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Sample records for open rotor noise

  1. NASA Open Rotor Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Owing to their inherent fuel burn efficiency advantage compared with the current generation high bypass ratio turbofan engines, there is resurgent interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems for powering the next generation commercial aircraft. However, to make open rotor systems truly competitive, they must be made to be acoustically acceptable too. To address this challenge, NASA in collaboration with industry is exploring the design space for low-noise open rotor propulsion systems. The focus is on the system level assessment of the open rotors compared with other candidate concepts like the ultra high bypass ratio cycle engines. To that end there is an extensive research effort at NASA focused on component testing and diagnostics of the open rotor acoustic performance as well as assessment and improvement of open rotor noise prediction tools. In this presentation and overview of the current NASA research on open rotor noise will be provided. Two NASA projects, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project and the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, have been funding this research effort.

  2. Open Rotor Noise Shielding by Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yueping; Czech, Michael J.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of open rotor noise shielding by Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft by using model scale test data acquired in the Boeing Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF) with a legacy F7/A7 rotor model and a simplified BWB platform. The objective of the analysis is the understanding of the shielding features of the BWB and the method of application of the shielding data for noise studies of BWB aircraft with open rotor propulsion. By studying the directivity patterns of individual tones, it is shown that though the tonal energy distribution and the spectral content of the wind tunnel test model, and thus its total noise, may differ from those of more advanced rotor designs, the individual tones follow directivity patterns that characterize far field radiations of modern open rotors, ensuring the validity of the use of this shielding data. Thus, open rotor tonal noise shielding should be categorized into front rotor tones, aft rotor tones and interaction tones, not only because of the different directivities of the three groups of tones, but also due to the differences in their source locations and coherence features, which make the respective shielding characteristics of the three groups of tones distinctly different from each other. To reveal the parametric trends of the BWB shielding effects, results are presented with variations in frequency, far field emission angle, rotor operational condition, engine installation geometry, and local airframe features. These results prepare the way for the development of parametric models for the shielding effects in prediction tools.

  3. Empennage Noise Shielding Benefits for an Open Rotor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA sets aggressive, strategic, civil aircraft performance and environmental goals and develops ambitious technology roadmaps to guide its research efforts. NASA has adopted a phased approach for community noise reduction of civil aircraft. While the goal of the near-term first phase focuses primarily on source noise reduction, the goal of the second phase relies heavily on presumed architecture changes of future aircraft. The departure from conventional airplane configurations to designs that incorporate some type of propulsion noise shielding is anticipated to provide an additional 10 cumulative EPNdB of noise reduction. One candidate propulsion system for these advanced aircraft is the open rotor engine. In some planned applications, twin open rotor propulsors are located on the aft fuselage, with the vehicle s empennage shielding some of their acoustic signature from observers on the ground. This study focuses on predicting the noise certification benefits of a notional open rotor aircraft with tail structures shielding a portion of the rotor noise. The measured noise of an open rotor test article--collected with and without an acoustic barrier wall--is the basis of the prediction. The results are used to help validate NASA s reliance on acoustic shielding to achieve the second phase of its community noise reduction goals. The noise measurements are also compared to a popular empirical diffraction correlation often used at NASA to predict acoustic shielding.

  4. Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Tone Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2014-01-01

    Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra exhibit a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone content. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data have been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the nearfield noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, tone noise spectra have been predicted and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant tones and for the overall sound pressure level of tones. The results also indicate that, whereas the individual rotor tones are well predicted by the combination of the thickness and loading sources, for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole source is also included in the analysis.

  5. Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Tone Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2014-01-01

    Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and the cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra typically exhibits a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone spectra. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data had been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the near-field noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, detailed tone noise spectral predictions have been generated and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant CROR tones and their overall sound pressure level. The results also indicate that, whereas individual rotor tones are well predicted by the linear sources (i.e., thickness and loading), for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole sources be included in the analysis.

  6. ERA's Open Rotor Studies Including Shielding for Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale; Thomas, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The Open Rotor is a modern version of the UnDucted Fan (UDF) that was flight tested in the late 1980's through a partnership between NASA and General Electric (GE). Tests were conducted in the 9' x 15' Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the 8' x 6' Supersonic Wind Tunnel starting in late 2009 and completed in early 2012. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were obtained for takeoff, approach and cruise simulations. GE was the primary partner, but other organizations were involved such as Boeing and Airbus who provided additional hardware for fuselage simulations. This test campaign provided the acoustic and performance characteristics for modern open rotor blades designs." NASA and GE conducted joint systems analysis to evaluate how well new blade designs would perform on a B737 class aircraft, and compared the results to an advanced higher bypass ratio turbofan." Acoustic shielding experiments were performed at NASA GRC and Boeing LSAF facilities to provide data for noise estimates of unconventional aircraft configurations with Open Rotor propulsion systems." The work was sponsored by NASA's aeronautics programs, including the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) projects."

  7. An Assessment of Open Rotor Noise Prediction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Assess the current capability for predicting the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of open rotors. The testbed is a GE blade set called F31/A31 for which significant amount of aerodynamic and acoustic data was acquired in model scale tests. F31/A31 is a vintage 1990s design with a 12-bladed front rotor and a 10-bladed aft rotor. This blade set was tested in both low-speed regime (representative of approach and takeoff conditions) and high-speed regime (representative of climb and cruise conditions). Uninstalled as well as installed configurations were tested. The focus of this interim presentation is on a subset of the low-speed tests for which the tip speed was varied, but the blade setting angles and tunnel Mach number were held fixed.

  8. Isolated Open Rotor Noise Prediction Assessment Using the F31A31 Historical Blade Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, William T.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Zawodny, Nikolas S.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to mitigate next-generation fuel efficiency and environmental impact concerns for aviation, open rotor propulsion systems have received renewed interest. However, maintaining the high propulsive efficiency while simultaneously meeting noise goals has been one of the challenges in making open rotor propulsion a viable option. Improvements in prediction tools and design methodologies have opened the design space for next generation open rotor designs that satisfy these challenging objectives. As such, validation of aerodynamic and acoustic prediction tools has been an important aspect of open rotor research efforts. This paper describes validation efforts of a combined computational fluid dynamics and Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation methodology for open rotor aeroacoustic modeling. Performance and acoustic predictions were made for a benchmark open rotor blade set and compared with measurements over a range of rotor speeds and observer angles. Overall, the results indicate that the computational approach is acceptable for assessing low-noise open rotor designs. Additionally, this approach may be used to provide realistic incident source fields for acoustic shielding/scattering studies on various aircraft configurations.

  9. Limitations of Phased Array Beamforming in Open Rotor Noise Source Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Csaba; Envia, Edmane; Podboy, Gary G.

    2013-01-01

    Phased array beamforming results of the F31/A31 historical baseline counter-rotating open rotor blade set were investigated for measurement data taken on the NASA Counter-Rotating Open Rotor Propulsion Rig in the 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel of NASA Glenn Research Center as well as data produced using the LINPROP open rotor tone noise code. The planar microphone array was positioned broadside and parallel to the axis of the open rotor, roughly 2.3 rotor diameters away. The results provide insight as to why the apparent noise sources of the blade passing frequency tones and interaction tones appear at their nominal Mach radii instead of at the actual noise sources, even if those locations are not on the blades. Contour maps corresponding to the sound fields produced by the radiating sound waves, taken from the simulations, are used to illustrate how the interaction patterns of circumferential spinning modes of rotating coherent noise sources interact with the phased array, often giving misleading results, as the apparent sources do not always show where the actual noise sources are located. This suggests that a more sophisticated source model would be required to accurately locate the sources of each tone. The results of this study also have implications with regard to the shielding of open rotor sources by airframe empennages.

  10. Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced as a result of the interaction of the airstream with the counter-rotating blades. As such, robust aeroacoustic prediction methods are an essential ingredient in any approach to designing low-noise open rotor systems. To that end, an effort has been underway at NASA to assess current open rotor noise prediction tools and develop new capabilities. Under this effort, high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations of a benchmark open rotor blade set were carried out and used to make noise predictions via existing NASA open rotor noise prediction codes. The results have been compared with the aerodynamic and acoustic data that were acquired for this benchmark open rotor blade set. The emphasis of this paper is on providing a summary of recent results from a NASA Glenn effort to validate an in-house open noise prediction code called LINPROP which is based on a high-blade-count asymptotic approximation to the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Equation. The results suggest that while predicting the absolute levels may be difficult, the noise trends are reasonably well predicted by this approach.

  11. Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced as a result of the interaction of the airstream with the counter-rotating blades. As such, robust aeroacoustic prediction methods are an essential ingredient in any approach to designing low-noise open rotor systems. To that end, an effort has been underway at NASA to assess current open rotor noise prediction tools and develop new capabilities. Under this effort, high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations of a benchmark open rotor blade set were carried out and used to make noise predictions via existing NASA open rotor noise prediction codes. The results have been compared with the aerodynamic and acoustic data that were acquired for this benchmark open rotor blade set. The emphasis of this paper is on providing a summary of recent results from a NASA Glenn effort to validate an in-house open noise prediction code called LINPROP which is based on a high-blade-count asymptotic approximation to the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Equation. The results suggest that while predicting the absolute levels may be difficult, the noise trends are reasonably well predicted by this approach.

  12. Open Rotor Noise Prediction at NASA Langley - Capabilities, Research and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, Fereidoun

    2010-01-01

    The high fuel prices of recent years have caused the operating cost of the airlines to soar. In an effort to bring down the fuel consumption, the major aircraft engine manufacturers are now taking a fresh look at open rotors for the propulsion of future airliners. Open rotors, also known as propfans or unducted fans, can offer up to 30 per cent improvement in efficiency compared to high bypass engines of 1980 vintage currently in use in most civilian aircraft. NASA Langley researchers have contributed significantly to the development of aeroacoustic technology of open rotors. This report discusses the current noise prediction technology at Langley and reviews the input data requirements, strengths and limitations of each method as well as the associated problems in need of attention by the researchers. We present a brief history of research on the aeroacoustics of rotating blade machinery at Langley Research Center. We then discuss the available noise prediction codes for open rotors developed at NASA Langley and their capabilities. In particular, we present the two useful formulations used for the computation of noise from subsonic and supersonic surfaces. Here we discuss the open rotor noise prediction codes ASSPIN and one based on Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with penetrable data surface (FW - Hpds). The scattering of sound from surfaces near the rotor are calculated using the fast scattering code (FSC) which is also discussed in this report. Plans for further improvements of these codes are given.

  13. Open Rotor Tone Shielding Methods for System Noise Assessments Using Multiple Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, Christopher J.; Thomas, Russell H.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Burley, Casey L.; Van Zante, Dale E.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced aircraft designs such as the hybrid wing body, in conjunction with open rotor engines, may allow for significant improvements in the environmental impact of aviation. System noise assessments allow for the prediction of the aircraft noise of such designs while they are still in the conceptual phase. Due to significant requirements of computational methods, these predictions still rely on experimental data to account for the interaction of the open rotor tones with the hybrid wing body airframe. Recently, multiple aircraft system noise assessments have been conducted for hybrid wing body designs with open rotor engines. These assessments utilized measured benchmark data from a Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustic interaction effects test. The measured data demonstrated airframe shielding of open rotor tonal and broadband noise with legacy F7/A7 open rotor blades. Two methods are proposed for improving the use of these data on general open rotor designs in a system noise assessment. The first, direct difference, is a simple octave band subtraction which does not account for tone distribution within the rotor acoustic signal. The second, tone matching, is a higher-fidelity process incorporating additional physical aspects of the problem, where isolated rotor tones are matched by their directivity to determine tone-by-tone shielding. A case study is conducted with the two methods to assess how well each reproduces the measured data and identify the merits of each. Both methods perform similarly for system level results and successfully approach the experimental data for the case study. The tone matching method provides additional tools for assessing the quality of the match to the data set. Additionally, a potential path to improve the tone matching method is provided.

  14. System Noise Assessment and the Potential for a Low Noise Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Burley, Casey L.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Gern, Frank H.; VanZante, Dale E.

    2014-01-01

    An aircraft system noise assessment was conducted for a hybrid wing body freighter aircraft concept configured with three open rotor engines. The primary objective of the study was to determine the aircraft system level noise given the significant impact of installation effects including shielding the open rotor noise by the airframe. The aircraft was designed to carry a payload of 100,000 lbs on a 6,500 nautical mile mission. An experimental database was used to establish the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic installation effects including those from shielding by the airframe planform, interactions with the control surfaces, and additional noise reduction technologies. A second objective of the study applied the impacts of projected low noise airframe technology and a projection of advanced low noise rotors appropriate for the NASA N+2 2025 timeframe. With the projection of low noise rotors and installation effects, the aircraft system level was 26.0 EPNLdB below Stage 4 level with the engine installed at 1.0 rotor diameters upstream of the trailing edge. Moving the engine to 1.5 rotor diameters brought the system level noise to 30.8 EPNLdB below Stage 4. At these locations on the airframe, the integrated level of installation effects including shielding can be as much as 20 EPNLdB cumulative in addition to lower engine source noise from advanced low noise rotors. And finally, an additional set of technology effects were identified and the potential impact at the system level was estimated for noise only without assessing the impact on aircraft performance. If these additional effects were to be included it is estimated that the potential aircraft system noise could reach as low as 38.0 EPNLdB cumulative below Stage 4.

  15. The Role of Flow Diagnostic Techniques in Fan and Open Rotor Noise Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2016-01-01

    A principal source of turbomachinery noise is the interaction of the rotating and stationary blade rows with the perturbations in the airstream through the engine. As such, a lot of research has been devoted to the study of the turbomachinery noise generation mechanisms. This is particularly true of fan and open rotors, both of which are the major contributors to the overall noise output of modern aircraft engines. Much of the research in fan and open rotor noise has been focused on developing theoretical models for predicting their noise characteristics. These models, which run the gamut from the semi-empirical to fully computational ones, are, in one form or another, informed by the description of the unsteady flow-field in which the propulsors (i.e., the fan and open rotors) operate. Not surprisingly, the fidelity of the theoretical models is dependent, to a large extent, on capturing the nuances of the unsteady flowfield that have a direct role in the noise generation process. As such, flow diagnostic techniques have proven to be indispensible in identifying the shortcoming of theoretical models and in helping to improve them. This presentation will provide a few examples of the role of flow diagnostic techniques in assessing the fidelity and robustness of the fan and open rotor noise prediction models.

  16. Open Rotor Noise Prediction Methods at NASA Langley- A Technology Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Dunn, Mark H.; Tinetti, Ana F.; Nark, Douglas M.

    2009-01-01

    Open rotors are once again under consideration for propulsion of the future airliners because of their high efficiency. The noise generated by these propulsion systems must meet the stringent noise standards of today to reduce community impact. In this paper we review the open rotor noise prediction methods available at NASA Langley. We discuss three codes called ASSPIN (Advanced Subsonic-Supersonic Propeller Induced Noise), FW - Hpds (Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings with penetrable data surface) and the FSC (Fast Scattering Code). The first two codes are in the time domain and the third code is a frequency domain code. The capabilities of these codes and the input data requirements as well as the output data are presented. Plans for further improvements of these codes are discussed. In particular, a method based on equivalent sources is outlined to get rid of spurious signals in the FW - Hpds code.

  17. System Noise Assessment of Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft With Open Rotor Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yueping; Thomas, Russell H.

    2015-01-01

    An aircraft system noise study is presented for the Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) aircraft concept with three open rotor engines mounted on the upper surface of the airframe. It is shown that for such an aircraft, the cumulative Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) is about 24 dB below the current aircraft noise regulations of Stage 4. While this makes the design acoustically viable in meeting the regulatory requirements, even with the consideration of more stringent noise regulations of a possible Stage 5 in the next decade or so, the design will likely meet stiff competitions from aircraft with turbofan engines. It is shown that the noise levels of the BWB design are held up by the inherently high noise levels of the open rotor engines and the limitation on the shielding benefit due to the practical design constraint on the engine location. Furthermore, it is shown that the BWB design has high levels of noise from the main landing gear, due to their exposure to high speed flow at the junction between the center body and outer wing. These are also the reasons why this baseline BWB design does not meet the NASA N+2 noise goal of 42 dB below Stage 4. To identify approaches that may further reduce noise, parametric studies are also presented, including variations in engine location, vertical tail and elevon variations, and airframe surface acoustic liner treatment effect. These have the potential to further reduce noise but they are only at the conceptual stage.

  18. Active control of counter-rotating open rotor interior noise in a Dornier 728 experimental aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, Thomas; Unruh, Oliver; Algermissen, Stephan; Pohl, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The fuel consumption of future civil aircraft needs to be reduced because of the CO2 restrictions declared by the European Union. A consequent lightweight design and a new engine concept called counter-rotating open rotor are seen as key technologies in the attempt to reach this ambitious goals. Bearing in mind that counter-rotating open rotor engines emit very high sound pressures at low frequencies and that lightweight structures have a poor transmission loss in the lower frequency range, these key technologies raise new questions in regard to acoustic passenger comfort. One of the promising solutions for the reduction of sound pressure levels inside the aircraft cabin are active sound and vibration systems. So far, active concepts have rarely been investigated for a counter-rotating open rotor pressure excitation on complex airframe structures. Hence, the state of the art is augmented by the preliminary study presented in this paper. The study shows how an active vibration control system can influence the sound transmission of counter-rotating open rotor noise through a complex airframe structure into the cabin. Furthermore, open questions on the way towards the realisation of an active control system are addressed. In this phase, an active feedforward control system is investigated in a fully equipped Dornier 728 experimental prototype aircraft. In particular, the sound transmission through the airframe, the coupling of classical actuators (inertial and piezoelectric patch actuators) into the structure and the performance of the active vibration control system with different error sensors are investigated. It can be shown that the active control system achieves a reduction up to 5 dB at several counter-rotating open rotor frequencies but also that a better performance could be achieved through further optimisations.

  19. Assessment of Geometry and In-Flow Effects on Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Broadband Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zawodny, Nikolas S.; Nark, Douglas M.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Application of previously formulated semi-analytical models for the prediction of broadband noise due to turbulent rotor wake interactions and rotor blade trailing edges is performed on the historical baseline F31/A31 contra-rotating open rotor configuration. Simplified two-dimensional blade element analysis is performed on cambered NACA 4-digit airfoil profiles, which are meant to serve as substitutes for the actual rotor blade sectional geometries. Rotor in-flow effects such as induced axial and tangential velocities are incorporated into the noise prediction models based on supporting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results and simplified in-flow velocity models. Emphasis is placed on the development of simplified rotor in-flow models for the purpose of performing accurate noise predictions independent of CFD information. The broadband predictions are found to compare favorably with experimental acoustic results.

  20. Tone and Broadband Noise Separation from Acoustic Data of a Scale-Model Counter-Rotating Open Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sree, David; Stephens, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Renewed interest in contra-rotating open rotor technology for aircraft propulsion application has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic tools for better design and improved acoustical performance. In particular, the determination of tonal and broadband components of open rotor acoustic spectra is essential for properly assessing the noise control parameters and also for validating the open rotor noise simulation codes. The technique of phase averaging has been employed to separate the tone and broadband components from a single rotor, but this method does not work for the two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor. A new signal processing technique was recently developed to process the contra-rotating open rotor acoustic data. The technique was first tested using acoustic data taken of a hobby aircraft open rotor propeller, and reported previously. The intent of the present work is to verify and validate the applicability of the new technique to a realistic one-fifth scale open rotor model which has 12 forward and 10 aft contra-rotating blades operating at realistic forward flight Mach numbers and tip speeds. The results and discussions of that study are presented in this paper.

  1. Tone and Broadband Noise Separation from Acoustic Data of a Scale-Model Contra-Rotating Open Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sree, Dave; Stephens, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Renewed interest in contra-rotating open rotor technology for aircraft propulsion application has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic tools for better design and improved acoustical performance. In particular, the determination of tonal and broadband components of open rotor acoustic spectra is essential for properly assessing the noise control parameters and also for validating the open rotor noise simulation codes. The technique of phase averaging has been employed to separate the tone and broadband components from a single rotor, but this method does not work for the two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor. A new signal processing technique was recently developed to process the contra-rotating open rotor acoustic data. The technique was first tested using acoustic data taken of a hobby aircraft open rotor propeller, and reported previously. The intent of the present work is to verify and validate the applicability of the new technique to a realistic one-fifth scale open rotor model which has 12 forward and 10 aft contra-rotating blades operating at realistic forward flight Mach numbers and tip speeds. The results and discussions of that study are presented in this paper.

  2. Previous Open Rotor Research in the US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Previous Open Rotor noise experience in the United States, current Open Rotor noise research in the United States and current NASA prediction methods activities were presented at a European Union (EU) X-Noise seminar. The invited attendees from EU industries, research establishments and universities discussed prospects for reducing Open Rotor noise and reviewed all technology programs, past and present, dedicated to Open Rotor engine concepts. This workshop was particularly timely because the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) plans to involve Independent Experts in late 2011 in assessing the noise of future low-carbon technologies including the open rotor.

  3. Open Rotor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale E.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The ERA project executed a comprehensive test program for Open Rotor aerodynamic and acoustic performance. System studies used the data to estimate the fuel burn savings and acoustic margin for an aircraft system with open rotor propulsion. The acoustic measurements were used to produce an auralization that compares the legacy blades to the current generation of open rotor designs.

  4. Structured Overlapping Grid Simulations of Contra-rotating Open Rotor Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housman, Jeffrey A.; Kiris, Cetin C.

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations using structured overlapping grids with the Launch Ascent and Vehicle Aerodynamics (LAVA) solver framework are presented for predicting tonal noise generated by a contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) propulsion system. A coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational AeroAcoustics (CAA) numerical approach is applied. Three-dimensional time-accurate hybrid Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes/Large Eddy Simulation (RANS/LES) CFD simulations are performed in the inertial frame, including dynamic moving grids, using a higher-order accurate finite difference discretization on structured overlapping grids. A higher-order accurate free-stream preserving metric discretization with discrete enforcement of the Geometric Conservation Law (GCL) on moving curvilinear grids is used to create an accurate, efficient, and stable numerical scheme. The aeroacoustic analysis is based on a permeable surface Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) approach, evaluated in the frequency domain. A time-step sensitivity study was performed using only the forward row of blades to determine an adequate time-step. The numerical approach is validated against existing wind tunnel measurements.

  5. On vortex-airfoil interaction noise including span-end effects, with application to open-rotor aeroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Michel; Schram, Christophe; Moreau, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    A linear analytical model is developed for the chopping of a cylindrical vortex by a flat-plate airfoil, with or without a span-end effect. The major interest is the contribution of the tip-vortex produced by an upstream rotating blade in the rotor-rotor interaction noise mechanism of counter-rotating open rotors. Therefore the interaction is primarily addressed in an annular strip of limited spanwise extent bounding the impinged blade segment, and the unwrapped strip is described in Cartesian coordinates. The study also addresses the interaction of a propeller wake with a downstream wing or empennage. Cylindrical vortices are considered, for which the velocity field is expanded in two-dimensional gusts in the reference frame of the airfoil. For each gust the response of the airfoil is derived, first ignoring the effect of the span end, assimilating the airfoil to a rigid flat plate, with or without sweep. The corresponding unsteady lift acts as a distribution of acoustic dipoles, and the radiated sound is obtained from a radiation integral over the actual extent of the airfoil. In the case of tip-vortex interaction noise in CRORs the acoustic signature is determined for vortex trajectories passing beyond, exactly at and below the tip radius of the impinged blade segment, in a reference frame attached to the segment. In a second step the same problem is readdressed accounting for the effect of span end on the aerodynamic response of a blade tip. This is achieved through a composite two-directional Schwarzschild's technique. The modifications of the distributed unsteady lift and of the radiated sound are discussed. The chained source and radiation models provide physical insight into the mechanism of vortex chopping by a blade tip in free field. They allow assessing the acoustic benefit of clipping the rear rotor in a counter-rotating open-rotor architecture.

  6. Open Rotor Spin Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    An open rotor, also known as a high-speed propeller, is tested in a wind tunnel. The propeller moves much more quickly than a standard propeller, and the blades of the propeller are shaped differen...

  7. Helicopter tail rotor noise analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.

  8. Open Rotor - Analysis of Diagnostic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2011-01-01

    NASA is researching open rotor propulsion as part of its technology research and development plan for addressing the subsonic transport aircraft noise, emission and fuel burn goals. The low-speed wind tunnel test for investigating the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a benchmark blade set at the approach and takeoff conditions has recently concluded. A high-speed wind tunnel diagnostic test campaign has begun to investigate the performance of this benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Databases from both speed regimes will comprise a comprehensive collection of benchmark open rotor data for use in assessing/validating aerodynamic and noise prediction tools (component & system level) as well as providing insights into the physics of open rotors to help guide the development of quieter open rotors.

  9. Prediction of the Aero-Acoustic Performance of Open Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale; Envia, Edmane

    2014-01-01

    The rising cost of jet fuel has renewed interest in contrarotating open rotor propulsion systems. Contemporary design methods offer the potential to maintain the inherently high aerodynamic efficiency of open rotors while greatly reducing their noise output, something that was not feasible in the 1980's designs. The primary source mechanisms of open rotor noise generation are thought to be the front rotor wake and tip vortex interacting with the aft rotor. In this paper, advanced measurement techniques and high-fidelity prediction tools are used to gain insight into the relative importance of the contributions to the open rotor noise signature of the front rotor wake and rotor tip vortex. The measurements include three-dimensional particle image velocimetry of the intra-rotor flowfield and the acoustic field of a model-scale open rotor. The predictions provide the unsteady flowfield and the associated acoustic field. The results suggest that while the front rotor tip vortex can have a significant influence on the blade passing tone noise produced by the aft rotor, the front rotor wake plays the decisive role in the generation of the interaction noise produced as a result of the unsteady aerodynamic interaction of the two rotors. At operating conditions typical of takeoff and landing operations, the interaction noise level is easily on par with that generated by the individual rotors, and in some cases is even higher. This suggests that a comprehensive approach to reducing open rotor noise should include techniques for mitigating the wake of the front rotor as well as eliminating the interaction of the front rotor tip vortex with the aft rotor blade tip.

  10. Application of an Aligned and Unaligned Signal Processing Technique to Investigate Tones and Broadband Noise in Fan and Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Acoustic Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton; Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2015-01-01

    The study of noise from a two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) is challenging since the shafts are not phase locked in most cases. Consequently, phase averaging of the acoustic data keyed to a single shaft rotation speed is not meaningful. An unaligned spectrum procedure that was developed to estimate a signal coherence threshold and reveal concealed spectral lines in turbofan engine combustion noise is applied to fan and CROR acoustic data in this paper.

  11. Rotor blade vortex interaction noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yung H.

    2000-02-01

    Blade-vortex interaction noise-generated by helicopter main rotor blades is one of the most severe noise problems and is very important both in military applications and community acceptance of rotorcraft. Research over the decades has substantially improved physical understanding of noise-generating mechanisms, and various design concepts have been investigated to control noise radiation using advanced blade planform shapes and active blade control techniques. The important parameters to control rotor blade-vortex interaction noise and vibration have been identified: blade tip vortex structures and its trajectory, blade aeroelastic deformation, and airloads. Several blade tip design concepts have been investigated for diffusing tip vortices and also for reducing noise. However, these tip shapes have not been able to substantially reduce blade-vortex interaction noise without degradation of rotor performance. Meanwhile, blade root control techniques, such as higher-harmonic pitch control (HHC) and individual blade control (IBC) concepts, have been extensively investigated for noise and vibration reduction. The HHC technique has proved the substantial blade-vortex interaction noise reduction, up to 6 dB, while vibration and low-frequency noise have been increased. Tests with IBC techniques have shown the simultaneous reduction of rotor noise and vibratory loads with 2/rev pitch control inputs. Recently, active blade control concepts with smart structures have been investigated with the emphasis on active blade twist and trailing edge flap. Smart structures technologies are very promising, but further advancements are needed to meet all the requirements of rotorcraft applications in frequency, force, and displacement.

  12. Tip Vortex and Wake Characteristics of a Counterrotating Open Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale E.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    One of the primary noise sources for Open Rotor systems is the interaction of the forward rotor tip vortex and blade wake with the aft rotor. NASA has collaborated with General Electric on the testing of a new generation of low noise, counterrotating Open Rotor systems. Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurements were acquired in the intra-rotor gap of the Historical Baseline blade set. The velocity measurements are of sufficient resolution to characterize the tip vortex size and trajectory as well as the rotor wake decay and turbulence character. The tip clearance vortex trajectory is compared to results from previously developed models. Forward rotor wake velocity profiles are shown. Results are presented in a form as to assist numerical modeling of Open Rotor system aerodynamics and acoustics.

  13. Open Rotor Research at NASA Glenn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale E.

    2011-01-01

    A low-noise open rotor system is being tested in collaboration with General Electric and CFM International, a 50/50 joint company between Snecma and GE. Candidate technologies for lower noise will be investigated as well as installation effects such as pylon integration. The research program in both the low and high-speed wind tunnels is reviewed. Some detailed flowfield and acoustics measurements acquired for an internal NASA program are highlighted. The publically available research data is presented also.

  14. LAVA Applications to Open Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Housman, Jeff; Barad, Mike; Brehm, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Outline: LAVA (Launch Ascent Vehicle Aerodynamics); Introduction; Acoustics Related Applications; LAVA Applications to Open Rotor; Structured Overset Grids; Cartesian Grid with Immersed Boundary; High Speed Case; High Speed Case with Plate Low Speed Case.

  15. Advances in tilt rotor noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Coffen, C. D.; Ringler, T. D.

    1992-01-01

    The two most serious tilt rotor external noise problems, hover noise and blade-vortex interaction noise, are studied. The results of flow visualization and inflow velocity measurements document a complex, recirculating highly unsteady and turbulent flow due to the rotor-wing-body interactions characteristic of tilt rotors. The wing under the rotor is found to obstruct the inflow, causing a deficit in the inflow velocities over the inboard region of the rotor. Discrete frequency harmonic thickness and loading noise mechanisms in hover are examined by first modeling tilt rotor hover aerodynamics and then applying various noise prediction methods using the WOPWOP code. The analysis indicates that the partial ground plane created by the wing below the rotor results in a primary sound source for hover.

  16. Prediction and reduction of rotor broadband noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, R. E.; Aravamudan, K. S.

    1978-01-01

    Prediction techniques which can be or have been applied to subsonic rotors, and methods for designing helicopter rotors for reduced broadband noise generation are summarized. It is shown how detailed physical models of the noise source can be used to identify approaches to noise control.

  17. A study of rotor broadband noise mechanisms and helicopter tail rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shau-Tak Rudy

    1990-01-01

    The rotor broadband noise mechanisms considered are the following: (1) lift fluctuation due to turbulence ingestion; (2) boundary layer/trailing edge interaction; (3) tip vortex formation; and (4) turbulent vortex shedding from blunt trailing edge. Predictions show good agreement with available experimental data. The study shows that inflow turbulence is the most important broadband noise source for typical helicopters' main rotors at low- and mid-frequencies. Due to the size difference, isolated helicopter tail rotor broadband noise is not important compared to the much louder main rotor broadband noise. However, the inflow turbulence noise from a tail rotor can be very significant because it is operating in a highly turbulent environment, ingesting wakes from upstream components of the helicopter. The study indicates that the main rotor turbulent wake is the most important source of tail rotor broadband noise. The harmonic noise due to ingestion of main rotor tip vortices is studied.

  18. Application of an Aligned and Unaligned Signal Processing Technique to Investigate Tones and Broadband Noise in Fan and Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Acoustic Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton; Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2015-01-01

    The study of noise from a two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) is challenging since the shafts are not phase locked in most cases. Consequently, phase averaging of the acoustic data keyed to a single shaft rotation speed is not meaningful. An unaligned spectrum procedure that was developed to estimate a signal coherence threshold and reveal concealed spectral lines in turbofan engine combustion noise is applied to fan and CROR acoustic data in this paper (also available as NASA/TM-2015-218865). The NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program, Advanced Air Transport Technology Project, Aircraft Noise Reduction Subproject supported the current work. The fan and open rotor data were obtained under previous efforts supported by the NASA Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Project and the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project of the Integrated Systems Research Program in collaboration with GE Aviation, respectively. The overarching goal of the Advanced Air Transport (AATT) Project is to explore and develop technologies and concepts to revolutionize the energy efficiency and environmental compatibility of fixed wing transport aircrafts. These technological solutions are critical in reducing the impact of aviation on the environment even as this industry and the corresponding global transportation system continue to grow.

  19. Analysis of a Stretched Derivative Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Haller, William J.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Research into advanced, high-speed civil turboprops received significant attention during the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of U.S. aeronautical research. But when fuel prices declined sharply there was no longer sufficient motivation to continue maturing the technology. Recent volatility in fuel prices and increasing concern for aviation's environmental impact, however, have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion and revived research by NASA and a number of engine manufacturers. Recently, NASA and General Electric have teamed to conduct several investigations into the performance and noise of an advanced, single-aisle transport with open rotor propulsion. The results of these initial studies indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide significant reduction in fuel consumption compared to aircraft using turbofan engines with equivalent core technology. In addition, noise analysis of the concept indicates that an open rotor aircraft in the single-aisle transport class would be able to meet current noise regulations with margin. The behavior of derivative open rotor transports is of interest. Heavier, "stretched" derivative aircraft tend to be noisier than their lighter relatives. Of particular importance to the business case for the concept is how the noise margin changes relative to regulatory limits within a family of similar open rotor aircraft. The subject of this report is a performance and noise assessment of a notional, heavier, stretched derivative airplane equipped with throttle-push variants of NASA's initial open rotor engine design.

  20. Design of helicopter rotors to noise constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaeffer, E. G.; Sternfeld, H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Results of the initial phase of a research project to study the design constraints on helicopter noise are presented. These include the calculation of nonimpulsive rotor harmonic and broadband hover noise spectra, over a wide range of rotor design variables and the sensitivity of perceived noise level (PNL) to changes in rotor design parameters. The prediction methodology used correlated well with measured whirl tower data. Application of the predictions to variations in rotor design showed tip speed and thrust as having the most effect on changing PNL.

  1. Open Rotor: New Option for Jet Engines

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Dale Van Zante describes how the open rotor propulsion system will be tested in a wind tunnel at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Open rotor aircraft engines use high-speed propellers and are c...

  2. Prediction of helicopter rotor rotational noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guohua; Gao, Zheng

    1991-06-01

    Based on Farassat (1981) formulation 1A for subsonic time domain, a method is developed for predicting the rotor rotational noise, which is valid for arbitrary observer positions and all linear flight conditions. Without considering the elasticity of the blade, the retarded time equation and all of the integrands in the formulation 1A are derived and expressed as the proper form for numerical calculation. As examples, the noise calculation of the helicopter Z-8 rotor and 1/4 scale UH-1 rotor in hover are carried out. Discussions are presented on the influence of rotor parameters, such as the tip Mach number, the disk loading, and the blade airfoil.

  3. Theoretical models of helicopter rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkings, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    For low speed rotors, it is shown that unsteady load models are only partially successful in predicting experimental levels. A theoretical model is presented which leads to the concept of unsteady thickness noise. This gives better agreement with test results. For high speed rotors, it is argued that present models are incomplete and that other mechanisms are at work. Some possibilities are briefly discussed.

  4. Forward sweep, low noise rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A forward-swept, low-noise rotor blade includes an inboard section, an aft-swept section and a forward-swept outboard section. The rotor blade reduces the noise of rotorcraft, including both standard helicopters and advanced systems such as tiltrotors. The primary noise reduction feature is the forward sweep of the planform over a large portion of the outer blade radius. The rotor blade also includes an aft-swept section. The purpose of the aft-swept region is to provide a partial balance to pitching moments produced by the outboard forward-swept portion of the blade. The rotor blade has a constant chord width; or has a chord width which decreases linearly along the entire blade span; or combines constant and decreasing chord widths, wherein the blade is of constant chord width from the blade root to a certain location on the rotor blade, then decreases linearly to the blade tip thereafter. The noise source showing maximum noise reduction is blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. Also reduced are thickness, noise, high speed impulsive noise, cabin vibration and loading noise.

  5. Blended Wing Body Concept Development with Open Rotor Engine Intergration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitera, David M.; DeHaan, Mark; Brown, Derrell; Kawai, Ronald T.; Hollowell, Steve; Camacho, Peter; Bruns, David; Rawden, Blaine K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform a systems analysis of a Blended Wing Body (BWB) open rotor concept at the conceptual design level. This concept will be utilized to estimate overall noise and fuel burn performance, leveraging recent test data. This study will also investigate the challenge of propulsion airframe installation of an open rotor engine on a BWB configuration. Open rotor engines have unique problems relative to turbofans. The rotors are open, exposed to flow conditions outside of the engine. The flow field that the rotors are immersed in may be higher than the free stream flow and it may not be uniform, both of these characteristics could increase noise and decrease performance. The rotors sometimes cause changes in the flow conditions imposed on aircraft surfaces. At high power conditions such as takeoff and climb out, the stream tube of air that goes through the rotors contracts rapidly causing the boundary layer on the body upper surface to go through an adverse pressure gradient which could result with separated airflow. The BWB / Open Rotor configuration must be designed to mitigate these problems.

  6. Effect of AFT Rotor on the Inter-Rotor Flow of an Open Rotor Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaboch, Paul E.; Stephens, David B.; Van Zante, Dale E.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aft rotor on the inter-rotor flow field of an open rotor propulsion rig were examined. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) dataset that was acquired phase locked to the front rotor position has been phase averaged based on the relative phase angle between the forward and aft rotors. The aft rotor phase was determined by feature tracking in raw PIV images through an image processing algorithm. The effect of the aft rotor potential field on the inter-rotor flow were analyzed and shown to be in good agreement with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. It was shown that the aft rotor had no substantial effect on the position of the forward rotor tip vortex but did have a small effect on the circulation strength of the vortex when the rotors were highly loaded.

  7. Tail Rotor Airfoils Stabilize Helicopters, Reduce Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Founded by former Ames Research Center engineer Jim Van Horn, Van Horn Aviation of Tempe, Arizona, built upon a Langley Research Center airfoil design to create a high performance aftermarket tail rotor for the popular Bell 206 helicopter. The highly durable rotor has a lifetime twice that of the original equipment manufacturer blade, reduces noise by 40 percent, and displays enhanced performance at high altitudes. These improvements benefit helicopter performance for law enforcement, military training, wildfire and pipeline patrols, and emergency medical services.

  8. Aeroacoustic and Performance Simulations of a Test Scale Open Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, Russell W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores a comparison between experimental data and numerical simulations of the historical baseline F31/A31 open rotor geometry. The experimental data were obtained at the NASA Glenn Research Center s Aeroacoustic facility and include performance and noise information for a variety of flow speeds (matching take-off and cruise). The numerical simulations provide both performance and aeroacoustic results using the NUMECA s Fine-Turbo analysis code. A non-linear harmonic method is used to capture the rotor/rotor interaction.

  9. Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Installation Effects for Conventional and Unconventional Airframes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czech, Michael J.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2013-01-01

    As extensive experimental campaign was performed to study the aeroacoustic installation effects of an open rotor with respect to both a conventional tube and wing type airframe and an unconventional hybrid wing body airframe. The open rotor rig had two counter rotating rows of blades each with eight blades of a design originally flight tested in the 1980s. The aeroacoustic installation effects measured in an aeroacoustic wind tunnel included those from flow effects due to inflow distortion or wake interaction and acoustic propagation effects such as shielding and reflection. The objective of the test campaign was to quantify the installation effects for a wide range of parameters and configurations derived from the two airframe types. For the conventional airframe, the open rotor was positioned in increments in front of and then over the main wing and then in positions representative of tail mounted aircraft with a conventional tail, a T-tail and a U-tail. The interaction of the wake of the open rotor as well as acoustic scattering results in an increase of about 10 dB when the rotor is positioned in front of the main wing. When positioned over the main wing a substantial amount of noise reduction is obtained and this is also observed for tail-mounted installations with a large U-tail. For the hybrid wing body airframe, the open rotor was positioned over the airframe along the centerline as well as off-center representing a twin engine location. A primary result was the documentation of the noise reduction from shielding as a function of the location of the open rotor upstream of the trailing edge of the hybrid wing body. The effects from vertical surfaces and elevon deflection were also measured. Acoustic lining was specially designed and inserted flush with the elevon and airframe surface, the result was an additional reduction in open rotor noise propagating to the far field microphones. Even with the older blade design used, the experiment provided

  10. NASA/GE Collaboration on Open Rotors - High Speed Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale E.

    2011-01-01

    A low-noise open rotor system is being tested in collaboration with General Electric and CFM International, a 50/50 joint company between Snecmaand GE. Candidate technologies for lower noise will be investigated as well as installation effects such as pylon integration. Current test status for the 8x6 SWT high speed testing is presented as well as future scheduled testing which includes the FAA/CLEEN test entry. The tunnel blockage and propeller thrust calibration configurations are shown.

  11. Nearfield Unsteady Pressures at Cruise Mach Numbers for a Model Scale Counter-Rotation Open Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David B.

    2012-01-01

    An open rotor experiment was conducted at cruise Mach numbers and the unsteady pressure in the nearfield was measured. The system included extensive performance measurements, which can help provide insight into the noise generating mechanisms in the absence of flow measurements. A set of data acquired at a constant blade pitch angle but various rotor speeds was examined. The tone levels generated by the front and rear rotor were found to be nearly equal when the thrust was evenly balanced between rotors.

  12. Research investigation of helicopter main rotor/tail rotor interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J.; Kohlhepp, F.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic measurements were obtained in a Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to study the aeroacoustic interaction of 1/5th scale main rotor, tail rotor, and fuselage models. An extensive aeroacoustic data base was acquired for main rotor, tail rotor, fuselage aerodynamic interaction for moderate forward speed flight conditions. The details of the rotor models, experimental design and procedure, aerodynamic and acoustic data acquisition and reduction are presented. The model was initially operated in trim for selected fuselage angle of attack, main rotor tip-path-plane angle, and main rotor thrust combinations. The effects of repositioning the tail rotor in the main rotor wake and the corresponding tail rotor countertorque requirements were determined. Each rotor was subsequently tested in isolation at the thrust and angle of attack combinations for trim. The acoustic data indicated that the noise was primarily dominated by the main rotor, especially for moderate speed main rotor blade-vortex interaction conditions. The tail rotor noise increased when the main rotor was removed indicating that tail rotor inflow was improved with the main rotor present.

  13. Open Rotor Computational Aeroacoustic Analysis with an Immersed Boundary Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brehm, Christoph; Barad, Michael F.; Kiris, Cetin C.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable noise prediction capabilities are essential to enable novel fuel efficient open rotor designs that can meet the community and cabin noise standards. Toward this end, immersed boundary methods have reached a level of maturity so that they are being frequently employed for specific real world applications within NASA. This paper demonstrates that our higher-order immersed boundary method provides the ability for aeroacoustic analysis of wake-dominated flow fields generated by highly complex geometries. This is the first of a kind aeroacoustic simulation of an open rotor propulsion system employing an immersed boundary method. In addition to discussing the peculiarities of applying the immersed boundary method to this moving boundary problem, we will provide a detailed aeroacoustic analysis of the noise generation mechanisms encountered in the open rotor flow. The simulation data is compared to available experimental data and other computational results employing more conventional CFD methods. The noise generation mechanisms are analyzed employing spectral analysis, proper orthogonal decomposition and the causality method.

  14. Helicopter tail rotor blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Albert R.; Chou, S.-T.

    1987-01-01

    A study is made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to the interactions with main rotor tip vortices. Summarized here are present analysis, the computer codes, and the results of several test cases. Amiet's unsteady thin airfoil theory is used to calculate the acoustics of blade-vortex interaction. The noise source is modelled as a force dipole resulting from an airfoil of infinite span chopping through a skewed line vortex. To analyze the interactions between helicopter tail rotor and main rotor tip vortices, we developed a two-step approach: (1) the main rotor tip vortex system is obtained through a free wake geometry calculation of the main rotor using CAMRAD code; (2) acoustic analysis takes the results from the aerodynamic interaction analysis and calculates the farfield pressure signatures for the interactions. It is found that under a wide range of helicopter flight conditions, acoustic pressure fluctuations of significant magnitude can be generated by tail rotors due to a series of interactions with main rotor tip vortices. This noise mechanism depends strongly on the helicopter flight conditions and the relative location and phasing of the main and tail rotors. fluctuations of significant magnitude can be generated by tail rotors due to a series of interactions with main rotor tip vortices. This noise mechanism depends strongly upon the helicopter flight conditions and the relative location and phasing of the main and tail rotors.

  15. Reestablishing Open Rotor as an Option for Significant Fuel Burn Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale

    2011-01-01

    A low-noise open rotor system is being tested in collaboration with General Electric and CFM International, a 50/50 joint company between Snecma and GE. Candidate technologies for lower noise will be investigated as well as installation effects such as pylon integration. Current test status is presented as well as future scheduled testing which includes the FAA/CLEEN test entry. Pre-test predictions show that Open Rotors have the potential for revolutionary fuel burn savings.

  16. Open Rotor Computational Aeroacoustic Analysis with an Immersed Boundary Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brehm, Christoph; Barad, Michael F.; Kiris, Cetin C.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable noise prediction capabilities are essential to enable novel fuel efficient open rotor designs that can meet the community and cabin noise standards. Toward this end, immersed boundary methods have reached a level of maturity where more and more complex flow problems can be tackled with this approach. This paper demonstrates that our higher-order immersed boundary method provides the ability for aeroacoustic analysis of wake-dominated flow fields generated by a contra-rotating open rotor. This is the first of a kind aeroacoustic simulation of an open rotor propulsion system employing an immersed boundary method. In addition to discussing the methodologies of how to apply the immersed boundary method to this moving boundary problem, we will provide a detailed validation of the aeroacoustic analysis approach employing the Launch Ascent and Vehicle Aerodynamics (LAVA) solver. Two free-stream Mach numbers with M=0.2 and M=0.78 are considered in this analysis that are based on the nominally take-off and cruise flow conditions. The simulation data is compared to available experimental data and other computational results employing more conventional CFD methods. Spectral analysis is used to determine the dominant wave propagation pattern in the acoustic near-field.

  17. Performance and Environmental Assessment of an Advanced Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Haller, William J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Tong, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Application of high speed, advanced turboprops, or "propfans," to transonic transport aircraft received significant attention during the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of aeronautical research. Unfortunately, after fuel prices declined sharply there was no longer sufficient motivation to continue maturing this technology. Recent volatility in fuel prices and increasing concern for aviation s environmental impact, however, have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion. Because of the renewed interest in open rotor propulsion, the lack of publicly available up-to-date studies assessing its benefits, and NASA s focus on reducing fuel consumption, a preliminary aircraft system level study on open rotor propulsion was initiated to inform decisions concerning research in this area. New analysis processes were established to assess the characteristics of open rotor aircraft. These processes were then used to assess the performance, noise, and emissions characteristics of an advanced, single-aisle aircraft using open rotor propulsion. The results of this initial study indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide significant reductions in fuel consumption and landing-takeoff cycle NOX emissions. Noise analysis of the study configuration indicates that an open rotor aircraft in the single-aisle class would be able to meet current noise regulations with margin.

  18. Rotor Broadband Noise Prediction with Comparison to Model Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Burley, Casey L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis and prediction development of rotor broadband noise. The two primary components of this noise are Blade-Wake Interaction (BWI) noise, due to the blades' interaction with the turbulent wakes of the preceding blades, and "Self" noise, due to the development and shedding of turbulence within the blades' boundary layers. Emphasized in this report is the new code development for Self noise. The analysis and validation employs data from the HART program, a model BO-105 rotor wind tunnel test conducted in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). The BWI noise predictions are based on measured pressure response coherence functions using cross-spectral methods. The Self noise predictions are based on previously reported semiempirical modeling of Self noise obtained from isolated airfoil sections and the use of CAMRAD.Modl to define rotor performance and local blade segment flow conditions. Both BWI and Self noise from individual blade segments are Doppler shifted and summed at the observer positions. Prediction comparisons with measurements show good agreement for a range of rotor operating conditions from climb to steep descent. The broadband noise predictions, along with those of harmonic and impulsive Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise predictions, demonstrate a significant advance in predictive capability for main rotor noise.

  19. Helicopter main-rotor noise: Determination of source contributions using scaled model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Jolly, J. Ralph, Jr.; Marcolini, Michael A.

    1988-08-01

    Acoustic data from a test of a 40 percent model MBB BO-105 helicopter main rotor are scaled to equivalent full-scale flyover cases. The test was conducted in the anechoic open test section of the German-Dutch Windtunnel (DNW). The measured data are in the form of acoustic pressure time histories and spectra from two out-of-flow microphones underneath and foward of the model. These are scaled to correspond to measurements made at locations 150 m below the flight path of a full-scale rotor. For the scaled data, a detailed analysis is given for the identification in the data of the noise contributions from different rotor noise sources. Key results include a component breakdown of the noise contributions, in terms of noise criteria calculations of a weighted sound pressure level (dBA) and perceived noise level (PNL), as functions of rotor advance ratio and descent angle. It is shown for the scaled rotor that, during descent, impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is the dominant contributor to the noise. In level flight and mild climb, broadband blade-turbulent wake interaction (BWI) noise is dominant due to the absence of BVI activity. At high climb angles, BWI is reduced and self-noise from blade boundary-layer turbulence becomes the most prominent.

  20. Helicopter main-rotor noise: Determination of source contributions using scaled model data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Jolly, J. Ralph, Jr.; Marcolini, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic data from a test of a 40 percent model MBB BO-105 helicopter main rotor are scaled to equivalent full-scale flyover cases. The test was conducted in the anechoic open test section of the German-Dutch Windtunnel (DNW). The measured data are in the form of acoustic pressure time histories and spectra from two out-of-flow microphones underneath and foward of the model. These are scaled to correspond to measurements made at locations 150 m below the flight path of a full-scale rotor. For the scaled data, a detailed analysis is given for the identification in the data of the noise contributions from different rotor noise sources. Key results include a component breakdown of the noise contributions, in terms of noise criteria calculations of a weighted sound pressure level (dBA) and perceived noise level (PNL), as functions of rotor advance ratio and descent angle. It is shown for the scaled rotor that, during descent, impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is the dominant contributor to the noise. In level flight and mild climb, broadband blade-turbulent wake interaction (BWI) noise is dominant due to the absence of BVI activity. At high climb angles, BWI is reduced and self-noise from blade boundary-layer turbulence becomes the most prominent.

  1. Evaluation of the annoyance due to helicopter rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Doyle, L. B.

    1978-01-01

    A program was conducted in which 25 test subjects adjusted the levels of various helicopter rotor spectra until the combination of the harmonic noise and a broadband background noise was judged equally annoying as a higher level of the same broadband noise spectrum. The subjective measure of added harmonic noise was equated to the difference in the two levels of broadband noise. The test participants also made subjective evaluations of the rotor noise signatures which they created. The test stimuli consisted of three degrees of rotor impulsiveness, each presented at four blade passage rates. Each of these 12 harmonic sounds was combined with three broadband spectra and was adjusted to match the annoyance of three different sound pressure levels of broadband noise. Analysis of variance indicated that the important variables were level and impulsiveness. Regression analyses indicated that inclusion of crest factor improved correlation between the subjective measures and various objective or physical measures.

  2. Initial Assessment of Open Rotor Propulsion Applied to an Advanced Single-Aisle Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Tong, Michael T.; Haller, William J.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Application of high speed, advanced turboprops, or propfans, to subsonic transport aircraft received significant attention and research in the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of aeronautical research. Recent volatility in fuel prices and concern for aviation s environmental impact have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion, and revived research by NASA and a number of engine manufacturers. Unfortunately, in the two decades that have passed since open rotor concepts were thoroughly investigated, NASA has lost experience and expertise in this technology area. This paper describes initial efforts to re-establish NASA s capability to assess aircraft designs with open rotor propulsion. Specifically, methodologies for aircraft-level sizing, performance analysis, and system-level noise analysis are described. Propulsion modeling techniques have been described in a previous paper. Initial results from application of these methods to an advanced single-aisle aircraft using open rotor engines based on historical blade designs are presented. These results indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide large reductions in fuel consumption and emissions. Initial noise analysis indicates that current noise regulations can be met with old blade designs and modern, noiseoptimized blade designs are expected to result in even lower noise levels. Although an initial capability has been established and initial results obtained, additional development work is necessary to make NASA s open rotor system analysis capability on par with existing turbofan analysis capabilities.

  3. Updated Assessment of an Open Rotor Airplane Using an Advanced Blade Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Eric S.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael T.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Application of open rotor propulsion systems (historically referred to as "advanced turboprops" or "propfans") to subsonic transport aircraft received significant attention and research in the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of aeronautical research. Recent volatility in fuel prices and concern for aviation's environmental impact have renewed interest in open rotor propulsion, and revived research by NASA and a number of engine manufacturers. Over the last few years, NASA has revived and developed analysis capabilities to assess aircraft designs with open rotor propulsion systems. These efforts have been described in several previous papers along with initial results from applying these capabilities. The initial results indicated that open rotor engines have the potential to provide large reductions in fuel consumption and emissions. Initial noise analysis indicated that current noise regulations can be met with modern baseline blade designs. Improved blades incorporating low-noise features are expected to result in even lower noise levels. This paper describes improvements to the initial assessment, plus a follow-on study using a more advanced open rotor blade design to power the advanced singleaisle transport. The predicted performance and environmental results of these two advanced open rotor concepts are presented and compared.

  4. Helicopter rotor noise due to ingestion of atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.; Greitzer, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical study was conducted to develop an analytical prediction method for helicopter main rotor noise due to the ingestion of atmospheric turbulence. This study incorporates an atmospheric turbulence model, a rotor mean flow contraction model and a rapid distortion turbulence model which together determine the statistics of the non-isotropic turbulence at the rotor plane. Inputs to the combined mean inflow and turbulence models are controlled by atmospheric wind characteristics and helicopter operating conditions. A generalized acoustic source model was used to predict the far field noise generated by the non-isotropic flow incident on the rotor. Absolute levels for acoustic spectra and directivity patterns were calculated for full scale helicopters, without the use of empirical or adjustable constants. Comparisons between isotropic and non-isotropic turbulence at the rotor face demonstrated pronounced differences in acoustic spectra. Turning and contraction of the flow for hover and low speed vertical ascent cases result in a 3 dB increase in the acoustic spectrum energy and a 10 dB increase in tone levels. Compared to trailing edge noise, turbulence ingestion noise is the dominant noise mechanism below approximately 30 rotor harmonics, while above 100 harmonics, trailing edge noise levels exceed turbulence ingestion noise by 25 dB.

  5. Low-frequency broadband noise generated by a model rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aravamudan, K. S.; Harris, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Low-frequency broadband noise generated by model rotors is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The influence of free-stream turbulence in the low-frequency broadband noise radiation from model rotors has been experimentally investigated. The turbulence was generated in the M.I.T. anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of bipolar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the low-frequency broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of helicopter performance parameters. The location of the peak intensity was observed to be strongly dependent on the rotor-tip velocity and on the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence. The size scale of turbulence had negligible effect on the intensity of low-frequency broadband noise. The experimental data show good agreement with an ad hoc model based on unsteady aerodynamics.

  6. Direct analysis of transonic rotor noise with CFD technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Takashi; Saito, Shigeru

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional Euler equations are directly solved to analyze the High-Speed Impulsive (HSI) noise of a helicopter motor by using CFD technique. The MSI noise is one of the most important sources of helicopter noise. It is generated on the advancing side of a helicopter caused by the shock wave on a blade surface. Although the method which solves the Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings equation has been often used to analyze the subsonic rotor noise, it doesn't success to predict the transonic rotor noise such as the HSI noise With the advance of CFD technique, the calculation of the HSI noise is recently performed by the combined method of CFD with the Kirchhoff's equation or by the direct simulation using CFD technique. The latter has not been studied enough because huge number of grids are needed to capture the propagation of sound from a blade to an observer located in a far field. So, the powerful supercomputer of NAL, Numerical Wind Tunnel (NWT) is employed to calculate the RSI noise of a non-lifting hovering rotor directly by using the method. The numerical method to solve the governing equation is an implicit finite-difference scheme which utilizes a higher-order upwind scheme based on TVD. As a result, it is observed that the calculated wave form is in very good agreement with an experimental data at sonic cylinder. The agreement is not very good at about three rotor radii but is reasonable at about two rotor radii.

  7. Acoustic Shielding for a Model Scale Counter-rotation Open Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David B.; Edmane, Envia

    2012-01-01

    The noise shielding benefit of installing an open rotor above a simplified wing or tail is explored experimentally. The test results provide both a benchmark data set for validating shielding prediction tools and an opportunity for a system level evaluation of the noise reduction potential of propulsion noise shielding by an airframe component. A short barrier near the open rotor was found to provide up to 8.5 dB of attenuation at some directivity angles, with tonal sound particularly well shielded. Predictions from two simple shielding theories were found to overestimate the shielding benefit.

  8. Influence of vane sweep on rotor-stator interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane; Kerschen, Edward J.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of vane sweep in rotor-stator interaction noise is investigated. In an analytical approach, the interaction of a convected gust representing the rotor viscous wake, with a cascade of cascade of finite span swept airfoils, representing the stator, is analyzed. The analysis is based on the solution of the exact linearized equations of motion. High frequency convected gusts for which noise generation is concentrated near the leading edge of airfoils is considered. In a preliminary study, the problem of an isolated finite span swept airfoil interacting with a convected gust is analyzed. Results indicate that sweep can substantially reduce the farfield noise levels for a single airfoil. Using the single airfoil model, an approximate solution to the problem of noise radiation from a cascade of finite span swept airfoils interacting with a convected gust is derived. A parametric study of noise generated by gust cascade interaction is carried out to assess the effectiveness of vane sweep in reducing rotor-stator interaction noise. The results show that sweep is beneficial in reducing noise levels. Rotor wake twist or circumferential lean substantially influences the effectiveness of vane sweep. The orientation of vane sweep must be chosen to enhance the natural phase lag caused by wake lean, in which case rather small sweep angles substantially reduce the noise levels.

  9. Influence of vane sweep on rotor-stator interaction noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Envia, Edmane; Kerschen, Edward J.

    1990-12-01

    The influence of vane sweep in rotor-stator interaction noise is investigated. In an analytical approach, the interaction of a convected gust representing the rotor viscous wake, with a cascade of cascade of finite span swept airfoils, representing the stator, is analyzed. The analysis is based on the solution of the exact linearized equations of motion. High frequency convected gusts for which noise generation is concentrated near the leading edge of airfoils is considered. In a preliminary study, the problem of an isolated finite span swept airfoil interacting with a convected gust is analyzed. Results indicate that sweep can substantially reduce the farfield noise levels for a single airfoil. Using the single airfoil model, an approximate solution to the problem of noise radiation from a cascade of finite span swept airfoils interacting with a convected gust is derived. A parametric study of noise generated by gust cascade interaction is carried out to assess the effectiveness of vane sweep in reducing rotor-stator interaction noise. The results show that sweep is beneficial in reducing noise levels. Rotor wake twist or circumferential lean substantially influences the effectiveness of vane sweep. The orientation of vane sweep must be chosen to enhance the natural phase lag caused by wake lean, in which case rather small sweep angles substantially reduce the noise levels.

  10. The cost of noise reduction in commercial tilt rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulkner, H. B.

    1974-01-01

    The relationship between direct operating cost (DOC) and departure noise annoyance was developed for commercial tilt rotor aircraft. This was accomplished by generating a series of tilt rotor aircraft designs to meet various noise goals at minimum DOC. These vehicles were spaced across the spectrum of possible noise levels from completely unconstrained to the quietest vehicle that could be designed within the study ground rules. A group of optimization parameters were varied to find the minimum DOC while other inputs were held constant and some external constraints were met. This basic variation was then extended to different aircraft sizes and technology time frames. It was concluded that reducing noise annoyance by designing for lower rotor tip speeds is a very promising avenue for future research and development. It appears that the cost of halving the annoyance compared to an unconstrained design is insignificant and the cost of halving the annoyance again is small.

  11. Effects of aerodynamic interaction between main and tail rotors on helicopter hover performance and noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menger, R. P.; Wood, T. L.; Brieger, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    A model test was conducted to determine the effects of aerodynamic interaction between main rotor, tail rotor, and vertical fin on helicopter performance and noise in hover out of ground effect. The experimental data were obtained from hover tests performed with a .151 scale Model 222 main rotor, tail rotor and vertical fin. Of primary interest was the effect of location of the tail rotor with respect to the main rotor. Penalties on main rotor power due to interaction with the tail rotor ranged up to 3% depending upon tail rotor location and orientation. Penalties on tail rotor power due to fin blockage alone ranged up to 10% for pusher tail rotors and up to 50% for tractor tail rotors. The main rotor wake had only a second order effect on these tail rotor/fin interactions. Design charts are presented showing the penalties on main rotor power as a function of the relative location of the tail rotor.

  12. Supersonic Quadrupole Noise Theory for High-Speed Helicopter Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1997-01-01

    High-speed helicopter rotor impulsive noise prediction is an important problem of aeroacoustics. The deterministic quadrupoles have been shown to contribute significantly to high-speed impulsive (HSI) noise of rotors, particularly when the phenomenon of delocalization occurs. At high rotor-tip speeds, some of the quadrupole sources lie outside the sonic circle and move at supersonic speed. Brentner has given a formulation suitable for efficient prediction of quadrupole noise inside the sonic circle. In this paper, we give a simple formulation based on the acoustic analogy that is valid for both subsonic and supersonic quadrupole noise prediction. Like the formulation of Brentner, the model is exact for an observer in the far field and in the rotor plane and is approximate elsewhere. We give the full analytic derivation of this formulation in the paper. We present the method of implementation on a computer for supersonic quadrupoles using marching cubes for constructing the influence surface (Sigma surface) of an observer space- time variable (x; t). We then present several examples of noise prediction for both subsonic and supersonic quadrupoles. It is shown that in the case of transonic flow over rotor blades, the inclusion of the supersonic quadrupoles improves the prediction of the acoustic pressure signature. We show the equivalence of the new formulation to that of Brentner for subsonic quadrupoles. It is shown that the regions of high quadrupole source strength are primarily produced by the shock surface and the flow over the leading edge of the rotor. The primary role of the supersonic quadrupoles is to increase the width of a strong acoustic signal.

  13. Prediction of helicopter rotor noise from measured blade surface pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Succi, G. P.; Brieger, J. T.

    The current techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe the details of the noise field precisely and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The purpose of this paper is to review those techniques in general and the Farassat/Nystrom analysis in particular. The predictions of the Farassat/Nystrom noise computer program, using both measured and calculated blade surface pressure data, are compared to measured noise level data. This study is based on a contract from NASA to Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. (BBN) with measured data from the AH-lG Helicopter Operational Loads Survey flight test program supplied by Bell Helicopter Textron.

  14. Auralization of Tonal Rotor Noise Components of a Quadcopter Flyover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Andrew W.; Boyd, David D.; Zawodny, Nikolas S.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The capabilities offered by small unmanned vertical lift aerial vehicles, for example, quadcopters, continue to captivate entrepreneurs across the private, public, and civil sectors. As this industry rapidly expands, the public will be exposed to these devices (and to the noise these devices generate) with increasing frequency and proximity. Accordingly, an assessment of the human response to these machines will be needed shortly by decision makers in many facets of this burgeoning industry, from hardware manufacturers all the way to government regulators. One factor of this response is that of the annoyance to the noise that is generated by these devices. This paper presents work currently being pursued by NASA toward this goal. First, physics-based (CFD) predictions are performed on a single isolated rotor typical of these devices. The result of these predictions are time records of the discrete tonal components of the rotor noise. These time records are calculated for a number of points that appear on a lattice of locations spread over the lower hemisphere of the rotor. The source noise is then generated by interpolating between these time records. The sound from four rotors are combined and simulated-propagation techniques are used to produce complete flyover auralizations.

  15. An investigation of rotor harmonic noise by the use of small scale wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Schaffer, E. G.

    1982-01-01

    Noise measurements of small scale helicopter rotor models were compared with noise measurements of full scale helicopters to determine what information about the full scale helicopters could be derived from noise measurements of small scale helicopter models. Comparisons were made of the discrete frequency (rotational) noise for 4 pairs of tests. Areas covered were tip speed effects, isolated rotor, tandem rotor, and main rotor/tail rotor interaction. Results show good comparison of noise trends with configuration and test condition changes, and good comparison of absolute noise measurements with the corrections used except for the isolated rotor case. Noise measurements of the isolated rotor show a great deal of scatter reflecting the fact that the rotor in hover is basically unstable.

  16. A prediction of high-speed rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, Timothy W.

    1989-01-01

    A combined computational (CFD) and integral approach solves the acoustic pressure fields of two high-speed helicopter rotors. A CFD code supplies boundary data to a non-linear type of Kirchhoff integral formulation to find the far-field pressures. Direct calculations of pressures are given by the CFD code up to the sonic cylinder where the Kirchhoff method takes over. This paper shows predictions and measurements of High-Speed Impulsive (HSI) noise in hover for two different rotor geometries. One rotor has a conventional rectangular planform, while the other rotor is highly swept and tapered. The swept rotor analysis forms the majority of this paper. Test data from both rotors are shown and compared with predictions for a range of tip Mach numbers from .85 to .95 (including delocalization). The correlation with the near-field pressures from the straight bladed experiment is excellent and good to excellent correlation is seen for the far-field pressures from both experiments.

  17. Rotor blade system with reduced blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leishman, John G. (Inventor); Han, Yong Oun (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A rotor blade system with reduced blade-vortex interaction noise includes a plurality of tube members embedded in proximity to a tip of each rotor blade. The inlets of the tube members are arrayed at the leading edge of the blade slightly above the chord plane, while the outlets are arrayed at the blade tip face. Such a design rapidly diffuses the vorticity contained within the concentrated tip vortex because of enhanced flow mixing in the inner core, which prevents the development of a laminar core region.

  18. Rotor noise due to atmospheric turbulence ingestion. I - Fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.; Greitzer, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    In the present analytical procedure for the prediction of helicopter rotor noise generation due to the ingestion of atmospheric turbulence, different models for turbulence fluid mechanics and the ingestion process are combined. The mean flow and turbulence statistics associated with the atmospheric boundary layer are modeled with attention to the effects of atmospheric stability length, windspeed, and altitude. The turbulence field can be modeled as isotropic, locally stationary, and homogeneous. For large mean flow contraction ratios, accurate predictions of turbulence vorticity components at the rotor face requires the incorporation of the differential drift of fluid particles on adjacent streamlines.

  19. Distortion-rotor interaction noise produced by a drooped inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. B.; Moore, M. T.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    The 'drooped' inlet used on most wing mounted engines produces a wall static pressure distortion at the fan face of about plus or minus 2%. The interaction of the fan rotor with this fixed distortion pattern produces blade passing frequency and harmonic tone levels in flight which contribute to forward radiated engine noise spectra. Data from a wind tunnel test, using both a drooped inlet and an inlet with no droop, show large changes in forward radiated noise levels over a limited fan speed range. An analytical model of this fan noise mechanism is developed and is used to account for the major features of the measured results.

  20. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Rotor Alone Aerodynamic Performance Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Jeracki, Robert J.; Woodward, Richard P.; Miller, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of an isolated fan or rotor alone model was measured in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9- by 15- Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel as part of the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test conducted at NASA Glenn. The Source Diagnostic Test was conducted to identify the noise sources within a wind tunnel scale model of a turbofan engine and quantify their contribution to the overall system noise level. The fan was part of a 1/5th scale model representation of the bypass stage of a current technology turbofan engine. For the rotor alone testing, the fan and nacelle, including the inlet, external cowl, and fixed area fan exit nozzle, were modeled in the test hardware; the internal outlet guide vanes located behind the fan were removed. Without the outlet guide vanes, the velocity at the nozzle exit changes significantly, thereby affecting the fan performance. As part of the investigation, variations in the fan nozzle area were tested in order to match as closely as possible the rotor alone performance with the fan performance obtained with the outlet guide vanes installed. The fan operating performance was determined using fixed pressure/temperature combination rakes and the corrected weight flow. The performance results indicate that a suitable nozzle exit was achieved to be able to closely match the rotor alone and fan/outlet guide vane configuration performance on the sea level operating line. A small shift in the slope of the sea level operating line was measured, which resulted in a slightly higher rotor alone fan pressure ratio at take-off conditions, matched fan performance at cutback conditions, and a slightly lower rotor alone fan pressure ratio at approach conditions. However, the small differences in fan performance at all fan conditions were considered too small to affect the fan acoustic performance.

  1. Experimental assessment of helicopter rotor turbulence ingestion noise in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Schlinker, R. H.; Amiet, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the accuracy of a theory for non-isotropic turbulence ingestion. In order to generate non-isotropic turbulence in a controlled environment, a scale model rotor in a closed chamber was used so that the turbulence generated by the rotor was reingested by the recirculating flow. Simultaneous measurements of turbulence inflow properties and far field acoustics were acquired. Measurements confirmed that the inflow turbulence was highly non-isotropic. The measured aerodynamic properties were used as inputs for the noise prediction procedure. The general agreement between the non-isotropic noise prediction procedure and the experiment was good, although the procedure generally overpredicts the quasi-tonal low to mid range frequencies and underpredicts the higher broadband signals. The predicted sound power level as a function of polar angle was in close agreement with measurements, except near the rotor plane, which is not modeled by the present analysis. It is determined that the most sensitive parameter influencing the predicted noise was the turbulence intensity.

  2. Progress in Open Rotor Research: A U.S. Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale E.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the 1970s oil crisis, NASA created the Advanced Turboprop Project (ATP) to mature technologies for high-speed propellers to enable large reductions in fuel burn relative to turbofan engines of that era. Both single rotation and contra- rotation concepts were designed and tested in ground based facilities as well as flight. Some novel concepts/configurations were proposed as part of the effort. The high-speed propeller concepts did provide fuel burn savings, albeit with some acoustics and structural challenges to overcome. When fuel prices fell, the business case for radical new engine configurations collapsed and the research emphasis returned to high bypass ducted configurations. With rising oil prices and increased environmental concerns there is renewed interest in high-speed propeller based engine architectures. Contemporary analysis tools for aerodynamics and aeroacoustics have enabled a new era of blade designs that have both high efficiency and lower noise characteristics. A recent series of tests in the U.S. have characterized the aerodynamic performance and noise from these modern contra-rotating propeller designs. Additionally the installation and noise shielding aspects for conventional airframes and blended wing bodies have been studied. Historical estimates of 'propfan' performance have relied on legacy propeller performance and acoustics data. Current system studies make use of the modern propeller data and higher fidelity installation effects data to estimate the performance of a contemporary aircraft system. Contemporary designs have demonstrated high net efficiency, approximately 86%, at 0.78 Mach, and low noise, greater than 15 EPNdB cumulative margin to Chapter 4 when analyzed on a NASA derived aircraft/mission. This paper presents the current state of high-speed propeller/open rotor research within the U.S. from an overall viewpoint of the various efforts ongoing. The remaining technical challenges to a production engine include

  3. The Effects of Crosswind Flight on Rotor Harmonic Noise Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop recommendations for procedures for helicopter source noise characterization, the effects of crosswinds on main rotor harmonic noise radiation are assessed using a model of the Bell 430 helicopter. Crosswinds are found to have a significant effect on Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise radiation when the helicopter is trimmed with the fuselage oriented along the inertial flight path. However, the magnitude of BVI noise remains unchanged when the pilot orients the fuselage along the aerodynamic velocity vector, crabbing for zero aerodynamic sideslip. The effects of wind gradients on BVI noise are also investigated and found to be smaller in the crosswind direction than in the headwind direction. The effects of crosswinds on lower harmonic noise sources at higher flight speeds are also assessed. In all cases, the directivity of radiated noise is somewhat changed by the crosswind. The model predictions agree well with flight test data for the Bell 430 helicopter captured under various wind conditions. The results of this investigation would suggest that flight paths for future acoustic flight testing are best aligned across the prevailing wind direction to minimize the effects of winds on noise measurements when wind cannot otherwise be avoided.

  4. Progress in Open Rotor Research: A U.S. Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale E.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the 1970s oil crisis, NASA created the Advanced Turboprop Project (ATP) to mature technologies for high-speed propellers to enable large reductions in fuel burn relative to turbofan engines of that era. Both single rotation and contra-rotation concepts were designed and tested in ground based facilities as well as flight. Some novel concepts configurations that were not well publicized at the time, were proposed as part of the effort. The high-speed propeller concepts did provide fuel burn savings, albeit with some acoustics and structural challenges to overcome. When fuel prices fell, the business case for radical new engine configurations collapsed and the research emphasis returned to high bypass ducted configurations. With rising oil prices and increased environmental concerns there is renewed interest in high-speed propeller based engine architectures. Contemporary analysis tools for aerodynamics and aeroacoustics have enabled a new era of blade designs that have both high efficiency and acceptable noise characteristics. A recent series of tests in the U.S. have characterized the aerodynamic performance and noise from these modern contra-rotating propeller designs. Additionally the installation and noise shielding aspects for conventional airframes and blended wing bodies have been studied. Historical estimates of propfan performance have relied on legacy propeller performance and acoustics data. Current system studies make use of the modern propeller data with higher fidelity installation effects data to estimate the performance of a contemporary aircraft system with favorable results. This paper presents the current state of high-speed propeller open rotor research within the U.S. from an overall viewpoint of the various efforts ongoing. The current projections for the technology are presented.

  5. Fan noise reduction achieved by removing tip flow irregularities behind the rotor - forward arc test configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Woodward, R. P.; Mackinnon, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The noise source caused by the interaction of the rotor tip flow irregularities (vortices and velocity defects) with the downstream stator vanes was studied. Fan flow was removed behind a 0.508 meter (20 in.) diameter model turbofan through an outer wall slot between the rotor and stator. Noise measurements were made with far-field microphones positioned in an arc about the fan inlet and with a pressure transducer in the duct behind the stator. Little tone noise reduction was observed in the forward arc during flow removal; possibly because the rotor-stator interaction noise did not propagate upstream through the rotor. Noise reductions were maded in the duct behind the stator and the largest decrease occurred with the first increment of flow removal. This result indicates that the rotor tip flow irregularity-stator interaction is as important a noise producing mechanism as the normally considered rotor wake-stator interaction.

  6. Modelling Aerodynamically Generated Sound: Recent Advances in Rotor Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the modeling of aerodynamically generated sound for rotors over the past decade. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H ) equation has been the foundation for much of the development. Both subsonic and supersonic quadrupole noise formulations have been developed for the prediction of high-speed impulsive noise. In an effort to eliminate the need to compute the quadrupole contribution, the FW-H has also been utilized on permeable surfaces surrounding all physical noise sources. Comparison of the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces with the FW-H equation have shown that the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces can give erroneous results for aeroacoustic problems.

  7. A simplified Mach number scaling law for helicopter rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aravamudan, K. S.; Lee, A.; Harris, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    Mach number scaling laws are derived for the rotational and the high-frequency broadband noise from helicopter rotors. The rotational scaling law is obtained directly from the theory of Lowson and Ollerhead (1969) by exploiting the properties of the dominant terms in the expression for the complex Fourier coefficients of sound radiation from a point source. The scaling law for the high-frequency broadband noise is obtained by assuming that the noise sources are acoustically compact and computing the instantaneous pressure due to an element on an airfoil where vortices are shed. Experimental results on the correlation lengths for stationary airfoils are extended to rotating airfoils. On the assumption that the correlation length varies as the boundary layer displacement thickness, it is found that the Mach number scaling law contains a factor of Mach number raised to the exponent 5.8. Both scaling laws were verified by model tests.

  8. Investigation of helicopter rotor blade/wake interactive impulsive noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, S. J.; Hall, G. F.; Vonlavante, E.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the Tip Aerodynamic/Aeroacoustic Test (TAAT) data was performed to identify possible aerodynamic sources of blade/vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise. The identification is based on correlation of measured blade pressure time histories with predicted blade/vortex intersections for the flight condition(s) where impulsive noise was detected. Due to the location of the recording microphones, only noise signatures associated with the advancing blade were available, and the analysis was accordingly restricted to the first and second azimuthal quadrants. The results show that the blade tip region is operating transonically in the azimuthal range where previous BVI experiments indicated the impulsive noise to be. No individual blade/vortex encounter is identifiable in the pressure data; however, there is indication of multiple intersections in the roll-up region which could be the origin of the noise. Discrete blade/vortex encounters are indicated in the second quadrant; however, if impulsive noise were produced here, the directivity pattern would be such that it was not recorded by the microphones. It is demonstrated that the TAAT data base is a valuable resource in the investigation of rotor aerodynamic/aeroacoustic behavior.

  9. Theoretical studies on tone noise from a ducted fan rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, C. V. R.; Chu, W. T.; Digumarthi, R. V.; Agarwal, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    The method of computing radiated noise from a ducted rotor due to inflow distortion and turbulence are examined. Analytical investigations include an appropriate description of sources, the cut-off conditions imposed on the modal propagation of the pressure waves in the annular duct, and reflections at the upstream end of the duct. Far field sound pressure levels at blade passing frequency due to acoustic radiation from a small scale low speed fan are computed. Theoretical predictions are in reasonable agreement with experimental measurements.

  10. Leading edge serrations which reduce the noise of low-speed rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, P. T.

    1973-01-01

    Acoustic effects of serrated brass strips attached near the leading edges of two different size rotors were investigated. The two bladed rotors were tested in hover. Rotor rotational speed, blade angle, serration shape, and serration position were varied. The serrations were more effective as noise suppressors at rotor tip speeds less than 135 m/sec (444 ft/sec) than at higher speeds. high frequency noise was reduced but the low frequency rotational noise was little affected. Noise reductions from 4 to 8 db overall sound pressure level and 3 to 17 db in the upper octave bands were achieved on the 1.52 m (5.0 ft) diameter rotor. Noise reductions up to 4 db overall sound pressure level were measured for the 2.59 m (8.5 ft) diameter rotor at some conditions.

  11. The use of cowl camber and taper to reduce rotor/stator interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, R.

    1995-01-01

    The project had two specific technical objectives: (1) to develop a realistic three-dimensional model of tonal noise due to rotor/stator interaction, as the input field for predictions of diffraction and dissipation by a lined cowl; and (2) to determine whether the generator curve of that cowl, or duct, could be 'steered' to yield substantially lower values of propulsor noise along the engine's fore and aft open sectors. The more general and important aim of their research is to provide the commercial aircraft industry with a useful predictive tool to help it meet its noise-reduction goals. The work has produced a tractable and yet realistic model of rotor/stator interaction noise. The blades in the fan stage are radially divergent, twisted, and of realistically wide chords to match the high frequencies and speeds of the sound-production process. The resulting three-dimensional acoustic nearfield insonifies the interior wall of the diffracting cowl, whose shape, incidentally, does not affect fore or aft noise significantly (but other factors do).

  12. A moving hum filter to suppress rotor noise in high-resolution airborne magnetic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Doll, W.E.; Miller, R.D.; Gamey, T.J.; Emond, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A unique filtering approach is developed to eliminate helicopter rotor noise. It is designed to suppress harmonic noise from a rotor that varies slightly in amplitude, phase, and frequency and that contaminates aero-magnetic data. The filter provides a powerful harmonic noise-suppression tool for data acquired with modern large-dynamic-range recording systems. This three-step approach - polynomial fitting, bandpass filtering, and rotor-noise synthesis - significantly reduces rotor noise without altering the spectra of signals of interest. Two steps before hum filtering - polynomial fitting and bandpass filtering - are critical to accurately model the weak rotor noise. During rotor-noise synthesis, amplitude, phase, and frequency are determined. Data are processed segment by segment so that there is no limit on the length of data. The segment length changes dynamically along a line based on modeling results. Modeling the rotor noise is stable and efficient. Real-world data examples demonstrate that this method can suppress rotor noise by more than 95% when implemented in an aeromagnetic data-processing flow. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  13. A computer program to predict rotor rotational noise of a stationary rotor from blade loading coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakrishnan, R.; Randall, D.; Hosier, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The programing language used is FORTRAN IV. A description of all main and subprograms is provided so that any user possessing a FORTRAN compiler and random access capability can adapt the program to his facility. Rotor blade surface-pressure spectra can be used by the program to calculate: (1) blade station loading spectra, (2) chordwise and/or spanwise integrated blade-loading spectra, and (3) far-field rotational noise spectra. Any of five standard inline functions describing the chordwise distribution of the blade loading can be chosen in order to study parametrically the acoustic predictions. The program output consists of both printed and graphic descriptions of the blade-loading coefficient spectra and far-field acoustic spectrum. The results may also be written on binary file for future processing. Examples of the application of the program along with a description of the rotational noise prediction theory on which the program is based are also provided.

  14. Performance and Weight Estimates for an Advanced Open Rotor Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Eric S.; Tong, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project and Subsonic Fixed Wing Project are focused on developing concepts and technologies which may enable dramatic reductions to the environmental impact of future generation subsonic aircraft. The open rotor concept (also historically referred to an unducted fan or advanced turboprop) may allow for the achievement of this objective by reducing engine fuel consumption. To evaluate the potential impact of open rotor engines, cycle modeling and engine weight estimation capabilities have been developed. The initial development of the cycle modeling capabilities in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) tool was presented in a previous paper. Following that initial development, further advancements have been made to the cycle modeling and weight estimation capabilities for open rotor engines and are presented in this paper. The developed modeling capabilities are used to predict the performance of an advanced open rotor concept using modern counter-rotating propeller designs. Finally, performance and weight estimates for this engine are presented and compared to results from a previous NASA study of advanced geared and direct-drive turbofans.

  15. Investigation of Blade Impulsive Noise on a Scaled Fully Articulated Rotor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheiman, James; Hoad, Danny R.

    1977-01-01

    Helicopter impulsive noise tests were conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel with an articulated rotor system. The tests demonstrated that impulsive noise could be simulated for low-speed forward flight with low descent rates and also in the high-speed level flight. For the low forward speed condition, the noise level was highly sensitive to small changes in descent rate. For the high-speed condition, the noise level was increased with an increase in rotor thrust.

  16. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test Computation of Rotor Wake Turbulence Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, M.; Envia, E.; Thorp, S. A.; Shabbir, A.

    2002-01-01

    An important source mechanism of fan broadband noise is the interaction of rotor wake turbulence with the fan outlet guide vanes. A broadband noise model that utilizes computed rotor flow turbulence from a RANS code is used to predict fan broadband noise spectra. The noise model is employed to examine the broadband noise characteristics of the 22-inch Source Diagnostic Test fan rig for which broadband noise data were obtained in wind tunnel tests at the NASA Glenn Research Center. A 9-case matrix of three outlet guide vane configurations at three representative fan tip speeds are considered. For all cases inlet and exhaust acoustic power spectra are computed and compared with the measured spectra where possible. In general, the acoustic power levels and shape of the predicted spectra are in good agreement with the measured data. The predicted spectra show the experimentally observed trends with fan tip speed, vane count, and vane sweep. The results also demonstrate the validity of using CFD-based turbulence information for fan broadband noise calculations.

  17. Reduction of Helicopter Blade-Vortex Interaction Noise by Active Rotor Control Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Yung H.; Gmelin, Bernd; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Brooks, Thomas F.; Philippe, Jean J.; Prieur, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise is one of the most severe noise sources and is very important both in community annoyance and military detection. Research over the decades has substantially improved basic physical understanding of the mechanisms generating rotor blade-vortex interaction noise and also of controlling techniques, particularly using active rotor control technology. This paper reviews active rotor control techniques currently available for rotor blade vortex interaction noise reduction, including higher harmonic pitch control, individual blade control, and on-blade control technologies. Basic physical mechanisms of each active control technique are reviewed in terms of noise reduction mechanism and controlling aerodynamic or structural parameters of a blade. Active rotor control techniques using smart structures/materials are discussed, including distributed smart actuators to induce local torsional or flapping deformations, Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. Reduction of high-speed impulsive noise by blade planform modification of a model helicopter rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. A.; Hoad, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The reduction of high speed impulsive noise for the UH-1H helicopter was investigated by using an advanced main rotor system. The advanced rotor system had a tapered blade planform compared with the rectangular planform of the standard rotor system. Models of both the advanced main rotor system and the UH-1H standard main rotor system were tested at 1/4 scale in the 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel. In plane acoustic measurements of the high speed impulsive noise demonstrated that the advanced rotor system on the UH-1H helicopter reduced the high speed impulsive noise by up to 20 dB, with a reduction in overall sound pressure level of up to 5 dB.

  19. An Update on Phased Array Results Obtained on the GE Counter-Rotating Open Rotor Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary; Horvath, Csaba; Envia, Edmane

    2013-01-01

    Beamform maps have been generated from 1) simulated data generated by the LINPROP code and 2) actual experimental phased array data obtained on the GE Counter-rotating open rotor model. The beamform maps show that many of the tones in the experimental data come from their corresponding Mach radius. If the phased array points to the Mach radius associated with a tone then it is likely that the tone is a result of the loading and thickness noise on the blades. In this case, the phased array correctly points to where the noise is coming from and indicates the axial location of the loudest source in the image but not necessarily the correct vertical location. If the phased array does not point to the Mach radius associated with a tone then some mechanism other than loading and thickness noise may control the amplitude of the tone. In this case, the phased array may or may not point to the actual source. If the source is not rotating it is likely that the phased array points to the source. If the source is rotating it is likely that the phased array indicates the axial location of the loudest source but not necessarily the correct vertical location. These results indicate that you have to be careful in how you interpret phased array data obtained on an open rotor since they may show the tones coming from a location other than the source location. With a subsonic tip speed open rotor the tones can come form locations outboard of the blade tips. This has implications regarding noise shielding.

  20. Limits on the prediction of helicopter rotor noise using thickness and loading sources: Validation of helicopter noise prediction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe precisely the details of the noise field and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The Farassat noise prediction techniques was studied, and high speed helicopter noise prediction using more detailed representations of the thickness and loading noise sources was investigated. These predictions were based on the measured blade surface pressures on an AH-1G rotor and compared to the measured sound field. Although refinements in the representation of the thickness and loading noise sources improve the calculation, there are still discrepancies between the measured and predicted sound field. Analysis of the blade surface pressure data indicates shocks on the blades, which are probably responsible for these discrepancies.

  1. Model rotor high-speed impulsive noise - Parametric variations and full-scale comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.; Schmitz, F. H.; Boxwell, D. A.

    1983-05-01

    The results of a 1/7-scale model of the AH-1 series helicopter main rotor test in the German-Dutch anechoic wind tunnel are discussed, with emphasis given on exploring the important scaling parameters of helicopter-rotor high-speed impulsive noise. Nondimensional parameters are derived from the governing equations and employed to compare the model rotor measurements with full-scale investigations, using an equivalent in-flight technique. The peak acoustic pressure, impulsive noise directivity, and acoustic waveform of the model are found to scale well in shape and in amplitude with full-scale results. Parametric variations of the model-rotor acoustic measurements, such as the change of the high-speed impulsive noise level over a range of advancing-tip Mach numbers at constant advance ratio or constant velocity, are presented. It is concluded that model-scale rotors can be used to explore potential acoustic design innovations on full-scale helicopters.

  2. The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project/General Electric Open Rotor Test Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale

    2013-01-01

    The Open Rotor is a modern version of the UnDucted Fan (UDF) that was flight tested in the late 1980's through a partnership between NASA and General Electric (GE). Tests were conducted in the 9'x15' Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the 8'x6' Supersonic Wind Tunnel starting in late 2009 and completed in early 2012. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were obtained for takeoff, approach and cruise simulations. GE was the primary partner, but other organizations were involved such as Boeing and Airbus who provided additional hardware for fuselage simulations. This test campaign provided the acoustic and performance characteristics for modern open rotor blades designs." NASA and GE conducted joint systems analysis to evaluate how well new blade designs would perform on a B737 class aircraft, and compared the results to an advanced higher bypass ratio turbofan." Acoustic shielding experiments were performed at NASA GRC and Boeing LSAF facilities to provide data for noise estimates of unconventional aircraft configurations with Open Rotor propulsion systems." The work was sponsored by NASA's aeronautics programs, including the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) projects."

  3. Noise of a model helicopter rotor due to ingestion of turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paterson, R. W.; Amiet, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the noise of a model helicoper rotor due to ingestion of turbulence was conducted. Experiments were performed with a 0.76 m dia, articulated model rotor for a range of inflow turbulence and rotor operating conditions. Inflow turbulence levels varied from approximately 2 to 19 percent and tip Mach number was varied from 0.3 to 0.52. Test conditions included ingestion of a atmospheric turbulence in outdoor hover as well as ingestion of grid generated isotropic turbulence in the wind tunnel airstream. In wind tunnel testing, both forward flight and vertical ascent (climb) were simulated. Far field noise spectra and directivity were measured in addition to incident turbulence intensities, length scales, and spectra. Results indicate that ingestion of atmospheric turbulence is the dominant helicopter rotor hover noise mechanism at the moderate to high frequencies which determine perceived noise level.

  4. A Novel Numerical Approach for Generation and Propagation of Rotor-Stator Interaction Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Krishna

    As turbofan engine designs move towards bypass ratios ≥12 and corresponding low pressure ratios, fan rotor blade tip Mach numbers are reduced, leading to rotor-stator interaction becoming an important contributor to tonal fan noise. For future aircraft configurations employing boundary layer ingestion, non-uniform flow enters the fan. The impact of such non-uniform flows on the generation and propagation of rotor-stator interaction tones has yet to be assessed. In this thesis, a novel approach is proposed to numerically predict the generation and propagation of rotor-stator interaction noise with distorted inflow. The approach enables a 42% reduction in computational cost compared to traditional approaches employing a sliding interface between the rotor and stator. Such an interface may distort rotor wakes and can cause non-physical acoustic wave reflections if time steps are not sufficiently small. Computational costs are reduced by modelling the rotor using distributed, volumetric body forces. This eliminates the need for a sliding interface and thus allows a larger time step size. The force model responds to local flow conditions and thus can capture the effects of long-wavelength flow distortions. Since interaction noise is generated by the incidence of the rotor wakes onto the stator vanes, the key challenge is to produce the wakes using a body force field since the rotor blades are not directly modelled. It is shown that such an approach can produce wakes by concentrating the viscous forces along streamtubes in the last 15% chord. The new approach to rotor wake generation is assessed on the GE R4 fan from NASA's Source Diagnostic Test, for which the computed overall aerodynamic performance matches the experiment to within 1%. The rotor blade wakes are generated with widths in excellent agreement and depths in fair agreement with the experiment. An assessment of modal sound power levels computed in the exhaust duct indicates that this approach can be used

  5. A Novel Approach for Reducing Rotor Tip-Clearance Induced Noise in Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan

    2001-01-01

    Rotor tip-clearance induced noise, both in the form of rotor self noise and rotor-stator interaction noise , constitutes a significant component of total fan noise. Innovative yet cost effective techniques to suppress rotor-generated noise are, therefore, of foremost importance for improving the noise signature of turbofan engines. To that end, the feasibility of a passive porous treatment strategy to positively modify the tip-clearance flow field is addressed. The present study is focused on accurate viscous flow calculations of the baseline and the treated rotor flow fields. Detailed comparison between the computed baseline solution and experimental measurements shows excellent agreement. Tip-vortex structure, trajectory, strength, and other relevant aerodynamic quantities are extracted from the computed database. Extensive comparison between the untreated and treated tip-clearance flow fields is performed. The effectiveness of the porous treatment for altering the rotor-tip vortex flow field in general and reducing the intensity of the tip vortex, in particular, is demonstrated. In addition, the simulated flow field for the treated tip clearly shows that substantial reduction in the intensity of both the shear layer roll-up and boundary layer separation on the wall is achieved.

  6. Model helicopter rotor high-speed impulsive noise: Measured acoustics and blade pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    A 1/17-scale research model of the AH-1 series helicopter main rotor was tested. Model-rotor acoustic and simultaneous blade pressure data were recorded at high speeds where full-scale helicopter high-speed impulsive noise levels are known to be dominant. Model-rotor measurements of the peak acoustic pressure levels, waveform shapes, and directively patterns are directly compared with full-scale investigations, using an equivalent in-flight technique. Model acoustic data are shown to scale remarkably well in shape and in amplitude with full-scale results. Model rotor-blade pressures are presented for rotor operating conditions both with and without shock-like discontinuities in the radiated acoustic waveform. Acoustically, both model and full-scale measurements support current evidence that above certain high subsonic advancing-tip Mach numbers, local shock waves that exist on the rotor blades ""delocalize'' and radiate to the acoustic far-field.

  7. Effect of signal jitter on the spectrum of rotor impulsive noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of randomness or jitter of the acoustic waveform on the spectrum of rotor impulsive noise is studied because of its importance for data interpretation. An acoustic waveform train is modelled representing rotor impulsive noise. The amplitude, shape, and period between occurrences of individual pulses are allowed to be randomized assuming normal probability distributions. Results, in terms of the standard deviations of the variable quantities, are given for the autospectrum as well as special processed spectra designed to separate harmonic and broadband rotor noise components. Consideration is given to the effect of accuracy in triggering or keying to a rotor one per revolution signal. An example is given showing the resultant spectral smearing at the high frequencies due to the pulse signal period variability.

  8. Effect of signal jitter on the spectrum of rotor impulsive noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of randomness or jitter of the acoustic waveform on the spectrum of rotor impulsive noise is studied because of its importance for data interpretation. An acoustic waveform train is modeled representing rotor impulsive noise. The amplitude, shape, and period between occurrences of individual pulses are allowed to be randomized assuming normal probability distributions. Results, in terms of the standard deviations of the variable quantities, are given for the autospectrum as well as special processed spectra designed to separate harmonic and broadband rotor noise components. Consideration is given to the effect of accuracy in triggering or keying to a rotor one per revolution signal. An example is given showing the resultant spectral smearing at the high frequencies due to the pulse signal period variability.

  9. Conceptual Design and Structural Analysis of an Open Rotor Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gern, Frank H.

    2013-01-01

    Through a recent NASA contract, Boeing Research and Technology in Huntington Beach, CA developed and optimized a conceptual design of an open rotor hybrid wing body aircraft (HWB). Open rotor engines offer a significant potential for fuel burn savings over turbofan engines, while the HWB configuration potentially allows to offset noise penalties through possible engine shielding. Researchers at NASA Langley converted the Boeing design to a FLOPS model which will be used to develop take-off and landing trajectories for community noise analyses. The FLOPS model was calibrated using Boeing data and shows good agreement with the original Boeing design. To complement Boeing s detailed aerodynamics and propulsion airframe integration work, a newly developed and validated conceptual structural analysis and optimization tool was used for a conceptual loads analysis and structural weights estimate. Structural optimization and weight calculation are based on a Nastran finite element model of the primary HWB structure, featuring centerbody, mid section, outboard wing, and aft body. Results for flight loads, deformations, wing weight, and centerbody weight are presented and compared to Boeing and FLOPS analyses.

  10. Wake Geometry Effects on Rotor Blade-Vortex Interaction Noise Directivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. M.; Marcolini, Michael A.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K.-J.

    1990-01-01

    Acoustic measurements from a model rotor wind tunnel test are presented which show that the directionality of rotor blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise is strongly dependent on the rotor advance ratio and disk attitude. A rotor free wake analysis is used to show that the general locus of interactions on the rotor disk is also strongly dependent on advance ratio and disk attitude. A comparison of the changing directionality of the BVI noise with changes in the interaction locations shows that the strongest noise radiation occurs in the direction of motion normal to the blade span at the time of interaction, for both advancing and retreating side BVI. For advancing side interactions, the BVI radiation angle down from the tip-path plane appears relatively insensitive to rotor operating condition and is typically between 40 and 55 deg below the disk. However, the azimuthal radiation direction shows a clear trend with descent speed, moving towards the right of the flight path with increasing descent speed. The movement of the strongest radiation direction is attributed to the movement of the interaction locations on the rotor disk with increasing descent speed.

  11. “Buzz-saw” noise: Prediction of the rotor-alone pressure field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlpine, A.; Schwaller, P. J. G.; Fisher, M. J.; Tester, B. J.

    2012-10-01

    Public expectations of lower environmental noise levels, and increasingly stringent legislative limits on aircraft noise, result in noise being a critical technical issue in the development of jet engines. Noise at take-off, when the engines are at high-power operating conditions, is a key reference level for engine noise certification. "Buzz-saw" noise is the dominant fan tone noise from modern high-bypass-ratio turbofan aircraft engines during take-off. Rotor-alone tones are the key component of buzz-saw noise. The rotor-alone pressure field is cut-off at subsonic fan tip speeds; buzz-saw noise is associated with supersonic fan tip speeds, or equivalently, high power engine operating conditions. A recent series of papers has described new work concerning the prediction of buzz-saw noise. The prediction method is based on modelling the nonlinear propagation of one-dimensional sawtooth waveforms. A sawtooth waveform is a simplified representation of the rotor-alone pressure field. Previous validation of the prediction method focussed entirely on reproducing the spectral characteristics of buzz-saw noise; this was dictated at that time by the availability of spectral data only for comparison between measurement and prediction. In this paper, full validation of the method by comparing measurement and prediction of the rotor-alone pressure field is published for the first time. It is shown that results from the modelling based on a one-dimensional sawtooth waveform capture the essential features of the rotor-alone pressure field as it propagates upstream inside a hard-walled inlet duct. This verifies that predictions of the buzz-saw noise spectrum, which are in good agreement with the measured data, are based on a model which reproduces the key physics of the noise generation process. Validation results for the rotor-alone pressure field in an acoustically lined inlet duct are also shown. Comparisons of the measured and predicted rotor-alone pressure field are more

  12. Can shock waves on helicopter rotors generate noise? - A study of the quadrupole source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Tadghighi, H.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis has previously established that local shock surfaces attached to helicopter rotor blades moving at high subsonic speeds are potent noise generators; in pursuit of this insight, a novel formulation is presented for the prediction of the noise of a deformable shock, whose area changes as a function of the azimuthal position of the blade. The derivation of this formulation has its basis in a mapping of the moving shock to a time-independent region. In virtue of this mapping, the implementation of the main result on a computer becomes straightforward enough for incorporation into the available rotor-noise prediction code. A problem illustrating the importance of rotor shocks in the generation of high-intensity noise is presented.

  13. Tip-path-plane angle effects on rotor blade-vortex interaction noise levels and directivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Casey L.; Martin, Ruth M.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic data of a scale model BO-105 main rotor acquired in a large aeroacoustic wind tunnel are presented to investigate the parametric effects of rotor operating conditions on blade-vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise. Contours of a BVI noise metric are employed to quantify the effects of rotor advance ratio and tip-path-plane angle on BVI noise directivity and amplitude. Acoustic time history data are presented to illustrate the variations in impulsive characteristics. The directionality, noise levels and impulsive content of both advancing and retreating side BVI are shown to vary significantly with tip-path-plane angle and advance ratio over the range of low and moderate flight speeds considered.

  14. Frequency-domain method for discrete frequency noise prediction of rotors in arbitrary steady motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaretti, M.; Testa, C.; Bernardini, G.

    2012-12-01

    A novel frequency-domain formulation for the prediction of the tonal noise emitted by rotors in arbitrary steady motion is presented. It is derived from Farassat's 'Formulation 1A', that is a time-domain boundary integral representation for the solution of the Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings equation, and represents noise as harmonic response to body kinematics and aerodynamic loads via frequency-response-function matrices. The proposed frequency-domain solver is applicable to rotor configurations for which sound pressure levels of discrete tones are much higher than those of broadband noise. The numerical investigation concerns the analysis of noise produced by an advancing helicopter rotor in blade-vortex interaction conditions, as well as the examination of pressure disturbances radiated by the interaction of a marine propeller with a non-uniform inflow.

  15. Localized, Non-Harmonic Active Flap Motions for Low Frequency In-Plane Rotor Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Ben W.; Potsdam, Mark; Kitaplioglu, Cahit; LeMasurier, Philip; Lorber, Peter; Andrews, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    A first-of-its-kind demonstration of the use of localized, non-harmonic active flap motions, for suppressing low frequency, in-plane rotor noise, is reported in this paper. Operational feasibility is verified via testing of the full-scale AATD/Sikorsky/UTRC active flap demonstration rotor in the NFAC's 40- by 80-Foot anechoic wind tunnel. Effectiveness of using localized, non-harmonic active flap motions are compared to conventional four-per-rev harmonic flap motions, and also active flap motions derived from closed-loop acoustics implementations. All three approaches resulted in approximately the same noise reductions over an in-plane three-by-three microphone array installed forward and near in-plane of the rotor in the nearfield. It is also reported that using an active flap in this localized, non-harmonic manner, resulted in no more that 2% rotor performance penalty, but had the tendency to incur higher hub vibration levels.

  16. A new capability for predicting helicopter rotor and propeller noise including the effect of forward motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Brown, T. J.

    1977-01-01

    The governing equation and computing technique for the prediction of helicopter rotor and propeller noise are described. The method which gives both the acoustic pressure time history and spectrum of the noise includes the thickness and the loading noise. It was adapted to computers resulting in a new capability in noise prediction by removing many of the restrictions and limitations of previous theories. The capability results from the fact that the theory is developed entirely in the time domain. The formulation and the technique used are not limited to compact sources, steady level flight or to the far-field. In addition, the inputs to the computer program are normally available or are amenable to experimental measurements. This program can be used to study rotor and propeller noise with the aim of minimizing the radiated noise to reduce annoyance to the public. Several examples demonstrating the features and capability of the computer program are presented.

  17. Noise reduction of a tilt-rotor aircraft including effects on weight and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibs, J.; Stepniewski, W. Z.; Spencer, R.; Kohler, G.

    1973-01-01

    Various methods for far-field noise reduction of a tilt-rotor acoustic signature and the performance and weight tradeoffs which result from modification of the noise sources are considered in this report. In order to provide a realistic approach for the investigation, the Boeing tilt-rotor flight research aircraft (Model 222), was selected as the baseline. This aircraft has undergone considerable engineering development. Its rotor has been manufactured and tested in the Ames full-scale wind tunnel. The study reflects the current state-of-the-art of aircraft design for far-field acoustic signature reduction and is not based solely on an engineering feasibility aircraft. This report supplements a previous study investigating reduction of noise signature through the management of the terminal flight trajectory.

  18. High-speed helicopter rotor noise - Shock waves as a potent source of sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Lee, Yung-Jang; Tadghighi, H.; Holz, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the problem of high speed rotor noise prediction. In particular, we propose that from the point of view of the acoustic analogy, shocks around rotating blades are sources of sound. We show that, although for a wing at uniform steady rectilinear motion with shocks the volume quadrupole and shock sources cancel in the far field to the order of 1/r, this cannot happen for rotating blades. In this case, some cancellation between volume quadrupoles and shock sources occurs, yet the remaining shock noise contribution is still potent. A formula for shock noise prediction is presented based on mapping the deformable shock surface to a time independent region. The resulting equation is similar to Formulation 1A of Langley. Shock noise prediction for a hovering model rotor for which experimental noise data exist is presented. The comparison of measured and predicted acoustic data shows good agreement.

  19. Rotor system having alternating length rotor blades for reducing blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, Robert C. (Inventor); Visintainer, Joseph A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A rotor system (4) having odd and even blade assemblies (O.sub.b, E.sub.b) mounting to and rotating with a rotor hub assembly (6) wherein the odd blade assemblies (O.sub.b) define a radial length R.sub.O, and the even blade assemblies (E.sub.b) define a radial length R.sub.E and wherein the radial length R.sub.E is between about 70% to about 95% of the radial length R.sub.O. Other embodiments of the invention are directed to a Variable Diameter Rotor system (4) which may be configured for operating in various operating modes for optimizing aerodynamic and acoustic performance. The Variable Diameter Rotor system (4) includes odd and even blade assemblies (O.sub.b, E.sub.b) having inboard and outboard blade sections (10, 12) wherein the outboard blade sections (12) telescopically mount to the inboard blade sections (10). The outboard blade sections (12) are positioned with respect to the inboard blade sections (10 such that the radial length R.sub.E of the even blade assemblies (E.sub.b) is equal to the radial length R.sub.O of the odd blade assemblies (O.sub.b) in a first operating mode, and such that the radial length R.sub.E is between about 70% to about 95% of the length R.sub.O in a second operating mode.

  20. Effect of vane opening on aerodynamic performance of the ram-rotor test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ji-ang; Guan, Jian; Zhong, Jingjun; Yuan, Chenguang

    2016-06-01

    In order to research the influence of adjustable vane on the aerodynamic performance of the ram-rotor test system, FLUENT software has been adopted to simulate the flow passage of the ram-rotor test system numerically. The vane opening is controlled by changing the stagger angle of the vane blades. Results show that flow uniformity of vane outlet is influenced by the vane openings, which has an impact on the aerodynamic loss to some extent. Total pressure ratio, adiabatic efficiency and mass flow rate can be regulated by different openings of the vane. Compared with -8° vane opening, top efficiency of the ram-rotor increases by about 13.8% at +6° opening. And total pressure ratio drops by 5.87%. The rising opening increases the relative Mach number at inlet of the ram-rotor and weakens the intensity of the tip clearance leakage, which comes to a decreasing aerodynamic loss.

  1. The Effects of Ambient Conditions on Helicopter Rotor Source Noise Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Frederic H.; Greenwood, Eric

    2011-01-01

    A new physics-based method called Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustic Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) is used to demonstrate the change in rotor harmonic noise of a helicopter operating at different ambient conditions. FRAME is based upon a non-dimensional representation of the governing acoustic and performance equations of a single rotor helicopter. Measured external noise is used together with parameter identification techniques to develop a model of helicopter external noise that is a hybrid between theory and experiment. The FRAME method is used to evaluate the main rotor harmonic noise of a Bell 206B3 helicopter operating at different altitudes. The variation with altitude of Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise, known to be a strong function of the helicopter s advance ratio, is dependent upon which definition of airspeed is flown by the pilot. If normal flight procedures are followed and indicated airspeed (IAS) is held constant, the true airspeed (TAS) of the helicopter increases with altitude. This causes an increase in advance ratio and a decrease in the speed of sound which results in large changes to BVI noise levels. Results also show that thickness noise on this helicopter becomes more intense at high altitudes where advancing tip Mach number increases because the speed of sound is decreasing and advance ratio increasing for the same indicated airspeed. These results suggest that existing measurement-based empirically derived helicopter rotor noise source models may give incorrect noise estimates when they are used at conditions where data were not measured and may need to be corrected for mission land-use planning purposes.

  2. Parametric Investigation of the Effect of Hub Pitching Moment on Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise of an Isolated Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malpica, Carlos; Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben

    2016-01-01

    At the most fundamental level, main rotor loading noise is caused by the harmonically-varying aerodynamic loads (acoustic pressures) exerted by the rotating blades on the air. Rotorcraft main rotor noise is therefore, in principle, a function of rotor control inputs, and thus the forces and moments required to achieve steady, or "trim", flight equilibrium. In certain flight conditions, the ensuing aerodynamic loading on the rotor(s) can result in highly obtrusive harmonic noise. The effect of the propulsive force, or X-force, on Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise is well documented. This paper presents an acoustics parametric sensitivity analysis of the effect of varying rotor aerodynamic pitch hub trim moments on BVI noise radiated by an S-70 helicopter main rotor. Results show that changing the hub pitching moment for an isolated rotor, trimmed in nominal 80 knot, 6 and 12 deg descent, flight conditions, alters the miss distance between the blades and the vortex in ways that have varied and noticeable effects on the BVI radiated-noise directionality. Peak BVI noise level is however not significantly altered. The application of hub pitching moment allows the attitude of the fuselage to be controlled; for example, to compensate for the uncomfortable change in fuselage pitch attitude introduced by a fuselage-mounted X-force controller.

  3. Acoustic evaluation of a novel swept-rotor fan. [noise reduction in turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. G.; Woodward, R. P.; Mackinnon, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Inlet noise and aerodynamic performance are presented for a high tip speed fan designed with rotor blade leading edge sweep that gives a subsonic component of inlet Mach number normal to the edge at all radii. The intent of the design was to minimize the generation of rotor leading edge shock waves thereby minimizing multiple pure tone noise. Sound power level and spectral comparisons are made with several high-speed fans of conventional design. Results show multiple pure tone noise at levels below those of some of the other fans and this noise was initiated at a higher tip speed. Aerodynamic performance of the fan did not meet design goals for this first build which applied conventional design procedures to the swept fan geometry.

  4. Data Summary Report for the Open Rotor Propulsion Rig Equipped With F31/A31 Rotor Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David

    2014-01-01

    An extensive wind tunnel test campaign was undertaken to quantify the performance and acoustics of a counter-rotating open rotor system. The present document summarizes the portion of this test performed with the so-called Historical Baseline rotor blades, designated F31A31. It includes performance and acoustic data acquired at Mach numbers from take-off to cruise. It also includes the effect of propulsor angle of attack as well as an upstream pylon. This report is accompanied by an electronic data set including relevant acoustic and performance measurements for all of the F31A31 data.

  5. Reduced In-Plane, Low Frequency Noise of an Active Flap Rotor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    decibels at a moderate airspeed, level flight condition at advance ratio of 0.30. Reduced noise levels were attributed to selective active flap schedules...that modified in-plane blade airloads on the advancing side of the rotor, generating counter-acting acoustic pulses that partially offset the negative...by up to 6 decibels at a moderate airspeed, level flight condition at advance ratio of 0.30. Reduced noise levels were attributed to selective active

  6. A Study of the Effects of Blade Shape on Rotor Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry E.; Burley, Casey L.

    1997-01-01

    A new rotor noise prediction system called the Tiltrotor Aeroacoustic Code (TRAC) has been developed under the Short Haul (Civil Tiltrotor) program between NASA, the Army, and the U.S. helicopter industry. This system couples the comprehensive rotorcraft code CAMRAD.Mod1 with either the high resolution sectional loads code HIRES or the full potential CFD code FPRBVI to predict unsteady blade loads, which are then input to the noise prediction program WOPWOP. In this paper, HIRES will be used to predict the blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise trends associated with blade shape. The baseline shape selected was a 17% scale model of a contemporary design 4 bladed rotor. Measurements for this rotor were acquired in the Duits-Nederslandse Windtunnel (DNW). The code is used to predict noise for the base configuration and the results are compared to the measured data. This provides a firm foundation for investigating the BVI noise trends associated with blade shape. The shapes selected for study are based on variation of sweep and taper which reflect plausible "passive" design concepts. Comparisons of power required, integrated noise, and aerodynamics are made and important trends are noted.

  7. The Uses and Abuses of the Acoustic Analogy in Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is theoretical in nature and addresses applications of the acoustic analogy in helicopter rotor noise prediction. It is argued that in many instances the acoustic analogy has not been used with care in rotor noise studies. By this it is meant that approximate or inappropriate formulations have been used. By considering various mechanisms of noise generation, such abuses are identified and the remedy is suggested. The mechanisms discussed are thickness, loading, quadrupole, and blade-vortex interaction noise. The quadrupole term of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation is written in a new form which separates the contributions of regions of high gradients such as shock surfaces. It is shown by order of magnitude studies that such regions are capable of producing noise with the same directivity as the thickness noise. The inclusion of this part of quadrupole sources in current acoustic codes is quite practical. Some of the difficulties with the use of loading noise formulations of the first author in predictions of blade-vortex interaction noise are discussed. It appears that there is a need for development of new theoretical results based on the acoustic analogy in this area. Because of the impulsive character of the blade surface pressure, a time scale of integration different from that used in loading and thickness computations must he used in a computer code for prediction of blade-vortex interaction noise.

  8. Noise Benefits of Rotor Trailing Edge Blowing for a Model Turbofan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Fite, E. Brian; Podboy, Gary G.

    2007-01-01

    An advanced model turbofan was tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9x15 LSWT) to explore far field acoustic effects associated with rotor Trailing-Edge-Blowing (TEB) for a modern, 1.294 stage pressure ratio turbofan model. The TEB rotor (Fan9) was designed to be aerodynamically similar to the previously tested Fan1, and used the same stator and nacelle hardware. Fan9 was designed with trailing edge blowing slots using an external air supply directed through the rotor hub. The TEB flow was heated to approximate the average fan exit temperature at each fan test speed. Rotor root blockage inserts were used to block TEB to all but the outer 40 and 20% span in addition to full-span blowing. A configuration with full-span TEB on alternate rotor blades was also tested. Far field acoustic data were taken at takeoff/approach conditions at 0.10 tunnel Mach. Far-field acoustic results showed that full-span blowing near 2.0% of the total flow could reduce the overall sound power level by about 2 dB. This noise reduction was observed in both the rotor-stator interaction tones and for the spectral broadband noise levels. Blowing only the outer span region was not very effective for lowering noise, and actually increased the far field noise level in some instances. Full-span blowing of alternate blades at 1.0% of the overall flow rate (equivalent to full-span blowing of all blades at 2.0% flow) showed a more modest noise decrease relative to full-span blowing of all blades. Detailed hot film measurements of the TEB rotor wake at 2.0% flow showed that TEB was not every effective for filling in the wake defect at approach fan speed toward the tip region, but did result in overfilling the wake toward the hub. Downstream turbulence measurements supported this finding, and support the observed reduction in spectral broadband noise.

  9. Reduced In-Plane, Low Frequency Helicopter Noise of an Active Flap Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Ben W.; Janakiram, Ram D.; Barbely, Natasha L.; Solis, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Results from a recent joint DARPA/Boeing/NASA/Army wind tunnel test demonstrated the ability to reduce in-plane, low frequency noise of the full-scale Boeing-SMART rotor using active flaps. Test data reported in this paper illustrated that acoustic energy in the first six blade-passing harmonics could be reduced by up to 6 decibels at a moderate airspeed, level flight condition corresponding to advance ratio of 0.30. Reduced noise levels were attributed to selective active flap schedules that modified in-plane blade airloads on the advancing side of the rotor, in a manner, which generated counteracting acoustic pulses that partially offset the negative pressure peaks associated with in-plane, steady thickness noise. These favorable reduced-noise operating states are a strong function of the active flap actuation amplitude, frequency and phase. The associated noise reductions resulted in reduced aural detection distance by up to 18%, but incurred significant vibratory load penalties due to increased hub shear forces. Small reductions in rotor lift-to-drag ratios, of no more than 3%, were also measured

  10. Takeoff/approach noise for a model counterrotation propeller with a forward-swept upstream rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Hall, David G.; Podboy, Gary G.; Jeracki, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A scale model of a counterrotating propeller with forward-swept blades in the forward rotor and aft-swept blades in the aft rotor (designated F39/A31) has been tested in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. This paper presents aeroacoustic results at a takeoff/approach condition of Mach 0.20. Laser Doppler velocimeter results taken in a plane between the two rotors are also included to quantify the interaction flow field. The intention of the forward-swept design is to reduce the magnitude of the forward rotor tip vortex and/or wakes which impinge on the aft rotor, thus lowering the interaction tone levels. A reference model propeller (designated F31/A31), having aft-swept blades in both rotors, was also tested. Aeroelastic performance of the F39/A31 propeller was disappointing. The forward rotor tip region tended to untwist toward higher effective blade angles under load. The forward rotor also exhibited steady state blade flutter at speeds and loadings well below the design condition. The noise results, based on sideline acoustic data, show that the interaction tone levels were up to 8 dB higher with the forward-swept design compared to those for the reference propeller at similar operating conditions, with these tone level differences extending down to lower propeller speeds where flutter did not occur. These acoustic results are for a poorly-performing forward-swept propeller. It is quite possible that a properly-designed forward-swept propeller would exhibit substantial interaction tone level reductions.

  11. Aeroacoustic Codes For Rotor Harmonic and BVI Noise--CAMRAD.Mod1/HIRES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Burley, Casey L.; Jolly, J. Ralph, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a status of non-CFD aeroacoustic codes at NASA Langley Research Center for the prediction of helicopter harmonic and Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise. The prediction approach incorporates three primary components: CAMRAD.Mod1 - a substantially modified version of the performance/trim/wake code CAMRAD; HIRES - a high resolution blade loads post-processor; and WOPWOP - an acoustic code. The functional capabilities and physical modeling in CAMRAD.Mod1/HIRES will be summarized and illustrated. A new multi-core roll-up wake modeling approach is introduced and validated. Predictions of rotor wake and radiated noise are compared with to the results of the HART program, a model BO-105 windtunnel test at the DNW in Europe. Additional comparisons are made to results from a DNW test of a contemporary design four-bladed rotor, as well as from a Langley test of a single proprotor (tiltrotor) three-bladed model configuration. Because the method is shown to help eliminate the necessity of guesswork in setting code parameters between different rotor configurations, it should prove useful as a rotor noise design tool.

  12. Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Noise Prediction Code Technical Documentation and User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topol, David A.; Mathews, Douglas C.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the improvements and enhancements made by Pratt & Whitney to two NASA programs which together will calculate noise from a rotor wake/stator interaction. The code is a combination of subroutines from two NASA programs with many new features added by Pratt & Whitney. To do a calculation V072 first uses a semi-empirical wake prediction to calculate the rotor wake characteristics at the stator leading edge. Results from the wake model are then automatically input into a rotor wake/stator interaction analytical noise prediction routine which calculates inlet aft sound power levels for the blade-passage-frequency tones and their harmonics, along with the complex radial mode amplitudes. The code allows for a noise calculation to be performed for a compressor rotor wake/stator interaction, a fan wake/FEGV interaction, or a fan wake/core stator interaction. This report is split into two parts, the first part discusses the technical documentation of the program as improved by Pratt & Whitney. The second part is a user's manual which describes how input files are created and how the code is run.

  13. On determining the acoustic properties of main helicopter rotor models on an open test bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kop'ev, V. F.; Zaitsev, M. Yu.; Ostrikov, N. N.; Denisov, S. L.; Makashov, S. Yu.; Anikin, V. A.; Gromov, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental studies on developing a technique to determine the acoustic properties of models of main helicopter rotors on an open test bench. The method of maximum length sequences is used to choose the optimum arrangement of microphones for an open test bench that would minimize the influence of parasitic echo. The results of processing the data of an acoustic experiment with a model rotor are detailed.

  14. Studies of blade-vortex interaction noise reduction by rotor blade modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.

    Blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is one of the most objectionable types of helicopter noise. This impulsive blade-slap noise can be particularly intense during low-speed landing approach and maneuvers. Over the years, a number of flight and model rotor tests have examined blade tip modification and other blade design changes to reduce this noise. Many times these tests have produced conflicting results. In the present paper, a number of these studies are reviewed in light of the current understanding of the BVI noise problem. Results from one study in particular are used to help establish the noise reduction potential and to shed light on the role of blade design. Current blade studies and some new concepts under development are also described.

  15. Prediction of XV-15 tilt rotor discrete frequency aeroacoustic noise with WOPWOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffen, Charles D.; George, Albert R.

    1990-01-01

    The results, methodology, and conclusions of noise prediction calculations carried out to study several possible discrete frequency harmonic noise mechanisms of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Aircraft in hover and helicopter mode forward flight are presented. The mechanisms studied were thickness and loading noise. In particular, the loading noise caused by flow separation and the fountain/ground plane effect were predicted with calculations made using WOPWOP, a noise prediction program developed by NASA Langley. The methodology was to model the geometry and aerodynamics of the XV-15 rotor blades in hover and steady level flight and then create corresponding FORTRAN subroutines which were used an input for WOPWOP. The models are described and the simplifying assumptions made in creating them are evaluated, and the results of the computations are presented. The computations lead to the following conclusions: The fountain/ground plane effect is an important source of aerodynamic noise for the XV-15 in hover. Unsteady flow separation from the airfoil passing through the fountain at high angles of attack significantly affects the predicted sound spectra and may be an important noise mechanism for the XV-15 in hover mode. The various models developed did not predict the sound spectra in helicopter forward flight. The experimental spectra indicate the presence of blade vortex interactions which were not modeled in these calculations. A need for further study and development of more accurate aerodynamic models, including unsteady stall in hover and blade vortex interactions in forward flight.

  16. Near-Field Acoustic Power Level Analysis of F31/A31 Open Rotor Model at Simulated Cruise Conditions, Technical Report II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sree, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Near-field acoustic power level analysis of F31A31 open rotor model has been performed to determine its noise characteristics at simulated cruise flight conditions. The non-proprietary parts of the test data obtained from experiments in the 8x6 supersonic wind tunnel were provided by NASA-Glenn Research Center. The tone and broadband components of total noise have been separated from raw test data by using a new data analysis tool. Results in terms of sound pressure levels, acoustic power levels, and their variations with rotor speed, freestream Mach number, and input shaft power, with different blade-pitch setting angles at simulated cruise flight conditions, are presented and discussed. Empirical equations relating models acoustic power level and input shaft power have been developed. The near-field acoustic efficiency of the model at simulated cruise conditions is also determined. It is hoped that the results presented in this work will serve as a database for comparison and improvement of other open rotor blade designs and also for validating open rotor noise prediction codes.

  17. Sources, control, and effects of noise from aircraft propellers and rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, J. S.; Greene, G. C.; Dempsey, T. K.

    1981-01-01

    Recent NASA and NASA sponsored research on the prediction and control of propeller and rotor source noise, on the analysis and design of fuselage sidewall noise control treatments, and on the measurement and quantification of the response of passengers to aircraft noise is described. Source noise predictions are compared with measurements for conventional low speed propellers, for new high speed propellers (propfans), and for a helicopter. Results from a light aircraft demonstration program are considered which indicates that about 5 dB reduction of flyover noise can be obtained without significant performance penalty. Sidewall design studies are examined for interior noise control in light general aviation aircraft and in large transports using propfan propulsion. The weight of the added acoustic treatment is estimated and tradeoffs between weight and noise reduction are discussed. A laboratory study of passenger response to combined broadband and tonal propeller-like noise is described. Subject discomfort ratings of combined tone broadband noises are compared with ratings of broadband (boundary layer) noise alone and the relative importance of the propeller tones is examined.

  18. Computation and analysis of rotor-noise generation in grid turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junye; Wang, Kan; Wang, Meng

    2016-11-01

    The noise of a ten-bladed rotor interacting with a grid-generated turbulent flow at low Mach number is computed using large-eddy simulation and the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings extension to Lighthill's theory. The grid turbulence is approximated as convected homogeneous and isotropic turbulence generated by a separate simulation and provided as inflow boundary conditions. The sound pressure spectrum predicted by the simulation exhibits overall agreement with previous experimental measurements in terms of the spectral shape and level. The turbulence ingestion noise is broadband with small peaks at the blade passing frequency and its harmonics. It is significantly stronger than the rotor self-noise generated by blade trailing-edge vortex shedding. Consistent with experimental observations, decreasing the rotor advance ratio at fixed mean inflow velocity leads to an increase in the sound pressure level. Different levels of acoustic compactness assumptions are examined, and the results indicate that the blade chord is acoustically compact over the frequency range of interest. Blade to blade correlations of the acoustic dipole sources are shown to be small. Supported by ONR Grant N00014-14-1-0129.

  19. Forward rotor vortex effects on counter rotating propeller noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laur, Michele; Squires, Becky; Nagel, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Three configurations of a model counter rotating propeller manipulate the blade tip flow by: placing the CRP at angle of attack, installing shrouds, and turning the upstream blades to provide forward sweep. Flow visualization and flow measurements with thermal anemometry show no evidence of a tip vortex; however, a leading edge vortex was detected on aft swept blades. The modifications served to alter the strength and/or path of the leading edge vortex. The vortical flow is eliminated by forward sweep on the upstream propeller blades. Far field acoustic data from each test indicate only small influences on the level and directivity of the BPFs. The interaction tone at the sum of the two BPF's was significantly altered in a consistent manner. As the vortex system varied, the interaction tone was affected: far field noise levels in the forward quandrant increased and the characteristic noise minimum near the plane of rotation became less pronounced and in some cases were eliminated. If the forward propeller leading edge vortex system does not impact the rear propeller in the standard manner, a net increase in the primary interaction tone occurs for the model tested. If the leading edge vortex is removed, the interaction tone increases.

  20. Noise in open plan classrooms in primary schools: a review.

    PubMed

    Shield, Bridget; Greenland, Emma; Dockrell, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review of research carried out in the past 40 years into various aspects of noise in open plan classrooms. The emergence of open plan classroom design in response to progressive educational reforms is discussed. A limited amount of evidence of the effects of noise in open plan classrooms is presented. Surveys of both background and intrusive noise levels in open plan classrooms are summarized and compared. Differences between noise levels in open plan and enclosed classrooms are also considered. Recommended noise limits and acoustic design criteria for open plan classrooms are discussed, together with some current international standards. The paper concludes with a discussion of appropriate noise control measures to reduce noise and maximize speech intelligibility and speech privacy in open plan classrooms.

  1. Initial results of a model rotor higher harmonic control (HHC) wind tunnel experiment on BVI impulsive noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splettstoesser, W. R.; Lehmann, G.; van der Wall, B.

    1989-09-01

    Initial acoustic results are presented from a higher harmonic control (HHC) wind tunnel pilot experiment on helicopter rotor blade-vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise reduction, making use of the DFVLR 40-percent-scaled BO-105 research rotor in the DNW 6m by 8m closed test section. Considerable noise reduction (of several decibels) has been measured for particular HHC control settings, however, at the cost of increased vibration levels and vice versa. The apparently adverse results for noise and vibration reduction by HHC are explained. At optimum pitch control settings for BVI noise reduction, rotor simulation results demonstrate that blade loading at the outer tip region is decreased, vortex strength and blade vortex miss-distance are increased, resulting altogether in reduced BVI noise generation. At optimum pitch control settings for vibration reduction adverse effects on blade loading, vortex strength and blade vortex miss-distance are found.

  2. Numerical investigation of nonlinear propagation distortion effects in helicopter rotor noise.

    PubMed

    Menounou, Penelope; Vitsas, Panagiotis A

    2009-10-01

    The effect of nonlinear propagation distortion on helicopter rotor noise is presented based on measured data for low-speed descent and numerical calculations that predict the noise level away from the helicopter with and without nonlinear effects. It is shown that for some frequency bands the difference between linear and nonlinear calculations can be as high as 7 dB. Blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise, the dominant noise contributor during descent, is mainly examined. It is shown that advancing side BVI noise is affected by nonlinear distortion, while retreating side BVI noise is not. Based on signal characteristics at source, two quantities are derived. The first quantity (termed polarity) is based on the pressure gradient of the source signal and can be used to determine whether a BVI signal will evolve as an advancing or a retreating side signal. The second quantity (termed weighted rise time) is a measure of the impulsiveness of the BVI signal and can be used to determine at which frequency nonlinear effects start to appear. Finally, polarity and weighted rise time are shown to be applicable in cases of BVI noise generated from different blade tips, as well as in cases of non-BVI noise.

  3. An experimental investigation of the effect of rotor tip shape on helicopter blade-slap noise. [in the langley v/stol wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoad, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of tip-shape modification on blade-vortex interaction-induced helicopter blade-slap noise was investigated. The general rotor model system (GRMS) with a 3.148 m (10.33 ft) diameter, four-bladed fully articulated rotor was installed in the Langley V/STOL wind tunnel. The tunnel was operated in the open-throat configuration with treatment to improve the semi-anechoic characteristics of the test chamber. Based on previous investigation, four promising tips (ogee, sub-wing, 60 deg swept-tapered, and end-plate) were used along with a standard square tip as a baseline configuration. Aerodynamic and acoustical data concerning the relative applicability of the various tip configurations for blade-slap noise reduction are presented without analysis or discussion.

  4. Helicopter model rotor-blade vortex interaction impulsive noise: Scalability and parametric variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.; Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic data taken in the anechoic Deutsch-Niederlaendischer Windkanal (DNW) have documented the blade vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise radiated from a 1/7-scale model main rotor of the AH-1 series helicopter. Averaged model scale data were compared with averaged full scale, inflight acoustic data under similar nondimensional test conditions. At low advance ratios (mu = 0.164 to 0.194), the data scale remarkable well in level and waveform shape, and also duplicate the directivity pattern of BVI impulsive noise. At moderate advance ratios (mu = 0.224 to 0.270), the scaling deteriorates, suggesting that the model scale rotor is not adequately simulating the full scale BVI noise; presently, no proved explanation of this discrepancy exists. Carefully performed parametric variations over a complete matrix of testing conditions have shown that all of the four governing nondimensional parameters - tip Mach number at hover, advance ratio, local inflow ratio, and thrust coefficient - are highly sensitive to BVI noise radiation.

  5. Development of an Open Rotor Cycle Model in NPSS Using a Multi-Design Point Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project and Subsonic Fixed Wing Project are focused on developing concepts and technologies which may enable dramatic reductions to the environmental impact of future generation subsonic aircraft (Refs. 1 and 2). The open rotor concept (also referred to as the Unducted Fan or advanced turboprop) may allow the achievement of this objective by reducing engine emissions and fuel consumption. To evaluate its potential impact, an open rotor cycle modeling capability is needed. This paper presents the initial development of an open rotor cycle model in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) computer program which can then be used to evaluate the potential benefit of this engine. The development of this open rotor model necessitated addressing two modeling needs within NPSS. First, a method for evaluating the performance of counter-rotating propellers was needed. Therefore, a new counter-rotating propeller NPSS component was created. This component uses propeller performance maps developed from historic counter-rotating propeller experiments to determine the thrust delivered and power required. Second, several methods for modeling a counter-rotating power turbine within NPSS were explored. These techniques used several combinations of turbine components within NPSS to provide the necessary power to the propellers. Ultimately, a single turbine component with a conventional turbine map was selected. Using these modeling enhancements, an open rotor cycle model was developed in NPSS using a multi-design point approach. The multi-design point (MDP) approach improves the engine cycle analysis process by making it easier to properly size the engine to meet a variety of thrust targets throughout the flight envelope. A number of design points are considered including an aerodynamic design point, sea-level static, takeoff and top of climb. The development of this MDP model was also enabled by the selection of a simple power

  6. Quantum δ-kicked rotor: the effect of amplitude noise on the quantum resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouard, S.; Plata, J.

    2003-04-01

    We study analytically the effect of amplitude noise on the quantum resonances of an atom optics realization of the delta-kicked rotor. Noise is shown to add a time growth to the 'deterministic' energy and to induce a time increasing spreading in the momentum distribution; exact results are given for both effects. The ballistic peaks characteristic of the noiseless distribution for particular initial conditions broaden and eventually vanish, whereas the associated quadratic growth of energy persists; at large times, the survival probability decays as t-1. Moreover, the nonexponential 'localization' linked to different initial conditions is gradually destroyed. Features specific to Gaussian noise, white and coloured, are analysed. The feasibility of experimental tests of these effects is discussed.

  7. Manipulation of upstream rotor leading edge vortex and its effects on counter rotating propeller noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squires, Becky

    1993-01-01

    The leading edge vortex of a counter rotating propeller (CRP) model was altered by using shrouds and by turning the upstream rotors to a forward sweep configuration. Performance, flow, and acoustic data were used to determine the effect of vortex impingement on the noise signature of the CRP system. Forward sweep was found to eliminate the leading edge vortex of the upstream blades. Removal of the vortex had little effect on the tone noise at the forward and rear blade passing frequencies (BPF's) but significantly altered both the sound pressure level and directivity of the interaction tone which occurs at the sum of the two BPF's. A separate manipulation of the leading edge vortex performed by installing shrouds of various inlet length on the CRP verified that diverting the vortex path increases the noise level of the interaction tone. An unexpected link has been established between the interaction tone and the leading edge vortex-blade interaction phenomenon.

  8. An efficient and robust method for predicting helicopter rotor high-speed impulsive noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1996-01-01

    A new formulation for the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings quadrupole source, which is valid for a far-field in-plane observer, is presented. The far-field approximation is new and unique in that no further approximation of the quadrupole source strength is made and integrands with r(exp -2) and r(exp -3) dependence are retained. This paper focuses on the development of a retarded-time formulation in which time derivatives are analytically taken inside the integrals to avoid unnecessary computational work when the observer moves with the rotor. The new quadrupole formulation is similar to Farassat's thickness and loading formulation 1A. Quadrupole noise prediction is carried out in two parts: a preprocessing stage in which the previously computed flow field is integrated in the direction normal to the rotor disk, and a noise computation stage in which quadrupole surface integrals are evaluated for a particular observer position. Preliminary predictions for hover and forward flight agree well with experimental data. The method is robust and requires computer resources comparable to thickness and loading noise prediction.

  9. On Acoustic Source Specification for Rotor-Stator Interaction Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Envia, Edmane; Burley, Caesy L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the use of measured source data to assess the effects of acoustic source specification on rotor-stator interaction noise predictions. Specifically, the acoustic propagation and radiation portions of a recently developed coupled computational approach are used to predict tonal rotor-stator interaction noise from a benchmark configuration. In addition to the use of full measured data, randomization of source mode relative phases is also considered for specification of the acoustic source within the computational approach. Comparisons with sideline noise measurements are performed to investigate the effects of various source descriptions on both inlet and exhaust predictions. The inclusion of additional modal source content is shown to have a much greater influence on the inlet results. Reasonable agreement between predicted and measured levels is achieved for the inlet, as well as the exhaust when shear layer effects are taken into account. For the number of trials considered, phase randomized predictions follow statistical distributions similar to those found in previous statistical source investigations. The shape of the predicted directivity pattern relative to measurements also improved with phase randomization, having predicted levels generally within one standard deviation of the measured levels.

  10. Acoustic measurements from a rotor blade-vortex interaction noise experiment in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ruth M.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Elliott, J. W.; Schultz, K.-J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic data are presented from a 40 percent scale model of the 4-bladed BO-105 helicopter main rotor, measured in the large European aeroacoustic wind tunnel, the DNW. Rotor blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise data in the low speed flight range were acquired using a traversing in-flow microphone array. The experimental apparatus, testing procedures, calibration results, and experimental objectives are fully described. A large representative set of averaged acoustic signals is presented.

  11. A Comparison of Computational Aeroacoustic Prediction Methods for Transonic Rotor Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Lyrintzis, Anastasios; Koutsavdis, Evangelos K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper compares two methods for predicting transonic rotor noise for helicopters in hover and forward flight. Both methods rely on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution as input to predict the acoustic near and far fields. For this work, the same full-potential rotor code has been used to compute the CFD solution for both acoustic methods. The first method employs the acoustic analogy as embodied in the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation, including the quadrupole term. The second method uses a rotating Kirchhoff formulation. Computed results from both methods are compared with one other and with experimental data for both hover and advancing rotor cases. The results are quite good for all cases tested. The sensitivity of both methods to CFD grid resolution and to the choice of the integration surface/volume is investigated. The computational requirements of both methods are comparable; in both cases these requirements are much less than the requirements for the CFD solution.

  12. Flight Acoustic Testing and Data Acquisition For the Rotor Noise Model (RNM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, David A.; Burley, Casey L.; Smith, Charles D.

    2006-01-01

    Two acoustic flight tests have been conducted on a remote test range at Eglin Air Force Base in the panhandle of Florida. The first was the Acoustics Week flight test conducted in September 2003. The second was the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Acoustics Flight Test conducted in October-November 2005. Benchmark acoustic databases were obtained for a number of rotorcraft and limited fixed wing vehicles for a variety of flight conditions. The databases are important for validation of acoustic prediction programs such as the Rotorcraft Noise Model (RNM), as well as for the development of low noise flight procedures and for environmental impact assessments. An overview of RNM capabilities and a detailed description of the RNM/ART (Acoustic Repropagation Technique) process are presented. The RNM/ART process is demonstrated using measured acoustic data for the MD600N. The RNM predictions for a level flyover speed sweep show the highest SEL noise levels on the flight track centerline occurred at the slowest vehicle speeds. At these slower speeds, broadband noise content is elevated compared to noise levels obtained at the higher speeds. A descent angle sweep shows that, in general, ground noise levels increased with increasing descent rates. Vehicle orientation in addition to vehicle position was found to significantly affect the RNM/ART creation of source noise semi-spheres for vehicles with highly directional noise characteristics and only mildly affect those with weak acoustic directionality. Based on these findings, modifications are proposed for RNM/ART to more accurately define vehicle and rotor orientation.

  13. A Study of Acoustic Reflections in Full-Scale Rotor Low Frequency Noise Measurements Acquired in Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbely, Natasha L.; Sim, Ben W.; Kitaplioglu, Cahit; Goulding, Pat, II

    2010-01-01

    Difficulties in obtaining full-scale rotor low frequency noise measurements in wind tunnels are addressed via residual sound reflections due to non-ideal anechoic wall treatments. Examples illustrated with the Boeing-SMART rotor test in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel facility demonstrated that these reflections introduced distortions in the measured acoustic time histories that are not representative of free-field rotor noise radiation. A simplified reflection analysis, based on the method of images, is used to examine the sound measurement quality in such "less-than-anechoic" environment. Predictions of reflection-adjusted acoustic time histories are qualitatively shown to account for some of the spurious fluctuations observed in wind tunnel noise measurements

  14. Effects of repetition rate and impulsiveness of simulated helicopter rotor noise on annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C. A.; Mccurdy, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Annoyance judgements were obtained for computer generated stimuli simulative of helicopter impulsive rotor noise to investigate effects of repetition rate and impulsiveness. Each of the 82 different stimuli was judged at 3 sound pressure levels by 48 subjects. Impulse repetition rates covered a range from 10 Hz to 115 Hz; crest factors covered a range from 3.2 dB to 19.3 dB. Increases in annoyance with increases in repetition rate were found which were not predicted by common loudness or annoyance metrics and which were independent of noise level. The ability to predict effects of impulsiveness varied between the noise metrics and was found to be dependent on noise level. The ability to predict the effects of impulsiveness was not generally improved by any of several proposed impulsiveness corrections. Instead, the effects of impulsiveness were found to be systematically related to the frequency content of the stimuli. A modified frequency weighting was developed which offers improved annoyance prediction.

  15. Advancing-side directivity and retreating-side interactions of model rotor blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. M.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Elliott, J. W.; Schultz, K.-J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic data are presented from a 40 percent scale model of the four-bladed BO-105 helicopter main rotor, tested in a large aerodynamic wind tunnel. Rotor blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise data in the low-speed flight range were acquired using a traversing in-flow microphone array. Acoustic results presented are used to assess the acoustic far field of BVI noise, to map the directivity and temporal characteristics of BVI impulsive noise, and to show the existence of retreating-side BVI signals. The characterics of the acoustic radiation patterns, which can often be strongly focused, are found to be very dependent on rotor operating condition. The acoustic signals exhibit multiple blade-vortex interactions per blade with broad impulsive content at lower speeds, while at higher speeds, they exhibit fewer interactions per blade, with much sharper, higher amplitude acoustic signals. Moderate-amplitude BVI acoustic signals measured under the aft retreating quadrant of the rotor are shown to originate from the retreating side of the rotor.

  16. Low Speed, 2-D Rotor/Stator Active Noise Control at the Source Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, John C.; Kousen, Ken A.; Zander, Anthony C.; Bak, Michael; Topol, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Wake/blade-row interaction noise produced by the Annular Cascade Facility at Purdue University has been modeled using the LINFLO analysis. Actuator displacements needed for complete cancellation of the propagating acoustic response modes have been determined, along with the associated actuator power requirements. As an alternative, weighted least squares minimization of the total far-field sound power using individual actuators has also been examined. Attempts were made to translate the two-dimensional aerodynamic results into three-dimensional actuator requirements. The results lie near the limit of present actuator technology. In order to investigate the concept of noise control at the source for active rotor/stator noise control at the source, various techniques for embedding miniature actuators into vanes were examined. Numerous miniature speaker arrangements were tested and analyzed to determine their suitability as actuators for a demonstration test in the Annular Cascade Facility at Purdue. The best candidates demonstrated marginal performance. An alternative concept to using vane mounted speakers as control actuators was developed and tested. The concept uses compression drivers which are mounted externally to the stator vanes. Each compression driver is connected via a tube to an air cavity in the stator vane, from which the driver signal radiates into the working section of the experimental rig. The actual locations and dimensions of the actuators were used as input parameters for a LINFLO computational analysis of the actuator displacements required for complete cancellation of tones in the Purdue experimental rig. The actuators were designed and an arrangement determined which is compatible with the Purdue experimental rig and instrumentation. Experimental tests indicate that the actuators are capable of producing equivalent displacements greater than the requirements predicted by the LINFLO analysis. The acoustic output of the actuators was also found

  17. One-way rotation of a molecule-rotor driven by a shot noise.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Jorge; Monturet, Serge; Joachim, Christian

    2014-03-07

    The shot noise of a tunneling current passing through a molecule-motor can sustain a one-way rotation when populating the molecular excited states by tunneling inelastic excitations. We demonstrate that a ratchet-like ground state rotation potential energy curve is not necessary for the rotation to occur. A relative shift in energy difference between the maxima of this ground state and the minima of the excited states is the necessary condition to get to a unidirectional rotation. The rotor speed of rotation and its rotation direction are both controlled by this shift, indicating the necessity of a careful design of both the ground and excited states of the next generation of molecule-motors to be able to generate a motive power at the nanoscale.

  18. An experimental investigation of vortex stability, tip shapes, compressibility, and noise for hovering model rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tangler, J. L.; Wohlfeld, R. M.; Miley, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Schlieren methods of flow visualization and hot-wire anemometry for velocity measurements were used to investigate the wakes generated by hovering model propellers and rotors. The research program was directed toward investigating (1) the stability of the tip vortex, (2) the effects produced by various tip shapes on performance and tip vortex characteristics, and (3) the shock formation and noise characteristics associated with various tip shapes. A free-wake analysis was also conducted for comparison with the vortex stability experimental results. Schlieren photographs showing wake asymmetry, interaction, and instability are presented along with a discussion of the effects produced by the number of blades, collective pitch, and tip speed. Two hot-wire anemometer techniques, used to measure the maximum circumferential velocity in the tip vortex, are discussed.

  19. Prediction of high-speed rotor noise with a Kirchhoff formula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, Timothy W.; Strawn, Roger C.; Yu, Yung H.

    1987-01-01

    A new methodology has been developed to predict the impulsive noise generated by a transonic rotor blade. The formulation uses a full-potential finite-difference method to obtain the pressure field close to the blade. A Kirchhoff integral formulation is then used to extend these finite-difference results into the far-field. This Kirchhoff formula is written in a blade-fixed coordinate system. It requires initial data across a plane at the sonic radius. This data is provided by the finite-difference solution. Acoustic pressure predictions show excellent agreement with hover experimental data for two hover cases of 0.88 and 0.90 tip Mach number, the latter of which has delocalized transonic flow. These results represent the first successful prediction technique for peak pressure amplitudes using a computational code.

  20. Far-Field Acoustic Power Level and Performance Analyses of F31/A31 Open Rotor Model at Simulated Scaled Takeoff, Nominal Takeoff, and Approach Conditions: Technical Report I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sree, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Far-field acoustic power level and performance analyses of open rotor model F31/A31 have been performed to determine its noise characteristics at simulated scaled takeoff, nominal takeoff, and approach flight conditions. The nonproprietary parts of the data obtained from experiments in 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (9?15 LSWT) tests were provided by NASA Glenn Research Center to perform the analyses. The tone and broadband noise components have been separated from raw test data by using a new data analysis tool. Results in terms of sound pressure levels, acoustic power levels, and their variations with rotor speed, angle of attack, thrust, and input shaft power have been presented and discussed. The effect of an upstream pylon on the noise levels of the model has been addressed. Empirical equations relating model's acoustic power level, thrust, and input shaft power have been developed. The far-field acoustic efficiency of the model is also determined for various simulated flight conditions. It is intended that the results presented in this work will serve as a database for comparison and improvement of other open rotor blade designs and also for validating open rotor noise prediction codes.

  1. Analytical study of the effects of wind tunnel turbulence on turbofan rotor noise. [NASA Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P. R.; Kerschen, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of tunnel turbulence on turbofan rotor noise was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the NASA Ames 40 by 80 foot tunnel in simulating flight levels of fan noise. A previously developed theory for predicting rotor/turbulence interaction noise was refined and extended to include first-order effects of inlet turbulence anisotropy. This theory was then verified by carrying out extensive data/theory comparisons. The resulting model computer program was then employed to carry out a parametric study of the effects of fan size, blade number, and operating line on rotor/turbulence noise for outdoor test stand. NASA Ames wind tunnel, and flight inlet turbulence conditions. A major result of this study is that although wind tunnel rotor/turbulence noise levels are not as low as flight levels they are substantially lower than the outdoor test stand levels and do not mask other sources of fan noise.

  2. Effect of higher harmonic control on helicopter rotor blade-vortex interaction noise: Prediction and initial validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaumier, P.; Prieur, J.; Rahier, G.; Spiegel, P.; Demargne, A.; Tung, C.; Gallman, J. M.; Yu, Y. H.; Kube, R.; Vanderwall, B. G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a status of theoretical tools of AFDD, DLR, NASA and ONERA for prediction of the effect of HHC on helicopter main rotor BVI noise. Aeroacoustic predictions from the four research centers, concerning a wind tunnel simulation of a typical descent flight case without and with HHC are presented and compared. The results include blade deformation, geometry of interacting vortices, sectional loads and noise. Acoustic predictions are compared to experimental data. An analysis of the results provides a first insight of the mechanisms by which HHC may affect BVI noise.

  3. Prediction of helicopter rotor discrete frequency noise: A computer program incorporating realistic blade motions and advanced acoustic formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    A computer program has been developed at the Langley Research Center to predict the discrete frequency noise of conventional and advanced helicopter rotors. The program, called WOPWOP, uses the most advanced subsonic formulation of Farassat that is less sensitive to errors and is valid for nearly all helicopter rotor geometries and flight conditions. A brief derivation of the acoustic formulation is presented along with a discussion of the numerical implementation of the formulation. The computer program uses realistic helicopter blade motion and aerodynamic loadings, input by the user, for noise calculation in the time domain. A detailed definition of all the input variables, default values, and output data is included. A comparison with experimental data shows good agreement between prediction and experiment; however, accurate aerodynamic loading is needed.

  4. On the nonlinear problem of the three-axis reorientation of a three-rotor gyrostat in the game noise model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorotnikov, V. I.; Martyshenko, Yu. G.

    2013-09-01

    The nonlinear game problem of the three-axis reorientation of an asymmetric solid body with three flywheels (rotors) has been solved. Acceptable levels of uncontrollable noise depending on given constraints of control moments have been estimated.

  5. Theory for broadband Noise of Rotor and Stator Cascades with Inhomogeneous Inflow Turbulence Including Effects of Lean and Sweep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of broadband noise generated by turbulence impinging on a downstream blade row is examined from a theoretical viewpoint. Equations are derived for sound power spectra in terms of 3 dimensional wavenumber spectra of the turbulence. Particular attention is given to issues of turbulence inhomogeneity associated with the near field of the rotor and variations through boundary layers. Lean and sweep of the rotor or stator cascade are also handled rigorously with a full derivation of the relevant geometry and definitions of lean and sweep angles. Use of the general theory is illustrated by 2 simple theoretical spectra for homogeneous turbulence. Limited comparisons are made with data from model fans designed by Pratt & Whitney, Allison, and Boeing. Parametric studies for stator noise are presented showing trends with Mach number, vane count, turbulence scale and intensity, lean, and sweep. Two conventions are presented to define lean and sweep. In the "cascade system" lean is a rotation out of its plane and sweep is a rotation of the airfoil in its plane. In the "duct system" lean is the leading edge angle viewing the fan from the front (along the fan axis) and sweep is the angle viewing the fan from the side (,perpendicular to the axis). It is shown that the governing parameter is sweep in the plane of the airfoil (which reduces the chordwise component of Mach number). Lean (out of the plane of the airfoil) has little effect. Rotor noise predictions are compared with duct turbulence/rotor interaction noise data from Boeing and variations, including blade tip sweep and turbulence axial and transverse scales are explored.

  6. Parametric Investigation of the Effect of Hub Pitching Moment on Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise of an Isolated Rotor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-19

    Aerospace Engineer NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field , CA Eric Greenwood Aerospace Engineer NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA Ben...Sim Research Engineer US Army Aviation Development Directorate Moffett Field , CA ABSTRACT At the most fundamental level, main rotor loading noise...and torsion . Specifically, the elastic deformation of the blade is characterized by the spatial displacements of any arbitrary point on the elastic

  7. Mach number scaling of helicopter rotor blade/vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighton, Kenneth P.; Harris, Wesley L.

    1985-01-01

    A parametric study of model helicopter rotor blade slap due to blade vortex interaction (BVI) was conducted in a 5 by 7.5-foot anechoic wind tunnel using model helicopter rotors with two, three, and four blades. The results were compared with a previously developed Mach number scaling theory. Three- and four-bladed rotor configurations were found to show very good agreement with the Mach number to the sixth power law for all conditions tested. A reduction of conditions for which BVI blade slap is detected was observed for three-bladed rotors when compared to the two-bladed baseline. The advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotor exhibited an angular dependence not present for the two-bladed configuration. The upper limits for the advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotors increased with increasing rotational speed.

  8. A study of the noise radiation from four helicopter rotor blades. [tests in Ames 40 by 20 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A.; Mosher, M.

    1978-01-01

    Acoustic measurements were taken of a modern helicopter rotor with four blade tip shapes in the NASA Ames 40-by-80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The four tip shapes are: rectangular, swept, trapezoidal, and swept tapered in platform. Acoustic effects due to tip shape changes were studied based on the dBA level, peak noise pressure, and subjective rating. The swept tapered blade was found to be the quietest above an advancing tip Mach number of about 0.9, and the swept blade was the quietest at low speed. The measured high speed impulsive noise was compared with theoretical predictions based on thickness effects; good agreement was found.

  9. Acoustics Reflections of Full-Scale Rotor Noise Measurements in NFAC 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbely, Natasha Lydia; Kitaplioglu, Cahit; Sim, Ben W.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of current research is to identify the extent of acoustic time history distortions due to wind tunnel wall reflections. Acoustic measurements from the recent full-scale Boeing-SMART rotor test (Fig. 2) will be used to illustrate the quality of noise measurement in the NFAC 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel test section. Results will be compared to PSU-WOPWOP predictions obtained with and without adjustments due to sound reflections off wind tunnel walls. Present research assumes a rectangular enclosure as shown in Fig. 3a. The Method of Mirror Images7 is used to account for reflection sources and their acoustic paths by introducing mirror images of the rotor (i.e. acoustic source), at each and every wall surface, to enforce a no-flow boundary condition at the position of the physical walls (Fig. 3b). While conventional approach evaluates the "combined" noise from both the source and image rotor at a single microphone position, an alternative approach is used to simplify implementation of PSU-WOPWOP for this reflection analysis. Here, an "equivalent" microphone position is defined with respect to the source rotor for each mirror image that effectively renders the reflection analysis to be a one rotor, multiple microphones problem. This alternative approach has the advantage of allowing each individual "equivalent" microphone, representing the reflection pulse from the associated wall surface, to be adjusted by the panel absorption coefficient illustrated in Fig. 1a. Note that the presence of parallel wall surfaces requires an infinite number of mirror images (Fig. 3c) to satisfy the no-flow boundary conditions. In the present analysis, up to four mirror images (per wall surface) are accounted to achieve convergence in the predicted time histories

  10. Takeoff/approach noise for a model counterrotation propeller with a forward-swept upstream rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Hall, David G.; Podboy, Gary G.; Jeracki, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A scale model of a counterrotating propeller with forward-swept blades in the forward rotor and aft-swept blades in the aft rotor (designated F39/A31) has been tested in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. This paper presents aeroacoustic results at a takeoff/approach condition of Mach 0.20. Laser Doppler Velocimeter results taken in a plane between the two rotors are also included to quantify the interaction flow field. The intention of the forward-swept design is to reduce the magnitude of the forward rotor tip vortex and/or wakes which impinge on the aft rotor, thus lowering the interaction tone levels.

  11. Acoustic testing of a 1.5 pressure ratio low tip speed fan with a serrated rotor (QEP fan B scale model). [reduction of engine noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazin, S. B.; Paas, J. E.; Minzner, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    A scale model of the bypass flow region of a 1.5 pressure ratio, single stage, low tip speed fan was tested with a serrated rotor leading edge to determine its effects on noise generation. The serrated rotor was produced by cutting teeth into the leading edge of the nominal rotor blades. The effects of speed and exhaust nozzle area on the scale models noise characteristics were investigated with both the nominal rotor and serrated rotor. Acoustic results indicate the serrations reduced front quadrant PNL's at takeoff power. In particular, the 200 foot (61.0 m) sideline noise was reduced from 3 to 4 PNdb at 40 deg for nominal and large nozzle operation. However, the rear quadrant maximum sideline PNL's were increased 1.5 to 3 PNdb at approach thust and up to 2 PNdb at takeoff thust with these serrated rotor blades. The configuration with the serrated rotor produced the lowest maximum 200 foot (61.0 m) sideline PNL for any given thust when the large nozzle (116% of design area) was employed.

  12. Effect of at-the-source noise reduction on performance and weights of a tilt-rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibs, J.; Stepniewski, W. Z.; Spencer, R.

    1975-01-01

    Reduction of far-field acoustic signature through modification of basic design parameters (tip speed, number of blades, disc loading and rotor blade area) was examined, using a tilt-rotor flight research aircraft as a baseline configuration. Of those design parameters, tip speed appeared as the most important. Next, preliminary design of two aircraft was performed, postulating the following reduction of noise level from that of the baseline machine, at 500 feet from the spot of OGE hover. In one aircraft, the PNL was lowered by 10 PNdB and in the other, OASPL decreased by 10 dB. The resulting weight and performance penalties were examined. Then, PNL and EPNL aspects of terminal operation were compared for the baseline and quieter aircraft.

  13. Separation of Main and Tail Rotor Noise Sources from Ground-Based Acoustic Measurements Using Time-Domain De-Dopplerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Eric II; Schmitz, Fredric H.

    2009-01-01

    A new method of separating the contributions of helicopter main and tail rotor noise sources is presented, making use of ground-based acoustic measurements. The method employs time-domain de-Dopplerization to transform the acoustic pressure time-history data collected from an array of ground-based microphones to the equivalent time-history signals observed by an array of virtual inflight microphones traveling with the helicopter. The now-stationary signals observed by the virtual microphones are then periodically averaged with the main and tail rotor once per revolution triggers. The averaging process suppresses noise which is not periodic with the respective rotor, allowing for the separation of main and tail rotor pressure time-histories. The averaged measurements are then interpolated across the range of directivity angles captured by the microphone array in order to generate separate acoustic hemispheres for the main and tail rotor noise sources. The new method is successfully applied to ground-based microphone measurements of a Bell 206B3 helicopter and demonstrates the strong directivity characteristics of harmonic noise radiation from both the main and tail rotors of that helicopter.

  14. Correlation of helicopter impulsive noise from blade-vortex interaction with rotor mean inflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connor, Andrew B.; Martin, R. M.

    1987-01-01

    Data from a test made in the Langley 4 x 7 Meter Tunnel were parametrically studied with respect to the occurrence of blade-vortex interaction (BVI) as a function of tunnel speed and rotor angle of attack. Three microphones on the tunnel centerline forward of the model and one microphone forward and 45 degrees to the right provided the data. The rotor model was tested with a set of high-twist blades (-10 degrees) and a set of low-twist blades (-5 degrees) over the midspeed range (50 to 80 knots) at angles of attack ranging from -6 degrees (shallow climb) to 10 degrees (steep descent). The data from all four microphones indicated that the most probable time of occurrence of BVI is when the rotor descent is approximately equal to the rotor mean inflow velocity. However, some of the data showed no conclusive relationship to the mean inflow velocity.

  15. Broadband Noise of Fans - With Unsteady Coupling Theory to Account for Rotor and Stator Reflection/Transmission Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the effects on broadband noise generation of unsteady coupling between a rotor and stator in the fan stage of a turbofan engine. Whereas previous acoustic analyses treated the blade rows as isolated cascades, the present work accounts for reflection and transmission effects at both blade rows by tracking the mode and frequency scattering of pressure and vortical waves. The fan stage is modeled in rectilinear geometry to take advantage of a previously existing unsteady cascade theory for 3D perturbation waves and thereby use a realistic 3D turbulence spectrum. In the analysis, it was found that the set of participating modes divides itself naturally into "independent mode subsets" that couple only among themselves and not to the other such subsets. This principle is the basis for the analysis and considerably reduces computational effort. It also provides a simple, accurate scheme for modal averaging for further efficiency. Computed results for a coupled fan stage are compared with calculations for isolated blade rows. It is found that coupling increases downstream noise by 2 to 4 dB. Upstream noise is lower for isolated cascades and is further reduced by including coupling effects. In comparison with test data, the increase in the upstream/downstream differential indicates that broadband noise from turbulent inflow at the stator dominates downstream noise but is not a significant contributor to upstream noise.

  16. Noise produced by turbulent flow into a rotor: Theory manual for atmospheric turbulence prediction and mean flow and turbulence contraction prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    Prediction of helicopter main rotor noise due to ingestion of atmospheric turbulence was analyzed. The analysis combines several different models that describe the fluid mechanics of the turbulence and the ingestion process. Two models, atmospheric turbulence, and mean flow and turbulence contraction were covered. The third model, covered in a separate report, describes the rotor acoustic mode. The method incorporates the atmospheric turbulence model and a rapid distortion turbulence contraction description to determine the statistics of the anisotropic turbulence at the rotor plane. The analytical basis for a module was provided which was incorporated in NASA's ROTONET helicopter noise prediction program. The mean flow and turbulence statistics associated with the atmospheric boundary layer were modeled including effects of atmospheric stability length, wind speed, and altitude. The turbulence distortion process is modeled as a deformation of vortex filaments (which represent the turbulence field) by a mean flow field due to the rotor inflow.

  17. Acoustic test of a model rotor and tail rotor: Results for the isolated rotors and combined configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. M.; Burley, C. L.; Elliott, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic data from a model scale main rotor and tail rotor experiment in the NASA Langley 14 by 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel are presented for the main rotor and trail rotor in isolation and for the two rotors operating together. Results for the isolated main rotor show the importance of the rotor flapping conditions on mid-frequency noise content. High levels of main rotor retreating side blade-vortex interaction noise are shown to radiate downstream of the model. The isolated tail rotor noise results show the dominance of harmonic noise in the thrusting direction. The occurrence of tail rotor broadband noise is seen by the broadening of the tail rotor harmonics and is attributed to fuselage wake turbulence. The combined main and tail rotor data are presented to show the dominance of each rotor's different noise sources at different directivity locations.

  18. Weight Assessment for Fuselage Shielding on Aircraft With Open-Rotor Engines and Composite Blade Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, Kelly; Pereira, Michael; Kohlman, Lee; Goldberg, Robert; Envia, Edmane; Lawrence, Charles; Roberts, Gary; Emmerling, William

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been engaged in discussions with airframe and engine manufacturers concerning regulations that would apply to new technology fuel efficient "openrotor" engines. Existing regulations for the engines and airframe did not envision features of these engines that include eliminating the fan blade containment systems and including two rows of counter-rotating blades. Damage to the airframe from a failed blade could potentially be catastrophic. Therefore the feasibility of using aircraft fuselage shielding was investigated. In order to establish the feasibility of this shielding, a study was conducted to provide an estimate for the fuselage shielding weight required to provide protection from an open-rotor blade loss. This estimate was generated using a two-step procedure. First, a trajectory analysis was performed to determine the blade orientation and velocity at the point of impact with the fuselage. The trajectory analysis also showed that a blade dispersion angle of 3deg bounded the probable dispersion pattern and so was used for the weight estimate. Next, a finite element impact analysis was performed to determine the required shielding thickness to prevent fuselage penetration. The impact analysis was conducted using an FAA-provided composite blade geometry. The fuselage geometry was based on a medium-sized passenger composite airframe. In the analysis, both the blade and fuselage were assumed to be constructed from a T700S/PR520 triaxially-braided composite architecture. Sufficient test data on T700S/PR520 is available to enable reliable analysis, and also demonstrate its good impact resistance properties. This system was also used in modeling the surrogate blade. The estimated additional weight required for fuselage shielding for a wing- mounted counterrotating open-rotor blade is 236 lb per aircraft. This estimate is based on the shielding material serving the dual use of shielding and fuselage structure. If the

  19. Blade-Vortex Interaction Noise Characteristics of a Full-Scale Active Flap Rotor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    vibration control, a more inboard flap position was more efficient. Smaller flap chord ratios (15%) were preferred as a compromise between control... ratio . The constant chord section of the blade is 10 inches long. Nominal rotation speed of the rotor is 392 RPM producing a tip speed of 695 ft/sec...minimum actuator power. The flap system selected [25] has a flap/chord ratio of 25% with an overhang of 40% (total flap length of 35% chord) and flap

  20. Improving Rotor-Stator Interaction Noise Code Through Analysis of Input Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unton, Timothy J.

    2004-01-01

    There are two major sources of aircraft noise. The first is from the airframe and the second is from the engines. The focus of the acoustics branch at NASA Glenn is on the engine noise sources. There are two major sources of engine noise; fan noise and jet noise. Fan noise, produced by rotating machinery of the engine, consists of both tonal noise, which occurs at discrete frequencies, and broadband noise, which occurs across a wide range of frequencies. The focus of my assignment is on the broadband noise generated by the interaction of fan flow turbulence and the stator blades. such as the sweep and stagger angles and blade count, as well as the flow parameters such as intensity of turbulence in the flow. The tool I employed in this work is a computer program that predicts broadband noise from fans. The program assumes that the complex shape of the curved blade can be represented as a single flat plate, allowing it to use fairly simple equations that can be solved in a reasonable amount of time. While the results from such representation provided reasonable estimates of the broadband noise levels, they did not usually represent the entire spectrum accurately. My investigation found that the discrepancy between data and theory can be improved if the leading edge and the trailing edge of the blade are treated separately. Using this approach, I reduced the maximum error in noise level from a high of 30% to less than 5% for the cases investigated. Detailed results of this investigation will be discussed at my presentation. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of geometric parameters

  1. Shock fitting applied to the prediction of high-speed rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A shock fitting method applied to the transonic small disturbance (TSD) potential equation is described. This method is then applied to a simple, two dimensional (2-D) rotating disturbance which is analogous to a shock radiating from the tip of a rotor blade in high speed hover. A comparison is made between the results of this method and the more standard shock capturing method. This comparison makes it clear that the effect of the results on the acoustic signature of the 2-D model is significant, and similar results can be expected when the method is extended to the three dimensional (3-D) case.

  2. Computational Study of Flow Interactions in Coaxial Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Lee, Henry C.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Although the first idea of coaxial rotors appeared more than 150 years ago, most helicopters have used single main-rotor/tail-rotor combination. Since reactive moments of coaxial rotors are canceled by contra-rotation, no tail rotor is required to counter the torque generated by the main rotor. Unlike the single main rotor design that distributes power to both main and tail rotors, all of the power for coaxial rotors is used for vertical thrust. Thus, no power is wasted for anti-torque or directional control. The saved power helps coaxial rotors reach a higher hover ceiling than single rotor helicopters. Another advantage of coaxial rotors is that the overall rotor diameter can be reduced for a given vehicle gross weight because each rotor provides a maximum contribution to vertical thrust to overcome vehicle weight. However, increased mechanical complexity of the hub has been one of the challenges for manufacturing coaxial rotorcraft. Only the Kamov Design Bureau of Russia had been notably successful in production of coaxial helicopters until Sikorsky built X2, an experimental compound helicopter. Recent developments in unmanned aircraft systems and high-speed rotorcraft have renewed interest in the coaxial configuration. Multi-rotors are frequently used for small electric unmanned rotorcraft partly due to mechanical simplicity. The use of multiple motors provides redundancy as well as cost-efficiency. The multi-rotor concept has rarely been used until recently because of its inherent stability and control problems. However, advances in inexpensive electronic flight control systems have opened the floodgates for small drones using multirotors. Coaxial rotors have started to appear in some multi-rotor configurations. Small coaxial rotors have often been designed using a hundred year old approach that is "sketch, build, fly, and iterate." In that approach, there is no systematic way to explore trade-offs or determine logical next steps. It is neither possible to

  3. An evaluation of a computer code based on linear acoustic theory for predicting helicopter main rotor noise. [CH-53A and S-76 helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. J.; Egolf, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Acoustic characteristics predicted using a recently developed computer code were correlated with measured acoustic data for two helicopter rotors. The analysis, is based on a solution of the Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation and includes terms accounting for both the thickness and loading components of the rotational noise. Computations are carried out in the time domain and assume free field conditions. Results of the correlation show that the Farrassat/Nystrom analysis, when using predicted airload data as input, yields fair but encouraging correlation for the first 6 harmonics of blade passage. It also suggests that although the analysis represents a valuable first step towards developing a truly comprehensive helicopter rotor noise prediction capability, further work remains to be done identifying and incorporating additional noise mechanisms into the code.

  4. Design and preliminary tests of a blade tip air mass injection system for vortex modification and possible noise reduction on a full-scale helicopter rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, R. J.; Hosier, R. N.; Balcerak, J. C.; Johnson, H. K.

    1975-01-01

    Full-scale tests were conducted on the Langley helicopter rotor test facility as part of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of a turbulent blade tip air mass injection system in alleviating the impulsive noise (blade slap) caused by blade-vortex interaction. Although blade-slap conditions could not be induced during these tests, qualitative results from flow visualization studies using smoke showed that the differential velocity between the jet velocity and the rotor tip speed was a primary parameter controlling the vortex modification.

  5. Broadband noise generated by turbulent inflow to rotor or stator blades in an annular duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lnae, F.

    1975-01-01

    The Green's function relating the radiated pressure field to the fluctuating forces on rotor or stator blades is developed in the presence of dissipation due to turbulent velocity fluctuations and sound speed fluctuations. The resonances in the output power spectrum which would occur at the cut-off frequencies in the absence of dissipation should be removed and smeared out by the incorporation of dissipation. Wave number dependence is developed for an effective eddy viscosity due to the aforementioned fluctuations in the background medium. The space-time correlation function for blade-normal velocity fluctuations on a single or on two different blades is developed in terms of the velocity correlation tensor for the inflow under the assumptions of isotropy and (Taylor) frozen behavior. The correlation function is then simplified under certain approximations and the behavior of the blade-force correlation function is inferred.

  6. Noise disturbance in open-plan study environments: a field study on noise sources, student tasks and room acoustic parameters.

    PubMed

    Braat-Eggen, P Ella; van Heijst, Anne; Hornikx, Maarten; Kohlrausch, Armin

    2017-04-03

    The aim of this study is to gain more insight in the assessment of noise in open-plan study environments and to reveal correlations between noise disturbance experienced by students and the noise sources they perceive, the tasks they perform and the acoustic parameters of the open-plan study environment they work in. Data were collected in five open-plan study environments at universities in the Netherlands. A questionnaire was used to investigate student tasks, perceived sound sources and their perceived disturbance, and sound measurements were performed to determine the room acoustic parameters. This study shows that 38% of the surveyed students are disturbed by background noise in an open-plan study environment. Students are mostly disturbed by speech when performing complex cognitive tasks like studying for an exam, reading and writing. Significant but weak correlations were found between the room acoustic parameters and noise disturbance of students. Practitioner Summary: A field study was conducted to gain more insight in the assessment of noise in open-plan study environments at universities in the Netherlands. More than one third of the students was disturbed by noise. An interaction effect was found for task type, source type and room acoustic parameters.

  7. The spectral characteristics of rotor blade-vortex interaction noise - Experimental and mathematical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ruth M.; Hardin, Jay C.

    1987-01-01

    The BVI impulsive content of a rotor acoustic signal is shown to appear in the mid-frequency range of the power spectrum, between the fifth and thirtieth harmonics of the blade passage frequency, concentrated at the harmonics of the blade passage frequency. These harmonics exhibit a humped or scalloped shape in this mid-frequency spectral region. Increased energy at the harmonics of the shaft frequency appears when the BVI impulsive content demonstrates unsteadiness and blade-to-blade differences in the time domain. A mathematical model of a generalized BVI acoustic signal and its power spectrum shows that the power spectrum is scalloped and filtered by a comb function. The spectrum amplitude is defined by the impulse amplitude and emission time. The scalloping of the spectrum is related to the emission time of the impulse itself, and the spacing of the comb function is related to the repetition time (period) of the impulse. The decay rate of the spectral humps is governed by the inverse of frequency squared. The mathematical model validates the characteristics observed in the data and verify that these characteristics are due to blade-vortex interaction activity.

  8. Active Noise Control of Low Speed Fan Rotor-Stator Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Hu, Ziqiang; Pla, Frederic G.; Heidelberg, Laurence J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Active Noise Cancellation System designed by General Electric and tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 48 inch Active Noise Control Fan. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of using wall mounted secondary acoustic sources and sensors within the duct of a high bypass turbofan aircraft engine for active noise cancellation of fan tones. The control system is based on a modal control approach. A known acoustic mode propagating in the fan duct is cancelled using an array of flush-mounted compact sound sources. Controller inputs are signals from a shaft encoder and a microphone array which senses the residual acoustic mode in the duct. The canceling modal signal is generated by a modal controller. The key results are that the (6,0) mode was completely eliminated at 920 Hz and substantially reduced elsewhere. The total tone power was reduced 9.4 dB. Farfield 2BPF SPL reductions of 13 dB were obtained. The (4,0) and (4,1) modes were reduced simultaneously yielding a 15 dB modal PWL decrease. Global attenuation of PWL was obtained using an actuator and sensor system totally contained within the duct.

  9. The Effect of Noise in an Open Space School on Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Carol S.; Weinstein, Neil D.

    Parents and educators have expressed fears that high noise levels in open space schools may interfere with academic achievement. This investigation compared the reading comprehension of 60 fourth grade students in an open space school during periods both of quiet and of naturally occurring background noise. The reading tasks resembled normal…

  10. Coupled rotor-flexible fuselage vibration reduction using open loop higher harmonic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papavassiliou, I.; Friedmann, P. P.; Venkatesan, C.

    1991-01-01

    A fundamental study of vibration prediction and vibration reduction in helicopters using active controls was performed. The nonlinear equations of motion for a coupled rotor/flexible fuselage system have been derived using computer algebra on a special purpose symbolic computer facility. The trim state and vibratory response of the helicopter are obtained in a single pass by applying the harmonic balance technique and simultaneously satisfying the trim and the vibratory response of the helicopter for all rotor and fuselage degrees of freedom. The influence of the fuselage flexibility on the vibratory response is studied. It is shown that the conventional single frequency higher harmonic control is capable of reducing either the hub loads or only the fuselage vibrations but not both simultaneously. It is demonstrated that for simultaneous reduction of hub shears and fuselae vibrations a new scheme called multiple higher harmonic control is required.

  11. Noise effect on comfort in open-space offices: development of an assessment questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Pierrette, M; Parizet, E; Chevret, P; Chatillon, J

    2015-01-01

    It is currently accepted that noise is one of the most important annoyance factors in open-space offices. However, noise levels measured in open spaces of the tertiary sector rarely exceed 65 dB(A). It, therefore, appears necessary to develop a tool that can be used to assess the noise environment of these offices and identify the parameters to be taken into consideration when assessing the noise annoyance. This article presents a questionnaire to be filled by people working in such environment, and a case study in different open plan offices. The majority of the 237 respondents consider that the ambient noise level in their environment is high and that intelligible conversations between their colleagues represent the main source of noise annoyance. This annoyance was significantly correlated with their evaluation of sound intensity, which could not be represented by A-weighted level measurements.

  12. Halbach Magnetic Rotor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center has a wealth of experience in Halbach array technology through the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The goals of the program include improving aircraft efficiency, reliability, and safety. The concept of a Halbach magnetically levitated electric aircraft motor will help reduce harmful emissions, reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels, increase efficiency and reliability, reduce maintenance and decrease operating noise levels. Experimental hardware systems were developed in the GRC Engineering Development Division to validate the basic principles described herein and the theoretical work that was performed. A number of Halbach Magnetic rotors have been developed and tested under this program. A separate test hardware setup was developed to characterize each of the rotors. A second hardware setup was developed to test the levitation characteristics of the rotors. Each system focused around a unique Halbach array rotor. Each rotor required original design and fabrication techniques. A 4 in. diameter rotor was developed to test the radial levitation effects for use as a magnetic bearing. To show scalability from the 4 in. rotor, a 1 in. rotor was developed to also test radial levitation effects. The next rotor to be developed was 20 in. in diameter again to show scalability from the 4 in. rotor. An axial rotor was developed to determine the force that could be generated to position the rotor axially while it is rotating. With both radial and axial magnetic bearings, the rotor would be completely suspended magnetically. The purpose of this report is to document the development of a series of Halbach magnetic rotors to be used in testing. The design, fabrication and assembly of the rotors will be discussed as well as the hardware developed to test the rotors.

  13. Tilt rotor hover aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffen, Charles David

    1992-01-01

    The methodology, results, and conclusions of a study of tilt rotor hover aeroacoustics and aerodynamics are presented. Flow visualization and hot wire velocity measurement were performed on a 1/12-scale model of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Aircraft in hover. The wing and fuselage below the rotor cause a complex recirculating flow. Results indicate the physical dimensions and details of the flow including the relative unsteadiness and turbulence characteristics of the flow. Discrete frequency harmonic thickness and the loading noise mechanism were predicted using WOPWOP for the standard metal blades and the Advanced Technology Blades. The recirculating flow created by the wing below the rotor is a primary sound mechanism for a hovering tilt rotor. The effects of dynamic blade response should be included for fountain flow conditions which produce impulsive blade loading. Broadband noise mechanisms were studied using Amiet's method with azimuthally varying turbulence characteristics derived from the measurements. The recirculating fountain flow with high turbulence levels in the recirculating zone is the dominant source of broadband noise for a hovering rotor. It is shown that tilt rotor hover aeroacoustic noise mechanisms are now understood. Noise predictions can be made based on reasonably accurate aerodynamic models developed here.

  14. Prediction of BVI Noise for an Active Twist Rotor Using a Loosely Coupled CFD/CSD Method and Comparison to Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogarty, David E.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Sekula, Martin K.; Boyd, David Douglas, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical predictions of the acoustic characteristics of an Active Twist Rotor (ATR), using two methods to compute the rotor blade aerodynamics and elastic blade motion are compared to experimental data from a wind tunnel test in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) in 2000. The first method, a loosely coupled iterative method, utilizes the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code OVERFLOW 2 and the Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD) code CAMRAD II. The second method utilizes the CAMRAD II free-wake model only. The harmonic active-twist control to the main rotor blade system is identified with three parameters - harmonic actuation frequency, actuation amplitude, and control phase angle. The resulting aerodynamics and blade motion data from the two methods are then used in the acoustics code PSU-WOPWOP to predict acoustic pressure on a spherical array of equally spaced observers surrounding the rotor. This spherical distribution of pressure is used to compute the sound power level representing baseline and actuated conditions. Sound power levels for three categories of noise are defined as - blade-vortex interaction sound power level (BVIPWL), low frequency sound power level (LFPWL), and overall sound power level, OAPWL. Comparisons with measured data indicate the CFD/CSD analysis successfully captures the trends in sound power levels and the effects of active-twist control at advance ratios of 0.14 and 0.17. The free-wake model predictions show inconsistent sound power levels relative to the trends in the experimental and CFD data. This paper presents the first ever comparison between CFD/CSD acoustic predictions for an active-twist rotor and experimental measurements.

  15. Open and Closed Loop Stability of Hingeless Rotor Helicopter Air and Ground Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, M. I.; Bailey, D. J.; Hirschbein, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    The air and ground resonance instabilities of hingeless rotor helicopters are examined on a relatively broad parametric basis including the effects of blade tuning, virtual hinge locations, and blade hysteresis damping, as well as size and scale effects in the gross weight range from 5,000 to 48,000 pounds. A special case of a 72,000 pound helicopter air resonance instability is also included. The study shows that nominal to moderate and readily achieved levels of blade inertial hysteresis damping in conjunction with a variety of tuning and/or feedback conditions are highly effective in dealing with these instabilities. Tip weights and reductions in pre-coning angles are also shown to be effective means for improving the air resonance instability.

  16. Tilt rotor aircraft aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Albert R.; Smith, Charles A.; Maisel, Martin D.; Brieger, John T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper studies the state of knowledge and the needed improvement in noise methodology and measurements for tilt rotor aircraft. Similarities and differences between tilt rotor aeroacoustic conditions and helicopter and propeller experience are identified. A discussion of the possible principal noise mechanisms throughout the flight envelope shows a need for further experimental and analytical investigations to develop an adequate understanding of the important sources and influencing factors. Existing experimental data from flight tests suggest terminal area noise reduction by operating within certain portions of the conversion flight envelope. Prediction methods are found to provide approximate indications only for low frequency harmonic and broadband noise for several of the tilt rotor's operating conditions. The acoustic effects of the hover case 'fountain' flow are pronounced and need further research. Impulsive noise and high frequency harmonic noise remain problems, as on helicopters, pending major improvements in wake, unsteady aerodynamics, and acoustics methodology.

  17. The influence of quadrupole sources in the boundary layer and wake of a blade on helicopter rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1991-01-01

    It is presently noted that, for an observer in or near the plane containing a helicopter rotor disk, and in the far field, part of the volume quadrupole sources, and the blade and wake surface quadrupole sources, completely cancel out. This suggests a novel quadrupole source description for the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation which retain quadrupoles with axes parallel to the rotor disk; in this case, the volume and shock surface sourse terms are dominant.

  18. Noise and Sound Control in Open Plan Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, Ben

    This annotated bibliography includes summaries of 19 articles and reports dealing with noise control and acoustical design in school buildings. A brief introduction discusses the need for careful attention to acoustics in any school construction or remodeling project, with particular emphasis on the need for special acoustical measures in an open…

  19. Noise Levels and Annoyance in Open Plan Educational Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, David P.

    1975-01-01

    This paper investigates the special considerations in defining an acoustical environment acceptable for educational purposes. Reviews various approaches for anticipating the degree of dissatisfaction or annoyance in school spaces, including statistical distributions of class noise, and deals with some design recommendations. (Author/MLF)

  20. Effect of noise on comfort in open-plan offices: application of an assessment questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Perrin Jegen, N; Chevret, P

    2017-01-01

    Open-plan offices account for 60% of French office workspaces. The noise levels recorded in this type of environment are much lower than those encountered in industrial workplaces. Nevertheless, surveys show that noise is considered by employees as the main source of discomfort. A first questionnaire dedicated to noise discomfort was produced in 2013 and tested on a panel made up of 217 people working in 7 French companies. Today, it also makes it possible to address the issues of fatigue related to ambient sound, but above all, the survey aims to study the differences in how ambient noise is perceived depending on the type of open-plan office. On the basis of that new version, a second survey has been conducted in 23 open-plan offices, making it possible to collect the responses from 617 employees. Most of the results of the first survey have been confirmed, with an increase in the significance of the statistical analyses. Moreover, French Standard NF S 31-199, which is currently being drafted, establishes a typology of open-plan office spaces according to the types of work done in them. Based on this typology, it appears that when dealing with the impact on noise on workers, a distinction has to be made between the types of open plan offices. Practitioner Summary: Surveys conducted in open-plan offices show that noise is considered by employees as the main source of discomfort even if the noise recorded in this type of environment is not hazardous. This work presents the result of a large survey dedicated to noise discomfort conducted in 23 open-plan offices.

  1. GIS-Based Noise Simulation Open Source Software: N-GNOIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Sharma, A.; Kumar, M.; Shende, V.; Chakrabarti, T.; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Geographical information system (GIS)-based noise simulation software (N-GNOIS) has been developed to simulate the noise scenario due to point and mobile sources considering the impact of geographical features and meteorological parameters. These have been addressed in the software through attenuation modules of atmosphere, vegetation and barrier. N-GNOIS is a user friendly, platform-independent and open geospatial consortia (OGC) compliant software. It has been developed using open source technology (QGIS) and open source language (Python). N-GNOIS has unique features like cumulative impact of point and mobile sources, building structure and honking due to traffic. Honking is the most common phenomenon in developing countries and is frequently observed on any type of roads. N-GNOIS also helps in designing physical barrier and vegetation cover to check the propagation of noise and acts as a decision making tool for planning and management of noise component in environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies.

  2. Wind Tunnel Test of the SMART Active Flap Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straub, Friedrich K.; Anand, Vaidyanthan R.; Birchette, Terrence S.; Lau, Benton H.

    2009-01-01

    Boeing and a team from Air Force, NASA, Army, DARPA, MIT, UCLA, and U. of Maryland have successfully completed a wind-tunnel test of the smart material actuated rotor technology (SMART) rotor in the 40- by 80-foot wind-tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. The Boeing SMART rotor is a full-scale, five-bladed bearingless MD 900 helicopter rotor modified with a piezoelectric-actuated trailing edge flap on each blade. The eleven-week test program evaluated the forward flight characteristics of the active-flap rotor at speeds up to 155 knots, gathered data to validate state-of-the-art codes for rotor aero-acoustic analysis, and quantified the effects of open and closed loop active flap control on rotor loads, noise, and performance. The test demonstrated on-blade smart material control of flaps on a full-scale rotor for the first time in a wind tunnel. The effectiveness of the active flap control on noise and vibration was conclusively demonstrated. Results showed significant reductions up to 6dB in blade-vortex-interaction and in-plane noise, as well as reductions in vibratory hub loads up to 80%. Trailing-edge flap deflections were controlled within 0.1 degrees of the commanded value. The impact of the active flap on control power, rotor smoothing, and performance was also demonstrated. Finally, the reliability of the flap actuation system was successfully proven in more than 60 hours of wind-tunnel testing.

  3. Advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise: Annoyance to counter-rotating-propeller configurations with an equal number of blades on each rotor, preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, David A.

    1988-05-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the annoyance of people to the flyover noise of advanced turboprop aircraft with counter-rotating propellers (CRP) having an equal number of blades on each rotor. The objectives were: to determine the effects of total content on annoyance; and compare annoyance to n x n CRP advanced turboprop aircraft with annoyance to conventional turboprop and jet aircraft. A computer synthesis system was used to generate 27 realistic, time-varying simulations of advanced turboprop takeoff noise in which the tonal content was systematically varied to represent the factorial combinations of nine fundamental frequencies and three tone-to-broadband noise ratios. These advanced turboprop simulations along with recordings of five conventional turboprop takeoffs and five conventional jet takeoffs were presented at three D-weighted sound pressure levels to 64 subjects in an anechoic chamber. Analyses of the subjects' annoyance judgments compare the three aircraft types and examined the effects of the differences in tonal content among the advanced turboprop noises. The annoyance prediction ability of various noise metrics is also examined.

  4. Advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise: Annoyance to counter-rotating-propeller configurations with an equal number of blades on each rotor, preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1988-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the annoyance of people to the flyover noise of advanced turboprop aircraft with counter-rotating propellers (CRP) having an equal number of blades on each rotor. The objectives were: to determine the effects of total content on annoyance; and compare annoyance to n x n CRP advanced turboprop aircraft with annoyance to conventional turboprop and jet aircraft. A computer synthesis system was used to generate 27 realistic, time-varying simulations of advanced turboprop takeoff noise in which the tonal content was systematically varied to represent the factorial combinations of nine fundamental frequencies and three tone-to-broadband noise ratios. These advanced turboprop simulations along with recordings of five conventional turboprop takeoffs and five conventional jet takeoffs were presented at three D-weighted sound pressure levels to 64 subjects in an anechoic chamber. Analyses of the subjects' annoyance judgments compare the three aircraft types and examined the effects of the differences in tonal content among the advanced turboprop noises. The annoyance prediction ability of various noise metrics is also examined.

  5. SMART Rotor Development and Wind-Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Benton H.; Straub, Friedrich; Anand, V. R.; Birchette, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Boeing and a team from Air Force, NASA, Army, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of California at Los Angeles, and University of Maryland have successfully completed a wind-tunnel test of the smart material actuated rotor technology (SMART) rotor in the 40- by 80-foot wind-tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center, figure 1. The SMART rotor is a full-scale, five-bladed bearingless MD 900 helicopter rotor modified with a piezoelectric-actuated trailing-edge flap on each blade. The development effort included design, fabrication, and component testing of the rotor blades, the trailing-edge flaps, the piezoelectric actuators, the switching power amplifiers, the actuator control system, and the data/power system. Development of the smart rotor culminated in a whirl-tower hover test which demonstrated the functionality, robustness, and required authority of the active flap system. The eleven-week wind tunnel test program evaluated the forward flight characteristics of the active-flap rotor, gathered data to validate state-of-the-art codes for rotor noise analysis, and quantified the effects of open- and closed-loop active-flap control on rotor loads, noise, and performance. The test demonstrated on-blade smart material control of flaps on a full-scale rotor for the first time in a wind tunnel. The effectiveness and the reliability of the flap actuation system were successfully demonstrated in more than 60 hours of wind-tunnel testing. The data acquired and lessons learned will be instrumental in maturing this technology and transitioning it into production. The development effort, test hardware, wind-tunnel test program, and test results will be presented in the full paper.

  6. Optimization of valve opening process for the suppression of impulse exhaust noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingxiang; Zhao, Shengdun

    2017-02-01

    Impulse exhaust noise generated by the sudden impact of discharging flow of pneumatic systems has significant temporal characteristics including high sound pressure and rapid sound transient. The impulse noise exposures are more hazardous to hearing than the energy equivalent uniform noise exposures. This paper presents a novel approach to suppress the peak sound pressure as a major indicator of impulsiveness of the impulse exhaust noise by an optimization of the opening process of valve. Relationships between exhaust flow and impulse noise are described by thermodynamics and noise generating mechanism. Then an optimized approach by controlling the valve opening process is derived under a constraint of pre-setting exhaust time. A modified servo-direct-driven valve was designed and assembled in a typical pneumatic system for the verification experiments comparing with an original solenoid valve. Experimental results with groups of initial cylinder pressures and pre-setting exhaust times are shown to verify the effects of the proposed optimization. Some indicators of energy-equivalent and impulsiveness are introduced to discuss the effects of the noise suppressions. Relationship between noise reduction and exhaust time delay is also discussed.

  7. Advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise: Annoyance to counter-rotating-propeller configurations with a different number of blades on each rotor: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1988-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the annoyance of people to the flyover noise of advanced turboprop aircraft with counter-rotating propellers (CRP) having a different number of blades on each rotor (nxm, e.g., 10 x 8, 12 x 11). The objectives were: (1) compare annoyance to nxm CRP advanced turboprop aircraft with annoyance to conventional turboprop and jet aircraft; (2) determine the effects of tonal content on annoyance; and (3) determine the ability of aircraft noise measurement procedures and corrections to predict annoyance for this new class of aircraft. A computer synthesis system was used to generate 35 realistic, time-varying simulations of advanced turboprop takeoff noise in which the tonal content was systematically varied to represent combinations of 15 fundamental frequency (blade passage frequency) combinations and three tone-to-broadband noise ratios. The fundamental frequencies, which represented blade number combinations from 6 x 5 to 13 x 12 and 7 x 5 to 13 x 11, ranged from 112.5 to 292.5 Hz. The three tone-to-broadband noise ratios were 0, 15, and 30 dB. These advanced turboprop simulations along with recordings of five conventional turboprop takeoffs and five conventional jet takeoffs were presented at D-weighted sound pressure levels of 70, 80, and 90 dB to 64 subjects in an anechoic chamber. Analyses of the subjects' annoyance judgments compare the three categories of aircraft and examine the effects of the differences in tonal content among the advanced turboprop noises. The annoyance prediction ability of various noise measurement procedures and corrections is also examined.

  8. Genetic algorithms in conceptual design of a light-weight, low-noise, tilt-rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Valana L.

    1996-01-01

    This report outlines research accomplishments in the area of using genetic algorithms (GA) for the design and optimization of rotorcraft. It discusses the genetic algorithm as a search and optimization tool, outlines a procedure for using the GA in the conceptual design of helicopters, and applies the GA method to the acoustic design of rotors.

  9. Effects of blade-vane ratio and rotor-stator spacing of fan noise with forward velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Glaser, F. W.

    1981-08-01

    A research fan stage was acoustically tested in an anechoic wind tunnel with a 41 m/sec tunnel flow. Two stator vane numbers giving cut-on and cut-off conditions were tested at three rotor-stator spacings ranging from about 0.5 to 2.0 rotor chords. These two stators were designed for similar aerodynamic performance. Hot film anemometer turbulence measurements were made at the leading edge of the stator for each spacing. The cut-off criterion strongly controlled the fundamental tone level at all spacings. The trends with spacing of the wake defect upwash component at the stator tip showed good agreement with the corresponding cut-on acoustic tone levels.

  10. Effects of blade-vane ratio and rotor-stator spacing of fan noise with forward velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Glaser, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    A research fan stage was acoustically tested in an anechoic wind tunnel with a 41 m/sec tunnel flow. Two stator vane numbers giving cut-on and cut-off conditions were tested at three rotor-stator spacings ranging from about 0.5 to 2.0 rotor chords. These two stators were designed for similar aerodynamic performance. Hot film anemometer turbulence measurements were made at the leading edge of the stator for each spacing. The cut-off criterion strongly controlled the fundamental tone level at all spacings. The trends with spacing of the wake defect upwash component at the stator tip showed good agreement with the corresponding cut-on acoustic tone levels.

  11. A social survey on the noise impact in open-plan working environments in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Kang, Jian; Jiao, Fenglei

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal noise impact in open-plan working environments in China, through a series of questionnaire surveys and acoustic measurements in typical open-plan working environments. It has been found that compared to other physical environmental factors in open-plan working environments, people are much less satisfied with the acoustic environment. The noise impact in the surveyed working environments is rather significant, in terms of sound level inside the office, understanding of colleagues' conversation, and the use of background music such as music players. About 30-50% of the interviewees think that various noise sources inside and outside offices are 'very disturbing' and 'disturbing', and the most annoying sounds include noises from outside, ventilation systems, office equipment, and keyboard typing. Using higher panels to separate work space, or working in enclosed offices, are regarded as effective improvement measures, whereas introducing natural sounds to mask unwanted sounds seems to be not preferable. There are significant correlations between the evaluation of acoustic environment and office symptoms, including hypersensitivity to loud sounds, easily getting tired and depression. There are also significant correlations between evaluation of various acoustics-related factors and certain statements relating to job satisfaction, including sensitivity to noise, as well as whether conversations could be heard by colleagues.

  12. Finite-difference time-domain simulation of thermal noise in open cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Andreasen, Jonathan; Cao Hui; Taflove, Allen; Kumar, Prem |; Cao Changqi

    2008-02-15

    A numerical model based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is developed to simulate thermal noise in open cavities owing to output coupling. The absorbing boundary of the FDTD grid is treated as a blackbody, whose thermal radiation penetrates the cavity in the grid. The calculated amount of thermal noise in a one-dimensional dielectric cavity recovers the standard result of the quantum Langevin equation in the Markovian regime. Our FDTD simulation also demonstrates that in the non-Markovian regime the buildup of the intracavity noise field depends on the ratio of the cavity photon lifetime to the coherence time of thermal radiation. The advantage of our numerical method is that the thermal noise is introduced in the time domain without prior knowledge of cavity modes.

  13. Acoustic Measurements from a Rotor Blade-Vortex Interaction Noise Experiment in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    traversing Microphone Array Traverse System system and two in-flow microphones mounted on the rotor fuselage as shown in figure 3(b). The mi - The microphone...array traverse system consisted crophones were ’/2-in. pressure-type condenser mi - of a horizontal wing with its span normal to the flow crophones...figure 9, which shows the upstream positions was also investigated. These data data for X. = -0.7 and 3 m at 60 m/sec from mi - are seen in figure 10

  14. An open-loop RFOG based on harmonic division technique to suppress LD's intensity modulation noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Diqing; Wang, Zeyu; Mao, Jianmin; Jin, Zhonghe

    2016-11-01

    A harmonic division technique is proposed for an open-loop resonator fiber optic gyro (RFOG) to suppress semiconductor laser diode's (LD's) intensity modulation noise. The theoretical study indicates the RFOG with this technique is immune to the intensity noise. The simulation and experimental results show this technique would lead to a diminished linear region, which still could be acceptable for an RFOG applied to low rotation rate detection. The tests for the gyro output signal are carried out with/without noise suppressing methods, including the harmonic division technique and previously proposed signal compensation technique. With the harmonic division technique at the rotation rate of 10 deg/s, the stability of gyro output signal is improved from 1.07 deg/s to 0.0361 deg/s, whose noise suppressing ratio is more than 3 times as that of the signal compensation technique. And especially, a 3.12 deg/s signal jump is significantly removed with the harmonic division technique; in contrast, a residual 0.36 deg/s signal jump still exists with the signal compensation technique. It is concluded the harmonic division technique does work in intensity noise suppressing under dynamic condition, and it is superior to the signal compensation technique.

  15. Aeroacoustic Codes for Rotor Harmonic and BVI Noise. CAMRAD.Mod1/HIRES: Methodology and Users' Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Burley, Casey L.; Jolly, J. Ralph, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This document details the methodology and use of the CAMRAD.Mod1/HIRES codes, which were developed at NASA Langley Research Center for the prediction of helicopter harmonic and Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise. CANMAD.Mod1 is a substantially modified version of the performance/trim/wake code CANMAD. High resolution blade loading is determined in post-processing by HIRES and an associated indicial aerodynamics code. Extensive capabilities of importance to noise prediction accuracy are documented, including a new multi-core tip vortex roll-up wake model, higher harmonic and individual blade control, tunnel and fuselage correction input, diagnostic blade motion input, and interfaces for acoustic and CFD aerodynamics codes. Modifications and new code capabilities are documented with examples. A users' job preparation guide and listings of variables and namelists are given.

  16. Linear Time Invariant Models for Integrated Flight and Rotor Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olcer, Fahri Ersel

    2011-12-01

    Recent developments on individual blade control (IBC) and physics based reduced order models of various on-blade control (OBC) actuation concepts are opening up opportunities to explore innovative rotor control strategies for improved rotor aerodynamic performance, reduced vibration and BVI noise, and improved rotor stability, etc. Further, recent developments in computationally efficient algorithms for the extraction of Linear Time Invariant (LTI) models are providing a convenient framework for exploring integrated flight and rotor control, while accounting for the important couplings that exist between body and low frequency rotor response and high frequency rotor response. Formulation of linear time invariant (LTI) models of a nonlinear system about a periodic equilibrium using the harmonic domain representation of LTI model states has been studied in the literature. This thesis presents an alternative method and a computationally efficient scheme for implementation of the developed method for extraction of linear time invariant (LTI) models from a helicopter nonlinear model in forward flight. The fidelity of the extracted LTI models is evaluated using response comparisons between the extracted LTI models and the nonlinear model in both time and frequency domains. Moreover, the fidelity of stability properties is studied through the eigenvalue and eigenvector comparisons between LTI and LTP models by making use of the Floquet Transition Matrix. For time domain evaluations, individual blade control (IBC) and On-Blade Control (OBC) inputs that have been tried in the literature for vibration and noise control studies are used. For frequency domain evaluations, frequency sweep inputs are used to obtain frequency responses of fixed system hub loads to a single blade IBC input. The evaluation results demonstrate the fidelity of the extracted LTI models, and thus, establish the validity of the LTI model extraction process for use in integrated flight and rotor control

  17. A comparison of linear acoustic theory with experimental noise data for a small-scale hovering rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Morris, C. E. K., Jr.; Nystrom, P. A.

    1979-01-01

    Linear acoustic calculations based on full aerodynamic data as input are presented and compared with measured cases reported by Boxwell et al. (1978). The full aerodynamic data are obtained using three programs giving radial loading, chordwise loading, and chordwise position of transition. It is shown that in the theoretical results the most significant noise source mechanism is due to blade thickness. Thus the conclusions of Boxwell et al. as to the importance of nonlinearities around the blades are upheld. These conclusions concern the width, shape and the level of the acoustic pressure calculated from linear acoustic theory. Some of the approximations involved in the application of acoustic analogy using quadrupole sources are discussed. It is necessary that the near- and far-field problems of rotating blades be treated together as shown for the case of an oscillating sphere.

  18. Measurements of atmospheric turbulence effects on tail rotor acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, Martin J.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Signor, David B.; Mosher, Marianne

    1994-01-01

    Results from an outdoor hover test of a full-scale Lynx tail rotor are presented. The investigation was designed to further the understanding of the acoustics of an isolated tail rotor hovering out-of-ground effect in atmospheric turbulence, without the effects of the main rotor wake or other helicopter components. Measurements include simultaneous rotor performance, noise, inflow, and far-field atmospheric turbulence. Results with grid-generated inflow turbulence are also presented. The effects of atmospheric turbulence ingestion on rotor noise are quantified. In contradiction to current theories, increasing rotor inflow and rotor thrust were found to increase turbulence ingestion noise. This is the final report of Task 13A--Helicopter Tail Rotor Noise, of the NASA/United Kingdom Defense Research Agency cooperative Aeronautics Research Program.

  19. Macroscopic balance model for wave rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model for multi-port wave rotors is described. The wave processes that effect energy exchange within the rotor passage are modeled using one-dimensional gas dynamics. Macroscopic mass and energy balances relate volume-averaged thermodynamic properties in the rotor passage control volume to the mass, momentum, and energy fluxes at the ports. Loss models account for entropy production in boundary layers and in separating flows caused by blade-blockage, incidence, and gradual opening and closing of rotor passages. The mathematical model provides a basis for predicting design-point wave rotor performance, port timing, and machine size. Model predictions are evaluated through comparisons with CFD calculations and three-port wave rotor experimental data. A four-port wave rotor design example is provided to demonstrate model applicability. The modeling approach is amenable to wave rotor optimization studies and rapid assessment of the trade-offs associated with integrating wave rotors into gas turbine engine systems.

  20. General Transfer-Function Approach to Noise Filtering in Open-Loop Quantum Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Silva, Gerardo A.; Viola, Lorenza

    2014-12-01

    We present a general transfer-function approach to noise filtering in open-loop Hamiltonian engineering protocols for open quantum systems. We show how to identify a computationally tractable set of fundamental filter functions, out of which arbitrary transfer filter functions may be assembled up to arbitrary high order in principle. Besides avoiding the infinite recursive hierarchy of filter functions that arises in general control scenarios, this fundamental filter-function set suffices to characterize the error suppression capabilities of the control protocol in both the time and the frequency domain. We prove that the resulting notion of filtering order reveals conceptually distinct, albeit complementary, features of the controlled dynamics as compared to the order of error cancellation, traditionally defined in the Magnus sense. Examples and implications are discussed.

  1. Initial Investigation of the Acoustics of a Counter-Rotating Open Rotor Model with Historical Baseline Blades in a Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David M.

    2012-01-01

    A counter-rotating open rotor scale model was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT). This model used a historical baseline blade set with which modern blade designs will be compared against on an acoustic and aerodynamic performance basis. Different blade pitch angles simulating approach and takeoff conditions were tested, along with angle-of-attack configurations. A configuration was also tested in order to determine the acoustic effects of a pylon. The shaft speed was varied for each configuration in order to get data over a range of operability. The freestream Mach number was also varied for some configurations. Sideline acoustic data were taken for each of these test configurations.

  2. Acoustic predictions using measured pressures from a model rotor in the DNW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visintainer, Joseph A.; Burley, Casey L.; Marcolini, Michael A.; Liu, Sandy R.

    1991-01-01

    A contemporary design, 4-bladed United Technologies model rotor with pressure-instrumented blades was tested in the Duits-Nederslandse Windtunnel. Simultaneous acoustic and pressure measurements were made for a wide range of operating conditions. Microphones were optimally positioned at a number of locations in the flow forward of the rotor to measure rotor thickness noise, high-speed impulsive noise (both in the rotor plane), and blade-vortex interaction noise (forward and 25 deg below the rotor plane). The blade surface pressure data are used as aerodynamic input to WOPWOP, which is a state-of-the-art rotor noise prediction program that predicts rotor thickness and loading noise. The predicted results using WOPWOP are compared to the measured noise levels for cases where either thickness noise, blade-vortex interaction noise, or high-speed impulsive noise is the dominant noise mechanism. The comparisons show regions of good agreement, as well as areas where further improvement is necessary.

  3. Noise reduction experience at Hughes Helicopter, Inc.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janakiram, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    Noise reduction is mostly limited to light helicopters whose noise signature is dominated by their tail rotors. It is primarily hardware oriented. Well known noise reduction techniques such as reduction of rotor speeds with an accompanying increase in solidity to maintain performance, engine noise reduction with the use of exhaust mufflers, and acoustic blanketing of transmission and engine compartment are used. The concept of blade phasing as a means of reducing tail rotor noise is also used. Engine noise (exhaust noise), power train noise and airframe noise becomes important at low rotor tip speeds and means must be found to reduce these noise sources if further noise reductions are desired. The use of a special test rig aids in isolating the various noise sources and arriving at the penalties (performance or payload) involved in quieting them. Significant noise reduction are achieved for the light helicopter with minimum performance or weight penalties because of the dominance of a single noise source (the tail rotor).

  4. Acoustic Aspects of Active-Twist Rotor Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    2002-01-01

    The use of an Active Twist Rotor system to provide both vibration reduction and performance enhancement has been explored in recent analytical and experimental studies. Effects of active-twist control on rotor noise, however, had not been determined. During a recent wind tunnel test of an active-twist rotor system, a set of acoustic measurements were obtained to assess the effects of active-twist control on noise produced by the rotor, especially blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. It was found that for rotor operating conditions where BVI noise is dominant, active-twist control provided a reduction in BVI noise level. This BVI noise reduction was almost, but not quite, as large as that obtained in a similar test using HHC. However, vibration levels were usually adversely affected at operating conditions favoring minimum BVI noise. Conversely, operating conditions favoring minimum vibration levels affected BVI noise levels, but not always adversely.

  5. Analysis of rotor vibratory loads using higher harmonic pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.; Wachspress, Daniel A.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental studies of isolated rotors in forward flight have indicated that higher harmonic pitch control can reduce rotor noise. These tests also show that such pitch inputs can generate substantial vibratory loads. The modification is summarized of the RotorCRAFT (Computation of Rotor Aerodynamics in Forward flighT) analysis of isolated rotors to study the vibratory loading generated by high frequency pitch inputs. The original RotorCRAFT code was developed for use in the computation of such loading, and uses a highly refined rotor wake model to facilitate this task. The extended version of RotorCRAFT incorporates a variety of new features including: arbitrary periodic root pitch control; computation of blade stresses and hub loads; improved modeling of near wake unsteady effects; and preliminary implementation of a coupled prediction of rotor airloads and noise. Correlation studies are carried out with existing blade stress and vibratory hub load data to assess the performance of the extended code.

  6. Open-loop control of noise amplification in a separated boundary layer flow

    SciTech Connect

    Boujo, E. Gallaire, F.; Ehrenstein, U.

    2013-12-15

    Linear optimal gains are computed for the subcritical two-dimensional separated boundary-layer flow past a bump. Very large optimal gain values are found, making it possible for small-amplitude noise to be strongly amplified and to destabilize the flow. The optimal forcing is located close to the summit of the bump, while the optimal response is the largest in the shear layer. The largest amplification occurs at frequencies corresponding to eigenvalues which first become unstable at higher Reynolds number. Nonlinear direct numerical simulations show that a low level of noise is indeed sufficient to trigger random flow unsteadiness, characterized here by large-scale vortex shedding. Next, a variational technique is used to compute efficiently the sensitivity of optimal gains to steady control (through source of momentum in the flow, or blowing/suction at the wall). A systematic analysis at several frequencies identifies the bump summit as the most sensitive region for control with wall actuation. Based on these results, a simple open-loop control strategy is designed, with steady wall suction at the bump summit. Linear calculations on controlled base flows confirm that optimal gains can be drastically reduced at all frequencies. Nonlinear direct numerical simulations also show that this control allows the flow to withstand a higher level of stochastic noise without becoming nonlinearly unstable, thereby postponing bypass transition. In the supercritical regime, sensitivity analysis of eigenvalues supports the choice of this control design. Full restabilization of the flow is obtained, as evidenced by direct numerical simulations and linear stability analysis.

  7. Effects of ingested atmospheric turbulence on measured tail rotor acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signor, David B.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Mosher, Marianne; Hagen, Martin J.; George, Albert R.

    1992-01-01

    Results from an outdoor hover test of a full-scale Lynx tail rotor are presented. The investigation was designed to further the understanding of the acoustics of an isolated tail rotor hovering out-of-ground effect in atmospheric turbulence, without the effects of the main rotor wake or other helicopter components. Measurements include simultaneous rotor performance, noise, inflow, and far-field atmospheric turbulence. Results with grid-generated inflow turbulence are also presented. The effects of turbulence ingestion on rotor noise are quantified. Turbulence ingestion noise is found to be the dominant noise mechanism at locations near the rotor axis. At these locations, the sound radiated by the hovering rotor increases with both increasing atmospheric wind speed and ingested rms turbulent velocity.

  8. A general transfer-function approach to noise filtering in open-loop quantum control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Lorenza

    2015-03-01

    Hamiltonian engineering via unitary open-loop quantum control provides a versatile and experimentally validated framework for manipulating a broad class of non-Markovian open quantum systems of interest, with applications ranging from dynamical decoupling and dynamically corrected quantum gates, to noise spectroscopy and quantum simulation. In this context, transfer-function techniques directly motivated by control engineering have proved invaluable for obtaining a transparent picture of the controlled dynamics in the frequency domain and for quantitatively analyzing performance. In this talk, I will show how to identify a computationally tractable set of ``fundamental filter functions,'' out of which arbitrary filter functions may be assembled up to arbitrary high order in principle. Besides avoiding the infinite recursive hierarchy of filter functions that arises in general control scenarios, this fundamental set suffices to characterize the error suppression capabilities of the control protocol in both the time and frequency domain. I will show, in particular, how the resulting notion of ``filtering order'' reveals conceptually distinct, albeit complementary, features of the controlled dynamics as compared to the ``cancellation order,'' traditionally defined in the Magnus sense. Implications for current quantum control experiments will be discussed. Work supported by the U.S. Army Research Office under Contract No. W911NF-14-1-0682.

  9. Full Scale Rotor Aeroacoustic Predictions and the Link to Model Scale Rotor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Burley, Casey L.; Conner, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Aeroacoustic Prediction System (NAPS) is used to establish a link between model-scale and full-scale rotor predictions and is partially validated against measured wind tunnel and flight aeroacoustic data. The prediction approach of NAPS couples a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis with acoustic source noise and propagation codes. The comprehensive analysis selected for this study is CAMRAD-II, which provides the performance/trim/wake solution for a given rotor or flight condition. The post-trim capabilities of CAMRAD-II are used to compute high-resolution sectional airloads for the acoustic tone noise analysis, WOPMOD. The tone noise is propagated to observers on the ground with the propagation code, RNM (Rotor Noise Model). Aeroacoustic predictions are made with NAPS for an isolated rotor and compared to results of the second Harmonic Aeroacoustic Rotor Test (HART-II) program, which tested a 40% dynamically and Mach-scaled BO-105 main rotor at the DNW. The NAPS is validated with comparisons for three rotor conditions: a baseline condition and two Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) conditions. To establish a link between model and full-scale rotor predictions, a full-scale BO-105 main rotor input deck for NAPS is created from the 40% scale rotor input deck. The full-scale isolated rotor predictions are then compared to the model predictions. The comparisons include aerodynamic loading, acoustic levels, and acoustic pressure time histories for each of the three conditions. With this link established, full-scale predictions are made for a range of descent flight conditions and compared with measured trends from the recent Rotorcraft Operational Noise Abatement Procedures (RONAP) flight test conducted by DLR and ONERA. Additionally, the effectiveness of two HHC conditions from the HART-II program is demonstrated for the full-scale rotor in flight.

  10. A parametric study of blade vortex interaction noise for two, three, and four-bladed model rotors at moderate tip speeds Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighton, K. P.; Harris, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation of blade slap due to blade vortex interaction (BVI) has been conducted. This investigation consisted of an examination of BVI blade slap for two, three, and four-bladed model rotors at tip Mach numbers ranging from 0.20 to 0.50. Blade slap contours have been obtained for each configuration tested. Differences in blade slap contours, peak sound pressure level, and directivity for each configuration tested are noted. Additional fundamental differences, such as multiple interaction BVI, are observed and occur for only specific rotor blade configurations. The effect of increasing the Mach number on the BVI blade slap for various rotor blade combinations has been quantified. A peak blade slap Mach number scaling law is proposed. Comparison of measured BVI blade slap with theory is made.

  11. Active-Twist Rotor Control Applications for UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Wilkie, W. Keats

    2004-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in active-twist rotor control is discussed using representative examples from analytical and experimental studies, and the application to rotary-wing UAVs is considered. Topics include vibration and noise reduction, rotor performance improvement, active blade tracking, stability augmentation, and rotor blade de-icing. A review of the current status of piezoelectric fiber composite actuator technology, the class of piezoelectric actuators implemented in active-twist rotor systems, is included.

  12. Rotor Flapping Response to Active Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Khanh; Johnson, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    Rotor active control using higher harmonic blade pitch has been proposed as a means to reduce both rotor radiated noise and airframe vibration and to enhance rotor performance. The higher harmonic input, however, can affect rotor thrust and cyclic flapping - the basic trim characteristics of the rotor. Some of the trim changes can negate the active control benefits. For example, wind tunnel test results of a full scale BO-105 rotor with individual-blade control indicate some rotor performance improvements, accompanied with changes in rotor trim, using two-per-rev blade pitch input. The observed performance benefits could therefore be a simple manifestation of the trim change rather than an efficient redistribution of the rotor airloads. More recently, the flight test of the BO-105 helicopter equip,ped with individual-blade-control actuators also reported trim changes whenever the two-per-rev blade pitch for noise reduction was activated. The pilot had to adjust the trim control to maintain the aircraft under a constant flight path. These two cases highlight the, importance of trim considerations in the application of active control to rotorcraft.

  13. Shot noise spectrum of open dissipative quantum two-level systems.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Ramón; Brandes, Tobias

    2004-05-21

    We study the current noise spectrum of qubits under transport conditions in a dissipative bosonic environment. We combine (non-)Markovian master equations with correlation functions in Laplace space to derive a noise formula for both weak and strong coupling to the bath. The coherence-induced reduction of noise is diminished by weak dissipation and/or a large level separation (bias). For weak dissipation, we demonstrate that the dephasing and relaxation rates of the two-level systems can be extracted from noise. In the strong dissipation regime, the localization-delocalization transition becomes visible in the low-frequency noise.

  14. Modeling Aerodynamically Generated Sound of Helicopter Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the modeling of aerodynamically generated sound of rotors over the past decade. Although the modeling effort has focused on helicopter main rotors, the theory is generally valid for a wide range of rotor configurations. The Ffowcs Williams Hawkings (FW-H) equation has been the foundation for much of the development. The monopole and dipole source terms of the FW-H equation account for the thickness and loading noise, respectively. Bladevortex-interaction noise and broadband noise are important types of loading noise, hence much research has been directed toward the accurate modeling of these noise mechanisms. Both subsonic and supersonic quadrupole noise formulations have been developed for the prediction of high-speed impulsive noise. In an effort to eliminate the need to compute the quadrupole contribution, the FW-H equation has also been utilized on permeable surfaces surrounding all physical noise sources. Comparisons of the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces with the FW-H equation have shown that the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces can give erroneous results for aeroacoustic problems. Finally, significant progress has been made incorporating the rotor noise models into full vehicle noise prediction tools.

  15. Molecular Rotors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-31

    Zack Murray No Faith Jordan No Charles Hagerdorn No Elizabeth Baker, No Mathew Myers No Leah A. Edelman No William T. Gathright No Bill Bockrath No...ligand could impact the construction of rotor arrays. Consequently, VASP calculations were performed in collaboration with Dr. Jeffrey Reimers of

  16. Comparison of two speech privacy measurements, articulation index (AI) and speech privacy noise isolation class (NIC'), in open workplaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Heakyung C.; Loftness, Vivian

    2002-05-01

    Lack of speech privacy has been reported to be the main dissatisfaction among occupants in open workplaces, according to workplace surveys. Two speech privacy measurements, Articulation Index (AI), standardized by the American National Standards Institute in 1969, and Speech Privacy Noise Isolation Class (NIC', Noise Isolation Class Prime), adapted from Noise Isolation Class (NIC) by U. S. General Services Administration (GSA) in 1979, have been claimed as objective tools to measure speech privacy in open offices. To evaluate which of them, normal privacy for AI or satisfied privacy for NIC', is a better tool in terms of speech privacy in a dynamic open office environment, measurements were taken in the field. AIs and NIC's in the different partition heights and workplace configurations have been measured following ASTM E1130 (Standard Test Method for Objective Measurement of Speech Privacy in Open Offices Using Articulation Index) and GSA test PBS-C.1 (Method for the Direct Measurement of Speech-Privacy Potential (SPP) Based on Subjective Judgments) and PBS-C.2 (Public Building Service Standard Method of Test Method for the Sufficient Verification of Speech-Privacy Potential (SPP) Based on Objective Measurements Including Methods for the Rating of Functional Interzone Attenuation and NC-Background), respectively.

  17. Separators for flywheel rotors

    DOEpatents

    Bender, D.A.; Kuklo, T.C.

    1998-07-07

    A separator forms a connection between the rotors of a concentric rotor assembly. This separator allows for the relatively free expansion of outer rotors away from inner rotors while providing a connection between the rotors that is strong enough to prevent disassembly. The rotor assembly includes at least two rotors referred to as inner and outer flywheel rings or rotors. This combination of inner flywheel ring, separator, and outer flywheel ring may be nested to include an arbitrary number of concentric rings. The separator may be a segmented or continuous ring that abuts the ends of the inner rotor and the inner bore of the outer rotor. It is supported against centrifugal loads by the outer rotor and is affixed to the outer rotor. The separator is allowed to slide with respect to the inner rotor. It is made of a material that has a modulus of elasticity that is lower than that of the rotors. 10 figs.

  18. Separators for flywheel rotors

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Donald A.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1998-01-01

    A separator forms a connection between the rotors of a concentric rotor assembly. This separator allows for the relatively free expansion of outer rotors away from inner rotors while providing a connection between the rotors that is strong enough to prevent disassembly. The rotor assembly includes at least two rotors referred to as inner and outer flywheel rings or rotors. This combination of inner flywheel ring, separator, and outer flywheel ring may be nested to include an arbitrary number of concentric rings. The separator may be a segmented or continuous ring that abuts the ends of the inner rotor and the inner bore of the outer rotor. It is supported against centrifugal loads by the outer rotor and is affixed to the outer rotor. The separator is allowed to slide with respect to the inner rotor. It is made of a material that has a modulus of elasticity that is lower than that of the rotors.

  19. Potential acoustic benefits of circulation control rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Cheeseman, I. C.

    1978-01-01

    The fundamental aeroacoustic mechanisms responsible for noise generation on a rotating blade are theoretically examined. Their contribution to the overall rotor sound pressure level is predicted. Results from a theory for airfoil trailing edge noise are presented. Modifications and extensions to other source theories are described where it is necessary to account for unique aspects of circulation control (CC) aerodynamics. The circulation control rotor (CCR), as embodied on an X-wing vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, is used as an example for computational purposes, although many of the theoretical results presented are generally applicable to other CC applications (such as low speed rotors, propellers, compressors, and fixed wing aircraft). Using the analytical models, it is shown that the utilization CC aerodynamics theoretically makes possible unprecedented advances in rotor noise reduction. For the X-wing VTOL these reductions appear to be feasible without incurring significant attendant performance and weight penalties.

  20. Blade-Pitch Control for Quieting Tilt-Rotor Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betzina, Mark D.; Nguyen, Khanh Q.

    2004-01-01

    A method of reducing the noise generated by a tilt-rotor aircraft during descent involves active control of the blade pitch of the rotors. This method is related to prior such noise-reduction methods, of a type denoted generally as higher-harmonic control (HHC), in which the blade pitch is made to oscillate at a harmonic of the frequency of rotation of the rotor. A tilt-rotor aircraft is so named because mounted at its wing tips are motors that can be pivoted to enable the aircraft to take off and land like a helicopter or to fly like a propeller airplane. When the aircraft is operating in its helicopter mode, the rotors generate more thrust per unit rotor-disk area than helicopter rotors do, thus producing more blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. BVI is a major source of noise produced by helicopters and tilt-rotor aircraft during descent: When a rotor descends into its own wake, the interaction of each blade with the blade-tip vortices generated previously gives rise to large air-pressure fluctuations. These pressure fluctuations radiate as distinct, impulsive noise. In general, the pitch angle of the rotor blades of a tilt-rotor aircraft is controlled by use of a swash plate connected to the rotor blades by pitch links. In both prior HHC methods and the present method, HHC control signals are fed as input to swash-plate control actuators, causing the rotor-blade pitch to oscillate. The amplitude, frequency, and phase of the control signal can be chosen to minimize BVI noise.

  1. Noise produced by turbulent flow into a rotor: Users manual for atmospheric turbulence prediction and mean flow and turbulence contraction prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Caplin, B.

    1989-01-01

    A users manual for a computer program for predicting atmospheric turbulence and mean flow and turbulence contraction as part of a noise prediction scheme for nonisotropic turbulence ingestion noise in helicopters is described. Included are descriptions of the various program modules and subroutines, their function, programming structure, and the required input and output variables. This routine is incorporated as one module of NASA's ROTONET helicopter noise prediction program.

  2. Rotor systems research aircraft simulation mathematical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. A.; Moore, F. L.; Howlett, J. J.; Pollock, K. S.; Browne, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical model developed for evaluating and verifying advanced rotor concepts is discussed. The model was used during in both open loop and real time man-in-the-loop simulation during the rotor systems research aircraft design. Future applications include: pilot training, preflight of test programs, and the evaluation of promising concepts before their implementation on the flight vehicle.

  3. Development of Open-Set Word Recognition in Children: Speech-Shaped Noise and Two-Talker Speech Maskers

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, Nicole E.; Bonino, Angela Yarnell; Buss, Emily; Leibold, Lori J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to establish the developmental trajectories for children’s open-set recognition of monosyllabic words in each of two maskers: two-talker speech and speech-shaped noise. Design Listeners were 56 children (5 to 16 yrs) and 16 adults, all with normal hearing. Thresholds for 50% correct recognition of monosyllabic words were measured in a two-talker speech or a speech-shaped noise masker in the sound field using an open-set task. Target words were presented at a fixed level of 65 dB SPL throughout testing, while the masker level was adapted. A repeated-measures design was used to compare the performance of three age groups of children (5 to 7 yrs, 8 to 12 yrs, and 13 to 16 yrs) and a group of adults. The pattern of age-related changes during childhood was also compared between the two masker conditions. Results Listeners in all four age groups performed more poorly in the two-talker speech than the speech-shaped noise masker, but the developmental trajectories differed for the two masker conditions. For the speech-shaped noise masker, children’s performance improved with age until about 10 years of age, with little systematic child-adult differences thereafter. In contrast, for the two-talker speech masker, children’s thresholds gradually improved between 5 and 13 years of age, followed by an abrupt improvement in performance to adult-like levels. Children’s thresholds in the two masker conditions were uncorrelated. Conclusions Younger children require a more advantageous signal-to-noise ratio than older children and adults to achieve 50% correct word recognition in both masker conditions. However, children’s ability to recognize words appears to take longer to mature and follows a different developmental trajectory for the two-talker speech masker than the speech-shaped noise masker. These findings highlight the importance of considering both age and masker type when evaluating children’s masked speech perception

  4. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for use During the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodore, Colin R.

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale wind tunnel test to evaluate the effects of Individual Blade Control (IBC) on the performance, vibration, noise and loads of a UH-60A rotor was recently completed in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel [1]. A key component of this wind tunnel test was an automatic rotor trim control system that allowed the rotor trim state to be set more precisely, quickly and repeatably than was possible with the rotor operator setting the trim condition manually. The trim control system was also able to maintain the desired trim condition through changes in IBC actuation both in open- and closed-loop IBC modes, and through long-period transients in wind tunnel flow. This ability of the trim control system to automatically set and maintain a steady rotor trim enabled the effects of different IBC inputs to be compared at common trim conditions and to perform these tests quickly without requiring the rotor operator to re-trim the rotor. The trim control system described in this paper was developed specifically for use during the IBC wind tunnel test

  5. Computation of Transonic Nozzle Sound Transmission and Rotor Problems by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Aganin, Alexei

    2000-01-01

    The transonic nozzle transmission problem and the open rotor noise radiation problem are solved computationally. Both are multiple length scales problems. For efficient and accurate numerical simulation, the multiple-size-mesh multiple-time-step Dispersion-Relation-Preserving scheme is used to calculate the time periodic solution. To ensure an accurate solution, high quality numerical boundary conditions are also needed. For the nozzle problem, a set of nonhomogeneous, outflow boundary conditions are required. The nonhomogeneous boundary conditions not only generate the incoming sound waves but also, at the same time, allow the reflected acoustic waves and entropy waves, if present, to exit the computation domain without reflection. For the open rotor problem, there is an apparent singularity at the axis of rotation. An analytic extension approach is developed to provide a high quality axis boundary treatment.

  6. Aircraft noise prediction program theoretical manual: Rotorcraft System Noise Prediction System (ROTONET), part 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, Donald S.; Jumper, Stephen J.; Burley, Casey L.; Golub, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the theoretical methods used in the rotorcraft noise prediction system (ROTONET), which is a part of the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP). The ANOPP code consists of an executive, database manager, and prediction modules for jet engine, propeller, and rotor noise. The ROTONET subsystem contains modules for the prediction of rotor airloads and performance with momentum theory and prescribed wake aerodynamics, rotor tone noise with compact chordwise and full-surface solutions to the Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings equations, semiempirical airfoil broadband noise, and turbulence ingestion broadband noise. Flight dynamics, atmosphere propagation, and noise metric calculations are covered in NASA TM-83199, Parts 1, 2, and 3.

  7. Development and whirl tower test of the SMART active flap rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Friedrich K.; Kennedy, Dennis K.; Stemple, Alan D.; Anand, V. R.; Birchette, Terry S.

    2004-07-01

    A full scale Smart Material Actuated Rotor Technology (SMART) system with piezoelectric actuated blade flaps was developed and whirl tower tested. The development effort included design, fabrication, and component testing of rotor blades, trailing edge flaps, piezoelectric actuators, switching power amplifiers, and the data/power system. Simulations and model scale wind tunnel tests have shown that this system can provide 80% vibration reduction, 10dB noise reduction for a helicopter passing overhead, and substantial aerodynamic performance gains. Whirl tower testing of the 34-foot diameter rotor demonstrated the functionality, robustness, and required authority of the active flap system. The program involved extensive development work and risk reduction tests which resulted in a robust, high performance actuator and a tightly integrated actuator, flap, and blade system. The actuator demonstrated excellent performance during bench testing and has accumulated over 60 million cycles under a spectrum of loading conditions. The flight worthy active flap rotor blades were based on a modified design of the FAA certified MD900 Explorer production rotor blade. Whirl tower testing was conducted with full rotor instrumentation and a 5-component balance. The rotor was tested for 13 hours under a range of conditions, including 7 hours of flap operation. Flap inputs included open loop static and dynamic commands. The flaps showed excellent authority with oscillatory thrust greater than 10% of the steady baseline thrust. Various flap actuation frequency sweeps were run to investigate the dynamics of the rotor and the flap system. Limited closed loop tests used hub accelerations and hub loads for feedback. Proving the integration, robust operation, and authority of the flap system were the key objectives met by the whirl tower test. This success depended on tailoring the piezoelectric materials and actuator to the application and meeting actuator/blade integration requirements

  8. System and method for smoothing a salient rotor in electrical machines

    SciTech Connect

    Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Torrey, David A.

    2016-12-13

    An electrical machine exhibiting reduced friction and windage losses is disclosed. The electrical machine includes a stator and a rotor assembly configured to rotate relative to the stator, wherein the rotor assembly comprises a rotor core including a plurality of salient rotor poles that are spaced apart from one another around an inner hub such that an interpolar gap is formed between each adjacent pair of salient rotor poles, with an opening being defined by the rotor core in each interpolar gap. Electrically non-conductive and non-magnetic inserts are positioned in the gaps formed between the salient rotor poles, with each of the inserts including a mating feature formed an axially inner edge thereof that is configured to mate with a respective opening being defined by the rotor core, so as to secure the insert to the rotor core against centrifugal force experienced during rotation of the rotor assembly.

  9. Acoustic evaluation and adjustment of an open-plan office through architectural design and noise control.

    PubMed

    Passero, Carolina Reich Marcon; Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta

    2012-11-01

    Arranging office space into a single open room offers advantages in terms of easy exchange of information and interaction among coworkers, but reduces privacy and acoustic comfort. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the acoustic quality of a real open-plan office and to propose changes in the room to improve the acoustic conditioning of this office. The computational model of the office under study was calibrated based on RT and STI measurements. Predictions were made of the RT and STI, which generated the radius of distraction r(D), and the rate of spatial decay of sound pressure levels per distance doubling DL(2) in the real conditions of the office and after modifications of the room. The insertion of dividers between work stations and an increase in the ceiling's sound absorption improved the acoustic conditions in the office under study.

  10. Study of design constraints on helicopter noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Wiedersum, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    A means of estimating the noise generated by a helicopter main rotor using information which is generally available during the preliminary design phase of aircraft development is presented. The method utilizes design charts and tables which do not require an understanding of acoustical theory or computational procedures in order to predict the perceived noise level, a weighted sound pressure level, or C weighted sound pressure level of a single hovering rotor. A method for estimating the effective perceived noise level in forward flight is also included. In order to give the designer an assessment of the relative rotor performance, which may be traded off against noise, an additional chart for estimating the percent of available rotor thrust which must be expended in lifting the rotor and drive system, is included as well as approach for comparing the subjective acceptability of various rotors once the absolute sound pressure levels are predicted.

  11. Reduction of Helicopter BVI Noise, Vibration, and Power Consumption Through Individual Blade Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.; Blaas, Achim; Teves, Dietrich; Kube, Roland; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted with a full-scale BO 105 helicopter rotor to evaluate the potential of open-loop individual blade control (IBC) to improve rotor performance, to reduce blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise, and to alleviate helicopter vibrations. The wind tunnel test was an international collaborative effort between NASA/U.S. Army AFDD, ZF Luftfahrttechnik, Eurocopter Deutschland, and the German Aerospace Laboratory (DLR) and was conducted under the auspices of the U.S./German MOU on Rotorcraft Aeromechanics. In this test the normal blade pitch links of the rotor were replaced by servo-actuators so that the pitch of each blade could be controlled independently of the other blades. The specially designed servoactuators and IBC control system were designed and manufactured by ZF Luftfahrttechnik, GmbH. The wind tunnel test was conducted in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at the NASA Ames Research Center. An extensive amount of measurement information was acquired for each IBC data point. These data include rotor performance, static and dynamic hub forces and moments, rotor loads, control loads, inboard and outboard blade pitch motion, and BVI noise data. The data indicated very significant (80 percent) simultaneous reductions in both BVI noise and hub vibrations could be obtained using multi-harmonic input at the critical descent (terminal approach) condition. The data also showed that performance improvements of up to 7 percent could be obtained using 2P input at high-speed forward flight conditions.

  12. Open channel current noise analysis of S6 peptides from KvAP channel on bilayer lipid membrane shows bimodal power law scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Rajan; Malik, Chetan; Ghosh, Subhendu

    2016-06-01

    Open channel current noise in synthetic peptide S6 of KvAP channel was investigated in a voltage clamp experiment on bilayer lipid membrane (BLM). It was observed that the power spectral density (PSD) of the component frequencies follows power law with different slopes in different frequency ranges. In order to know the origin of the slopes PSD analysis was done with signal filtering. It was found that the first slope in the noise profile follows 1 / f pattern which exists at lower frequencies and has high amplitude current noise, while the second slope corresponds to 1 /f 2 - 3 pattern which exists at higher frequencies with low amplitude current noise. In addition, white noise was observed at very large frequencies. It was concluded that the plausible reason for the multiple power-law scaling is the existence of different modes of non-equilibrium ion transport through the S6 channel.

  13. Evaluation of helicopter noise due to b blade-vortex interaction for five tip configurations. [conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoad, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of tip shape modification on blade vortex interaction induced helicopter blade slap noise was investigated. Simulated flight and descent velocities which have been shown to produce blade slap were tested. Aerodynamic performance parameters of the rotor system were monitored to ensure properly matched flight conditions among the tip shapes. The tunnel was operated in the open throat configuration with treatment to improve the acoustic characteristics of the test chamber. Four promising tips were used along with a standard square tip as a baseline configuration. A detailed acoustic evaluation on the same rotor system of the relative applicability of the various tip configurations for blade slap noise reduction is provided.

  14. The Evolution of Rotor and Blade Design

    SciTech Connect

    Tangler, J.

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a historical perspective of the evolution of rotor and blade design during the last 20 years. This evolution is a balanced integration of economic, aerodynamic, structural dynamic, noise, and aesthetic considerations, which are known to be machine type and size dependent.

  15. The tilt rotor research aircraft (XV-15) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The tilt rotor concept is introduced and the performance capabilities and noise characteristics of the XV-15 aircraft are discussed. In hover, the aircraft is lifted by the two wing tip mounted rotors with the nacelles in the vertical position. In this flight mode, the vehicle is a twin rotor helicopter and is controlled by rotor cyclic and collective controls. The aircraft can fly as a helicopter or tilt the nacelle to the propeller mode and operate as a fixed-wing twin turboprop airplane. It is also possible to stop the conversion at any intermediate angle and fly continuously or reconvert. The rotors are powered by two modified T-53 engines and the power train includes a cross shaft located in the wing, to allow for the engine failure case and still retain power to both rotors.

  16. Psychoacoustic Testing of Modulated Blade Spacing for Main Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Bryan; Booth, Earl R., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Psychoacoustic testing of simulated helicopter main rotor noise is described, and the subjective results are presented. The objective of these tests was to evaluate the potential acoustic benefits of main rotors with modulated (uneven) blade spacing. Sound simulations were prepared for six main rotor configurations. A baseline 4-blade main rotor with regular blade spacing was based on the Bell Model 427 helicopter. A 5-blade main rotor with regular spacing was designed to approximate the performance of the 427, but at reduced tipspeed. Four modulated rotors - one with "optimum" spacing and three alternate configurations - were derived from the 5 bladed regular spacing rotor. The sounds were played to 2 subjects at a time, with care being taken in the speaker selection and placement to ensure that the sounds were identical for each subject. A total of 40 subjects participated. For each rotor configuration, the listeners were asked to evaluate the sounds in terms of noisiness. The test results indicate little to no "annoyance" benefit for the modulated blade spacing. In general, the subjects preferred the sound of the 5-blade regular spaced rotor over any of the modulated ones. A conclusion is that modulated blade spacing is not a promising design feature to reduce the annoyance for helicopter main rotors.

  17. Acoustic design of rotor blades using a genetic algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, V. L.; Han, A. Y.; Crossley, W. A.

    1995-01-01

    A genetic algorithm coupled with a simplified acoustic analysis was used to generate low-noise rotor blade designs. The model includes thickness, steady loading and blade-vortex interaction noise estimates. The paper presents solutions for several variations in the fitness function, including thickness noise only, loading noise only, and combinations of the noise types. Preliminary results indicate that the analysis provides reasonable assessments of the noise produced, and that genetic algorithm successfully searches for 'good' designs. The results show that, for a given required thrust coefficient, proper blade design can noticeably reduce the noise produced at some expense to the power requirements.

  18. Hearing Threshold, Loss, Noise Levels and Worker’s Profiles of an Open Cast Chromite Mines in Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Kerketta, Sunamani; Gartia, Rajendra; Bagh, Somanath

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of the study were to describe the noise levels at an open cast chromite mine in Odisha, India, and the hearing threshold of its workers and to associate their hearing loss with their age, work station and length of employment at the mine. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of the hearing threshold of chromite mine workers. Audiometric data from 500 subjects was collected at the mines’ hospital in the Sukinda Valley of Jajpur, Odisha, India. The latest audiometry data available for the period 2002 to 2008 was used in the analysis. Audiometric screening was performed using an audiometer (TRIVENI TAM-25 6025A) in a quiet environment by qualified technicians, audiologists or physicians. Tests were conducted on the subjects after they had completely rested for 16 hours or more after their day shift. Results: A maximum of 262 subjects (52.4%) were employed in the work zone area and a minimum of 2 subjects (0.4%) had less than 5 years working experience. The age of the subjects ranged from 29 to 59 years and their working experience ranged from 4 to 37 years. The subjects’ average mean hearing thresholds at 4, 6 and 8 kHz were 21.53 dBA, 23.40 dBA and 21.90 dBA, respectively. The maximum Leq and L90 levels exceeded the prescribed limits for commercial, residential and silence zones. The maximum Leq levels exceeded 95 dBA for large and medium heavy earth moving machineries (HEMMs), both outside and at the operator’s position. Hearing loss due to the subjects’ work experience was found to be greater than that attributable to age and workstation. Conclusion: In our study population, the maximum noise levels for large and medium HEMMs and inside the cabins of HEMMs were found to be more than 95 dBA. This indicates that operators in this particular chromite mine at Odisha, India were exposed to noise levels exceeding 95 dBA for more than 10% of the monitoring time. The subjects’ hearing loss was also found to increase for every 10-year

  19. Reduction of blade-vortex interaction noise using higher harmonic pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Jolly, J. Ralph, Jr.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    1989-01-01

    An acoustics test using an aeroelastically scaled rotor was conducted to examine the effectiveness of higher harmonic blade pitch control for the reduction of impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. A four-bladed, 110 in. diameter, articulated rotor model was tested in a heavy gas (Freon-12) medium in Langley's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. Noise and vibration measurements were made for a range of matched flight conditions, where prescribed (open-loop) higher harmonic pitch was superimposed on the normal (baseline) collective and cyclic trim pitch. For the inflow-microphone noise measurements, advantage was taken of the reverberance in the hard walled tunnel by using a sound power determination approach. Initial findings from on-line data processing for three of the test microphones are reported for a 4/rev (4P) collective pitch control for a range of input amplitudes and phases. By comparing these results to corresponding baseline (no control) conditions, significant noise reductions (4 to 5 dB) were found for low-speed descent conditions, where helicopter BVI noise is most intense. For other rotor flight conditions, the overall noise was found to increase. All cases show increased vibration levels.

  20. Reduction of blade-vortex interaction noise through higher harmonic pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Jolly, J. Ralph, Jr.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    1990-01-01

    An acoustics test using an aeroelastically scaled rotor was conducted to examine the effectiveness of higher harmonic blade pitch control for the reduction of impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. A four-bladed, 110 in. diameter, articulated rotor model was tested in a heavy gas (Freon-12) medium in Langley's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. Noise and vibration measurements were made for a range of matched flight conditions, where prescribed (open-loop) higher harmonic pitch was superimposed on the normal (baseline) collective and cyclic trim pitch. For the inflow-microphone noise measurements, advantage was taken of the reverberance in the hard walled tunnel by using a sound power determination approach. Initial findings from on-line data processing for three of the test microphones are reported for a 4/rev (4P) collective pitch control for a range of input amplitudes and phases. By comparing these results to corresponding baseline (no control) conditions, significant noise reductions (4 to 5 dB) were found for low-speed descent conditions, where helicopter BVI noise is most intense. For other rotor flight conditions, the overall noise was found to increase. All cases show increased vibration levels.

  1. Hover performance tests of full scale variable geometry rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorke, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Full scale whirl tests were conducted to determine the effects of interblade spatial relationships and pitch variations on the hover performance and acoustic signature of a 6-blade main rotor system. The variable geometry rotor (VGR) variations from the conventional baseline were accomplished by: (1) shifting the axial position of alternate blades by one chord-length to form two tip path planes; and (2) varying the relative azimuthal spacing from the upper rotor to the lagging hover rotor in four increments from 25.2 degrees to 62.1 degrees. For each of these four configurations, the differential collective pitch between upper and lower rotors was set at + or - 1 deg, 0 deg and -1 deg. Hover performance data for all configurations were acquired at blade tip Mach numbers of 0.523 and 0.45. Acoustic data were recorded at all test conditions, but analyzed only at 0 deg differential pitch at the higher rotor speed. The VGR configurations tested demonstrated improvements in thrust at constant power as high as 6 percent. Reductions of 3 PNdb in perceived noise level and of 4 db in blade passage frequency noise level were achieved at the higher thrust levels. Consistent correlation exists between performance and acoustic improvements. For any given azimuth spacing, performance was consistently better for the differential pitch condition of + or - 1 degree, i.e. with the upper rotor pitch one degree higher than the lower rotor.

  2. A Novel Method for Reducing Rotor Blade-Vortex Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glinka, A. T.

    2000-01-01

    One of the major hindrances to expansion of the rotorcraft market is the high-amplitude noise they produce, especially during low-speed descent, where blade-vortex interactions frequently occur. In an attempt to reduce the noise levels caused by blade-vortex interactions, the flip-tip rotor blade concept was devised. The flip-tip rotor increases the miss distance between the shed vortices and the rotor blades, reducing BVI noise. The distance is increased by rotating an outboard portion of the rotor tip either up or down depending on the flight condition. The proposed plan for the grant consisted of a computational simulation of the rotor aerodynamics and its wake geometry to determine the effectiveness of the concept, coupled with a series of wind tunnel experiments exploring the value of the device and validating the computer model. The computational model did in fact show that the miss distance could be increased, giving a measure of the effectiveness of the flip-tip rotor. However, the wind experiments were not able to be conducted. Increased outside demand for the 7'x lO' wind tunnel at NASA Ames and low priority at Ames for this project forced numerous postponements of the tests, eventually pushing the tests beyond the life of the grant. A design for the rotor blades to be tested in the wind tunnel was completed and an analysis of the strength of the model blades based on predicted loads, including dynamic forces, was done.

  3. Aeroacoustics and aerodynamic performance of a rotor with flatback airfoils.

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Christiansen, Monica; Simley, Eric

    2010-06-01

    The aerodynamic performance and aeroacoustic noise sources of a rotor employing flatback airfoils have been studied in field test campaign and companion modeling effort. The field test measurements of a sub-scale rotor employing nine meter blades include both performance measurements and acoustic measurements. The acoustic measurements are obtained using a 45 microphone beamforming array, enabling identification of both noise source amplitude and position. Semi-empirical models of flatback airfoil blunt trailing edge noise are developed and calibrated using available aeroacoustic wind tunnel test data. The model results and measurements indicate that flatback airfoil noise is less than drive train noise for the current test turbine. It is also demonstrated that the commonly used Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model for blunt trailing edge noise may be over-conservative in predicting flatback airfoil noise for wind turbine applications.

  4. Rotor control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Michael P. (Inventor); Maciolek, Joseph R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A helicopter rotor control system (13) including a stop azimuth controller (32) for establishing the value of a deceleration command (15') to a deceleration controller (23), a transition azimuth predictor (41) and a position reference generator (55), which are effective during the last revolution of said rotor (14) to establish a correction indication (38) to adjust the deceleration command (15') to ensure that one of the rotor blades (27) stops at a predetermined angular position.

  5. Two-Dimensional Computational Model for Wave Rotor Flow Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    1996-01-01

    A two-dimensional (theta,z) Navier-Stokes solver for multi-port wave rotor flow simulation is described. The finite-volume form of the unsteady thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are integrated in time on multi-block grids that represent the stationary inlet and outlet ports and the moving rotor passages of the wave rotor. Computed results are compared with three-port wave rotor experimental data. The model is applied to predict the performance of a planned four-port wave rotor experiment. Two-dimensional flow features that reduce machine performance and influence rotor blade and duct wall thermal loads are identified. The performance impact of rounding the inlet port wall, to inhibit separation during passage gradual opening, is assessed.

  6. The validation and application of a rotor acoustic prediction computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallman, Judith M.

    1990-01-01

    An essential prerequisite to reducing the acoustic detectability of military rotorcraft is a better understanding of main rotor noise which is the major contributor to the overall noise. A simple, yet accurate, Rotor Acoustic Prediction Program (RAPP) was developed to advance the understanding of main rotor noise. This prediction program uses the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equation. The particular form of the FW-H equation used is well suited for the coupling of the measured blade surface pressure to the prediction of acoustic pressure. The FW-H equation is an inhomogeneous wave equation that is valid in all space and governs acoustic pressure generated by thin moving bodies. The nonhomogeneous terms describe mass displacement due to surface motion and forces due to local surface stresses, such as viscous stress and pressure distribution on the surface. This paper examines two of the four types of main rotor noise: BVI noise and low-frequency noise. Blade-vortex interaction noise occurs when a tip vortex, previously shed by a rotor blade, passes close enough to a rotor blade to cause large variations in the blade surface pressures. This event is most disturbing when it happens on the advancing side of the rotor disk. Low-frequency noise includes hover and low to moderate speed forward flight. For these flight conditions, the low frequency components of the acoustic signal dominate.

  7. The validation and application of a rotor acoustic prediction computer program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallman, Judith M.

    An essential prerequisite to reducing the acoustic detectability of military rotorcraft is a better understanding of main rotor noise which is the major contributor to the overall noise. A simple, yet accurate, Rotor Acoustic Prediction Program (RAPP) was developed to advance the understanding of main rotor noise. This prediction program uses the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equation. The particular form of the FW-H equation used is well suited for the coupling of the measured blade surface pressure to the prediction of acoustic pressure. The FW-H equation is an inhomogeneous wave equation that is valid in all space and governs acoustic pressure generated by thin moving bodies. The nonhomogeneous terms describe mass displacement due to surface motion and forces due to local surface stresses, such as viscous stress and pressure distribution on the surface. This paper examines two of the four types of main rotor noise: BVI noise and low-frequency noise. Blade-vortex interaction noise occurs when a tip vortex, previously shed by a rotor blade, passes close enough to a rotor blade to cause large variations in the blade surface pressures. This event is most disturbing when it happens on the advancing side of the rotor disk. Low-frequency noise includes hover and low to moderate speed forward flight. For these flight conditions, the low frequency components of the acoustic signal dominate.

  8. A holographic interferometry technique for measuring transonic flow near a rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittleson, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    A technique that uses holographic interferometry to record the first interferograms of the flow near a hovering transonic rotor blade is presented. A pulsed ruby laser is used to record interferograms of a 2 ft diam field of view near a rotor tip operating at a tip Mach number of 0.90. Several interferograms, recorded along planes perpendicular to the rotor's tip path plane at various azimuth angles around the flow, are presented. These interferograms yield quantitative information about shock structure and location, flow separation, and radiated noise that will help helicopter researchers understand the complexities of the flow around high speed rotor blades and thus improve performance and reduce noise.

  9. Design, analysis and testing of small, affordable HAWT rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pricop, Mihai V.; Niculescu, Mihai L.; Cojocaru, Marius G.; Barsan, Dorin

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents affordable technologies dedicated to design, CAD modelling and manufacturing of the small-medium HAWT rotors. Three numerical tools are developed: blade/rotor design, blade modelling for industry CATIA(CATScript) and blade modelling for small scale developers. Numerical analysis of the rotors is accomplished for both performance and noise level estimation using XFLOW (LES) and an in-house code (URANS). Results are presented for a 5KW rotor at the design point only, since computations are expensive. Developement examples are included as two rotors are designed, manufactured and tested for 1.5 and 5KW. A third one, rated for 20KW is under developement. Basic testing results are also included.

  10. Wind-tunnel acoustic results of two rotor models with several tip designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. M.; Connor, A. B.

    1986-01-01

    A three-phase research program has been undertaken to study the acoustic signals due to the aerodynamic interaction of rotorcraft main rotors and tail rotors. During the first phase, two different rotor models with several interchangeable tips were tested in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel on the U.S. Army rotor model system. An extensive acoustic data base was acquired, with special emphasis on blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. The details of the experimental procedure, acoustic data acquisition, and reduction are documented. The overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of the high-twist rotor systems is relatively insensitive to flight speed but generally increases with rotor tip-path-plane angle. The OASPL of the high-twist rotors is dominated by acoustic energy in the low-frequency harmonics. The OASPL of the low-twist rotor systems shows more dependence on flight speed than the high-twist rotors, in addition to being quite sensitive to tip-path-plane angle. An integrated band-limited sound pressure level, limited by 500 to 3000 Hz, is a useful metric to quantify the occurrence of BVI noise. The OASPL of the low-twist rotors is strongly influenced by the band-limited sound levels, indicating that the blade-vortex impulsive noise is a dominant noise source for this rotor design. The midfrequency acoustic levels for both rotors show a very strong dependence on rotor tip-path-plane angle. The tip-path-plane angle at which the maximum midfrequency sound level occurs consistently decreases with increasing flight speed. The maximum midfrequency sound level measured at a given location is constant regardless of the flight speed.

  11. Spatial hearing in Cope's gray treefrog: I. Open and closed loop experiments on sound localization in the presence and absence of noise.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Michael S; Bee, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    The ability to reliably locate sound sources is critical to anurans, which navigate acoustically complex breeding choruses when choosing mates. Yet, the factors influencing sound localization performance in frogs remain largely unexplored. We applied two complementary methodologies, open and closed loop playback trials, to identify influences on localization abilities in Cope's gray treefrog, Hyla chrysoscelis. We examined localization acuity and phonotaxis behavior of females in response to advertisement calls presented from 12 azimuthal angles, at two signal levels, in the presence and absence of noise, and at two noise levels. Orientation responses were consistent with precise localization of sound sources, rather than binary discrimination between sources on either side of the body (lateralization). Frogs were unable to discriminate between sounds arriving from forward and rearward directions, and accurate localization was limited to forward sound presentation angles. Within this region, sound presentation angle had little effect on localization acuity. The presence of noise and low signal-to-noise ratios also did not strongly impair localization ability in open loop trials, but females exhibited reduced phonotaxis performance consistent with impaired localization during closed loop trials. We discuss these results in light of previous work on spatial hearing in anurans.

  12. Spatial hearing in Cope’s gray treefrog: I. Open and closed loop experiments on sound localization in the presence and absence of noise

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Michael S.; Bee, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to reliably locate sound sources is critical to anurans, which navigate acoustically complex breeding choruses when choosing mates. Yet, the factors influencing sound localization performance in frogs remain largely unexplored. We applied two complementary methodologies, open and closed loop playback trials, to identify influences on localization abilities in Cope’s gray treefrog, Hyla chrysoscelis. We examined localization acuity and phonotaxis behavior of females in response to advertisement calls presented from 12 azimuthal angles, at two signal levels, in the presence and absence of noise, and at two noise levels. Orientation responses were consistent with precise localization of sound sources, rather than binary discrimination between sources on either side of the body (lateralization). Frogs were unable to discriminate between sounds arriving from forward and rearward directions, and accurate localization was limited to forward sound presentation angles. Within this region, sound presentation angle had little effect on localization acuity. The presence of noise and low signal-to-noise ratios also did not strongly impair localization ability in open loop trials, but females exhibited reduced phonotaxis performance consistent with impaired localization during closed loop trials. We discuss these results in light of previous work on spatial hearing in anurans. PMID:24504182

  13. Flexible rotor dynamics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, F. A.

    1973-01-01

    A digital computer program was developed to analyze the general nonaxisymmetric and nonsynchronous transient and steady-state rotor dynamic performance of a bending- and shear-wise flexible rotor-bearing system under various operating conditions. The effects of rotor material mechanical hysteresis, rotor torsion flexibility, transverse effects of rotor axial and torsional loading and the anisotropic, in-phase and out-of-phase bearing stiffness and damping force and moment coefficients were included in the program to broaden its capability. An optimum solution method was found and incorporated in the computer program. Computer simulation of experimental data was made and qualitative agreements observed. The mathematical formulations, computer program verification, test data simulation, and user instruction was presented and discussed.

  14. Sound sources in a low speed ducted rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, David Bruce

    The objective of this research was to improve the understanding of the sound source mechanisms in a low speed ducted fan through experimental and analytical efforts. To this end, a new experimental model with carefully controlled boundary conditions was developed. A new method for quantifying the net acoustic transfer function between the rotor and an observer was found. This transfer function caused by the duct can significantly affect the spectral character of the radiated sound. Quantifying this function enables the study of the rotor sound source, without need of other methods for considering duct effects. A new formulation for predicting the noise generated by a ducted rotor interacting with a casing boundary layer has been developed. The method accounts for the streamwise-elongated turbulent structures that have been recently observed in flat-plate boundary layers. An approximation for the duct boundary layer two-point correlation function allows the net sound source to be estimated. Finally, the self-noise generated by a ducted rotor was studied. The flow rate through the rotor was varied independently from the rotor rotation rate in order change the mean lift on the blades. Measurements of the flow field around the rotor were found to provide insight to the mechanisms of sound that depend on mean loading conditions.

  15. Flow interaction and noise from a counter rotating propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jin-Deog; Walls, James L.; Nagel, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    The aerodynamic interaction between the forward and rear rotors in a counter rotating propeller (CRP) system, has been examined using a conditional sampling technique applied to three-dimensional thermal anemometer data. The technique effectively freezes the rotors in any desired relative position and provides the inter-rotor flow field. Axial, radial and circumferential mean flow between rotors is shown relative to the 'fixed' forward rotor for various 'fixed' aft rotor positions. Acoustic far field noise data have also been collected for the same operating conditions. The acoustic results are presented with emphasis on the blade passing frequencies and interaction tone of the CRP.

  16. Broadband Noise Reduction of a Low-Speed Fan Noise Using Trailing Edge Blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental proof-of-concept test was conducted to demonstrate reduction of rotor-stator interaction noise through the use of rotor-trailing edge blowing. The velocity deficit from the viscous wake of the rotor blades was reduced by injecting air into the wake from a continuous trailing edge slot. Hollow blades with interior guide vanes create flow channels through which externally supplied air flows from the blade root to the trailing edge. A previous paper documented the substantial tonal reductions of this Trailing Edge Rotor Blowing (TERB) fan. This report documents the broadband characteristics of TERB. The Active Noise Control Fan (ANCF), located at the NASA Glenn Research Center, was used as the proof-of-concept test bed. Two-component hotwire data behind the rotor, unsteady surface pressures on the stator vane, and farfield directivity acoustic data were acquired at blowing rates of 1.1, 1.5, and 1.8 percent of the total fan mass flow. The results indicate a substantial reduction in the rotor wake turbulent velocity and in the stator vane unsteady surface pressures. Based on the physics of the noise generation, these indirect measurements indicate the prospect of broadband noise reduction. However, since the broadband noise generated by the ANCF is rotor-dominated, any change in the rotor-stator interaction broadband noise levels is barely distinguishable in the farfield measurements.

  17. Fault detection in rotor bearing systems using time frequency techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, N. Harish; Sekhar, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Faults such as misalignment, rotor cracks and rotor to stator rub can exist collectively in rotor bearing systems. It is an important task for rotor dynamic personnel to monitor and detect faults in rotating machinery. In this paper, the rotor startup vibrations are utilized to solve the fault identification problem using time frequency techniques. Numerical simulations are performed through finite element analysis of the rotor bearing system with individual and collective combinations of faults as mentioned above. Three signal processing tools namely Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT), Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) are compared to evaluate their detection performance. The effect of addition of Signal to Noise ratio (SNR) on three time frequency techniques is presented. The comparative study is focused towards detecting the least possible level of the fault induced and the computational time consumed. The computation time consumed by HHT is very less when compared to CWT based diagnosis. However, for noisy data CWT is more preferred over HHT. To identify fault characteristics using wavelets a procedure to adjust resolution of the mother wavelet is presented in detail. Experiments are conducted to obtain the run-up data of a rotor bearing setup for diagnosis of shaft misalignment and rotor stator rubbing faults.

  18. Computational analysis of high resolution unsteady airloads for rotor aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Lam, C.-M. Gordon; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Bliss, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    The study of helicopter aerodynamic loading for acoustics applications requires the application of efficient yet accurate simulations of the velocity field induced by the rotor's vortex wake. This report summarizes work to date on the development of such an analysis, which builds on the Constant Vorticity Contour (CVC) free wake model, previously implemented for the study of vibratory loading in the RotorCRAFT computer code. The present effort has focused on implementation of an airload reconstruction approach that computes high resolution airload solutions of rotor/rotor-wake interactions required for acoustics computations. Supplementary efforts on the development of improved vortex core modeling, unsteady aerodynamic effects, higher spatial resolution of rotor loading, and fast vortex wake implementations have substantially enhanced the capabilities of the resulting software, denoted RotorCRAFT/AA (AeroAcoustics). Results of validation calculations using recently acquired model rotor data show that by employing airload reconstruction it is possible to apply the CVC wake analysis with temporal and spatial resolution suitable for acoustics applications while reducing the computation time required by one to two orders of magnitude relative to that required by direct calculations. Promising correlation with this body of airload and noise data has been obtained for a variety of rotor configurations and operating conditions.

  19. A Sequential Shifting Algorithm for Variable Rotor Speed Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Edwards, Jason M.; DeCastro, Jonathan A.

    2007-01-01

    A proof of concept of a continuously variable rotor speed control methodology for rotorcraft is described. Variable rotor speed is desirable for several reasons including improved maneuverability, agility, and noise reduction. However, it has been difficult to implement because turboshaft engines are designed to operate within a narrow speed band, and a reliable drive train that can provide continuous power over a wide speed range does not exist. The new methodology proposed here is a sequential shifting control for twin-engine rotorcraft that coordinates the disengagement and engagement of the two turboshaft engines in such a way that the rotor speed may vary over a wide range, but the engines remain within their prescribed speed bands and provide continuous torque to the rotor; two multi-speed gearboxes facilitate the wide rotor speed variation. The shifting process begins when one engine slows down and disengages from the transmission by way of a standard freewheeling clutch mechanism; the other engine continues to apply torque to the rotor. Once one engine disengages, its gear shifts, the multi-speed gearbox output shaft speed resynchronizes and it re-engages. This process is then repeated with the other engine. By tailoring the sequential shifting, the rotor may perform large, rapid speed changes smoothly, as demonstrated in several examples. The emphasis of this effort is on the coordination and control aspects for proof of concept. The engines, rotor, and transmission are all simplified linear models, integrated to capture the basic dynamics of the problem.

  20. Fan Noise Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    1994-01-01

    Results of recent NASA research to reduce aircraft turbofan noise are described. As the bypass ratio of a turbofan engine increases from five to as much as 20, the dominant source of engine noise is the fan. A primary mechanism of tone noise generation is the rotor blade wakes interacting with downstream stator vanes. Methods of analyzing rotor stator tone noise generation are described and sample results are given. The role of an acoustic modal description is emphasized. Wind tunnel tests of model fans and nacelles are described including a novel rotating microphone technique for modal measurement. Sample far field results are given showing the effects of inlet length, and modal measurements are shown which point to a new generation mechanism. Concepts for active fan noise control at the source are addressed. Implications of the research which have general relevance to fan noise generation and control are discussed.

  1. Fan noise research at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    Results of recent NASA research to reduce aircraft turbofan noise are described. As the bypass ratio of a turbofan engine increases from 5 to as much as 20, the dominant source of engine noise is the fan. A primary mechanism of tone noise generation is the rotor blade wakes interacting with downstream stator vanes. Methods of analyzing rotor-stator tone noise generation are described and sample results are given. The role of an acoustic modal description is emphasized. Wind tunnel tests of model fans and nacelles are described including a novel rotating microphone technique for modal measurement. Sample far field results are given showing the effects of inlet length, and modal measurements are shown which point to a new generation mechanism. Concepts for active fan noise control at the source are addressed. Implications of the research which have general relevance to fan noise generation and control are discussed.

  2. Reducing rotor weight

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  3. Initial results from the NASA-Lewis wave rotor experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jack; Fronek, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Wave rotors may play a role as topping cycles for jet engines, since by their use, the combustion temperature can be raised without increasing the turbine inlet temperature. In order to design a wave rotor for this, or any other application, knowledge of the loss mechanisms is required, and also how the design parameters affect those losses. At NASA LeRC, a 3-port wave rotor experiment operating on the flow-divider cycle, has been started with the objective of determining the losses. The experimental scheme is a three factor Box-Behnken design, with passage opening time, friction factor, and leakage gap as the factors. Variation of these factors is provided by using two rotors, of different length, two different passage widths for each rotor, and adjustable leakage gap. In the experiment, pressure transducers are mounted on the rotor, and give pressure traces as a function of rotational angle at the entrance and exit of a rotor passage. In addition, pitot rakes monitor the stagnation pressures for each port, and orifice meters measure the mass flows. The results show that leakage losses are very significant in the present experiment, but can be reduced considerably by decreasing the rotor to wall clearance spacing.

  4. Turbomachinery noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Sofrin, Thomas G.; Rice, Edward J.; Gliebe, Phillip R.

    1991-08-01

    Summarized here are key advances in experimental techniques and theoretical applications which point the way to a broad understanding and control of turbomachinery noise. On the experimental side, the development of effective inflow control techniques makes it possible to conduct, in ground based facilities, definitive experiments in internally controlled blade row interactions. Results can now be valid indicators of flight behavior and can provide a firm base for comparison with analytical results. Inflow control coupled with detailed diagnostic tools such as blade pressure measurements can be used to uncover the more subtle mechanisms such as rotor strut interaction, which can set tone levels for some engine configurations. Initial mappings of rotor wake-vortex flow fields have provided a data base for a first generation semiempirical flow disturbance model. Laser velocimetry offers a nonintrusive method for validating and improving the model. Digital data systems and signal processing algorithms are bringing mode measurement closer to a working tool that can be frequently applied to a real machine such as a turbofan engine. On the analytical side, models of most of the links in the chain from turbomachine blade source to far field observation point have been formulated. Three dimensional lifting surface theory for blade rows, including source noncompactness and cascade effects, blade row transmission models incorporating mode and frequency scattering, and modal radiation calculations, including hybrid numerical-analytical approaches, are tools which await further application.

  5. Turbomachinery noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Sofrin, Thomas G.; Rice, Edward J.; Gliebe, Phillip R.

    1991-01-01

    Summarized here are key advances in experimental techniques and theoretical applications which point the way to a broad understanding and control of turbomachinery noise. On the experimental side, the development of effective inflow control techniques makes it possible to conduct, in ground based facilities, definitive experiments in internally controlled blade row interactions. Results can now be valid indicators of flight behavior and can provide a firm base for comparison with analytical results. Inflow control coupled with detailed diagnostic tools such as blade pressure measurements can be used to uncover the more subtle mechanisms such as rotor strut interaction, which can set tone levels for some engine configurations. Initial mappings of rotor wake-vortex flow fields have provided a data base for a first generation semiempirical flow disturbance model. Laser velocimetry offers a nonintrusive method for validating and improving the model. Digital data systems and signal processing algorithms are bringing mode measurement closer to a working tool that can be frequently applied to a real machine such as a turbofan engine. On the analytical side, models of most of the links in the chain from turbomachine blade source to far field observation point have been formulated. Three dimensional lifting surface theory for blade rows, including source noncompactness and cascade effects, blade row transmission models incorporating mode and frequency scattering, and modal radiation calculations, including hybrid numerical-analytical approaches, are tools which await further application.

  6. An improved numerical model for wave rotor design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Wilson, Jack

    1993-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed which can predict both the unsteady flows within a wave rotor and the steady averaged flows in the ports. The model is based on the assumptions of one-dimensional, unsteady, and perfect gas flow. Besides the dominant wave behavior, it is also capable of predicting the effects of finite tube opening time, leakage from the tube ends, and viscosity. The relative simplicity of the model makes it useful for design, optimization, and analysis of wave rotor cycles for any application. This paper discusses some details of the model and presents comparisons between the model and two laboratory wave rotor experiments.

  7. An improved numerical model for wave rotor design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Wilson, Jack

    1992-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed which can predict both the unsteady flows within a wave rotor and the steady averaged flows in the ports. The model is based on the assumptions of one-dimensional, unsteady, and perfect gas flow. Besides the dominant wave behavior, it is also capable of predicting the effects of finite tube opening time, leakage from the tube ends, and viscosity. The relative simplicity of the model makes it useful for design, optimization, and analysis of wave rotor cycles for any application. This paper discusses some details of the model and presents comparisons between the model and two laboratory wave rotor experiments.

  8. A hingeless rotor XV-15 design integration feasibility study. Volume 1: Engineering design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, J. P.; Alexander, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    A design integration feasibility study was carried out to investigate what modifications to the basic XV-15 were necessary to accomplish a flight demonstration of the XV-15 with a Boeing hingeless rotor. Also investigated were additional modifications which would exploit the full capability provided by the combination of the new rotor and the existing T53 engine. An evaluation of the aircraft is presented and the data indicate improved air vehicle performance, acceptable aeroelastic margins, lower noise levels and improved flying qualities compared with the XV-15 aircraft. Inspection of the rotor system data provided shows an essentially unlimited life rotor for the flight spectrum anticipated for the XV-15.

  9. Aeromechanical Evaluation of Smart-Twisting Active Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Joon W.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Hoffman, Frauke; van der Wall, Berend G.; Kim, Do-Hyung; Jung, Sung N.; You, Young H.; Tanabe, Yasutada; Bailly, Joelle; Lienard, Caroline; Delrieux, Yves

    2014-01-01

    An investigation of Smart-Twisting Active Rotor (STAR) was made to assess potential benefits of the current active twist rotor concept for performance improvement, vibration reduction, and noise alleviation. The STAR rotor is a 40% Mach-scaled, Bo105 rotor with an articulated flap-lag hinge at 3.5%R and no pre-cone. The 0-5 per rev active twist harmonic inputs were applied for various flight conditions including hover, descent, moderate to high speed level flights, and slowed rotor high advance ratio. For the analysis, the STAR partners used multiple codes including CAMRAD II, S4, HOST, rFlow3D, elsA, and their associated software. At the high thrust level in hover, the 0 per rev active twist with 80% amplitude increased figure of merit (FM) by 0.01-0.02 relative to the baseline. In descent, the largest BVI noise reduction was on the order of 2 to 5 dB at the 3 per rev active twist. In the high speed case (mu = 0.35), the 2 per rev actuation was found to be the most effective in achieving a power reduction as well as a vibration reduction. At the 2 per rev active twist, total power was reduced by 0.65% at the 60 deg active twist phase, and vibration was reduced by 47.6% at the 45 deg active twist phase. The use of the 2 per rev active twist appears effective for vibration reduction. In the high advance ratio case (mu = 0.70), the 0 per rev actuation appeared to have negligible impact on performance improvement. In summary, computational simulations successfully demonstrated that the current active twist concept provided a significant reduction of the maximum BVI noise in descent, a significant reduction of the vibration in the high speed case, a small improvement on rotor performance in hover, and a negligible impact on rotor performance in forward flight.

  10. A concept for a counterrotating fan with reduced tone noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.

    1992-01-01

    As subsonic jet engine designs incorporate higher bypass ratios to reduce jet noise and increase engine cycle efficiency, the fan noise becomes a significant part of the perceived total noise. The conventional method of reducing fan tone noise is to design a low tip-speed device. An alternative approach of using a counterrotating fan with a high number of rotor blades is investigated in this report. The source of noise at the blade passing frequency of this device is the rotor-only mechanism, which is cut off for a subsonic tip speed rotor. The interaction noise occurs at twice the blade passing frequency, which, for this fan, was shifted high enough in frequency to be above the perceived noise rating range. The result was a counterrotating fan which had more potential for tone noise reduction than does the conventional fan. A potential broadband noise reduction was also indicated.

  11. Comparison of Tone Mode Measurements for a Forward Swept and Baseline Rotor Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, Laurence J.

    2003-01-01

    A forward swept fan, designated the Quite High Speed Fan (QHSF), was tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate its noise reduction relative to a baseline fan of the same aerodynamic performance. The design objective of the QHSF was a 6 dB reduction in Effective Perceived Noise Level relative to the baseline fan at the takeoff condition. The design noise reduction was to be a result of lower levels of multiple pure tone noise due to the forward swept rotor, and lower rotor/stator interaction tone noise from a leaned stator. Although the design 6 dB reduction was observed in far-field measurements, the induct mode measurements revealed the reasons for goals. All of the noise reduction was from the blade passing tone and its harmonics and most of this was unexpectedly from rotor/strut interaction modes. The reason for large differences in rotor/strut noise sources could not be determined with certainty. The reductions in the multiple pure tone noise for the forward swept rotor were not observed. this reduction were not the ones related to the design

  12. Rotor balancing apparatus and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, Frank (Inventor); Lyman, Joseph (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Rotor balancing apparatus and a system comprising balance probes for measuring unbalance at the ends of a magnetically suspended rotor are disclosed. Each balance probe comprises a photocell which is located in relationship to the magnetically suspended rotor such that unbalance of the rotor changes the amount of light recorded by each photocell. The signal from each photocell is electrically amplified and displayed by a suitable device, such as an oscilloscope.

  13. Wave rotor demonstrator engine assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Philip H.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the program was to determine a wave rotor demonstrator engine concept using the Allison 250 series engine. The results of the NASA LERC wave rotor effort were used as a basis for the wave rotor design. A wave rotor topped gas turbine engine was identified which incorporates five basic requirements of a successful demonstrator engine. Predicted performance maps of the wave rotor cycle were used along with maps of existing gas turbine hardware in a design point study. The effects of wave rotor topping on the engine cycle and the subsequent need to rematch compressor and turbine sections in the topped engine were addressed. Comparison of performance of the resulting engine is made on the basis of wave rotor topped engine versus an appropriate baseline engine using common shaft compressor hardware. The topped engine design clearly demonstrates an impressive improvement in shaft horsepower (+11.4%) and SFC (-22%). Off design part power engine performance for the wave rotor topped engine was similarly improved including that at engine idle conditions. Operation of the engine at off design was closely examined with wave rotor operation at less than design burner outlet temperatures and rotor speeds. Challenges identified in the development of a demonstrator engine are discussed. A preliminary design was made of the demonstrator engine including wave rotor to engine transition ducts. Program cost and schedule for a wave rotor demonstrator engine fabrication and test program were developed.

  14. Rotorcraft noise: Status and recent developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Albert R.; Sim, Ben WEL-C.; Polak, David R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews rotorcraft noise mechanisms and their approximate importance for different types of rotorcraft in different flight regimes. Discrete noise is due to periodic flow disturbances and includes impulsive noise produced by phenomena which occur during a limited segment of a blade's rotation. Broadband noise results when rotors interact with random disturbances, such as turbulence, which can originate in a variety of sources. The status of analysis techniques for these mechanisms are reviewed. Also, some recent progress is presented on the understanding and analysis of tilt rotor aircraft noise due to: (1) recirculation and blockage effects of the rotor flow in hover; and (2) blade-vortex interactions in forward and descending flight.

  15. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmel, Keith D.; Plank, William L.

    2016-07-19

    A spar and shell turbine rotor blade with a spar and a tip cap formed as a single piece, the spar includes a bottom end with dovetail or fir tree slots that engage with slots on a top end of a root section, and a platform includes an opening on a top surface for insertion of the spar in which a shell made from an exotic high temperature resistant material is secured between the tip cap and the platform. The spar is tapered to form thinner walls at the tip end to further reduce the weight and therefore a pulling force due to blade rotation. The spar and tip cap piece is made from a NiAL material to further reduce the weight and the pulling force.

  16. A Parameter Identification Method for Helicopter Noise Source Identification and Physics-Based Semi-Empirical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Eric, II; Schmitz, Fredric H.

    2010-01-01

    A new physics-based parameter identification method for rotor harmonic noise sources is developed using an acoustic inverse simulation technique. This new method allows for the identification of individual rotor harmonic noise sources and allows them to be characterized in terms of their individual non-dimensional governing parameters. This new method is applied to both wind tunnel measurements and ground noise measurements of two-bladed rotors. The method is shown to match the parametric trends of main rotor Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise, allowing accurate estimates of BVI noise to be made for operating conditions based on a small number of measurements taken at different operating conditions.

  17. Two-dimensional CFD modeling of wave rotor flow dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.; Chima, Rodrick V.

    1994-01-01

    A two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver developed for detailed study of wave rotor flow dynamics is described. The CFD model is helping characterize important loss mechanisms within the wave rotor. The wave rotor stationary ports and the moving rotor passages are resolved on multiple computational grid blocks. The finite-volume form of the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations with laminar viscosity are integrated in time using a four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme. Roe's approximate Riemann solution scheme or the computationally less expensive advection upstream splitting method (AUSM) flux-splitting scheme is used to effect upwind-differencing of the inviscid flux terms, using cell interface primitive variables set by MUSCL-type interpolation. The diffusion terms are central-differenced. The solver is validated using a steady shock/laminar boundary layer interaction problem and an unsteady, inviscid wave rotor passage gradual opening problem. A model inlet port/passage charging problem is simulated and key features of the unsteady wave rotor flow field are identified. Lastly, the medium pressure inlet port and high pressure outlet port portion of the NASA Lewis Research Center experimental divider cycle is simulated and computed results are compared with experimental measurements. The model accurately predicts the wave timing within the rotor passages and the distribution of flow variables in the stationary inlet port region.

  18. Solution of the wave equation for open surfaces involving a line integral over the edge. [for supersonic propeller noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.

    1984-01-01

    A simple mathematical model of a stationary source distribution for the supersonic-propeller noise-prediction formula of Farassat (1983) is developed to test the validity of the formula solutions. The conventional thickness source term is used in place of the Isom thickness formula; the relative importance of the line and surface integrals in the solutions is evaluated; and the numerical results are compared with those obtained with a conventional retarded-time solution in tables. Good agreement is obtained over elevation angles from 10 to 90 deg, and the line-integral contribution is found to be significant at all elevation angles and of the same order of magnitude as the surface-integral contribution at angles less than 30 deg. The amplitude-normalized directivity patterns for the four cases computed (x = 1.5 or 10; k = 5.0 or 50) are presented graphically.

  19. Radiated noise of ducted fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eversman, Walter

    The differences in the radiated acoustic fields of ducted and unducted propellers of the same thrust operating under similar conditions are investigated. An FEM model is created for the generation, propagation, and radiation of steady, rotor alone noise and exit guide vane interaction noise of a ducted fan. For a specified number of blades, angular mode harmonic, and rotor angular velocity, the acoustic field is described in a cylindrical coordinate system reduced to only the axial and radial directions. It is found that, contrary to the usual understanding of the Tyler and Sofrin (1962) result, supersonic tip speed rotor noise can be cut off if the tip Mach number is only slightly in excess of unity and if the number of blades is relatively small. If there are many blades, the fundamental angular mode number is large, and the Tyler and Sofrin result for thin annuli becomes more relevant. Shrouding of subsonic tip speed propellers is a very effective means of controlling rotor alone noise.

  20. Radiated noise of ducted fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eversman, Walter

    1992-01-01

    The differences in the radiated acoustic fields of ducted and unducted propellers of the same thrust operating under similar conditions are investigated. An FEM model is created for the generation, propagation, and radiation of steady, rotor alone noise and exit guide vane interaction noise of a ducted fan. For a specified number of blades, angular mode harmonic, and rotor angular velocity, the acoustic field is described in a cylindrical coordinate system reduced to only the axial and radial directions. It is found that, contrary to the usual understanding of the Tyler and Sofrin (1962) result, supersonic tip speed rotor noise can be cut off if the tip Mach number is only slightly in excess of unity and if the number of blades is relatively small. If there are many blades, the fundamental angular mode number is large, and the Tyler and Sofrin result for thin annuli becomes more relevant. Shrouding of subsonic tip speed propellers is a very effective means of controlling rotor alone noise.

  1. Effectiveness of combined aircraft engine noise suppressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaletskiy, Yu. D.

    2012-07-01

    We consider the design features of fan noise suppressors in application to air intakes and the bypass duct of a turbofan engine. A combined liner is developed that has increased acoustic efficiency in comparison to conventional honeycomb liner. We demonstrate the important role of the area of the sound-absorbing liner between fan Rotor and Stator ensuring significant noise reduction.

  2. Revolutionary Concepts for Helicopter Noise Reduction: SILENT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Bryan; Cox, Charles; Booth, Earl R., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As part of a NASA initiative to reduce helicopter main rotor noise, a Phase 1 study has been performed of candidate noise reduction concepts. Both conventional and novel design technologies have been analyzed that reduce the community impact of helicopter operations. In this study the noise reduction potential and design implications are assessed for conventional means of noise reduction, e.g., tip speed reduction, tip shapes and airfoil tailoring, and for two innovative design concepts: modulated blade spacing and x-force control. Main rotor designs that incorporate modulated blade spacing are shown to have reduced peak noise levels in most flight operations. X-force control alters the helicopter's force balance whereby the miss distance between main rotor blades and shed vortices can be controlled. This control provides a high potential to mitigate BVI noise radiation. Each concept is evaluated using best practice design and analysis methods, achieving the study's aim to significantly reduce noise with minimal performance degradation and no vibration increase. It is concluded that a SILENT main rotor design, incorporating the modulated blade spacing concept, offers significantly reduced noise levels and the potential of a breakthrough in how a helicopter's sound is perceived and judged. The SILENT rotor represents a definite advancement in the state-of-the-art and is selected as the design concept for demonstration in Phase 2. A Phase 2 Implementation Plan is developed for whirl cage and wind tunnel evaluations of a scaled model SILENT rotor.

  3. Acoustic measurements of a full-scale coaxial hingeless rotor helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. L.; Mosher, M.

    1983-01-01

    Acoustic data were obtained during a full-scale test of the XH-59A Advancing Blade Concept Technology Demonstrator in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The XH-59A is a research helicopter with two coaxial rotors and hingeless blades. Performance, vibration, and noise at various forward speeds, rotor lift coefficients and rotor shaft angles of attack were investigated. The noise data were acquired over an isolated rotor lift coefficient range of 0.024 to 0.162, an advance ratio range of 0.23 to 0.45 corresponding to tunnel wind speeds of 89 to 160 knots, and angles of attack from 0 deg to 10 deg. Acoustic data are presented for seven microphone locations for all run conditions where the model noise is above the background noise. Model test configuration and performance information are also listed. Acoustic waveforms, dBA, and 1/3-octave spectra as functions of operating condition for selected data points and microphones are presented. In general, the noise level is shown to increase with rotor lift coefficient except under certain operating conditions where significant impulsive blade/vortex interactions increase noise levels.

  4. Variable camber rotor study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dadone, L.; Cowan, J.; Mchugh, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Deployment of variable camber concepts on helicopter rotors was analytically assessed. It was determined that variable camber extended the operating range of helicopters provided that the correct compromise can be obtained between performance/loads gains and mechanical complexity. A number of variable camber concepts were reviewed on a two dimensional basis to determine the usefulness of leading edge, trailing edge and overall camber variation schemes. The most powerful method to vary camber was through the trailing edge flaps undergoing relatively small motions (-5 deg to +15 deg). The aerodynamic characteristics of the NASA/Ames A-1 airfoil with 35% and 50% plain trailing edge flaps were determined by means of current subcritical and transonic airfoil design methods and used by rotor performance and loads analysis codes. The most promising variable camber schedule reviewed was a configuration with a 35% plain flap deployment in an on/off mode near the tip of a blade. Preliminary results show approximately 11% reduction in power is possible at 192 knots and a rotor thrust coefficient of 0.09. The potential demonstrated indicates a significant potential for expanding the operating envelope of the helicopter. Further investigation into improving the power saving and defining the improvement in the operational envelope of the helicopter is recommended.

  5. Polygonal shaft hole rotor

    DOEpatents

    Hussey, John H.; Rose, John Scott; Meystrik, Jeffrey J.; White, Kent Lee

    2001-01-23

    A laminated rotor for an induction motor has a plurality of ferro-magnetic laminations mounted axially on a rotor shaft. Each of the plurality of laminations has a central aperture in the shape of a polygon with sides of equal length. The laminations are alternatingly rotated 180.degree. from one another so that the straight sides of the polygon shaped apertures are misaligned. As a circular rotor shaft is press fit into a stack of laminations, the point of maximum interference occurs at the midpoints of the sides of the polygon (i.e., at the smallest radius of the central apertures of the laminations). Because the laminates are alternatingly rotated, the laminate material at the points of maximum interference yields relatively easily into the vertices (i.e., the greatest radius of the central aperture) of the polygonal central aperture of the next lamination as the shaft is inserted into the stack of laminations. Because of this yielding process, the amount of force required to insert the shaft is reduced, and a tighter fit is achieved.

  6. Single rotor turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Platts, David A.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  7. Tuning thermal mismatch between turbine rotor parts with a thermal medium

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher

    2001-01-01

    In a turbine rotor, an aft shaft wheel and the final-stage wheel of the rotor are coupled together, including by a rabbeted joint. During shutdown and startup of the turbine, a thermal mismatch between the aft shaft wheel and final-stage wheel is avoided by respectively heating and cooling the aft shaft wheel to maintain the thermal mismatch within acceptable limits, thereby avoiding opening of the rabbeted joint and the potential for unbalancing the rotor and rotor vibration. The thermal medium may be supplied by piping in the aft bearing cavity into the cavity between the forward closure plate and the aft shaft wheel.

  8. Control of Magnetic Bearings for Rotor Unbalance With Plug-In Time-Varying Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Christopher; Tsao, Tsu-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Rotor unbalance, common phenomenon of rotational systems, manifests itself as a periodic disturbance synchronized with the rotor's angular velocity. In active magnetic bearing (AMB) systems, feedback control is required to stabilize the open-loop unstable electromagnetic levitation. Further, feedback action can be added to suppress the repeatable runout but maintain closed-loop stability. In this paper, a plug-in time-varying resonator is designed by inverting cascaded notch filters. This formulation allows flexibility in designing the internal model for appropriate disturbance rejection. The plug-in structure ensures that stability can be maintained for varying rotor speeds. Experimental results of an AMB–rotor system are presented. PMID:27222600

  9. Optimization of wave rotors for use as gas turbine engine topping cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jack; Paxson, Daniel E.

    1995-01-01

    Use of a wave rotor as a topping cycle for a gas turbine engine can improve specific power and reduce specific fuel consumption. Maximum improvement requires the wave rotor to be optimized for best performance at the mass flow of the engine. The optimization is a trade-off between losses due to friction and passage opening time, and rotational effects. An experimentally validated, one-dimensional CFD code, which includes these effects, has been used to calculate wave rotor performance, and find the optimum configuration. The technique is described, and results given for wave rotors sized for engines with sea level mass flows of 4, 26, and 400 lb/sec.

  10. Control of Magnetic Bearings for Rotor Unbalance With Plug-In Time-Varying Resonators.

    PubMed

    Kang, Christopher; Tsao, Tsu-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Rotor unbalance, common phenomenon of rotational systems, manifests itself as a periodic disturbance synchronized with the rotor's angular velocity. In active magnetic bearing (AMB) systems, feedback control is required to stabilize the open-loop unstable electromagnetic levitation. Further, feedback action can be added to suppress the repeatable runout but maintain closed-loop stability. In this paper, a plug-in time-varying resonator is designed by inverting cascaded notch filters. This formulation allows flexibility in designing the internal model for appropriate disturbance rejection. The plug-in structure ensures that stability can be maintained for varying rotor speeds. Experimental results of an AMB-rotor system are presented.

  11. Full-scale testing of an Ogee tip rotor. [in the Langley whirl tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantay, W. R.; Campbell, R. L.; Shidler, P. A.

    1978-01-01

    Full scale tests were utilized to investigate the effect of the ogee tip on helicopter rotor acoustics, performance, and loads. Two facilities were used: the Langley whirl tower and a UH-1H helicopter. The text matrix for hover on the whirl tower involved thrust values from 0 to 44 480 N (10,000 lb) at several tip Mach numbers for both standard and Ogee rotors. The full scale testing on the UH-1H encompassed the major portion of the flight envelope for that aircraft. Both near field acoustic measurements and far field flyover data were obtained for both the ogee and standard rotors. Data analysis of the whirl tower test shows that the ogee tip does significantly diffuse the tip vortex while providing some improvement in hover performance at low and moderate thrust coefficients. Flight testing of both rotors indicates that the strong impulsive noise signature of the standard rotor can be reduced with the ogee rotor. Analysis of the spectra indicates a reduction in energy in the 250 Hz and 1000 Hz range for the ogee rotor. Forward flight performance was significantly improved with the ogee configuration for a large number of flight conditions. Further, rotor control loads were reduced through use of this advanced tip rotor.

  12. A miniaturized compact open-loop RFOG with demodulation signal compensation technique to suppress intensity modulation noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Diqing; Mao, Jianmin; Li, Qiang; Jin, Zhonghe

    2016-01-01

    A miniaturized compact open-loop resonator fiber optic gyro (RFOG) prototype with main body size of about 10.4 cm×10.4 cm×5.2 cm is reported, and a demodulation signal compensation technique is proposed, aiming to suppress the drift arising from accompanying intensity modulation induced by semiconductor laser diode (LD). The scheme of how to establish this miniaturized RFOG prototype is specifically stated. The linear relationship between the first-harmonic and second-harmonic demodulated signals respectively for the two counter propagating beams in the resonator is verified by theory and experiment, and based on this relationship, the demodulation signal compensation technique by monitoring the second-harmonic demodulated signal is described in detail. With this compensation technique, the gyro output stability under 1°/s rotation rate is effectively improved from 0.12°/s to 0.03°/s, and especially, an about 0.36°/s peak-to-peak fluctuation due to tuning current reset is significantly suppressed. A long term bias stability of about 4.5°/h in 1 h for such a small-sized RFOG prototype is demonstrated, which is of the same magnitude as that of currently reported large-sized RFOG systems utilizing LD as the laser source as well.

  13. X-wing noise data acquisition program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    The X-wing circulation controlled rotor system model was tested for hover performance. During these performance tests, noise data from 12 microphones was recorded on magnetic tape for subsequent data reduction. The rotor system was operated at 4 tip speeds ranging from 529 to 650 ft./sec. (404 to 497 rpm), collective angles of attack fro 0 deg to 8.5 deg (maximum), and blade pressure ratios from 1.0 (no blowing) to a maximum of 2.1. The 12 microphones included 11 in the far field, and one in the transmission area. Following completion of the rotor and subsystem noise measurements, sound field calibration measurements were made of both the rotor 'bowl' and the loudspeaker system used in the 'bowl' calibration measurements. The location of 10 far field microphones was measured by a surveyor. Additionally, detailed tape logs were prepared for the six reels of tape used for the program.

  14. Homopolar motor with dual rotors

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, J.S.

    1998-12-01

    A homopolar motor has a field rotor mounted on a frame for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor mounted for rotation on said frame within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor. The two rotors are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism, so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed. 7 figs.

  15. Homopolar motor with dual rotors

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    1998-01-01

    A homopolar motor (10) has a field rotor (15) mounted on a frame (11) for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor (17) mounted for rotation on said frame (11) within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor (15). The two rotors (15, 17) are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism (19), so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed.

  16. System and method for improved rotor tip performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussom, Richard (Inventor); McVeigh, Michael A. (Inventor); Narducci, Robert P. (Inventor); Zientek, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention discloses systems and methods for the performance enhancement of rotary wing aircraft through reduced torque, noise and vibration. In one embodiment, a system includes a sail having an aerodynamic shape positioned proximate to a tip of the rotor blade. An actuator may be configured to rotate the sail relative to the blade tip. a A control system receives information from a rotorcraft system and commands the actuator to rotate the sail to a predetermined favorable rotor blade operating condition. In another embodiment, a method includes configuring the rotorcraft in a selected flight condition, communicating input signals to a control system operable to position sails coupled to tips of blades of a rotor assembly, processing the input signals according to a constraint condition to generate sail positional information, and transferring the sail positional information to the sail.

  17. 14 CFR 29.921 - Rotor brake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.921 Rotor brake. If there is a means to control the rotation of the rotor drive system independently of the engine, any limitations...

  18. Development of flexible rotor balancing criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, W. W.; Rieger, N. F.

    1979-01-01

    Several studies in which analytical procedures were used to obtain balancing criteria for flexible rotors are described. General response data for a uniform rotor in damped flexible supports were first obtained for plain cylindrical bearings, tilting pad bearings, axial groove bearings, and partial arc bearings. These data formed the basis for the flexible rotor balance criteria presented. A procedure by which a practical rotor in bearings could be reduced to an equivalent uniform rotor was developed and tested. It was found that the equivalent rotor response always exceeded to practical rotor response by more than sixty percent for the cases tested. The equivalent rotor procedure was then tested against six practical rotor configurations for which data was available. It was found that the equivalent rotor method offered a procedure by which balance criteria could be selected for practical flexible rotors, using the charts given for the uniform rotor.

  19. 14 CFR 27.921 - Rotor brake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.921 Rotor brake. If there is a means to control the rotation of the rotor drive system independently of the engine, any limitations...

  20. Aeroacoustic Analysis of Fan Noise Reduction With Increased Bypass Nozzle Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Hughes, Christopher E.; Podboy, Gary G.

    2005-01-01

    An advanced model turbofan was tested in the NASA Glenn 9-by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9x15 LSWT) to explore far field acoustic effects of increased bypass nozzle area. This fan stage test was part of the NASA Glenn Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test, second entry (SDT2) which acquired aeroacoustic results over a range of test conditions. The baseline nozzle was sized to produce maximum stage performance at cruise condition. However, the wind tunnel testing is conducted near sea level condition. Therefore, in order to simulate and obtain performance at other operating conditions, two additional nozzles were designed and tested one with +5 percent increase in weight flow (+5.4 percent increase in nozzle area compared with the baseline nozzle), sized to simulate the performance at the stage design point (takeoff) condition, and the other with a +7.5 percent increase in weight flow (+10.9 percent increase in nozzle area) sized for maximum weight flow with a fixed nozzle at sea level condition. Measured acoustic benefits with increased nozzle area were very encouraging, showing overall sound power level (OAPWL) reductions of 2 or more dB while the stage thrust actually increased by 2 to 3 percent except for the most open nozzle at takeoff rotor speed where stage performance decreased. Effective perceived noise levels for a 1500 ft engine flyover and 3.35 scale factor showed a similar noise reduction of 2 or more EPNdB. Noise reductions, principally in the level of broadband noise, were observed everywhere in the far field. Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurements taken downstream of the rotor showed that the total turbulent velocity decreased with increasing nozzle flow, which may explain the reduced rotor broadband noise levels.

  1. Preliminary rotor wake measurements with a laser velocimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoad, D. R.; Rhodes, D. B.; Meyers, J. F.

    1983-03-01

    A laser velocimeter (LV) was used to determine rotor wake characteristics. The effect of various fuselage widths and rotor-fuselage spacings on time averaged and detailed time dependent rotor wake velocity characteristics was defined. Definition of time dependent velocity characteristics was attempted with the LV by associating a rotor azimuth position with each velocity measurement. Results were discouraging in that no apparent time dependent velocity characteristics could be discerned from the LV measurements. Since the LV is a relatively new instrument in the rotor wake measurement field, the cause of this lack of periodicity is as important as the basic research objectives. An attempt was made to identify the problem by simulated acquisition of LV-type data for a predicted rotor wake velocity time history. Power spectral density and autocorrelation function estimation techniques were used to substantiate the conclusion that the primary cause of the lack of time dependent velocity characteristics was the nonstationary flow condition generated by the periodic turbulence level that currently exists in the open throat configuration of the wind tunnel.

  2. Preliminary rotor wake measurements with a laser velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoad, D. R.; Rhodes, D. B.; Meyers, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    A laser velocimeter (LV) was used to determine rotor wake characteristics. The effect of various fuselage widths and rotor-fuselage spacings on time averaged and detailed time dependent rotor wake velocity characteristics was defined. Definition of time dependent velocity characteristics was attempted with the LV by associating a rotor azimuth position with each velocity measurement. Results were discouraging in that no apparent time dependent velocity characteristics could be discerned from the LV measurements. Since the LV is a relatively new instrument in the rotor wake measurement field, the cause of this lack of periodicity is as important as the basic research objectives. An attempt was made to identify the problem by simulated acquisition of LV-type data for a predicted rotor wake velocity time history. Power spectral density and autocorrelation function estimation techniques were used to substantiate the conclusion that the primary cause of the lack of time dependent velocity characteristics was the nonstationary flow condition generated by the periodic turbulence level that currently exists in the open throat configuration of the wind tunnel.

  3. Integrated technology rotor/flight research rotor concept definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. G.; Beno, E. A.; Ulisnik, H. D.

    1983-01-01

    As part of the Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) Program a number of advanced rotor system designs were conceived and investigated. From these, several were chosen that best meet the started ITR goals with emphasis on stability, reduced weight and hub drag, simplicity, low head moment stiffness, and adequate strength and fatigue life. It was concluded that obtaining low hub moment stiffness was difficult when only the blade flexibility of bearingless rotor blades is considered, unacceptably low fatigue life being the primary problem. Achieving a moderate hub moment stiffness somewhat higher than state of the art articulated rotors in production today is possible within the fatigue life constraint. Alternatively, low stiffness is possible when additional rotor elements, besides the blades themselves, provide part of the rotor flexibility. Two primary designs evolved as best meeting the general ITR requirements that presently exist. An I shaped flexbeam with an external torque tube can satisfy the general goals but would have either higher stiffness or reduced fatigue life. The elastic gimbal rotor can achieve a better combination of low stiffness and high fatigue life but would be a somewhat heavier design and possibly exhibit a higher risk of aeromechanical instability.

  4. Helicopter noise regulations: An industry perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    A review of helicopter noise measurement programs and noise reduction/economic studies of FAA is given along with a critique of a study which addresses the economic impact of noise reduction on helicopter noise. Modification of several helicopters to reduce noise and demonstrate the economic impact of the application of the current state-of-the-art technology is discussed. Specific helicopters described include Boeing Vertol 347 Helicopter, Hughes OH-6 Helicopter, and Hughes 269C Helicopter. Other topics covered include: (1) noise trends and possible noise limits; (2) accuracy of helicopter noise prediction techniques; (3) limited change possibilities of derivatives; and (4) rotor impulsive noise. The unique operational capabilities of helicopters and the implications relative to noise regulations and certification are discussed.

  5. Internal rotor friction instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1990-01-01

    The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.

  6. The large pursuit rotor.

    PubMed

    Williams, L R; Grbin, I R

    1976-09-01

    The question of whether certain phenomena that occur on the conventional rotary pursuit and other small apparatus also appear on a gross motor task was examined using a large pursuit rotor that required whole-body movements. College males (n=29) were given 90 10-sec trials over three consecutive days with 30 trials of continuous practice per day. The existence of reactive inhibition, reminiscence, and warmup decrement was confirmed, indicating that common mechanisms underlie both fine and gross bodily movements. In addition, the substantial amounts of learning and the high reliabilities for performance and learning indicated that the present apparatus has considerable potential for motor-learning research.

  7. Molecular Rotors as Switches

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Mei; Wang, Kang L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of a functional molecular unit acting as a state variable provides an attractive alternative for the next generations of nanoscale electronics. It may help overcome the limits of conventional MOSFETd due to their potential scalability, low-cost, low variability, and highly integratable characteristics as well as the capability to exploit bottom-up self-assembly processes. This bottom-up construction and the operation of nanoscale machines/devices, in which the molecular motion can be controlled to perform functions, have been studied for their functionalities. Being triggered by external stimuli such as light, electricity or chemical reagents, these devices have shown various functions including those of diodes, rectifiers, memories, resonant tunnel junctions and single settable molecular switches that can be electronically configured for logic gates. Molecule-specific electronic switching has also been reported for several of these device structures, including nanopores containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene) monolayers, and planar junctions incorporating rotaxane and catenane monolayers for the construction and operation of complex molecular machines. A specific electrically driven surface mounted molecular rotor is described in detail in this review. The rotor is comprised of a monolayer of redox-active ligated copper compounds sandwiched between a gold electrode and a highly-doped P+ Si. This electrically driven sandwich-type monolayer molecular rotor device showed an on/off ratio of approximately 104, a read window of about 2.5 V, and a retention time of greater than 104 s. The rotation speed of this type of molecular rotor has been reported to be in the picosecond timescale, which provides a potential of high switching speed applications. Current-voltage spectroscopy (I-V) revealed a temperature-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR) associated with the device. The analysis of the device I–V characteristics suggests the source of the

  8. Acoustic performance of low pressure axial fan rotors with different blade chord length and radial load distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carolus, Thomas

    The paper examines the acoustic and aerodynamic performance of low-pressure axial fan rotors with a hub/tip ratio of 0.45. Six rotors were designed for the same working point by means of the well-known airfoil theory. The condition of an equilibrium between the static pressure gradient and the centrifugal forces is maintained. All rotors have unequally spaced blades to diminish tonal noise. The rotors are tested in a short cylindrical housing without guide vanes. All rotors show very similar flux-pressure difference characteristics. The peak efficiency and the noise performance is considerably influenced by the chosen blade design. The aerodynamically and acoustically optimal rotor is the one with the reduced load at the hub and increased load in the tip region under satisfied equilibrium conditions. It runs at the highest aerodynamic efficiency, and its noise spectrum is fairly smooth. The overall sound pressure level of this rotor is up to 8 dB (A) lower compared to the other rotors under consideration.

  9. TURNS - A free-wake Euler/Navier-Stokes numerical method for helicopter rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, G. R.; Baeder, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    Computational capabilities of a numerical procedure, called TURNS (transonic unsteady rotor Navier-Stokes), to calculate the aerodynamics and acoustics (high-speed impulsive noise) out to several rotor diameters are summarized. The procedure makes it possible to obtain the aerodynamics and acoustics information in one single calculation. The vortical wave and its influence, as well as the acoustics, are captured as part of the overall flowfield solution. The accuracy and suitability of the TURNS method is demonstrated through comparisons with experimental data.

  10. GPS (Global Positioning System) User Equipment Evaluation Techniques Using a Rotor Mounted Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE 5 6. RECOMMENDATIONS 6 REFERENCES 8 LIST OF FIGURES 1. Rotor induced Kalman filtr arror in reported position 9 2. Grid representing...centre will depend on Kalman filter characteristics and will tend to increase with rotor speed. GPS system noise was observed to obey Rayleigh...delayed difference measurement of reported diameter of antenna path to an accuracy of better than 0.5 m over 30 min. This method of Kalman error

  11. Study of noise sources in a subsonic fan using measured blade pressures and acoustic theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    Sources of noise in a 1.4 m (4.6 ft) diameter subsonic tip speed propulsive fan running statically outdoors are studied using a combination of techniques. Signals measured with pressure transducers on a rotor blade are plotted in a format showing the space-time history of inlet distortion. Study of these plots visually and with statistical correlation analysis confirms that the inlet flow contains long, thin eddies of turbulence. Turbulence generated in the boundary layer of the shroud upstream of the rotor tips was not found to be an important noise source. Fan noise is diagnosed by computing narrowband spectra of rotor and stator sound power and comparing these with measured sound power spectra. Rotor noise is computed from spectra of the measured blade pressures and stator noise is computed using the author's stator noise theory. It is concluded that the rotor and stator sources contribute about equally at frequencies in the vicinity of the first three harmonics of blade passing frequency. At higher frequencies, the stator contribution diminishes rapidly and the rotor/inlet turbulence mechanism dominates. Two parametric studies are performed by using the rotor noise calculation procedure which was correlated with test. In the first study, the effects on noise spectrum and directivity are calculated for changes in turbulence properties, rotational Mach number, number of blades, and stagger angle. In the second study the influences of design tip speed and blade number on noise are evaluated.

  12. The Aerodynamic Performance of an Over-the-Rotor Liner With Circumferential Grooves on a High Bypass Ratio Turbofan Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozak, Richard F.; Hughes, Christopher E.; Buckley, James

    2013-01-01

    While liners have been utilized throughout turbofan ducts to attenuate fan noise, additional attenuation is obtainable by placing an acoustic liner over-the-rotor. Previous experiments have shown significant fan performance losses when acoustic liners are installed over-the-rotor. The fan blades induce an oscillating flow in the acoustic liners which results in a performance loss near the blade tip. An over-the-rotor liner was designed with circumferential grooves between the fan blade tips and the acoustic liner to reduce the oscillating flow in the acoustic liner. An experiment was conducted in the W-8 Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center on a 1.5 pressure ratio fan to evaluate the impact of this over-the-rotor treatment design on fan aerodynamic performance. The addition of a circumferentially grooved over-the-rotor design between the fan blades and the acoustic liner reduced the performance loss, in terms of fan adiabatic efficiency, to less than 1 percent which is within the repeatability of this experiment.

  13. The Aerodynamic Performance of an Over-The-Rotor Liner with Circumferential Grooves on a High Bypass Ratio Turbofan Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozak, Rick; Hughes, Christopher; Buckley, James

    2013-01-01

    While liners have been utilized throughout turbofan ducts to attenuate fan noise, additional attenuation is obtainable by placing an acoustic liner over-the-rotor. Previous experiments have shown significant fan performance losses when acoustic liners are installed over-the-rotor. The fan blades induce an oscillating flow in the acoustic liners which results in a performance loss near the blade tip. An over-the-rotor liner was designed with circumferential grooves between the fan blade tips and the acoustic liner to reduce the oscillating flow in the acoustic liner. An experiment was conducted in the W-8 Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center on a 1.5 pressure ratio fan to evaluate the impact of this over-the-rotor treatment design on fan aerodynamic performance. The addition of a circumferentially grooved over-the-rotor design between the fan blades and the acoustic liner reduced the performance loss, in terms of fan adiabatic efficiency, to less than 1% which is within the repeatability of this experiment.

  14. A computer program for the determination of the acoustic pressure signature of helicopter rotors due to blade thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, G. H.; Farassat, F.

    1976-01-01

    A computer program is presented for the determination of the thickness noise of helicopter rotors. The results were obtained in the form of an acoutic pressure time history. The parameters of the program are the rotor geometry and the helicopter motion descriptors, and the formulation employed is valid in the near and far fields. The blade planform must be rectangular, but the helicopter motion is arbitrary; the observer position is fixed with respect to the ground with a maximum elevation of 45 deg above or below the rotor plane. With these restrictions, the program can also be used for the calculation of thickness noise of propellers.

  15. Projection Moire Interferometry for Rotorcraft Applications: Deformation Measurements of Active Twist Rotor Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Soto, Hector L.; South, Bruce W.

    2002-01-01

    Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) has been used during wind tunnel tests to obtain azimuthally dependent blade bending and twist measurements for a 4-bladed Active Twist Rotor (ATR) system in simulated forward flight. The ATR concept offers a means to reduce rotor vibratory loads and noise by using piezoelectric active fiber composite actuators embedded in the blade structure to twist each blade as they rotate throughout the rotor azimuth. The twist imparted on the blades for blade control causes significant changes in blade loading, resulting in complex blade deformation consisting of coupled bending and twist. Measurement of this blade deformation is critical in understanding the overall behavior of the ATR system and the physical mechanisms causing the reduction in rotor loads and noise. PMI is a non-contacting, video-based optical measurement technique capable of obtaining spatially continuous structural deformation measurements over the entire object surface within the PMI system field-of-view. When applied to rotorcraft testing, PMI can be used to measure the azimuth-dependent blade bending and twist along the full span of the rotor blade. This paper presents the PMI technique as applied to rotorcraft testing, and provides results obtained during the ATR tests demonstrating the PMI system performance. PMI measurements acquired at select blade actuation conditions generating minimum and maximum rotor loads are provided to explore the interrelationship between rotor loads, blade bending, and twist.

  16. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Area requiring further research are discussed and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installations is addressed.

  17. Near-field acoustic characteristics of a single-rotor propfan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartel, H. W.; Swift, G.

    1989-01-01

    The near-field noise characteristics of the SR-7L, an eight-blade, single-rotor, wing-mounted, tractor propfan have been determined. It is found that the noise is dominated by discrete tones, usually at the first order (and occasionally at the second or third order) of the blade-passage frequency. The highest noise levels were noted at conditions of high tip helical speeds and high dynamic pressures.

  18. Wind tunnel test of a smart rotor with individual blade twist control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Chopra, Inderjit

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a smart rotor with active control of blade twist using embedded piezoceramic elements as sensors and actuators to minimize rotor vibrations. A 1/8-th Froude-scale (dynamically-scaled) bearingless helicopter rotor model was built with banks of torsional actuators capable of manipulating blade twist at frequencies from 5 to 100 Hz. To assess the effectiveness of the torsional actuators and vibration suppression capabilities, systematic wind tunnel testing was conducted in the Glenn L. Martin Wind Tunnel. Using accelerometers embedded in the blade tip, the oscillatory blade twist response was measured. The changes in rotor vibratory loads due to piezo- induced twist were determined using a rotating hub balance located at the rotor hub. Experimental test results show that tip twist amplitudes on the order of 0.5 deg are attainable by the current actuator configurations in forward flight. Although these amplitudes were less than the target value (1 - 2 deg for complete vibration suppression control), test results show that partial vibration reduction is possible. Using open-loop phase shift control of blade twist at the first four rotor harmonics, changes in rotor thrust of up to 9% of the steady-state values were measured, resulting in up to 3 and 8% reductions in rotor pitching and rolling moments, respectively. It is expected that the hub load control authority of the smart rotor can be improved in future models with refined actuator configurations and implementation of closed-loop feedback controls.

  19. Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Analysis of Helicopter Flyover Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SantaMaria, Odilyn L.; Farassat, F.; Morris, Philip J.

    1999-01-01

    A method to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise from a helicopter in flight is explored. Being the sum of two periodic signals of disproportionate, or incommensurate frequencies, helicopter noise is neither periodic nor stationary. The single Fourier transform divides signal energy into frequency bins of equal size. Incommensurate frequencies are therefore not adequately represented by any one chosen data block size. A two-dimensional Fourier analysis method is used to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise. The two-dimensional spectral analysis method is first applied to simulated signals. This initial analysis gives an idea of the characteristics of the two-dimensional autocorrelations and spectra. Data from a helicopter flight test is analyzed in two dimensions. The test aircraft are a Boeing MD902 Explorer (no tail rotor) and a Sikorsky S-76 (4-bladed tail rotor). The results show that the main rotor and tail rotor signals can indeed be separated in the two-dimensional Fourier transform spectrum. The separation occurs along the diagonals associated with the frequencies of interest. These diagonals are individual spectra containing only information related to one particular frequency.

  20. Rotor position and vibration control for aerospace flywheel energy storage devices and other vibration based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, B. X. S.

    Flywheel energy storage has distinct advantages over conventional energy storage methods such as electrochemical batteries. Because the energy density of a flywheel rotor increases quadratically with its speed, the foremost goal in flywheel design is to achieve sustainable high speeds of the rotor. Many issues exist with the flywheel rotor operation at high and varying speeds. A prominent problem is synchronous rotor vibration, which can drastically limit the sustainable rotor speed. In a set of projects, the novel Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) is applied to various problems of flywheel rotor operation. These applications include rotor levitation, steady state rotation at high speeds and accelerating operation. Several models such as the lumped mass model and distributed three-mass models have been analyzed. In each of these applications, the ADRC has been extended to cope with disturbance, noise, and control effort optimization; it also has been compared to various industry-standard controllers such as PID and PD/observer, and is proven to be superior. The control performance of the PID controller and the PD/observer currently used at NASA Glenn has been improved by as much as an order of magnitude. Due to the universality of the second order system, the results obtained in the rotor vibration problem can be straightforwardly extended to other vibrational systems, particularly, the MEMS gyroscope. Potential uses of a new nonlinear controller, which inherits the ease of use of the traditional PID, are also discussed.

  1. Integrated technology rotor/flight research rotor hub concept definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, P. G. C.

    1983-01-01

    Two variations of the helicopter bearingless main rotor hub concept are proposed as bases for further development in the preliminary design phase of the Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) program. This selection was the result of an evaluation of three bearingless hub concepts and two articulated hub concepts with elastomeric bearings. The characteristics of each concept were evaluated by means of simplified methodology. These characteristics included the assessment of stability, vulnerability, weight, drag, cost, stiffness, fatigue life, maintainability, and reliability.

  2. Blade lock for a rotor disk and rotor blade assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jerry H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A rotor disk 18 and rotor blade 26 assembly is disclosed having a blade lock 66 which retains the rotor blade against axial movement in an axially extending blade retention slot 58. Various construction details are developed which shield the dead rim region D.sub.d and shift at least a portion of the loads associated with the locking device from the dead rim. In one detailed embodiment, a projection 68 from the live rim D.sub.1 of the disk 18 is adapted by slots 86 to receive blade locks 66.

  3. Effect of rotor-to-stator spacing on acoustic performance of a full-scale fan (QF-5) for turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balombin, J. R.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1974-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of increasing the fan rotor-to-stator spacing on the noise level of a full-scale, single-stage, 1.6-pressure-ratio fan. Noise data were obtained with axial spacing of 1.14, 1.65, and 2.27 rotor chord lengths. Over this spacing range, data indicate a reduction of 1.5 PNdb. Apparently, rotor-alone noise at the frequency at which the rotor-stator interaction noise was cut off limited the noise reduction for the QF-5 fan. It seems, however, that the reduction in sound power level with increases in spacing is potentially about 6 db over the range of spacing tested.

  4. Structureborne noise control in advanced turboprop aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffler, Irvin J.

    1987-01-01

    Structureborne noise is discussed as a contributor to propeller aircraft interior noise levels that are nonresponsive to the application of a generous amount of cabin sidewall acoustic treatment. High structureborne noise levels may jeopardize passenger acceptance of the fuel-efficient high-speed propeller transport aircraft designed for cruise at Mach 0.65 to 0.85. These single-rotation tractor and counter-rotation tractor and pusher propulsion systems will consume 15 to 30 percent less fuel than advanced turbofan systems. Structureborne noise detection methodologies and the importance of development of a structureborne noise sensor are discussed. A structureborne noise generation mechanism is described in which the periodic components or propeller swirl produce periodic torques and forces on downstream wings and airfoils that are propagated to the cabin interior as noise. Three concepts for controlling structureborne noise are presented: (1) a stator row swirl remover, (2) selection of a proper combination of blade numbers in the rotor/stator system of a single-rotation propeller, and the rotor/rotor system of a counter-rotation propeller, and (3) a tuned mechanical absorber.

  5. Gas turbine rotor straightening -- Case history

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, Z.; Kubiak, J.; Villela, A.; Orozco, J.

    1999-11-01

    Due to catastrophic damage, the turbine-compressor rotor of a gas turbine has been bent 0.62 mm. The in-situ repair process of rotor straightening is fully described. The repair process included the design of special fixtures for placing the rotor vertically and then hydraulically tensioning the rotor bolts for discs disassembling and run-out check by a special rotary equipment. After the repair process the rotor run-out fell within the design limits. Finally the rotor was put back into service. The approach to the in-house repair of the rotor bend has been successful and can be widely recommended for users of turbomachinery.

  6. Wind turbine rotor aileron

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Clint; Kurth, William T.

    1994-06-14

    A wind turbine has a rotor with at least one blade which has an aileron which is adjusted by an actuator. A hinge has two portions, one for mounting a stationary hinge arm to the blade, the other for coupling to the aileron actuator. Several types of hinges can be used, along with different actuators. The aileron is designed so that it has a constant chord with a number of identical sub-assemblies. The leading edge of the aileron has at least one curved portion so that the aileron does not vent over a certain range of angles, but vents if the position is outside the range. A cyclic actuator can be mounted to the aileron to adjust the position periodically. Generally, the aileron will be adjusted over a range related to the rotational position of the blade. A method for operating the cyclic assembly is also described.

  7. Rotor component displacement measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Mercer, Gary D.; Li, Ming C.; Baum, Charles R.

    2003-05-27

    A measuring system for measuring axial displacement of a tube relative to an axially stationary component in a rotating rotor assembly includes at least one displacement sensor adapted to be located normal to a longitudinal axis of the tube; an insulated cable system adapted for passage through the rotor assembly; a rotatable proximitor module located axially beyond the rotor assembly to which the cables are connected; and a telemetry system operatively connected to the proximitor module for sampling signals from the proximitor module and forwarding data to a ground station.

  8. Maneuvering Rotorcraft Noise Prediction: A New Code for a New Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Bres, Guillaume A.; Perez, Guillaume; Jones, Henry E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the unique aspects of the development of an entirely new maneuver noise prediction code called PSU-WOPWOP. The main focus of the code is the aeroacoustic aspects of the maneuver noise problem, when the aeromechanical input data are provided (namely aircraft and blade motion, blade airloads). The PSU-WOPWOP noise prediction capability was developed for rotors in steady and transient maneuvering flight. Featuring an object-oriented design, the code allows great flexibility for complex rotor configuration and motion (including multiple rotors and full aircraft motion). The relative locations and number of hinges, flexures, and body motions can be arbitrarily specified to match the any specific rotorcraft. An analysis of algorithm efficiency is performed for maneuver noise prediction along with a description of the tradeoffs made specifically for the maneuvering noise problem. Noise predictions for the main rotor of a rotorcraft in steady descent, transient (arrested) descent, hover and a mild "pop-up" maneuver are demonstrated.

  9. Survey of techniques for reduction of wind turbine blade trailing edge noise.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin

    2011-08-01

    Aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors leads to constraints in both rotor design and turbine siting. The primary source of aerodynamic noise on wind turbine rotors is the interaction of turbulent boundary layers on the blades with the blade trailing edges. This report surveys concepts that have been proposed for trailing edge noise reduction, with emphasis on concepts that have been tested at either sub-scale or full-scale. These concepts include trailing edge serrations, low-noise airfoil designs, trailing edge brushes, and porous trailing edges. The demonstrated noise reductions of these concepts are cited, along with their impacts on aerodynamic performance. An assessment is made of future research opportunities in trailing edge noise reduction for wind turbine rotors.

  10. Active Noise Control for Dishwasher noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Nokhaeng; Park, Youngjin

    2016-09-01

    The dishwasher is a useful home appliance and continually used for automatically washing dishes. It's commonly placed in the kitchen with built-in style for practicality and better use of space. In this environment, people are easily exposed to dishwasher noise, so it is an important issue for the consumers, especially for the people living in open and narrow space. Recently, the sound power levels of the noise are about 40 - 50 dBA. It could be achieved by removal of noise sources and passive means of insulating acoustical path. For more reduction, such a quiet mode with the lower speed of cycle has been introduced, but this deteriorates the washing capacity. Under this background, we propose active noise control for dishwasher noise. It is observed that the noise is propagating mainly from the lower part of the front side. Control speakers are placed in the part for the collocation. Observation part of estimating sound field distribution and control part of generating the anti-noise are designed for active noise control. Simulation result shows proposed active noise control scheme could have a potential application for dishwasher noise reduction.

  11. Rotor assembly for a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Antonellis, S. M.; Breunig, R. D.

    1985-07-02

    A rotor assembly for a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The rotor assembly includes a pair of axially spaced apart rotor disks such as the rotor disks. An inner air seal extends axially between the adjacent rotor disks. A member extends axially between the disks to join the disks together and is attached to the inner air seal at a mid span location to restrain the seal against outward movement.

  12. Effects of vane/blade ratio and spacing on fan noise, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P. R.; Kantola, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The noise characteristics of a high-speed fan were studied. The experimental investigation was carried out on a 50.8 cm (20 in.) diameter scale model fan stage in an anechoic chamber with an inflow turbulence control screen installed. The forty-four blade rotor was tested with forty-eight vane and eighty-six vane stator rows, over a range of aixal rotor-stator spacings from 0.5 to 2.3 rotor tip chords. A two-dimensional strip theory model of rotor-stator interaction noise was employed to predict the measured tone power level trends, and good overall agreement with measured trends was obtained.

  13. Predicting the Rotor-Stator Interaction Acoustics of a Ducted Fan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Podboy, Gary G.; Dunn, M. H.

    2001-01-01

    A Navier-Stokes computation is performed for a ducted-fan configuration with the goal of predicting rotor-stator noise generation without having to resort to heuristic modeling. The calculated pressure field in the inlet region is decomposed into classical infinite-duct modes, which are then used in either a hybrid finite-element/Kirchhoff surface method or boundary integral equation method to calculate the far field noise. Comparisons with experimental data are presented, including rotor wake surveys and far field sound pressure levels for two blade passage frequency (BPF) tones.

  14. Predicting the Rotor-Stator Interaction Acoustics of a Ducted Fan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Podboy, Gary G.; Dunn, M. H.

    2001-01-01

    A Navier-Stokes computation is performed for a ducted-fan configuration with the goal of predicting rotor-stator noise generation without having to re- to heuristic modeling. The calculated pressure field in the inlet region is decomposed into classical infinite-duct, modes, which are then used in either a hybrid finite-element /Kirchhoff surface method or boundary integral equation method to calculate the far field noise. Comparisons with experimental data are presented, including rotor wake surveys and far field sound pressure levels for 2 blade passage frequency (BPF) tones.

  15. Feedback Control of Rotor Overspeed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Churchill, G. B.

    1984-01-01

    Feedback system for automatically governing helicopter rotor speed promises to lessen pilot's workload, enhance maneuverability, and protect airframe. With suitable modifications, concept applied to control speed of electrical generators, automotive engines and other machinery.

  16. Soft hub for bearingless rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, Peter G. C.

    1991-01-01

    Soft hub concepts which allow the direct replacement of articulated rotor systems by bearingless types without any change in controllability or need for reinforcement to the drive shaft and/or transmission/fuselage attachments of the helicopter were studied. Two concepts were analyzed and confirmed for functional and structural feasibility against a design criteria and specifications established for this effort. Both systems are gimballed about a thrust carrying universal elastomeric bearing. One concept includes a set of composite flexures for drive torque transmittal from the shaft to the rotor, and another set (which is changeable) to impart hub tilting stiffness to the rotor system as required to meet the helicopter application. The second concept uses a composite bellows flexure to drive the rotor and to augment the hub stiffness provided by the elastomeric bearing. Each concept was assessed for weight, drag, ROM cost, and number of parts and compared with the production BO-105 hub.

  17. Examination of a Rotorcraft Noise Prediction Method and Comparison to Flight Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Greenwood, Eric; Watts, Michael E.; Lopes, Leonard V.

    2017-01-01

    With a view that rotorcraft noise should be included in the preliminary design process, a relatively fast noise prediction method is examined in this paper. A comprehensive rotorcraft analysis is combined with a noise prediction method to compute several noise metrics of interest. These predictions are compared to flight test data. Results show that inclusion of only the main rotor noise will produce results that severely underpredict integrated metrics of interest. Inclusion of the tail rotor frequency content is essential for accurately predicting these integrated noise metrics.

  18. Helicopter impulsive noise: Theoretical and experimental status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. H.; Yu, Y. H.

    1983-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental status of helicopter impulsive noise is reviewed. The two major source mechanisms of helicopter impulsive noise are addressed: high-speed impulsive noise and blade-vortex interaction impulsive noise. A thorough physical explanation of both generating mechanism is presented together with model and full-scale measurements of the phenomena. Current theoretical prediction methods are compared with experimental findings of isolated rotor tests. The noise generating mechanism of high speed impulsive noise are fairly well understood - theory and experiment compare nicely over Mach number ranges typical of today's helicopters. For the case of blade-vortex interaction noise, understanding of noise generating mechanisms and theoretical comparison with experiment are less satisfactory. Several methods for improving theory-experiment are suggested.

  19. The cost of applying current helicopter external noise reduction methods while maintaining realistic vehicle performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowes, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical methods were developed and/or adopted for calculating helicopter component noise, and these methods were incorporated into a unified total vehicle noise calculation model. Analytical methods were also developed for calculating the effects of noise reduction methodology on helicopter design, performance, and cost. These methods were used to calculate changes in noise, design, performance, and cost due to the incorporation of engine and main rotor noise reduction methods. All noise reduction techniques were evaluated in the context of an established mission performance criterion which included consideration of hovering ceiling, forward flight range/speed/payload, and rotor stall margin. The results indicate that small, but meaningful, reductions in helicopter noise can be obtained by treating the turbine engine exhaust duct. Furthermore, these reductions do not result in excessive life cycle cost penalties. Currently available main rotor noise reduction methodology, however, is shown to be inadequate and excessively costly.

  20. NASA/AHS rotorcraft noise reduction program - NASA Langley Acoustics Division contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ruth M.

    1989-01-01

    An account is given of the contributions made by NASA-Langley's rotorcraft noise research programs over the last five years. Attention has been given to the broadband and blade-vortex interaction noise sources; both analytical and empirical noise-prediction codes have been developed and validated for several rotor noise sources, and the 'Rotonet' comprehensive system-noise prediction capability has been instituted. Among the technologies explored for helicopter noise reduction have been higher harmonic control and active vibration-suppression.

  1. Integrated aerodynamic/dynamic optimization of helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Walsh, Joanne L.; Riley, Michael F.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated aerodynamic/dynamic optimization procedure is used to minimize blade weight and 4 per rev vertical hub shear for a rotor blade in forward flight. The coupling of aerodynamics and dynamics is accomplished through the inclusion of airloads which vary with the design variables during the optimization process. Both single and multiple objective functions are used in the optimization formulation. The Global Criteria Approach is used to formulate the multiple objective optimization and results are compared with those obtained by using single objective function formulations. Constraints are imposed on natural frequencies, autorotational inertia, and centrifugal stress. The program CAMRAD is used for the blade aerodynamic and dynamic analyses, and the program CONMIN is used for the optimization. Since the spanwise and the azimuthal variations of loading are responsible for most rotor vibration and noise, the vertical airload distributions on the blade, before and after optimization, are compared. The total power required by the rotor to produce the same amount of thrust for a given area is also calculated before and after optimization. Results indicate that integrated optimization can significantly reduce the blade weight, the hub shear and the amplitude of the vertical airload distributions on the blade and the total power required by the rotor.

  2. A High-Pressure Bi-Directional Cycloid Rotor Flowmeter

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuo; Ding, Fan; Ding, Chuan; Man, Zaipeng

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of the flow rate of various liquids and gases is critical in industrial automation. Rotary positive displacement meters (rotary PD meters) are highly accurate flowmeters that are widely employed in engineering applications, especially in custody transfer operations and hydraulic control systems. This paper presents a high pressure rotary PD meter containing a pair of internal cycloid rotors. It has the advantages of concise structure, low pressure loss, high accuracy and low noise. The curve of the internal rotor is designed as an equidistant curtate epicycloid curve with the external rotor curve as its conjugate. The calculation method used to determine the displacement of the cycloid rotor flowmeter is discussed. A prototype was fabricated, and experiments were performed to confirm measurements over a flow range of 1–100 L/min with relative errors of less than ±0.5%. The pressure loss through the flowmeter was about 3 bar at a flow rate of 100 L/min. PMID:25196162

  3. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Tischler, Mark B.

    2010-01-01

    An automatic rotor trim control system was developed and successfully used during a wind tunnel test of a full-scale UH-60 rotor system with Individual Blade Control (IBC) actuators. The trim control system allowed rotor trim to be set more quickly, precisely and repeatably than in previous wind tunnel tests. This control system also allowed the rotor trim state to be maintained during transients and drift in wind tunnel flow, and through changes in IBC actuation. The ability to maintain a consistent rotor trim state was key to quickly and accurately evaluating the effect of IBC on rotor performance, vibration, noise and loads. This paper presents details of the design and implementation of the trim control system including the rotor system hardware, trim control requirements, and trim control hardware and software implementation. Results are presented showing the effect of IBC on rotor trim and dynamic response, a validation of the rotor dynamic simulation used to calculate the initial control gains and tuning of the control system, and the overall performance of the trim control system during the wind tunnel test.

  4. Design of the Active Elevon Rotor for Low Vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, Mark V.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Helicopter fuselages vibrate more than desired, and traditional solutions have limited effectiveness and can impose an appreciable weight penalty. Alternative methods of combating high vibration, including Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) via harmonic swashplate motion and Individual Blade Control (IBC) via active pitch links, have been studied for several decades. HHC via an on-blade control surface was tested in 1977 on a full scale rotor using a secondary active swashplate and a mechanical control system. Recent smart material advances have prompted new research into the use of on-blade control concepts. Recent analytical studies have indicated that the use of on-blade control surfaces produces vibration reduction comparable to swashplate-based HHC but for less power. Furthermore, smart materials (such as piezoceramics) have been shown to provide sufficient control authority for preliminary rotor experiments. These experiments were initially performed at small scale for reduced tip speeds. More recent experiments have been conducted at or near full tip speeds, and a full-scale active rotor is under development by Boeing with Eurocopter et al. pursuing a similarly advanced full-scale implementation. The US Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate has undertaken a new research program called the Active Elevon Rotor (AER) Focus Demo. This program includes the design, fabrication, and wind. tunnel testing of a four-bladed, 12.96 ft diameter rotor with one or two on-blade elevons per blade. The rotor, which will be Mach scaled, will use 2-5/rev elevon motion for closed-loop control and :will be tested in late 2001. The primary goal of the AER Focus Demo is the reduction of vibratory hub loads by 80% and the reduction of vibratory blade structural loads. A secondary goal is the reduction of rotor power. The third priority is the measurement and possible reduction of Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise. The present study is focused on elevon effectiveness, that is, the elevon

  5. Validation of helicopter noise prediction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    The current techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe the details of the noise field precisely and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The purpose of this paper is to review those techniques in general and the Farassat/Nystrom analysis in particular. The predictions of the Farassat/Nystrom noise computer program, using both measured and calculated blade surface pressure data, are compared to measured noise level data. This study is based on a contract from NASA to Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. with measured data from the AH-1G Helicopter Operational Loads Survey flight test program supplied by Bell Helicopter Textron.

  6. Validation of helicopter noise prediction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1981-04-01

    The current techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe the details of the noise field precisely and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The purpose of this paper is to review those techniques in general and the Farassat/Nystrom analysis in particular. The predictions of the Farassat/Nystrom noise computer program, using both measured and calculated blade surface pressure data, are compared to measured noise level data. This study is based on a contract from NASA to Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. with measured data from the AH-1G Helicopter Operational Loads Survey flight test program supplied by Bell Helicopter Textron.

  7. Turbofan noise generation. Volume 2: Computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ventres, C. S.; Theobald, M. A.; Mark, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a package of computer programs developed to calculate the in duct acoustic mods excited by a fan/stator stage operating at subsonic tip speed is described. The following three noise source mechanisms are included: (1) sound generated by the rotor blades interacting with turbulence ingested into, or generated within, the inlet duct; (2) sound generated by the stator vanes interacting with the turbulent wakes of the rotor blades; and (3) sound generated by the stator vanes interacting with the velocity deficits in the mean wakes of the rotor blades. The computations for three different noise mechanisms are coded as three separate computer program packages. The computer codes are described by means of block diagrams, tables of data and variables, and example program executions; FORTRAN listings are included.

  8. Turbofan noise generation. Volume 2: Computer programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventres, C. S.; Theobald, M. A.; Mark, W. D.

    1982-07-01

    The use of a package of computer programs developed to calculate the in duct acoustic mods excited by a fan/stator stage operating at subsonic tip speed is described. The following three noise source mechanisms are included: (1) sound generated by the rotor blades interacting with turbulence ingested into, or generated within, the inlet duct; (2) sound generated by the stator vanes interacting with the turbulent wakes of the rotor blades; and (3) sound generated by the stator vanes interacting with the velocity deficits in the mean wakes of the rotor blades. The computations for three different noise mechanisms are coded as three separate computer program packages. The computer codes are described by means of block diagrams, tables of data and variables, and example program executions; FORTRAN listings are included.

  9. Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Flow in an Axial Rotor and Impeller for Large Storage Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosioc, A. I.; Muntean, S.; Draghici, I.; Anton, L. E.

    2016-11-01

    In hydropower systems among hydropower plants there are integrated pumping stations (PS). In order to ensure higher flow rate, the pumps have constructive differences besides regular. Consequently, the complex shape of the suction-elbow with symmetric inlet generates an unsteady flow which is ingested by impeller. These phenomena's also generate stronger unsteady flow conditions, such as stall, wakes, turbulence and pressure fluctuations, which affect the overall mechanical behaviour of the pump with vibration, noise and radial and axial forces on the rotor. Alternatively, an axial rotor can be installed in front of the impeller. In this case, the flow non-uniformity will be decreased and the static pressure will be increased at the impeller inlet. Consequently, the efficiency behaviour practically remains unchanged while the cavitational behaviour is improved. From the assembly between axial rotor and centrifugal impeller, the axial rotor usually works in cavitation and is often replaced. The paper investigates experimentally and numerically the comparison between pump impeller without and with axial rotor hydrodynamics taking into account the flow given by the symmetrical suction elbow. Full three-dimensional turbulent numerical investigation of the symmetrical suction elbow, with axial rotor and without, pump impeller and volute are performed. The hydrodynamic analysis confirms that once the axial rotor is mounted in front of the pump impeller increase the static pressure and the incidence angle is improved at the inlet of the pump impeller.

  10. System for Controlling a Magnetically Levitated Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    In a rotor assembly having a rotor supported for rotation by magnetic bearings, a processor controlled by software or firmware controls the generation of force vectors that position the rotor relative to its bearings in a "bounce" mode in which the rotor axis is displaced from the principal axis defined between the bearings and a "tilt" mode in which the rotor axis is tilted or inclined relative to the principal axis. Waveform driven perturbations are introduced to generate force vectors that excite the rotor in either the "bounce" or "tilt" modes.

  11. Evaluation of a load cell model for dynamic calibration of the rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, R. W.; Bahrami, H.; Wellman, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft uses load cells to isolate the rotor/transmission system from the fuselage. An analytical model of the relationship between applied rotor loads and the resulting load cell measurements is derived by applying a force-and-moment balance to the isolated rotor/transmission system. The model is then used to estimate the applied loads from measured load cell data, as obtained from a ground-based shake test. Using nominal design values for the parameters, the estimation errors, for the case of lateral forcing, were shown to be on the order of the sensor measurement noise in all but the roll axis. An unmodeled external load appears to be the source of the error in this axis.

  12. Modal analysis of an aircraft engine fan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodkova, Natalia; Chursin, Valeriy; Bersenev, Yuliy; Burdakov, Ruslan; Siner, Aleksandr; Viskova, Tatiana

    2016-10-01

    The fan is one of the main noise sources of an aircraft engine. To reduce fan noise and provide liner optimization in the inlet it is necessary to research modal structure of the fan noise. The present paper contains results of acoustic tests on installation for mode generation that consists of 34-channel generator and the inlet updated for mounting of 100 microphones, the experiments were provided in new anechoic chamber of Perm National Research Polytechnic University, the engine with the same inlet was also tested in the open test bench conditions, and results of the fan noise modal structure are presented. For modal structure educting, all 100 channels were synchronously registered in a given frequency range. The measured data were analyzed with PULSE analyzer using fast Fourier transform with a frequency resolution 8..16 Hz. Single modes with numbers from 0 to 35 at frequencies 500; 630; 800; 1000; 1250; 1600 Hz and different combinations of modes at frequencies 1000, 1600, 2000, 2500 Hz were set during tests. Modes with small enough numbers are generated well on the laboratory installation, high-number modes generate additional modes caused by a complicated interference pattern of sound field in the inlet. Open test bench results showed that there are also a lot of harmonic components at frequencies lower than fan BPF. Under 0.65 of cut off there is only one distinct mode, other modes with close and less numbers appear from 0.7 of cut off and above. At power regimes 0.76 and 0.94 of cut off the highest mode also changes from positive to negative mode number area. Numbers of the highest modes change smoothly enough with the growth of power regime. At power regimes with Mach>1 (0.7 of cut off and above) on circumference of blade wheel there is a well-defined noise of shock waves at rotor frequency harmonics that appears at the range between the first rotor frequency and fan blade passing frequency (BPF). It is planned to continue researching of sound field

  13. Axial thermal medium delivery tubes and retention plates for a gas turbine rotor

    DOEpatents

    Mashey, Thomas Charles

    2002-01-01

    In a multi-stage turbine rotor, tubes are disposed in openings adjacent the rotor rim for flowing a thermal medium to rotor buckets and returning spent thermal medium. The tubes have axially spaced lands of predetermined wall thickness with thin-walled tube sections between the lands and of increasing thickness from the forward to the aft ends of the tubes. A pair of retention plates are carried on the aft end face of the aft wheel and straddle the tube and engage against a shoulder on the tube to preclude displacement of the tube in an aft direction.

  14. Turbomachinery rotor support with damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonpragenau, George L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Damping seals, damping bearings, and a support sleeve are presented for the ball bearings of a high speed rotor. The ball bearings consist of a duplex set having the outer races packaged tightly within the sleeve while the sleeve provides a gap with a support member so that the bearings may float with the sleeve. The sleeve has a web extending radially between the pair of outer races and acts in conjunction with one or more springs to apply an axial preload to the outer races. The sleeves have a series of slits which provide the sleeve with a spring-like quality so that the spring acts to center the rotor upon which the bearings are mounted during start up and shut down. A damping seal or a damping bearing may be used in conjunction with the ball bearings and supporting sleeve, the damping seal and damping bearing having rotor portions including rigid outer surfaces mounted within the bore of a stator portion having triangular shaped pockets on the surface facing the rotor. Axial gates are provided between adjacent pockets in sections of the stator permitting fluid to flow with less resistance axially relative to the flow of fluids circumferentially between the rotor and the stator.

  15. Rotor assembly and assay method

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.; Walker, William A.

    1993-01-01

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor.

  16. Rotor assembly and assay method

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1993-09-07

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor. 34 figures.

  17. Advanced Noise Control Fan: A 20-Year Retrospective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The ANCF test bed is used for evaluating fan noise reduction concepts, developing noise measurement technologies, and providing a database for Aero-acoustic code development. Rig Capabilities: 4 foot 16 bladed rotor @ 2500 rpm, Auxiliary air delivery system (3 lbm/sec @ 6/12 psi), Variable configuration (rotor pitch angle, stator count/position, duct length), synthetic acoustic noise generation (tone/broadband). Measurement Capabilities: 112 channels dynamic data system, Unique rotating rake mode measuremen, Farfield (variable radius), Duct wall microphones, Stator vane microphones, Two component CTA w/ traversing, ESP for static pressures.

  18. Broadband Fan Noise Generated by Small Scale Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glegg, Stewart A. L.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of prediction methods for broadband fan noise from aircraft engines. First, experimental evidence of the most important source mechanisms is reviewed. It is found that there are a number of competing source mechanism involved and that there is no single dominant source to which noise control procedures can be applied. Theoretical models are then developed for: (1) ducted rotors and stator vanes interacting with duct wall boundary layers, (2) ducted rotor self noise, and (3) stator vanes operating in the wakes of rotors. All the turbulence parameters required for these models are based on measured quantities. Finally the theoretical models are used to predict measured fan noise levels with some success.

  19. Hi-Q Rotor - Low Wind Speed Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Todd E. Mills; Judy Tatum

    2010-01-11

    our first full-scale prototype wind turbine proved that higher energy can be captured at lower wind speeds with the new Hi-Q Rotor. The Hi-Q Rotor is almost 15% more productive than the Bergey from 6 m/s to 8 m/s, making it ideal in Class 3, 4, and 5 wind sites and has application in the critical and heretofore untapped areas that are closer to cities, 'load centers,' and may even be used directly in urban areas. The additional advantage of the Hi-Q Rotor's non-conventional blade tips, which eliminates most air turbulence, is noise reduction which makes it doubly ideal for populated urban areas. Hi-Q Products recommends one final stage of development to take the Hi-Q Rotor through Technology Readiness Levels 8-9. During this stage of development, the rotor will be redesigned to further increase efficiency, match the rotor to a more suitable generator, and lower the cost of manufacturing by redesigning the structure to allow for production in larger quantities at lower cost. Before taking the rotor to market and commercialization, it is necessary to further optimize the performance by finding a better generator and autofurling system, ones more suitable for lower wind speeds and rpms should be used in all future testing. The potential impact of this fully developed technology will be the expansion and proliferation of energy renewal into the heretofore untapped Class 2, 3, 4, and 5 Wind Sites, or the large underutilized sites where the wind speed is broken by physical features such as mountains, buildings, and trees. Market estimates by 2011, if low wind speed technology can be developed are well above: 13 million homes, 675,000 commercial buildings, 250,000 public facilities. Estimated commercial exploitation of the Hi-Q Rotor show potential increase in U.S. energy gained through the clean, renewable wind energy found in low and very low wind speed sites. This new energy source would greatly impact greenhouse emissions as well as the public sector's growing energy

  20. System and method for improved rotor tip performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussom, Richard (Inventor); McVeigh, Michael A. (Inventor); Narducci, Robert P. (Inventor); Zientek, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Embodiments of systems and methods for enhancing the performance of rotary wing aircraft through reduced torque, noise and vibration are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method includes configuring the rotorcraft in a selected flight condition, communicating input signals to a control system operable to position sails coupled to tips of blades of a rotor assembly, processing the input signals according to a constraint condition to generate sail positional information, and transferring the sail positional information to the sail. Alternately, input signals may be communicated to a control system operable to position a plurality of sails, each sail having an aerodynamic shape and positioned proximate to a tip portion of the rotor blade. The input signals may be configured to rotate each sail about a longitudinal axis into a corresponding pitch angle independently of the other sails.

  1. XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft - Program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, J. P.; Wernicke, K. G.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is a status report of the NASA/Army XV-15 Project. The basic tilt-rotor concept and the XV-15 Tilt-Rotor Research Aircraft are discussed and some results of full-scale wind-tunnel tests in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel are presented. Flight-test data are included to give preliminary performance, noise, and vibration data in hover and as far into transition flight as are available at the time of presentation. Information concerning vehicle aerodynamics and airloads obtained as a result of both wind-tunnel and flight tests are provided with some conclusions as to the ramifications of the data in terms of design criteria and configuration layout.

  2. Rotorcraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. J. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    The establishment of a realistic plan for NASA and the U.S. helicopter industry to develop a design-for-noise methodology, including plans for the identification and development of promising noise reduction technology was discussed. Topics included: noise reduction techniques, scaling laws, empirical noise prediction, psychoacoustics, and methods of developing and validing noise prediction methods.

  3. Effects of perforation number of blade on aerodynamic performance of dual-rotor small axial flow fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yongjun; Wang, Yanping; Li, Guoqi; Jin, Yingzi; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2015-04-01

    Compared with single rotor small axial flow fans, dual-rotor small axial flow fans is better regarding the static characteristics. But the aerodynamic noise of dual-rotor small axial flow fans is worse than that of single rotor small axial flow fans. In order to improve aerodynamic noise of dual-rotor small axial flow fans, the pre-stage blades with different perforation numbers are designed in this research. The RANS equations and the standard k-ɛ turbulence model as well as the FW-H noise model are used to simulate the flow field within the fan. Then, the aerodynamic performance of the fans with different perforation number is compared and analyzed. The results show that: (1) Compared to the prototype fan, the noise of fans with perforation blades is reduced. Additionally, the noise of the fans decreases with the increase of the number of perforations. (2) The vorticity value in the trailing edge of the pre-stage blades of perforated fans is reduced. It is found that the vorticity value in the trailing edge of the pre-stage blades decreases with the increase of the number of perforations. (3) Compared to the prototype fan, the total pressure rising and efficiency of the fans with perforation blades drop slightly.

  4. Rotor-to-stator Partial Rubbing and Its Effects on Rotor Dynamic Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muszynska, Agnes; Franklin, Wesley D.; Hayashida, Robert D.

    1991-01-01

    Results from experimental and analytical studies on rotor to stationary element partial rubbings at several locations and their effects on rotor dynamic responses are presented. The mathematical model of a rubbing rotor is given. The computer program provides numerical results which agree with experimentally obtained rotor responses.

  5. Rotor/Wing Interactions in Hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Derby, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Hover predictions of tiltrotor aircraft are hampered by the lack of accurate and computationally efficient models for rotor/wing interactional aerodynamics. This paper summarizes the development of an approximate, potential flow solution for the rotor-on-rotor and wing-on-rotor interactions. This analysis is based on actuator disk and vortex theory and the method of images. The analysis is applicable for out-of-ground-effect predictions. The analysis is particularly suited for aircraft preliminary design studies. Flow field predictions from this simple analytical model are validated against experimental data from previous studies. The paper concludes with an analytical assessment of the influence of rotor-on-rotor and wing-on-rotor interactions. This assessment examines the effect of rotor-to-wing offset distance, wing sweep, wing span, and flaperon incidence angle on tiltrotor inflow and performance.

  6. Acoustic characteristics of 1/20-scale model helicopter rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenoy, Rajarama K.; Kohlhepp, Fred W.; Leighton, Kenneth P.

    1986-01-01

    A wind tunnel test to study the effects of geometric scale on acoustics and to investigate the applicability of very small scale models for the study of acoustic characteristics of helicopter rotors was conducted in the United Technologies Research Center Acoustic Research Tunnel. The results show that the Reynolds number effects significantly alter the Blade-Vortex-Interaction (BVI) Noise characteristics by enhancing the lower frequency content and suppressing the higher frequency content. In the time domain this is observed as an inverted thickness noise impulse rather than the typical positive-negative impulse of BVI noise. At higher advance ratio conditions, in the absence of BVI, the 1/20 scale model acoustic trends with Mach number follow those of larger scale models. However, the 1/20 scale model acoustic trends appear to indicate stall at higher thrust and advance ratio conditions.

  7. High-Temperature Hybrid Rotor Support System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montague, Gerald T.

    2004-01-01

    The Army Research Laboratory Vehicle Technology Directorate and the NASA Glenn Research Center demonstrated a unique high-speed, high-temperature rotor support system in September 2003. Advanced turbomachinery is on its way to surpassing the capabilities of rolling-element bearings and conventional dampers. To meet these demands, gas turbine engines of the future will demand increased efficiency and thrust-to-weight ratio, and reduced specific fuel consumption and noise. The more-electric engine replaces oil-lubricated bearings, dampers, gears, and seals with electrical devices. One such device is the magnetic bearing. The Vehicle Technology Directorate and Glenn have demonstrated the operation of a radial magnetic bearing in combination with a hydrostatic bearing at 1000 F at 31,000 rpm (2.3 MDN1). This unique combination takes advantage of a high-temperature rub surface in the event of electrical power loss or sudden overloads. The hydrostatic bearings allow load sharing with the magnetic bearing. The magnetic-hydrostatic bearing combination eliminates wear and high contact stress from sudden acceleration of the rolling-element bearings and overheating. The magnetic bearing enables high damping, adaptive vibration control, and precise rotor positioning, diagnostics, and health monitoring. A model of the test facility used at Glenn for this technology demonstration is shown. A high-temperature heteropolar radial magnetic bearing is located at the center of gravity of the test rotor. There is a 0.022-in. radial air gap between the rotor and stator. Two rub surface hydrostatic bearings were placed on either side of the magnetic bearing. The rotor is supported by a 0.002-in. hydrostatic air film and the magnetic field. The prototype active magnetic bearing cost $24,000 to design and fabricate and a set of four high temperature, rub-surface, hydrostatic bearings cost $28,000. This work was funded by the Turbine-Based Combined Cycle program.

  8. Rotor for centrifugal fast analyzers

    DOEpatents

    Lee, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is an improved photometric analyzer of the rotary cuvette type, the analyzer incorporating a multicuvette rotor of novel design. The rotor (a) is leaktight, (b) permits operation in the 90/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/ excitation modes, (c) is compatible with extensively used Centrifugal Fast Analyzers, and (d) can be used thousands of times. The rotor includes an assembly comprising a top plate, a bottom plate, and a central plate, the rim of the central plate being formed with circumferentially spaced indentations. A uv-transmitting ring is sealably affixed to the indented rim to define with the indentations an array of cuvettes. The ring serves both as a sealing means and an end window for the cuvettes.

  9. Rotor for centrifugal fast analyzers

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Norman E.

    1985-01-01

    The invention is an improved photometric analyzer of the rotary cuvette type, the analyzer incorporating a multicuvette rotor of novel design. The rotor (a) is leaktight, (b) permits operation in the 90.degree. and 180.degree. excitation modes, (c) is compatible with extensively used Centrifugal Fast Analyzers, and (d) can be used thousands of times. The rotor includes an assembly comprising a top plate, a bottom plate, and a central plate, the rim of the central plate being formed with circumferentially spaced indentations. A UV-transmitting ring is sealably affixed to the indented rim to define with the indentations an array of cuvettes. The ring serves both as a sealing means and an end window for the cuvettes.

  10. Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling

    DOEpatents

    Hultgren, Kent Goran; McLaurin, Leroy Dixon; Bertsch, Oran Leroy; Lowe, Perry Eugene

    1998-01-01

    A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

  11. Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling

    DOEpatents

    Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

    1998-05-26

    A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

  12. On Cup Anemometer Rotor Aerodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup. PMID:22778638

  13. On cup anemometer rotor aerodynamics.

    PubMed

    Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup.

  14. An Experimental Determination of Losses in a 3-Port Wave Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jack

    1996-01-01

    Wave rotors, used in a gas turbine topping cycle, offer a potential route to higher specific power and lower specific fuel consumption. In order to exploit this potential properly, it is necessary to have some realistic means of calculating wave rotor performance, taking losses into account, so that wave rotors can be designed for good performance. This in turn requires a knowledge of the loss mechanisms. The experiment reported here was designed as a statistical experiment to identify the losses due to finite passage opening time, friction, and leakage. For simplicity, the experiment used a 3-port, flow divider, wave cycle, but the results should be applicable to other cycles. A 12 inch diameter rotor was used, with two different lengths, 9 inches and 18 inches, and two different passage widths, 0.25 inch and 0.54 inch, in order to vary friction and opening time. To vary leakage, moveable end-walls were provided so that the rotor to end-wall gap could be adjusted. The experiment is described, and the results are presented, together with a parametric fit to the data. The fit shows that there will be an optimum passage width for a given wave rotor, since, as the passage width increases, friction losses decrease, but opening-time losses increase, and vice-versa. Leakage losses can be made small at reasonable gap sizes.

  15. Aeroacoustics of Flight Vehicles: Theory and Practice. Volume 1: Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Methodology recommended to evaluate aeroacoustic related problems is provided, and approaches to their solutions are suggested without extensive tables, nomographs, and derivations. Orientation is toward flight vehicles and emphasis is on underlying physical concepts. Theoretical, experimental, and applied aspects are covered, including the main formulations and comparisons of theory and experiment. The topics covered include: propeller and propfan noise, rotor noise, turbomachinery noise, jet noise classical theory and experiments, noise from turbulent shear flows, jet noise generated by large-scale coherent motion, airframe noise, propulsive lift noise, combustion and core noise, and sonic booms.

  16. Wave Rotor Research and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    1998-01-01

    Wave rotor technology offers the potential to increase the performance of gas turbine engines significantly, within the constraints imposed by current material temperature limits. The wave rotor research at the NASA Lewis Research Center is a three-element effort: 1) Development of design and analysis tools to accurately predict the performance of wave rotor components; 2) Experiments to characterize component performance; 3) System integration studies to evaluate the effect of wave rotor topping on the gas turbine engine system.

  17. Experimental Investigation of a Shrouded Rotor Micro Air Vehicle in Hover and in Edgewise Gusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrishikeshavan, Vikram

    flybarless rotor vehicle was conducted about hover. Controllability metrics were extracted based on controllability gramian treatment for the flybar and flybarless rotor. In edgewise gusts, the shrouded rotor generated up to 3 times greater pitching moment and 80% greater drag than an equivalent unshrouded rotor. In order to improve gust tolerance and control moments, rotor design optimizations were made by varying solidity, collective, operating RPM and planform. A rectangular planform rotor at a collective of 18 deg was seen to offer the highest control authority. The shrouded rotor produced 100% higher control moments due to pressure asymmetry arising from cyclic control of the rotor. It was seen that the control margin of the shrouded rotor increased as the disk loading increased, which is however deleterious in terms of hover performance. This is an important trade-off that needs to be considered. The flight performance of the vehicle in terms of edgewise gust disturbance rejection was tested in a series of bench top and free ight tests. A standard table fan and an open jet wind tunnel setup was used for bench top setup. The shrouded rotor had an edgewise gust tolerance of about 3 m/s while the unshrouded rotor could tolerate edgewise gusts greater than 5 m/s. Free flight tests on the vehicle, using VICON for position feedback control, indicated the capability of the vehicle to recover from gust impulse inputs from a pedestal fan at low gust values (up to 3 m/s).

  18. Quantum model of spin noise.

    PubMed

    Annabestani, R; Cory, D G; Emerson, J

    2015-03-01

    Any ensemble of quantum particles exhibits statistical fluctuations known as spin noise. Here, we provide a description of spin noise in the language of open quantum systems. The description unifies the signatures of spin noise under both strong and weak measurements. Further, the model accounts for arbitrary spin dynamics from an arbitrary initial state. In all cases we can find both the spin noise and its time correlation function.

  19. Using rotor or tip speed in the acoustical analysis of small wind turbines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acoustical noise data have been collected and analyzed on small wind turbines used for water pumping at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) near Bushland, Texas. This acoustical analysis differed from previous research in that the data were analyzed with rotor or tip ...

  20. Conceptual design study of a 1985 commercial STOL tilt rotor transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widdison, C. A.; Magee, J. P.; Alexander, H. R.

    1974-01-01

    Results of conceptual engineering design studies of a STOL tilt rotor commercial aircraft for the 1985 time frame are presented. The details of aircraft size, performance, flying qualities, noise, and cost are included. The savings in terms of fuel economy resulting from STOL operations compared with VTOL vehicles are determined.

  1. Filter type rotor for multistation photometer

    DOEpatents

    Shumate, II, Starling E.

    1977-07-12

    A filter type rotor for a multistation photometer is provided. The rotor design combines the principle of cross-flow filtration with centrifugal sedimentation so that these occur simultaneously as a first stage of processing for suspension type fluids in an analytical type instrument. The rotor is particularly useful in whole-blood analysis.

  2. Helicopter far-field acoustic levels as a function of reduced main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasurier, Philip

    1990-01-01

    During the design of a helicopter, the weight, engine, rotor speed, and rotor geometry are given significant attention when considering the specific operations for which the helicopter will be used. However, the noise radiated from the helicopter and its relationship to the design variables is currently not well modeled with only a limited set of full-scale field test data to study. In general, limited field data have shown that reduced main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach numbers result in reduced far-field noise levels. The status of a recent helicopter noise research project is reviewed. It is designed to provide flight experimental data which may be used to further understand helicopter main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach number effects on far-field acoustic levels. Preliminary results are presented relative to tests conducted with a Sikorsky S-76A helicopter operating with both the rotor speed and the flight speed as the control variable. The rotor speed was operated within the range of 107 to 90 percent NR at nominal forward speeds of 35, 100, and 155 knots.

  3. A numerical model for dynamic wave rotor analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed which can predict the dynamic (and steady state) performance of a wave rotor, given the geometry and time dependent boundary conditions. The one-dimensional, perfect gas, CFD based code tracks the gasdynamics in each of the wave rotor passages as they rotate past the various ducts. The model can operate both on and off-design, allowing dynamic behavior to be studied throughout the operating range of the wave rotor. The model accounts for several major loss mechanisms including finite passage opening time, fluid friction, heat transfer to and from the passage walls, and leakage to and from the passage ends. In addition, it can calculate the amount of work transferred to and from the fluid when the flow in the ducts is not aligned with the passages such as occurs in off-design operation. Since it is one-dimensional, the model runs reasonably fast on a typical workstation. This paper will describe the model and present the results of some transient calculations for a conceptual four port wave rotor designed as a topping cycle for a small gas turbine engine.

  4. Design and Evaluation of a Low-Noise Helicopter Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Natsuki; Tsujiuchi, Tomoka; Murashige, Atsushi; Nishimura, Hiroki; Aoki, Makoto; Tsuchihashi, Akihiko; Yamakawa, Eiichi; Aoyama, Takashi; Saito, Shigeru

    A low-noise helicopter blade, AT1, was designed with the concept of reducing noise without the drop of rotor performance. In the concept, High-Speed Impulsive (HSI) noise is reduced by applying a thin airfoil in the tip region and a dog-tooth like extension in the leading-edge of the tip region. Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise is reduced by applying the extension and a strong taper near the tip end. The stall angle of the blade is increased by the effect of the vortex generated from the leading-edge extension. As a result, the drop of rotor performance caused by the thin airfoil and the reduction of rotor rotational speed is recovered. The low-noise characteristics and the performance of AT1 were evaluated by a model rotor test conducted at Deutsch Niederländischer Windkanal (DNW). It is shown that AT1 reduces HSI noise and BVI noise and has good performance in forward flight conditions. However, the improvement of performance in high-lift conditions still remains as a future problem.

  5. Design of a Low Speed Fan Stage for Noise Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, W. N.; Elliot, D. B.; Nickols, K. L.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the design of a low tip speed, moderate pressure rise fan stage for demonstration of noise reduction concepts. The fan rotor is a fixed-pitch configuration delivering a design pressure ratio of 1.378 at a specific flow of 43.1 lbm/sec/sq ft. Four exit stator configurations were provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of circumferential and axial sweep in reducing rotor-stator interaction tone noise. The fan stage design was combined with an axisymmetric inlet, conical convergent nozzle, and nacelle to form a powered fan-nacelle subscale model. This model has a 22-inch cylindrical flow path and employs a rotor with a 0.30 hub-to-tip radius ratio. The design is fully compatible with an existing NASA force balance and rig drive system. The stage aerodynamic and structural design is described in detail. Three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools were used to define optimum airfoil sections for both the rotor and stators. A fan noise predictive system developed by Pratt & Whitney under contract to NASA was used to determine the acoustic characteristics of the various stator configurations. Parameters varied included rotor-to-stator spacing and vane leading edge sweep. The structural analysis of the rotor and stator are described herein. An integral blade and disk configuration was selected for the rotor. Analysis confirmed adequate low cycle fatigue life, vibratory endurance strength, and aeroelastic suitability. A unique load carrying stator arrangement was selected to minimize generation of tonal noise due to sources other than rotor-stator interaction. Analysis of all static structural components demonstrated adequate strength, fatigue life, and vibratory characteristics.

  6. Full-scale S-76 rotor performance and loads at low speeds in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. Vol. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinoda, Patrick M.

    1996-01-01

    A full-scale helicopter rotor test was conducted in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel with a four-bladed S-76 rotor system. Rotor performance and loads data were obtained over a wide range of rotor shaft angles-of-attack and thrust conditions at tunnel speeds ranging from 0 to 100 kt. The primary objectives of this test were (1) to acquire forward flight rotor performance and loads data for comparison with analytical results; (2) to acquire S-76 forward flight rotor performance data in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel to compare with existing full-scale 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel test data that were acquired in 1977; (3) to evaluate the acoustic capability of the 80- by 120- Foot Wind Tunnel for acquiring blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise in the low speed range and compare BVI noise with in-flight test data; and (4) to evaluate the capability of the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel test section as a hover facility. The secondary objectives were (1) to evaluate rotor inflow and wake effects (variations in tunnel speed, shaft angle, and thrust condition) on wind tunnel test section wall and floor pressures; (2) to establish the criteria for the definition of flow breakdown (condition where wall corrections are no longer valid) for this size rotor and wind tunnel cross-sectional area; and (3) to evaluate the wide-field shadowgraph technique for visualizing full-scale rotor wakes. This data base of rotor performance and loads can be used for analytical and experimental comparison studies for full-scale, four-bladed, fully articulated rotor systems. Rotor performance and structural loads data are presented in this report.

  7. Advanced Rotor Blade Materials Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-23

    helicopter rotor blade erosion resistant treatments that had been supplied in response to a US Navy BAA Program. The Navy Program was meant to improve the...earlier ONR BAA Program had been concluded and while this specific program was active. This program was one of the drivers behind the need to

  8. Assembly for facilitating inservice inspection of a reactor coolant pump rotor

    DOEpatents

    Veronesi, Luciano

    1990-01-01

    A reactor coolant pump has an outer casing with an internal cavity holding a coolant and a rotor rotatably mounted in the cavity within the coolant. An assembly for permitting inservice inspection of the pump rotor without first draining the coolant from the casing cavity is attached to an end of the pump. A cylindrical bore is defined through the casing in axial alignment with an end of pump rotor and opening into the internal cavity. An extension attached on the rotor end and rotatable therewith has a cylindrical coupler member extending into the bore. An outer end of the coupler member has an element configured to receive a tool for performance of inservice rotor inspection. A hollow cylindrical member is disposed in the bore and surrounds the coupler member. The cylindrical member is slidably movable relative to the coupler member along the bore between a retracted position wherein the cylindrical member is stored for normal pump operation and an extended position wherein the cylindrical member is extended for permitting inservice rotor inspection. A cover member is detachably and sealably attached to the casing across the bore for closing the bore and retaining the cylindrical member at its retracted position for normal pump operation. Upon detachment of the cover member, the cylindrical member can be extended to permit inservice rotor inspection.

  9. A Computational Study of BVI Noise Reduction Using Active Twist Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogarty, David E.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Sekula, Martin K.

    2010-01-01

    The results of a computational study examining the effects of active-twist control on blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise using the Apache Active Twist Rotor are presented. The primary goal of this activity is to reduce BVI noise during a low-speed descent flight condition using active-twist control. Rotor aeroelastic behavior was modeled using the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics code and the rotor noise was predicted using the acoustics code PSU-WOPWOP. The accuracy of the analysis was validated through comparisons with experimental acoustic data for the first generation Active Twist Rotor at an advance ratio of mu=0.14. The application of active-twist to the main rotor blade system consisted of harmonic actuation frequencies ranging from 2P to 5P, control phase angles from 0' to 360 , and tip-twist amplitudes ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 . The acoustic analysis was conducted for a single low-speed flight condition of advance ratio =0.14 and shaft angle-of-attack, c^=+6 , with BVI noise levels predicted on a flat plane of observers located 1.1 rotor diameters beneath the rotor. The results indicated reductions of up to 11dB in BVI noise using 1.25 tip-twist amplitude with negligible effects on 4P vertical hub shear.

  10. Fuselage upwash effects on RSRA rotor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, J.; Dadone, L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of RSRA fuselage configurations on rotor performance and loads have been quantified analytically by means of currently available potential flow and rotor analysis. Four configurations of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) were considered in this study. They were: (1) fuselage alone (conventional helicopter); (2) fuselage with auxiliary propulsion; (3) fuselage with wings (auxiliary lift); and (4) fuselage with both auxiliary lift propulsion. The rotor system investigated was identical to a CH-47D front rotor except that it had four instead of three blades. Two scaled-down versions of the same rotor were also analyzed to determine the effect of rotor scale on the fuselage upwash effects. The flight conditions considered for the upwash study are discussed. The potential flow models for the RSRA configuration, with and without the wings and the auxiliary propulsion system, are presented. The results of fuselage/wing/propulsion system upwash on performance and loads are also presented.

  11. Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Applied to Helicopter Flyover Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santa Maria, Odilyn L.

    1999-01-01

    A method to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise from a helicopter in flight is explored. Being the sum of two periodic signals of disproportionate, or incommensurate frequencies, helicopter noise is neither periodic nor stationary, but possibly harmonizable. The single Fourier transform divides signal energy into frequency bins of equal size. Incommensurate frequencies are therefore not adequately represented by any one chosen data block size. A two-dimensional Fourier analysis method is used to show helicopter noise as harmonizable. The two-dimensional spectral analysis method is first applied to simulated signals. This initial analysis gives an idea of the characteristics of the two-dimensional autocorrelations and spectra. Data from a helicopter flight test is analyzed in two dimensions. The test aircraft are a Boeing MD902 Explorer (no tail rotor) and a Sikorsky S-76 (4-bladed tail rotor). The results show that the main rotor and tail rotor signals can indeed be separated in the two-dimensional Fourier transform spectrum. The separation occurs along the diagonals associated with the frequencies of interest. These diagonals are individual spectra containing only information related to one particular frequency.

  12. Boeing 18-Inch Fan Rig Broadband Noise Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganz, Ulrich W.; Joppa, Paul D.; Patten, Timothy J.; Scharpf, Daniel F.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of the subject test were to identify and quantify the mechanisms by which fan broadband noise is produced, and to assess the validity of such theoretical models of those mechanisms as may be available. The test was conducted with the Boeing 18-inch fan rig in the Boeing Low-Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF). The rig was designed to be particularly clean and geometrically simple to facilitate theoretical modeling and to minimize sources of interfering noise. The inlet is cylindrical and is equipped with a boundary layer suction system. The fan is typical of modern high-by-pass ratio designs but is capable of operating with or without fan exit guide vanes (stators), and there is only a single flow stream. Fan loading and tip clearance are adjustable. Instrumentation included measurements of fan performance, the unsteady flow field incident on the fan and stators, and far-field and in-duct acoustic fields. The acoustic results were manipulated to estimate the noise generated by different sources. Significant fan broadband noise was found to come from the rotor self-noise as measured with clean inflow and no boundary layer. The rotor tip clearance affected rotor self-noise somewhat. The interaction of the rotor with inlet boundary layer turbulence is also a significant source, and is strongly affected by rotor tip clearance. High level noise can be generated by a high-order nonuniform rotating at a fraction of the fan speed, at least when tip clearance and loading are both large. Stator-generated noise is the loudest of the significant sources, by a small margin, at least on this rig. Stator noise is significantly affected by propagation through the fan.

  13. Euler solutions to nonlinear acoustics of non-lifting hovering rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baeder, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    For the first time a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is used to calculate directly the high-speed impulsive (HSI) noise of a non-lifting hovering rotor blade out to a distance of over three rotor radii. In order to accurately propagate the acoustic wave in a stable and efficient manner, an implicit upwind-biased Euler method is solved on a grid with points clustered along the line of propagation. A detailed validation of the code is performed for a rectangular rotor blade at tip Mach numbers ranging from 0.88 to 0.92. The agreement with experiment is excellent at both the sonic cylinder and at 2.18 rotor radii. The agreement at 3.09 rotor radii is still very good, showing improvements over the results from the best previous method. Grid sensitivity studies indicate that with special attention to the location of the boundaries a grid with approximately 60,000 points is adequate. This results in a computational time of approximately 40 minutes on a Cray-XMP. The practicality of the method to calculate HSI noise is demonstrated by expanding the scope of the investigation to examine the rectangular blade as well as a highly swept and tapered blade over a tip Mach number range of 0.80 to 0.95. Comparisons with experimental data are excellent and the advantages of planform modifications are clearly evident. New insight is gained into the mechanisms of nonlinear propagation and the minimum distance at which a valid comparison of different rotors can be made: approximately two rotor radii from the center of rotation.

  14. Airport noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendley, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of airport noise at several airports and air bases is detailed. Community reactions to the noise, steps taken to reduce jet engine noise, and the effect of airport use restrictions and curfews on air transportation are discussed. The adverse effect of changes in allowable operational noise on airport safety and altenative means for reducing noise pollution are considered. Community-airport relations and public relations are discussed.

  15. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  16. Investigation of rotor blade element airloads for a teetering rotor in the blade stall regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dadone, L. U.; Fukushima, T.

    1974-01-01

    A model of a teetering rotor was tested in a low speed wind tunnel. Blade element airloads measured on an articulated model rotor were compared with the teetering rotor and showed that the teetering rotor is subjected to less extensive flow separation. Retreating blade stall was studied. Results show that stall, under the influence of unsteady aerodynamic effects, consists of four separate stall events, each associated with a vortex shed from the leading edge and sweeping over the upper surface of the rotor blade. Current rotor performance prediction methodology was evaluated through computer simulation.

  17. Rotor instrumentation study for high-temperature superconducting generators

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenterly, S.W.; Wilson, C.T.

    1996-06-01

    In FY 9195, ORNL carried out work on rotor instrumentation systems in support of the General Electric (GE) Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (SPI) on Superconducting Generator Development. The objective was to develop a system for tramsitting data from sensors in the spinning rotor to a stationary data acquisition system. Previous work at ORNL had investigated an optical method of cryogenic temperature measurement using laser-induced fluorescence in certain phosphors. Later follow-up discussions with experts in the ORNL Engineering Technology Division indicated that this method could also be extended to measure strain and magnetic field. Another optical alternative using standard fiber optic transmission modules was also investigated. The equipment is very inexpensive, but needs to be adapted for operation in a high-g-force rotating environment. An optical analog of a commutator or slip ring also needs to be developed to couple the light signals from the rotor to the stationary frame. Sealed mercury-film rotary contacts are manufactured by Meridian Laboratory. Unlike conventional slipring assemblies, these offer low noise and long lifetime, with low costs per channel. Standard units may need some upgrading for 3600-rpm or high-voltage operation. A commercial electronic telemetry system offered by Wireless Data Corporation (WDC) was identified as a viable candidate, and information on this system was presented to GE. GE has since ordered two of these systems from WDC for temperature measurements in their rotating test cryostat.

  18. Pre-design study for a modern four-bladed rotor for the Rotor System Research Aircraft (RSRA). [integrating the YAH-64 main rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, C. W.; Logan, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    Various candidate rotor systems were compared in an effort to select a modern four-bladed rotor for the RSRA. The YAH-64 rotor system was chosen as the candidate rotor system for further development for the RSRA. The process used to select the rotor system, studies conducted to mate the rotor with the RSRA and provide parametric variability, and the development plan which would be used to implement these studies are presented. Drawings are included.

  19. Preliminary Study of a Model Rotor in Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAlister, K. W.; Tung, C.; Sharpe, D. L.; Huang, S.; Hendley, E. M.

    2000-01-01

    Within a program designed to develop experimental techniques for measuring the trajectory and structure of vortices trailing from the tips of rotor blades, the present preliminary study focuses on a method for quantifying the trajectory of the trailing vortex during descent flight conditions. This study also presents rotor loads and blade surface pressures for a range of tip-path plane angles and Mach numbers. Blade pressures near the leading edge and along the outer radius are compared with data obtained on the same model rotor, but in open jet facilities. A triangulation procedure based on two directable laser-light sheets, each containing an embedded reference, proved effective in defining the spatial coordinates of the trailing vortex. When interrogating a cross section of the flow that contains several trailing vortices, the greatest clarity was found to result when the flow is uniformly seeded. Surface pressure responses during blade-vortex interactions appeared equally sensitive near the leading edge and along the outer portion of the blade, but diminished rapidly as the distance along the blade chord increased. The pressure response was virtually independent of whether the tip-path plane angle was obtained through shaft tilt or cyclic pitch. Although the shape and frequency of the pressure perturbations on the advancing blade during blade-vortex interaction are similar to those obtained in open-jet facilities, the angle of the tip-path plane may need to be lower than the range covered in this study.

  20. Noise characteristics of model counter-rotating Prop-Fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magliozzi, B.

    1987-10-01

    Results of acoustics tests of 24.5 in. diameter model counter-rotating propfans are presented. In these tests several configurations were investigated, including tractors and pushers downstream of a pylon, both at zero degrees and at four degrees angle-of-attack. The effects on noise of spacing between rotors and between the pylon and the rotors were also measured. Effects of rotor spacing were found to cause small changes in noise. Increasing blade count from 5-front and 5-rear to 6-front and 6-rear results in about a 1 EPNdB reduction in noise. Increasing only the front rotor blade count to six blades resulted in a noise reduction of about 2 EPNdB. The presence of the pylon resulted in a 1 EPNdB increase in noise. Angle of attack effects showed an increase of 3.5 EPNdB for the tractor configuration and only 1.5 EPNdB for the pusher configuration. Tip speed was found to be the strongest parameter in reducing noise. However, for a given thrust loading, an optimum tip speed is seen. Correlations between measurements and predictions are shown to be in good agreement.

  1. Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan

  2. Reduction of turbomachinery noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A. (Inventor); Brookfield, John M. (Inventor); Sell, Julian (Inventor); Hayden, Belva J. (Inventor); Ingard, K. Uno (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    In the invention, propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise characteristic of interaction of a turbomachine blade wake, produced by a turbomachine blade as the blade rotates, with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade, are reduced. This is accomplished by injection of fluid into the blade wake through a port in the rotor blade. The mass flow rate of the fluid injected into the blade wake is selected to reduce the momentum deficit of the wake to correspondingly increase the time-mean velocity of the wake and decrease the turbulent velocity fluctuations of the wake. With this fluid injection, reduction of both propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise produced by interaction of the blade wake with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade is achieved. In a further noise reduction technique, boundary layer fluid is suctioned into the turbomachine blade through a suction port on the side of the blade that is characterized as the relatively low-pressure blade side. As with the fluid injection technique, the mass flow rate of the fluid suctioned into the blade is here selected to reduce the momentum deficit of the wake to correspondingly increase the time-mean velocity of the wake and decrease the turbulent velocity fluctuations of the wake; reduction of both propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise produced by interaction of the blade wake with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade is achieved with this suction technique. Blowing and suction techniques are also provided in the invention for reducing noise associated with the wake produced by fluid flow around a stationary blade upstream of a rotating turbomachine.

  3. A Survey of Theoretical and Experimental Coaxial Rotor Aerodynamic Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Colin P.

    1997-01-01

    The recent appearance of the Kamov Ka-50 helicopter and the application of coaxial rotors to unmanned aerial vehicles have renewed international interest in the coaxial rotor configuration. This report addresses the aerodynamic issues peculiar to coaxial rotors by surveying American, Russian, Japanese, British, and German research. (Herein, 'coaxial rotors' refers to helicopter, not propeller, rotors. The intermeshing rotor system was not investigated.) Issues addressed are separation distance, load sharing between rotors, wake structure, solidity effects, swirl recovery, and the effects of having no tail rotor. A general summary of the coaxial rotor configuration explores the configuration's advantages and applications.

  4. Adaptor assembly for coupling turbine blades to rotor disks

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell

    2014-09-23

    An adaptor assembly for coupling a blade root of a turbine blade to a root slot of a rotor disk is described. The adaptor assembly includes a turbine blade having a blade root and an adaptor body having an adaptor root. The adaptor body defines a slot having an open end configured to receive the blade root of the turbine blade such that the adaptor root of the adaptor body and the blade root of the turbine blade are adjacent to one another when the blade root of the turbine blade is positioned within the slot. Both the adaptor root of the adaptor body and the blade root of the turbine blade are configured to be received within the root slot of the rotor disk.

  5. Source Methodology for Turbofan Noise Prediction (SOURCE3D Technical Documentation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Harold D.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides the analytical documentation for the SOURCE3D Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Code. It derives the equations for the rotor scattering coefficients and stator source vector and scattering coefficients that are needed for use in the TFANS (Theoretical Fan Noise Design/Prediction System). SOURCE3D treats the rotor and stator as isolated source elements. TFANS uses this information, along with scattering coefficients for inlet and exit elements, and provides complete noise solutions for turbofan engines. SOURCE3D is composed of a collection of FORTRAN programs that have been obtained by extending the approach of the earlier V072 Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Code. Similar to V072, it treats the rotor and stator as a collection of blades and vanes having zero thickness and camber contained in an infinite, hardwall annular duct. SOURCE3D adds important features to the V072 capability-a rotor element, swirl flow and vorticity waves, actuator disks for flow turning, and combined rotor/actuator disk and stator/actuator disk elements. These items allow reflections from the rotor, frequency scattering, and mode trapping, thus providing more complete noise predictions than previously. The code has been thoroughly verified through comparison with D.B. Hanson's CUP2D two- dimensional code using a narrow annulus test case.

  6. Turbofan noise generation. Volume 1: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ventres, C. S.; Theobald, M. A.; Mark, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    Computer programs were developed which calculate the in-duct acoustic modes excited by a fan/stator stae operating at subsonic tip speed. Three noise source mechanisms are included: (1) sound generated by the rotor blades interacting with turbulence ingested into, or generated within, the inlet duct; (2) sound generated by the stator vanes interacting with the turbulent wakes of the rotors blades; and (3) sound generated by the stator vanes interacting with the mean velocity deficit wakes of the rotor blades. The fan/stator stage is modeled as an ensemble of blades and vanes of zero camber and thickness enclosed within an infinite hard-walled annular duct. Turbulence drawn into or generated within the inlet duct is modeled as nonhomogeneous and anisotropic random fluid motion, superimposed upon a uniform axial mean flow, and convected with that flow. Equations for the duct mode amplitudes, or expected values of the amplitudes, are derived.

  7. Rotor blades for turbine engines

    DOEpatents

    Piersall, Matthew R; Potter, Brian D

    2013-02-12

    A tip shroud that includes a plurality of damping fins, each damping fin including a substantially non-radially-aligned surface that is configured to make contact with a tip shroud of a neighboring rotor blade. At least one damping fin may include a leading edge damping fin and at least one damping fin may include a trailing edge damping fin. The leading edge damping fin may be configured to correspond to the trailing edge damping fin.

  8. Aerodynamic Simulation of the MEXICO Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herraez, I.; Medjroubi, W.; Stoevesandt, B.; Peinke, J.

    2014-12-01

    CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations are a very promising method for predicting the aerodynamic behavior of wind turbines in an inexpensive and accurate way. One of the major drawbacks of this method is the lack of validated models. As a consequence, the reliability of numerical results is often difficult to assess. The MEXICO project aimed at solving this problem by providing the project partners with high quality measurements of a 4.5 meters rotor diameter wind turbine operating under controlled conditions. The large measurement data-set allows the validation of all kind of aerodynamic models. This work summarizes our efforts for validating a CFD model based on the open source software OpenFoam. Both steady- state and time-accurate simulations have been performed with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model for several operating conditions. In this paper we will concentrate on axisymmetric inflow for 3 different wind speeds. The numerical results are compared with pressure distributions from several blade sections and PIV-flow data from the near wake region. In general, a reasonable agreement between measurements the and our simulations exists. Some discrepancies, which require further research, are also discussed.

  9. Rotor Wake Vortex Definition: Initial Evaluation of 3-C PIV Results of the Hart-II Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; vanderWall, Berend; Richard, Hughes; Raffel, Markus; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Lim, Joon W.; Yu, Yung H.; Tung, Chee

    2002-01-01

    An initial evaluation is made of extensive three-component (3C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements within the wake across a rotor disk plane. The model is a 40 percent scale BO-105 helicopter main rotor in forward flight simulation. This study is part of the HART II test program conducted in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). Included are wake vortex field measurements over the advancing and retreating sides of the rotor operating at a typical descent landing condition important for impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. Also included are advancing side results for rotor angle variations from climb to steep descent. Using detailed PIV vector maps of the vortex fields, methods of extracting key vortex parameters are examined and a new method was developed and evaluated. An objective processing method, involving a center-of-vorticity criterion and a vorticity 'disk' integration, was used to determine vortex core size, strength, core velocity distribution characteristics, and unsteadiness. These parameters are mapped over the rotor disk and offer unique physical insight for these parameters of importance for rotor noise and vibration prediction.

  10. Acoustic Scattering by Three-Dimensional Stators and Rotors Using the SOURCE3D Code. Volume 1; Analysis and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Harold D.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides a study of rotor and stator scattering using the SOURCE3D Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Code. SOURCE3D is a quasi-three-dimensional computer program that uses three-dimensional acoustics and two-dimensional cascade load response theory to calculate rotor and stator modal reflection and transmission (scattering) coefficients. SOURCE3D is at the core of the TFaNS (Theoretical Fan Noise Design/Prediction System), developed for NASA, which provides complete fully coupled (inlet, rotor, stator, exit) noise solutions for turbofan engines. The reason for studying scattering is that we must first understand the behavior of the individual scattering coefficients provided by SOURCE3D, before eventually understanding the more complicated predictions from TFaNS. To study scattering, we have derived a large number of scattering curves for vane and blade rows. The curves are plots of output wave power divided by input wave power (in dB units) versus vane/blade ratio. Some of these plots are shown in this report. All of the plots are provided in a separate volume. To assist in understanding the plots, formulas have been derived for special vane/blade ratios for which wavefronts are either parallel or normal to rotor or stator chords. From the plots, we have found that, for the most part, there was strong transmission and weak reflection over most of the vane/blade ratio range for the stator. For the rotor, there was little transmission loss.

  11. Low Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, David E.; Neubert, Robert J.; Malmborg, Eric W.; Philbrick, Daniel H.; Spear, David A.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the design of a Low Noise ADP Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes and core stators. This fan stage design was combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle, subscale model. This model is intended for use in aerodynamic performance, acoustic and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The model has a 22-inch outer fan diameter and a hub-to-top ratio of 0.426 which permits the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance designs and rig drive system. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the PW 17-inch rig previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric analysis at aerodynamic design condition are included. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is described including the material selections and stress analysis. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low cycle fatigue life, and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the fan exit guide vane and core stator to minimize noise. A fan-FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine these airfoil counts. The fan stage design was matched to a nacelle design to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. The nacelle design was developed under a separate NASA contract. The nacelle was designed with an axisymmetric inlet, cowl and nozzle for convenience in testing and fabrication. Aerodynamic analysis of the nacelle confirmed the required performance at various aircraft operating conditions.

  12. An unsteady rotor/fuselage interaction method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolf, T. Alan; Lorber, Peter F.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed to treat unsteady helicopter rotor, wake, and fuselage interaction aerodynamics. An existing lifting line/prescribed wake rotor analysis and a source panel fuselage analysis were modified to predict vibratory fuselage airloads. The analyses were coupled through the induced flow velocities of the rotor and wake on the fuselage and the fuselage on the rotor. A prescribed displacement technique was used to distort the rotor wake about the fuselage. Sensitivity studies were performed to determine the influence of wake and body geometry on the computed airloads. Predicted and measured mean and unsteady pressures on a cylindrical body in the wake of a two-bladed rotor were compared. Initial results show good qualitative agreement.

  13. Parametric tip effects for conformable rotor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantay, W. R.; Yeager, W. T., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A research study was initiated to systematically determine the impact of selected blade tip geometric parameters on aeroelasticity conformable rotor performance and loads characteristics. The model articulated rotors included baseline and torsionally soft blades with interchangeable tips. Seven blade tip designs were evaluated on the baseline rotor and three tip designs were tested on the torsionally soft blades. The designs incorporated a systematic variation in three geometric parameters: sweep, taper, and anhedral. The rotors were evaluated in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at several advance ratios, lift and propulsive force values, and tip Mach numbers. Based on the test results, tip parameter variations generated significant rotor performance and loads difference for both baseline and torsionally soft blades. Azimuthal variation of elastic twist generated by the tip parameters strongly correlated with rotor performance and loads, but the magnitude of advancing blade elastic twist did not correlate.

  14. Radial vibration measurements directly from rotors using laser vibrometry: The effects of surface roughness, instrument misalignments and pseudo-vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothberg, Steve J.; Halkon, Ben J.; Tirabassi, Mario; Pusey, Chris

    2012-11-01

    Laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) offers an attractive solution when radial vibration measurement directly from a rotor surface is required. Research to date has demonstrated application on polished-circular rotors and rotors coated with retro-reflective tape. In the latter case, however, a significant cross-sensitivity to the orthogonal radial vibration component occurs and post-processing is required to resolve individual radial vibration components. Until now, the fundamentally different behaviour observed between these cases has stood as an inconsistency in the published literature, symptomatic of the need to understand the effect of surface roughness. This paper offers the first consistent mathematical description of the polished-circular and rough rotor behaviours, combined with an experimental investigation of the relationship between surface roughness and cross-sensitivity. Rotors with surface roughness up to 10 nm satisfy the polished-circular rotor definition if vibration displacement is below 100% beam diameter, for a 90 μm beam, and below 40% beam diameter, for a 520 μm beam. On rotors with roughness between 10 nm and 50 nm, the polished-circular rotor definition is satisfied for vibration displacements up to 25% beam diameter, for a 90 μm beam, and up to 10% beam diameter, for a 520 μm beam. As roughness increases, cross-sensitivity increases but only rotors coated in retro-reflective tape satisfied the rough rotor definition fully. Consequently, when polished-circular surfaces are not available, rotor surfaces must be treated with retro-reflective tape and measurements post-processed to resolve individual vibration components. Through simulations, the value of the resolution and correction algorithms that form the post-processor has been demonstrated quantitatively. Simulations incorporating representative instrument misalignments and measurement noise have enabled quantification of likely error levels in radial vibration measurements. On a polished

  15. Rotor fatigue monitoring data acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    1993-01-01

    The 40 by 80 Foot Wind Tunnel of the National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) had a requirement to monitor rotor fatigue during a test. This test subjected various rotor components to stress levels higher than their structural fatigue limits. A data acquisition system was developed to monitor the cumulative fatigue damage of rotor components using National Instruments hardware and LabVIEW software. A full description of the data acquisition system including its configuration and salient features, is presented in this paper.

  16. Eigenvalues and stability problems of rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walczyk, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The essential theoretical results of the application of a developed transfer matrix method to the free transverse vibration of a rotor are shown. Gyroscopic and shear effects, rotary inertia, and external and internal damping as well as the influence of sleeve bearings and rotor supports are taken into consideration. The eigenvalues of the motion equations of the rotor are searched by using a modified determinant method.

  17. Inertial dynamics of a general purpose rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The inertial dynamics of a fully articulated stiff rotor blade are derived with emphasis on equations that facilitate an organized programming approach for simulation applications. The model for the derivation includes hinge offset and six degrees of freedom for the rotor shaft. Results are compared with the flapping and lead-lag equations currently used in the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft simulation model and differences are analyzed.

  18. Flywheel Rotor Safe-Life Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratner, J. K. H.; Chang, J. B.; Christopher, D. A.; McLallin, Kerry L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1960s, research has been conducted into the use of flywheels as energy storage systems. The-proposed applications include energy storage for hybrid and electric automobiles, attitude control and energy storage for satellites, and uninterruptible power supplies for hospitals and computer centers. For many years, however, the use of flywheels for space applications was restricted by the total weight of a system employing a metal rotor. With recent technological advances in the manufacturing of composite materials, however, lightweight composite rotors have begun to be proposed for such applications. Flywheels with composite rotors provide much higher power and energy storage capabilities than conventional chemical batteries. However, the failure of a high speed flywheel rotor could be a catastrophic event. For this reason, flywheel rotors are classified by the NASA Fracture Control Requirements Standard as fracture critical parts. Currently, there is no industry standard to certify a composite rotor for safe and reliable operation forth( required lifetime of the flywheel. Technical problems hindering the development of this standard include composite manufacturing inconsistencies, insufficient nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for detecting defects and/or impact damage, lack of standard material test methods for characterizing composite rotor design allowables, and no unified proof (over-spin) test for flight rotors. As part of a flywheel rotor safe-life certification pro-ram funded b the government, a review of the state of the art in composite rotors is in progress. The goal of the review is to provide a clear picture of composite flywheel rotor technologies. The literature review has concentrated on the following topics concerning composites and composite rotors: durability (fatigue) and damage tolerance (safe-life) analysis/test methods, in-service NDE and health monitoring techniques, spin test methods/ procedures, and containment options

  19. Community noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragdon, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Airport and community land use planning as they relate to airport noise reduction are discussed. Legislation, community relations, and the physiological effect of airport noise are considered. Noise at the Logan, Los Angeles, and Minneapolis/St. Paul airports is discussed.

  20. Rotor/wing aerodynamic interactions in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felker, F. F.; Light, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of rotor/wing aerodynamic interactions in hover is described. The experimental investigation consisted of both a large-scale and small-scale test. A 0.658-scale, V-22 rotor and wing was used in the large-scale test. Wind download, wing surface pressure, rotor performance, and rotor downwash data from the large-scale test are presented. A small-scale experiment was conducted to determine how changes in the rotor/wing geometry affected the aerodynamic interactions. These geometry variations included the distance between the rotor and wing, wing incidence angle, and configurations both with the rotor axis at the tip of the wing (tilt rotor configuration) and with the rotor axis at the center of the wing (compound helicopter configuration). A wing with boundary-layer control was also tested to evaluate the effect of leading and trailing edge upper surface blowing on the wing download. A computationally efficient, semi-empirical theory was developed to predict the download on the wing. Finally, correlations between the theoretical predictions and test data are presented.

  1. Rotor thermal stress monitoring in steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonín, Bouberle; Jan, Jakl; Jindřich, Liška

    2015-11-01

    One of the issues of steam turbines diagnostics is monitoring of rotor thermal stress that arises from nonuniform temperature field. The effort of steam turbine operator is to operate steam turbine in such conditions, that rotor thermal stress doesn't exceed the specified limits. If rotor thermal stress limits are exceeded for a long time during machine operation, the rotor fatigue life is shortened and this may lead to unexpected machine failure. Thermal stress plays important role during turbine cold startup, when occur the most significant differences of temperatures through rotor cross section. The temperature field can't be measured directly in the entire rotor cross section and standardly the temperature is measured by thermocouple mounted in stator part. From this reason method for numerical solution of partial differential equation of heat propagation through rotor cross section must be combined with method for calculation of temperature on rotor surface. In the first part of this article, the application of finite volume method for calculation of rotor thermal stress is described. The second part of article deals with optimal trend generation of thermal flux, that could be used for optimal machine loading.

  2. Dynamic Balancing Of Turbomachinery Shafts And Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1993-01-01

    Method for dynamic balancing of turbomachinery shafts and rotors developed with view toward reducing time spent in balancing process. Improved method based on existing dynamic-balancing techniques and equipment, incorporating use of balancing arbor, which is mandrel duplicating mounting geometry and dynamic-balance properties of shaft balanced. Once shaft balanced, not necessary to disassemble machinery and/or shaft completely and rebalance shaft when replacing rotor on shaft. Instead, one balances replacement rotor on balancing arbor, then installs balanced rotor on shaft.

  3. High Speed Rotor Head Mounted Instrumentation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hee, Leonard; Reynolds, R. S. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has been investigating the air flow of a rotor blade on a UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter in-flight. This paper will address the hardware problems and solutions used to design and fabricate an instrumentation system on top of a UH-60 main rotor head. The instrumentation system consisted of 10 data systems operating in parallel and collected data from 370 sensors that are mounted in four rotor blades and on the rotating rotor head. The data was recorded on board the aircraft and simultaneously down linked to the ground station at 7.5 MHz.

  4. Development of an Active Twist Rotor for Wind: Tunnel Testing (NLPN97-310

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Shin, SangJoon; Hagood, Nesbitt W., IV

    1998-01-01

    The development of the Active Twist Rotor prototype blade for hub vibration and noise reduction studies is presented in this report. Details of the modeling, design, and manufacturing are explored. The rotor blade is integrally twisted by direct strain actuation. This is accomplished by distributing embedded piezoelectric fiber composites along the span of the blade. The development of the analysis framework for this type of active blade is presented. The requirements for the prototype blade, along with the final design results are also presented. A detail discussion on the manufacturing aspects of the prototype blade is described. Experimental structural characteristics of the prototype blade compare well with design goals, and preliminary bench actuation tests show lower performance than originally predicted. Electrical difficulties with the actuators are also discussed. The presented prototype blade is leading to a complete fully articulated four-blade active twist rotor system for future wind tunnel tests.

  5. Frequency Characteristics of Fluctuating Pressure on Rotor Blade in a Propeller Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Choon-Man; Furukawa, Masato; Inoue, Masahiro

    A wavelet transform is introduced to analyze frequency characteristics of the fluctuating pressure on rotor blade in a propeller fan. The fluctuating pressure on the rotor blade is obtained by using the results of a large eddy simulation. The frequencies having high spectral peaks of the fluctuating pressure are determined by taking the time average of the local absolute modulus of the wavelet. The dominant frequency of the real-time pressure selected at the high pressure fluctuation region corresponds well to that of the fluctuating rotor torque and the experimental result of fan noise. It is mainly generated due to the unsteady behavior of the vortical flow, such as the tip vortex and the leading edge separation vortex, in the propeller fan. A frequency in the separation bubble region on the suction surface is higher than that of the dominant frequency caused by the vortical flow.

  6. IR radiation characteristics and operating range research for a quad-rotor unmanned aircraft vehicle.

    PubMed

    Gong, Mali; Guo, Rui; He, Sifeng; Wang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    The security threats caused by multi-rotor unmanned aircraft vehicles (UAVs) are serious, especially in public places. To detect and control multi-rotor UAVs, knowledge of IR characteristics is necessary. The IR characteristics of a typical commercial quad-rotor UAV are investigated in this paper through thermal imaging with an IR camera. Combining the 3D geometry and IR images of the UAV, a 3D IR characteristics model is established so that the radiant power from different views can be obtained. An estimation of operating range to detect the UAV is calculated theoretically using signal-to-noise ratio as the criterion. Field experiments are implemented with an uncooled IR camera in an environment temperature of 12°C and a uniform background. For the front view, the operating range is about 150 m, which is close to the simulation result of 170 m.

  7. Experimental Observation of Dynamical Localization in Laser-Kicked Molecular Rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitter, M.; Milner, V.

    2016-09-01

    The periodically kicked rotor is a paradigm system for studying quantum effects on classically chaotic dynamics. The wave function of the quantum rotor localizes in angular momentum space, similarly to Anderson localization of the electronic wave function in disordered solids. Here, we observe dynamical localization in a system of true quantum rotors by subjecting nitrogen molecules to periodic sequences of femtosecond pulses. Exponential distribution of the molecular angular momentum—the hallmark of dynamical localization—is measured directly by means of coherent Raman scattering. We demonstrate the suppressed rotational energy growth with the number of laser kicks and study the dependence of the localization length on the kick strength. Because of its quantum coherent nature, both timing and amplitude noise are shown to destroy the localization and revive the diffusive growth of energy.

  8. Estimation of UH-60 blade aerodynamic loads and rotor impedance using generalized strain pattern/Kalman filter approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruhis, Ofer; Duval, Ronald W.; Idan, Moshe

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to develop and verify a methodology capable of predicting the vibration levels and estimating the aerodynamic loads and rotor impedance of a rotorcraft blade. Simulated flight test data is generated, blade airloads and elastic hub motions are estimated from the simulated data through the use of the Kalman filter/smoother, simulation upgrading and parameter identification are performed, and the ability to identify rotor impedance from a simulation by isolating the rotor model and providing a prescribed motion for the hub as rotor excitation is demonstrated. It is pointed out that the statistical estimation procedure utilized in the proposed methodology minimizes the impact of sensor noise, truncation error, and instrumentation bias on the results.

  9. Airfoil self-noise and prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Pope, D. Stuart; Marcolini, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    A prediction method is developed for the self-generated noise of an airfoil blade encountering smooth flow. The prediction methods for the individual self-noise mechanisms are semiempirical and are based on previous theoretical studies and data obtained from tests of two- and three-dimensional airfoil blade sections. The self-noise mechanisms are due to specific boundary-layer phenomena, that is, the boundary-layer turbulence passing the trailing edge, separated-boundary-layer and stalled flow over an airfoil, vortex shedding due to laminar boundary layer instabilities, vortex shedding from blunt trailing edges, and the turbulent vortex flow existing near the tip of lifting blades. The predictions are compared successfully with published data from three self-noise studies of different airfoil shapes. An application of the prediction method is reported for a large scale-model helicopter rotor, and the predictions compared well with experimental broadband noise measurements. A computer code of the method is given.

  10. Aeroacoustic Analysis of Turbofan Noise Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Harold D.; Envia, Edmane

    1996-01-01

    This report provides an updated version of analytical documentation for the V072 Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Code. It presents the theoretical derivation of the equations used in the code and, where necessary, it documents the enhancements and changes made to the original code since its first release. V072 is a package of FORTRAN computer programs which calculate the in-duct acoustic modes excited by a fan/stator stage operating in a subsonic mean flow. Sound is generated by the stator vanes interacting with the mean wakes of the rotor blades. In this updated version, only the tonal noise produced at the blade passing frequency and its harmonics, is described. The broadband noise component analysis, which was part of the original report, is not included here. The code provides outputs of modal pressure and power amplitudes generated by the rotor-wake/stator interaction. The rotor/stator stage is modeled as an ensemble of blades and vanes of zero camber and thickness enclosed within an infinite hard-walled annular duct. The amplitude of each propagating mode is computed and summed to obtain the harmonics of sound power flux within the duct for both upstream and downstream propagating modes.

  11. Axial seal system for a gas turbine steam-cooled rotor

    DOEpatents

    Mashey, Thomas Charles

    2002-01-01

    An axial seal assembly is provided at the interface between adjacent wheels and spacers of a gas turbine rotor and disposed about tubes passing through openings in the rotor adjacent the rotor rim and carrying a thermal medium. Each seal assembly includes a support bushing for supporting a land of the thermal medium carrying tube, an axially registering seat bushing disposed in the opposed opening and a frustoconical seal between the seal bushing and seat. The seal bushing includes a radial flange having an annular recess for retaining the outer diameter edge of the seal, while the seat bushing has an axially facing annular surface forming a seat for engagement by the inner diameter edge of the seal.

  12. Should helicopter noise be measured differently from other aircraft noise? A review of the psychoacoustic literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molino, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    A review of 34 studies indicates that several factors or variables might be important in providing a psychoacoustic foundation for measurements of the noise from helicopters. These factors are phase relations, tail rotor noise, repetition rate, crest level, and generic differences between conventional aircraft and helicopters. Particular attention was given to the impulsive noise known as blade slap. Analysis of the evidence for and against each factor reveals that, for the present state of scientific knowledge, none of these factors should be regarded as the basis for a significant noise measurement correction due to impulsive blade slap. The current method of measuring effective perceived noise level for conventional aircraft appears to be adequate for measuring helicopter noise as well.

  13. Noise Benefits of Increased Fan Bypass Nozzle Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Hughes, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    An advanced model turbofan (typical of current engine technology) was tested in the NASA Glenn 9 by 15 Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9-by 15-Foot LSWT) to explore far field acoustic effects of increased bypass nozzle area. This fan stage test was part of the NASA Glenn Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test, second entry (SDT2) which acquired aeroacoustic results over a range of test conditions. The baseline nozzle was sized to produce maximum stage performance for the engine at a high altitude, cruise point condition. However, the wind tunnel testing is conducted near sea level conditions. Therefore, in order to simulate and obtain performance at other aircraft operating conditions, two additional nozzles were designed and tested-one with a +5 percent increase in weight flow (+5.4 percent increase in nozzle area compared with the baseline nozzle), sized to simulate the performance at the stage design point conditions, and the other with a +7.5 percent increase in weight flow (+10.9 percent increase in nozzle area), sized for maximum weight flow with a fixed nozzle at sea level conditions. Measured acoustic benefits with increased nozzle area were very encouraging, showing overall sound power level (OAPWL) reductions of 2 or more dB while the stage thrust actually increased by several percentage points except fro the most open nozzle at takeoff rotor speed where stage performance decreased. These noise reduction benefits were seen to primarily affect broadband noise, and were evident throughout the range of measured sideline angles.

  14. Transmission and reflection of acoustic and entropy waves through a stator-rotor stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauerheim, Michael; Duran, Ignacio; Livebardon, Thomas; Wang, Gaofeng; Moreau, Stéphane; Poinsot, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    The propagation of acoustic, entropy and vorticity waves through turbine stages is of significant interest in the field of core noise. In particular, entropy spots have been shown to generate significant noise when accelerated through turbine stages: the so-called indirect combustion noise. Analytical models for the propagation of acoustic, vorticity and entropy waves through a stator vane, developed since the seventies, are generally based on restrictive assumptions such as low frequency waves. In order to analyze such assumptions, the theory of Cumpsty and Marble is extended to rotating rows and applied to a 2D stator-rotor turbine stage. The theoretical transfer functions are then compared with numerical predictions from forced compressible Large-Eddy Simulations of a 2D stator-rotor configuration, using a fluid-fluid coupling strategy with an overset-grid method. The comparisons between the analytical model and the simulations are in good agreement. To improve the analytical predictions, the attenuation due to the entropy spot deformation through the stator vane or the rotor blade is then included, modeled either analytically or extracted from the mean flow of the simulations. The complete analytical model reveals a good agreement with 2D simulations, which allows the prediction and minimization of both direct and indirect noise at the design-stage without computation.

  15. Measurements of wakes originated from 2-bladed and 3-bladed rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Ting; Lyu, Shao-Dong; Chen, Bo-Wei

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of wakes originated from 2-bladed and 3-bladed rotors were carried out using a hot-wire probe system in an open jet wind tunnel. Hot-wire anemometry was adopted to characterize the spanwise profiles of mean wind speed, turbulence intensity and momentum flux for downwind locations at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 rotor diameters. The results showed that the 2-bladed rotor spun faster than the 3-bladed one, where the ratio of the two blade angular velocities was 1.065:1 under the same inflow condition with a uniform distribution of 5.4 m/s flow velocity. The turbulence flow statistics of the rotor wakes showed that the wake originated from the 3-bladed rotor has larger velocity deficit, streamwise turbulence intensity, momentum flux magnitude, but smaller spanwise turbulence intensity. The velocity spectrum showed peaks associated with the presence of the blade-induced tip vortices in the near wake region (approximately within 3 rotor diameters).

  16. Method for manufacturing a rotor having superconducting coils

    DOEpatents

    Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for manufacturing a rotor for use with a rotating machine is provided that employs a superconducting coil on the rotor. An adhesive is applied to an outer surface of the rotor body, which may include a groove disposed within an outer surface of the rotor body. A superconducting coil is then mounted onto the rotor body such that the adhesive bonds the superconducting coil to the rotor body.

  17. Further analysis of broadband noise measurements for a rotating blade operating with and without its shed wake blown downstream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheiman, J.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to investigate the broadband noise generated by a rotating-blade system. Tests were made with circular and NACA 0012 rotor-blade sections. The blades were operated only with zero lift at each radial station. Tests were made both with zero axial velocity, so that the blades operated in their own turbulent wake, and with a small axial velocity imposed by the wind tunnel to blow the wake of one blade away before the passage of the next blade. The rotor with cylindrical blades generally radiated more noise throughout the noise spectrum than did the rotor with airfoil blades. Blowing the blade wake away from the rotor with cylindrical blades did not have any appreciable effect on the amplitude frequency spectrum, and the predominant noise was broadband, either with tunnel wind on or off. For the rotor with airfoil blades, however, blowing the blade wake away changed the character of the noise spectrum completely in that broadband noise was eliminated or diminished to such an extent as to be indistinguishable. The broadband noise of the airfoil-bladed rotor with zero axial velocity is apparently caused by lift fluctuations due to velocity components of the turbulence normal to the plane of rotation.

  18. Recent developments in the dynamics of advanced rotor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1985-01-01

    The problems that were encountered in the dynamics of advanced rotor systems are described. The methods for analyzing these problems are discussed, as are past solutions of the problems. To begin, the basic dynamic problems of rotors are discussed: aeroelastic stability, rotor and airframe loads, and aircraft vibration. Next, advanced topics that are the subject of current research are described: vibration control, dynamic upflow, finite element analyses, and composite materials. Finally, the dynamics of various rotorcraft configurations are considered: hingeless rotors, bearingless rotors, rotors with circulation control, coupled rotor/engine dynamics, articulated rotors, and tilting proprotor aircraft.

  19. UHB Engine Fan Broadband Noise Reduction Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, Philip R.; Ho, Patrick Y.; Mani, Ramani

    1995-01-01

    A study has been completed to quantify the contribution of fan broadband noise to advanced high bypass turbofan engine system noise levels. The result suggests that reducing fan broadband noise can produce 3 to 4 EPNdB in engine system noise reduction, once the fan tones are eliminated. Further, in conjunction with the elimination of fan tones and an increase in bypass ratio, a potential reduction of 7 to 10 EPNdB in system noise can be achieved. In addition, an initial assessment of engine broadband noise source mechanisms has been made, concluding that the dominant source of fan broadband noise is the interaction of incident inlet boundary layer turbulence with the fan rotor. This source has two contributors, i.e., unsteady life dipole response and steady loading quadrupole response. The quadrupole contribution was found to be the most important component, suggesting that broadband noise reduction can be achieved by the reduction of steady loading field-turbulence field quadrupole interaction. Finally, for a controlled experimental quantification and verification, the study recommends that further broadband noise tests be done on a simulated engine rig, such as the GE Aircraft Engine Universal Propulsion Simulator, rather than testing on an engine statically in an outdoor arena The rig should be capable of generating forward and aft propagating fan noise, and it needs to be tested in a large freejet or a wind tunnel.

  20. Quasi-static rotor morphing concepts for rotorcraft performance improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistry, Mihir

    The current research is focused on two separate quasi-static rotor morphing concepts: Variable span and variable camber. Both concepts were analyzed from the perspective of the performance improvements they allow for, as well as their design requirements. The goal of this body of work is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the benefits and implementation challenges of both systems. For the case of the variable span rotor concept, the effects on aircraft performance were evaluated for a UH-60A type aircraft. The parametric analysis included the performance effects of the rotor span and rotor speed variation, both individually as well as in combination. The design space considered the effect of three different gross weights (16000 lbs, 18300 lbs and 24000 lbs), for a window of +/-11% variation of the rotor speed and a range between +17% to --16% of radius variation (about the baseline) for a range of altitudes. The results of the analysis showed that variable span rotors by themselves are capable of reducing the power requirement of the helicopter by up to 20% for high altitude and gross weight conditions. However, when combined with rotor speed variation, it was possible to reduce the overall power required by the aircraft by up to 30%. Complimentary to the performance analysis, an analytical study of actuation concepts for a variable span rotor was also conducted. This study considered the design of two active actuation systems: Hydraulic pistons and threaded rods (jackscrews), and two passive systems which employed the use of an internal spring type restraining device. For all the configurations considered, it was determined that the design requirements could not be satisfied when considering the constraints defined. The performance improvements due to a variable camber system were evaluated for a BO-105 type rotor in hover. The design space considered included three different thrust levels (4800 lbs, 5500 lbs and 6400 lbs) for a range of altitudes and

  1. Fault Diagnosis of Demountable Disk-Drum Aero-Engine Rotor Using Customized Multiwavelet Method

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinglong; Wang, Yu; He, Zhengjia; Wang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    The demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor is an important piece of equipment that greatly impacts the safe operation of aircraft. However, assembly looseness or crack fault has led to several unscheduled breakdowns and serious accidents. Thus, condition monitoring and fault diagnosis technique are required for identifying abnormal conditions. Customized ensemble multiwavelet method for aero-engine rotor condition identification, using measured vibration data, is developed in this paper. First, customized multiwavelet basis function with strong adaptivity is constructed via symmetric multiwavelet lifting scheme. Then vibration signal is processed by customized ensemble multiwavelet transform. Next, normalized information entropy of multiwavelet decomposition coefficients is computed to directly reflect and evaluate the condition. The proposed approach is first applied to fault detection of an experimental aero-engine rotor. Finally, the proposed approach is used in an engineering application, where it successfully identified the crack fault of a demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor. The results show that the proposed method possesses excellent performance in fault detection of aero-engine rotor. Moreover, the robustness of the multiwavelet method against noise is also tested and verified by simulation and field experiments. PMID:26512668

  2. Fault Diagnosis of Demountable Disk-Drum Aero-Engine Rotor Using Customized Multiwavelet Method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinglong; Wang, Yu; He, Zhengjia; Wang, Xiaodong

    2015-10-23

    The demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor is an important piece of equipment that greatly impacts the safe operation of aircraft. However, assembly looseness or crack fault has led to several unscheduled breakdowns and serious accidents. Thus, condition monitoring and fault diagnosis technique are required for identifying abnormal conditions. Customized ensemble multiwavelet method for aero-engine rotor condition identification, using measured vibration data, is developed in this paper. First, customized multiwavelet basis function with strong adaptivity is constructed via symmetric multiwavelet lifting scheme. Then vibration signal is processed by customized ensemble multiwavelet transform. Next, normalized information entropy of multiwavelet decomposition coefficients is computed to directly reflect and evaluate the condition. The proposed approach is first applied to fault detection of an experimental aero-engine rotor. Finally, the proposed approach is used in an engineering application, where it successfully identified the crack fault of a demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor. The results show that the proposed method possesses excellent performance in fault detection of aero-engine rotor. Moreover, the robustness of the multiwavelet method against noise is also tested and verified by simulation and field experiments.

  3. Acoustic Reflection and Transmission of 2-Dimensional Rotors and Stators, Including Mode and Frequency Scattering Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.

    1999-01-01

    A reduced order modeling scheme has been developed for the unsteady acoustic and vortical coupling between blade rows of a turbomachine. The essential behavior of the system is governed by modal scattering coefficients (i.e., reflection and transmission coefficients) of the rotor, stator, inlet and nozzle, which are calculated as if they were connected to non-reflecting ducts. The objective of this report is to identify fundamental behavior of these scattering coefficients for a better understanding of the role of blade row reflection and transmission in noise generation. A 2D flat plate unsteady cascade model is used for the analysis with the expectation that the general behavior presented herein will carry over to models that include more realistic flow and geometry. It is shown that stators scatter input waves into many modes at the same frequency whereas rotors scatter on frequency, or harmonic order. Important cases are shown here the rotor reflection coefficient is greater than unity; a mode at blade passing frequency (BPF) traveling from the stator with unit sound power is reflected by the rotor with more than unit power at 2xBPF and 3xBPE Analysis is presented to explain this unexpected phenomenon. Scattering curves are presented in a format chosen for design use and for physical interpretation. To aid in interpretation of the curves, formulas are derived for special condition where waveforms are parallel to perpendicular to the rotor.

  4. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A

    2013-05-21

    A multiple piece turbine rotor blade with a shell having an airfoil shape and secured between a spar and a platform with the spar including a tip end piece. a snap ring fits around the spar and abuts against the spar tip end piece on a top side and abuts against a shell on the bottom side so that the centrifugal loads from the shell is passed through the snap ring and into the spar and not through a tip cap dovetail slot and projection structure.

  5. Blood Pump Having a Magnetically Suspended Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antaki, James F. (Inventor); Paden, Bradley (Inventor); Burgreen, Gregory (Inventor); Groom, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A blood pump preferably has a magnetically suspended rotor that rotates within a housing. The rotor may rotate about a stator disposed within the housing. Radial magnetic bearings may be defined within the stator and the rotor in order to suspend the rotor. The radial magnetic bearings may be passive magnetic bearings that include permanent magnets disposed within the stator and the rotor or active magnetic bearings. The pump may further include an axial magnetic bearing that may be either a passive or an active magnetic bearing. A motor that drives the rotor may be disposed within the housing in order to more easily dissipate heat generated by the motor. A primary flow path is defined between the rotor and the stator, and a secondary flow path is defined between the stator and the rotor. Preferably, a substantial majority of blood passes through the primary flow path. The secondary flow path is large enough so that it provides adequate flushing of the secondary flow path while being small enough to permit efficient operation of the radial magnet bearings across the secondary flow path.

  6. Blood Pump Having a Magnetically Suspended Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antaki, James F. (Inventor); Paden, Bradley (Inventor); Burgreen, Gregory (Inventor); Groom, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A blood pump preferably has a magnetically suspended rotor that rotates within a housing. The rotor may rotate about a stator disposed within the housing. Radial magnetic bearings may be defined within the stator and the rotor in order to suspend the rotor. The radial magnetic bearings may be passive magnetic bearings that include permanent magnets disposed within the stator and the rotor or active magnetic bearings. The pump may further include an axial magnetic bearing that may be either a passive or an active magnetic bearing. A motor that drives the rotor may be disposed within the housing in order to more easily dissipate heat generated by the motor. A primary flow path is defined between the rotor and the stator, and a secondary flow path is defined between the stator and the rotor. Preferably, a substantial majority of blood passes through the primary flow path. The secondary flow path is large enough so that it provides adequate flushing of the secondary flow path while being small enough to permit efficient operation of the radial magnet bearings across the secondary flow path.

  7. Pneumatic boot for helicopter rotor deicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaha, B. J.; Evanich, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Pneumatic deicer boots for helicopter rotor blades were tested. The tests were conducted in the 6 by 9 ft icing research tunnel on a stationary section of a UH-IH helicopter main rotor blade. The boots were effective in removing ice and in reducing aerodynamic drag due to ice.

  8. Total main rotor isolation system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankewitsch, V.

    1981-01-01

    Requirements, preliminary design, and verification procedures for a total main rotor isolation system at n/rev are presented. The fuselage is isolated from the vibration inducing main rotor at one frequency in all degrees of freedom by four antiresonant isolation units. Effects of parametric variations on isolation system performance are evaluated.

  9. Balancing of Rigid and Flexible Rotors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    rotor conr- Igjurations that can be "dialed In" are shown at left. (Cour- tesy of’ Schenak Trebel Corporation.) ŕ 1,4 BALANJCING MACHINES ANI...anice, For all rigid rotors in any grado , the specific balance requirement for that grade should provide smooth operation. Tlhe grstde number represents

  10. Flapping inertia for selected rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, John D.; May, Matthew J.

    1991-01-01

    Aerodynamics of helicopter rotor systems cannot be investigated without consideration for the dynamics of the rotor. One of the principal properties of the rotor which affects the rotor dynamics is the inertia of the rotor blade about its root attachment. Previous aerodynamic investigation have been performed on rotor blades with a variety of planforms to determine the performance differences due to blade planform. The blades tested for this investigation have been tested on the U.S. Army 2 meter rotor test system (2MRTS) in the NASA Langley 14 by 22 foot subsonic tunnel for hover performance. This investigation was intended to provide fundamental information on the flapping inertia of five rotor blades with differing planforms. The inertia of the bare cuff and the cuff with a blade extension were also measured for comparison with the inertia of the blades. Inertia was determined using a swing testing technique, using the period of oscillation to determine the effective flapping inertia. The effect of damping in the swing test was measured and described. A comparison of the flapping inertials for rectangular and tapered planform blades of approximately the same mass showed the tapered blades to have a lower inertia, as expected.

  11. Wave rotor-enhanced gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.; Scott, Jones M.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    1995-01-01

    The benefits of wave rotor-topping in small (400 to 600 hp-class) and intermediate (3000 to 4000 hp-class) turboshaft engines, and large (80,000 to 100,000 lb(sub f)-class) high bypass ratio turbofan engines are evaluated. Wave rotor performance levels are calculated using a one-dimensional design/analysis code. Baseline and wave rotor-enhanced engine performance levels are obtained from a cycle deck in which the wave rotor is represented as a burner with pressure gain. Wave rotor-toppings is shown to significantly enhance the specific fuel consumption and specific power of small and intermediate size turboshaft engines. The specific fuel consumption of the wave rotor-enhanced large turbofan engine can be reduced while operating at significantly reduced turbine inlet temperature. The wave rotor-enhanced engine is shown to behave off-design like a conventional engine. Discussion concerning the impact of the wave rotor/gas turbine engine integration identifies tenable technical challenges.

  12. Computerized Analysis Of Helicopter-Rotor Aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of aeroelastic stability of helicopter rotor automated. Symbolic-manipulation program, HESL, written in FORTRAN, used to aid in derivation of government equations of motion for elastic-bladed rotor. Operates both on expressions and matrices. By transferring some burden of algebraic manipulations from human analyst to computer, program reduces tedium analysis and conequent opportunity for errors.

  13. An unsteady helicopter rotor: Fuselage interaction analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorber, Peter F.; Egolf, T. Alan

    1988-01-01

    A computational method was developed to treat unsteady aerodynamic interactions between a helicopter rotor, wake, and fuselage and between the main and tail rotors. An existing lifting line prescribed wake rotor analysis and a source panel fuselage analysis were coupled and modified to predict unsteady fuselage surface pressures and airloads. A prescribed displacement technique is used to position the rotor wake about the fuselage. Either a rigid blade or an aeroelastic blade analysis may be used to establish rotor operating conditions. Sensitivity studies were performed to determine the influence of the wake fuselage geometry on the computation. Results are presented that describe the induced velocities, pressures, and airloads on the fuselage and on the rotor. The ability to treat arbitrary geometries is demonstrated using a simulated helicopter fuselage. The computational results are compared with fuselage surface pressure measurements at several locations. No experimental data was available to validate the primary product of the analysis: the vibratory airloads on the entire fuselage. A main rotor-tail rotor interaction analysis is also described, along with some hover and forward flight.

  14. Radial-radial single rotor turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Platts, David A.

    2006-05-16

    A rotor for use in turbine applications has a radial compressor/pump having radially disposed spaced apart fins forming passages and a radial turbine having hollow turbine blades interleaved with the fins and through which fluid from the radial compressor/pump flows. The rotor can, in some applications, be used to produce electrical power.

  15. Computational Analysis of Multi-Rotor Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Lee, Henry C.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Interactional aerodynamics of multi-rotor flows has been studied for a quadcopter representing a generic quad tilt-rotor aircraft in hover. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of the separation distances between rotors, and also fuselage and wings on the performance and efficiency of multirotor systems. Three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a spatially 5th order accurate scheme, dual-time stepping, and the Detached Eddy Simulation turbulence model. The results show that the separation distances as well as the wings have significant effects on the vertical forces of quadroror systems in hover. Understanding interactions in multi-rotor flows would help improve the design of next generation multi-rotor drones.

  16. A CFD study of tilt rotor flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fejtek, Ian; Roberts, Leonard

    1989-01-01

    The download on the wing produced by the rotor wake of a tilt rotor vehicle in hover is of major concern because of its severe impact on payload-carrying capability. In a concerted effort to understand the fundamental fluid dynamics that cause this download, and to help find ways to reduce it, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is employed to study this problem. The thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are used to describe the flow, and an implicit, finite difference numerical algorithm is the method of solution. The methodology is developed to analyze the tilt rotor flowfield. Included are discussions of computations of an airfoil and wing in freestream flows at -90 degrees, a rotor alone, and wing/rotor interaction in two and three dimensions. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility and great potential of the present approach. Recommendations are made for both near-term and far-term improvements to the method.

  17. Substantially parallel flux uncluttered rotor machines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, John S.

    2012-12-11

    A permanent magnet-less and brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by polyphase alternating currents. An uncluttered rotor is positioned within the magnetic rotating field and is spaced apart from the stator. An excitation core is spaced apart from the stator and the uncluttered rotor and magnetically couples the uncluttered rotor. The brushless excitation source generates a magnet torque by inducing magnetic poles near an outer peripheral surface of the uncluttered rotor, and the stator currents also generate a reluctance torque by a reaction of the difference between the direct and quadrature magnetic paths of the uncluttered rotor. The system can be used either as a motor or a generator

  18. Detecting a signal in the noise: monitoring the global spread of novel psychoactive substances using media and other open-source information†

    PubMed Central

    Young, Matthew M; Dubeau, Chad; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the feasibility and utility of using media reports and other open-source information collected by the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN), an event-based surveillance system operated by the Public Health Agency of Canada, to rapidly detect clusters of adverse drug events associated with ‘novel psychoactive substances’ (NPS) at the international level. Methods and Results Researchers searched English media reports collected by the GPHIN between 1997 and 2013 for references to synthetic cannabinoids. They screened the resulting reports for relevance and content (i.e., reports of morbidity and arrest), plotted and compared with other available indicators (e.g., US poison control center exposures). The pattern of results from the analysis of GPHIN reports resembled the pattern seen from the other indicators. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that using media and other open-source information can help monitor the presence, usage, local policy, law enforcement responses, and spread of NPS in a rapid effective way. Further, modifying GPHIN to actively track NPS would be relatively inexpensive to implement and would be highly complementary to current national and international monitoring efforts. © 2015 The Authors. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26216568

  19. Noise Reduction Through Circulation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, Scott E.; Ahuja, K. K.; Englar, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Circulation control technology uses tangential blowing around a rounded trailing edge or a leading edge to change the force and moment characteristics of an aerodynamic body. This technology has been applied to circular cylinders, wings, helicopter rotors, and even to automobiles for improved aerodynamic performance. Only limited research has been conducted on the acoustic of this technology. Since wing flaps contribute to the environmental noise of an aircraft, an alternate blown high lift system without complex mechanical flaps could prove beneficial in reducing the noise of an approaching aircraft. Thus, in this study, a direct comparison of the acoustic characteristics of high lift systems employing a circulation control wing configuration and a conventional wing flapped configuration has been made. These results indicate that acoustically, a circulation control wing high lift system could be considerably more acceptable than a wing with conventional mechanical flaps.

  20. Vibration control of rotor shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonami, K.

    1985-01-01

    Suppression of flexural forced vibration or the self-excited vibration of a rotating shaft system not by passive elements but by active elements is described. The distinctive feature of this method is not to dissipate the vibration energy but to provide the force cancelling the vibration displacement and the vibration velocity through the bearing housing in rotation. Therefore the bearings of this kind are appropriately named Active Control Bearings. A simple rotor system having one disk at the center of the span on flexible supports is investigated in this paper. The actuators of the electrodynamic transducer are inserted in the sections of the bearing housing. First, applying the optimal regulator of optimal control theory, the flexural vibration control of the rotating shaft and the vibration control of support systems are performed by the optimal state feedback system using these actuators. Next, the quasi-modal control based on a modal analysis is applied to this rotor system. This quasi-modal control system is constructed by means of optimal velocity feedback loops. The differences between optimal control and quasi-modal control are discussed and their merits and demerits are made clear. Finally, the experiments are described concerning only the optimal regulator method.

  1. Interior Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, John S.; Wilby, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The generation and control of flight vehicle interior noise is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms of transmission through airborne and structure-borne paths and the control of cabin noise by path modification. Techniques for identifying the relative contributions of the various source-path combinations are also discussed along with methods for the prediction of aircraft interior noise such as those based on the general modal theory and statistical energy analysis.

  2. Noise Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

  3. An evaluation of some alternative approaches for reducing fan tone noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Woodward, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    The potential of two alternative approaches for reducing fan ton noise was investigated in this study. One of these approaches increases the number of rotor blades to shift the tone noise to higher frequencies that are not rated as strongly by the perceived noise scale. This alternative fan also would have a small number of long chord stator vanes which would reduce the stator response and lower rotor-stator interaction noise. Comparison of the conventional and alternative fan concepts showed that this alternative approach has as large or larger a perceived tone noise reduction potential as the conventional approach. The other alternative, a high Mach number inlet, is evaluated both for its noise attenuation and for its change in noise directivity.

  4. An evaluation of some alternative approaches for reducing fan tone noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Woodward, Richard P.

    1992-02-01

    The potential of two alternative approaches for reducing fan ton noise was investigated in this study. One of these approaches increases the number of rotor blades to shift the tone noise to higher frequencies that are not rated as strongly by the perceived noise scale. This alternative fan also would have a small number of long chord stator vanes which would reduce the stator response and lower rotor-stator interaction noise. Comparison of the conventional and alternative fan concepts showed that this alternative approach has as large or larger a perceived tone noise reduction potential as the conventional approach. The other alternative, a high Mach number inlet, is evaluated both for its noise attenuation and for its change in noise directivity.

  5. Conceptual design studies of 1985 commercial VTOL transports that utilized rotors, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, J. P.; Clark, R. D.; Alexander, H. R.

    1974-01-01

    Results of conceptual design studies of commercial rotary wing transport aircraft for the 1985 time period are presented. Two aircraft configurations, a tandem helicopter and a tilt rotor, were designed for a 200 nautical mile short haul mission with an upper limit of 100 passengers. In addition to the baseline aircraft two further designs of each configuration are included to assess the impact of external noise design criteria on the aircraft size, weight, and cost.

  6. Experimental blade vortex interaction noise characteristics of a utility helicopter at 1/4 scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. A.; Hoad, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Models of both the advanced main rotor system and the standard or "baseline" UH-1 main rotor system were tested at one-quarter scale in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter (V/STOL) Tunnel using the general rotor model system. Tests were conducted over a range of descent angles which bracketed the blade-vortex interaction phenomenon for a range of simulated forward speeds. The tunnel was operated in the open-throat configuration with acoustic treatment to improve the semi-anechoic characteristics of the test chamber. Acoustical data obtained for these two rotor systems operating at similar flight conditions are presented without analysis or discussion.

  7. Noise of fan designed to reduce stator lift fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Woodward, R. P.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1977-01-01

    An existing fan stage was redesigned to reduce stator lift fluctuations and was acoustically tested at three nozzle sizes for reduced noise generation. The lift fluctuations on the stator were reduced by increasing the stator cord, adjusting incidence angles, and adjusting the rotor velocity diagrams. Broadband noise levels were signficantly reduced in the middle to high frequencies. Blade passage tone sound power was not lessened, but decreases in the harmonics were observed. Aerodynamic improvements in both performance and efficiency were obtained.

  8. High level white noise generator

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  9. Dynamic Open-Rotor Composite Shield Impact Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, Silvia; Frankenberger, Charles; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Revilock, Duane M.; Pereira, J. Michael; Carney, Kelly S.; Emmerling, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is working with the European Aviation Safety Agency to determine the certification base for proposed new engines that would not have a containment structure on large commercial aircraft. Equivalent safety to the current fleet is desired by the regulators, which means that loss of a single fan blade will not cause hazard to the aircraft. NASA Glenn and Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) China Lake collaborated with the FAA Aircraft Catastrophic Failure Prevention Program to design and test a shield that would protect the aircraft passengers and critical systems from a released blade that could impact the fuselage. This report documents the live-fire test from a full-scale rig at NAWC China Lake. NASA provided manpower and photogrammetry expertise to document the impact and damage to the shields. The test was successful: the blade was stopped from penetrating the shield, which validates the design analysis method and the parameters used in the analysis. Additional work is required to implement the shielding into the aircraft.

  10. Numerical study of rotor-stator interactions in a hydraulic turbine with Foam-extend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romain, Cappato; Guibault, François; Devals, Christophe; Nennemann, Bernd

    2016-11-01

    In the development of high head hydraulic turbines, vibrations are one of the critical problems. In Francis turbines, pressure fluctuations occur at the interface between the blades of the runner and guide vanes. This rotor-stator interaction can be responsible for fatigue failures and cracks. Although the flow inside the turbomachinery is complex, and the unsteadiness makes it difficult to model, the choice of an appropriate setup enables the study of this phenomenon. This study validates a numerical setup of the Foam-extend open source software for rotor-stator simulations. Pressure fluctuations results show a good correspondence with data from experiments.

  11. The Effect of Non-Harmonic Active Twist Actuation on BVI Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogarty, David E.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Sekula, Martin K.

    2011-01-01

    The results of a computational study examining the effects of non-harmonic active-twist control on blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise for the Apache Active Twist Rotor are presented. Rotor aeroelastic behavior was modeled using the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics code and the rotor noise was predicted using the acoustics code PSU-WOPWOP. The application of non-harmonic active-twist inputs to the main rotor blade system comprised three parameters: azimuthal location to start actuation, azimuthal duration of actuation, and magnitude of actuation. The acoustic analysis was conducted for a single low-speed flight condition of advance ratio mu=0.14 and shaft angle-of-attack, a(sub s)=+6deg. BVI noise levels were predicted on a flat plane of observers located 1.1 rotor diameters beneath the rotor. The results indicate significant reductions of up to 10dB in BVI noise using a starting azimuthal location for actuation of 90?, an azimuthal duration of actuation of 90deg, and an actuation magnitude of +1.5 ft-lb.

  12. Source Noise Modeling Efforts for Fan Noise in NASA Research Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    There has been considerable progress made in fan noise prediction over the past 15 years. NASA has conducted and sponsored research that has improved both tone and broadband fan noise prediction methods. This presentation highlights progress in these areas with emphasis on rotor/stator interaction noise sources. Tone noise predictions are presented for an advanced prediction code called "LINFLUX". Comparisons with data are" included for individual fan duct modes. There has also been considerable work developing new fan broadband noise prediction codes and validation data from wind tunnel model tests. Results from several code validation exercises are presented that show improvement of predicted sound power levels. A summary is included with recommendations for future work.

  13. Vortex noise from nonrotating cylinders and airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlinker, R. H.; Amiet, R. K.; Fink, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental study of vortex-shedding noise was conducted in an acoustic research tunnel over a Reynolds-number range applicable to full-scale helicopter tail-rotor blades. Two-dimensional tapered-chord nonrotating models were tested to simulate the effect of spanwise frequency variation on the vortex-shedding mechanism. Both a tapered circular cylinder and tapered airfoils were investigated. The results were compared with data for constant-diameter cylinder and constant-chord airfoil models also tested during this study. Far-field noise, surface pressure fluctuations, and spanwise correlation lengths were measured for each configuration. Vortex-shedding noise for tapered cylinders and airfoils was found to contain many narrowband-random peaks which occurred within a range of frequencies corresponding to a predictable Strouhal number referenced to the maximum and minimum chord. The noise was observed to depend on surface roughness and Reynolds number.

  14. 14 CFR 27.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 27... Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must be able to...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 29... § 29.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 25... § 25.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 25... § 25.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  18. 14 CFR 27.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 27... Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must be able to...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 29... § 29.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  20. 14 CFR 27.547 - Main rotor structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... structure. (a) Each main rotor assembly (including rotor hubs and blades) must be designed as prescribed in this section. (b) (c) The main rotor structure must be designed to withstand the following loads... altitude. (d) The main rotor structure must be designed to withstand loads simulating— (1) For the...