young adults showed these homophone priming effects. With a procedure that reduced awareness effects (Experiment 2), prior production of a homophone improved correct naming only for older adults, but speeded naming latency for both age groups. We suggest that representations of proper names are susceptible to weak connections that cause deficits in the transmission of excitation, impairing retrieval especially in older adults. We conclude that homophone production strengthens phonological connections, increasing the transmission of excitation. PMID:15016287

  7. Pitted keratolysis, erythromycin, and hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Pranteda, Guglielmo; Carlesimo, Marta; Pranteda, Giulia; Abruzzese, Claudia; Grimaldi, Miriam; De Micco, Sabrina; Muscianese, Marta; Bottoni, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Pitted keratolysis (PK) is a plantar skin disorder mainly caused by coryneform bacteria. A common treatment consists of the topical use of erythromycin. Hyperhidrosis is considered a predisposing factor for bacterial proliferation and, consequently, for the onset of PK. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PK erythromycin and hyperhidrosis. All patients with PK seen in Sant'Andrea Hospital, between January 2009 and December 2011, were collected. PK was clinically and microscopically diagnosed. All patients underwent only topical treatment with erythromycin 3% gel twice daily. At the beginning of the study and after 5 and 10 days of treatment, a clinical evaluation and a gravimetric measurement of plantar sweating were assessed. A total of 97 patients were diagnosed as PK and were included in the study. Gravimetric measurements showed that in 94 of 97 examined patients (96.90%) at the time of the diagnosis, there was a bilateral excessive sweating occurring specifically in the areas affected by PK. After 10 days of antibiotic therapy, hyperhidrosis regressed together with the clinical manifestations. According to these data, we hypothesize that hyperhidrosis is due to an eccrine sweat gland hyperfunction, probably secondary to bacterial infection.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of erosive cavitation pressure field from pits in material: fact or myth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.-K.; Chahine, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    Material pitting in a cavitating flow has been used for a long time as an indicator of the vague ‘cavitation intensity’ concept. Periodically, some researchers suggest pitting tests as a “simple” means to provide quantitative measurements of the amplitude of the impulsive pressures in the cavitation field, especially when combined with Tabor's formula or with simple finite element computations with static loads. This paper examines the viability of such a method using fully coupled bubble dynamics and material response, and strongly concludes that the commonly accepted idea is a myth, as different loading scenarios with the same amplitude of the cavitation impulsive pressure result in different pit aspect ratios.

  9. Results of the application of persistent scatterers interferometry for surface displacements monitoring in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Carajás Province, Amazon region) using TerraSAR-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Carolina d. A.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Mura, José C.; Gama, Fabio F.; dos Santos, Athos R.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    Brazil has 10% of global Mn reserves with its most important mine located in the Amazon region. The Azul deposit is related to sandstones and siltstones of the Águas Claras Formation (Archean), situated in the central portion of the Carajás Strike-Slip System. Vale S.A. mining company operates the Azul mining complex with three simultaneous excavations (mines 1, 2 and 3) conducted on rock materials of low geomechanical qualities. Mining operations are openpit, with 4-8 m-high benches and depth of 80 m. A stack of 19 TerraSAR-X (TSX) images was used for the investigation covering the period of March 20-October 4, 2012. In order to minimize the topography phase error in the interferometric process, a high resolution DEM was generated based on a panchromatic GeoEye-1 stereo pair. Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) analysis was carried out using the IPTA (Interferometric Point Target Analysis) software and led to the detection of 40,193 point-wise persistent scatterers (PS), with an average density of 5,387 PS/km2. It was concluded that most of the mining area can be considered stable during the TSX coverage. High deformation rates related to settlements were mapped over a waste pile, while small deformation rates were detected along the north and south flanks of mine 1and were interpreted as cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. Despite only ground-based radar measurements were available for a short time period during the TSX coverage, and covering a sector of bench walls along the south flank of mine 1, the PSs movement patterns showed concordance with the field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that PSI technique can play in planning and risk assessment in this mining area. Monitoring of this type of deformation by PSI can usefully complement other commonly used field geotechnical measurements due to the synoptic SAR coverage over a dense grid, providing ground deformation data independently of field access and with

  10. Geophysical Investigations of the Mound City Borrow Pits, Ross County, Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Blair Elizabeth

    Geophysical subsurface imaging is becoming a common practice in archaeology. Non-invasive geophysical methods provide efficient alternatives to costly and invasive excavations, allowing archaeologists to analyze sites before any excavation is done to identify areas of interest. For my thesis, I investigated two prehistoric borrow pits at the Mound City Group (200 BC - 200 AD) in the Hopewell Culture National Historical Park in south-central Ohio. The primary objective of this study was to determine the presence and spatial extent of a clay lining that was emplaced upon the borrow pits by the Hopewell people. Information gleaned from the geophysical investigation was used to assess the degree of site disturbance from agriculture, construction of Camp Sherman, and modern reconstruction of the earthworks. My analysis included a suite of overlapping geophysical surveys consisting of ground-penetrating radar, magnetometry, electromagnetic induction, and electrical resistivity. The geophysical data was ground-truthed with limited auguring and trenching. Analysis of the first borrow pit data showed strong evidence of historical disturbance within the pit from construction of Camp Sherman, including disturbed soil and a buried utility pipe, leaving little of the clay lining present except around the edges of the borrow pit. The geophysical data for the second borrow pit showed less historical damage that was primarily caused from the re-excavation of the pit during the reconstruction of the park. The second borrow pit still retains about half of the clay lining, a finding supported by the results of auguring and trenching. These results are evidence that the borrow pits at Mound City may have also served a purpose as cultural landscape features. The geophysical methods used in this study proved to be an invaluable source of information with minimal disturbance of the site.

  11. Lessons Learned from Pit Viper System Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Catalan, Michael A.; Bailey, Sharon A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick L.

    2002-08-08

    The Pit Viper is a tele-operated system intended to enhance worker safety while simultaneously improving the efficiency of pit operations at the Hanford Site. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components were used in an attempt to increase system reliability and reduce integration difficulties. The Pit Viper, as is, provides significant improvement over the current baseline approach. During integration, multiple areas where technology development would enhance the effectiveness of the system were identified. Most notable of these areas were the manipulator control system, tool design, and tool handling. Various issues were identified regarding the interfacing of the Pit Viper with the Tank Farm environment and the maturity of remote/ robotic systems for unstructured environments.

  12. Okay, Kids, Everyone into the Pit!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belle, Bob; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a typical food chain and the interrelationship between plants and animals. Describes the "Food Chain Pit" game which can be used to help students create food chains of different habitats. (RT)

  13. Changes in pit membrane porosity due to deflection and stretching: the role of vestured pits.

    PubMed

    Choat, Brendan; Jansen, Steven; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Smets, Erik; Holbrook, N Michele

    2004-07-01

    The effect of increasing pressure difference (DeltaP) on intervessel pit membrane porosity was studied in two angiosperm tree species with differing pit architecture. Fraxinus americana L. possesses typical angiosperm bordered pit structure while Sophora japonica L. exhibits well-developed vestures in intervessel pit chambers. It was hypothesized (a) that large DeltaP across intervessel pits would cause the deflection of pit membranes in the stems of F. americana resulting in significant increases in porosity and thus lower cavitation thresholds, and (b) that the presence of vestures would prevent the deflection of pit membranes in S. japonica. To determine if the porosity of pit membranes increased under mechanical stress, suspensions of colloidal gold, 5 nm and 20 nm in diameter, were perfused across intervessel pit membranes at DeltaP ranging from 0.25 MPa to 6.0 MPa. The effect of increasing DeltaP on membrane porosity was also tested by comparing air seeding thresholds (Pa) in stems perfused with water or a solution with lower surface tension. Air seeding and colloidal gold experiments indicated that pit membrane porosity increased significantly with DeltaP in F. americana. In S. japonica, increases in permeability to colloidal gold with DeltaP were small and maximum pore diameters predicted from Pa were independent of DeltaP, suggesting that vestures limited the degree to which the membrane can be deflected from the centre of the pit cavity. This provides the first experimental evidence that vestures reduce the probability of air seeding through pit membranes. PMID:15181107

  14. Laser-resistance sensitivity to substrate pit size of multilayer coatings

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Yingjie; Zhu, Meiping; Wang, Hu; Xing, Huanbin; Cui, Yun; Sun, Jian; Yi, Kui; Shao, Jianda

    2016-01-01

    Nanosecond laser-resistance to dielectric multilayer coatings on substrate pits was examined with respect to the electric-field (E-field) enhancement and mechanical properties. The laser-induced damage sensitivity to the shape of the substrate pits has not been directly investigated through experiments, thus preventing clear understanding of the damage mechanism of substrate pits. We performed a systematic and comparative study to reveal the effects of the E-field distributions and localized stress concentration on the damage behaviour of coatings on substrates with pits. To obtain reliable results, substrate pits with different geometries were fabricated using a 520-nm femtosecond laser-processing platform. By using the finite element method, the E-field distribution and localized stress of the pitted region were well simulated. The 1064-nm damage morphologies of the coated pit were directly compared with simulated E-field intensity profiles and stress distributions. To enable further understanding, a simplified geometrical model was established, and the damage mechanism was introduced. PMID:27252016

  15. Laser-resistance sensitivity to substrate pit size of multilayer coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yingjie; Zhu, Meiping; Wang, Hu; Xing, Huanbin; Cui, Yun; Sun, Jian; Yi, Kui; Shao, Jianda

    2016-06-01

    Nanosecond laser-resistance to dielectric multilayer coatings on substrate pits was examined with respect to the electric-field (E-field) enhancement and mechanical properties. The laser-induced damage sensitivity to the shape of the substrate pits has not been directly investigated through experiments, thus preventing clear understanding of the damage mechanism of substrate pits. We performed a systematic and comparative study to reveal the effects of the E-field distributions and localized stress concentration on the damage behaviour of coatings on substrates with pits. To obtain reliable results, substrate pits with different geometries were fabricated using a 520-nm femtosecond laser-processing platform. By using the finite element method, the E-field distribution and localized stress of the pitted region were well simulated. The 1064-nm damage morphologies of the coated pit were directly compared with simulated E-field intensity profiles and stress distributions. To enable further understanding, a simplified geometrical model was established, and the damage mechanism was introduced.

  16. Pit 9 project: A private sector initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.W.; Hughes, F.P.; Burton, B.N.

    1993-05-01

    This report discusses the Pit 9 Comprehensive Demonstration which is intended to demonstrate a cost-effective approach to remediate an Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) waste disposal pit through a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Interim Action. The remediation will include additional requirements, if needed, to provide high confidence that only minor additional work would be necessary to accomplish the final closure as part of the overall final closure strategy for the INEL`s Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA).

  17. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  18. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  19. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  20. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  1. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  2. Controls by saturation state on etch pit formation during calcite dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, H. Henry

    2004-01-01

    Dissolution experiments were conducted on {101¯4} cleavage faces of calcite at various under-saturations to determine how the saturation state controls etch pit formation. Experimental observations were made by using in situ fluid cell Atomic Force Microscopy. Three dissolution modes were observed. When the saturation index Ω > 0.541, no etch pit formation was seen and dissolution primarily occurred at existing steps. When Ω decreased to Ω c = 0.541-0.410, the first visible pits appeared and continuous reduction in saturation state slowly increased the pit density on terraces while dissolution simultaneously proceeded at step edges. Finally, when the saturation state fell below Ω max = ˜0.007, a precipitous increase in pit density took place that sharply contrasted to the ordered fashion of pit formation observed at saturation conditions above this level. These observations are interpreted to be two-dimensional and unassisted pit formation at Ω < ˜0.007, defect- and step-assisted dissolution in between Ω = 0.541 and 0.007, and existing step-induced dissolution for Ω > 0.541. The values of Ω c are in good agreement with the dislocation theory's predicted critical under-saturations for pit formation at line dislocations. The occurrence of Ω max is not directly predicted but is a logical consequence of dissolution thermodynamics. These findings suggest that (1) dissolution near and far from equilibrium (i.e., Ω > Ω c, Ω < Ω max) is not controlled by dislocations, therefore (2) dislocation density should significantly impact dissolution rate only in the saturation range of Ω max < Ω < Ω c; (3) dissolution kinetics and chemical affinity of dissolution reactions should have a non-linear relationship: at sufficiently close to equilibrium, when dislocations cannot open up to form etch pits, the dissolution kinetics will be limited by the number of existing steps; at far from equilibrium, when pits are able to form in defect-free regions, the dissolution

  3. Method for detection of selected chemicals in an open environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a space-invariant independent component analysis and electronic nose for detection of selective chemicals in an unknown environment, and more specifically, an approach to analysis of sensor responses to mixtures of unknown chemicals by an electronic nose in an open and changing environment. It is intended to fill the gap between an alarm, which has little or no ability to distinguish among chemical compounds causing a response, and an analytical instrument, which can distinguish all compounds present but with no real-time or continuous event monitoring ability.

  4. Pit Latrines and Their Impacts on Groundwater Quality: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Polizzotto, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pit latrines are one of the most common human excreta disposal systems in low-income countries, and their use is on the rise as countries aim to meet the sanitation-related target of the Millennium Development Goals. There is concern, however, that discharges of chemical and microbial contaminants from pit latrines to groundwater may negatively affect human health. Objectives: Our goals were to a) calculate global pit latrine coverage, b) systematically review empirical studies of the impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality, c) evaluate latrine siting standards, and d) identify knowledge gaps regarding the potential for and consequences of groundwater contamination by latrines. Methods: We used existing survey and population data to calculate global pit latrine coverage. We reviewed the scientific literature on the occurrence of contaminants originating from pit latrines and considered the factors affecting transport of these contaminants. Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles, books, and reports identified using Web of ScienceSM, PubMed, Google, and document reference lists. Discussion: We estimated that approximately 1.77 billion people use pit latrines as their primary means of sanitation. Studies of pit latrines and groundwater are limited and have generally focused on only a few indicator contaminants. Although groundwater contamination is frequently observed downstream of latrines, contaminant transport distances, recommendations based on empirical studies, and siting guidelines are variable and not well aligned with one another. Conclusions: In order to improve environmental and human health, future research should examine a larger set of contextual variables, improve measurement approaches, and develop better criteria for siting pit latrines. PMID:23518813

  5. Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1996-03-01

    This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

  6. NELL-1 increases pre-osteoblast mineralization using both phosphate transporter Pit1 and Pit2

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Catherine M.; Zhang, Xinli; James, Aaron W.; Mari Kim, T.; Sun, Nichole; Wu, Benjamin; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 accelerates extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 significantly increases intracellular inorganic phosphate levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 positively regulates osteogenesis but not proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 regulates inorganic phosphate transporter activity. -- Abstract: NELL-1 is a potent osteoinductive molecule that enhances bone formation in multiple animal models through currently unidentified pathways. In the present manuscript, we hypothesized that NELL-1 may regulate osteogenic differentiation accompanied by alteration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) entry into the osteoblast via sodium dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters. To determine this, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of recombinant human (rh)NELL-1 or rhBMP-2. Analysis was performed for intracellular Pi levels through malachite green staining, Pit-1 and Pit-2 expression, and forced upregulation of Pit-1 and Pit-2. Results showed rhNELL-1 to increase MC3T3-E1 matrix mineralization and Pi influx associated with activation of both Pit-1 and Pit-2 channels, with significantly increased Pit-2 production. In contrast, Pi transport elicited by rhBMP-2 showed to be associated with increased Pit-1 production only. Next, neutralizing antibodies against Pit-1 and Pit-2 completely abrogated the Pi influx effect of rhNELL-1, suggesting rhNELL-1 is dependent on both transporters. These results identify one potential mechanism of action for rhNELL-1 induced osteogenesis and highlight a fundamental difference between NELL-1 and BMP-2 signaling.

  7. Uranium activity ratio in water and fish from pit lakes in Kurday, Kazakhstan and Taboshar, Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Strømman, G; Rosseland, B O; Skipperud, L; Burkitbaev, L M; Uralbekov, B; Heier, L S; Salbu, B

    2013-09-01

    Kurday in Kazhakstan and Taboshar in Tajikistan were U mining sites operated during the 1950s and 1960s as part of the USSR nuclear weapon program. Today, they represent sources of potential U contamination of the environment. Within both mining sites, open pits from which U ore was extracted have been filled with water due to ground water inflow and precipitation. These artificial pit lakes contain fish consumed occasionally by the local people, and wild and domestic animals are using the water for drinking purposes. To assess the potential impact from U in these pit lakes, field work was performed in 2006 in Kurday and 2006 and 2008 in Taboshar. Results show that the U concentration in the lake waters were relatively high, about 1 mg/L in Kurday Pit Lake and about 3 mg/L in Taboshar Pit Lake. The influence of U-bearing materials on the lakes and downstream waters were investigated by measuring the U concentration and the (234)U/(238)U activity ratios. In both Kurday and Taboshar, the ratios increased distinctively from about 1 at the pit lakes to >1.5 far downstream the lakes. The concentrations of (238)U in gill, liver, muscle and bones in fish from the pit lakes were much higher than in the reference fish. Peak concentration of U was seen in bones (13 mg/kg w.w.), kidney (9.1 mg/kg w.w.) and gills (8.9 mg/kg w.w.) from Cyprinus auratus caught in the Taboshar Pit Lake. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) calculated for organs from fish caught in the Taboshar Pit Lake, with the same tendency seen in the Kurday Pit Lake, showed that U accumulates most in bone (BCF = 4.8 L/kg w.w.), gills (BCF = 3.6 L/kg w.w.), kidney (BCF = 3.6 L/kg w.w.), and liver (BCF = 2.5 L/kg w.w.), while least was accumulated in the muscle (BCF = 0.12 L/kg w.w.).

  8. Evaluation of remote delivery of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) technology to mark large mammals.

    PubMed

    Walter, W David; Anderson, Charles W; Vercauteren, Kurt C

    2012-01-01

    Methods to individually mark and identify free-ranging wildlife without trapping and handling would be useful for a variety of research and management purposes. The use of Passive Integrated Transponder technology could be an efficient method for collecting data for mark-recapture analysis and other strategies for assessing characteristics about populations of various wildlife species. Passive Integrated Transponder tags (PIT) have unique numbered frequencies and have been used to successfully mark and identify mammals. We tested for successful injection of PIT and subsequent functioning of PIT into gelatin blocks using 4 variations of a prototype dart. We then selected the prototype dart that resulted in the least depth of penetration in the gelatin block to assess the ability of PIT to be successfully implanted into muscle tissue of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) post-mortem and long-term in live, captive Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus). The prototype dart with a 12.7 mm (0.5 inch) needle length and no powder charge resulted in the shallowest mean (± SD) penetration depth into gelatin blocks of 27.0 mm (± 5.6 mm) with 2.0 psi setting on the Dan-Inject CO(2)-pressured rifle. Eighty percent of PIT were successfully injected in the muscle mass of white-tailed deer post-mortem with a mean (± SD) penetration depth of 22.2 mm (± 3.8 mm; n = 6). We injected PIT successfully into 13 live, captive elk by remote delivery at about 20 m that remained functional for 7 months. We successfully demonstrated that PIT could be remotely delivered in darts into muscle mass of large mammals and remain functional for >6 months. Although further research is warranted to fully develop the technique, remote delivery of PIT technology to large mammals is possible using prototype implant darts. PMID:22984572

  9. Evaluation of remote delivery of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) technology to mark large mammals.

    PubMed

    Walter, W David; Anderson, Charles W; Vercauteren, Kurt C

    2012-01-01

    Methods to individually mark and identify free-ranging wildlife without trapping and handling would be useful for a variety of research and management purposes. The use of Passive Integrated Transponder technology could be an efficient method for collecting data for mark-recapture analysis and other strategies for assessing characteristics about populations of various wildlife species. Passive Integrated Transponder tags (PIT) have unique numbered frequencies and have been used to successfully mark and identify mammals. We tested for successful injection of PIT and subsequent functioning of PIT into gelatin blocks using 4 variations of a prototype dart. We then selected the prototype dart that resulted in the least depth of penetration in the gelatin block to assess the ability of PIT to be successfully implanted into muscle tissue of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) post-mortem and long-term in live, captive Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus). The prototype dart with a 12.7 mm (0.5 inch) needle length and no powder charge resulted in the shallowest mean (± SD) penetration depth into gelatin blocks of 27.0 mm (± 5.6 mm) with 2.0 psi setting on the Dan-Inject CO(2)-pressured rifle. Eighty percent of PIT were successfully injected in the muscle mass of white-tailed deer post-mortem with a mean (± SD) penetration depth of 22.2 mm (± 3.8 mm; n = 6). We injected PIT successfully into 13 live, captive elk by remote delivery at about 20 m that remained functional for 7 months. We successfully demonstrated that PIT could be remotely delivered in darts into muscle mass of large mammals and remain functional for >6 months. Although further research is warranted to fully develop the technique, remote delivery of PIT technology to large mammals is possible using prototype implant darts.

  10. Evaluation of Remote Delivery of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Technology to Mark Large Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Walter, W. David; Anderson, Charles W.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

    2012-01-01

    Methods to individually mark and identify free-ranging wildlife without trapping and handling would be useful for a variety of research and management purposes. The use of Passive Integrated Transponder technology could be an efficient method for collecting data for mark-recapture analysis and other strategies for assessing characteristics about populations of various wildlife species. Passive Integrated Transponder tags (PIT) have unique numbered frequencies and have been used to successfully mark and identify mammals. We tested for successful injection of PIT and subsequent functioning of PIT into gelatin blocks using 4 variations of a prototype dart. We then selected the prototype dart that resulted in the least depth of penetration in the gelatin block to assess the ability of PIT to be successfully implanted into muscle tissue of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) post-mortem and long-term in live, captive Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus). The prototype dart with a 12.7 mm (0.5 inch) needle length and no powder charge resulted in the shallowest mean (± SD) penetration depth into gelatin blocks of 27.0 mm (±5.6 mm) with 2.0 psi setting on the Dan-Inject CO2-pressured rifle. Eighty percent of PIT were successfully injected in the muscle mass of white-tailed deer post-mortem with a mean (± SD) penetration depth of 22.2 mm (±3.8 mm; n = 6). We injected PIT successfully into 13 live, captive elk by remote delivery at about 20 m that remained functional for 7 months. We successfully demonstrated that PIT could be remotely delivered in darts into muscle mass of large mammals and remain functional for >6 months. Although further research is warranted to fully develop the technique, remote delivery of PIT technology to large mammals is possible using prototype implant darts. PMID:22984572

  11. Restoration of Secondary Containment in Double Shell Tank (DST) Pits

    SciTech Connect

    SHEN, E.J.

    2000-10-05

    Cracks found in many of the double-shell tank (DST) pump and valve pits bring into question the ability of the pits to provide secondary containment and remain in compliance with State and Federal regulations. This study was commissioned to identify viable options for maintain/restoring secondary containment capability in these pits. The basis for this study is the decision analysis process which identifies the requirements to be met and the desired goals (decision criteria) that each option will be weighed against. A facilitated workshop was convened with individuals knowledgeable of Tank Farms Operations, engineering practices, and safety/environmental requirements. The outcome of this workshop was the validation or identification of the critical requirements, definition of the current problem, identification and weighting of the desired goals, baselining of the current repair methods, and identification of potential alternate solutions. The workshop was followed up with further investigations into the potential solutions that were identified in the workshop and through other efforts. These solutions are identified in the body of this report. Each of the potential solutions were screened against the list of requirements and only those meeting the requirements were considered viable options. To expand the field of viable options, hybrid concepts that combine the strongest features of different individual approaches were also examined. Several were identified. The decision analysis process then ranked each of the viable options against the weighted decision criteria, which resulted in a recommended solution. The recommended approach is based upon installing a sprayed on coating system.

  12. New variable stars in open clusters. I. Methods and results for 20 open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunzen, E.; Zwintz, K.; Maitzen, H. M.; Pintado, O. I.; Rode-Paunzen, M.

    2004-04-01

    We present high precision CCD photometry of 1791 objects in 20 open clusters with an age of 10 Myr to 1 Gyr. These observations were performed within the Δ a photometric system which is primarily used to detect chemically peculiar stars of the upper main sequence. Time bases range from 30 min up to 60 days with data from several nights. We describe the time series analysis reaching a detection limit of down to 0.006 mag for apparent variability. In total, we have detected 35 variable objects of which four are not members of their corresponding clusters. The variables cover the entire Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, hence they are interesting targets for follow-up observations. Based on observations obtained at Complejo Astronómico el Leoncito (CASLEO), operated under the agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba y San Juan; ESO-La Silla and UTSO-Las Campanas.

  13. Pitting corrosion behavior of 316L stainless steels in tropical seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Zaragoza-Ayala, A.E.; Acuna, N.; Solis, W.; Aldana, J.; Festy, D.

    1996-10-01

    The open circuit potential (OCP) and the pitting potential of 316L stainless steel (SS) have been determined as a function of the immersion time in tropical seawater. An increase in the noble direction of the OCP for short exposures was observed. After certain time occasional fall and rise of the OCP values was observed. Pitting potentials measurements shows that a relatively small increase in the seawater temperature can increase the susceptibility to localized corrosion of this alloy. Little or no effect of the exposure time on the pitting potential was observed. SEM observation shows that the steel surface was colonized by bacteria an microalgae which forms an heterogeneous biofilm on the steel surface which probably have an influence on the corrosion behavior of 316 L SS in seawater.

  14. OpenMDAO: Framework for Flexible Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis and Optimization Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Christopher M.; Gray, Justin S.

    2012-01-01

    The OpenMDAO project is underway at NASA to develop a framework which simplifies the implementation of state-of-the-art tools and methods for multidisciplinary design, analysis and optimization. Foremost, OpenMDAO has been designed to handle variable problem formulations, encourage reconfigurability, and promote model reuse. This work demonstrates the concept of iteration hierarchies in OpenMDAO to achieve a flexible environment for supporting advanced optimization methods which include adaptive sampling and surrogate modeling techniques. In this effort, two efficient global optimization methods were applied to solve a constrained, single-objective and constrained, multiobjective version of a joint aircraft/engine sizing problem. The aircraft model, NASA's nextgeneration advanced single-aisle civil transport, is being studied as part of the Subsonic Fixed Wing project to help meet simultaneous program goals for reduced fuel burn, emissions, and noise. This analysis serves as a realistic test problem to demonstrate the flexibility and reconfigurability offered by OpenMDAO.

  15. Arsia Mons Collapse Pits in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found on the flank of Arsia Mons and are related to lava tube collapse.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.8, Longitude 240.4 East (119.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal

  16. Use of Electrochemical Noise (EN) Technique to Study the Effect of sulfate and Chloride Ions on Passivation and Pitting Corrosion Behavior of 316 Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujar, M. G.; Anita, T.; Shaikh, H.; Dayal, R. K.; Khatak, H. S.

    2007-08-01

    In the present paper, studies were conducted on AISI Type 316 stainless steel (SS) in deaerated solutions of sodium sulfate as well as sodium chloride to establish the effect of sulfate and chloride ions on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of the material. The experiments were conducted in deaerated solutions of 0.5 M sodium sulfate as well as 0.5 M sodium chloride using electrochemical noise (EN) technique at open circuit potential (OCP) to collect the correlated current and potential signals. Visual records of the current and potential, analysis of data to arrive at the statistical parameters, spectral density estimation using the maximum entropy method (MEM) showed that sulfate ions were incorporated in the passive film to strengthen the same. However, the adsorption of chloride ions resulted in pitting corrosion thereby adversely affecting noise resistance ( R N). Distinct current and potential signals were observed for metastable pitting, stable pitting and passive film build-up. Distinct changes in the values of the statistical parameters like R N and the spectral noise resistance at zero frequency ( R°SN) revealed adsorption and incorporation of sulfate and chloride ions on the passive film/solution interface.

  17. Canister Storage Building Receiving Pit Modification Informal Design Verification

    SciTech Connect

    KRIEG, S.A.

    2000-10-09

    The design for modifications to the CSB Cask Receiving pit guides was verified by the informal design verification (meeting) method on August 9, 2000. The invited list of attendees and the meeting attendance sheet are included in attachment 1. The design modifications that were reviewed are documented in ECN 654484 (attachment 2). The requirement that the design is to be verified against is to ''center the transportation cask sufficiently to allow installation of the guide funnel on the cask ({+-} 0.25 inches or less)''. The alternatives considered are detailed in attachment 3. Alternative number 4, ''Modify The Pit Guides'', was determined to be the preferred alternative primarily due to considerations of simplicity, reliability, and low cost. Alternative 1, ''Rotate the impact Absorber 180{sup o}'', was successfully performed but was considered a temporary fix that was not acceptable for a long term operational mode. The requirement to position the receiving crane accurately enough to lower the transportation cask into the pit with the redesigned guides was discussed and considered to be achievable without undue effort from the operator. The tolerance on the OD of the transfer cask was discussed ({+-} 1/8 inch) relative to the clearance with the guides. As-built dimensions for the cask OD will be looked at to verify sufficient clearance exists with the maximum cask OD. The final design thickness of the shims under the guides will be based on the as-built cask OD dimensions and field measurements between the pit guides. The need for a ''plastic'' cover for the guides was discussed and deemed unnecessary. Thermal growth of the cask OD was calculated at 3-5 mils and considered insignificant. The possibility of reducing the OD of the guide funnel was reviewed but this was considered impractical due to the requirement for the MCO to miss the edge of the funnel in case of a MCO drop. One of the transportation casks have the lift trunions installed 3/8 inch off center

  18. An experimental feasibility study of pipeline corrosion pit detection using a piezoceramic time reversal mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guofeng; Kong, Qingzhao; Wu, Fanghong; Ruan, Jiabiao; Song, Gangbing

    2016-03-01

    Corrosion pits on pipelines lead to the formation of small holes, which cause further pipeline damage and even catastrophic consequences. Since many pipelines are located underground, the detection of corrosion pits on pipelines in real time is still an engineering challenge. In this paper, an experimental feasibility study on pipeline corrosion pit detection using the time reversal technique with a piezoceramic transducer as a time reversal mirror was investigated. A specimen of steel pipeline section was fabricated with an artificially drilled hole, which was to mimic a corrosion pit. By gradually increasing the depth of the hole, the evolution of the corrosion pit on the pipeline was simulated and studied. Two piezoceramic transducers were employed to generate a stress wave to propagate along the pipeline and to detect the propagated stress wave. With both the properties of sensing and actuating functions, a piezoceramic transducer was used as a time reversal mirror, which first detected the propagated stress wave signal and then sent ‘back’ the time-reversed signal as a propagating stress wave. With the inherent auto-focusing property of the time reversal technique, the detected time-reversed stress wave had a distinct focused peak. A corrosion pit on a pipeline, as a structural defect, reduces the energy of the focused signal received by the piezoceramic sensor and the attenuation ratio of the focused signal depends strongly on the degree of corrosion depth. Experimental results show that the amplitudes of the focused signal peak decrease with the increase of corrosion pit depth and we can use the peak amplitude of the focused signal to determine the state of pipeline corrosion. The time reversal based method proposed in this paper shows the potential to quantitatively monitor the damage degree of corrosion pits on pipelines in real time.

  19. Openings

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  20. Closure of the Brewer Gold Mine by pit backfilling

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis-Russ, A.; Lupo, J.F.; Bronson, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Brewer Gold Mine, located in north-central South Carolina, is implementing an innovative reclamation plan that includes backfilling the main Brewer open pit with mine waste. The primary goals of the closure are to reduce acid rock drainage and minimize or eliminate long-term operation and maintenance requirements by restoring the site property to approximate pre-mining topography. The plan calls for consolidation of approximately 200 acres of waste into approximately 20 hectares (50 acres). Much of the material to be backfilled into the pit, including spent heap leach material and waste rock, has acid-generating potential. Therefore, the backfill design integrated geochemical properties of the backfill materials with expected post-closure conditions. A prime consideration was the final position of the water table. Since mining at the site started in the early 1800`s, no records exist of the original groundwater levels. Therefore, the design incorporates a large anoxic limestone drain to control the final groundwater level. Additional amendments are to be placed in targeted areas of the backfill to maximize their utilization. A low-permeability cap system that includes a GEOSYNTHETIC clay liner has been designed to limit infiltration into the backfill.

  1. COPPER PITTING CORROSION: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Localized or pitting corrosion of copper pipes used in household drinking-water plumbing is a problem for many water utilities and their customers. Extreme attack can lead to pinhole water leaks that may result in water damage, mold growth, and costly repairs. Water quality has b...

  2. Extracting Valuable Data from Classroom Trading Pits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergstrom, Theodore C.; Kwok, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    How well does competitive theory explain the outcome in experimental markets? The authors examined the results of a large number of classroom trading experiments that used a pit-trading design found in Experiments with Economic Principles, an introductory economics textbook by Bergstrom and Miller. They compared experimental outcomes with…

  3. Global methane emissions from pit latrines.

    PubMed

    Reid, Matthew C; Guan, Kaiyu; Wagner, Fabian; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2014-01-01

    Pit latrines are an important form of decentralized wastewater management, providing hygienic and low-cost sanitation for approximately one-quarter of the global population. Latrines are also major sources of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) from the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in pits. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit approach to account for local hydrological control over the anaerobic condition of latrines and use this analysis to derive a set of country-specific emissions factors and to estimate global pit latrine CH4 emissions. Between 2000 and 2015 we project global emissions to fall from 5.2 to 3.8 Tg y(-1), or from ∼ 2% to ∼ 1% of global anthropogenic CH4 emissions, due largely to urbanization in China. Two and a half billion people still lack improved sanitation services, however, and progress toward universal access to improved sanitation will likely drive future growth in pit latrine emissions. We discuss modeling results in the context of sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene development and consider appropriate technologies to ensure hygienic sanitation while limiting CH4 emissions. We show that low-CH4 on-site alternatives like composting toilets may be price competitive with other CH4 mitigation measures in organic waste sectors, with marginal abatement costs ranging from 57 to 944 $/ton carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) in Africa and 46 to 97 $/ton CO2e in Asia.

  4. OVERVIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, TO 8750 PIT WITH DRILL SETTING AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, TO 8750 PIT WITH DRILL SETTING AN EXPLOSIVE CHARGE TO REMOVE OVERBURDEN AND ACCESS COAL SEAMS LOCATED 200 FEET BELOW FOR STRIPPING. - Drummond Coal Company Cedrum Mine, 8750 Pit, County Road 124, Townley, Walker County, AL

  5. Looking west inside of the soaking pit building for the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking west inside of the soaking pit building for the 44" slab mill at a red hot ingot being removed from a pit. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, 44" Slab Mill, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  6. GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING EAST, FROM RECLAIMED PASTURE TO 8750 PIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING EAST, FROM RECLAIMED PASTURE TO 8750 PIT WITH STRIPPING AND RECLAMATION ACTIVITY ONGOING SIDE BY SIDE. - Drummond Coal Company Cedrum Mine, 8750 Pit, County Road 124, Townley, Walker County, AL

  7. Mosh pits and Circle pits: Collective motion at heavy metal concerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierbaum, Matthew; Silverberg, Jesse L.; Sethna, James P.; Cohen, Itai

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metal concerts present an extreme environment in which large crowds (~102 -105) of humans experience very loud music (~ 130 dB) in sync with bright, flashing lights, often while intoxicated. In this setting, we find two types of collective motion: mosh pits, in which participants collide with each other randomly in a manner resembling an ideal gas, and circle pits, in which participants run collectively in a circle forming a vortex of people. We model these two collective behaviors using a flocking model and find qualitative and quantitative agreement with the behaviors found in videos of metal concerts. Futhermore, we find a phase diagram showing the transition from a mosh pit to a circle pit as well as a predicted third phase, lane formation.

  8. Determination of phase equilibria in confined systems by open pore cell Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Minoru T; Tanaka, Hideki

    2013-02-28

    We present a modification of the molecular dynamics simulation method with a unit pore cell with imaginary gas phase [M. Miyahara, T. Yoshioka, and M. Okazaki, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8124 (1997)] designed for determination of phase equilibria in nanopores. This new method is based on a Monte Carlo technique and it combines the pore cell, opened to the imaginary gas phase (open pore cell), with a gas cell to measure the equilibrium chemical potential of the confined system. The most striking feature of our new method is that the confined system is steadily led to a thermodynamically stable state by forming concave menisci in the open pore cell. This feature of the open pore cell makes it possible to obtain the equilibrium chemical potential with only a single simulation run, unlike existing simulation methods, which need a number of additional runs. We apply the method to evaluate the equilibrium chemical potentials of confined nitrogen in carbon slit pores and silica cylindrical pores at 77 K, and show that the results are in good agreement with those obtained by two conventional thermodynamic integration methods. Moreover, we also show that the proposed method can be particularly useful for determining vapor-liquid and vapor-solid coexistence curves and the triple point of the confined system.

  9. 99. ARAIII. Overall view of drilling area in reactor pit. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. ARA-III. Overall view of drilling area in reactor pit. Bridge over pit in use for operations. Shows water in pool, reactor, hoist, operators, and general view of interior of reactor pit area. August 12, 1963. Ineel photo no. 63-4454. Photographer: Benson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. 10. Turbine Pit of Unit 5, view to the north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Turbine Pit of Unit 5, view to the north. Note the difference in configuration within this turbine pit as compared to one of the original pits illustrated in photograph number MT-105-A-11. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  11. 7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... substantially free from any adhering sirup, sugar, or other packing medium. (c) (A) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that are practically free from pits may be given a score of 18 to 20 points. “Practically free from pits” means that the number of pits that may be present does not exceed the...

  12. Metastable pitting of carbon steel under potentiostatic control

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.F.; Luo, J.L.

    1999-03-01

    The metastable pitting of A516-70 carbon steel was studied under potentiostatic control in solutions containing chloride ions. It was shown that there were different current fluctuation patterns and spectral slopes, that is, roll-off slopes, in passivity, general corrosion, and metastable pitting. Pits were often covered by a deposit which played an important role in the current fluctuation, with a quick current rise followed by a slow drop. There was a transitional potential (about 0 mV vs Ag/AgCl electrode) below which the metastable pitting initiation rate increased with the potential, because more sites would be activated. Above the transitional potential, the decay of the pitting occurrence rate with increased potential was due to the elimination of available pit sites. When the applied potential was between {minus}50 and 100 mV, pit growth kinetics was controlled by the potential drop through the deposit over the pit mouth. The potential dependence of repassivation time was mainly due to the effect of applied potential on the deposit over the pit mouth. There seemed to be good agreement between the calculated pit size and the measured values by optical microphotography. The assumption of hemispherical pit geometry was reasonable in calculating the pit radii.

  13. Characteristics method with cubic-spline interpolation for open channel flow computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Tung-Lin; Chiang, Shih-Wei; Yang, Jinn-Chuang

    2004-10-01

    In the framework of the specified-time-interval scheme, the accuracy of the characteristic method is greatly related to the form of the interpolation. The linear interpolation was commonly used to couple the characteristics method (LI method) in open channel flow computation. The LI method is easy to implement, but it leads to an inevitable smoothing of the solution. The characteristics method with the Hermite cubic interpolation (HP method, originally developed by Holly and Preissmann, 1977) was then proposed to largely reduce the error induced by the LI method. In this paper, the cubic-spline interpolation on the space line or on the time line is employed to integrate with characteristics method (CS method) for unsteady flow computation in open channel. Two hypothetical examples, including gradually and rapidly varied flows, are used to examine the applicability of the CS method as compared with the LI method, the HP method, and the analytical solutions. The simulated results show that the CS method is comparable to the HP method and more accurate than the LI method. Without tackling the additional equations for spatial or temporal derivatives, the CS method is easier to implement and more efficient than the HP method.

  14. Retention of resin-based filled and unfilled pit and fissure sealants: A comparative clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, V. Rajashekar; Chowdhary, Nagalakshmi; Mukunda, K. S.; Kiran, N. K.; Kavyarani, B. S.; Pradeep, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The most caries-susceptible period of a permanent first molar tooth is the eruption phase, during which the enamel is not fully matured and it is usually difficult for the child to clean the erupting tooth surfaces. Sealing occlusal pits and fissures with resin-based pit and fissure sealants is a proven method to prevent occlusal caries. The difference in the viscosity of the sealants differs in the penetration into pit and fissures and abrasive wear resistance property due to the addition of filler particles. The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the retention of the resin-based filled (Helioseal F, Ivoclar Vivadent) and unfilled (Clinpro, 3M ESPE) pit and fissure sealants, which is important for their effectiveness. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six children between the age group of 6 and 9 years, with all four newly erupted permanent first molars were selected. Sealants were applied randomly using split mouth design technique on permanent first molars. Evaluation of sealant retention was performed at regular intervals over 12 months, using Simonsen's criteria at 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th month. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: At the end of our study period (12th month), 53.57% showed complete retention, 37.50% showed partial retention, and 8.83% showed complete missing of resin-based filled (Helioseal F) pit and fissure sealant. And, 64.29% showed complete retention, 32.14% showed partial retention, and 3.57% showed complete missing of resin-based unfilled (Clinpro) pit and fissure sealant. This difference in retention rates between filled and unfilled pit and fissure sealants was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The difference in retention rates between Helioseal F and Clinpro was not statistically significant, but Clinpro (unfilled) sealant showed slightly higher retention rates and clinically better performance than Helioseal F (filled). PMID:25821368

  15. Open Rotor Tone Shielding Methods for System Noise Assessments Using Multiple Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, Christopher J.; Thomas, Russell H.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Burley, Casey L.; Van Zante, Dale E.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced aircraft designs such as the hybrid wing body, in conjunction with open rotor engines, may allow for significant improvements in the environmental impact of aviation. System noise assessments allow for the prediction of the aircraft noise of such designs while they are still in the conceptual phase. Due to significant requirements of computational methods, these predictions still rely on experimental data to account for the interaction of the open rotor tones with the hybrid wing body airframe. Recently, multiple aircraft system noise assessments have been conducted for hybrid wing body designs with open rotor engines. These assessments utilized measured benchmark data from a Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustic interaction effects test. The measured data demonstrated airframe shielding of open rotor tonal and broadband noise with legacy F7/A7 open rotor blades. Two methods are proposed for improving the use of these data on general open rotor designs in a system noise assessment. The first, direct difference, is a simple octave band subtraction which does not account for tone distribution within the rotor acoustic signal. The second, tone matching, is a higher-fidelity process incorporating additional physical aspects of the problem, where isolated rotor tones are matched by their directivity to determine tone-by-tone shielding. A case study is conducted with the two methods to assess how well each reproduces the measured data and identify the merits of each. Both methods perform similarly for system level results and successfully approach the experimental data for the case study. The tone matching method provides additional tools for assessing the quality of the match to the data set. Additionally, a potential path to improve the tone matching method is provided.

  16. Selenium bioaccumulation in stocked fish as an indicator of fishery potential in pit lakes on reclaimed coal mines in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Miller, L L; Rasmussen, J B; Palace, V P; Sterling, G; Hontela, A

    2013-07-01

    Pit lakes are a common reclamation strategy for open pit mines; however, there is a concern about their water quality and suitability as fish habitat because they are often contaminated by metals or metalloids. This study assessed the exposure of fish and invertebrates to selenium (Se) and other metals and metalloids in pit lakes formed by open pit coal mining in Tertiary (thermal coal) and in Cretaceous (metallurgical coal) bedrock. Juvenile hatchery rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, were stocked into two thermal coal pit lakes (water Se < 2 μg/L, low water Se) and two metallurgical coal pit lakes (water Se > 15 μg/L, high water Se). Se accumulation in stocked fish and concentrations in invertebrates were characterized over a period of 2 years. In the metallurgical pits, invertebrates had higher Se concentrations and fish accumulated Se to higher levels (exceeding USEPA tissue Se guidelines) than biota in the thermal pits. Rainbow and brook trout accumulated similar concentrations of Se in their muscle and exhibited a similar relationship between whole-body and muscle Se concentrations. These results may be used by resource managers to assess compliance with whole-body tissue Se guidelines and to determine if pit lakes in coal mining areas pose a significant Se risk to wildlife or human health. The high Se exposure in metallurgical coal pits indicates that under the current mining and reclamation strategy, these lakes are not suitable for management as recreational "put and take" fisheries. PMID:23665755

  17. Corrosion pitting of SiC by molten salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.; Smialek, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The corrosion of SiC by thin films of Na2CO3 and Na2SO4 at 1000 C is characterized by a severe pitting attack of the SiC substrate. A range of different Si and SiC substrates were examined to isolate the factors critical to pitting. Two types of pitting attack are identified: attack at structural discontinuities and a crater-like attack. The crater-like pits are correlated with bubble formation during oxidation of the SiC. It appears that bubbles create unprotected regions, which are susceptible to enhanced attack and, hence, pit formation.

  18. Aerostat-lofted instrument and sampling method for determination of emissions from open area sources.

    PubMed

    Aurell, Johanna; Gullett, Brian K; Pressley, Christopher; Tabor, Dennis G; Gribble, Robert D

    2011-10-01

    An aerostat-borne instrument and sampling method was developed to characterize air samples from area sources, such as emissions from open burning. The 10 kg battery-powered instrument system, termed "the Flyer", is lofted with a helium-filled aerostat of 4m nominal diameter and maneuvered by means of one or two tethers. The Flyer can be configured variously for continuous CO₂ monitoring, batch sampling of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), black carbon, metals, and PM by size. The samplers are controlled by a trigger circuit to avoid unnecessary dilution from background sampling when not within the source plume. The aerostat/Flyer method was demonstrated by sampling emissions from open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD) of military ordnance. A carbon balance approach was used to derive emission factors that showed excellent agreement with published values.

  19. Isoflurane waste anesthetic gas concentrations associated with the open-drop method.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Douglas K; Mook, Deborah M

    2009-01-01

    The open-drop technique is used frequently for anesthetic delivery to small rodents. Operator exposure to waste anesthetic gas (WAG) is a potential occupational hazard if this method is used without WAG scavenging. This study was conducted to determine whether administration of isoflurane by the open-drop technique without exposure controls generates significant WAG concentrations. We placed 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 ml of liquid isoflurane into screw-top 500 or 1000 ml glass jars. WAG concentration was measured at the opening of the container and 20 and 40 cm from the opening, a distance at which users likely would operate, at 1, 2, or 3 min WAG was measured by using a portable infrared gas analyzer. Mean WAG concentrations at the vessel opening were as high as 662 +/- 168 ppm with a 500 ml jar and 122 +/- 87 ppm with a 1000 ml jar. At operator levels, WAG concentrations were always at or near 0 ppm. For measurements made at the vessel opening, time was the only factor that significantly affected WAG concentration when using the 500 ml jar. Neither time nor liquid volume were significant factors when using 1000 ml jar. At all liquid volumes and time points, the WAG concentration associated with using the 500 ml container was marginally to significantly greater than that for the 1000 ml jar. PMID:19245753

  20. Treatment of a mud pit by bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Avdalović, Jelena; Đurić, Aleksandra; Miletić, Srdjan; Ilić, Mila; Milić, Jelena; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2016-08-01

    The mud generated from oil and natural gas drilling, presents a considerable ecological problem. There are still insufficient remedies for the removal and minimization of these very stable emulsions. Existing technologies that are in use, more or less successfully, treat about 20% of generated waste drilling mud, while the rest is temporarily deposited in so-called mud pits. This study investigated in situ bioremediation of a mud pit. The bioremediation technology used in this case was based on the use of naturally occurring microorganisms, isolated from the contaminated site, which were capable of using the contaminating substances as nutrients. The bioremediation was stimulated through repeated inoculation with a zymogenous microbial consortium, along with mixing, watering and biostimulation. Application of these bioremediation techniques reduced the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons from 32.2 to 1.5 g kg(-1) (95% degradation) during six months of treatment. PMID:27354013

  1. A comparison of conventional capture versus PIT reader techniques for estimating survival and capture probabilities of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, L.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Neubaum, D.J.; Neubaum, M.A.; Pearce, R.D.; Bowen, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    We compared conventional capture (primarily mist nets and harp traps) and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagging techniques for estimating capture and survival probabilities of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) roosting in buildings in Fort Collins, Colorado. A total of 987 female adult and juvenile bats were captured and marked by subdermal injection of PIT tags during the summers of 2001-2005 at five maternity colonies in buildings. Openings to roosts were equipped with PIT hoop-style readers, and exit and entry of bats were passively monitored on a daily basis throughout the summers of 2002-2005. PIT readers 'recaptured' adult and juvenile females more often than conventional capture events at each roost. Estimates of annual capture probabilities for all five colonies were on average twice as high when estimated from PIT reader data (P?? = 0.93-1.00) than when derived from conventional techniques (P?? = 0.26-0.66), and as a consequence annual survival estimates were more precisely estimated when using PIT reader encounters. Short-term, daily capture estimates were also higher using PIT readers than conventional captures. We discuss the advantages and limitations of using PIT tags and passive encounters with hoop readers vs. conventional capture techniques for estimating these vital parameters in big brown bats. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  2. Identification and quantification of the caproic acid-producing bacterium Clostridium kluyveri in the fermentation of pit mud used for Chinese strong-aroma type liquor production.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-long; Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Chinese strong-aroma type liquor (CSAL) is a popular distilled alcoholic beverage in China. It is produced by a complex fermentation process that is conducted in pits in the ground. Ethyl caproate is a key flavor compound in CSAL and is thought to originate from caproic acid produced by Clostridia inhabiting the fermentation pit mud. However, the particular species of Clostridium associated with this production are poorly understood and problematic to quantify by culturing. In this study, a total of 28 closest relatives including 15 Clostridia and 8 Bacilli species in pit muds from three CSAL distilleries, were detected by culture-dependent and -independent methods. Among them, Clostridium kluyveri was identified as the main producer of caproic acid. One representative strain C. kluyveri N6 could produce caproic, butyric and octanoic acids and their corresponding ethyl esters, contributing significantly to CSAL flavor. A real time quantitative PCR assay of C. kluyveri in pit muds developed showed that a concentration of 1.79×10(7) 16S rRNA gene copies/g pit mud in LZ-old pit was approximately six times higher than that in HLM and YH pits and sixty times higher than that in LZ-new pit respectively. This method can be used to improve the management of pit mud microbiology and its impact on CSAL quality. PMID:26267890

  3. Pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    van Rooyen, D.; Bandy, R.

    A pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel comprises 17 to 28 wt. % chromium, 15 to 26 wt. % nickel, 5 to 8 wt. % molybdenum, and 0.3 to 0.5 wt. % nitrogen, the balance being iron, unavoidable impurities, minor additions made in the normal course of melting and casting alloys of this type, and may optionally include up to 10 wt. % of manganese, up to 5 wt. % of silicon, and up to 0.08 wt. % of carbon.

  4. Comparison of Shear-wave Profiles for a Compacted Fill in a Geotechnical Test Pit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvain, M. B.; Pando, M. A.; Whelan, M.; Bents, D.; Park, C.; Ogunro, V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the use of common methods for geological seismic site characterization including: i) multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW),ii) crosshole seismic surveys, and iii) seismic cone penetrometer tests. The in-situ tests were performed in a geotechnical test pit located at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte High Bay Laboratory. The test pit has dimensions of 12 feet wide by 12 feet long by 10 feet deep. The pit was filled with a silty sand (SW-SM) soil, which was compacted in lifts using a vibratory plate compactor. The shear wave velocity values from the 3 techniques are compared in terms of magnitude versus depth as well as spatially. The comparison was carried out before and after inducing soil disturbance at controlled locations to evaluate which methods were better suited to captured the induced soil disturbance.

  5. Pits, pipes, ponds--and me.

    PubMed

    Mara, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    My life in low-cost sanitation and low-cost wastewater treatment and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture really has been 'pits, pipes and ponds' - 'pits' are low-cost sanitation technologies (LCST) such as VIP latrines and pour-flush toilets; 'pipes' are low-cost sewerage, principally condominial (simplified) sewerage; and 'ponds' are low-cost wastewater treatment systems, especially waste stabilization ponds, and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture. 'Pits' were mainly working on World Bank LCST research projects, with fieldwork principally in Zimbabwe, 'pipes' were working on condominial sewerage projects in Brazil and disseminating this LCST to a wider global audience, and 'ponds' were waste stabilization ponds, with fieldwork mainly in Brazil, Colombia, Portugal and the United Kingdom, the development of aerated rock filters to polish facultative-pond effluents, and the human-health aspects of treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture, with fieldwork in Brazil and the UK, and the application of quantitative microbial risk analysis. The paper provides a professional perspective and lessons from historical developments and gives recommended future directions based on my career working on low-cost sanitation technologies and treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture.

  6. Pits, pipes, ponds--and me.

    PubMed

    Mara, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    My life in low-cost sanitation and low-cost wastewater treatment and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture really has been 'pits, pipes and ponds' - 'pits' are low-cost sanitation technologies (LCST) such as VIP latrines and pour-flush toilets; 'pipes' are low-cost sewerage, principally condominial (simplified) sewerage; and 'ponds' are low-cost wastewater treatment systems, especially waste stabilization ponds, and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture. 'Pits' were mainly working on World Bank LCST research projects, with fieldwork principally in Zimbabwe, 'pipes' were working on condominial sewerage projects in Brazil and disseminating this LCST to a wider global audience, and 'ponds' were waste stabilization ponds, with fieldwork mainly in Brazil, Colombia, Portugal and the United Kingdom, the development of aerated rock filters to polish facultative-pond effluents, and the human-health aspects of treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture, with fieldwork in Brazil and the UK, and the application of quantitative microbial risk analysis. The paper provides a professional perspective and lessons from historical developments and gives recommended future directions based on my career working on low-cost sanitation technologies and treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture. PMID:23490108

  7. Constituent Particle Clustering and Pitting Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, D. Gary

    2012-08-01

    Corrosion is a primary degradation mechanism that affects the durability and integrity of structures made of aluminum alloys, and it is a concern for commercial transport and military aircraft. In aluminum alloys, corrosion results from local galvanic coupling between constituent particles and the metal matrix. Due to variability in particle sizes, spatial location, and chemical composition, to name a few critical variables, corrosion is a complex stochastic process. Severe pitting is caused by particle clusters that are located near the material surface, which, in turn, serve as nucleation sites for subsequent corrosion fatigue crack growth. These evolution processes are highly dependent on the spatial statistics of particles. The localized corrosion growth rate is primarily dependent on the galvanic process perpetuated by particle-to-particle interactions and electrochemical potentials. Frequently, severe pits are millimeters in length, and these pits have a dominant impact on the structural prognosis. To accommodate large sizes, a model for three-dimensional (3-D) constituent particle microstructure is proposed. To describe the constituent particle microstructure in three dimensions, the model employs a fusion of classic stereological techniques, spatial point pattern analyses, and qualitative observations. The methodology can be carried out using standard optical microscopy and image analysis techniques.

  8. Multilayer deformation planarization by substrate pit suturing.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yingjie; Zhu, Meiping; Xing, Huanbin; Wang, Hu; Cui, Yun; Shao, Jianda

    2016-08-01

    In the pursuit of 1064 nm high-power laser resistance dielectric coatings in the nanosecond region, a group of HfO2/SiO2 high reflectors with and without suture layers were prepared on prearranged fused silica substrates with femtosecond laser pits. Surface morphology, global coating stress, and high-resolution cross sections were characterized to determine the effects of substrate pit suturing. Laser-induced damage resistance was investigated for samples with and without suture layers. Our results indicate considerable stability in terms of the nanosecond 1064 nm laser-induced damage threshold for samples having a suture layer, due to decreased electronic field (e-field) deformation with simultaneous elimination of internal cracks. In addition, a suture layer formed by plasma ion-assisted deposition could effectively improve global mechanical stress of the coatings. By effectively reducing the multilayer deformation using a suture layer, electron-beam high-reflective coatings, whose laser-induced damage resistance was not influenced by the substrate pit, can be prepared. PMID:27472579

  9. Aerostat-lofted instrument and sampling method for determination of emissions from open area sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    An aerostat-borne instrument and sampling method was developed to characterize air samples from area sources, such as emissions from open burning. The 10 kg battery-powered instrument system, termed "the Flyer," is lofted with a helium-filled aerostat of 4 m nominal diameter and ...

  10. EVALUATION OF THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF INNOVATIVE WATER MAIN REHABILITATION TECHNOLOGIES VS OPEN CUT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major benefit of trenchless rehabilitation technologies touted by many practitioners when comparing their products with traditional open cut construction methods is lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In an attempt to verify these claims, multiple tools have been d...

  11. The Open Method of Coordination and the Implementation of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amelia; Amaral, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the authors argue that the use of the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) in the implementation of the Bologna process presents coordination problems that do not allow for the full coherence of the results. As the process is quite complex, involving three different levels (European, national and local) and as the final actors in the…

  12. EVALUATION OF THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF INNOVATIVE WATER MAIN REHABILITATION TECHNOLOGIES VS. OPEN CUT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major benefit of trenchless rehabilitation technologies touted by many practitioners when comparing their products with tradition open cut construction methods is lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In an attempt to verify these claims, multiple tools have been dev...

  13. ETR, TRA642. ON GROUND FLOOR, CAMERA LOOKS SOUTHWEST INTO PIT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ON GROUND FLOOR, CAMERA LOOKS SOUTHWEST INTO PIT. CANAL STRUCTURE IS AT RIGHT OF CENTER WITH RECTANGULAR OPENING TO BE MATED WITH THE DE-FUELING MECHANISM THAT WILL DEPOSIT FUEL RODS INTO THE WORKING CANAL. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3710. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Ventilation of mines developed by the combined method of coal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkus, Val V.; Ermakov, A. Yu; Senkus, V. V.

    2016-10-01

    The paper considers the features of ventilation of mines which are developed by the combined method of coal mining. It also provides recommendations for placing the flank and central ventilation holes while mining flat and steep seams from open pit sides, as well as anticlinal and synclinal deposits.

  15. Near Infrared Theranostic Photoimmunotherapy (PIT): Repeated Exposure of Light Enhances the Effect of Immunoconjugate

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuanga, Makoto; Nakajima, Takahito; Sano, Kohei; Choyke, Peter L.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2012-01-01

    Armed antibody-based targeted molecular therapies offer the possibility of effective tumor control with a minimum of side effects. Photoimmunotherapy (PIT) employs a monoclonal antibody-phototoxic phthalocyanine dye, IR700 conjugate that is activated by focal near infrared (NIR) light irradiation after antibody binding to the targeted tumor cell surface leading to rapid necrotic cell death. Therapy by single NIR light irradiation was effective without significant side-effects, however, recurrences were seen in most of treated mice probably because of inhomogeneous distribution of panitumumab-IR700 immuno-conjugate in the tumor, leading to ineffective PIT. We describe here an optimized regimen of effective PIT method for the same HER1-overexpressing tumor model (A431) with fractionated administration of panitumumab-IR700 conjugate followed by systematic repeated NIR light irradiation to the tumor based on timing of antibody redistribution into the remnant tumor under the guidance of IR700 fluorescence signal. Eighty percents of the A431 tumors were eradicated with repeated PIT without apparent side effects and survived with tumor free more than 120 days even after stoping therapy at the day 30. Therapeutic effects were monitored using IR700 fluorescent signal. PIT is a promising highly selective and clinically feasible theranostics for the treatment of MAb-binding tumors with minimal off target effects. PMID:22369484

  16. Camera calibration method of binocular stereo vision based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wanzhen; Dong, Xiaona

    2015-10-01

    Camera calibration, an important part of the binocular stereo vision research, is the essential foundation of 3D reconstruction of the spatial object. In this paper, the camera calibration method based on OpenCV (open source computer vision library) is submitted to make the process better as a result of obtaining higher precision and efficiency. First, the camera model in OpenCV and an algorithm of camera calibration are presented, especially considering the influence of camera lens radial distortion and decentering distortion. Then, camera calibration procedure is designed to compute those parameters of camera and calculate calibration errors. High-accurate profile extraction algorithm and a checkboard with 48 corners have also been used in this part. Finally, results of calibration program are presented, demonstrating the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach. The results can reach the requirement of robot binocular stereo vision.

  17. Volume Measurements of Laser-generated Pits for In Situ Geochronology using KArLE (Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Miller, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment( KArLE), is composed of two main instruments: a spectrometer as part of the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) method and a Mass Spectrometer (MS). The LIBS laser ablates a sample and creates a plasma cloud, generating a pit in the sample. The LIBS plasma is measured for K abundance in weight percent and the released gas is measured using the MS, which calculates Ar abundance in mols. To relate the K and Ar measurements, total mass of the ablated sample is needed but can be difficult to directly measure. Instead, density and volume are used to calculate mass, where density is calculated based on the elemental composition of the rock (from the emission spectrum) and volume is determined by pit morphology. This study aims to reduce the uncertainty for KArLE by analyzing pit volume relationships in several analog materials and comparing methods of pit volume measurements and their associated uncertainties.

  18. Dynamics of pit filling in heteroepitaxy via phase-field simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albani, Marco; Bergamaschini, Roberto; Montalenti, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Heteroepitaxial growth on a pit-patterned substrate is investigated by phase-field simulations, tackling both film and substrate geometry and elastic properties. The dynamics results from material deposition and redistribution via surface diffusion according to the tendency toward free-energy minimization. The balance between surface energy, misfit strain, and wetting effects is taken into account. Numerical solution by finite-element method permits to properly account for the role played by the actual pit morphology in determining strain relaxation. The mechanisms leading to island growth into the pit are discussed. Different growth parameters and pattern geometries are considered and their effects on island ordering are explained and related to experimental evidences in literature.

  19. Posthandling survival and PIT tag retention by alewives—a comparison of gastric and surgical implants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Voni, Volney

    2013-01-01

    We compared survival and tag retention of Alewives Alosa pseudoharengus tagged with PIT tags, using intraperitoneal (IP) surgical implants, gastric implants (GI), and untagged controls held for 38 d. Retention was 100% for IP-tagged Alewives and 98% for GI-tagged implants. No significant difference in survival was observed among any of these groups. These results lend support to the use of PIT telemetry for studying fish passage and migration of anadromous herring. Both methods hold promise for improving estimates of freshwater survival of adult anadromous clupeids; further research should make it also possible to refine estimates of adult marine survival.

  20. 241-AN-A valve pit manifold valves and position indication acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    VANDYKE, D.W.

    1999-08-25

    This document describes the method used to test design criteria for gear actuated ball valves installed in 241-AN-A Valve Pit located at 200E Tank Farms. The purpose of this procedure is to demonstrate the following: Equipment is properly installed, labeled, and documented on As-Built drawings; New Manifold Valves in the 241-AN-A Valve Pit are fully operable using the handwheel of the valve operators; New valve position indicators on the valve operators will show correct valve positions; New valve position switches will function properly; and New valve locking devices function properly.

  1. 241-AN-B valve pit manifold valves and position indication acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    VANDYKE, D.W.

    1999-08-25

    This document describes the method used to test design criteria for gear actuated ball valves installed in 241-AN-B Valve Pit located at 200E Tank Farms. The purpose of this procedure is to demonstrate the following: Equipment is properly installed, labeled, and documented on As-Built drawings; New Manifold Valves in the 241-AN-B Valve Pit are fully operable using the handwheel of the valve operators; New valve position indicators on the valve operators will show correct valve positions; New valve position switches will function properly; and New valve locking devices function properly.

  2. Atomic force microscopy of atomic-scale ledges and etch pits formed during dissolution of quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratz, A. J.; Manne, S.; Hansma, P. K.

    1991-01-01

    The processes involved in the dissolution and growth of crystals are closely related. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of faceted pits (called negative crystals) formed during quartz dissolution reveals subtle details of these underlying physical mechanisms for silicates. In imaging these surfaces, the AFM detected ledges less than 1 nm high that were spaced 10 to 90 nm apart. A dislocation pit, invisible to optical and scanning electron microscopy measurements and serving as a ledge source, was also imaged. These observations confirm the applicability of ledge-motion models to dissolution and growth of silicates; coupled with measurements of dissolution rate on facets, these methods provide a powerful tool for probing mineral surface kinetics.

  3. Modeling of light intensification by conical pits within multilayer coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, S R; Wolfe, J E; Monterrosa, A; Feit, M D; Pistor, T V; Stolz, C J

    2009-11-02

    Removal of laser-induced damage sites provides a possible mitigation pathway to improve damage resistance of coated multilayer dielectric mirrors. In an effort to determine the optimal mitigation geometry which will not generate secondary damage precursors, the electric field distribution within the coating layers for a variety of mitigation shapes under different irradiation angles has been estimated using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The coating consists of twenty-four alternating layers of hafnia and silica with a quarter-wave reflector design. A conical geometrical shape with different cone angles is investigated in the present study. Beam incident angles range from 0{sup o} to 60{sup o} at 5{sup o} increments. We find that light intensification (square of electric field, |E|{sup 2}) within the multilayers depends strongly on the beam incident direction and the cone angle. By comparing the field intensification for each cone angle under all angles of incidence, we find that a 30{sup o} conical pit generates the least field intensification within the multilayer film. Our results suggest that conical pits with shallow cone angles ({le} 30{sup o}) can be used as potential optimal mitigation structures.

  4. Optimisation methods for bathymetry and open boundary conditions in finite element model of ocean tides

    SciTech Connect

    Lyard, F.; Genco, M.L.

    1994-10-01

    A bidimensional, spectral in time, quasi-linearised hydrodynamic ocean tide model has been developed at the Institut de Mecanique de Grenoble. This model is derived from the classical shallow water equations by removing the velocity unknowns in the continuity equation, that leads to an elliptic, second-order differential equation where tide denivellation remains the only unknown quantity. The problem is solved in its variational formulation and the finite elements method is used to discretise the equations in the spatial domain with a Lagrange-P2 approximation. Bottom topography has to be known at the integration points of the elements. In the case of the large oceanic basins, a specific method, called the bathymetry optimisation method, is needed to correctly take into account the bottom topography inside the model. The accuracy of the model`s solutions is also strongly dependent on the quality of the open boundary conditions because of the elliptic characteristics of the problem. The optimisation method for open boundary conditions relies on the use of the in situ data available in the modelled domain. The aim of this paper is to present the basis of these optimisations of bathymetry and open boundary conditions. An illustration of the related improvements is presented on the North Atlantic Basin. 36 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Efficient method for scattering problems in open billiards: Theory and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akguc, Gursoy B.; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2006-12-01

    We present an efficient method to solve scattering problems in two-dimensional open billiards with two leads and a complicated scattering region. The basic idea is to transform the scattering region to a rectangle, which will lead to complicated dynamics in the interior, but simple boundary conditions. The method can be specialized to closed billiards, and it allows the treatment of interacting particles in the billiard. We apply this method to quantum echoes measured recently in a microwave cavity, and indicate how it can be used for interacting particles.

  6. Orientation dependence and bonding during pitting corrosion of HCP metals.

    SciTech Connect

    Lillard, Robert Scott

    2002-01-01

    The orientation dependence of pitting in single crystal beryllium (Be) is compared to the observations for single crystal zinc (Zn) reported by other investigators. The pit walls in stable propagating pits for prism planes were always square; in the (ioio) surface the walls were normal to the [0001] and [{bar 1}2{bar 1}0] directions while in the (110) surface the walls were normal to the [0001] and [{bar 1}100] directions. In addition, for the (ioio) and (11{bar 2}0) surfaces the pit interiors were characterized by crystallographically oriented parallel plates of unattacked Be. The orientation of these lamella was quite different than those observed in Zn. To explain this difference, the electron density distributions in the metal lattices are analyzed. A conceptual model for crystallographic pitting is introduced. In this model it is proposed that the crystallographic pits observed in single crystal hcp metals reflects the bond energy in the lattice.

  7. Simulations and measurements of artificial cracks and pits in flat stainless steel plates using tone burst eddy-current thermography (TBET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libin, M. N.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Maxfield, B. W.; Krishnamurthy, C. V.

    2013-01-01

    Tone Burst Eddy current Thermography (TBET) is a new hybrid, non-contacting, Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) method which employs a combination of Pulsed Eddy current Thermography (PEC) and Thermographic Non-Destructive Evaluation (TNDE). For understanding the influence of cracking and pitting on heat generation and flow within a metallic body, a fundamental knowledge of the detailed induced current density distribution in the component under test is required. This information enables us to calculate the amount of heat produced by the defects and how that heat diffuses to the surface where it is imaged. This paper describes simulation work done for artificial pits and cracks within pits on the far surface of poorly conducting metals like stainless steel. The first phase of this investigation simulates the transient thermal distribution for artificial 2D pit and crack-like defects using the finite element package COMSOL multi-physics with the AC/DC module and general heat transfer. Considering the reflection measurement geometry where thermal excitation and temperature monitoring are on the same surface, pitting reduces the material volume thereby contributing to a larger temperature rise for the same thermal energy input. A crack within a pit gives a further increase in temperature above the pure pit baseline. The tone burst frequency can be changed to obtain approximately uniform heating (low frequency) or heating of a thin region at the observation surface. Although front surface temperature changes due to 10% deep far-side pits in a 6 mm thick plate can be measured, it is not yet clear whether a 20% deep crack within this pit can be discriminated against the background. Both simulations and measurements will be presented. The objective of this work is to determine whether the TBET method is suitable for the detection and characterization of far side pitting, cracking and cracks within those pits.

  8. Coordinate Measuring Machine Pit Artifact Inspection Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Montano, Joshua D.

    2012-07-31

    The goal of this document is to outline a procedure for dimensional measurement of Los Alamos National Laboratory's CMM Pit Artifact. This procedure will be used by the Manufacturing Practice's Inspection Technology Subgroup of the Interagency Manufacturing Operations Group and Joint Operations Weapon Operations Group (IMOG/JOWOG 39) round robin participants. The intent is to assess the state of industry within the Nuclear Weapons Complex for measurements made on this type of part and find which current measurement strategies and techniques produce the best results.

  9. The Pit and the Safety Pendulum

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, Robert Leon; Ramos, Amadeo Gabriel

    2000-11-01

    The hypothesis of this paper is that the safety analysis pendulum has swung considerably in the direction of increasingly complex and lengthy safety evaluations and intense reviews during the past 30 years. The test of this hypothesis will be a review of the safety analysis conducted for various activities associated with the retrieval of transuranic radioactive waste from burial pits at a National Laboratory site over a span of 30 years. The examination will focus on the safety aspects and the safety analysis that was conducted for the projects. At the conclusion of this examination, the paper will identify five reasons why the changes have taken place.

  10. Open Rotor Noise Prediction Methods at NASA Langley- A Technology Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Dunn, Mark H.; Tinetti, Ana F.; Nark, Douglas M.

    2009-01-01

    Open rotors are once again under consideration for propulsion of the future airliners because of their high efficiency. The noise generated by these propulsion systems must meet the stringent noise standards of today to reduce community impact. In this paper we review the open rotor noise prediction methods available at NASA Langley. We discuss three codes called ASSPIN (Advanced Subsonic-Supersonic Propeller Induced Noise), FW - Hpds (Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings with penetrable data surface) and the FSC (Fast Scattering Code). The first two codes are in the time domain and the third code is a frequency domain code. The capabilities of these codes and the input data requirements as well as the output data are presented. Plans for further improvements of these codes are discussed. In particular, a method based on equivalent sources is outlined to get rid of spurious signals in the FW - Hpds code.

  11. Pitting Corrosion in CVD SiC at 300°C in Deoxygenated High-Purity Water

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Pitman, Stan G.; Senor, David J.; Geelhood, Ken J.; Painter, Chad L.

    2008-08-15

    SiC is a candidate for nuclear applications at elevated temperatures but has not been fully studied under typical light-water reactor operating conditions, such as moderate temperatures and high pressures. Coupons of high-purity chemical vapor deposited SiC were exposed to deoxygenated, pressurized water at 573K and 100 Bar for up to 4000 hours. Ceramographic examination of the exposed SiC surfaces revealed both embryonic and large, d > 300 µm, pits on the surface. The pits were characterized using scanning electron microscopy for structure and chemistry analysis. Pit densities were also determined by standard counting methods. The chemical analysis revealed that the pits are associated with the formation of silica and subsequent loss of Si, which is expected due to several suggested reactions between SiC and water.

  12. Analysis and cleaning of dirty W48 pits

    SciTech Connect

    LeMay, J.D.

    1996-04-01

    This presentation will summarize the results of an investigation of a dirty W48 pit and the subsequent development of a process for cleaning this class of pits in preparation for long-term storage. The residues of the dirty pit were analyzed for chemical identification and evidence of species known to promote corrosion of the metal cladding. The cleaning process was developed to reduce the potential for future corrosion during long-term storage.

  13. Radiocarbon dating of petroleum-impregnated bone from tar pits at Rancho La Brea, California.

    PubMed

    Ho, T Y; Marcus, L F; Berger, R

    1969-05-30

    A liquid-chromatography method has been developed for the separation of amino acids with the same specific activity in radiocarbon from bones impregnated with isotopically dead petroleum compounds found in the La Brea tar pits. This technique permits the application of radiocarbon dating to such bone assemblages.

  14. A tree canopy height delineation method based on Morphological Reconstruction—Open Crown Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Jing, L.; Li, Y.; Tang, Y.; Li, H.; Lin, Q.

    2016-04-01

    For the purpose of forest management, high resolution LIDAR and optical remote sensing imageries are used for treetop detection, tree crown delineation, and classification. The purpose of this study is to develop a self-adjusted dominant scales calculation method and a new crown horizontal cutting method of tree canopy height model (CHM) to detect and delineate tree crowns from LIDAR, under the hypothesis that a treetop is radiometric or altitudinal maximum and tree crowns consist of multi-scale branches. The major concept of the method is to develop an automatic selecting strategy of feature scale on CHM, and a multi-scale morphological reconstruction-open crown decomposition (MRCD) to get morphological multi-scale features of CHM by: cutting CHM from treetop to the ground; analysing and refining the dominant multiple scales with differential horizontal profiles to get treetops; segmenting LiDAR CHM using watershed a segmentation approach marked with MRCD treetops. This method has solved the problems of false detection of CHM side-surface extracted by the traditional morphological opening canopy segment (MOCS) method. The novel MRCD delineates more accurate and quantitative multi-scale features of CHM, and enables more accurate detection and segmentation of treetops and crown. Besides, the MRCD method can also be extended to high optical remote sensing tree crown extraction. In an experiment on aerial LiDAR CHM of a forest of multi-scale tree crowns, the proposed method yielded high-quality tree crown maps.

  15. Segmentation method of eye region based on fuzzy logic system for classifying open and closed eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki Wan; Lee, Won Oh; Kim, Yeong Gon; Hong, Hyung Gil; Lee, Eui Chul; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-03-01

    The classification of eye openness and closure has been researched in various fields, e.g., driver drowsiness detection, physiological status analysis, and eye fatigue measurement. For a classification with high accuracy, accurate segmentation of the eye region is required. Most previous research used the segmentation method by image binarization on the basis that the eyeball is darker than skin, but the performance of this approach is frequently affected by thick eyelashes or shadows around the eye. Thus, we propose a fuzzy-based method for classifying eye openness and closure. First, the proposed method uses I and K color information from the HSI and CMYK color spaces, respectively, for eye segmentation. Second, the eye region is binarized using the fuzzy logic system based on I and K inputs, which is less affected by eyelashes and shadows around the eye. The combined image of I and K pixels is obtained through the fuzzy logic system. Third, in order to reflect the effect by all the inference values on calculating the output score of the fuzzy system, we use the revised weighted average method, where all the rectangular regions by all the inference values are considered for calculating the output score. Fourth, the classification of eye openness or closure is successfully made by the proposed fuzzy-based method with eye images of low resolution which are captured in the environment of people watching TV at a distance. By using the fuzzy logic system, our method does not require the additional procedure of training irrespective of the chosen database. Experimental results with two databases of eye images show that our method is superior to previous approaches.

  16. 18. DETAIL, INSPECTION PIT Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL, INSPECTION PIT - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  17. High-frequency asymptotic methods for analyzing the EM scattering by open-ended waveguide cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, R. J.; Pathak, P. H.

    1989-01-01

    Four high-frequency methods are described for analyzing the electromagnetic (EM) scattering by electrically large open-ended cavities. They are: (1) a hybrid combination of waveguide modal analysis and high-frequency asymptotics, (2) geometrical optics (GO) ray shooting, (3) Gaussian beam (GB) shooting, and (4) the generalized ray expansion (GRE) method. The hybrid modal method gives very accurate results but is limited to cavities which are made up of sections of uniform waveguides for which the modal fields are known. The GO ray shooting method can be applied to much more arbitrary cavity geometries and can handle absorber treated interior walls, but it generally only predicts the major trends of the RCS pattern and not the details. Also, a very large number of rays need to be tracked for each new incidence angle. Like the GO ray shooting method, the GB shooting method can handle more arbitrary cavities, but it is much more efficient and generally more accurate than the GO method because it includes the fields diffracted by the rim at the open end which enter the cavity. However, due to beam divergence effects the GB method is limited to cavities which are not very long compared to their width. The GRE method overcomes the length-to-width limitation of the GB method by replacing the GB's with GO ray tubes which are launched in the same manner as the GB's to include the interior rim diffracted field. This method gives good accuracy and is generally more efficient than the GO method, but a large number of ray tubes needs to be tracked.

  18. Control of water erosion and sediment in open cut coal mines in tropical areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, T.; Nugraha, C.; Matsui, K.; Shimada, H.; Ichinose, M.; Gottfried, J.

    2005-07-01

    The purpose is to reduce the environmental impacts from open cut mining in tropical areas, such as Indonesia and Vietnam. Research conducted on methods for the control of water erosion and sediment from open cut coal mines is described. Data were collected on climate and weathering in tropical areas, mechanism of water erosion and sedimentation, characteristics of rocks in coal measures under wet conditions, water management at pits and haul roads and ramps, and construction of waste dumps and water management. The results will be applied to the optimum control and management of erosion and sediments in open cut mining. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Introduction to Pits and Weapons Systems (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, D.

    2012-07-02

    A Nuclear Explosive Package includes the Primary, Secondary, Radiation Case and related components. This is the part of the weapon that produces nuclear yield and it converts mechanical energy into nuclear energy. The pit is composed of materials that allow mechanical energy to be converted to electromagnetic energy. Fabrication processes used are typical of any metal fabrication facility: casting, forming, machining and welding. Some of the materials used in pits include: Plutonium, Uranium, Stainless Steel, Beryllium, Titanium, and Aluminum. Gloveboxes are used for three reasons: (1) Protect workers and public from easily transported, finely divided plutonium oxides - (a) Plutonium is very reactive and produces very fine particulate oxides, (b) While not the 'Most dangerous material in the world' of Manhattan Project lore, plutonium is hazardous to health of workers if not properly controlled; (2) Protect plutonium from reactive materials - (a) Plutonium is extremely reactive at ambient conditions with several components found in air: oxygen, water, hydrogen, (b) As with most reactive metals, reactions with these materials may be violent and difficult to control, (c) As with most fabricated metal products, corrosion may significantly affect the mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of the product; and (3) Provide shielding from radioactive decay products: {alpha}, {gamma}, and {eta} are commonly associated with plutonium decay, as well as highly radioactive materials such as {sup 241}Am and {sup 238}Pu.

  20. Characterization and expression analysis of FRUITFULL- and SHATTERPROOF-like genes from peach (Prunus persica) and their role in split-pit formation.

    PubMed

    Tani, Eleni; Polidoros, Alexios N; Tsaftaris, Athanasios S

    2007-05-01

    The fruit canning industry processes large quantities of the clingstone varieties of peach (Prunus persica L. Batch). The occurrence of split-pit formation--the opening of the pit and sometimes splitting of the fruit--causes deterioration of canned fruit quality. The frequency of split-pit formation is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To increase understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying split-pit formation in peach, we cloned and characterized the PPERFUL and PPERSHP genes that are homologues to the genes FRUITFULL and SHATTERPROOF, respectively, which are involved in fruit splitting (pod shattering) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two genes had high homology with members of the MADS-box family of transcription factors, and particularly with other members of the FUL-like family of A-type MADS-box proteins and PLENA-like family of C-type MADS-box proteins, respectively. PPERFUL and PPERSHP were expressed throughout fruit development from full anthesis until fruit harvest. Differences in the mRNA abundance of each gene were compared in a split-pit sensitive and a split-pit resistant variety. Results suggested that temporal regulation of PPERFUL and PPERSHP expression may have an effect on the split-pit process.

  1. EMUstack: An open source route to insightful electromagnetic computation via the Bloch mode scattering matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturmberg, Björn C. P.; Dossou, Kokou B.; Lawrence, Felix J.; Poulton, Christopher G.; McPhedran, Ross C.; Martijn de Sterke, C.; Botten, Lindsay C.

    2016-05-01

    We describe EMUstack, an open-source implementation of the Scattering Matrix Method (SMM) for solving field problems in layered media. The fields inside nanostructured layers are described in terms of Bloch modes that are found using the Finite Element Method (FEM). Direct access to these modes allows the physical intuition of thin film optics to be extended to complex structures. The combination of the SMM and the FEM makes EMUstack ideally suited for studying lossy, high-index contrast structures, which challenge conventional SMMs.

  2. A method for data handling numerical results in parallel OpenFOAM simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Anton, Alin; Muntean, Sebastian

    2015-12-31

    Parallel computational fluid dynamics simulations produce vast amount of numerical result data. This paper introduces a method for reducing the size of the data by replaying the interprocessor traffic. The results are recovered only in certain regions of interest configured by the user. A known test case is used for several mesh partitioning scenarios using the OpenFOAM toolkit{sup ®}[1]. The space savings obtained with classic algorithms remain constant for more than 60 Gb of floating point data. Our method is most efficient on large simulation meshes and is much better suited for compressing large scale simulation results than the regular algorithms.

  3. Cloning of the full length pig PIT1 (POU1F1) CDNA and a novel alternative PIT1 transcript, and functional studies of their encoded proteins.

    PubMed

    Yu, T P; Sun, H S; Wahls, S; Sanchez-Serrano, I; Rothschild, M F; Tuggle, C K

    2001-05-01

    PIT1 is an essential regulatory gene of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin beta subunit (TSHbeta). Previously, a partial pig PIT1 cDNA and a genomic clone of the entire 3' end of the PIT1 gene was isolated, and polymorphisms at PIT1 were associated with several performance traits in the pig. In order to understand the biological function of the pig PIT1 gene and its possible application in swine genetics, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to complete the cloning of the full length cDNA for pig PIT1. The pig PIT1 cDNA and its deduced protein sequence have approximately 90% and 95% identity, respectively, with the PIT1 cDNA and protein of other mammals (human, bovine, sheep and rodents). Surprisingly, sequence comparison to other pig PIT1 sequences indicated only approximately 93% identity. Additional sequencing confirmed our sequence, and identified a new polymorphism in exon 4. Phylogenetic analysis of several mammalian PIT1 sequences indicates sequencing errors may account for the discrepancies observed in the other pig sequences reported. Several PIT1 alternative spliced forms were also identified by RT-PCR. They were the delta3PIT1 (missing entire exon 3), delta4PIT1 (missing entire exon 4) and PIT1beta (additional 26 amino acids inserted in front of exon 2) transcripts. The delta4PIT1 and PIT1beta transcripts have been found to encode functionally different proteins in rodents. The delta3PIT1 transcript is a novel isoform of PIT1. Potentially different functions between pig delta3PIT1 and PIT1 were analyzed by expressing these proteins in bacteria. The E. coli-expressed PIT1 and delta3PIT1 proteins were used with rat growth hormone (rGH) and rat prolactin (rPRL) promoter DNA in DNA mobility shift assays. The results showed that pig PIT1 can specifically bind rGH and rPRL promoter regions, but that the pig delta3PIT1 cannot, even at very high protein concentrations. Possible protein-protein interactions between

  4. HOS-ocean: Open-source solver for nonlinear waves in open ocean based on High-Order Spectral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducrozet, Guillaume; Bonnefoy, Félicien; Le Touzé, David; Ferrant, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    HOS-ocean is an efficient High-Order Spectral code developed to solve the deterministic propagation of nonlinear wavefields in open ocean. HOS-ocean is released as open-source, developed and distributed under the terms of GNU General Public License (GPLv3). Along with the source code, a documentation under wiki format is available which makes easy the compilation and execution of the source files. The code has been shown to be accurate and efficient.

  5. Dispersion in an open-cut coal mine in stably stratified flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grainger, Clive; Meroney, Robert N.

    1993-02-01

    Discharges from combustion within a coal pit which occur during night-time inversion conditions may result in stagnant accumulation of smoke and dangerous gases which could inhibit mining operations. A wind-tunnel model study was performed to identify the range of flow and mixing conditions which could exist when stably stratified atmospheric surface flows pass over a large open pit. Flow penetration into the pit depended upon approach-flow stability (Froude number) and the strength of the thermal inversion within the coal pit. Measurements of wind speed and temperature were made upwind, within and downwind of the pit. Concentration measurements were made within the pit, of surface sources released along pit walls. Pollutant levels were found to be strong functions of the approach-flow pit Froude number, source location, and release time.

  6. Some fundamental aspects of the electrochemical noise generated during pitting of A516-70 carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.F.; Luo, J.L.; Wihnott, L.M. |

    1998-12-31

    The potential and current noise during pitting of A516-70 carbon steel in chloride-containing solutions were monitored. Statistical analyses were performed in an attempt to achieve some fundamental understanding of the corrosion processes for this system. It was concluded that the Temkin isotherm could be used to explain the competitive adsorption of C{sup {minus}} and HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} on the electrode surface. The initiation of pitting was characterized by typical potential and current transients: quick drop of potential and rise of current followed by their slow recoveries. Electrode capacitance played a major role on potential fluctuations. The noise resistance analysis was capable of identifying pitting at the critical Cl{sup {minus}} concentration level, while the impedance method showed poorer sensitivity. Pitting activity in low Cl{sup {minus}} concentration solution showed an almost Poisson behavior, indicating little interaction among pitting events. Significant deviation horn Poisson behavior was observed at high Cl{sup {minus}} concentration level, indicating cooperative pitting events. The calculation of an autocorrelation function also confined these observations.

  7. Pitting and Intergranular Corrosion Resistance of AISI Type 301LN Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ningshen, S.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2010-03-01

    The pitting and intergranular corrosion (IGC) resistance of AISI type 301LN stainless steels were evaluated using ASTM methods, anodic polarization, and electrochemical impedance techniques. The IGC results indicated that the microstructure of the samples after sensitization heat treatment at 675 °C for 1 h shows step or dual structure for both imported and indigenous materials indicating insignificant Cr23C6 precipitation. The results of immersion tests in boiling 6% copper sulfate + 16% sulfuric acid + copper solution for 24 h followed by the bend test (ASTM A262 Practice-E method) indicated no crack formation in any of the tested specimens. Pitting corrosion resistance carried out in 6% FeCl3 solution at different temperatures of 22 ± 2 and 50 ± 2 °C (ASTM G 48) up to the period of 72 h revealed pitting corrosion attack in all the investigated alloys. The potentiodynamic anodic polarization results in 0.5 M NaCl revealed variation in passive current density and pitting potential depending on the alloy chemistry and metallurgical condition. The passive film properties studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) correlated well with the polarization results. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed the presence of austenite (γ) and martensite (α') phases depending on the material condition. The suitability of three indigenously developed AISI type 301LN stainless steels were compared with imported type 301LN stainless steel and the results are highlighted in this article.

  8. In vitro cytotoxicity of novel pro-apoptotic agent DM-PIT-1 in PEG-PE-based micelles alone and in combination with TRAIL

    PubMed Central

    Skidan, Igor; Miao, Benchun; Thekkedath, Ritesh V; Dholakia, Parita; Degterev, Alexei; Torchilin, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Develop and characterize a micellar formulations of N-{[(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)amino]carbonothioyl}-3,5-dimethylbenzamide (DM-PIT-1) – a new small molecule non-lipid antagonist of phopshotidylinositol-3.4.5-triphopshate and inhibitor of the PI3-kinase pathway. METHODS Micelle-forming PEG2000-PE was used to solubilize DM-PIT-1. To improve the specificity of the micellar DM-PIT-1, cancer-targeting anti-nucleosomal mAb2C5 antibodies as well as Tumor necrosis factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) were attached to the surface of polymeric micelles. RESULTS DM-PIT-1 was effectively incorporated (>70%) into 14–16 nm micelles, which had a negative surface zeta potential of 4–5 mV. Micellar DM-PIT-1 demonstrated high in vitro cytotoxicity against various cancer cells. An improved potency of the dual-activity DM-PIT-1/TRAIL combination nanoparticles in inducing death of TRAIL-resistant cancer cells was shown. Efficacy of the TRAIL therapy was enhanced by combining it with the 2C5 antibody cancer-targeted micellar form of DM-PIT-1. CONCLUSIONS DM-PIT-1 micellar preparations can be used for targeted combination therapy against TRAIL-resistant cancers. PMID:19555308

  9. 103. ARAIII. Looking down into GCRE reactor pit as it ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. ARA-III. Looking down into GCRE reactor pit as it was being modified for further ML-1 testing. Shows bellows assembly, men working in pit, spiral staircase. May 20, 1965. Ineel photo no. 65-2762. Photographer: Farmer. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    SciTech Connect

    Boomer, Kayle D.; Engeman, Jason K.; Gunter, Jason R.; Joslyn, Cameron C.; Vazquez, Brandon J.; Venetz, Theodore J.; Garfield, John S.

    2014-01-20

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line.

  11. 7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Factors of Quality § 52.807 Freedom... substantially free from any adhering sirup, sugar, or other packing medium. (c) (A) Classification. Frozen red... for this classification specified in Table I. (d) (B) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted...

  12. 7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... means pitted cherries that are substantially free from any adhering sirup, sugar, or other packing... may be present does not exceed the allowances for this classification specified in Table I. (d) (B... in Table I. (e) (C) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that are fairly free from...

  13. 7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... substantially free from any adhering sirup, sugar, or other packing medium. (c) (A) Classification. Frozen red... for this classification specified in Table I. (d) (B) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries... pits that may be present does not exceed the number specified in Table I. (e) (C)...

  14. Simulation Based Investigation of Different Fleet Management Paradigms in Open Pit Mines-A Case Study of Sungun Copper Mine / Symulacje I Badania Różnych Paradygmatów Wykorzystania Floty Pojazdów I Urządzeń W Kopalniach Odkrywkowych. Studium Przypadku: Kopalnia Miedzi W Sungun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Ali Saadatmand; Sattarvand, Javad

    2015-03-01

    Using simulation modeling, different management systems of the open pit mining equipment including non-dispatching, dispatching and blending solutions have been studied for the Sungun copper mine. Developed model has the capability of considering detailed features of both loading and hauling equipment. Productivity assessment scenarios have been established on the constructed model and the outputs revealed the noteworthy impact of the match factor of the trucks to the loaders on the production rate by over 40%. A dispatching simulation model with the objective function of minimizing truck waiting times have been developed and 7.8% improvement obtained by applying a flexible assignment of the trucks for the loaders compared to the fixed assignment system. Finally ore grade blending control unit has been introduced into the model. Getting the advantages of the newly added module it became possible to monitor the portion of material excavated from different operating benches and control truck dispatching rules for keeping the overall ore grade exactly at desired value. Przy użyciu modeli symulacyjnych zbadano różnorodne systemy zarządzania flotą pojazdów i urządzeń w kopalni odkrywkowej (wydawanie dyspozycji przewozu, wstrzymywanie przewozu oraz rozwiązania kwestii mieszania o rud o różnej zawartości pierwiastka użytecznego) na przykładzie kopalni miedzi Sungun. Opracowany model uwzględnia szczegółowe cechy sprzętu przeładunkowego oraz transportowego. Na podstawie modelu opracowano następnie scenariusze oceny wydajności, a wyniki jednoznacznie wykazały wielką wagę odpowiedniego skojarzenia ilości pojazdów i ładowarek. Opracowano model symulacyjny kierowania urządzeń do pracy, jako funkcję celu przyjmujący minimalizacje czasu przestoju ciężarówek. Uzyskano wynik lepszy o 7.8% poprzez elastyczne przydzielania pojazdów do ładowarek w porównaniu do systemu trwałego ich do siebie przypisania. W ostatnim etapie

  15. Microbial contents of soil from fire pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, K.; Esparza, V.; de Sandre, J.; Cheney, S.; Anderson, A.; White, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Forest fires generate polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that can lead to carcinogenic compounds, which are potential health risks. PAHs can be degraded to water and carbon dioxide by certain soil microbes. Thus, during participation in a NASA-funded summer research experience at Utah State University, our high school student team sampled soils from a month-old fire pit in which plant materials had been burnt. We detected in soil samples, from surface, 10 and 20 cm depths, microbes that would grow on a defined minimal medium source. Other microbes were cultured from the roots of plants that had established at the fire pit. A diversity of microbes was present in all samples based on visible differences in cell shape and color. It was surprising that the surface ash, although exposed to sunlight over the month interval, had culturable colonies. Many of these culturable bacteria were pigmented perhaps as a protection against UV radiation from the sun. We searched for genes in the microbes that encoded enzymes called dioxygenases that in other bacteria are involved in degradation of PAHs. This test involved using polymerase chain reactions to detect the genes. PCR products were found in two of the fifteen isolates tested although their sizes differed from the control gene product from a PAH-degrading mycobacterium isolate. These results suggest that the soils did contain microbes with the possible potential to alter the PAH compounds generated from vegetation fires. Our findings serve as a starting point for future studies looking at recovery and remediation of fired acreages.

  16. A method for fabricating a micro-structured surface of polyimide with open and closed pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yong-Won; Oh, Jae Yong; Ahn, Seokyoung; Shin, Bo Sung

    2016-08-01

    A new approach for fabricating open and closed porous structures based on laser processing is presented. Liquid polyimide (PI) was mixed with azodicarbonamide which is a chemical blowing agent (CBA), and the mixture was spin-coated and pre-cured in order to fabricate solid PI films. Porous PI was prepared by irradiating PI films mixed with azodicarbonamide. The PI film with azodicarbonamide was etched by using laser ablation, and the azodicarbonamide was decomposed due to the heat induced by the absorbed laser energy. At higher laser beam irradiation, more pores were fabricated due to the resulting increase in the CBA decomposition from 27 mJ/cm2 to 40 mJ/cm2 per single pulse. A fluence of about 50 mJ/cm2 resulted in fewer and larger open pores, which were formed by the coalescence of small pores. In contrast, a closed porous structure was fabricated at a fluence of less than 1 mJ/cm2 because PI was barely etched. The proposed method can be used to create open and closed porous structures selectively and is not limited to thermosetting polymers, but is also effective with thermoplastic polymers.

  17. A Topographic Analysis of Lunar Pit Craters Using LOLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinski, P. T.; Milam, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Pit craters have been a recent interest in the impact crater community due to their elusive formational mechanism(s) and their variable morphologies on different bodies. Pit craters have been observed on multiple planetary bodies and currently efforts are underway to characterize these crater types. In this work we focused on finding and evaluating pitted craters and their morphologic habits on the lunar surface to better constrain pit crater formation on a relatively dry body (compared to Mars and Ganymede). The study area ranged across the entire lunar surface from -20 to 50 degree latitudes and included both highland and maria terrains. The diameter range of the crater population evaluated was 20 - 60 km. The diameter range was chosen to include complex crater morphology (minimum diameter ~20 km) but to not include larger impacts (>60 km) to prevent misinterpretation of central regions. An overall population of 1490 craters were evaluated, of which 115 craters were characterized as pit craters. The LOLA data set along with NAC+WAC, Clementine visible imagery were used to locate and assess the pit craters in addition to generated digital elevation models of the craters. Our results show that pitted craters have variable morphologies, where the pitted features could be oblique or linear in shape. Summit and floor pit craters were found in both maria and highland terrain. The Moran index and Chi statistical tests were applied and determined that the population is randomly distributed across the study area. Evaluation of the individual pit craters show that they may potentially have one or more formational mechanisms associated. The statistical tests coupled with the variant morphologies may indicate multiple relations to possible formational mechanisms (volcanic, volatile release, or structural deformation).

  18. Displacement Forecasting Method in Brittle Crack Surrounding Rock Under Excavation Unloading Incorporating Opening Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. J.; Yang, W. M.; Wang, L. G.; Butler, I. B.

    2014-11-01

    Splitting failure, which is recognized as a special engineering geology phenomenon, occurs continually in the brittle rock mass of caverns during underground excavation. In this paper, a splitting model of linear slippage crack groups is built with fracture mechanics, energy analysis, and crack extension theories. Considering intrinsic cracks in rock mass and change of outer stress, intrinsic cracks propagate into macroscopical splitting cracks that are approximately parallel to the side wall of caverns. The splitting criterion of cavern rock mass and the method for predicting displacement in view of splitting opening displacement are proposed. In the end, the forecasting method is applied to the Jinping-I Hydropower Station, underground caverns engineering in China, the splitting failure zone and forecasting displacement are accordant with the monitoring data. The new forecasting displacement method is proven to contribute to the construction of similar underground caverns.

  19. Method of adiabatic modes in studying problems of smoothly irregular open waveguide structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sevastianov, L. A.; Egorov, A. A.; Sevastyanov, A. L.

    2013-02-15

    Basic steps in developing an original method of adiabatic modes that makes it possible to solve the direct and inverse problems of simulating and designing three-dimensional multilayered smoothly irregular open waveguide structures are described. A new element in the method is that an approximate solution of Maxwell's equations is made to obey 'inclined' boundary conditions at the interfaces between themedia being considered. These boundary conditions take into account the obliqueness of planes tangent to nonplanar boundaries between the media and lead to new equations for coupled vector quasiwaveguide hybrid adiabatic modes. Solutions of these equations describe the phenomenon of 'entanglement' of two linear polarizations of an irregular multilayered waveguide, the appearance of a new mode in an entangled state, and the effect of rotation of the polarization plane of quasiwaveguide modes. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by considering the example of numerically simulating a thin-film generalized waveguide Lueneburg lens.

  20. A stable penalty method for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. 1: Open boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesthaven, J. S.; Gottlieb, D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present asymptotically stable open boundary conditions for the numerical approximation of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in three spatial dimensions. The treatment uses the conservation form of the Navier-Stokes equations and utilizes linearization and localization at the boundaries based on these variables. The proposed boundary conditions are applied through a penalty procedure, thus ensuring correct behavior of the scheme as the Reynolds number tends to infinity. The versatility of this method is demonstrated for the problem of a compressible flow past a circular cylinder.

  1. An optimal open/closed-loop control method with application to a pre-stressed thin duralumin plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadimpalli, Sruthi Raju

    The excessive vibrations of a pre-stressed duralumin plate, suppressed by a combination of open-loop and closed-loop controls, also known as open/closed-loop control, is studied in this thesis. The two primary steps involved in this process are: Step (I) with an assumption that the closed-loop control law is proportional, obtain the optimal open-loop control by direct minimization of the performance measure consisting of energy at terminal time and a penalty on open-loop control force via calculus of variations. If the performance measure also involves a penalty on closed-loop control effort then a Fourier based method is utilized. Step (II) the energy at terminal time is minimized numerically to obtain optimal values of feedback gains. The optimal closed-loop control gains obtained are used to describe the displacement and the velocity of open-loop, closed-loop and open/closed-loop controlled duralumin plate.

  2. Lunar Pit Craters Presumed to be the Entrances of Lava Caves by Analogy to the Earth Lava Tube Pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ik-Seon; Yi, Yu; Kim, Eojin

    2014-06-01

    Lava caves could be useful as outposts for the human exploration of the Moon. Lava caves or lava tubes are formed when the external surface of the lava flows cools more quickly to make a hardened crust over subsurface lava flows. The lava flow eventually ceases and drains out of the tube, leaving an empty space. The frail part of the ceiling of lava tube could collapse to expose the entrance to the lava tubes which is called a pit crater. Several pit craters with the diameter of around 100 meters have been found by analyzing the data of SELENE and LRO lunar missions. It is hard to use these pit craters for outposts since these are too large in scale. In this study, small scale pit craters which are fit for outposts have been investigated using the NAC image data of LROC. Several topographic patterns which are believed to be lunar caves have been found and the similar pit craters of the Earth were compared and analyzed to identify caves. For this analysis, the image data of satellites and aerial photographs are collected and classified to construct a database. Several pit craters analogous to lunar pit craters were derived and a morphological pit crater model was generated using the 3D printer based on this database.

  3. Microbiologically mediated reduction in the pitting of mild steel overlaid with plywood

    SciTech Connect

    Soracco, R J; Berger, L R; Berger, J A; Mayack, L A; Pope, D H; Wilde, E W

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the role of microorganisms in the pitting of mild steel flooring, which had been overlaid with plywood. The experimental setups consisted of 4.8 mm (3/16 in.) mild steel plates covered with 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) thick pieces of plywood which were exposed to several different aqueous media supplemented with various combinations of a soil suspension and selected inorganic and organic compounds. Half of the replicate metal-wood-water setups were sterilized and aseptically maintained during incubation after which they were checked for the presence of viable microorganisms and pitting of the mild steel. Results of the first set of experiments showed that pitting of the mild steel specimens in many of these setups occurred after a reasonably short incubation period (3 to 6 months). However, the method used to exclude microorganisms by sterilizing the components separately was unsuccessful. In a second set of experiments, setups were sterilized by exposure to gamma irradiation after they had been assembled. The sterilized setups remained sterile after incubation while those which were not originally sterile still contained viable microorganisms. Pitting of the mild steel specimens was more severe when they were exposed to sterile conditions than when viable microorganisms were present. These experiments showed that while microorganisms are known to enhance corrosion processes in some circumstances, their presence can reduce corrosion in others.

  4. SCFA lead lab technical assistance review of the Pit 7 Complex source containment

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, D.; Janeday, D.; Woodward, D.; Imrich, J.; Evans, J.; Morris, M.; Reimus, P.; Hazen, T.

    2001-01-29

    On January 29-30, 2001 a technical assistance team (TAT) met with the Pit 7 project team at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to review technologies being evaluated for remediation in the Site 300 Pit 7 Complex and the process for selecting these technologies. Specifically, the project team presented the TAT with a core need to identify technically and economically practicable technologies and methods to stabilize, contain, or control the tritium and uranium in the source areas at the Pits 3 and 5 landfill area to prevent further releases of these contaminants to groundwater and the migration of tritiated and uranium-contaminated groundwater. The approaches and needs for the systems surrounding the landfills were also presented and discussed. With encouragement from the project team, the TAT expanded its focus to include additional site characterization, a water balance model, and computational models. The TAT was comprised of leading technical and regulatory experts from around the country and was assembled by SCFA's Lead Lab in response to a technical assistance request from John Ziagos, Project Manager for the Pit 7 Area (Technical Assistance Request: LLNL No.1). A list of the TAT members is included below and contact information the TAT members and site participants is in Appendix B. To familiarize the TAT assistance team with Pit 7 Complex issues, the project team gave a presentation outlining the site geology, contaminant hydrogeology, land-use issues, stakeholder concerns, regulatory requirements, groundwater flow and transport modeling efforts, pit source characterization efforts, and remedial options. Time for clarification and questions between the TAT and the site team was integrated into the presentation schedule. On the morning of the second day, the TAT reconvened with the site team and John Evans of the TAT presented information about a helium soil gas survey method that could potentially be used to locate and characterize tritium hot

  5. Primary rhinocheiloplasty: Comparison of open and closed methods of alar cartilage reposition

    PubMed Central

    Yasonov, S. A.; Lopatin, A. V.; Kugushev, A. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To establish which rhinoplasty method for primary repairing of unilateral cleft lip (UCL) is better. Settings and Design: Two patient groups with cleft lip were compared. Each group was operated on either by McComb's technique as closed rhinoplasty method or by Vissarionov–Kosin technique as an open method. Subjects and Methods: First group included 29 patients and the second consisted of 31. All patients were operated on by single surgeon over 10 years. Randomization was based on wishes and intention of surgeon to use one of two methods. Evaluation of results was based on impartial data, and subjective information collected from respondents with different levels of knowledge about UCL. The objective scale was based on the evaluation of five noticeable residual deformations of nose that usually appear after primary lip-nose surgery: Alar flattening, low position of alar, widening or narrowing of nostril, and deformation of the upper part of nostril rim. Subjective evaluation was based on the opinion of respondents who were ranged every case depending on own judgment. Statistical Analysis: Was performed using Fisher method and Chi-square by Statistica 10.0, StatSoft Inc. Results: Approach with general analysis indicated no difference between two methods. Despite of absence of clear differences between two groups we consider the closed rhinoplasty more favorable due to less damage to alar cartilages and no scars inside nostrils. Conclusions: We think that mentioned scarring may complicate secondary rhinoplasty, which is often needed to correct nose deformation. PMID:27563601

  6. An Extension of the Hirshfeld Method to Open Shell Systems Using Fractional Occupations.

    PubMed

    Geldof, D; Krishtal, A; Blockhuys, F; Van Alsenoy, C

    2011-05-10

    In this work, a new partitioning method is presented which allows one to calculate properties of radicals, in particular, atomic spin populations. The method can be seen as an extension of the Hirshfeld-I method [ Bultinck , P. et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2007 , 126 , 144111 ], in which the atomic weight functions, defining the atoms-in-molecules, are constructed by means of an iterative scheme in which the charges of the atoms-in-molecules are altered but the spin remains fixed. The Hirshfeld-I method is therefore not suitable for the calculation of atomic spin populations of open-shell systems. The new fractional occupation Hirshfeld-I (FOHI) uses an iterative scheme in which both the atomic charge and spin are optimized, resulting in a self-consistent method for the calculation of atomic spin populations. The results obtained with the FOHI method are compared with experimental results obtained using polarized neutron diffraction, thus serving as a validation of the FOHI method as well as the Hirshfeld definition of atoms-in-molecules in general. PMID:26610127

  7. 77 FR 2611 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ...An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...

  8. 77 FR 55525 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...

  9. The influence of sulfide inclusions on the initiation of pits in Fe-29Ni-17Co

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    Kovar sheet and rod samples were tested in the as-received (R/sub B/80 and R/sub B/95, respectively) condition. Pitting tests were conducted on three sheet orientations: face, long-transverse (side), and short-transverse (end) and on two rod orientations: cross section (end) and length. Samples were prepared for testing by grinding and chemically cleaning all faces, spot-welding a Kovar wire to the back, and mounting in Maraglas resin. The exposed face was ground with 600-grit SiC paper and rinsed in deionized water immediately before testing. The grinding scratches were aligned in the rolling direction of the sheet and the drawing direction of the rod length. All tests were conducted in a room temperature 0.5 M NaCI electrolyte adjusted to pH 10 by the addition of NaOH. Polarization of Kovar in nonalkaline 0.5 M NaCI did not yield a sharp pitting potential because of the lack of a stable passive potential region. The electrolyte was purged with N/sub 2/ during testing and for a minimum of 4 h before testing. Potentiodynamic tests were conducted from the open circuit potential, following 15-min immersion, at a potential scan rate of 6 mV/min. Critical pitting potentials are reported as the average of six measurements.

  10. Special Analysis: Disposal Plan for Pit 38 at Technical Area 54, Area G

    SciTech Connect

    French, Sean B.; Shuman, Rob

    2012-06-26

    updated radionuclide inventories to identify a disposal configuration that promotes efficient utilization of the pit and ensures continued compliance with DOE Order 435.1 performance objectives. Section 2 describes the methods used to conduct the analysis; the results of the evaluation are provided in Section 3. The disposal plan for pit 38 is provided in Section 4 and the conclusions of the investigation are provided in Section 5. Throughout the report, pit 38 is used to refer to the entire disposal unit, including the existing pit and the extension that is currently under construction. Where a distinction between the two portions of the pit is necessary, the existing unit is referred to as pit 38 proper and the new portion of the pit as the pit 38 extension or, more simply, the extension.

  11. Proximal gastric vagotomy. Comparison between open and laparoscopic methods in the canine model.

    PubMed Central

    Kollmorgen, C F; Gunes, S; Donohue, J H; Thompson, G B; Sarr, M G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The authors compared open and laparoscopic proximal gastric vagotomies for efficacy of acid reduction and preservation of gastric emptying. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA. Laparoscopic methods have been used to perform vagotomy in patients with duodenal ulcer; however, no direct comparisons are available of laparoscopic and open surgical procedures regarding acid reduction and gastric emptying. METHODS. Thirty-one consecutive dogs were randomized to open proximal gastric vagotomy (OPGV; n = 11), laparoscopic anterior seromyotomy and posterior truncal vagotomy (ASPTV; n = 10), or laparoscopic proximal gastric vagotomy (LPGV; n = 10). Intraoperative endoscopic Congo red testing assured complete vagotomy. Basal acid output (BAO) and maximal acid output (MAO) during pentagastrin and insulin-induced hypoglycemia were measured with marker dilution techniques, and gastric emptying was assessed with radionuclide-labelled solid and liquid markers before and 5 weeks after operation. RESULTS. Operative time (mean +/- standard error of the mean) for OPGV was shorter compared with ASPTV and LPGV (86 +/- 7 minutes vs. 124 +/- 7 minutes and 115 +/- 7 minutes; p < 0.002). Postoperative BAO did not decrease in any group. Open proximal gastric vagotomy and LPGV, but not ASPTV, decreased MAO (p < 0.05); (after pentagastrin, OPGV from 26.4 +/- 1.7 mEq/hour to 11.3 +/- 0.1 mEq/hour, LPGV from 21.4 +/- 1.0 mEq/hour to 6.4 +/- 0.5 mEq/hour; after insulin-induced hypoglycemia, OPGV from 9.9 +/- 0.5 mEq/hour to 2.2 +/- 0.3 mEq/hour, LPGV from 7.9 +/- 0.5 mEq/hour to 1.9 +/- 0.4 mEq/hour). Gastric emptying of liquids and solids, as quantitated by the time for one half of the marker to empty (T 1/2) and the shape of the emptying curve, were similar before and after all three surgical procedures. CONCLUSIONS. Laparoscopic proximal gastric vagotomy was comparable to OPGV in decreasing stimulated gastric acid production without significantly altering gastric emptying. Anterior seromyotomy

  12. Investigating oiled birds from oil field waste pits

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D.G.; Edwards, W.C. )

    1991-10-01

    Procedures and results of investigations concerning the oiling of inland raptors, migratory water-fowl and other birds are presented. Freon washings from the oiled birds and oil from the pits were analyzed by gas chromatography. In most instances the source of the oil could be established by chromatographic procedures. The numbers of birds involved (including many on the endangered species list) suggested the need for netting or closing oil field waste pits and mud disposal pits. Maintaining a proper chain of custody was important.

  13. 41. THE BEAR PIT (OLD SIDE DINING ROOM). THE ETCHINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. THE BEAR PIT (OLD SIDE DINING ROOM). THE ETCHINGS ON THE CEILING BEAMS AND COLUMNS OF PARK WILDLIFE ARE ORIGINAL TO THE OLD SIDE DINING ROOM. THE SIDE DINING ROOM WAS DESIGNED AND BUILT BY ROBERT REAMER IN 1927. IN 1962 WHEN IT WAS CONVERTED INTO THE BEAR PIT A WALL WAS ADDED BETWEEN THE THREE COLUMNS THAT SEPARATE THIS ROOM FROM THE MAIN DINING ROOM. THE ORIGINAL BEAR PIT ETCHINGS DEPICTING BEARS TENDING BAR AND PLAYING THE PIANO WERE MOUNTED ON THE WALL BETWEEN THE COLUMNS. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  14. 77 FR 30591 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face ] Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted...) that a meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will...

  15. 77 FR 21157 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted.... (1988) that a meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee...

  16. 77 FR 61053 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted....C. App. (1988) that a meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods...

  17. 77 FR 37101 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted....C. App. (1988) that a meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods...

  18. 77 FR 47166 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted....C. App. (1988) that a meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods...

  19. 76 FR 78342 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted....C. App. (1988) that a meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods...

  20. 77 FR 8328 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will ] be conducted....C. App. (1988) that a meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods...

  1. 77 FR 40411 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted....C. App. (1988) that a meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods...

  2. The effects of a dredge excavation pit on benthic macrofauna in offshore Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Terence A; Montagna, Paul A; Nairn, Robert B

    2008-04-01

    Over two years after the original creation of a sand excavation pit 8 km off the Louisiana coast, benthic macrofauna communities and sedimentary characteristics are still effected. Macrofaunal communities inside the pit had lower abundance, biomass, and diversity than communities outside the pit. This difference, however, was only significant with some of the stations outside the pit. Results from multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis showed that macrofaunal communities were less than 32% similar inside the pit to communities outside the pit. The polychaete Mediomastus ambiseta was the most abundant species outside the excavation pit, but the species was only counted once inside the pit. The most dominant species, which made up over 90% of organisms inside the pit, was the pioneer polychaete Paraprionospio pinnata. Only three species were found at each station inside the pit as opposed to 9-27 species at stations outside the pit. All species inside the pit were also found outside the pit; thus, change was due to a loss of species rather than replacement by different species. Sediment inside the pit contained more silt and clay; however, no difference in water quality was detected compared with outside the pit. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita passed near the dredge pit in 2005 and could have effected sediment transport in the region. Because the macrofaunal community inside the pit has not recovered within 38 months, it is likely that it will require more time before it resembles the surrounding conditions.

  3. The Effects of a Dredge Excavation Pit on Benthic Macrofauna in Offshore Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Terence A.; Montagna, Paul A.; Nairn, Robert B.

    2008-04-01

    Over two years after the original creation of a sand excavation pit 8 km off the Louisiana coast, benthic macrofauna communities and sedimentary characteristics are still effected. Macrofaunal communities inside the pit had lower abundance, biomass, and diversity than communities outside the pit. This difference, however, was only significant with some of the stations outside the pit. Results from multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis showed that macrofaunal communities were less than 32% similar inside the pit to communities outside the pit. The polychaete Mediomastus ambiseta was the most abundant species outside the excavation pit, but the species was only counted once inside the pit. The most dominant species, which made up over 90% of organisms inside the pit, was the pioneer polychaete Paraprionospio pinnata. Only three species were found at each station inside the pit as opposed to 9-27 species at stations outside the pit. All species inside the pit were also found outside the pit; thus, change was due to a loss of species rather than replacement by different species. Sediment inside the pit contained more silt and clay; however, no difference in water quality was detected compared with outside the pit. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita passed near the dredge pit in 2005 and could have effected sediment transport in the region. Because the macrofaunal community inside the pit has not recovered within 38 months, it is likely that it will require more time before it resembles the surrounding conditions.

  4. Badges to Acknowledge Open Practices: A Simple, Low-Cost, Effective Method for Increasing Transparency

    PubMed Central

    Kidwell, Mallory C.; Lazarević, Ljiljana B.; Baranski, Erica; Piechowski, Sarah; Falkenberg, Lina-Sophia; Sonnleitner, Carina; Fiedler, Susann; Nosek, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning January 2014, Psychological Science gave authors the opportunity to signal open data and materials if they qualified for badges that accompanied published articles. Before badges, less than 3% of Psychological Science articles reported open data. After badges, 23% reported open data, with an accelerating trend; 39% reported open data in the first half of 2015, an increase of more than an order of magnitude from baseline. There was no change over time in the low rates of data sharing among comparison journals. Moreover, reporting openness does not guarantee openness. When badges were earned, reportedly available data were more likely to be actually available, correct, usable, and complete than when badges were not earned. Open materials also increased to a weaker degree, and there was more variability among comparison journals. Badges are simple, effective signals to promote open practices and improve preservation of data and materials by using independent repositories. PMID:27171007

  5. Aerostat-Lofted Instrument Platform and Sampling Method for Determination of Emissions from Open Area Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling emissions from open area sources, particularly sources of open burning, is difficult due to fast dilution of emissions and safety concerns for personnel. Representative emission samples can be difficult to obtain with flaming and explosive sources since personnel safety ...

  6. Badges to Acknowledge Open Practices: A Simple, Low-Cost, Effective Method for Increasing Transparency.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Mallory C; Lazarević, Ljiljana B; Baranski, Erica; Hardwicke, Tom E; Piechowski, Sarah; Falkenberg, Lina-Sophia; Kennett, Curtis; Slowik, Agnieszka; Sonnleitner, Carina; Hess-Holden, Chelsey; Errington, Timothy M; Fiedler, Susann; Nosek, Brian A

    2016-05-01

    Beginning January 2014, Psychological Science gave authors the opportunity to signal open data and materials if they qualified for badges that accompanied published articles. Before badges, less than 3% of Psychological Science articles reported open data. After badges, 23% reported open data, with an accelerating trend; 39% reported open data in the first half of 2015, an increase of more than an order of magnitude from baseline. There was no change over time in the low rates of data sharing among comparison journals. Moreover, reporting openness does not guarantee openness. When badges were earned, reportedly available data were more likely to be actually available, correct, usable, and complete than when badges were not earned. Open materials also increased to a weaker degree, and there was more variability among comparison journals. Badges are simple, effective signals to promote open practices and improve preservation of data and materials by using independent repositories. PMID:27171007

  7. Badges to Acknowledge Open Practices: A Simple, Low-Cost, Effective Method for Increasing Transparency.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Mallory C; Lazarević, Ljiljana B; Baranski, Erica; Hardwicke, Tom E; Piechowski, Sarah; Falkenberg, Lina-Sophia; Kennett, Curtis; Slowik, Agnieszka; Sonnleitner, Carina; Hess-Holden, Chelsey; Errington, Timothy M; Fiedler, Susann; Nosek, Brian A

    2016-05-01

    Beginning January 2014, Psychological Science gave authors the opportunity to signal open data and materials if they qualified for badges that accompanied published articles. Before badges, less than 3% of Psychological Science articles reported open data. After badges, 23% reported open data, with an accelerating trend; 39% reported open data in the first half of 2015, an increase of more than an order of magnitude from baseline. There was no change over time in the low rates of data sharing among comparison journals. Moreover, reporting openness does not guarantee openness. When badges were earned, reportedly available data were more likely to be actually available, correct, usable, and complete than when badges were not earned. Open materials also increased to a weaker degree, and there was more variability among comparison journals. Badges are simple, effective signals to promote open practices and improve preservation of data and materials by using independent repositories.

  8. Measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural sites using open-path optical remote sensing method.

    PubMed

    Ro, Kyoung S; Johnson, Melvin H; Varma, Ravi M; Hashmonay, Ram A; Hunt, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    Improved characterization of distributed emission sources of greenhouse gases such as methane from concentrated animal feeding operations require more accurate methods. One promising method is recently used by the USEPA. It employs a vertical radial plume mapping (VRPM) algorithm using optical remote sensing techniques. We evaluated this method to estimate emission rates from simulated distributed methane sources. A scanning open-path tunable diode laser was used to collect path-integrated concentrations (PICs) along different optical paths on a vertical plane downwind of controlled methane releases. Each cycle consists of 3 ground-level PICs and 2 above ground PICs. Three- to 10-cycle moving averages were used to reconstruct mass equivalent concentration plum maps on the vertical plane. The VRPM algorithm estimated emission rates of methane along with meteorological and PIC data collected concomitantly under different atmospheric stability conditions. The derived emission rates compared well with actual released rates irrespective of atmospheric stability conditions. The maximum error was 22 percent when 3-cycle moving average PICs were used; however, it decreased to 11% when 10-cycle moving average PICs were used. Our validation results suggest that this new VRPM method may be used for improved estimations of greenhouse gas emission from a variety of agricultural sources.

  9. Separation of aromatic amines by an open-tubular capillary electrochromatography method.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bingbing; Qi, Li; Li, Yaping; Qiao, Juan; Wang, Minglin

    2013-11-01

    A new and simple open-tubular CEC (OT-CEC) method with a novel diblock copolymer poly(butyl methacrylate)71 -block-poly(glycidyl methacrylate)9 as the coating based on its self-assembled properties has been developed. Compared with the bare capillary, this coating could act as a surfactant and improve the separation efficiency of aromatic amines. Meanwhile, the effects of pH value, buffer concentration, and the copolymer block ratio on the separation efficiencies were investigated in detail. It has been found that the three tested aromatic amines could be baseline separated by the OT-CEC method with the cooperation of SDS. The proposed OT-CEC method showed good repeatability with RSDs <3.2% for testing the EOF. Moreover, it was also well validated by satisfactory linearity and favorable recovery, which ensured its successful application in the separation of aromatic amines in nail polish samples. The results revealed the potential applicability of the OT-CEC method in cosmetic analysis. PMID:24039094

  10. 15. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CATWALKS AND OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CATWALKS AND OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT, FACING WEST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  11. 14. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS AND OVERHEAD CATWALKS, FACING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS AND OVERHEAD CATWALKS, FACING WEST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  12. 17. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT AND CAR JACKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT AND CAR JACKING PADS, FACING EAST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  13. 18. LOOKING EAST AT THE HOT METAL RELADLING PIT No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. LOOKING EAST AT THE HOT METAL RELADLING PIT No. 1 ON THE CHARGING AISLE OF THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 24. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF LADLE REPAIR PIT ON THE WESTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF LADLE REPAIR PIT ON THE WESTERN TEEMING AISLE OF THE BOP SHOP. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  15. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING EXCAVATION PIT FOR MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING EXCAVATION PIT FOR MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP-601) LOOKING SOUTH. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-50-693. Unknown Photographer, 1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Molten salt corrosion of SiC: Pitting mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.; Smialek, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Thin films of Na2SO4 and Na2CO3 at 1000 C lead to severe pitting of sintered alpha-SiC. These pits are important as they cause a strength reduction in this material. The growth of product layers is related to pit formation for the Na2CO3 case. The early reaction stages involve repeated oxidation and dissolution to form sodium silicate. This results in severe grain boundary attack. After this a porous silica layer forms between the sodium silicate melt and the SiC. The pores in this layer appear to act as paths for the melt to reach the SiC and create larger pits.

  17. 105-KW Sandfilter Backwash Pit sludge volume calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, E.N. Jr.

    1995-02-10

    The volume of sludge contained in the 100-KW Sandfilter Backwash Pit (SFBWP) was calculated from depth measurements of the sludge, pit dimension measurements and analysis of video tape recordings taken by an underwater camera. The term sludge as used in this report is any combination of sand, sediment, or corrosion products visible in the SFBWP area. This work was performed to determine baseline volume for use in determination of quantities of uranium and plutonium deposited in the pit from sandfilter backwashes. The SFBWP has three areas where sludge is deposited: (1) the main pit floor, (2) the transfer channel floor, and (3) the surfaces and structures in the SFBWP. The depths of sludge and the uniformity of deposition varies significantly between these three areas. As a result, each of the areas was evaluated separately. The total volume of sludge determined was 3.75 M{sup 3} (132.2 ft{sup 3}).

  18. 23. Closer perspective view from the southwest. An archaeological pit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Closer perspective view from the southwest. An archaeological pit is located under the center first-floor window. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 16. Detail of drainage pits inside east half (1892 part) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail of drainage pits inside east half (1892 part) of main section of roundhouse. View to southeast. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  20. 22. VIEW SOUTH, INTERIOR OF SOUTH PIT, SHOWING FINAL STEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW SOUTH, INTERIOR OF SOUTH PIT, SHOWING FINAL STEP IN GEARING THAT DRIVES OPERATING WHEEL, WITH HYDRAULIC SHAFT BRAKE - Mystic River Bridge, Spanning Mystic River at U.S. Route 1, Groton, New London County, CT

  1. BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  2. CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  3. 13. VIEW OF BARBECUE PIT, FACING EAST. (BUILDING 132 IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF BARBECUE PIT, FACING EAST. (BUILDING 132 IS IN BACKGROUND ON RIGHT.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, Structures, Bordered by Hardee & Thorne Avenues & Howe Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  4. Adding versatility to the reconstruction of intraoral lining: opened pocket method.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Can; Ogur, Simin; Arslan, Hakan; Kilic, Ali

    2007-01-01

    Reconstruction of a full-thickness cheek defect, especially one associated with a large lip and oral commissure defect, remains a challenge. After tumor excision, replacement of the oral mucosa is often necessary. The oral mucosa is a thin, pliable lining. Because the skin of the forearm is ideally suited for replacement of oral lining, being thin, pliable, and predominantly hairless, the radial forearm flap is the most frequently used soft-tissue flap for this purpose. In addition, the vascularity of the area allows substantial variation in the design of the flap, both in relation to its site and size. On the other hand, the radial forearm flap might be unusable in some occasions, such as in the case presented here. Thus, a search for an alternative free flap is required. We used a prefabricated scapular free flap to reconstruct a large concomitant lip and full-thickness cheek defect resulting from perioral cancer ablation. We introduce a new "opened pocket" method for reconstruction of the intra-oral lining without folding the flap. Resection of the tumor resulted in a defect including 45% of the upper lip, 50% of the lower lip, and a large, full-thickness defect of the cheek. The resultant defect was temporarily closed with a split-thickness skin graft. Meanwhile, the left scapular fasciocutaneous flap was prefabricated for permanent closure of the defect. The left scapular flap was outlined horizontally, and the flap orientation for the defect was estimated. Then, the distal portion of the flap was harvested and incised to create lips and oral commissure. Afterward, the raw surface under the neo-lip regions and the base where the flap was raised was grafted with one piece from a thick, split-thickness skin graft. Fourteen days later, the patient was taken back to the operating room for reconstruction of the defect with free transfer of a prefabricated scapular fascia-cutaneous flap. The grafted distal region of the flap was raised with the deep fascia located

  5. Novel radon transform-based method for linear feature detection in open water SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Sun, Jiyin; Xu, Suqin; Chen, Biao

    2007-11-01

    Open water SAR images frequently exhibit long dark or bright linear features, some of which are ship wakes, internal wave or internal wave wakes of under water moving objects. The detection of these line features is very impotent in both civil and military fields. Considering to the drawbacks of conventional Radon transform, this paper proposed a novel liner feature detection method. It use the gliding window and firstly apply a Radon transform to the aim image, use a "mean matrix" to normalize the aim image in the Radon domain, and then search for the peaks or troughs in an ellipse region instead of the whole region. This algorithm is tested on a set of simulated SAR images of ship wakes. The results demonstrate that this algorithm's robustness in the presence of noise, as well as its ability to detect and localize linear features that are somewhat not so straight.

  6. A method for generating enhanced vision displays using OpenGL video texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Kenneth L.

    2010-04-01

    Degraded visual conditions can marvel the curious and destroy the unprepared. While navigation instruments are trustworthy companions, true visual reference remains king of the hills. Poor visibility may be overcome via imaging sensors such as low light level charge-coupled-device, infrared, and millimeter wave radar. Enhanced Vision systems combine this imagery into a comprehensive situation awareness display, presented to the pilot as reference imagery on a cockpit display, or as world-conformal imagery on head-up or head-mounted displays. This paper demonstrates that Enhanced Vision imaging can be achieved at video rates using typical CPU / GPU architecture, standard video capture hardware, dynamic non-linear ray tracing algorithms, efficient image transfer methods, and simple OpenGL rendering techniques.

  7. 54. Photocopied August 1978. INTERIOR OF A TAIL PIT OR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Photocopied August 1978. INTERIOR OF A TAIL PIT OR TAIL RACE AT THE EAST END OF THE POWER HOUSE, SEPTEMBER 17, 1900. THE PRE-MOULDED BLOCKS WHICH FORMED THE SIDE WALLS AND THE ARCHED FOREBAY WALL ARE CLEARLY VISIBLE. THE MONOLITHIC FLOOR OF THE TAIL PIT, HOWEVER, HAS NOT YET BEEN POURED: NEITHER HAS THE MONOLITHIC ARCHED ROOF. (75) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  8. Pitting of stainless steel in an emergency service water system

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.J.; Willertz, L.E.

    1994-12-31

    Pitting of AISI 321 grade stainless steel flex-hoses in an emergency service water system has been experienced recently, after 13 years of successful service. Failures of new hoses have occurred in as little as 4 months. This paper presents the authors analysis of the failures and discusses the primary suspected mechanisms, underdeposit pitting and microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). It also presents their approach for investigating suspected causes and developing an integrated plan to minimize its recurrence.

  9. GetDDM: An open framework for testing optimized Schwarz methods for time-harmonic wave problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierry, B.; Vion, A.; Tournier, S.; El Bouajaji, M.; Colignon, D.; Marsic, N.; Antoine, X.; Geuzaine, C.

    2016-06-01

    We present an open finite element framework, called GetDDM, for testing optimized Schwarz domain decomposition techniques for time-harmonic wave problems. After a review of Schwarz domain decomposition methods and associated transmission conditions, we discuss the implementation, based on the open source software GetDP and Gmsh. The solver, along with ready-to-use examples for Helmholtz and Maxwell's equations, is freely available online for further testing.

  10. Ion induced changes in the structure of bordered pit membranes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinkee; Holbrook, N Michele; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2012-01-01

    Ion-mediated changes in xylem hydraulic resistance are hypothesized to result from hydrogel like properties of pectins located in the bordered pit membranes separating adjacent xylem vessels. Although the kinetics of the ion-mediated changes in hydraulic resistance are consistent with the swelling/deswelling behavior of pectins, there is no direct evidence of this activity. In this report we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate structural changes in bordered pit membranes associated with changes in the ionic concentration of the surrounding solution. When submerged in de-ionized water, AFM revealed bordered pit membranes as relatively smooth, soft, and lacking any sharp edges surface, in contrast to pictures from scanning electron microscope (SEM) or AFM performed on air-dry material. Exposure of the bordered pit membranes to 50 mM KCl solution resulted in significant changes in both surface physical properties and elevation features. Specifically, bordered pit membranes became harder and the fiber edges were clearly visible. In addition, the membrane contracted and appeared much rougher due to exposed microfibers. In neither solution was there any evidence of discrete pores through the membrane whose dimensions were altered in response to the ionic composition of the surrounding solution. Instead the variable hydraulic resistance appears to involve changes in the both the permeability and the thickness of the pit membrane.

  11. Corrosion pitting and environmentally assisted small crack growth

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In many applications, corrosion pits act as precursors to cracking, but qualitative and quantitative prediction of damage evolution has been hampered by lack of insights into the process by which a crack develops from a pit. An overview is given of recent breakthroughs in characterization and understanding of the pit-to-crack transition using advanced three-dimensional imaging techniques such as X-ray computed tomography and focused ion beam machining with scanning electron microscopy. These techniques provided novel insights with respect to the location of crack development from a pit, supported by finite-element analysis. This inspired a new concept for the role of pitting in stress corrosion cracking based on the growing pit inducing local dynamic plastic strain, a critical factor in the development of stress corrosion cracks. Challenges in quantifying the subsequent growth rate of the emerging small cracks are then outlined with the potential drop technique being the most viable. A comparison is made with the growth rate for short cracks (through-thickness crack in fracture mechanics specimen) and long cracks and an electrochemical crack size effect invoked to rationalize the data. PMID:25197249

  12. Corrosion pitting and environmentally assisted small crack growth.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Alan

    2014-09-01

    In many applications, corrosion pits act as precursors to cracking, but qualitative and quantitative prediction of damage evolution has been hampered by lack of insights into the process by which a crack develops from a pit. An overview is given of recent breakthroughs in characterization and understanding of the pit-to-crack transition using advanced three-dimensional imaging techniques such as X-ray computed tomography and focused ion beam machining with scanning electron microscopy. These techniques provided novel insights with respect to the location of crack development from a pit, supported by finite-element analysis. This inspired a new concept for the role of pitting in stress corrosion cracking based on the growing pit inducing local dynamic plastic strain, a critical factor in the development of stress corrosion cracks. Challenges in quantifying the subsequent growth rate of the emerging small cracks are then outlined with the potential drop technique being the most viable. A comparison is made with the growth rate for short cracks (through-thickness crack in fracture mechanics specimen) and long cracks and an electrochemical crack size effect invoked to rationalize the data. PMID:25197249

  13. PIT tags increase effectiveness of freshwater mussel recaptures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurth, J.; Loftin, C.; Zydlewski, J.; Rhymer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Translocations are used increasingly to conserve populations of rare freshwater mussels. Recovery of translocated mussels is essential to accurate assessment of translocation success. We designed an experiment to evaluate the use of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags to mark and track individual freshwater mussels. We used eastern lampmussels (Lampsilis radiata radiata) as a surrogate for 2 rare mussel species. We assessed internal and external PIT-tag retention in the laboratory and field. Internal tag retention was high (75-100%), and tag rejection occurred primarily during the first 3 wk after tagging. A thin layer of nacre coated internal tags 3 to 4 mo after insertion, suggesting that long-term retention is likely. We released mussels with external PIT tags at 3 field study sites and recaptured them with a PIT pack (mobile interrogation unit) 8 to 10 mo and 21 to 23 mo after release. Numbers of recaptured mussels differed among study sites; however, we found more tagged mussels with the PIT-pack searches with visual confirmation (72-80%) than with visual searches alone (30-47%) at all sites. PIT tags offer improved recapture of translocated mussels and increased accuracy of posttranslocation monitoring. ?? 2007 by The North American Benthological Society.

  14. Role of chicken Pit-1 isoforms in activating growth hormone gene.

    PubMed

    Murase, Daisuke; Taniuchi, Shusuke; Takeuchi, Sakae; Adachi, Hiromi; Kansaku, Norio; Okazaki, Katsuichiro; Ohkubo, Takeshi

    2011-09-01

    In the present study, we expressed chicken (ch) Pit-1α (chPit-1α) and chPit-1γin vitro to compare the roles of chPit-1s in the transcription of the chicken growth hormone (chGH) gene. Both green fluorescence protein (GFP)-fused chPit-1γ and GFP-fused chPit-1α were localized in the nuclei of COS-7 cells. In a luciferase reporter gene assay, both chPit-1α and chPit-1γ transactivated the chGH promoter, and chPit-1α showed a more potent effect than chPit-1γ. On the other hand, an increase of cellular cAMP induced by forskolin promoted transactivation of the chGH gene with chPit-1α and chPit-1γ to similar extents. These results suggest that chPit-1γ may modulate the basal promoter activity of the chGH gene to the same degree as chPit-1α; however, a structural difference observed at the N-terminus transactivation domains in chPit-1α and chPit-1γ could be associated with the efficiency of basal activation of the chGH promoter. PMID:21703269

  15. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of frozen red tart pitted...

  16. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of frozen red tart pitted...

  17. One dimensional Linescan x-ray detection of pits in fresh cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of pits in processed cherries is a concern for both processors and consumers, in many cases causing injury and potential lawsuits. While machines used for pitting cherries are extremely efficient, if one or more plungers in a pitting head become misaligned, a large number of pits may p...

  18. Monte Carlo method based radiative transfer simulation of stochastic open forest generated by circle packing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shengye; Tamura, Masayuki

    2013-10-01

    Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) method is a versatile application for simulating radiative transfer regime of the Solar - Atmosphere - Landscape system. Moreover, it can be used to compute the radiation distribution over a complex landscape configuration, as an example like a forest area. Due to its robustness to the complexity of the 3-D scene altering, MCRT method is also employed for simulating canopy radiative transfer regime as the validation source of other radiative transfer models. In MCRT modeling within vegetation, one basic step is the canopy scene set up. 3-D scanning application was used for representing canopy structure as accurately as possible, but it is time consuming. Botanical growth function can be used to model the single tree growth, but cannot be used to express the impaction among trees. L-System is also a functional controlled tree growth simulation model, but it costs large computing memory. Additionally, it only models the current tree patterns rather than tree growth during we simulate the radiative transfer regime. Therefore, it is much more constructive to use regular solid pattern like ellipsoidal, cone, cylinder etc. to indicate single canopy. Considering the allelopathy phenomenon in some open forest optical images, each tree in its own `domain' repels other trees. According to this assumption a stochastic circle packing algorithm is developed to generate the 3-D canopy scene in this study. The canopy coverage (%) and the tree amount (N) of the 3-D scene are declared at first, similar to the random open forest image. Accordingly, we randomly generate each canopy radius (rc). Then we set the circle central coordinate on XY-plane as well as to keep circles separate from each other by the circle packing algorithm. To model the individual tree, we employ the Ishikawa's tree growth regressive model to set the tree parameters including DBH (dt), tree height (H). However, the relationship between canopy height (Hc) and trunk height (Ht) is

  19. Open charcoal chamber method for mass measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil surface.

    PubMed

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Kovler, Konstantin; Miklyaev, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Radon exhalation rate from the soil surface can serve as an important criterion in the evaluation of radon hazard of the land. Recently published international standard ISO 11665-7 (2012) is based on the accumulation of radon gas in a closed container. At the same time since 1998 in Russia, as a part of engineering and environmental studies for the construction, radon flux measurements are made using an open charcoal chamber for a sampling duration of 3-5 h. This method has a well-defined metrological justification and was tested in both favorable and unfavorable conditions. The article describes the characteristics of the method, as well as the means of sampling and measurement of the activity of radon absorbed. The results of the metrological study suggest that regardless of the sampling conditions (weather, the mechanism and rate of radon transport in the soil, soil properties and conditions), uncertainty of method does not exceed 20%, while the combined standard uncertainty of radon exhalation rate measured from the soil surface does not exceed 30%. The results of the daily measurements of radon exhalation rate from the soil surface at the experimental site during one year are reported. PMID:27132250

  20. Nutritional methods to decrease N losses from open-dirt feedlots in Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J

    2001-11-21

    Nitrogen (N) losses from cattle feedlots are of concern due to loss of valuable N and enrichment of the atmospheric N pool. Nutritional methods to decrease such losses would have economic and environmental benefits. One method to decrease N losses is by increasing carbon (C) on the pen surface. The most cost effective method of decreasing N losses with C may be feeding diets lower in digestibility compared to adding C directly to pens. Therefore, three experiments evaluated feeding corn bran (which is less digestible than corn) as either 0, 15, or 30% of the diet. The 15- and 30%-bran diets increase organic matter (OM) excretion by approximately 0.5 and 1.0 kg per steer per day, respectively. Compared with no bran, feeding 15 and 30% decreased feed efficiency by 7.8 and 10.4%, respectively. Nutrient balance was assessed in two trials from October through May and in one trial from June to September. During the trials from October to May, N losses were decreased by 14.5 and 20.7% for the 15- and 30%-bran diets compared with no bran. Feeding 15 or 30% bran did not influence N losses in the experiment from June to September. Increasing the C:N ratio of manure prior to cleaning open-dirt feedlots had variable results depending on time of year.

  1. Modeling pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers, with emphasis on the stochastic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Henshall, G.A.; Halsey, W.G.; Clarke, W.L.; McCright, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent efforts to identify methods of modeling pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers are described. The need to develop models that can provide information useful to higher level system performance assessment models is emphasized, and examples of how this could be accomplished are described. Work to date has focused upon physically-based phenomenological stochastic models of pit initiation and growth. These models may provide a way to distill information from mechanistic theories in a way that provides the necessary information to the less detailed performance assessment models. Monte Carlo implementations of the stochastic theory have resulted in simulations that are, at least qualitatively, consistent with a wide variety of experimental data. The effects of environment on pitting corrosion have been included in the model using a set of simple phenomenological equations relating the parameters of the stochastic model to key environmental variables. The results suggest that stochastic models might be useful for extrapolating accelerated test data and for predicting the effects of changes in the environment on pit initiation and growth. Preliminary ideas for integrating pitting models with performance assessment models are discussed. These ideas include improving the concept of container ``failure``, and the use of ``rules-of-thumb`` to take information from the detailed process models and provide it to the higher level system and subsystem models. Finally, directions for future work are described, with emphasis on additional experimental work since it is an integral part of the modeling process.

  2. A FIB-nanotomography method for accurate 3D reconstruction of open nanoporous structures.

    PubMed

    Mangipudi, K R; Radisch, V; Holzer, L; Volkert, C A

    2016-04-01

    We present an automated focused ion beam nanotomography method for nanoporous microstructures with open porosity, and apply it to reconstruct nanoporous gold (np-Au) structures with ligament sizes on the order of a few tens of nanometers. This method uses serial sectioning of a well-defined wedge-shaped geometry to determine the thickness of individual slices from the changes in the sample width in successive cross-sectional images. The pore space of a selected region of the np-Au is infiltrated with ion-beam-deposited Pt composite before serial sectioning. The cross-sectional images are binarized and stacked according to the individual slice thicknesses, and then processed using standard reconstruction methods. For the image conditions and sample geometry used here, we are able to determine the thickness of individual slices with an accuracy much smaller than a pixel. The accuracy of the new method based on actual slice thickness is assessed by comparing it with (i) a reconstruction using the same cross-sectional images but assuming a constant slice thickness, and (ii) a reconstruction using traditional FIB-tomography method employing constant slice thickness. The morphology and topology of the structures are characterized using ligament and pore size distributions, interface shape distribution functions, interface normal distributions, and genus. The results suggest that the morphology and topology of the final reconstructions are significantly influenced when a constant slice thickness is assumed. The study reveals grain-to-grain variations in the morphology and topology of np-Au. PMID:26906523

  3. A Novel Parallel Method for Speckle Masking Reconstruction Using the OpenMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuebao; Zheng, Yanfang

    2016-08-01

    High resolution reconstruction technology is developed to help enhance the spatial resolution of observational images for ground-based solar telescopes, such as speckle masking. Near real-time reconstruction performance is achieved on a high performance cluster using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). However, much time is spent in reconstructing solar subimages in such a speckle reconstruction. We design and implement a novel parallel method for speckle masking reconstruction of solar subimage on a shared memory machine using the OpenMP. Real tests are performed to verify the correctness of our codes. We present the details of several parallel reconstruction steps. The parallel implementation between various modules shows a great speed increase as compared to single thread serial implementation, and a speedup of about 2.5 is achieved in one subimage reconstruction. The timing result for reconstructing one subimage with 256×256 pixels shows a clear advantage with greater number of threads. This novel parallel method can be valuable in real-time reconstruction of solar images, especially after porting to a high performance cluster.

  4. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  5. Directional drilling system with eccentric mounted motor and biaxial sensor and method

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, P.N.; Barbera, L.J.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes a directional drilling system of the type which includes a drill string having a plurality of drill stems joined together for drilling a bore through the earth in a prescribed direction. It comprises: a drilling platform having two spaced apart end walls carried by the platform; a frame carried by the platform; a carriage carried by the frame; a drill string drive motor carried by the carriage for rotating the drill string; coupling means for coupling one of the drill stems to the drill string drive motor; and carriage advance means for moving the carriage longitudinally along the frame and platform as the drill string drive motor rotates the drill sting. This patent also describes a method of drilling a bore through the earth in a desired direction using a directional drilling device having a drill sting with a drilling head carried at an outer end. It comprises: excavating a pit in the earth at a starting point of the drill sting; placing a form in the earth pit at a prescribed inclination corresponding to a desired reference entry angle of the drilling string and drilling head; pouring concrete in the earth pit between the form and the earth; placing a drilling platform having a shape generally conforming to the shape of the form in the pit opening of the concrete pit; and assembling the drilling head and drill string on the platform so that the drilling head is oriented in the direction of the reference entry angle.

  6. Delaunay triangulation-based pit density estimation for the classification of polyps in high-magnification chromo-colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Häfner, M; Liedlgruber, M; Uhl, A; Vécsei, A; Wrba, F

    2012-09-01

    In this work we propose a method to extract shape-based features from endoscopic images for an automated classification of colonic polyps. This method is based on the density of pits as used in the pit pattern classification scheme which is commonly used for the classification of colonic polyps. For the detection of pits we employ a noise-robust variant of the LBP operator. To be able to be robust against local texture variations we extend this operator by an adaptive thresholding. Based on the detected pit candidates we compute a Delaunay triangulation and use the edge lengths of the resulting triangles to construct histograms. These are then used in conjunction with the k-NN classifier to classify images. We show that, compared to a previously developed method, we are not only able to almost always get higher classification results in our application scenario, but that the proposed method is also able to significantly outperform the previously developed method in terms of the computational demand.

  7. Nobody’s perfect: can irregularities in pit structure influence vulnerability to cavitation?

    PubMed Central

    Plavcová, Lenka; Jansen, Steven; Klepsch, Matthias; Hacke, Uwe G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that species-specific pit properties such as pit membrane thickness, pit membrane porosity, torus-to-aperture diameter ratio and pit chamber depth influence xylem vulnerability to cavitation. Despite the indisputable importance of using mean pit characteristics, considerable variability in pit structure within a single species or even within a single pit field should be acknowledged. According to the rare pit hypothesis, a single pit that is more air-permeable than many neighboring pits is sufficient to allow air-seeding. Therefore, any irregularities or morphological abnormalities in pit structure allowing air-seeding should be associated with increased vulnerability to cavitation. Considering the currently proposed models of air-seeding, pit features such as rare, large pores in the pit membrane, torus extensions, and plasmodesmatal pores in a torus can represent potential glitches. These aberrations in pit structure could either result from inherent developmental flaws, or from damage caused to the pit membrane by chemical and physical agents. This suggests the existence of interesting feedbacks between abiotic and biotic stresses in xylem physiology. PMID:24273549

  8. Detection probability of an in-stream passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag detection system for juvenile salmonids in the Klamath River, northern California, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hayes, Brian; Wright, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    A series of in-stream passive integrated transponder (PIT) detection antennas installed across the Klamath River in August 2010 were tested using tagged fish in the summer of 2011. Six pass-by antennas were constructed and anchored to the bottom of the Klamath River at a site between the Shasta and Scott Rivers. Two of the six antennas malfunctioned during the spring of 2011 and two pass-through antennas were installed near the opposite shoreline prior to system testing. The detection probability of the PIT tag detection system was evaluated using yearling coho salmon implanted with a PIT tag and a radio transmitter and then released into the Klamath River slightly downstream of Iron Gate Dam. Cormack-Jolly-Seber capture-recapture methods were used to estimate the detection probability of the PIT tag detection system based on detections of PIT tags there and detections of radio transmitters at radio-telemetry detection systems downstream. One of the 43 PIT- and radio-tagged fish released was detected by the PIT tag detection system and 23 were detected by the radio-telemetry detection systems. The estimated detection probability of the PIT tag detection system was 0.043 (standard error 0.042). Eight PIT-tagged fish from other studies also were detected. Detections at the PIT tag detection system were at the two pass-through antennas and the pass-by antenna adjacent to them. Above average river discharge likely was a factor in the low detection probability of the PIT tag detection system. High discharges dislodged two power cables leaving 12 meters of the river width unsampled for PIT detections and resulted in water depths greater than the read distance of the antennas, which allowed fish to pass over much of the system with little chance of being detected. Improvements in detection probability may be expected under river discharge conditions where water depth over the antennas is within maximum read distance of the antennas. Improvements also may be expected if

  9. Elimination of trench defects and V-pits from InGaN/GaN structures

    SciTech Connect

    Smalc-Koziorowska, Julita; Grzanka, Ewa; Czernecki, Robert; Schiavon, Dario; Leszczyński, Mike

    2015-03-09

    The microstructural evolution of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy was studied as a function of the growth temperature of the GaN quantum barriers (QBs). We observed the formation of basal stacking faults (BSFs) in GaN QBs grown at low temperature. The presence of BSFs terminated by stacking mismatch boundaries (SMBs) leads to the opening of the structure at the surface into a V-shaped trench loop. This trench may form above an SMB, thereby terminating the BSF, or above a junction between the SMB and a subsequent BSF. Fewer BSFs and thus fewer trench defects were observed in GaN QBs grown at temperatures higher than 830 °C. Further increase in the growth temperature of the GaN QBs led to the suppression of the threading dislocation opening into V-pits.

  10. EARTHSAWtm IN-SITU CONTAINMENT OF PITS AND TRENCHES

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest E. Carter, P.E.

    2002-09-20

    EarthSaw{trademark} is a proposed technology for construction of uniform high quality barriers under and around pits and trenches containing buried radioactive waste without excavating or disturbing the waste. The method works by digging a deep vertical trench around the perimeter of a site, filling that trench with high specific gravity grout sealant, and then cutting a horizontal bottom pathway at the base of the trench with a simple cable saw mechanism. The severed block of earth becomes buoyant in the grout and floats on a thick layer of grout, which then cures into an impermeable barrier. The ''Interim Report on task 1 and 2'' which is incorporated into this report as appendix A, provided theoretical derivations, field validation of formulas, a detailed quantitative engineering description of the technique, engineering drawings of the hardware, and a computer model of how the process would perform in a wide variety of soil conditions common to DOE waste burial sites. The accomplishments of task 1 and 2 are also summarized herein Task 3 work product provides a comprehensive field test plan in Appendix B and a health and safety plan in Appendix C and proposal for a field-scale demonstration of the EarthSaw barrier technology. The final report on the subcontracted stress analysis is provided in Appendix D. A copy of the unified computer model is provided as individual non-functional images of each sheet of the spreadsheet and separately as a Microsoft Excel 2000 file.

  11. A STUDY ON THE EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE AND EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN METHOD OF AN OPEN TYPE WHARF WITH PNEUMATIC CAISSONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Masahiko; Nagao, Takashi; Shigeki, Kouji; Ouchi, Masatoshi; Sato, Yuske; Kinomiya, Osamu

    Seismic response of an open type wharf with pneumatic caisson was clarified using a dynamic finite element method. As a result, rocking behavior of caisson foundations were observed and applicability of a frame model analysis to the earthquake resistant design of a wharf was suggested. Authors proposed the framework of earthquake resistant design method of the wharf including the evaluation method of response acceleration of the wharf.

  12. Example calculations of possible ground-water inflow to mine pits at the West Decker, East Decker, and proposed North Decker mines, southeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Proposed plans to raise the spillway of the Tongue River Dam, Montana, 14 feet would result in an increase in the reservoir stage, which will affect the amount of ground-water inflow from the reservoir to existing and proposed surface coal mine pits near Tongue River Reservoir. Example calculations are based on flow from the reservoir to the mine pits through areas approximately perpendicular to the long axis of the reservoir. The planned increase in the stage of the reservoir will result in an increase of inflow to the mine pits in most areas. The increases will be greatest where the mine pits are near the reservoir and separated from the reservoir solely by aquifer zones of relatively large hydraulic conductivity. However, the inflow determined from the calculations is subject to a large degree of error, owing to the simplified method of calculation and the assumptions used. (USGS)

  13. Particle Size (Sieving) and Enthalpy (Acid Calorimetry) Analysis of Single-Pull K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludges

    SciTech Connect

    PR Bredt; CH Delegard; AJ Schmidt; KL Silvers; BM Thornton; S Gano

    2000-12-22

    This report presents the results of particle size analyses and calorimetry testing performed on selected single-pull sludge samples collected from the Hanford K East Basin between December 1998 and June 1999. The samples were collected as isolated cores predominantly from areas that had not been previously sampled (e.g., North Loadout Pit, Dummy Elevator Pit, Tech View Pit), or from areas in which the sludge composition had been altered since the last sampling (e.g., Weasel Pit). Particle size analyses were performed by washing wet sludge samples through a series of four sieves with openings of 250, 500, 1410, and 4000 {micro}m. The loaded sieves were weighed before and after drying to obtain wet and dry particle size distributions. Knowledge of the particle size distribution is needed to design and predict the performance of the systems that will be used to retrieve, transport, and recover sludge. Also, sieving provides an opportunity to observe the components in the sludge. For example, during sieving of the sludge sample from the North Loadout Pit, significant quantities of organic ion exchange beads were observed. The uranium metal content and the particle size of the uranium metal in the K Basin sludge will largely determine the chemical reactivity of the sludge. In turn, the designs for the sludge handling and storage systems must be compatible with the reactivity of the sludge. Therefore, acid calorimetry was performed to estimate the uranium metal content of the sludge. For this testing, sludge samples were dissolved in nitric acid within a calibrated adiabatic calorimeter. The resulting dissolution enthalpy data were then used to discriminate between metallic uranium ({minus}3750 J/g in nitric acid) and uranium oxide ({minus}394 J/g in nitric acid). Results from this testing showed that the single-pull sludge samples contained little or no uranium metal.

  14. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-01

    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity.

  15. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-01

    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity. PMID:25779691

  16. Evaporative respiratory cooling augments pit organ thermal detection in rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Viviana; Andrade, Denis V; Bovo, Rafael P; Tattersall, Glenn J

    2013-12-01

    Rattlesnakes use their facial pit organs to sense external thermal fluctuations. A temperature decrease in the heat-sensing membrane of the pit organ has the potential to enhance heat flux between their endothermic prey and the thermal sensors, affect the optimal functioning of thermal sensors in the pit membrane and reduce the formation of thermal "afterimages", improving thermal detection. We examined the potential for respiratory cooling to improve strike behaviour, capture, and consumption of endothermic prey in the South American rattlesnake, as behavioural indicators of thermal detection. Snakes with a higher degree of rostral cooling were more accurate during the strike, attacking warmer regions of their prey, and relocated and consumed their prey faster. These findings reveal that by cooling their pit organs, rattlesnakes increase their ability to detect endothermic prey; disabling the pit organs caused these differences to disappear. Rattlesnakes also modify the degree of rostral cooling by altering their breathing pattern in response to biologically relevant stimuli, such as a mouse odour. Our findings reveal that low humidity increases their ability to detect endothermic prey, suggesting that habitat and ambush site selection in the wild may be influenced by external humidity levels as well as temperature.

  17. Breaking of Apricot Pits by Using a Mechanical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, R.; Aktas, T.; Gezer, I.; Atay, U.; Bilim, H. I. C.

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of heating process and warping effect on breaking of apricot pits and obtaining of its kernel without damage. For this aim, heating process (350°C) was applied to apricot pits. Heated pits were fallen onto the rotating disc and they were warped to warping wall by centrifuge effect. Warping velocity was adjusted by changing of rotating disc revolution that was driven by an electric engine. Three different disc revolution namely 400, 500 and 600 min-1 and 4 different moisture contents of apricot pits namely 6.7, 15.5, 22.2 and 31.5% were used in the experiments. As a result, it was found that increasing of moisture content was increased amount of breaking and also sound kernel ratio. Increasing of disc revolution increased ratio of damaged kernel. The highest breaking amount was determined for experiment with heated pits that had 31.5% moisture content and warped with 400 min-1 disk revolution.

  18. Stochastic nature of clathrin-coated pit assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Anand; Berezhkovskii, Alexander; Nossal, Ralph

    2013-03-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a complex process through which eukaryotic cells internalize various macromolecules (cargo). The process occurs via the formation of invaginations on the cell membrane, called clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). The dynamics of CCP formation shows remarkable variability. After initiation, a fraction of CCPs, called ``productive pits'', bind to cargo and then grow and mature into clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). In contrast, a large fraction of CCPs, called ``abortive pits'', fail to bind to cargo, grow only up to intermediate sizes and then disassemble. There is notable heterogeneity in the lifetimes of both productive and abortive pits. We propose a stochastic model of CCP dynamics to explain these experimental observations. Our model includes a kinetic scheme for CCP assembly and a related functional form for the dependence of free energy of a CCP on its size. Using this model, we calculate the lifetime distribution of abortive pits (via Monte Carlo simulation) and show that the distribution fits experimental data very well. By fitting the data we determine the free energy of CCP formation and show that CCPs without cargo are energetically unstable. We also suggest a mechanism by which cargo binding stabilizes CCPs and facilitates their growth.

  19. Efficient implementation of superquadric particles in Discrete Element Method within an open-source framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlozhnyuk, Alexander; Pirker, Stefan; Kloss, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Particle shape representation is a fundamental problem in the Discrete Element Method (DEM). Spherical particles with well known contact force models remain popular in DEM due to their relative simplicity in terms of ease of implementation and low computational cost. However, in real applications particles are mostly non-spherical, and more sophisticated particle shape models, like superquadric shape, must be introduced in DEM. The superquadric shape can be considered as an extension of spherical or ellipsoidal particles and can be used for modeling of spheres, ellipsoids, cylinder-like and box(dice)-like particles just varying five shape parameters. In this study we present an efficient C++ implementation of superquadric particles within the open-source and parallel DEM package LIGGGHTS. To reduce computational time several ideas are employed. In the particle-particle contact detection routine we use the minimum bounding spheres and the oriented bounding boxes to reduce the number of potential contact pairs. For the particle-wall contact an accurate analytical solution was found. We present all necessary mathematics for the contact detection and contact force calculation. The superquadric DEM code implementation was verified on test cases such as angle of repose and hopper/silo discharge. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data and are presented in this paper. We show adequacy of the superquadric shape model and robustness of the implemented superquadric DEM code.

  20. Cosmic Ray Energy Determination by the Reduced-Opening Angle Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.

    1998-01-01

    The reduced opening angle technique offers a simple way with minimal model dependence to measure cosmic ray energies over a broad range with out any normalization uncertainties. The emulsion film and CR39 detectors proposed are well established techniques and should perform adequately. The analysis method depends on accurate automatic scanning of the CR39 plates. UAH have developed such a capability. With the proposed geometry energy measurements to approx. 5 TeV/a can be made. The expected iron event rate (E greater than or equal to 500 GeV/a) is 10/sq m day. The expected energy resolution, from accelerator calibrations at 200 GeV/a, is -50% to +80%. Since the absolute flux has some sensitivity to the assumed power law index it is essential that good energy resolution is obtained. The expected charge resolution is approx. 0.3 charge units for the CNO group falling to approx. 1 charge unit for the iron group. A suitable event trigger would be a measurable (greater than 2 micrometer) deflected heavy (Z greater than 2) fragment. One potential background is electromagnetic dissociation that predominantly couples to individual protons or alphas. Although the cross- sections can be appreciable such events will not pass the event trigger.

  1. A Novel Open Tubular Capillary Electrochromatographic Method for Differentiating the DNA Interaction Affinity of Environmental Contaminants.

    PubMed

    D'Ulivo, Lucia; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of chemicals with DNA may lead to genotoxicity, mutation or carcinogenicity. A simple open tubular capillary electrochromatographic method is proposed to rapidly assess the interaction affinity of three environmental contaminants (1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene) to DNA by measuring their retention in the capillaries coated with DNA probes. DNA oligonucleotide probes were immobilized on the inner wall of a fused silica capillary that was first derivatized with 3-(aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane (APTES). The difference in retention times and factors was considered as the difference in interaction affinity of the contaminants to the DNA probes. The interaction of the contaminants with both double-stranded (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) coatings was compared. Retention factors of 1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the capillary coated with ssDNA probe were 0.29, 0.42, and 0.44, respectively. A similar trend was observed in the capillary coated with dsDNA, indicating that 2,4-diaminotoluene has the highest affinity among the three contaminants. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the retention factors was in the range of 0.05-0.69% (n = 3). The results demonstrated that the developed technique could be applied for preliminary screening purpose to provide DNA interaction affinity information of various environmental contaminants. PMID:27055261

  2. A Novel Open Tubular Capillary Electrochromatographic Method for Differentiating the DNA Interaction Affinity of Environmental Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    D’Ulivo, Lucia; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of chemicals with DNA may lead to genotoxicity, mutation or carcinogenicity. A simple open tubular capillary electrochromatographic method is proposed to rapidly assess the interaction affinity of three environmental contaminants (1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene) to DNA by measuring their retention in the capillaries coated with DNA probes. DNA oligonucleotide probes were immobilized on the inner wall of a fused silica capillary that was first derivatized with 3-(aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane (APTES). The difference in retention times and factors was considered as the difference in interaction affinity of the contaminants to the DNA probes. The interaction of the contaminants with both double-stranded (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) coatings was compared. Retention factors of 1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the capillary coated with ssDNA probe were 0.29, 0.42, and 0.44, respectively. A similar trend was observed in the capillary coated with dsDNA, indicating that 2,4-diaminotoluene has the highest affinity among the three contaminants. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the retention factors was in the range of 0.05–0.69% (n = 3). The results demonstrated that the developed technique could be applied for preliminary screening purpose to provide DNA interaction affinity information of various environmental contaminants. PMID:27055261

  3. Sandvik sharpens in-pit crushing focus

    SciTech Connect

    Casteel, K.

    2009-04-15

    Major mining equipment supplier Sandvik Mining and Construction has announced a full-fledged fully mobile crushing plant, the PF300. This is shaping up to be the decade's major addition to the large scale open-cut mining toolkit. The PF300 can be connected to a face conveyor by a loading bridge as well as by belt wagon or transfer conveyor. The article describes design features. 2 figs.

  4. Plasmodium falciparum Clearance Is Rapid and Pitting Independent in Immune Malian Children Treated With Artesunate for Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Ndour, Papa Alioune; Lopera-Mesa, Tatiana M.; Diakité, Seidina A. S.; Chiang, Serena; Mouri, Oussama; Roussel, Camille; Jauréguiberry, Stéphane; Biligui, Sylvestre; Kendjo, Eric; Claessens, Antoine; Ciceron, Liliane; Mazier, Dominique; Thellier, Marc; Diakité, Mahamadou; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Buffet, Pierre A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In Plasmodium falciparum–infected patients treated with artemisinins, parasitemia declines through so-called pitting, an innate splenic process that transforms infected red blood cells (iRBCs) into once-infected RBCs (O-iRBCs). Methods We measured pitting in 83 French travelers and 42 Malian children treated for malaria with artesunate. Results In travelers, O-iRBCs peaked at 107.7% initial parasitemia. In Malian children aged 1.5–4 years, O-iRBCs peaked at higher concentrations than in children aged 9–13 years (91.60% vs 31.95%; P = .0097). The parasite clearance time in older children was shorter than in younger children (P = .0001), and the decline in parasitemia in children aged 1.5–4 years often started 6 hours after treatment initiation, a lag phase generally absent in infants and older children. A 6-hour lag phase in artificial pitting of artesunate-exposed iRBCs was also observed in vitro. The proportion of iRBCs recognized by autologous immunoglobulin G (IgG) correlated with the parasite clearance time (r = −0.501; P = .0006) and peak O-iRBC concentration (r = −0.420; P = .0033). Conclusions Antimalarial immunity correlates with fast artemisinin-induced parasite clearance and low pitting rates. In nonimmune populations, artemisinin-induced P. falciparum clearance is related to pitting and starts after a 6-hour lag phase. In immune populations, passively and naturally acquired immune mechanisms operating faster than pitting may exist. This mechanism may mitigate the emergence of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum in Africa. PMID:25183768

  5. Application of CFD methods to the evaluation of flow characteristics of open thermosyphons

    SciTech Connect

    Almenas, K.K.; Floyd, J.E.; McGrattan, K.B.

    1997-07-01

    The open thermosyphon has several characteristics which makes it suitable for verification of CFD codes. Prior experimental research has provided data suitable for benchmarking case histories, furthermore, in spite of its simple natural circulation flow geometry, the open thermosyphon exhibits complicated flow behavior. In this study two different CFD codes are employed to generate parameters which can be compared with known experimental values. A quantitative comparison of experimental and calculated results showed that the experimentally measured energy carrying capacity of this strictly axially-symmetric flow geometry could not be reproduced by 2-D computations. Permutations of the computational model showed that this failure was not a function of noding structure, turbulence models, or even of the CFD code employed. Irrespective of the computational options employed, when compared on the basis of Ra{sub m}, (where Ra{sub m} = Ra*R/L), the calculated results remained a factor of five or more below the experimentally measured data. The CFD generated results had in fact a larger disagreement with experimental data then earlier theoretical computations which employed boundary layer integration techniques. The computations were repeated employing 3-D cylindrical geometry while maintaining the same mesh size as for the 2-D computations. The calculated results showed that above values of Log (Ra{sub m}) = 3, the flow field above the thermosyphon tube, does not maintain axial symmetry. The ascending warm stream and the returning cooler flow break the symmetric flow pattern which is imposed in a 2-D computation and flow around and past each other. Mixing takes place at the interfaces of these streams, but for the most part they maintain a separate identity. The computed energy transport rate increases by a factor of two to four, compared to the 2-D calculations. This moves the calculated result closer to experimentally measured values, but is still not entirely

  6. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy with one-shot dilation method: Is it safe in patients who had open surgery before?

    PubMed Central

    Süelözgen, Tufan; Isoglu, Cemal Selcuk; Turk, Hakan; Yoldas, Mehmet; Karabicak, Mustafa; Ergani, Batuhan; Boyacioglu, Hayal; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem; Zorlu, Ferruh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate whether one-shot dilatation technique is as safe in patients with a history of open-stone surgery as it is in patients without previous open-stone surgery. Methods: Between January 2007 and February 2015, 82 patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) surgery with one-shot dilation technique who previously had open-stone surgery were retrospectively reviewed and evaluated (Group 1). Another 82 patients were selected randomly among patients who had PNL with one-shot dilation technique, but with no history of open renal surgery (Group 2). Age, gender, type of kidney stone, duration of surgery, radiation exposure time, and whether or not there was any bleeding requiring perioperative and postoperative transfusion were noted for each patient. Results: The stone-free rates, operation and fluoroscopy time, and peroperative and postoperative complication rates were similar in both groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Our experience indicated that PNL with one-shot dilation technique is a reliable method in patients with a history of open-stone surgery. PMID:27217866

  7. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  8. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  9. Fukushima Nuclear Accident Recorded in Tibetan Plateau Snow Pits

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ninglian; Wu, Xiaobo; Kehrwald, Natalie; Li, Zhen; Li, Quanlian; Jiang, Xi; Pu, Jianchen

    2015-01-01

    The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month. PMID:25658094

  10. Comparative treatment effectiveness of conventional trench and seepage pit systems.

    PubMed

    Field, J P; Farrell-Poe, K L; Walworth, J L

    2007-03-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems can be a potential source of groundwater contamination in regions throughout the United States and other parts of the world. Here, we evaluate four conventional trench systems and four seepage pit systems to determine the relative effectiveness of these systems for the treatment of septic tank effluent in medium- to coarse-textured arid and semiarid soils. Soil borings were advanced up to twice the depth of the trenches (4 m) and seepage pits (15 m) at two horizontal distances (30 cm and 1.5 m) from the sidewalls of the systems. Soil samples were analyzed for various biological and chemical parameters, including Escherichia coli, total coliform, pH, total organic carbon, total dissolved solids, total nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen. Most soil parameters investigated approached background levels more rapidly near the trenches than the seepage pits, as sampling distance increased both vertically and horizontally from the sidewalls of the systems.

  11. Pit Distribution Design for Computer-Generated Waveguide Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Shogo; Imai, Tadayuki; Ueno, Masahiro; Ohtani, Yoshimitsu; Endo, Masahiro; Kurokawa, Yoshiaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Fukuda, Makoto

    2008-02-01

    Multilayered waveguide holography (MWH) is one of a number of page-oriented data multiplexing holographies that will be applied to optical data storage and three-dimensional (3D) moving images. While conventional volumetric holography using photopolymer or photorefractive materials requires page-by-page light exposure for recording, MWH media can be made by employing stamping and laminating technologies that are suitable for mass production. This makes devising an economical mastering technique for replicating holograms a key issue. In this paper, we discuss an approach to pit distribution design that enables us to replace expensive electron beam mastering with economical laser beam mastering. We propose an algorithm that avoids the overlapping of even comparatively large adjacent pits when we employ laser beam mastering. We also compensate for the angular dependence of the diffraction power, which strongly depends on pit shape, by introducing an enhancement profile so that a diffracted image has uniform intensity.

  12. Fukushima nuclear accident recorded in Tibetan Plateau snow pits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ninglian; Wu, Xiaobo; Kehrwald, Natalie; Li, Zhen; Li, Quanlian; Jiang, Xi; Pu, Jianchen

    2015-01-01

    The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month.

  13. Education Policy Convergence through the Open Method of Coordination: Theoretical Reflections and Implementation in "Old" and "New" National Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexiadou, Nafsika; Fink-Hafner, Danica; Lange, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses two key questions about the convergence of education policies in the European Union (EU). How does the open method of coordination (OMC), a new governance instrument for the Europeanisation of education policies, change existing national education policy making and how can the OMC and national responses to it be researched?…

  14. The Influence of Radiation on Pit Solution Chemistry as it Pertains to the Transition from Metastable to Stable Pitting in Steels.

    SciTech Connect

    Galuszka-Muga, Barbara; Muga, Luis M.

    2006-12-31

    Previous work relevant to current efforts is summarized. A description of an improved version of a new electrochemical probe, the ArtPit, is given. The distinct feature of the probe for investigating metastable pitting of carbon steels is specified and compared to other approaches. The electrochemical response of the ArtPit under the gamma irradiation and elevated temperature conditions that occur at high level waste (HLW) storage tanks is presented. In particular, the Tafel slope determinations and chemical analyses of the ArtPit confined volume electrolyte are described. Based on results a possible approach for reducing the corrosion rate of HLW tank walls is suggested. Additional statistical analysis of the occurrence of short duration (passivated pits) and long term (stable pitting) electrochemical pulses (current surges) during exposure confirm that radiation enhances the occurrence of both more and smaller sized pits due to increased likelihood of repassivation.

  15. A strategy for reducing particulate contamination on opening glass ampoules and development of evaluation methods for its application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong-Ryoon; Chae, Yoon-Jee; Cho, Sung-Eel; Chung, Suk-Jae

    2011-12-01

    A single-dose glass ampoule was developed for ease of administration. When glass ampoules are opened, resulting in contamination by particulate matter. Reducing its contamination may minimize the risk in patients due to particulates. This study reports on an attempt to reduce insoluble particulate contamination by developing methods for the precise measurement of this. A vacuum machine (VM) was used to reduce the level of insoluble particulate contamination, and a microscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) were used to evaluate the level of reduction. The method permitted the insoluble particle content to be reduced by up to 87.8 and 89.3% after opening 1 and 2 mL-ampoules, respectively. The morphology of the glass particulate contaminants was very sharp and rough, a condition that can be harmful to human health. The total weight of glass particles in the opened ampoules was determined to be 104 ± 72.9 μg and 30.5 ± 1.00 μg after opening 1 and 2 mL-ampoules when the VM was operated at highest power. The total weights were reduced to 53.6 and 50.6%, respectively for 1 and 2 mL-ampoules, compared to opening by hand. The loss of ampoule contents on opening by the VM was 6.50 and 4.67% for 1 and 2 mL-ampoules, respectively. As a result, the VM efficiently reduced glass particulate contamination and the evaluation methods used were appropriate for quantifying these levels of contamination. PMID:21702739

  16. Alkali corrosion resistant coatings and ceramic foams having superfine open cell structure and method of processing

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Jr., Jesse J.; Hirschfeld, Deidre A.; Li, Tingkai

    1993-12-07

    Alkali corrosion resistant coatings and ceramic foams having superfine open cell structure are created using sol-gel processes. The processes have particular application in creating calcium magnesium zirconium phosphate, CMZP, coatings and foams.

  17. Lower lip pits: van der woude or kabuki syndrome?

    PubMed

    David-Paloyo, Ferri P; Yang, Xuecai; Lin, Ju-Li; Wong, Fen-Hwa; Wu-Chou, Yah-Huei; Lo, Lun-Jou

    2014-11-01

    Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome with characteristic facial features. Despite more than 350 documented cases and recent correlation of MLL2 mutations as a genetic cause, its full clinical spectrum is still being defined. This report describes two patients who were initially diagnosed with Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) based on the presence of lower lip pits. However, this finding can occur with KS, albeit infrequently. For patients with lower lip pits, a thorough evaluation should be made to distinguish between VWS and KS, as there are differences in long-term prognosis. PMID:24088119

  18. Description of work for 216-U-Pond test pits

    SciTech Connect

    Kelty, G.G.

    1993-08-11

    This description of work (DOW) details the field activities associated with the test pit excavation and soil sampling at the 216- U-10 Pond (U-10 Pond) in the 200 West Area and will serve as a field guide for those performing the work. It will be used in conjunction with the 200-UP-2 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study (DOE-RL 1993a, [LFI]) and Site Characterization Manual (WHC 1988a). Test pits will be constructed to characterize the vertical extent of contaminants in sediments within and beneath the former U-10 pond.

  19. Centrifugation applied to drilling fluids and sludge pit cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Grichar, C.N.

    1987-01-01

    Solid bowl decanting centrifuges are an indispensible part of a well-designed, modern oilfield solids control system. They have application throughout the entire drilling process and during the post-drilling sludge pit cleanup operation. As drilling costs rise further, and as environmental regulations become stricter, the decanting centrifuge will become even more important and contribute more heavily to the overall cost effectiveness of the drilling process. The significance of this technology as applied to drilling fluids and sludge pit cleanup is emphasized in this paper.

  20. Ablation layers to prevent pitting in laser peening

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A

    2016-08-09

    A hybrid ablation layer that comprises a separate under layer is applied to a material to prevent pitting resulting from laser peening. The underlayer adheres to the surface of the workpiece to be peened and does not have bubbles and voids that exceed an acceptable size. One or more overlayers are placed over and in contact with the underlayer. Any bubbles formed under the over layers are insulated from the surface to be peened. The process significantly reduces the incidence of pits on peened surfaces.

  1. Development of an automated pit packaging system for Pantex

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrenholtz, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a system that uses robots to package pits at Pantex in the AT-400A pit storage and transportation container. This report will give an overview of the AT-400A packaging process, and the parts of the overall AT-400A packaging operation that will be performed robotically. The process employed to move from development in the laboratory at Sandia to production use at Pantex will be described. Finally, important technology components being developed for and incorporated into the robotic system will be described. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Method of determining the open circuit voltage of a battery in a closed circuit

    DOEpatents

    Brown, William E.

    1980-01-01

    The open circuit voltage of a battery which is connected in a closed circuit is determined without breaking the circuit or causing voltage upsets therein. The closed circuit voltage across the battery and the current flowing through it are determined under normal load and then a fractional change is made in the load and the new current and voltage values determined. The open circuit voltage is then calculated, according to known principles, from the two sets of values.

  3. Comparison of fertilization outcome between microdrop and open insemination methods in non-male factor IVF patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Yubin; Li, Tao; Mai, Qingyun; Long, Lingli; Ou, Jianping

    2014-06-01

    Both microdrop and open methods are commonly used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocols for embryo culture as well as oocyte insemination. However, few comparative studies evaluating the microdrop or open method of insemination on the fertilization outcome and subsequent embryo development have been performed. A randomized study was conducted to compare microdrop and open fertilization with respect to fertilization rate and embryo development among non-male factor patients undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). The results presented in this study demonstrate that the fertilization failure rate [total fertilization failure rate (TFF) plus low fertilization rate (<25% oocytes fertilized)] in the microdrop insemination group was higher than in the open insemination group (11.9% versus 3.3%, p < 0.001), while the good quality embryo rate and pregnancy rate did not differ significantly between the groups. As a highly complicated process involving many extrinsic and intrinsic factors, further studies are needed to confirm the effects of these insemination methods on the rate of fertilization failure.

  4. Comparison of fertilization outcome between microdrop and open insemination methods in non-male factor IVF patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Yubin; Li, Tao; Mai, Qingyun; Long, Lingli; Ou, Jianping

    2014-06-01

    Both microdrop and open methods are commonly used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocols for embryo culture as well as oocyte insemination. However, few comparative studies evaluating the microdrop or open method of insemination on the fertilization outcome and subsequent embryo development have been performed. A randomized study was conducted to compare microdrop and open fertilization with respect to fertilization rate and embryo development among non-male factor patients undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). The results presented in this study demonstrate that the fertilization failure rate [total fertilization failure rate (TFF) plus low fertilization rate (<25% oocytes fertilized)] in the microdrop insemination group was higher than in the open insemination group (11.9% versus 3.3%, p < 0.001), while the good quality embryo rate and pregnancy rate did not differ significantly between the groups. As a highly complicated process involving many extrinsic and intrinsic factors, further studies are needed to confirm the effects of these insemination methods on the rate of fertilization failure. PMID:24499510

  5. Evaluation of Fish Movements, Migration Patterns, and Population Abundance with Streamwidth PIT Tag Interrogation Systems, Final Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Zydlewski, Gayle; Winter, Christiane; McClanahan, Dee

    2003-02-01

    Two remote Streamwidth PIT tag Interrogation systems (SPIs) were operated continuously for over one year to test the feasibility of these systems for generating movement, migration, survival and smolt production estimates for salmonids. A total of 1,588 juvenile (< 100 mm FL) naturally produced salmonids (7 coho salmon, 482 cutthroat trout, and 1,099 steelhead) were PIT tagged above the upstream-most SPI (9 sites approximately 1 linear km each) in Fall 2001. Age at tagging for wild caught cutthroat and steelhead was 1 year. SPIs were operating before any PIT tagged fish were released in the creek. Over 390,000 detections were recorded from October 2001 to 31 July 2002. Efficiencies were site dependent, but overall detection efficiency for the creek was 97% with 95% confidence intervals of 91-100%. PIT tag detection efficiency ranged from 55-100% depending on the SPI and varied throughout the year with average efficiencies of 73% and 89%. SPI efficiency of PIT tag detection was not completely dependent on electronics noise levels or environmental conditions. Fish from all tagging locations were detected at the SPIs. Steelhead and cutthroat trout were primarily detected moving in the Spring (April-June) coincident with the anticipated smolt migration. Steelhead were also detected moving past SPIs at lower numbers in the Fall and Winter. Travel time between SPIs (downstream movement) was highly dependent on time of year. Travel time in the Spring was significantly faster (34.4 {+-} 7.0 hours) for all species than during any other time of year (763.1 {+-} 267.0 hours). Steelhead and cutthroat migrating in the Spring were the same age as those that did not migrate in the Spring. Peak of steelhead migration recorded at the two SPIs was 5/11 and 5/12 and the peak in the screw trap was recorded on 5/17. Steelhead smolt production estimates using SPIs (3,802 with 95% confidence intervals of 3,440 - 4,245) was similar to those using more standard screw trap methods

  6. Evaluation of Fish Movements, Migration Patterns and Populations Abundance with Streamwidth PIT Tag Interrogation Systems, Final Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Casey, Sean

    2003-02-01

    Two remote Streamwidth PIT tag Interrogation systems (SPIs) were operated continuously for over one year to test the feasibility of these systems for generating movement, migration, survival and smolt production estimates for salmonids. A total of 1,588 juvenile (< 100 mm FL) naturally produced salmonids (7 coho salmon, 482 cutthroat trout, and 1,099 steelhead) were PIT tagged above the upstream-most SPI (9 sites approximately 1 linear km each) in Fall 2001. Age at tagging for wild caught cutthroat and steelhead was 1 year. SPIs were operating before any PIT tagged fish were released in the creek. Over 390,000 detections were recorded from October 2001 to 31 July 2002. Efficiencies were site dependent, but overall detection efficiency for the creek was 97% with 95% confidence intervals of 91-100%. PIT tag detection efficiency ranged from 55-100% depending on the SPI and varied throughout the year with average efficiencies of 73% and 89%. SPI efficiency of PIT tag detection was not completely dependent on electronics noise levels or environmental conditions. Fish from all tagging locations were detected at the SPIs. Steelhead and cutthroat trout were primarily detected moving in the Spring (April-June) coincident with the anticipated smolt migration. Steelhead were also detected moving past SPIs at lower numbers in the Fall and Winter. Travel time between SPIs (downstream movement) was highly dependent on time of year. Travel time in the Spring was significantly faster (34.4 {+-} 7.0 hours) for all species than during any other time of year (763.1 {+-} 267.0 hours). Steelhead and cutthroat migrating in the Spring were the same age as those that did not migrate in the Spring. Peak of steelhead migration recorded at the two SPIs was 5/11 and 5/12 and the peak in the screw trap was recorded on 5/17. Steelhead smolt production estimates using SPIs (3,802 with 95% confidence intervals of 3,440-4,245) was similar to those using more standard screw trap methods

  7. Cystostomy–free open suprapubic transvesical prostatectomy: Is it a safe method?

    PubMed Central

    Hassanpour, Abbas; Hosseini, Mohammad Mehid; Yousefi, Alireza; Inaloo, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare open suprapubic transvesical prostatectomy (OSP) without insertion of suprapubic cystostomy, OSP with insertion of cystostomy, and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Patients and Methods: A total of 104 patients with an indication for prostatectomy were retrospectively assigned to TURP (group 1), OSP with cystostomy (group 2), and OSP without cystostomy (group 3). They were evaluated for length of the operation, length of hospital stay, post-operative complications, hemoglobin drop, changes of blood pressure, and intraoperative blood loss. Results: Mean age was 67.2 ± 8.7 in group 1, 73.3 ± 8.4 in group 2, and 74.0 ± 5.7 in group 3. Prostatic volume was 35.9 ± 13.8, 74.1 ± 33.8, and 74.3 ± 31.8 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was no significant difference in prostatic volume between groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.99), but in group 1 it was lesser than groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.00). Length of the operation was 1.2 ± 0.2 in group 3 and 1.1 ± 0.2 in group 2, without a significant difference (P = 0.45). Length of hospital stay in group 3 (2.3 ± 0.4 days) was lesser than that in group 2 (2.6 ± 0.7) (P = 0.01). The amount of hemoglobin drop was 1.1 ± 0.9 in group 1, 1.1 ± 0.7 in group 2, and 1.4 ± 0.91 in group 3 without a significant difference between all groups. The amount of bleeding during operation was 173 ± 103 in group 2 and 161 ± 78 in group 3 (P = 0.98). Conclusion: OSP without insertion of cystostomy tube is a relatively safe method; however, larger studies are needed. It is also comparable to TURP in terms of postoperative efficacy and complications. PMID:27141195

  8. The effects of pitting on fatigue crack nucleation in 7075-T6 aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, LI; Hoeppner, David W.

    1994-01-01

    A high-strength aluminum alloy, 7075-T6, was studied to quantitatively evaluate chemical pitting effects of its corrosion fatigue life. The study focused on pit nucleation, pit growth, and fatigue crack nucleation. Pitting corrosion fatigue experiments were conducted in 3.5 percent NaCl aqueous solution under constant amplitude sinusoidal loading at two frequencies, 5 and 20 Hz. Smooth and unnotched specimens were used in this investigation. A video recording system was developed to allow in situ observation of the surface changes of the specimens during testing. The results indicated that pitting corrosion considerably reduces the fatigue strength by accelerating fatigue crack nucleation. A metallographic examination was conducted on the specimens to evaluate the nature of corrosion pits. First, the actual shapes of the corrosion pits were evaluated by cross-sectioning the pits. Secondly, the relation between corrosion pits and microstructure was also investigated. Finally, the possibility of another corrosion mechanism that might be involved in pitting was explored in this investigation. The fractography of the tested specimens showed that corner corrosion pits were responsible for fatigue crack nucleation in the material due to the associated stress concentration. The pits exhibited variance of morphology. Fatigue life for the experimental conditions appeared to be strongly dependent on pitting kinetics and the crack nucleation stage.

  9. Spontaneous revegetation vs. forestry reclamation in post-mining sand pits.

    PubMed

    Šebelíková, Lenka; Řehounková, Klára; Prach, Karel

    2016-07-01

    Vegetation development of sites restored by two different methods, spontaneous revegetation and forestry reclamation, was compared in four sand pit mining complexes located in the southern part of the Czech Republic, central Europe. The space-for-time substitution method was applied to collect vegetation records in 13 differently aged and sufficiently large sites with known history. The restoration method, age (time since site abandonment/reclamation), groundwater table, slope, and aspect in all sampled plots were recorded in addition to the visual estimation of percentage cover of all present vascular plant species. Multivariate methods and GLM were used for the data elaboration. Restoration method was the major factor influencing species pattern. Both spontaneously revegetated and forestry reclaimed sites developed towards forest on a comparable timescale. Although the sites did not significantly differ in species richness (160 species in spontaneously revegetated vs. 111 in forestry reclaimed sites), spontaneously revegetated sites tended to be more diverse with more species of conservation potential (10 Red List species in spontaneous sites vs. 4 Red List species in forestry reclaimed sites). These results support the use of spontaneous revegetation as an effective and low-cost method of sand pit restoration and may contribute to implementation of this method in practice.

  10. Spontaneous revegetation vs. forestry reclamation in post-mining sand pits.

    PubMed

    Šebelíková, Lenka; Řehounková, Klára; Prach, Karel

    2016-07-01

    Vegetation development of sites restored by two different methods, spontaneous revegetation and forestry reclamation, was compared in four sand pit mining complexes located in the southern part of the Czech Republic, central Europe. The space-for-time substitution method was applied to collect vegetation records in 13 differently aged and sufficiently large sites with known history. The restoration method, age (time since site abandonment/reclamation), groundwater table, slope, and aspect in all sampled plots were recorded in addition to the visual estimation of percentage cover of all present vascular plant species. Multivariate methods and GLM were used for the data elaboration. Restoration method was the major factor influencing species pattern. Both spontaneously revegetated and forestry reclaimed sites developed towards forest on a comparable timescale. Although the sites did not significantly differ in species richness (160 species in spontaneously revegetated vs. 111 in forestry reclaimed sites), spontaneously revegetated sites tended to be more diverse with more species of conservation potential (10 Red List species in spontaneous sites vs. 4 Red List species in forestry reclaimed sites). These results support the use of spontaneous revegetation as an effective and low-cost method of sand pit restoration and may contribute to implementation of this method in practice. PMID:26342299

  11. Bacillus vini sp. nov. isolated from alcohol fermentation pit mud.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kedong; Chen, Xiaorong; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Yanwei; Wang, Huimin; Zhou, Shan; Song, Jinlong; Kong, Delong; Zhu, Jie; Dong, Weiwei; He, Mingxiong; Hu, Guoquan; Zhao, Bingqiang; Ruan, Zhiyong

    2016-08-01

    A novel aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, sporogenous, rod-shaped bacterium, designated LAM0415(T), was isolated from an alcohol fermentation pit mud sample collected from Sichuan Luzhou-flavour liquor enterprise in China. The isolate was found to be able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0-10 % (w/v) (optimum: 1.0 %), 10-50 °C (optimum: 30-35 °C) and pH 3.0-10.0 (optimum: 7.0-8.0). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the new isolate belonged to the genus Bacillus and was closely related to Bacillus sporothermodurans DSM 10599(T) and Bacillus oleronius DSM 9356(T), with 98.4 and 97.2 % sequence similarity, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain LAM0415(T) and the two reference strains were 33.3 ± 1.2 and 42.8 ± 0.8 %, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content was 35.2 mol% as determined by the T m method. The major fatty acids were determined to be iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK7 and MK8. The major polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospholipid and four unidentified glycolipids. The diagnostic amino acid of the cell wall peptidoglycan was determined to be meso-diaminopimelic acid. On the basis of its phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain LAM0415(T) (=ACCC 06413(T) = JCM 19841(T)) represents the type strain of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus vini sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:27055557

  12. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section 56.3131 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground...

  13. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section 56.3131 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground...

  14. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section 56.3131 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground...

  15. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section 56.3131 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground...

  16. THE IMPACT OF PHOSPHATE ON COPPER PITTING CORROSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pinhole leaks caused by extensive localized or pitting corrosion of copper pipes is a problem for many homeowners. Pinhole water leaks may result in water damage, mold growth, and costly repairs. A large water system in Florida has been addressing a widespread pinhole leak proble...

  17. Pitting behavior of aluminum ion implanted with nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    McCafferty, E.; Natishan, P.M.; Hubler, G.K.

    1997-07-01

    Ion implantation of {approx} 2 at% N into aluminum increased the pitting potential in 0.1 M sodium chloride by an average of 0.35 V. Surface analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed implanted nitrogen was present as several species: NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO or NH{sub 3} (as a ligand), AIN, and weakly bound or interstitial nitrogen. With anodic polarization, there was an increase in the total amount of nitrogen in the near-surface region, a decrease in the relative amount of nitride, and an increase in the relative amount of NO or NH{sub 3}. These changes resulted from migration of implanted nitrogen from the substrate into the near-surface region with partial conversion of the AIN species to NO or NH{sub 3}. It was suggested that the effect of implanted nitrogen on pitting behavior of aluminum is similar to that in nitrogen-containing stainless steels, where nitrogen at the metal surface inhibits the dissolution kinetics or aids the repassivation process in the pit by forming NH{sub 4}{sup +} ions that buffer the pit electrolyte.

  18. 80. ARAIII. Forming of the mechanical equipment pit in reactor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. ARA-III. Forming of the mechanical equipment pit in reactor building (ARA-608). Camera facing northwest. September 22, 1958. Ineel photo no. 58-4675. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Operational apron with pit hydrants in foreground, aircraft in background. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Operational apron with pit hydrants in foreground, aircraft in background. View to west - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 8. COLLAPSED AND SCATTERED BUILDING ON FLOOR OF PIT, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. COLLAPSED AND SCATTERED BUILDING ON FLOOR OF PIT, WITH PILE OF RHYOLITE BOULDERS IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TO SOUTH - Iron Springs Quarry, 150 feet west of Grand Loop Road, 20 miles east of U.S. Highway 287, West Thumb, Teton County, WY

  1. Pitting corrosion of low-Cr austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Albany Research Center has investigated the pitting corrosion resistance of experimental low-Cr stainless steels and several commercial stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous and atmospheric environments. Previous research had shown the experimental alloys to be as corrosion resistant as commercial stainless steels in chloride-free acid environments. The alloys studied were Fe-8Cr-16Ni-5.5Si-1Cu-(0-1)Mo, 304 SS, and 316 SS. These alloys were examined by immersion and electrochemical tests in 3.5 wt. pct. NaCl and 6 wt.pct.FeCl{sub 3}. Results of these tests showed that the addition of one weight percent Mo improved the pitting resistance of the low-Cr alloy and that the Mo-containing experimental alloy was as resistant to pitting as the commercial alloys. Electrochemical tests did, however, show the experimental alloys to be slightly less resistant to pitting than the commercial alloys. Because of these results, the low-Cr alloy with one weight percent Mo and 304 SS were exposed for one year to a marine atmospheric environment on the coast of Oregon. The marine atmospheric corrosion resistance of the low-Cr alloy was found to be comparable to that for type 304 stainless steel.

  2. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING EXCAVATION PIT FOR MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING EXCAVATION PIT FOR MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP-601) LOOKING NORTHWEST. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-50-885. Unknown Photographer, 10/30/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. 62. Historic propellant piping diagram of oxidant pit at Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Historic propellant piping diagram of oxidant pit at Building 202, January 6, 1956. NASA GRC drawing no. CF-101644. (On file at NASA Glenn Research Center). - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  4. COPPER PITTING CORROSION AND PINHOLE LEAKS: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Localized corrosion, or "pitting", of copper drinking water pipe continues is a problem for many water utilities and their customers. Extreme attack leads to pinhole leaks that can potentially lead to water damage, mold growth, and costly repairs for the homeowners, as well as th...

  5. 39. VIEW EAST INSIDE WEST COUNTERWEIGHT PIT GEAR 'D' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. VIEW EAST INSIDE WEST COUNTERWEIGHT PIT - GEAR 'D' IS AT CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH - BOTTOM OF COUNTERWEIGHT IS AT TOP RIGHT OF PHOTOGRAPH - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  6. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF THE 'OLD PIT' WITH EXTRACTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF THE 'OLD PIT' WITH EXTRACTION OF LIMESTONE IN PROCESS. AN ELEVEN-HOLE SHOT IS DISLODGING APPROXIMATELY 25,000 TONS OF LIMESTONE FOR USE IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION. - Vulcan Material Company, Calera Quarry, 1614 Highway 84, Calera, Shelby County, AL

  7. 6. View of turbine pit at unit 3 showing servomotor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View of turbine pit at unit 3 showing servo-motor head (left of center) with piston rods bolted to turbine gate operation ring (right foreground). View to southeast. - Holter Hydroelectric Facility, Dam & Power House, End of Holter Dam Road, Wolf Creek, Lewis and Clark County, MT

  8. 4. VIEW OF TURBINE PIT AT UNIT 3 SHOWING SERVOMOTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF TURBINE PIT AT UNIT 3 SHOWING SERVO-MOTOR HEADS (BACKGROUND AT CENTER) WITH PISTON RODS BOLTED TO TURBINE GATE OPERATION RING (CENTER AT LEFT AND CENTER AT RIGHT). VIEW TO THE NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Black Eagle Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  9. 7. View of turbine pit at an exciter unit showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of turbine pit at an exciter unit showing servo-motor heads (foreground and background at left) with piston rods bolted to the operating ring of the turbine gate (foreground and background at center). View to northeast. - Holter Hydroelectric Facility, Dam & Power House, End of Holter Dam Road, Wolf Creek, Lewis and Clark County, MT

  10. 17. INTERIOR VIEW, BASEMENT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE GEAR PIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR VIEW, BASEMENT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE GEAR PIT BELOW THE GRINDING STONES, SHOWING WOODEN COGS ATTACHED TO UNDERGROUND TURBINES. FRICTION DRIVE VISIBLE BEHIND CONTROL BAR (LEFT) WHICH OPERATES SMUT MILL - Schech's Mill, Beaver Creek State Park, La Crescent, Houston County, MN

  11. 106. Photocopied August 1978. EXTENSION OF TAIL PIT WALLS, APRIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. Photocopied August 1978. EXTENSION OF TAIL PIT WALLS, APRIL 28, 1917. THE TIMBERWORK IN THE FOREGROUND WAS USED AS A COMBINATION COFFER DAM AND FORM FOR POURING THE CONCRETE TAIL RACE WALL EXTENSION. IN THE BACKGROUND ALONG THE POWER HOUSE SEVERAL COMPLETED WALL EXTENSIONS CAN BE SEEN DIMLY. (787) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  12. 5. Credit GE. Photographic copy of photograph, completed flame pit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Credit GE. Photographic copy of photograph, completed flame pit in Test Stand 'A' with steel plate flame deflector over refractory brick. (JPL negative no. 383-1033, 17 January 1946) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. 30. (Credit JTL) Old 19111912 low service pump pit and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. (Credit JTL) Old 1911-1912 low service pump pit and receiving well in background. Platform and well in foreground constructed in 1977 for #6 and #7 electric low service pumps (#6 pump moved from old receiving well; #7 installed new). - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  14. Dental Pit and Fissure Sealants: Implications for School Health Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack-Brown, K. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    To promote good personal hygiene practices in students, school health personnel must be informed about dental pit and fissure sealants and related programs. Adoption and maintenance of such programs may depend on the success of school health personnel in educating administrators and policymakers. (SM)

  15. 3. VIEW OF THE DEPRESSION PIT IN ROOM 103, IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF THE DEPRESSION PIT IN ROOM 103, IN 1965, WHEREIN FISSILE SOLUTION WAS STORED. THIS PHOTOGRAPH SHOWS THE URANIUM SOLUTION TANKS ON THE LEFT AND THE PLUTONIUM SYSTEM ON THE RIGHT. NO PLUTONIUM SOLUTION WAS EVER STORED IN BUILDING 886. - Rocky Flats Plant, Critical Mass Laboratory, Intersection of Central Avenue & 86 Drive, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. 60. FORWARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR PIT WITH ELEVATOR IN RAISED POSITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. FORWARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR PIT WITH ELEVATOR IN RAISED POSITION AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE SHOWING ELEVATOR GUIDES, WIREWAYS, SHEAVES, HYDRAULIC OIL TANKS AND ELEVATOR LANDING PADS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  17. Demonstration of In-Situ Stabilization of Buried Waste at Pit G-11 at the Brookhaven National laboratory Glass Pits Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, B.P.; Gilbert, J.; Heiser, J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1989 BNL was added to the EPAs National Priorities List. The site is divided into seven operable units (OU). OU-I includes the former landfill area. The field task site is noted as the AOC 2C Glass Holes location. Beginning in the 1960s and continuing into the 1980s, BNL disposed of laboratory waste (glassware, chemicals and animal carcasses) in numerous shallow pits. The drivers for remediating the pits are; historical records that indicate hazardous materials may have been disposed of in the pits; ground water contamination down gradient of the pits; a test excavation of one of the glass holes that unearthed laboratory glass bottles with unidentified liquids still contained; and the fact that BNL rests atop an EPA designated sole-source aquifer. The specific site chosen for this demonstration was pit G-11. The requirements that lead to choosing this pit were; a well characterized pit and a relatively isolated pit where our construction operations would not impact on adjacent pits. The glass holes area, including pit G-11, was comprehensively surveyed using a suite of geophysical techniques (e.g., EM-31, EM-61, GPR). Prior to stabilizing the waste form a subsurface barrier was constructed to contain the entire waste pit. The pit contents were then stabilized using a cement grout applied via jet grouting. The stabilization was performed to make removal of the waste from the pit easier and safer in terms of worker exposure. The grouting process would mix and masticate the waste and grout and form a single monolithic waste form. This large monolith would then be subdivided into smaller 4 foot by 4 foot by 10-12 foot block using a demolition grout. The smaller blocks would then be easily removed from the site and disposed of in a CERCLA waste site.

  18. Effect of polymorphic variants of GH, Pit-1, and beta-LG genes on milk production of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Heidari, M; Azari, M A; Hasani, S; Khanahmadi, A; Zerehdaran, S

    2012-04-01

    Effect of polymorphic variants of growth hormone (GH), beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG), and Pit-1 genes on milk yield was analyzed in a Holstein herd. Genotypes of the cows for these genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Allele frequencies were 0.884 and 0.116 for L and V variants of GH, 0.170 and 0.830 for A and B variants of Pit-1, and 0.529 and 0.471 for A and B variants of beta-LG, respectively. GLM procedure of SAS software was used to test the effects of these genes on milk yield. Results indicated significant effects of these genes on milk yield (P < 0.05). Cows with LL genotype of GH produced more milk than cows with LVgenotype (P < 0.05). Also, for Pit-1 gene, animals with AB genotype produced more milk than BB genotype (P < 0.05). In the case of beta-LG gene, milk yield of animals with AA genotype was more than BB genotype (P < 0.01). Therefore, it might be concluded that homozygote genotypes of GH (LL) and beta-LG (AA) were superior compared to heterozygote genotypes, whereas, the heterozygote genotype of Pit-1 gene (AB) was desirable.

  19. Analysis of Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Simon S.

    2011-01-01

    To synchronize clocks between spacecraft in proximity, the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol has been proposed. PITS is based on the NTP Interleaved On-Wire Protocol and is capable of being adapted and integrated into CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol with minimal modifications. In this work, we will discuss the correctness and liveness of PITS. Further, we analyze and evaluate the performance of time synchronization latency with various channel error rates in different PITS operational modes.

  20. SPERTI Reactor Pit Building (PER605) sections and details. Section DD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPERT-I Reactor Pit Building (PER-605) sections and details. Section D-D shows relationship between pit and roof elevation of the building. Profile of earth fill between Pit Building and Instrument Cell Building. Details of valve and sump pits. Idaho Operations Office PER-605-IDO-2. INEEL index no. 761-0605-60-396-109182 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Development and methods for an open-sourced data visualization tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents an open source on-demand web tool, which is specifically addressed to scientists and researchers that are non-expert in converting time series data into a time surface visualization. Similar to a GIS environment the time surface shows time on two axes; time of day vs. day of year...

  2. A method for fabricating an occlusal splint for a patient with limited mouth opening.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yoshinobu; Tsugawa, Tsuyoshi; Furusawa, Miyo; Matsuda, Shinsuke

    2005-10-01

    This article describes the fabrication of an occlusal splint for a patient with limited mouth opening due to temporomandibular disorder. A face-bow fork is used as a tray to obtain an accurate dual-arch impression and occlusal registration.

  3. Improving inferences from fisheries capture-recapture studies through remote detection of PIT tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Shively, Rip S.

    2010-01-01

    Models for capture-recapture data are commonly used in analyses of the dynamics of fish and wildlife populations, especially for estimating vital parameters such as survival. Capture-recapture methods provide more reliable inferences than other methods commonly used in fisheries studies. However, for rare or elusive fish species, parameter estimation is often hampered by small probabilities of re-encountering tagged fish when encounters are obtained through traditional sampling methods. We present a case study that demonstrates how remote antennas for passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags can increase encounter probabilities and the precision of survival estimates from capture-recapture models. Between 1999 and 2007, trammel nets were used to capture and tag over 8,400 endangered adult Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) during the spawning season in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Despite intensive sampling at relatively discrete spawning areas, encounter probabilities from Cormack-Jolly-Seber models were consistently low (< 0.2) and the precision of apparent annual survival estimates was poor. Beginning in 2005, remote PIT tag antennas were deployed at known spawning locations to increase the probability of re-encountering tagged fish. We compare results based only on physical recaptures with results based on both physical recaptures and remote detections to demonstrate the substantial improvement in estimates of encounter probabilities (approaching 100%) and apparent annual survival provided by the remote detections. The richer encounter histories provided robust inferences about the dynamics of annual survival and have made it possible to explore more realistic models and hypotheses about factors affecting the conservation and recovery of this endangered species. Recent advances in technology related to PIT tags have paved the way for creative implementation of large-scale tagging studies in systems where they were previously considered impracticable.

  4. Recipes for the fabrication of strictly ordered Ge islands on pit-patterned Si(001) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grydlik, Martyna; Langer, Gregor; Fromherz, Thomas; Schäffler, Friedrich; Brehm, Moritz

    2013-03-01

    We identify the most important parameters for the growth of ordered SiGe islands on pit-patterned Si(001) substrates. From a multi-dimensional parameter space we link individual contributions to isolate their influence on ordered island growth. This includes the influences of: the pit size, pit depth and pit period on the Si buffer layer and subsequent Ge growth; the pit sidewall inclination on Ge island growth; the amount of Ge on island morphologies as well as the influences of the pit-size homogeneity, the pit period, the Ge growth temperature and rate on island formation. We highlight that the initial pit shape and pit size in combination with the growth conditions of the Si buffer layer should be adjusted to provide suitable preconditions for the growth of Ge islands with the desired size, composition and nucleation position. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the wetting layer between pits can play the role of a stabilizer that inhibits shape transformations of ordered islands. Thus, dislocation formation within islands can be delayed, uniform arrays of one island type can be fabricated and secondary island nucleation between pits can be impeded. These findings allow us to fabricate perfectly ordered and homogeneous Ge islands on one and the same sample, even if the pit period is varied from a few hundred nanometres to several micrometres.

  5. Infrared receptors in the facial pits of the Australian python Morelia spilotes.

    PubMed

    Warren, J W; Proske, U

    1968-01-26

    There is a series of pits in the scales of the rostrum and posterior portion of the lower lips in some pythons and boas. In the Australian python Morelia spilotes, these pits are innervated by the maxillary and mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve. Structural and neurophysiological evidence indicate that in the pits there are receptors that function as detectors of radiant heat flux.

  6. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.812 Section 52.812 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  7. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A”...

  8. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52... for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind of container Container mark or identification Label (style of pack,...

  9. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52... for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind of container Container mark or identification Label (style of pack,...

  10. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.812 Section 52.812 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  11. 7 CFR 52.784 - Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. 52.784 Section 52.784 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Pitted Cherries 1 Score Sheet § 52.784 Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  12. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A”...

  13. 7 CFR 52.784 - Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. 52.784 Section 52.784 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Pitted Cherries 1 Score Sheet § 52.784 Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  14. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52..., AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  15. 7 CFR 52.784 - Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. 52..., AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Score Sheet § 52.784 Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  16. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A”...

  17. Surgical stabilization for open tibial fractures in children: External fixation or elastic stable intramedullary nail - which method is optimal?

    PubMed Central

    Ramasubbu, Rohan A; Ramasubbu, Benjamin M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Management of open tibial fractures is well documented in adults, with existing protocols outlining detailed treatment strategies. No clear guidelines exist for children. Surgical stabilization of tibial fractures in the pediatric population requires implants that do not disrupt the open epiphyses (growth plate). Both elastic stable intramedullary nails and external fixation can be used. The objective of this study was to identify the optimal method of surgical stabilization in the treatment of open tibial fractures in children. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Embase were searched from their inception to March 2014 using the following advanced search terms (Key words): “open tibia fracture,” “fracture fixation,” “external fixation,” “intramedullary,” and “bone nail.” Only studies in English and pertaining to children with open fractures treated with elastic stable intramedullary nails or external fixation between 1994 and 2014 were included. Twelve clinical studies were critically appraised. Results: Due to a paucity in the literature coupled with a nonsystematic presentation of results, it proved to be very difficult in extracting relevant results from the studies. This was further added by a variation in outcome measures. Consequently, the results we obtained were difficult to draw conclusions from. Conclusion: There is no conclusive evidence or best practice guidelines for their management. Thus, as is highlighted in this study, more research is needed to determine the optimum treatment strategy for this common pediatric injury. The existing literature is of poor quality; consisting mainly of retrospective reviews of patients’ medical records, charts, and radiographs. Carefully designed, high-quality prospective cohort studies utilizing a nationalized multi-hospital approach are needed to improve understanding before protocols and guidelines can be developed and implemented. PMID:27746486

  18. HOLON/CADSE: integrating open software standards and formal methods to generate guideline-based decision support agents.

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, B. G.; Sokolsky, O.; Tannen, V.; Wong, A.; Lang, L.; Khoury, A.; Campbell, K.; Qiang, C.; Sahuguet, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the efforts of a consortium that is trying to develop and validate formal methods and a meta-environment for authoring, checking, and maintaining a large repository of machine executable practice guidelines. The goal is to integrate and extend a number of open software standards so that guidelines in the meta-environment become a resource that any vendor can plug their applications into and run in their proprietary environment provided they conform to the interface standards. PMID:10566502

  19. Pyroptosis triggers pore-induced intracellular traps (PITs) that capture bacteria and lead to their clearance by efferocytosis.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Ine; Zhang, Yue; Krantz, Bryan A; Miao, Edward A

    2016-09-19

    Inflammasomes activate caspase-1 in response to cytosolic contamination or perturbation. This inflammatory caspase triggers the opening of the GSDMD pore in the plasma membrane, resulting in lytic cell death called pyroptosis. We had previously assumed that pyroptosis releases intracellular bacteria to the extracellular space. Here, we find that viable bacteria instead remain trapped within the cellular debris of pyroptotic macrophages. This trapping appears to be an inevitable consequence of how osmotic lysis ruptures the plasma membrane, and may also apply to necroptosis and some forms of nonprogrammed necrosis. Although membrane tears release soluble cytosolic contents, they are small enough to retain organelles and bacteria. We call this structure the pore-induced intracellular trap (PIT), which is conceptually parallel to the neutrophil extracellular trap (NET). The PIT coordinates innate immune responses via complement and scavenger receptors to drive recruitment of and efferocytosis by neutrophils. Ultimately, this secondary phagocyte kills the bacteria. Hence, caspase-1-driven pore-induced cell death triggers a multifaceted defense against intracellular bacteria facilitated by trapping the pathogen within the cellular debris. Bona fide intracellular bacterial pathogens, such as Salmonella, must prevent or delay pyroptosis to avoid being trapped in the PIT and subsequently killed by neutrophils. PMID:27573815

  20. Tale of two pit lakes: initial results of a three-year study of the Main Zone and Waterline pit lakes near Houston, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crusius, J.; Pieters, R.; Leung, A.; Whittle, P.; Pedersen, T.; Lawrence, G.; McNee, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Pit lakes are becoming increasingly common in North America as well as in the rest of the world. They are created as openpit mines fill passively with ground water and surface inflows on cessation of mining activity. In many instances, the water quality in these pit lakes does not meet regulatory requirements due to a number of influences. The most important are the oxidation of sulfide minerals and the associated release of acid and metals and the flushing of soluble metals during pit filling. Examples of pit lakes with severe water-quality problems include the Berkeley Pit lake (Butte, MT) and the Liberty Pit lake (Nevada), whose waters are characterized by a pH near 3 and Cu concentrations as high as ~150 mg/L (Miller et al., 1996; Davis and Eary, 1997). The importance of the problem can be seen in the fact that some of these sites in the United States are Superfund sites.

  1. The pitting behavior of structural electrodeposits used in MEMS applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Serna, Lysle M.; Martinez, Michael A.

    2004-10-01

    LIGA is an acronym for the German terms Lithographie, Galvanoformung, Abformung, which describe a microfabrication process for high aspect ratio, structural parts based on electrodeposition of a metal into a poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) mold. LIGA produced parts have very high dimensional tolerances (on the order of a micron) and can vary in size from microns to centimeters. These properties make LIGA parts ideal for incorporation into MEMS devices or for other applications where strict tolerances must be met; however, functionality of the parts can only be maintained if they remain dimensionally stable throughout their lifetime. It follows that any form of corrosion attack (e.g., uniform dissolution, localized pitting, environmental cracking, etc.) cannot be tolerated. This presentation focuses on the pitting behavior of Ni electrodeposits, specifically addressing the influence of the following: grain structure, alloy composition, impurities, plating conditions, post plating processing (including chemical and thermal treatment), galvanic interactions and environment (aqueous vs. atmospheric). A small subset of these results is summarized. A typical LIGA part is shown in Figure 1. Due to the small size scale, electrochemical testing was performed using a capillary based test system. Although very small test areas can be probed with this system (e.g., Figure 2), typically capillaries on the order of 80 to 90 ?m's were used in the testing. All LIGA parts tested in the as-received condition had better pitting resistance than the high purity wrought Ni material used as a control. In the case of LIGA-Ni and LIGA-Ni-Mn, no detrimental effects were observed due to aging at 700C. Ni-S (approximately 500 ppm S), showed good as-received pitting behavior but decreased pitting resistance with thermal aging. Aged Ni-S showed dramatic increases in grain size (from single {micro}m's to 100's of {micro}m's), and significant segregation of S to the boundaries. The capillary test

  2. Method for cleaning a solar cell surface opening made with a solar etch paste

    DOEpatents

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Meemongkolkiat, Vichai

    2010-06-22

    A thin silicon solar cell having a back dielectric passivation and rear contact with local back surface field is described. Specifically, the solar cell may be fabricated from a crystalline silicon wafer having a thickness from 50 to 500 micrometers. A barrier layer and a dielectric layer are applied at least to the back surface of the silicon wafer to protect the silicon wafer from deformation when the rear contact is formed. At least one opening is made to the dielectric layer. An aluminum contact that provides a back surface field is formed in the opening and on the dielectric layer. The aluminum contact may be applied by screen printing an aluminum paste having from one to 12 atomic percent silicon and then applying a heat treatment at 750 degrees Celsius.

  3. Limitations of using a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, M.; Jamieson, B.

    2014-03-01

    Driven by temperature gradients, kinetic snow metamorphism plays an import role in avalanche formation. When gradients based on temperatures measured 10 cm apart appear to be insufficient for kinetic metamorphism, faceting close to a crust can be observed. Recent studies that visualised small-scale (< 10 cm) thermal structures in a profile of snow layers with an infrared (IR) camera produced interesting results. The studies found melt-freeze crusts to be warmer or cooler than the surrounding snow depending on the large-scale gradient direction. However, an important assumption within these studies was that a thermal photo of a freshly exposed snow pit was similar enough to the internal temperature of the snow. In this study, we tested this assumption by recording thermal videos during the exposure of the snow pit wall. In the first minute, the results showed increasing gradients with time, both at melt-freeze crusts and artificial surface structures such as shovel scours. Cutting through a crust with a cutting blade or shovel produced small concavities (holes) even when the objective was to cut a planar surface. Our findings suggest there is a surface structure dependency of the thermal image, which was only observed at times during a strong cooling/warming of the exposed pit wall. We were able to reproduce the hot-crust/cold-crust phenomenon and relate it entirely to surface structure in a temperature-controlled cold laboratory. Concave areas cooled or warmed more slowly compared with convex areas (bumps) when applying temperature differences between snow and air. This can be explained by increased radiative and/or turbulent energy transfer at convex areas. Thermal videos suggest that such processes influence the snow temperature within seconds. Our findings show the limitations of using a thermal camera for measuring pit-wall temperatures, particularly during windy conditions, clear skies and large temperature differences between air and snow. At crusts or other

  4. Method in calculating own vibration frequencies of open sections bars with thin walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihuț, N.

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic stability of thin-walled bars of open sections, as well as the stability of elastic systems dynamics in general, is studying closely with their vibrations. This, because, areas of dynamics instability is around twice the frequency of free vibration of the bar or elastic system in all cases excitation parametric, on the one hand, and on the other hand matrices involved in the matrix equation of free vibration are matrices of matrix equation of dynamic stability. In this paper we settled differential equations of parametric vibrations of thin-walled straight bars open sections constant as a system with a triple infinity of second order differential equations, linear coefficients homogeneous and periodicals. In the end of work, by customizing differential equations of forced vibration parameters have been obtained differential equations of own vibration of bars with thin wall and open sections as a system with a triple infinity of differential equations of second order, linear, homogeneous with constant coefficients and, using it, the algebraic equation of own vibrations pulsations.

  5. A quantitative method to analyse an open-ended questionnaire: A case study about the Boltzmann Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosario Battaglia, Onofrio; Di Paola, Benedetto

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a quantitative method to analyse an open-ended questionnaire. Student responses to a specially designed written questionnaire are quantitatively analysed by not hierarchical clustering called k -means method. Through this we can characterise behaviour students with respect their expertise to formulate explanations for phenomena or processes and/or use a given model in the different context. The physics topic is about the Boltzmann Factor, which allows the students to have a unifying view of different phenomena in different contexts.

  6. Efficient and accurate local single reference correlation methods for high-spin open-shell molecules using pair natural orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Andreas; Liakos, Dimitrios G.; Neese, Frank

    2011-12-01

    A production level implementation of the high-spin open-shell (spin unrestricted) single reference coupled pair, quadratic configuration interaction and coupled cluster methods with up to doubly excited determinants in the framework of the local pair natural orbital (LPNO) concept is reported. This work is an extension of the closed-shell LPNO methods developed earlier [F. Neese, F. Wennmohs, and A. Hansen, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 114108 (2009), 10.1063/1.3086717; F. Neese, A. Hansen, and D. G. Liakos, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 064103 (2009), 10.1063/1.3173827]. The internal space is spanned by localized orbitals, while the external space for each electron pair is represented by a truncated PNO expansion. The laborious integral transformation associated with the large number of PNOs becomes feasible through the extensive use of density fitting (resolution of the identity (RI)) techniques. Technical complications arising for the open-shell case and the use of quasi-restricted orbitals for the construction of the reference determinant are discussed in detail. As in the closed-shell case, only three cutoff parameters control the average number of PNOs per electron pair, the size of the significant pair list, and the number of contributing auxiliary basis functions per PNO. The chosen threshold default values ensure robustness and the results of the parent canonical methods are reproduced to high accuracy. Comprehensive numerical tests on absolute and relative energies as well as timings consistently show that the outstanding performance of the LPNO methods carries over to the open-shell case with minor modifications. Finally, hyperfine couplings calculated with the variational LPNO-CEPA/1 method, for which a well-defined expectation value type density exists, indicate the great potential of the LPNO approach for the efficient calculation of molecular properties.

  7. Molluscan and ostracod successions from Dierden's Pit, Swanscombe: insights into the fluvial history, sea-level record and human occupation of the Hoxnian Thames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Tom S.; Preece, Richard C.; Whittaker, John E.

    2013-06-01

    Swanscombe, Kent, is an internationally renowned hominin site located on the south bank of the River Thames, east of London. The Swanscombe sequence has been reconstructed from exposures at several localities from which important archaeological and palaeontological assemblages have been recovered. The most important of these is Barnfield Pit, where two stone-tool industries (Clactonian and Acheulian) have been recorded in superposition, together with three refitting pieces of a hominin skull associated with the Acheulian. Dierden's Pit (=Ingress Vale), ˜0.5 km to the north of Barnfield Pit, has also yielded Palaeolithic artefacts but is best known as a source of abundant non-marine molluscs and as the type locality for the water vole Arvicola cantiana. This paper describes the molluscan and ostracod successions through the Dierden's Pit sequence, which shed light on important aspects of the fluvial, sea-level and archaeological histories of the Thames during MIS 11. A dramatic change occurs in the molluscan record at Swanscombe, marked by the appearance of the ‘Rhenish suite’ of freshwater molluscs, which has previously been used to suggest confluence of the Thames and Rhine systems. The ‘Rhenish suite’ occurs in the Middle Gravels at Barnfield Pit and throughout the Shell bed at Dierden's Pit, where the component species did not appear simultaneously but colonized the Thames in an ordered sequence. The occurrence of the ‘Rhenish suite’ provides a secure basis for correlation of important archaeological horizons at Swanscombe, which have previously been mis-correlated on the basis of artefact typology. Moreover, it enables correlation with other MIS 11 sequences, some of which (Clacton and East Hyde) can be directly linked to the pollen stratigraphy of the Hoxnian. The ostracod succession at Dierden's Pit provides the first clear evidence of increasing brackish influence at Swanscombe and has formed the basis for palaeoclimatic reconstructions using

  8. Fabrication of spherical mitigation pit on KH2PO4 crystal by micro-milling and modeling of its induced light intensification.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jian; Chen, Mingjun; Liao, Wei; Wang, Haijun; Xiao, Yong; Li, Mingquan

    2013-07-15

    Micro-machining is the most promising method for KH(2)PO(4) crystal to mitigate the surface damage growth in high power laser system. In this work, spherical mitigation pit is fabricated by micro-milling with an efficient machining procedure. The light intensification caused by rear surface features before and after mitigation is numerically modeled based on the finite-difference time-domain method. The results indicate that the occurrence of total internal reflections should be responsible for the largest light intensification inside the crystal. For spherical pits after mitigation, the light intensification can be greatly alleviated by preventing the occurrence of total internal reflections. The light intensification caused by spherical mitigation pit is strongly dependent on the width-depth ratio and it is suggested that the width-depth ratio of spherical mitigation pit must be devised to be larger than 5.0 to achieve the minimal light intensification for the mitigation of surface damage growth. Laser damage tests for KH(2)PO(4) crystal validate that the laser damage resistance of initially damaged surface can be retrieved to near the level of ideal surface by replacing initial damage site with predesigned mitigation pit.

  9. Surface aspects of pitting and stress corrosion cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truhan, J. S., Jr.; Hehemann, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The pitting and stress corrosion cracking of a stable austenitic stainless steel in aqueous chloride environments were investigated using a secondary ion mass spectrometer as the primary experimental technique. The surface concentration of hydrogen, oxygen, the hydroxide, and chloride ion, magnesium or sodium, chromium and nickel were measured as a function of potential in both aqueous sodium chloride and magnesium chloride environments at room temperature and boiling temperatures. It was found that, under anodic conditions, a sharp increase in the chloride concentration was observed to occur for all environmental conditions. The increase may be associated with the formation of an iron chloride complex. Higher localized chloride concentrations at pits and cracks were also detected with an electron microprobe.

  10. Integrating Safeguards into the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, T.G.

    2002-05-28

    In September 2000, the United States and the Russian Federation entered into an agreement which stipulates each country will irreversibly transform 34 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium into material which could not be used for weapon purposes. Supporting the Department of Energy's (DOE) program to dispose of excess nuclear materials, the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) is being designed and constructed to disassemble the weapon ''pits'' and convert the nuclear material to an oxide form for fabrication into reactor fuel at the separate Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility. The PDCF design incorporates automation to the maximum extent possible to facilitate material safeguards, reduce worker dose, and improve processing efficiency. This includes provisions for automated guided vehicle movements for shipping containers, material transport via automated conveyor between processes, remote process control monitoring, and automated Nondestructive Assay product systems.

  11. Geologic report for the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits Site

    SciTech Connect

    1984-10-01

    A preliminary geologic site characterization study was conducted at the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits Site, which is part of the Weldon Spring Site, in St. Charles County, Missouri. The Raffinate Pits Site is under the custody of the Department of Energy (DOE). Surrounding properties, including the Weldon Spring chemical plant, are under the control of the Department of the Army. The study determined the following parameters: site stratigraphy, lithology and general conditions of each stratigraphic unit, and groundwater characteristics and their relation to the geology. These parameters were used to evaluate the potential of the site to adequately store low-level radioactive wastes. The site investigation included trenching, geophysical surveying, borehole drilling and sampling, and installing observation wells and piezometers to monitor groundwater and pore pressures.

  12. The Effects of Hot Corrosion Pits on the Fatigue Resistance of a Disk Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Hazel, Brian; Mourer, David P.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hot corrosion pits on low cycle fatigue life and failure modes of the disk superalloy ME3 were investigated. Low cycle fatigue specimens were subjected to hot corrosion exposures producing pits, then tested at low and high temperatures. Fatigue lives and failure initiation points were compared to those of specimens without corrosion pits. Several tests were interrupted to estimate the fraction of fatigue life that fatigue cracks initiated at pits. Corrosion pits significantly reduced fatigue life by 60 to 98 percent. Fatigue cracks initiated at a very small fraction of life for high temperature tests, but initiated at higher fractions in tests at low temperature. Critical pit sizes required to promote fatigue cracking were estimated, based on measurements of pits initiating cracks on fracture surfaces.

  13. 12. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; DEFLECTOR PIT DETAILS, SHEET NO. 1." ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; DEFLECTOR PIT DETAILS, SHEET NO. 1." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 41 of 148; file no. 1320/92, Rev. A. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. 30. VIEW DOWN INTO TURBINE PIT SHOWING WICKET GATE CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW DOWN INTO TURBINE PIT SHOWING WICKET GATE CONTROL MECHANISM AND MAIN SHAFT OF I. P. MORRIS TURBINE. TURBINE BUILT BY I. P. MORRIS & DE LA VERGNE, INC. OF PHILADELPHIA, PA, AND INSTALLED IN 1925. TURBINE RATED AT 18,000 HP AT 113.3 RPM UNDER 18.5 FEET OF HEAD. - Lake Lynn Hydroelectric Power House & Dam, Cheat River, Morgantown, Monongalia County, WV

  15. 11. Turbine Pit and Shaft of Unit 1, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Turbine Pit and Shaft of Unit 1, view to the south, with operating ring at base of shaft and servo motor arms in foreground and in left background recess. Turbine monitoring and auxiliary equipment is located in the rightbackground recess. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  16. 20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent to Test Cell 9 in Component Test Laboratory (T-27), looking west. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  17. Data Summary Report D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.R.

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to verify that all analytical data collected at the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits at the Savannah River Site for use in developing risk assessment and potential remediation procedures have been validated at the appropriate level. Any discrepancies or reasons why the data should be rejected for this purpose will be addressed. This report documents the data validation procedures used by Environmental Monitoring Section, Exploration Resources, and RUST Environment {ampersand} Infrastructure for Assigning qualifiers.

  18. 3. Unit 4 Turbine Pit Shaft and Operating Ring, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Unit 4 Turbine Pit Shaft and Operating Ring, view to the northeast. One of the servo motor housings is visible in the right background of the photograph. Notice the wicket gate linkage greasing tubes along the top of the operating ring. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  19. Method of polymerizing exo-methylene cyclic organic compounds using homogeneous ring-opening catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Marks, Tobin J.; Yang, Xinmin; Jia, Li

    1994-01-01

    The regiospecific (1,2-Me.sub.2 C.sub.5 H.sub.3).sub.2 ZrMe.sup.+ MeB(C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.3.sup.- mediated ring-opening polymerization of methylenecyclobutane and its copolymerization with ethylene to polyolefins of microstructure--{CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 C(CH.sub.2)]--.sub.n and {--[CH.sub.2 CHR]--.sub.x [CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 C(CH.sub.2)]--.sub.y }.sub.n' respectively, is disclosed.

  20. Ability of Pit and Fissure Sealant-containing Amorphous Calcium Phosphate to inhibit Enamel Demineralization

    PubMed Central

    Owais, Arwa I; Kawaja, Wasan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To evaluate the effect of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-containing pit and fissure sealant on inhibition of enamel demineralization in vitro. Materials and methods: Enamel specimens (n = 75) were prepared using freshly extracted noncarious human third molars. Box-shaped cavities (8 × 2 × 2 mm) on the buccal or lingual surfaces were prepared and restored with resin-based sealant (Concise™), ACP-containing sealant (Aegis®) or fluoride-containing sealant (Conseal-F™). The samples were acid challenged in a demineralizing solution of 50 mmol/l lactic acid at pH 5.0 for 4 days. The change in enamel microhardness (ASuH) was calculated. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post hoc test. Results: The mean SuH0 (±SD) (in Vicker’s unit) prior to the acid challenge was: Concise™ (318.83 ± 33.86), Aegis® (331.03 ± 21.52), Conseal-F™ (310.12 ± 34.31). Following the acid challenge, the values dropped in all groups and ASuH (±SD) values were 269.17 ± 47.49, 151.39 ± 23.96 and 175.79 ± 32.39 respectively. Conclusion: The ACP-containing pit and fissure sealant has the potential to inhibit enamel demineralization. How to cite this article: Zawaideh FI, Owais AI, Kawaja W. Ability of pit and fissure sealant-containing amorphous calcium phosphate to inhibit enamel demineralization. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):10-14. PMID:27274148

  1. Hydraulic performance improvement of the bidirectional pit pump installation based on CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. X.; Zhou, D. Q.

    2013-12-01

    At present, the efficiency of bidirectional pit pump installation with lift under 2m is still low because of lack of research on it in the past. In the paper, the CFD numerical method and experimental test were applied to study flow characteristic of bidirectional pit pump installation under positive and reverse condition. Through changing airfoil type and position of blade and stay vane, the comprehensive performance of improved model were obtained by calculating many different models. The results showed that when improved model is obtained with type A runner with 4 blades that is 0.7D away from pit exit and unsymmetrical guide vane 0.25dh which away from the impeller outlet, and the flow pattern of the improved solution is steady with high efficiency. Compared with the original scheme, the efficiency of positive and reverse design condition reach to 67.23% and 58.32% respectively, which is increased 6% more than original model on the design condition and 5% on the optimum operating condition, and it achieved the purpose of improvement. According to the runner blade angle of the optimization solution, model synthetic characteristic curve was drawn and internal flow field characteristics was analyzed under optimal positive and reverse conditions. The numerical calculation shows that owing to the lack of stay vane to recycle the energy in outlet runner chamber, the water flow regime is not steady enough in the outlet passage, and that is the main reason for lower efficiency at reverse condition than that at positive condition.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of the Marginal Sealing Ability of two Commercially Available Pit and Fissure Sealants

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Joyson; Rangeeth, Bollam Nammalwar; Sivakumar, Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The occlusal surfaces of the teeth usually have pits and fissures which provide a good environment for demineralization with minimal salivary access and make them caries prone. The success of pit and fissure sealing materials is highly dependent on the marginal sealing ability of the fissures. Aim The present study was carried out to evaluate and compare the marginal sealing ability of two commercially available pit and fissure sealants. Materials and Methods A total of 50 human premolar teeth were used in this invitro study. Group 1 included 25 teeth for application of Clinpro sealant and Group 2 included twenty 25 for application of Helioseal F sealant. Samples were stored in artificial saliva for 72 hours before thermocycling. The samples were immersed in 2% methylene blue solution for 24 hours. The sectioned samples were examined under an Optical Stereomicroscope and compared in terms of the extent of microleakage based on the amount of dye penetration between the sealant and tooth substance interface. The dye penetration scores in both the groups was statistically analysed using Chi square test and Mann Whitney Test. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results It was seen that in Group 1, 12 samples (48%) had no dye penetration (Grade 0) while in Group 2, 6 samples (24%) demonstrated Grade 0 penetration. Group 2 had the most extensive dye penetration (Grade 3) in 8 of 25 samples (32%) (p=0.014). Conclusion On comparison of the microleakage scores of the groups, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups; indicating a much better performance of Clinpro as compared to Helioseal F. PMID:27790568

  3. The Origin of Subretinal Fluid in Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy.

    PubMed

    Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Taskapan, Cagtay

    2016-03-01

    A surgical approach for the drainage of fluid leaking over the pit in optic disc pit maculopathy is described, and a theory of the origin of fluid is discussed. In two cases, complete fluid-air exchange was performed. The air infusion pressure was decreased to 5 mm Hg, and the collected fluid was drained by raising the infusion pressure to 25 mm Hg. The fluid inside the back-flush needle was routed via a microcentrifuge tube. Biochemical analyses of the fluids were conducted in order to find their origin. Results of the first and second case were comparable to normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels (chloride: 125 mmol/L, 122 mmol/L; sodium: 146 mmol/L, 147 mmol/L; potassium: 2.8 mmol/L, 3.0 mmol/L; protein: 29 mg/dL, 18.4 mg/ dL; and glucose: 60 mg/dL, 57 mg/dL, respectively). These findings suggest that the origin of subretinal fluid found in the submacular space in optic disc pit maculopathy is CSF.

  4. Origin of small pits in martian impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, Joseph M.; Wilson, Lionel; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Hamilton, Christopher W.; Tornabene, Livio L.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a numerical model for the formation of the closely-spaced pits found in the thin, ejecta-related deposits superposed on the floors, interior terrace blocks, and near-rim ejecta blankets of well-preserved martian impact craters. Our model predicts the explosive degassing of water from this pitted material, which is assumed to originally be water-bearing, impact melt-rich breccia at the time of deposition. This process is analogous to what occurred in the fall-out suevite deposits at the Ries impact structure in Germany. At Ries, impact heating of water-bearing target material resulted in the rapid degassing of its water and other volatiles. The martian environment plays an important role in enhancing the effects of this degassing by increasing the flow-speed of the escaping gas. The high flow-rate of gas through particulate materials, such as suevite, tends to quickly form segregation channels or vent pipes, similar to those found in the Ries deposits. These pipes act as conduits for the efficient high-speed escape of the gas and small clasts that it entrains. Escaping gas and entrained clasts abraded and eroded the conduit walls, flaring them to form pits above a network of pipes.

  5. Benchmarking of ONIOM method for the study of NH3 dissociation at open ends of BNNTs.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Ali; Beheshtian, Javad; Kamfiroozi, Mohammad

    2012-05-01

    The reliability of ONIOM approach have been examined in calculations of adsorption energies, transition structures, change of HOMO-LUMO energy gaps and equilibrium geometries of the interaction between NH(3) and N-enriched (A) or B-enriched (B) open ended boron nitride nanotubes. To these ends, four models of the A or B, with different inner and outer layers have been studied. In addition, various low-levels including, AM1, PM3, MNDO and UFF have been examined, applying B3LYP/6-31 G* in all high-levels. It was shown, that in the case of A, (choosing two atom layers of the tube open-end as inner layer) the results of ONIOM approach are in best agreement with those of the pure density functional theory (DFT) calculations, while their results significantly differ from those of DFT in the case of B in same conditions. All above and population analysis demonstrate that the ONIOM may be a reliable scheme in the study of weak interactions while it is a controversial approach and should be applied cautiously in the case of strong interactions. We also probed the effect of tube length and diameter on the consistency between ONIOM and DFT results, showing that this consistency is independent of the mentioned parameters. PMID:21833827

  6. Credit PSR. This view looks northeast (54°) at the open ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. This view looks northeast (54°) at the open burn unit as it is seen on approach from Circle Drive. The metal shed in front of the earth mound personnel shield contained controls for a stove that was formerly used to burn scrap propellants in the adjacent pit (see HAER photo CA163-V-1). Regulations changed to permit open pit burning of such materials - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Incinerator, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. Single-crystal growth of aluminum nitride on 6H-SiC substrates by an open-system sublimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Kunihiro; Sanada, Kazuo; Ichinose, Noboru

    2009-02-01

    Single-crystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) has successfully been grown on 6H-SiC (0 0 0 1) substrates by sublimation using an open-system crucible at 2273 K within 30 h. The thickness of the AlN single-crystal layer is about 1 mm. The dislocation density in the vicinity of the crystal surface has been calculated to be less than 10 7 cm -2 from transmission electron microscopy observation and etch pit density measurement of the crystal. Single-crystal growth of AlN has been carried out by varying supersaturation of Al vapor and employing on- and off-axis SiC substrates. Supersaturation of Al vapor has critically influenced the crystalline quality and morphology, while it has not affected the growth rate so much. Thus, precise control of supersaturation is a key to ensuring the quality of AlN single crystals. The quality of the crystals grown on off-axis SiC substrates is superior to that grown on on-axis SiC substrates. Moreover, the quality has been improved as the thickness of the crystals has increased.

  8. PitPro 1.1 User's Manual; Pit-tag to SURPH Data Translation Utility, Technical Manual 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Westhagen, Peter; Skalski, John

    2003-07-01

    This manual describes the use of Program PitPro to convert PIT-tag data files in PTAGIS (PIT Tag Information System, Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission) to input files ready for survival analysis in Program SURPH 2.1. This utility converts the various PIT-tag detections at the multitude of detector coils within a juvenile bypass or at adult counting windows and ladders into capture histories. The capture histories indicate whether a tagged fish was detected, not detected, or detected and censored at the major hydroprojects in the Columbia Basin. A major update to this program is the inclusion of adult upstream detection histories. Adult detection histories include not only whether the fish was detected or not but also the year of detection for proper adult survival estimation. The SURPH program is a valuable tool for estimating survival and detection probabilities of fish migrating in the Snake and Columbia rivers. Using special input data files, SURPH computes reach-to-reach statistics for any release group passing a system of detection sites. However, PIT-tag data, as available from PTAGIS, comes in a form that is not ready for use as SURPH input. SURPH requires a capture history for each fish. A capture history consists of a series of fields, one for each detection site, that has a code for whether the fish was detected and returned to the river, detected and removed, or not detected. The data, as received from PTAGIS, has one line for each detection with information such as fish identification (id), detection date and time, number of coil hits and detector coil ids, etc. Because an individual fish may be detected at several coils within a detection site as well as at several detection sites, each fish is often represented by multiple lines in the PTAGIS data file. For the PTAGIS data to be usable by SURPH, it must be preprocessed. The data must be condensed down to one line per fish with the relevant detection information from the PTAGIS file

  9. Experiment Research on Hot-Rolling Processing of Nonsmooth Pit Surface.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yun-Qing; Fan, Tian-Xing; Mou, Jie-Gang; Yu, Wei-Bo; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Evan

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the nonsmooth surface drag reduction structure on the inner polymer coating of oil and gas pipelines and improve the efficiency of pipeline transport, a structural model of the machining robot on the pipe inner coating is established. Based on machining robot, an experimental technique is applied to research embossing and coating problems of rolling-head, and then the molding process rules under different conditions of rolling temperatures speeds and depth are analyzed. Also, an orthogonal experiment analysis method is employed to analyze the different effects of hot-rolling process apparatus on the embossed pits morphology and quality of rolling. The results also reveal that elevating the rolling temperature or decreasing the rolling speed can also improve the pit structure replication rates of the polymer coating surface, and the rolling feed has little effect on replication rates. After the rolling-head separates from the polymer coating, phenomenon of rebounding and refluxing of the polymer coating occurs, which is the reason of inability of the process. A continuous hot-rolling method for processing is used in the robot and the hot-rolling process of the processing apparatus is put in a dynamics analysis.

  10. Experiment Research on Hot-Rolling Processing of Nonsmooth Pit Surface.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yun-Qing; Fan, Tian-Xing; Mou, Jie-Gang; Yu, Wei-Bo; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Evan

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the nonsmooth surface drag reduction structure on the inner polymer coating of oil and gas pipelines and improve the efficiency of pipeline transport, a structural model of the machining robot on the pipe inner coating is established. Based on machining robot, an experimental technique is applied to research embossing and coating problems of rolling-head, and then the molding process rules under different conditions of rolling temperatures speeds and depth are analyzed. Also, an orthogonal experiment analysis method is employed to analyze the different effects of hot-rolling process apparatus on the embossed pits morphology and quality of rolling. The results also reveal that elevating the rolling temperature or decreasing the rolling speed can also improve the pit structure replication rates of the polymer coating surface, and the rolling feed has little effect on replication rates. After the rolling-head separates from the polymer coating, phenomenon of rebounding and refluxing of the polymer coating occurs, which is the reason of inability of the process. A continuous hot-rolling method for processing is used in the robot and the hot-rolling process of the processing apparatus is put in a dynamics analysis. PMID:27022235

  11. Mobile Pit verification system design based on passive special nuclear material verification in weapons storage facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J. N.; Chin, M. R.; Sjoden, G. E.

    2013-07-01

    A mobile 'drive by' passive radiation detection system to be applied in special nuclear materials (SNM) storage facilities for validation and compliance purposes has been designed through the use of computational modeling and new radiation detection methods. This project was the result of work over a 1 year period to create optimal design specifications to include creation of 3D models using both Monte Carlo and deterministic codes to characterize the gamma and neutron leakage out each surface of SNM-bearing canisters. Results were compared and agreement was demonstrated between both models. Container leakages were then used to determine the expected reaction rates using transport theory in the detectors when placed at varying distances from the can. A 'typical' background signature was incorporated to determine the minimum signatures versus the probability of detection to evaluate moving source protocols with collimation. This established the criteria for verification of source presence and time gating at a given vehicle speed. New methods for the passive detection of SNM were employed and shown to give reliable identification of age and material for highly enriched uranium (HEU) and weapons grade plutonium (WGPu). The finalized 'Mobile Pit Verification System' (MPVS) design demonstrated that a 'drive-by' detection system, collimated and operating at nominally 2 mph, is capable of rapidly verifying each and every weapon pit stored in regularly spaced, shelved storage containers, using completely passive gamma and neutron signatures for HEU and WGPu. This system is ready for real evaluation to demonstrate passive total material accountability in storage facilities. (authors)

  12. Experiment Research on Hot-Rolling Processing of Nonsmooth Pit Surface

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yun-qing; Fan, Tian-xing; Mou, Jie-gang; Yu, Wei-bo; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Evan

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the nonsmooth surface drag reduction structure on the inner polymer coating of oil and gas pipelines and improve the efficiency of pipeline transport, a structural model of the machining robot on the pipe inner coating is established. Based on machining robot, an experimental technique is applied to research embossing and coating problems of rolling-head, and then the molding process rules under different conditions of rolling temperatures speeds and depth are analyzed. Also, an orthogonal experiment analysis method is employed to analyze the different effects of hot-rolling process apparatus on the embossed pits morphology and quality of rolling. The results also reveal that elevating the rolling temperature or decreasing the rolling speed can also improve the pit structure replication rates of the polymer coating surface, and the rolling feed has little effect on replication rates. After the rolling-head separates from the polymer coating, phenomenon of rebounding and refluxing of the polymer coating occurs, which is the reason of inability of the process. A continuous hot-rolling method for processing is used in the robot and the hot-rolling process of the processing apparatus is put in a dynamics analysis. PMID:27022235

  13. An Open Conversation on Using Eye-Gaze Methods in Studies of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venker, Courtney E.; Kover, Sara T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Eye-gaze methods have the potential to advance the study of neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite their increasing use, challenges arise in using these methods with individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and in reporting sufficient methodological detail such that the resulting research is replicable and interpretable. Method: This…

  14. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and ??15N and ??18O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal streptococcus bacteria were detected at least once in groundwater from all monitoring wells at both sites

  15. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Krapac, I G; Dey, W S; Roy, W R; Smyth, C A; Storment, E; Sargent, S L; Steele, J D

    2002-01-01

    Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and delta15N and delta15O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal streptococcus bacteria were detected at least once in groundwater from all monitoring wells at both

  16. Complex Burial and Exhumation of South Polar Cap Pitted Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. The two prominent bright stripes at the left/center of the image are covered with bright frost and thus create the illusion that they are sunlit from the lower left.

    The large pits, troughs, and 'swiss cheese' of the south polar residual cap appear to have been formed in the upper 4 or 5 layers of the polar material. Each layer is approximately 2 meters (6.6 feet) thick. Some Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of this terrain show examples in which older pitted and eroded layers have been previously buried and are now being exhumed. The example shown here includes two narrow, diagonal slopes that trend from upper left toward lower right at the left/center portion of the frame. Along the bottoms of these slopes are revealed a layer that underlies them in which there are many more pits and troughs than in the upper layer. It is likely in this case that the lower layer formed its pits and troughs before it was covered by the upper layer. This observation suggests that the troughs, pits, and 'swiss cheese' features of the south polar cap are very old and form over long time scales.

    The picture is located near 84.6oS, 45.1oW, and covers an area 3 km by 5 km (1.9 x 3.1 mi) at a resolution of about 3.8 meters (12 ft) per pixel. The image was taken during southern spring on August 29, 1999.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  17. Treating pit-and-fissure caries: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, F; Jäger, A M; Paris, S; Hsu, L Y; Tu, Y K

    2015-04-01

    For shallow or moderately deep pit-and-fissure lesions, various treatment options are available: (1) noninvasive treatments (e.g., fluoride application, antibacterial treatments, oral hygiene advice) avoid any dental hard tissue removal; (2) microinvasive treatments (e.g., sealing) remove only a few micrometers of hard tissues by etching; and minimally invasive methods (e.g., "preventive" resin/sealant restoration) remove carious dentin but avoid sacrificing sound tissues. We aimed at systematically reviewing and comparing these strategies for treating pit-and-fissure lesions in permanent teeth using network meta-analysis. Randomized or nonrandomized clinical trials investigating shallow or moderately deep primary caries lesions in fissured or pitted surfaces were included. We compared the risk of requiring invasive treatments or any retreatments in noninvasive, microinvasive, and minimally invasive treated lesions; untreated lesions were used as controls. Five electronic databases were systematically screened up to September 2013 and cross-referencing performed. Pairwise and network meta-analyses were performed and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated. Certainty of estimates was evaluated via GRADE criteria. From a total of 2,214 identified records, 14 studies representing 1,440 patients with 3,551 treated lesions were included. Pairwise meta-analysis found microinvasive and minimally invasive treated lesions to require less invasive retreatments than control lesions (odds ratios [95% confidence intervals]: 0.13 [0.07 to 0.26], 0.13 [0.03 to 0.50], respectively), whereas the estimate for noninvasively treated lesions remained nonsignificant (0.64 [0.39 to 1.06]). These findings were reflected in the strategy ranking stemming from network meta-analysis (first, minimally invasive; second, microinvasive; third, noninvasive). However, microinvasive treatment required significantly more total retreatments (including resealing) than minimally or

  18. Modeling cavities exhibiting strong lateral confinement using open geometry Fourier modal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häyrynen, Teppo; Gregersen, Niels

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a computationally efficient Fourier-Bessel expansion based open geometry formalism for modeling the optical properties of rotationally symmetric photonic nanostructures. The lateral computation domain is assumed infinite so that no artificial boundary conditions are needed. Instead, the leakage of the modes due to an imperfect field confinement is taken into account by using a basis functions that expand the whole infinite space. The computational efficiency is obtained by using a non-uniform discretization in the frequency space in which the lateral expansion modes are more densely sampled around a geometry specific dominant transverse wavenumber region. We will use the developed approach to investigate the Q factor and mode confinement in cavities where top DBR mirror has small rectangular defect confining the modes laterally on the defect region.

  19. Explanation of Significant Difference (ESD) for the A-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Randall

    2000-11-17

    The A-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) (ABRP) operable unit (OU) is located in the northwest portion of Savannah River Site (SRS), approximately 2.4 kilometers (1.5 miles) south of the A/M Area operations. Between 1951 and 1973, Pits 731-A and 731-1A were used to burn paper, plastics, wood, rubber, rags, cardboard, oil, degreasers, and solvents. Combustible materials were burned monthly. After burning was discontinued in 1973, Pits 731-A and 731-1A were also converted to rubble pits and used to dispose of concrete rubble, bricks, tile, asphalt, plastics, metal, wood products, and rubber until about 1978. When the pits were filled to capacity, there were covered with compacted clay-rich native soils and vegetation was established. Pit 731-2A was only used as a rubble pit until 1983 after which the area was backfilled and seeded. Two other potential source areas within the OU were investigated and found to be clean. The water table aquifer (M-Area aquifer) was also investigated.

  20. Pit membrane structure is highly variable and accounts for a major resistance to water flow through tracheid pits in stems and roots of two boreal conifer species.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Paul J; Hacke, Uwe G; Schoonmaker, Amanda L

    2015-10-01

    The flow of xylem sap in conifers is strongly dependent on the presence of a low resistance path through bordered pits, particularly through the pores present in the margo of the pit membrane. A computational fluid dynamics approach was taken, solving the Navier-Stokes equation for models based on the geometry of pits observed in tracheids from stems and roots of Picea mariana (black spruce) and Picea glauca (white spruce). Model solutions demonstrate a close, inverse relationship between the total resistance of bordered pits and the total area of margo pores. Flow through the margo was dominated by a small number of the widest pores. Particularly for pits where the margo component of flow resistance was low relative to that of the torus, pore location near the inner edge of the margo allowed for greater flow than that occurring through similar-sized pores near the outer edge of the margo. Results indicate a surprisingly large variation in pit structure and flow characteristics. Nonetheless, pits in roots have lower resistance to flow than those in stems because the pits were wider and consisted of a margo with a larger area in pores. PMID:25944400